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Sample records for th1 type lymphocyte

  1. Molecular pathway profiling of T lymphocyte signal transduction pathways; Th1 and Th2 genomic fingerprints are defined by TCR and CD28-mediated signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Ruben L.; Fleuren, Wilco W. M.; He, Xuehui; Vink, Paul M.; Wijnands, Frank; Gorecka, Monika; Klop, Henri; Bauerschmidt, Sussane; Garritsen, Anja; Koenen, Hans J. P. M.; Joosten, Irma; Boots, Annemieke M. H.; Alkema, Wynand

    2012-01-01

    Background: T lymphocytes are orchestrators of adaptive immunity. Naive T cells may differentiate into Th1, Th2, Th17 or iTreg phenotypes, depending on environmental co-stimulatory signals. To identify genes and pathways involved in differentiation of Jurkat T cells towards Th1 and Th2 subtypes we

  2. Molecular pathway profiling of T lymphocyte signal transduction pathways; Th1 and Th2 genomic fingerprints are defined by TCR and CD28-mediated signaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, R.L.; Fleuren, W.W.M.; He, X.; Vink, P.M.; Wijnands, F.; Gorecka, M.; Klop, H.; Bauerschmidt, S.; Garritsen, A.; Koenen, H.J.P.M.; Joosten, I.; Boots, A.M.H.; Alkema, W.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: T lymphocytes are orchestrators of adaptive immunity. Naive T cells may differentiate into Th1, Th2, Th17 or iTreg phenotypes, depending on environmental co-stimulatory signals. To identify genes and pathways involved in differentiation of Jurkat T cells towards Th1 and Th2 subtypes we

  3. Berberine Attenuates Inflammation Associated with Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity via Suppressing Th1 Response and Inhibiting Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhigang; Chen, Zhe; Chen, Tao; Yi, Tao; Zheng, Zhou; Fan, Hong; Chen, Zebin

    2017-02-01

    Berberine, one of the active alkaloids from Rhizoma Coptidis, has been indicated to have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. The aim of this study was to determine the role of berberine on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and its potential mechanisms. Berberine treatment significantly reduced footpad swelling, inflammatory cells infiltration, anti-OVA IgG levels, IgE concentration in serum, and the tetramer(+)CD8(+) cells. In homogenized footpad tissue, the production of Th1-mediated cytokines including IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 were suppressed following the administration of berberine. Detailed studies revealed that berberine prevented differentiation into Th1 cells in the OVA-primed lymphocytes, resulting from suppressing the expression of T-bet and secretion of IFN-γ but not IL-4. Concanavalin A stimulation assay and MTT assay also indicated inhibiting effect of berberine treatment on IFN-γ production and decreased cytotoxicity in lymphocytes proliferation, respectively. Additionally, berberine obviously decreased the cell apoptosis and enzymatic activity of caspase-3, which was further confirmed by the facts that berberine clearly lowered Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and expression of cleaved caspase-3 protein. On correlation analysis, the percentage of apoptotic cells showed a significant positive relationship with IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio of supernatant from footpad tissue in berberine-treated DTH mice. These results demonstrated that berberine attenuated Th1-mediated inflammation in OVA-induced DTH by curbing Th1 response and inhibiting cell apoptosis, suggesting a therapeutic potential for berberine for the treatment of type IV hypersensitivity.

  4. Effect of murine exposure to gamma rays on the interplay between Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazy, Amany A.; Abu El-Nazar, Salma Y.; Ghoneim, Hossam E.; Taha, Abdul-Rahman M.; Abouelella, Amira M.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma radiation radiotherapy is one of the widely used treatments for cancer. There is an accumulating evidence that adaptive immunity is significantly contributes to the efficacy of radiotherapy. This study is carried out to investigate the effect of gamma rays on the interplay between Th1/Th2 response, splenocyte lymphoproliferative response to polyclonal mitogenic activators and lymphocytic capacity to produce IL-12 and IL-10 in mice. Results showed that exposure of intact spleens to different doses of γ-rays (5, 10, 20 Gy) caused spontaneous and dose-dependent immune stimulation manifested by enhanced cell proliferation and elevated IL-12 production with decreased IL-10 release (i.e., Th1 bias). While exposure of splenocytes suspension to different doses of γ-rays (5, 10, 20 Gy) showed activation in splenocytes stimulated by PWM at 5 Gy then a state of conventional immune suppression that is characterized by being dose-dependent and is manifested by decreased cell proliferation and IL-12 release accompanied by increase in IL-10 production (i.e., Th2 bias). In addition, we investigated the exposure of whole murine bodies to different doses of γ-rays and found that the exposure to low dose γ-rays (0.2 Gy) caused a state of immune stimulation terminated by a remarkable tendency for immune suppression. Exposure to 5 or 10 Gy of γ-rays resulted in a state of immune stimulation (Th1 bias), but exposure to 20 Gy showed a standard state of immune suppression (Th2 bias). The results indicated that apparently we can control the immune response by controlling the dose of γ-rays. PMID:25914644

  5. Effect of murine exposure to gamma rays on the interplay between Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazy, Amany A; Abu El-Nazar, Salma Y; Ghoneim, Hossam E; Taha, Abdul-Rahman M; Abouelella, Amira M

    2015-01-01

    Gamma radiation radiotherapy is one of the widely used treatments for cancer. There is an accumulating evidence that adaptive immunity is significantly contributes to the efficacy of radiotherapy. This study is carried out to investigate the effect of gamma rays on the interplay between Th1/Th2 response, splenocyte lymphoproliferative response to polyclonal mitogenic activators and lymphocytic capacity to produce IL-12 and IL-10 in mice. Results showed that exposure of intact spleens to different doses of γ-rays (5, 10, 20 Gy) caused spontaneous and dose-dependent immune stimulation manifested by enhanced cell proliferation and elevated IL-12 production with decreased IL-10 release (i.e., Th1 bias). While exposure of splenocytes suspension to different doses of γ-rays (5, 10, 20 Gy) showed activation in splenocytes stimulated by PWM at 5 Gy then a state of conventional immune suppression that is characterized by being dose-dependent and is manifested by decreased cell proliferation and IL-12 release accompanied by increase in IL-10 production (i.e., Th2 bias). In addition, we investigated the exposure of whole murine bodies to different doses of γ-rays and found that the exposure to low dose γ-rays (0.2 Gy) caused a state of immune stimulation terminated by a remarkable tendency for immune suppression. Exposure to 5 or 10 Gy of γ-rays resulted in a state of immune stimulation (Th1 bias), but exposure to 20 Gy showed a standard state of immune suppression (Th2 bias). The results indicated that apparently we can control the immune response by controlling the dose of γ-rays.

  6. A novel role of IGFBP7 in mouse uterus: regulating uterine receptivity through Th1/Th2 lymphocyte balance and decidualization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Kun Liu

    Full Text Available Previously we have screened out Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 7 (IGFBP7 as a differentially expressed gene in post-implantation uterus versus pre-implantation uterus by suppressive subtractive hybridation. However its function in uterus was not clearly identified. In this research, the expression and function of IGFBP7 during post-implantation were studied. We found that IGFBP7 was mainly located in the glandular epithelium and the stroma, and was upregulated after embryo implantation. The vector pCR3.1-IGFBP7-t expressing partial IGFBP7 was constructed. Inhibition of IGFBP7 by specific DNA immunization induced significant reduction of implanted embryos and pregnancy rate. The number of implanted embryos (5.68 ± 0.46 was significantly reduced after immunization with pCR3.1-IGFBP7-t, as compared with that of the mice immunized with the control vector (12.29 ± 0.36 or saline (14.58 ± 0.40 (p<0.01. After specific inhibition of IGFBP7, the T helper type 1 (Th1 cytokine IFNγ, was significantly elevated (p<0.05 and the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10, were reduced in uteri (p<0.05. The increase of Tbet and the decrease of Gata3 were found in mice peripheral lymphocytes by flow cytometry. The expression of decidualization marker IGFBP1 and angiogenesis regulator VEGF were declined in uteri (p<0.05. The expression of apoptosis-associated proteins, caspase3 and Bcl-2, were also declined (p<0.05. These results showed that inhibition of IGFBP7 induced pregnancy failure by shifting uterine cytokines to Th1 type dominance and repressing uterine decidualization.

  7. Paradoxical Expansion of Th1 and Th17 Lymphocytes in Rheumatoid Arthritis Following Infliximab Treatment: a Possible Explanation for a Lack of Clinical Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talotta, Rossella; Berzi, Angela; Atzeni, Fabiola; Batticciotto, Alberto; Clerici, Mario; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Trabattoni, Daria

    2015-08-01

    The immunogenicity of anti-TNF-α drugs may affect their safety and efficacy. Infliximab (IFX), a chimeric monoclonal antibody, induces antibody formation in up to 60% of cases. Some studies have suggested the involvement of a Th1 response to TNFα blockers following immunization, but the triggering of Th17 responses has never been reported. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the immunogenicity of IFX affects the Th1, Th17 and Treg compartments in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients failing IFX therapy, and verify whether this may be responsible for treatment failure. The study involved 55 patients with RA (15 treatment-naïve patients; 20 IFX responders; 20 IFX non-responders) and 10 healthy controls. PBMCs were cultured in the presence/absence of IFX, and the variations in the percentage of Th1, Th17 and Treg lymphocytes following IFX treatment were analysed. IFX-specific Th1 and Th17 responses and an increase in IL-21 production were observed in patients failing IFX (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, and p < 0.01 respectively). In contrast, IFX incubation reduced significantly Th1 and Th17 responses and IL-21 production (p < 0.05) in successfully-treated subjects, but did not affect these responses in healthy controls or treatment-naïve patients. RA patients may have impaired peripheral tolerance, which could favour the development of an aberrant immunological response to biological drugs. The loss of therapeutic effectiveness of IFX and the onset of adverse events may be due to a paradoxical activation of Th17 or Th1 lymphocytes following sensitisation, thus worsening the patients' inflammatory status.

  8. Molecular pathway profiling of T lymphocyte signal transduction pathways; Th1 and Th2 genomic fingerprints are defined by TCR and CD28-mediated signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smeets Ruben L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background T lymphocytes are orchestrators of adaptive immunity. Naïve T cells may differentiate into Th1, Th2, Th17 or iTreg phenotypes, depending on environmental co-stimulatory signals. To identify genes and pathways involved in differentiation of Jurkat T cells towards Th1 and Th2 subtypes we performed comprehensive transcriptome analyses of Jurkat T cells stimulated with various stimuli and pathway inhibitors. Results from these experiments were validated in a human experimental setting using whole blood and purified CD4+ Tcells. Results Calcium-dependent activation of T cells using CD3/CD28 and PMA/CD3 stimulation induced a Th1 expression profile reflected by increased expression of T-bet, RUNX3, IL-2, and IFNγ, whereas calcium-independent activation via PMA/CD28 induced a Th2 expression profile which included GATA3, RXRA, CCL1 and Itk. Knock down with siRNA and gene expression profiling in the presence of selective kinase inhibitors showed that proximal kinases Lck and PKCθ are crucial signaling hubs during T helper cell activation, revealing a clear role for Lck in Th1 development and for PKCθ in both Th1 and Th2 development. Medial signaling via MAPkinases appeared to be less important in these pathways, since specific inhibitors of these kinases displayed a minor effect on gene expression. Translation towards a primary, whole blood setting and purified human CD4+ T cells revealed that PMA/CD3 stimulation induced a more pronounced Th1 specific, Lck and PKCθ dependent IFNγ production, whereas PMA/CD28 induced Th2 specific IL-5 and IL-13 production, independent of Lck activation. PMA/CD3-mediated skewing towards a Th1 phenotype was also reflected in mRNA expression of the master transcription factor Tbet, whereas PMA/CD28-mediated stimulation enhanced GATA3 mRNA expression in primary human CD4+ Tcells. Conclusions This study identifies stimulatory pathways and gene expression profiles for in vitro skewing of T helper cell

  9. Clinical influence of different intracanal medications on Th1-type and Th2-type cytokine responses in apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Frederico C; Nascimento, Gustavo G; Leite, Fabio R M; Gomes, Ana P M; Freitas, Lilian F; Camões, Izabel C G

    2015-02-01

    This clinical study assessed the influence of different intracanal medications on Th1-type and Th2-type cytokine responses in apical periodontitis and monitored the levels of bacteria from primarily infection during endodontic procedures. Thirty primarily infected teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups according to the medication selected: chlorhexidine (CHX), 2% CHX gel; Ca(OH)2/SSL, Ca(OH)2 + SSL; and Ca(OH)2/CHX, Ca(OH)2 + 2% CHX gel (all, n = 10). Bacterial sample was collected from root canals, and the interstitial fluid was sampled from lesions. Culture techniques were used to determine bacterial counts (colony-forming units/mL). Th1 (tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, and interleukin [IL]-2) and Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All intracanal medication protocols were effective in reducing the bacterial load from root canals (all P type cytokines in apical lesions (all P .05). Both Ca(OH)2 treatment protocols significantly increased the levels of Th2-type cytokines (P .05). Thus, chlorhexidine medication showed the lowest effectiveness in increasing the levels of Th2-type cytokine. After treatment, regardless of the type of medication, the linear regression analysis indicated the down-regulation of Th2-type cytokines by Th1-type cytokines. All intracanal medication protocols were effective in reducing bacterial load and lowering the levels of Th1-type cytokines. Thus, the use of Ca(OH)2 medications contributed to the increase in the Th2-type cytokine response in apical periodontitis. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The change in function of Th1 and Th2-lymphocytes and cytokine profile at chronic intoxication of ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Lim and V.F.Grichin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In experiments in non-inbred rats, it has been established that chronic intoxication of ethanol (30 days, total dose – 6.0 LD50 essentially reduces concentration of cytokines IFNγ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 in blood, increases concentration of IL-6, reduces an interrelation IFNγ/IL-4 in comparison with the control, suppresses of immune responses, which displays the greater lesion of Th1-cells in comparison with Th2-lymphosytes.

  11. Food preservatives sodium benzoate and propionic acid and colorant curcumin suppress Th1-type immune response in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Elisabeth; Kurz, Katharina; Jenny, Marcel; Schennach, Harald; Ueberall, Florian; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2010-07-01

    Food preservatives sodium benzoate and propionic acid and colorant curcumin are demonstrated to suppress in a dose-dependent manner Th1-type immune response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro. Results show an anti-inflammatory property of compounds which however could shift the Th1-Th2-type immune balance towards Th2-type immunity. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Adipose tissue lymphocytes: types and roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar-Bauguil, S; Cousin, B; Bour, S; Casteilla, L; Castiella, L; Penicaud, L; Carpéné, C

    2009-12-01

    Besides adipocytes, specialized in lipid handling and involved in energy balance regulation, white adipose tissue (WAT) is mainly composed of other cell types among which lymphocytes represent a non-negligible proportion. Different types of lymphocytes (B, alphabetaT, gammadeltaT, NK and NKT) have been detected in WAT of rodents or humans, and vary in their relative proportion according to the fat pad anatomical location. The lymphocytes found in intra-abdominal, visceral fat pads seem representative of innate immunity, while those present in subcutaneous fat depots are part of adaptive immunity, at least in mice. Both the number and the activity of the different lymphocyte classes, except B lymphocytes, are modified in obesity. Several of these modifications in the relative proportions of the lymphocyte classes depend on the degree of obesity, or on leptin concentration, or even fat depot anatomical location. Recent studies suggest that alterations of lymphocyte number and composition precede the macrophage increase and the enhanced inflammatory state of WAT found in obesity. Lymphocytes express receptors to adipokines while several proinflammatory chemokines are produced in WAT, rendering intricate crosstalk between fat and immune cells. However, the evidences and controversies available so far are in favour of an involvement of lymphocytes in the control of the number of other cells in WAT, either adipocytes or immune cells and of their secretory and metabolic activities. Therefore, immunotherapy deserves to be considered as a promising approach to treat the endocrino-metabolic disorders associated to excessive fat mass development.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: bare lymphocyte syndrome type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lymphocyte syndrome type I bare lymphocyte syndrome type I Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Bare lymphocyte syndrome type I (BLS I) is an inherited disorder of the ...

  14. [EFFECT OF 4-METHYLPYRAZOLE ON IMMUNE RESPONSE, FUNCTION OF Th1 AND Th2 LYMPHOCYTES, AND CYTOKINE CONCENTRATION IN RAT BLOOD AFTER ACUTE METHANOL POISONING].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabrodskii, P F; Maslyakov, V V; Gromov, M S

    2016-01-01

    It was established in experiments on noninbred albino rats that the acute intoxication with methanol (1.0 LD50) decreased cellular and humoral immune responses, Th2-lymphocyte activity (to a greater extent as compared to the function of Th1 cells), reduced the blood concentration of immunoregulatory (IFN-g, IL-2, IL-4) and proinflammatory (TNF, IL-1b, IL-6) cytokines on the average by 36.5% (p Methanol antidote 4-methylpyrazole (non-competitive inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase) administered upon acute intoxication with methanol at a dose of 1.0 DL50 partially reduces the intoxication-induced suppression of humoral and cellular immune response, activity of T-helper cells, and production of IL-4 and restores blood levels of TNF, IL-1b, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-2, IL-6 to the control values.

  15. Monomethylfumarate affects polarization of monocyte-derived dendritic cells resulting in down-regulated Th1 lymphocyte responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litjens, Nicolle H R; Rademaker, Mirjam; Ravensbergen, Bep

    2004-01-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris, a type-1 cytokine-mediated chronic skin disease, can be treated successfully with fumaric acid esters (FAE). Beneficial effects of this medication coincided with decreased production of IFN-gamma. Since dendritic cells (DC) regulate the differentiation of T helper (Th) cells, ...

  16. Evaluation of Th1-like, Th2-like and immunomodulatory cytokine mRNA expression in the skin of dogs with immunomodulatory-responsive lymphocytic-plasmacytic pododermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breathnach, Rory M; Fanning, Shay; Mulcahy, Grace; Bassett, Hugh F; Jones, Boyd R; Daly, Paul

    2006-10-01

    The term immunomodulatory-responsive lymphocytic-plasmacytic pododermatitis (ImR-LPP) has previously been proposed to denote a subpopulation of dogs with idiopathic pododermatitis. The objective of this study was to quantify the expression of mRNA encoding Th(1)-like [interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-12], Th(2)-like [IL-4 and IL-6] and immunomodulatory cytokines [IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta] in lesional ImR-LPP, nonlesional ImR-LPP and healthy control pedal skin. Gene transcripts were quantified using TaqMan real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays. The skin of dogs with ImR-LPP had significant overexpression of IL-6 mRNA (P < 0.05) and significant underexpression of IL-12 mRNA (P < 0.01) compared to healthy controls. In addition, lesional ImR-LPP skin had significantly higher levels of IL-10 transcripts compared to healthy control pedal skin (P < 0.05). Although not attaining significance (P = 0.07), a trend towards reduced TGF-beta mRNA expression in lesional ImR-LPP skin was also evident. There were no significant differences in the levels of IFN-gamma or IL-2 mRNA transcripts among the three skin sample sources. IL-4 mRNA was detected in only one lesional sample. These results suggest that the pathogenesis of ImR-LPP may be associated with a T-cell-mediated inflammatory response characterized by impaired Th(1)-like, but enhanced Th(2)-like cytokine expression.

  17. Th1-type immune response to a Coccidioides immitis antigen delivered by an attenuated strain of the non-invasive enteropathogen Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Anisia J; Benitez, Jorge A

    2005-03-01

    The antigen-2 or proline rich antigen (Ag2/PRA) from Coccidioides immitis, known to protect mice against experimental Coccidioidomycosis, was expressed in the genetically attenuated cholera vaccine candidate Vibrio cholerae 638 and its thymine auxotrophic derivative 638T. Intranasal immunization of mice with strains producing Ag2/PRA induced serum vibriocidal antibody and Ag2/PRA-specific total IgG responses in outbred Swiss Webster and inbred BALB/c mice. Analysis of IgG subclasses showed a predominance of IgG2a subclass antibodies. Lymphocytes from immunized mice stimulated with pure Ag2/PRA showed a significant proliferative response with production of interferon-gamma. Positive selection for plasmid maintenance in vivo did not enhance immune response to Ag2/PRA. These results demonstrate that genetically attenuated strains of the non-invasive pathogen V. cholerae can be used to express and deliver foreign antigens to stimulate a Th1 type of immune response.

  18. Electro-acupuncture at Acupoint ST36 Ameliorates Inflammation and Regulates Th1/Th2 Balance in Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhigang; Chen, Tao; Long, Man; Chen, Longyun; Wang, Lei; Yin, Nina; Chen, Zebin

    2017-04-01

    Increasing evidence indicates anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of electro-acupuncture (EA) therapy. However, its underlying mechanism on delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), a classic allergic inflammatory disease, still remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the immunomodulatory mechanism of EA intervention in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced DTH. Mice were randomly divided into four groups: Control, OVA-DTH, DTH + EA, DTH + Sham. "Zusanli" acupoint (ST36) was used for DTH + EA, whereas a non-acupoint (localized 5 mm below the "Zusanli" acupoint) was selected for DTH + Sham. Footpad thickness was checked, and the infiltration of inflammatory cells was estimated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Levels of IgG and IgE in serum of different groups and inflammatory cytokines in the supernatants from homogenized footpads, including IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-5, were determined by ELISA. Cell proliferation of spleen lymphocytes was assayed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT). The frequency of CD4 + IFN-γ + and CD4 + IL-4 + T cells was analyzed with flow cytometry. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression of T-bet and GATA-3 were evaluated by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Our data showed EA treatment at acupoint ST36 relieved the pathological progression of DTH responses via reduction in footpad swelling, infiltration of inflammatory cells, levels of IgG and IgE as well as decreased production of IFN-γ and TNF-α in homogenized footpad tissue. Moreover, detailed studies were performed revealing that EA attenuated the percentage of CD4 + IFN-γ + T cells and prevented Th cells differentiation into Th1 cells, and this results from inhibiting secretion of IFN-γ and suppressing expression of T-bet, an IFN-γ transcription factor. The results indicated that EA treatment improved Th1-mediated allergic skin inflammation via restoring Th1/Th2 balance by curbing Th1

  19. Comparison of innate and Th1-type host immune responses inOesophagostomum dentatumandTrichuris suisinfections in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Annette; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Klaver, Elsenoor J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated details of the innate and Th1/Treg type associated host immune responses in Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum mono- and co-infected pigs and in vitro in stimulated porcine dendritic cell cultures. Forty-eight pigs were allocated into a 2-factorial design...... with two groups trickle inoculated with 10 T. suis eggs/kg/day (Group T) or 20 O. dentatum L3/kg/day (O). Another group (OT) was infected with both parasites. Group C remained uninfected. Expression of innate and Th1/Treg cell associated genes in gut mucosa and associated lymph nodes was determined by q......PCR at necropsy day 35 and 71. Gene expression showed suppressed/inhibited Th1 and Treg type immune reactions, in accordance with previous findings of a predominant Th2 type immune response to both nematodes. The in vitro part examined production of TNF-α in porcine dendritic cells (DC) exposed to T. suis and...

  20. Induction of antigen-specific Th1-type immune responses by gamma-irradiated recombinant Brucella abortus RB51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanakkayala, Neelima; Sokolovska, Anna; Gulani, Jatinder; Hogenesch, Harm; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Boyle, Stephen M; Schurig, Gerhardt G; Vemulapalli, Ramesh

    2005-12-01

    Brucella abortus strain RB51 is an attenuated rough mutant used as the live vaccine against bovine brucellosis in the United States and other countries. We previously reported the development of strain RB51 as a bacterial vaccine vector for inducing Th1-type immune responses against heterologous proteins. Because safety concerns may preclude the use of strain RB51-based recombinant live vaccines, we explored the ability of a gamma-irradiated recombinant RB51 strain to induce heterologous antigen-specific immune responses in BALB/c mice. Exposure of strain RB51G/LacZ expressing Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase to a minimum of 300 kilorads of gamma radiation resulted in complete loss of replicative ability. These bacteria, however, remained metabolically active and continued to synthesize beta-galactosidase. A single intraperitoneal inoculation of mice with 10(9) CFU equivalents of gamma-irradiated, but not heat-killed, RB51G/LacZ induced a beta-galactosidase-specific Th1-type immune response. Though no obvious differences were detected in immune responses to B. abortus-specific antigens, mice vaccinated with gamma-irradiated, but not heat-killed, RB51G/LacZ developed significant protection against challenge with virulent B. abortus. In vitro experiments indicated that gamma-irradiated and heat-killed RB51G/LacZ induced maturation of dendritic cells; however, stimulation with gamma-irradiated bacteria resulted in more interleukin-12 secretion. These results suggest that recombinant RB51 strains exposed to an appropriate minimum dose of gamma radiation are unable to replicate but retain their ability to stimulate Th1 immune responses against the heterologous antigens and confer protection against B. abortus challenge in mice.

  1. Notch-ligand expression by NALT dendritic cells regulates mucosal Th1- and Th2-type responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuyama, Yoshiko; Tokuhara, Daisuke [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The Immunobiology Vaccine Center, The Institute of Oral Health Research, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0007 (United States); Division of Mucosal Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Sekine, Shinichi [Department of Preventive Dentistry, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kataoka, Kosuke [Department of Preventive Dentistry, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Markham, Jonathan D.; Irwin, Allyson R.; Moon, Grace H.; Tokuhara, Yuka; Fujihashi, Keiko [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The Immunobiology Vaccine Center, The Institute of Oral Health Research, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0007 (United States); Davydova, Julia; Yamamoto, Masato [Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Gilbert, Rebekah S. [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The Immunobiology Vaccine Center, The Institute of Oral Health Research, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0007 (United States); Fujihashi, Kohtaro, E-mail: kohtarof@uab.edu [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The Immunobiology Vaccine Center, The Institute of Oral Health Research, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0007 (United States)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nasal Ad-FL effectively up-regulates APC function by CD11c{sup +} DCs in mucosal tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nasal Ad-FL induces Notch ligand (L)-expressing CD11c{sup +} DCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Notch L-expressing DCs support the induction of Th1- and Th2-type cytokine responses. -- Abstract: Our previous studies showed that an adenovirus (Ad) serotype 5 vector expressing Flt3 ligand (Ad-FL) as nasal adjuvant activates CD11c{sup +} dendritic cells (DCs) for the enhancement of antigen (Ag)-specific IgA antibody (Ab) responses. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism for activation of CD11c{sup +} DCs and their roles in induction of Ag-specific Th1- and Th2-cell responses. Ad-FL activated CD11c{sup +} DCs expressed increased levels of the Notch ligand (L)-expression and specific mRNA. When CD11c{sup +} DCs from various mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues of mice given nasal OVA plus Ad-FL were cultured with CD4{sup +} T cells isolated from non-immunized OVA TCR-transgenic (OT II) mice, significantly increased levels of T cell proliferative responses were noted. Furthermore, Ad-FL activated DCs induced IFN-{gamma}, IL-2 and IL-4 producing CD4{sup +} T cells. Of importance, these APC functions by Ad-FL activated DCs were down-regulated by blocking Notch-Notch-L pathway. These results show that Ad-FL induces CD11c{sup +} DCs to the express Notch-ligands and these activated DCs regulate the induction of Ag-specific Th1- and Th2-type cytokine responses.

  2. Differential modulation of T helper type 1 (Th1) and T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine secretion by prostaglandin E2 critically depends on interleukin-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilkens, C. M.; Vermeulen, H. [=Hans; van Neerven, R. J.; Snijdewint, F. G.; Wierenga, E. A.; Kapsenberg, M. L.

    1995-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) favors T helper type 2 (Th2)-like cytokine secretion profiles in murine and human CD4+ T cells by inhibiting the production of the Th1-associated cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and up-regulating the production of the Th2-associated cytokines

  3. Th1 lymphokine production profiles of nickel-specific CD4+T-lymphocyte clones from nickel contact allergic and non-allergic individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapsenberg, M. L.; Wierenga, E. A.; Stiekema, F. E.; Tiggelman, A. M.; Bos, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Panels of nickel-specific T-lymphocyte clones (TLC) were prepared from nickel-allergic and non-allergic donors. TLC from both panels showed similar levels of expression of TCR alpha/beta, CD4, CD2, CD25, and CD29 and recognized nickel in association with class II HLA molecules with restriction

  4. Turmeric (Curcuma longa) attenuates food allergy symptoms by regulating type 1/type 2 helper T cells (Th1/Th2) balance in a mouse model of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee Soon; See, Hye-Jeong; Jung, Sun Young; Choi, Dae Woon; Kwon, Da-Ae; Bae, Min-Jung; Sung, Ki-Seung; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-12-04

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa) has traditionally been used to treat pain, fever, allergic and inflammatory diseases such as bronchitis, arthritis, and dermatitis. In particular, turmeric and its active component, curcumin, were effective in ameliorating immune disorders including allergies. However, the effects of turmeric and curcumin have not yet been tested on food allergies. Mice were immunized with intraperitoneal ovalbumin (OVA) and alum. The mice were orally challenged with 50mg OVA, and treated with turmeric extract (100mg/kg), curcumin (3mg/kg or 30 mg/kg) for 16 days. Food allergy symptoms including decreased rectal temperature, diarrhea, and anaphylaxis were evaluated. In addition, cytokines, immunoglobulins, and mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) were evaluated using ELISA. Turmeric significantly attenuated food allergy symptoms (decreased rectal temperature and anaphylactic response) induced by OVA, but curcumin showed weak improvement. Turmeric also inhibited IgE, IgG1, and mMCP-1 levels increased by OVA. Turmeric reduced type 2 helper cell (Th2)-related cytokines and enhanced a Th1-related cytokine. Turmeric ameliorated OVA-induced food allergy by maintaining Th1/Th2 balance. Furthermore, turmeric was confirmed anti-allergic effect through promoting Th1 responses on Th2-dominant immune responses in immunized mice. Turmeric significantly ameliorated food allergic symptoms in a mouse model of food allergy. The turmeric as an anti-allergic agent showed immune regulatory effects through maintaining Th1/Th2 immune balance, whereas curcumin appeared immune suppressive effects. Therefore, we suggest that administration of turmeric including various components may be useful to ameliorate Th2-mediated allergic disorders such as food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and asthma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Soluble HLA-G promotes Th1-type cytokine production by cytokine-activated uterine and peripheral natural killer cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, A. van der; Lukassen, H.G.M.; Cranenbroek, B. van; Weiss, E.H.; Braat, D.D.M.; Lierop, M.J.C. van; Joosten, I.

    2007-01-01

    Soluble forms of HLA-G (sHLA-G) have been implicated in immune regulation. Fetal trophoblast cells are a prime source of HLA-G. Hence, an interaction between sHLA-G and uterine lymphocytes in the decidual tissues can easily be envisaged. These lymphocytes, when properly activated, are implicated in

  6. Characterization of onion lectin (Allium cepa agglutinin) as an immunomodulatory protein inducing Th1-type immune response in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, Vaddi K; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2015-06-01

    Onion (Allium cepa), a bulb crop of economic importance, is known to have many health benefits. The major objective of the present study is to address the immunomodulatory properties of onion lectin (A. cepa agglutinin; ACA). ACA was purified from onion extract by D-mannose-agarose chromatography (yield: ~1 mg/kg). ACA is non-glycosylated and showed a molecular mass of ~12 kDa under reducing/non-reducing SDS-PAGE; glutaraldehyde cross-linking indicated that ACA is a non-covalent tetramer of ~12 kDa subunits. Its N-terminal sequence (RNVLLNNEGL; UniProt KB Accn. C0HJM8) showed 70-90% homology to mannose-specific Allium agglutinins. ACA showed specific hemagglutination activity of 8200 units/mg and is stable in the pH range 6-10 and up to 45° C. The immunomodulatory activity of ACA was assessed using the macrophage cell line, RAW264.7 and rat peritoneal macrophages; at 0.1 μg/well, it showed a significant increase (6-8-fold vs. control) in the production of nitric oxide at 24h, and significantly stimulated (2-4-fold vs. control) the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-12) at 24h. ACA (0.1 μg/well) enhanced the proliferation of murine thymocytes by ~4 fold (vs. control) at 24h; however, ACA does not proliferate B cell-enriched rat splenocytes. Further, it significantly elevated the expression levels of cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2) over the control in murine thymocytes. Taken together, purified ACA induces a Th1-type immune response in vitro. Though present in low amounts, ACA may contribute to the immune-boosting potential of the popular spice onion since considerable amounts are consumed on a daily basis universally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. NY-ESO-1-specific circulating CD4+ T cells in ovarian cancer patients are prevalently T(H1 type cells undetectable in the CD25+ FOXP3+ Treg compartment.

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    Nassima Redjimi

    Full Text Available Spontaneous CD4(+ T-cell responses to the tumor-specific antigen NY-ESO-1 (ESO are frequently found in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC. If these responses are of effector or/and Treg type, however, has remained unclear. Here, we have used functional approaches together with recently developed MHC class II/ESO tetramers to assess the frequency, phenotype and function of ESO-specific cells in circulating lymphocytes from EOC patients. We found that circulating ESO-specific CD4(+ T cells in EOC patients with spontaneous immune responses to the antigen are prevalently T(H1 type cells secreting IFN-γ but no IL-17 or IL-10 and are not suppressive. We detected tetramer(+ cells ex vivo, at an average frequency of 1:25,000 memory cells, that is, significantly lower than in patients immunized with an ESO vaccine. ESO tetramer(+ cells were mostly effector memory cells at advanced stages of differentiation and were not detected in circulating CD25(+FOXP3(+Treg. Thus, spontaneous CD4(+ T-cell responses to ESO in cancer patients are prevalently of T(H1 type and not Treg. Their relatively low frequency and advanced differentiation stage, however, may limit their efficacy, that may be boosted by immunogenic ESO vaccines.

  8. NY-ESO-1-specific circulating CD4+ T cells in ovarian cancer patients are prevalently T(H)1 type cells undetectable in the CD25+ FOXP3+ Treg compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redjimi, Nassima; Duperrier-Amouriaux, Karine; Raimbaud, Isabelle; Luescher, Immanuel; Dojcinovic, Danijel; Classe, Jean-Marc; Berton-Rigaud, Dominique; Frenel, Jean-Sébastien; Bourbouloux, Emmanuelle; Valmori, Danila; Ayyoub, Maha

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous CD4(+) T-cell responses to the tumor-specific antigen NY-ESO-1 (ESO) are frequently found in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). If these responses are of effector or/and Treg type, however, has remained unclear. Here, we have used functional approaches together with recently developed MHC class II/ESO tetramers to assess the frequency, phenotype and function of ESO-specific cells in circulating lymphocytes from EOC patients. We found that circulating ESO-specific CD4(+) T cells in EOC patients with spontaneous immune responses to the antigen are prevalently T(H)1 type cells secreting IFN-γ but no IL-17 or IL-10 and are not suppressive. We detected tetramer(+) cells ex vivo, at an average frequency of 1:25,000 memory cells, that is, significantly lower than in patients immunized with an ESO vaccine. ESO tetramer(+) cells were mostly effector memory cells at advanced stages of differentiation and were not detected in circulating CD25(+)FOXP3(+)Treg. Thus, spontaneous CD4(+) T-cell responses to ESO in cancer patients are prevalently of T(H)1 type and not Treg. Their relatively low frequency and advanced differentiation stage, however, may limit their efficacy, that may be boosted by immunogenic ESO vaccines.

  9. NY-ESO-1-Specific Circulating CD4+ T Cells in Ovarian Cancer Patients Are Prevalently TH1 Type Cells Undetectable in the CD25+FOXP3+Treg Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redjimi, Nassima; Duperrier-Amouriaux, Karine; Raimbaud, Isabelle; Luescher, Immanuel; Dojcinovic, Danijel; Classe, Jean-Marc; Berton-Rigaud, Dominique; Frenel, Jean-Sébastien; Bourbouloux, Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous CD4+ T-cell responses to the tumor-specific antigen NY-ESO-1 (ESO) are frequently found in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). If these responses are of effector or/and Treg type, however, has remained unclear. Here, we have used functional approaches together with recently developed MHC class II/ESO tetramers to assess the frequency, phenotype and function of ESO-specific cells in circulating lymphocytes from EOC patients. We found that circulating ESO-specific CD4+ T cells in EOC patients with spontaneous immune responses to the antigen are prevalently TH1 type cells secreting IFN-γ but no IL-17 or IL-10 and are not suppressive. We detected tetramer+ cells ex vivo, at an average frequency of 1∶25000 memory cells, that is, significantly lower than in patients immunized with an ESO vaccine. ESO tetramer+ cells were mostly effector memory cells at advanced stages of differentiation and were not detected in circulating CD25+FOXP3+Treg. Thus, spontaneous CD4+ T-cell responses to ESO in cancer patients are prevalently of TH1 type and not Treg. Their relatively low frequency and advanced differentiation stage, however, may limit their efficacy, that may be boosted by immunogenic ESO vaccines. PMID:21829534

  10. Changes in gravity inhibit lymphocyte locomotion through type I collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, N. R.; Goodwin, T. J.; Risin, D.; McIntyre, B. W.; Pizzini, R. P.; Cooper, D.; Baker, T. L.; Spaulding, G. F.

    1997-01-01

    Immunity relies on the circulation of lymphocytes through many different tissues including blood vessels, lymphatic channels, and lymphoid organs. The ability of lymphocytes to traverse the interstitium in both nonlymphoid and lymphoid tissues can be determined in vitro by assaying their capacity to locomote through Type I collagen. In an attempt to characterize potential causes of microgravity-induced immunosuppression, we investigated the effects of simulated microgravity on human lymphocyte function in vitro using a specialized rotating-wall vessel culture system developed at the Johnson Space Center. This very low shear culture system randomizes gravitational vectors and provides an in vitro approximation of microgravity. In the randomized gravity of the rotating-wall vessel culture system, peripheral blood lymphocytes did not locomote through Type I collagen, whereas static cultures supported normal movement. Although cells remained viable during the entire culture period, peripheral blood lymphocytes transferred to unit gravity (static culture) after 6 h in the rotating-wall vessel culture system were slow to recover and locomote into collagen matrix. After 72 h in the rotating-wall vessel culture system and an additional 72 h in static culture, peripheral blood lymphocytes did not recover their ability to locomote. Loss of locomotory activity in rotating-wall vessel cultures appears to be related to changes in the activation state of the lymphocytes and the expression of adhesion molecules. Culture in the rotating-wall vessel system blunted the ability of peripheral blood lymphocytes to respond to polyclonal activation with phytohemagglutinin. Locomotory response remained intact when peripheral blood lymphocytes were activated by anti-CD3 antibody and interleukin-2 prior to introduction into the rotating-wall vessel culture system. Thus, in addition to the systemic stress factors that may affect immunity, isolated lymphocytes respond to gravitational changes

  11. CryJ-LAMP DNA Vaccines for Japanese Red Cedar Allergy Induce Robust Th1-Type Immune Responses in Murine Model

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    Yan Su

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergies caused by Japanese Red Cedar (JRC pollen affect up to a third of Japanese people, necessitating development of an effective therapeutic. We utilized the lysosomal targeting property of lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1 to make DNA vaccines that encode LAMP-1 and the sequences of immunodominant allergen CryJ1 or CryJ2 from the JRC pollen. This novel strategy is designed to skew the CD4 T cell responses to the target allergens towards a nonallergenic Th1 response. CryJ1-LAMP and CryJ2-LAMP were administrated to BALB/c mice and antigen-specific Th1-type IgG2a and Th2-type IgG1 antibodies, as well as IgE antibodies, were assayed longitudinally. We also isolated different T cell populations from immunized mice and adoptively transferred them into naïve mice followed by CryJ1/CryJ2 protein boosts. We demonstrated that CryJ-LAMP immunized mice produce high levels of IFN-γ and anti-CryJ1 or anti-CryJ2 IgG2a antibodies and low levels of IgE antibodies, suggesting that a Th1 response was induced. In addition, we found that CD4+ T cells are the immunological effectors of DNA vaccination in this allergy model. Together, our results suggest the CryJ-LAMP Vaccine has a potential as an effective therapeutic for JRC induced allergy by skewing Th1/Th2 responses.

  12. Effects of intestinal bacteria-derived p-cresyl sulfate on Th1-type immune response in vivo and in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, Takahiro, E-mail: takahiro-shiba@yakult.co.jp; Kawakami, Koji; Sasaki, Takashi; Makino, Ikuyo; Kato, Ikuo; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Uchida, Kazumi; Kaneko, Kimiyuki

    2014-01-15

    Protein fermentation by intestinal bacteria generates various compounds that are not synthesized by their hosts. An example is p-cresol, which is produced from tyrosine. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) accumulate high concentrations of intestinal bacteria-derived p-cresyl sulfate (pCS), which is the major metabolite of p-cresol, in their blood, and this accumulation contributes to certain CKD-associated disorders. Immune dysfunction is a CKD-associated disorder that frequently contributes to infectious diseases among CKD patients. Although some studies imply pCS as an etiological factor, the relation between pCS and immune systems is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the immunological effects of pCS derived from intestinal bacteria in mice. For this purpose, we fed mice a tyrosine-rich diet that causes the accumulation of pCS in their blood. The mice were shown to exhibit decreased Th1-driven 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced contact hypersensitivity response. The concentration of pCS in blood was negatively correlated with the degree of the contact hypersensitivity response. In contrast, the T cell-dependent antibody response was not influenced by the accumulated pCS. We also examined the in vitro cytokine responses by T cells in the presence of pCS. The production of IFN-γ was suppressed by pCS. Further, pCS decreased the percentage of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells. Our results suggest that intestinal bacteria-derived pCS suppressesTh1-type cellular immune responses. - Highlights: • Mice fed a tyrosine-rich diet accumulated p-cresyl sulfate in their blood. • p-Cresyl sulfate negatively correlated with contact hypersensitivity response. • The in vitro production of IFN-γ was suppressed by p-cresyl sulfate. • p-Cresyl sulfate decreased the percentage of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells in vitro.

  13. IFN-α Boosting of Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Güerin-Vaccine Promoted Th1 Type Cellular Response and Protection against M. tuberculosis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Santiago, C. E.

    2017-01-01

    The role of type I IFNs in the pathogenesis and control of mycobacterial infection is still controversial. It has been reported that type I IFNs exacerbated M. tuberculosis infection through hampering Th1 type cellular immune response. However, under certain conditions they can act as natural immune adjuvants for commercial vaccines. At this point, we have reported recently that successive IFN-alpha boosting of Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Güerin (BCG) vaccinated mice protected adult mice from intradermal M. lepraemurium infection and a difference in iNOS was observed. In the present work, we have found that intramuscular IFN-α boosting of Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Güerin (BCG) vaccine, either in vitro (human cell line or macrophages derived from PBMC) or in vivo (aerosol mouse model of MTb infection), promoted mostly the development of specific anti-antimycobacterial Th1 type cytokines (IFN-γ; IL-12, TNF-alpha, and IL-17; IL1β) while bacterial load reduction (0.9 logs versus PBS or BCG vaccine) was observed. These findings indicate that, under the experimental settings reported here, interferon alpha can drive or affect the TH cellular immune response in favour of BCG-inducing immunity against M. tuberculosis infection. PMID:29090221

  14. CD4+ Th17 cells discriminate clinical types and constitute a third subset of non Th1, Non Th2 T cells in human leprosy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaman Saini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with localized tuberculoid and generalized lepromatous leprosy show respectively Th1 and Th2 cytokine profile. Additionally, other patients in both types of leprosy also show a non discriminating Th0 cytokine profile with both interferon-γ and IL-4. The present study investigated the role of Th17 cells which appear to be a distinct subtype of Th subtypes in 19 tuberculoid and 18 lepromatous leprosy patients. Five healthy subjects with long term exposure to infection and 4 skin biopsies from healthy subjects undergoing cosmetic surgery were used as controls. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: An array of Th17 related primers for cytokines, chemokines and transcription factors was used in real time reverse transcribed PCR to evaluate gene expression, ELISA for cytokine secretion in the supernatants of antigen stimulated PBMC cultures and flow cytometry for establishing the phenotype of the IL-17, IL-21 producing cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: IL-17 isoforms showed significantly higher expression and release in supernatants of antigen stimulated PBMC cultures and dermal lesions of healthy contacts and tuberculoid leprosy as compared to lepromatous leprosy (p<0.003. This was further confirmed by Th17 associated transcription factor RORC, cytokines IL-21, IL-22, and IL-23, chemokines MMP13, CCL20, CCL22. Of interest was the association of IL-23R and not IL-6R with IL-17(+ cells. The Th17 cells were CD4(+ CCR6(+ confirming their effector cell lineage. Polarized Th1 cytokines were seen in 3/7 tuberculoid and Th2 cytokines in 5/10 lepromatous leprosy patients. Of importance was the higher association of Th17 pathway factors with the non-polarized Th0 types as compared to the polarized Th1 and Th2 (p<0.01. Our study draws attention to a third type of effector Th cell that may play a role in leprosy.

  15. Intracellular Targeting of CEA Results in Th1-Type Antibody Responses Following Intradermal Genetic Vaccination by a Needle-Free Jet Injection Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Johansson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The route and method of immunization, as well as the cellular localization of the antigen, can influence the generation of an immune response. In general, intramuscular immunization results in Th1 responses, whereas intradermal delivery of DNA by gene gun immunization often results in more Th2 responses. Here we investigate how altering the cellular localization of the tumor antigen CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen affects the quality and amplitude of DNA vaccine-induced antibody responses in mice following intradermal delivery of DNA by a needle-free jet injection device (Biojector. CEA was expressed either in a membrane-bound form (wild-type CEA or in two truncated forms (CEA6 and CEA66 with cytoplasmic localization, where CEA66 was fused to a promiscuous T-helper epitope from tetanus toxin. Repeated intradermal immunization of BALB/c mice with DNA encoding wild-type CEA produced high antibody titers of a mixed IgG1/IgG2a ratio. In contrast, utilizing the DNA construct that resulted in intracellular targeting of CEA led to a reduced capacity to induce CEA-specific antibodies, but instead induced a Th1-biased immune response.

  16. Immunization with Brucella VirB proteins reduces organ colonization in mice through a Th1-type immune response and elicits a similar immune response in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Cora N; Wanke, María Magdalena; Estein, Silvia M; Delpino, M Victoria; Monachesi, Norma E; Comercio, Elida A; Fossati, Carlos A; Baldi, Pablo C

    2015-03-01

    VirB proteins from Brucella spp. constitute the type IV secretion system, a key virulence factor mediating the intracellular survival of these bacteria. Here, we assessed whether a Th1-type immune response against VirB proteins may protect mice from Brucella infection and whether this response can be induced in the dog, a natural host for Brucella. Splenocytes from mice immunized with VirB7 or VirB9 responded to their respective antigens with significant and specific production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), whereas interleukin-4 (IL-4) was not detected. Thirty days after an intraperitoneal challenge with live Brucella abortus, the spleen load of bacteria was almost 1 log lower in mice immunized with VirB proteins than in unvaccinated animals. As colonization reduction seemed to correlate with a Th1-type immune response against VirB proteins, we decided to assess whether such a response could be elicited in the dog. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from dogs immunized with VirB proteins (three subcutaneous doses in QuilA adjuvant) produced significantly higher levels of IFN-γ than cells from control animals upon in vitro stimulation with VirB proteins. A skin test to assess specific delayed-type hypersensitivity was positive in 4 out of 5 dogs immunized with either VirB7 or VirB9. As both proteins are predicted to locate in the outer membrane of Brucella organisms, the ability of anti-VirB antibodies to mediate complement-dependent bacteriolysis of B. canis was assessed in vitro. Sera from dogs immunized with either VirB7 or VirB9, but not from those receiving phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), produced significant bacteriolysis. These results suggest that VirB-specific responses that reduce organ colonization by Brucella in mice can be also elicited in dogs. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. IL-4 attenuates Th1-associated chemokine expression and Th1 trafficking to inflamed tissues and limits pathogen clearance.

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    Christopher A Lazarski

    Full Text Available Interleukin 4 (IL-4 plays a central role in the orchestration of Type 2 immunity. During T cell activation in the lymph node, IL-4 promotes Th2 differentiation and inhibits Th1 generation. In the inflamed tissue, IL-4 signals promote innate and adaptive Type-2 immune recruitment and effector function, positively amplifying the local Th2 response. In this study, we identify an additional negative regulatory role for IL-4 in limiting the recruitment of Th1 cells to inflamed tissues. To test IL-4 effects on inflammation subsequent to Th2 differentiation, we transiently blocked IL-4 during ongoing dermal inflammation (using anti-IL-4 mAb and analyzed changes in gene expression. Neutralization of IL-4 led to the upregulation of a number of genes linked to Th1 trafficking, including CXCR3 chemokines, CCL5 and CCR5 and an associated increase in IFNγ, Tbet and TNFα genes. These gene expression changes correlated with increased numbers of IFNγ-producing CD4+ T cells in the inflamed dermis. Moreover, using an adoptive transfer approach to directly test the role of IL-4 in T cell trafficking to the inflamed tissues, we found IL-4 neutralization led to an early increase in Th1 cell recruitment to the inflamed dermis. These data support a model whereby IL-4 dampens Th1-chemokines at the site of inflammation limiting Th1 recruitment. To determine biological significance, we infected mice with Leishmania major, as pathogen clearance is highly dependent on IFNγ-producing CD4+ T cells at the infection site. Short-term IL-4 blockade in established L. major infection led to a significant increase in the number of IFNγ-producing CD4+ T cells in the infected ear dermis, with no change in the draining LN. Increased lymphocyte influx into the infected tissue correlated with a significant decrease in parasite number. Thus, independent of IL-4's role in the generation of immune effectors, IL-4 attenuates lymphocyte recruitment to the inflamed/infected dermis and

  18. IL-4 attenuates Th1-associated chemokine expression and Th1 trafficking to inflamed tissues and limits pathogen clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarski, Christopher A; Ford, Jill; Katzman, Shoshana D; Rosenberg, Alexander F; Fowell, Deborah J

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4) plays a central role in the orchestration of Type 2 immunity. During T cell activation in the lymph node, IL-4 promotes Th2 differentiation and inhibits Th1 generation. In the inflamed tissue, IL-4 signals promote innate and adaptive Type-2 immune recruitment and effector function, positively amplifying the local Th2 response. In this study, we identify an additional negative regulatory role for IL-4 in limiting the recruitment of Th1 cells to inflamed tissues. To test IL-4 effects on inflammation subsequent to Th2 differentiation, we transiently blocked IL-4 during ongoing dermal inflammation (using anti-IL-4 mAb) and analyzed changes in gene expression. Neutralization of IL-4 led to the upregulation of a number of genes linked to Th1 trafficking, including CXCR3 chemokines, CCL5 and CCR5 and an associated increase in IFNγ, Tbet and TNFα genes. These gene expression changes correlated with increased numbers of IFNγ-producing CD4+ T cells in the inflamed dermis. Moreover, using an adoptive transfer approach to directly test the role of IL-4 in T cell trafficking to the inflamed tissues, we found IL-4 neutralization led to an early increase in Th1 cell recruitment to the inflamed dermis. These data support a model whereby IL-4 dampens Th1-chemokines at the site of inflammation limiting Th1 recruitment. To determine biological significance, we infected mice with Leishmania major, as pathogen clearance is highly dependent on IFNγ-producing CD4+ T cells at the infection site. Short-term IL-4 blockade in established L. major infection led to a significant increase in the number of IFNγ-producing CD4+ T cells in the infected ear dermis, with no change in the draining LN. Increased lymphocyte influx into the infected tissue correlated with a significant decrease in parasite number. Thus, independent of IL-4's role in the generation of immune effectors, IL-4 attenuates lymphocyte recruitment to the inflamed/infected dermis and limits pathogen

  19. Brucella abortus strain RB51 as a vector for heterologous protein expression and induction of specific Th1 type immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemulapalli, R; He, Y; Boyle, S M; Sriranganathan, N; Schurig, G G

    2000-06-01

    Brucella abortus strain RB51 is a stable, rough, attenuated mutant widely used as a live vaccine for bovine brucellosis. Our ultimate goal is to develop strain RB51 as a preferential vector for the delivery of protective antigens of other intracellular pathogens to which the induction of a strong Th1 type of immune response is needed for effective protection. As a first step in that direction, we studied the expression of a foreign reporter protein, beta-galactosidase of Escherichia coli, and the 65-kDa heat shock protein (HSP65) of Mycobacterium bovis in strain RB51. We cloned the promoter sequences of Brucella sodC and groE genes in pBBR1MCS to generate plasmids pBBSODpro and pBBgroE, respectively. The genes for beta-galactosidase (lacZ) and HSP65 were cloned in these plasmids and used to transform strain RB51. An enzyme assay in the recombinant RB51 strains indicated that the level of beta-galactosidase expression is higher under the groE promoter than under the sodC promoter. In strain RB51 containing pBBgroE/lacZ, but not pBBSODpro/lacZ, increased levels of beta-galactosidase expression were observed after subjecting the bacteria to heat shock or following internalization into macrophage-like J774A.1 cells. Mice vaccinated with either of the beta-galactosidase-expressing recombinant RB51 strains developed specific antibodies of predominantly the immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) isotype, and in vitro stimulation of their splenocytes with beta-galactosidase induced the secretion of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), but not interleukin-4 (IL-4). A Th1 type of immune response to HSP65, as indicated by the presence of specific serum IgG2a, but not IgG1, antibodies, and IFN-gamma, but not IL-4, secretion by the specific-antigen-stimulated splenocytes, was also detected in mice vaccinated with strain RB51 containing pBBgroE/hsp65. Studies with mice indicated that expression of beta-galactosidase or HSP65 did not alter either the attenuation characteristics of strain RB51 or

  20. A De-O-acylated Lipooligosaccharide-Based Adjuvant System Promotes Antibody and Th1-Type Immune Responses to H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Vaccine in Mice

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    Ji In Ryu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine adjuvants are agents that are used to promote immune responses to vaccine antigens and thereby to enhance the protective efficacy of the vaccines. In this study, we investigated the adjuvant activity of CIA06, an adjuvant system that is composed of a toll-like receptor 4 agonist de-O-acylated lipooligosaccharide (dLOS and aluminum hydroxide, on the H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine Greenflu-S® in mice. CIA06 significantly enhanced influenza-specific serum IgG, hemagglutination-inhibition, and virus-neutralizing antibody titers, which eliminated vaccine dose-dependency in the antibody response. Mice immunized with the CIA06-adjuvanted Greenflu-S showed Th1-type-predominant cytokine profiles, and both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were induced. Immunization of mice with the CIA06-adjuvanted vaccine reduced the mortality and morbidity of mice upon lethal challenges with influenza virus, and no excessive inflammatory responses were observed in the lung tissues of the immunized mice after viral infection. These data suggest that the dLOS-based adjuvant system CIA06 can be used to promote the immune responses to influenza vaccine or to spare antigen dose without causing harmful inflammatory responses.

  1. Cytokine profile and lymphocyte subsets in type 2 diabetes

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    C.O. Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D is a metabolic disease with inflammation as an important pathogenic background. However, the pattern of immune cell subsets and the cytokine profile associated with development of T2D are unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate different components of the immune system in T2D patients' peripheral blood by quantifying the frequency of lymphocyte subsets and intracellular pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production by T cells. Clinical data and blood samples were collected from 22 men (51.6±6.3 years old with T2D and 20 nonsmoking men (49.4±7.6 years old who were matched for age and sex as control subjects. Glycated hemoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and the lipid profile were measured by a commercially available automated system. Frequencies of lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood and intracellular production of interleukin (IL-4, IL-10, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ cytokines by CD3+ T cells were assessed by flow cytometry. No differences were observed in the frequency of CD19+ B cells, CD3+CD8+ and CD3+CD4+ T cells, CD16+56+ NK cells, and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells in patients with T2D compared with controls. The numbers of IL-10- and IL-17-producing CD3+ T cells were significantly higher in patients with T2D than in controls (P<0.05. The frequency of interferon-γ-producing CD3+ T cells was positively correlated with body mass index (r=0.59; P=0.01. In conclusion, this study shows increased numbers of circulating IL-10- and IL-17-producing CD3+ T cells in patients with T2D, suggesting that these cytokines are involved in the immune pathology of this disease.

  2. Associations of Circulating Lymphocyte Subpopulations with Type 2 Diabetes: Cross-Sectional Results from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nels C Olson

    Full Text Available Distinct lymphocyte subpopulations have been implicated in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and obesity-associated inflammation in mouse models of insulin resistance. Information on the relationships of lymphocyte subpopulations with type 2 diabetes remain limited in human population-based cohort studies.Circulating levels of innate (γδ T, natural killer (NK and adaptive immune (CD4+ naive, CD4+ memory, Th1, and Th2 lymphocyte subpopulations were measured by flow cytometry in the peripheral blood of 929 free-living participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA. Cross-sectional relationships of lymphocyte subpopulations with type 2 diabetes (n = 154 and fasting glucose and insulin concentrations were evaluated by generalized linear models.Each standard deviation (SD higher CD4+ memory cells was associated with a 21% higher odds of type 2 diabetes (95% CI: 1-47% and each SD higher naive cells was associated with a 22% lower odds (95% CI: 4-36% (adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and BMI. Among participants not using diabetes medication, higher memory and lower naive CD4+ cells were associated with higher fasting glucose concentrations (p<0.05, adjusted for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. There were no associations of γδ T, NK, Th1, or Th2 cells with type 2 diabetes, glucose, or insulin.A higher degree of chronic adaptive immune activation, reflected by higher memory and lower naive CD4+ cells, was positively associated with type 2 diabetes. These results are consistent with a role of chronic immune activation and exhaustion augmenting chronic inflammatory diseases, and support the importance of prospective studies evaluating adaptive immune activation and type 2 diabetes.

  3. Experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis may occur in the context of a polarized Th1- or Th2-type immune response in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saoudi, A; Bernard, I; Hoedemaekers, A

    1999-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) is a T cell-dependent, Ab-mediated autoimmune disease induced in rats by a single immunization with acetylcholine receptor (AChR). Although polarized Th1 responses have been shown to be crucial for the development of mouse EAMG, the role of Th cell...

  4. The combination of early and rapid type I IFN, IL-1α, and IL-1β production are essential mediators of RNA-like adjuvant driven CD4+ Th1 responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel F Madera

    Full Text Available There is a growing need for novel vaccine adjuvants that can provide safe and potent T-helper type 1 (Th1 activity. RNA-like immune response modifiers (IRMs are candidate T-cell adjuvants that skew acquired immune responses towards a Th1 phenotype. We set out to delineate the essential signaling pathways by which the RNA-like IRMs, resiquimod (R-848 and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C, augment CD4+ T-helper 1 (Th1 responses. Highly purified murine conventional dendritic cells (cDCs and conventional CD4+ T-cells were co-cultured in allogeneic and MHC congenic mixed leukocyte reactions. The activation of CD4+ Th1 cells was examined utilizing cells from mice deficient in specific RNA-sensing pattern recognition receptors and signaling mediators. R-848 and poly I:C stimulation of Type I interferon production and signaling in cDCs was essential but not sufficient for driving CD4+ Th1 responses. The early and rapid production of IL-1α and IL-1β was equally critical for the optimal activation of Th1 CD4+ T-cells. R-848 activation of Toll-like receptor 7/MyD88-dependent signaling in cDCs led to a rapid upregulation of pro-IL-1α and pro-IL-1β production compared to poly I:C activation of MyD88-independent signaling pathways. The in vitro data show that CD4+ T-cell adjuvant activity of RNA-like IRMs is mediated by a critical combination of early and rapid Type I interferon, IL-1α and IL-1β production. These results provide important insights into the key signaling pathways responsible for RNA-like IRM CD4+ Th1 activation. A better understanding of the critical signaling pathways by which RNA-like IRMs stimulate CD4+ Th1 responses is relevant to the rational design of improved vaccine adjuvants.

  5. Effect of Malnutrition on the Expression of Cytokines Involved in Th1 Cell Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torres, Cristina; González-Martínez, Haydeé; Miliar, Angel; Nájera, Oralia; Graniel, Jaime; Firo, Verónica; Alvarez, Catalina; Bonilla, Edmundo; Rodríguez, Leonor

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common cause of secondary immune deficiency and has been linked to an increased susceptibility to infection in humans. Malnutrition specifically affects T-cell-mediated immune responses. The aim of this study was to assess in lymphocytes from malnourished children the expression levels of IL-12, IL-18 and IL-21, molecules that induce the differentiation of T cells related to the immunological cellular response (Th1 response) and the production of cytokines related to the immunological cellular response (Th1 cytokines). We found that the expression levels of IL-12, IL-18 and IL-21 were significantly diminished in malnourished children compared to well-nourished children and were coincident with lower plasmatic levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ (Th1 cytokines). In this study, we show for the first time that the gene expression and intracellular production of cytokines responsible for Th1 cell differentiation (IL-12, IL-18 and IL-21) are diminished in malnourished children. As expected, this finding was related to lower plasmatic levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ. The decreased expression of Th1 cytokines observed in this study may contribute to the deterioration of the immunological Type 1 (cellular) response. We hypothesize that the decreased production of IL-12, IL-18 and IL-21 in malnourished children contributes to their inability to eradicate infections. PMID:23429441

  6. MHC and non-MHC genes regulate elimination of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and antiviral cytotoxic T lymphocyte and delayed-type hypersensitivity mediating T lymphocyte activity in parallel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Marker, O

    1989-01-01

    The course of systemic infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was studied in mouse strains differing in the MHC or non-MHC background. Virus clearance rates differed significantly between H-2 identical strains as well as between congenic strains differing in the H-2L subregion, indicat......The course of systemic infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was studied in mouse strains differing in the MHC or non-MHC background. Virus clearance rates differed significantly between H-2 identical strains as well as between congenic strains differing in the H-2L subregion...... responsiveness measured in terms of virus-specific cytotoxicity and delayed-type hypersensitivity, whereas no correlation was found with regard to NK cell activity and antiviral antibody response. Analysis of F1 progeny between H-2 identical high and low responder strains showed that low responsiveness...

  7. Regulatory effects of Th1-type (IFN-γ, IL-12) and Th2-type cytokines (IL-10, IL-13) on parasite-specific cellular responsiveness in Onchocerca volvulus-infected humans and exposed endemic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboslay, P T; Lüder, C G K; Riesch, S; Geiger, S M; Banla, M; Batchassi, E; Stadler, A; Schulz-Key, H

    1999-01-01

    The present study investigated in vitro the regulatory effects of T helper 1 (Th1)-type (interferon-γ, IFN-γ; interleukin-12, IL-12) and Th2-type cytokines (IL-10, IL-13) on Onchocerca volvulus-specific cellular reactivity in onchocerciasis patients, and in exposed endemic control individuals presenting no clinical and parasitological signs of disease. In both patients and controls, addition of IL-10 dose-dependently depressed O. volvulus antigen (OvAg)-specific cellular proliferation, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients who were more sensitive to the suppressive effect of IL-10 than those from endemic controls. However, neutralization of IL-10 by specific antibody did not reverse cellular hyporesponsiveness. In contrast to the inhibitory effects of IL-10, exogenous IL-12 and IL-13 augmented PBMC proliferative responses to OvAg both in patients and controls (P volvulus-specific cellular responsiveness in humans. PMID:10447735

  8. Immunomodulatory effects of oral antidiabetic drugs in lymphocyte cultures from patients with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Mello, Karina Faccio; Lunardelli, Adroaldo; Donadio, Márcio Vinícius Fagundes; Caberlon, Eduardo; Oliveira, Carmen Silvana Araújo de; Bastos, Carolina Maria Alves; Pires, Melissa Guerra Simões; Nunes, Fernanda Bordignon; Oliveira, Jarbas Rodrigues de

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that type 2 diabetes is an inflammatory response manifestation. The main drugs used to treat type 2 diabetes are sulphonylureas and biguanides. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the modulatory effects of oral hypoglycemic drugs (chlorpropamide and metformin) on lymphocyte proliferation in vitro and ex vivo. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from human blood by gradient centrifugation. T-lymphocytes were stimulate...

  9. Enhanced Th1 and Th2 immune response induction by Human Papilloma virus Type 16 E7 DNA vaccine in a tumoric murine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mohebbi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Human papilloma virus (HPV is known as the etiologic agent of cervical cancer and second common cancer among women. HPV viruses with the elevated risk of infection have more potentiality to cause cancer. The carcinogenesis in these viruses is accomplished by oncoproteins such as E7. Employing DNA vaccines which code specific antigens such as E7 is a novel therapeutic approach against such cancers. Methods: In the present study, plasmid coding HPV16 E7 was administered intracutaneously to C57BL/6 tumoric mice models for investigation of its immunostimulating potential. PcDNA3.1+ vector was used as control vector. After immunization, spleen of animals were removed. Then, release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH was evaluated to address the cytotoxic activity (CTL induced by cellular immunity in spleenocytes. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ and interleukin-4 (IL-4 cytokines were also analyzed as profiles of Th1 and Th2, respectively. Anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10 levels were also investigated in tumor microenvironments. Results: Our results showed that CTL activity was higher among samples receiving HPV16 E7 coding vector in comparison to the group receiving pcDNA3.1+ control vector (P < 0.05. Levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 were also higher in the group receiving HPV16 E7 plasmid in comparison to the control group (P < 0.05. Similarly, IL-10 levels were significantly lower in tumor carrying mice groups receiving HPV16 DNA vaccine compare to PBS and pcDNA3.1 receiving control groups. Conclusion: HPV16 E7 expressing DNA vaccine could increase the release of LDH due to immune system CTL activity. Elevation in IFN-γ and IL-4 levels as well as IL-10 reduction indicates an increase in both Th1 and Th2 profiles resulted by using potent DNA vaccine coding HPV16 E7 in tumor animal model.

  10. A novel respiratory syncytial virus (RSV F subunit vaccine adjuvanted with GLA-SE elicits robust protective TH1-type humoral and cellular immunity in rodent models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie L Lambert

    Full Text Available Illness associated with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV remains an unmet medical need in both full-term infants and older adults. The fusion glycoprotein (F of RSV, which plays a key role in RSV infection and is a target of neutralizing antibodies, is an attractive vaccine target for inducing RSV-specific immunity.BALB/c mice and cotton rats, two well-characterized rodent models of RSV infection, were used to evaluate the immunogenicity of intramuscularly administered RSV vaccine candidates consisting of purified soluble F (sF protein formulated with TLR4 agonist glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA, stable emulsion (SE, GLA-SE, or alum adjuvants. Protection from RSV challenge, serum RSV neutralizing responses, and anti-F IgG responses were induced by all of the tested adjuvanted RSV sF vaccine formulations. However, only RSV sF + GLA-SE induced robust F-specific TH1-biased humoral and cellular responses. In mice, these F-specific cellular responses include both CD4 and CD8 T cells, with F-specific polyfunctional CD8 T cells that traffic to the mouse lung following RSV challenge. This RSV sF + GLA-SE vaccine formulation can also induce robust RSV neutralizing titers and prime IFNγ-producing T cell responses in Sprague Dawley rats.These studies indicate that a protein subunit vaccine consisting of RSV sF + GLA-SE can induce robust neutralizing antibody and T cell responses to RSV, enhancing viral clearance via a TH1 immune-mediated mechanism. This vaccine may benefit older populations at risk for RSV disease.

  11. Typing for HLA-D/DR associated DP-antigens with the primed lymphocyte typing (PLT) technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, N; Jakobsen, B K; Platz, P

    1980-01-01

    A total of 74 healthy unrelated random individuals and 36 patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) were typed for HLA-D antigens with the homozygous typing cell technique and typed for HLA-D/DR associated DP-antigens with the primed lymphocyte typing (PLT) technique. All patients and som...

  12. Interleukin-12 augments a Th1-type immune response manifested as lymphocyte proliferation and interferon gamma production in Leishmania infantum-infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss-Ayali, Dalit; Baneth, Gad; Shor, Sharon; Okano, Fumiyoshi; Jaffe, Charles L

    2005-01-01

    The dog is the major reservoir for human visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum. Interleukin-12 is considered to have an essential role in the development of both innate and adaptive immunity to Leishmania spp. and other intracellular pathogens. This study focused on the influence of IL-12 in experimental and natural canine visceral leishmaniasis. Responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to IL-12, interleukin-10 and Leishmania soluble antigen were evaluated in L. infantum experimentally infected oligosymptomatic beagles, uninfected beagles, naturally infected polysymptomatic dogs, and their matched uninfected controls. Leishmania soluble antigen induced strong peripheral blood mononuclear cells proliferation both in experimentally infected dogs (median stimulation index [SI]=15.01), and in naturally infected dogs (SI=8.86), but not by cells from the control groups. IL-12 addition further enhanced cell proliferation in naturally (SI=14.95), but not in experimentally infected animals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from experimentally infected dogs were able to produce significant amounts of IFN-gamma (3.39 ng/ml) upon LSA stimulation, but no such production was detected in cells from naturally infected or control animals. Interestingly, addition of IL-12 reversed the inhibitory effect of LSA on IFN-gamma production by cells from polysymptomatic naturally infected dogs and the uninfected beagles (4.84 and 7.45 ng/ml, respectively), and further increased IFN-gamma production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from experimentally infected oligosymptomatic dogs (29.28 ng/ml). IFN-gamma mRNA expression correlated well with IFN-gamma production. Addition of IL-10 to Leishmania soluble antigen stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells inhibited proliferation and IFN-gamma production in experimentally infected dogs. Thus, the ability of IL-12 to augment IFN-gamma production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from dogs with experimental or natural symptomatic canine visceral leishmaniasis makes it a good candidate for cytokine therapy in dogs that are refractory to current therapy.

  13. Schistosoma mansoni tegument protein Sm29 is able to induce a Th1-type of immune response and protection against parasite infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C Cardoso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis continues to be a significant public health problem. This disease affects 200 million people worldwide and almost 800 million people are at risk of acquiring the infection. Although vaccine development against this disease has experienced more failures than successes, encouraging results have recently been obtained using membrane-spanning protein antigens from the tegument of Schistosoma mansoni. Our group recently identified Sm29, another antigen that is present at the adult worm tegument surface. In this study, we investigated murine cellular immune responses to recombinant (r Sm29 and tested this protein as a vaccine candidate. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We first show that Sm29 is located on the surface of adult worms and lung-stage schistosomula through confocal microscopy. Next, immunization of mice with rSm29 engendered 51%, 60% and 50% reduction in adult worm burdens, in intestinal eggs and in liver granuloma counts, respectively (p<0.05. Protective immunity in mice was associated with high titers of specific anti-Sm29 IgG1 and IgG2a and elevated production of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-12, a typical Th1 response. Gene expression analysis of worms recovered from rSm29 vaccinated mice relative to worms from control mice revealed a significant (q<0.01 down-regulation of 495 genes and up-regulation of only 22 genes. Among down-regulated genes, many of them encode surface antigens and proteins associated with immune signals, suggesting that under immune attack schistosomes reduce the expression of critical surface proteins. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that Sm29 surface protein is a new vaccine candidate against schistosomiasis and suggests that Sm29 vaccination associated with other protective critical surface antigens is the next logical strategy for improving protection.

  14. Impact of types of lymphocyte chromosomal aberrations on human cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmar, Lars; Strömberg, Ulf; Bonassi, Stefano

    2004-01-01

    The frequency of cells with structural chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in peripheral blood lymphocytes is the first genotoxicity biomarker that has shown an association with cancer risk. CAs are usually divided into chromosome-type (CSAs) and chromatid-type aberrations (CTAs), with different...

  15. Enhanced inflammatory and T-helper-1 type responses but suppressed lymphocyte proliferation in patients with seasonal affective disorder and treated by light therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Cai; Luchtman, Dirk; Kang, Zhijian; Tam, Edwin M; Yatham, Lakshmi N; Su, Kuan-Pin; Lam, Raymond W

    2015-10-01

    Animals show seasonal changes in the endocrine and immune system in response to winter stressors. Even though increased inflammation has been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression, whether immune disorder is a key mediator in seasonal affective depression (SAD) is unknown. Here, we hypothesized that short photoperiods in winter may induce inflammatory response, which contributes to SAD, and that light treatments should normalize immune function and improve depressive symptoms. Twenty patients with a diagnosis of SAD, and a score on the HAM-29 of 20 or higher were recruited for this study. Twenty-one healthy subjects with no personal and family history of psychiatric disorder were matched to patients according to age and sex. Patients and controls were sampled during winter between November and January, inclusive. A subset of SAD patients (N=13) was re-sampled after 4 weeks of light therapy. Blood samples were assayed for macrophage activity, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine release. SAD patients showed significantly higher macrophage activity and lower lymphocyte proliferation in winter compared to healthy subjects. The concentrations of macrophage-produced proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and tumour necrosis factor-α, and T-helper (Th)-1 produced cytokine, interferon-γ were all significantly increased. In contrast, no significant changes in Th2-produced cytokines were observed. Light therapy significantly improved depressive scores, which was associated with attenuation of decreased lymphocyte functions, increased macrophage activity and level of proinflammatory cytokines. SAD patients have increased macrophage and Th1 type responses in winter, and light therapy normalized immune functions and depressive symptoms. These results support an inflammatory hypothesis for SAD and an immunomodulatory role of light therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Caveolin1 Is Required for Th1 Cell Infiltration, but Not Tight Junction Remodeling, at the Blood-Brain Barrier in Autoimmune Neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Lutz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lymphocytes cross vascular boundaries via either disrupted tight junctions (TJs or caveolae to induce tissue inflammation. In the CNS, Th17 lymphocytes cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB before Th1 cells; yet this differential crossing is poorly understood. We have used intravital two-photon imaging of the spinal cord in wild-type and caveolae-deficient mice with fluorescently labeled endothelial tight junctions to determine how tight junction remodeling and caveolae regulate CNS entry of lymphocytes during the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model for multiple sclerosis. We find that dynamic tight junction remodeling occurs early in EAE but does not depend upon caveolar transport. Moreover, Th1, but not Th17, lymphocytes are significantly reduced in the inflamed CNS of mice lacking caveolae. Therefore, tight junction remodeling facilitates Th17 migration across the BBB, whereas caveolae promote Th1 entry into the CNS. Moreover, therapies that target both tight junction degradation and caveolar transcytosis may limit lymphocyte infiltration during inflammation.

  17. T lymphocyte subsets in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buschard, K; Röpke, C; Madsbad, S

    1983-01-01

    T lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood from 11 newly diagnosed Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients were studied prospectively at three time intervals: as soon as possible after diagnosis, 3 weeks and 5 months later. Lymphocytes were marked with monoclonal OKT antibodies and examined....../inducer T cells and/or the low percentage of suppressor/cytotoxic T cells at diagnosis favour immune reactions involved in the pathogenesis of Type 1 diabetes......./cytotoxic T cells (OKT8) was low at diagnosis but increased at 3 weeks (p less than 0.02) and 5 months (p less than 0.01). The ratio OKT4/OKT8 lymphocytes was 2.28 at diagnosis, decreasing to 1.77 at 3 weeks and 1.87 at 5 months, compared with 1.46 for 16 age-matched control subjects. There was no significant...

  18. Lymphocyte activation receptors:new structural paradigms in group V of C-type animal lectins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíček, J.; Kavan, Daniel; Pompach, Petr; Novák, Petr; Lukšan, Ondřej; Bezouška, Karel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 6 (2004), s. 1124-1126 ISSN 0300-5127 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5020403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : lectin -type receptor * ligand identification * lymphocyte Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.267, year: 2004

  19. Antigen-specific immune responsiveness and lymphocyte recruitment in leukocyte adhesion deficiency type II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, T. W.; Etzioni, A.; Pollack, S.; Pals, S. T.

    1997-01-01

    The leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome type II (LAD-II) is caused by a general defect in fucose metabolism, which leads to the absence of fucosylated sugar determinants such as the selectin ligand SLe(x). In view of the important role of selectins in lymphocyte migration and homing, we have

  20. Effects of PARP-1 Deficiency on Th1 and Th2 Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sambucci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available T cell differentiation to effector Th cells such as Th1 and Th2 requires the integration of multiple synergic and antagonist signals. Poly(ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational modification of proteins catalyzed by Poly(ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs. Recently, many reports showed that PARP-1, the prototypical member of the PARP family, plays a role in immune/inflammatory responses. Consistently, its enzymatic inhibition confers protection in several models of immune-mediated diseases, mainly through an inhibitory effect on NF-κB (and NFAT activation. PARP-1 regulates cell functions in many types of immune cells, including dendritic cells, macrophages, and T and B lymphocytes. Our results show that PARP-1KO cells displayed a reduced ability to differentiate in Th2 cells. Under both nonskewing and Th2-polarizing conditions, naïve CD4 cells from PARP-1KO mice generated a reduced frequency of IL-4+ cells, produced less IL-5, and expressed GATA-3 at lower levels compared with cells from wild type mice. Conversely, PARP-1 deficiency did not substantially affect differentiation to Th1 cells. Indeed, the frequency of IFN-γ+ cells as well as IFN-γ production, in nonskewing and Th1-polarizing conditions, was not affected by PARP-1 gene ablation. These findings demonstrate that PARP-1 plays a relevant role in Th2 cell differentiation and it might be a target to be exploited for the modulation of Th2-dependent immune-mediated diseases.

  1. Lymphocyte apoptosis in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Beta cell apoptosis has been associated with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) onset in newly diagnosed diabetic patients. There is an emerging evidence that T cell-induced apoptosis is a dominant effector mechanism in diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1). Pancreatic β-cells derived from newly ...

  2. Lymphocyte apoptosis in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    All patients were subjected to the following: A. History taking through a structured questionnaire planned to fulfill the following data: Demographic data, disease duration, insulin therapy (type, dose and frequency), history suggestive of acute metabolic complications and history suggestive of chronic diabetic complications.

  3. Altered Macrophage and Dendritic Cell Response in Mif−/− Mice Reveals a Role of Mif for Inflammatory-Th1 Response in Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriko Itzel Sánchez-Zamora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (Mif is highly expressed in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. However, there is limited information about how Mif influences the activation of macrophages (Mφ and dendritic cells (DC in T1DM. To address this issue, we induced T1DM by administering multiple low doses of streptozotocin (STZ to Mif−/− or wild-type (Wt BALB/c mice. We found that Mif−/− mice treated with STZ (Mif−/−STZ developed lower levels of hyperglycemia, inflammatory cytokines, and specific pancreatic islet antigen- (PIAg- IgG and displayed reduced cellular infiltration into the pancreatic islets compared to Wt mice treated with STZ (WtSTZ. Moreover, Mφ and DC from Mif−/−STZ displayed lower expression of MHC-II, costimulatory molecules CD80, CD86, and CD40, Toll-like receptor- (TLR- 2, and TLR-4 than WtSTZ. These changes were associated with a reduced capacity of Mφ and DC from Mif−/−STZ to induce proliferation in ovalbumin-specific T cells. All the deficiencies observed in Mif−/−STZ were recovered by exogenous administration of recombinant Mif. These findings suggest that Mif plays a role in the molecular mechanisms of Mφ and DC activation and drives T cell responses involved in the pathology of T1DM. Therefore, Mif is a potential therapeutic target to reduce the pathology of T1DM.

  4. Altered Macrophage and Dendritic Cell Response in Mif−/− Mice Reveals a Role of Mif for Inflammatory-Th1 Response in Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Mendoza, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (Mif) is highly expressed in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, there is limited information about how Mif influences the activation of macrophages (Mφ) and dendritic cells (DC) in T1DM. To address this issue, we induced T1DM by administering multiple low doses of streptozotocin (STZ) to Mif−/− or wild-type (Wt) BALB/c mice. We found that Mif−/− mice treated with STZ (Mif−/−STZ) developed lower levels of hyperglycemia, inflammatory cytokines, and specific pancreatic islet antigen- (PIAg-) IgG and displayed reduced cellular infiltration into the pancreatic islets compared to Wt mice treated with STZ (WtSTZ). Moreover, Mφ and DC from Mif−/−STZ displayed lower expression of MHC-II, costimulatory molecules CD80, CD86, and CD40, Toll-like receptor- (TLR-) 2, and TLR-4 than WtSTZ. These changes were associated with a reduced capacity of Mφ and DC from Mif−/−STZ to induce proliferation in ovalbumin-specific T cells. All the deficiencies observed in Mif−/−STZ were recovered by exogenous administration of recombinant Mif. These findings suggest that Mif plays a role in the molecular mechanisms of Mφ and DC activation and drives T cell responses involved in the pathology of T1DM. Therefore, Mif is a potential therapeutic target to reduce the pathology of T1DM. PMID:27699180

  5. Cyclopia Extracts Enhance Th1-, Th2-, and Th17-type T Cell Responses and Induce Foxp3+ Cells in Murine Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shiho; Miura, Yutaka; Hattori, Makoto; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Malherbe, Christiaan J; Muller, Christo J F; Joubert, Elizabeth; Yoshida, Tadashi

    2017-11-02

    Cyclopia genistoides, one of the traditional South African medicinal plants, and other species of the same genus offer noteworthy phenolic profiles, in particular high levels of the anti-allergic xanthone mangiferin. Hot water and 40% ethanol-water (v/v) extracts, prepared from C. genistoides, Cyclopia subternata, and Cyclopia maculata, were tested for immune-regulating activity in vitro using murine splenocytes and mesenteric lymph node cells. The 40% ethanol-water extracts of C. genistoides and C. subternata significantly enhanced production of several types of cytokines, including IL-4, IL-17, and IFN-γ, by antigen-stimulated splenocytes. A concentration-dependent response was observed, noticeably for IFN-γ production. The activity of the extracts did not correlate with the content of any of the major phenolic compounds, indicative that other extract constituents also play a role in immunomodulation. Additionally, the increased ratio of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells to total CD4(+) cells indicated induction of Foxp3(+) cells when mesenteric lymph node cells were cultured in the presence of these two extracts. This study is the first reporting immunostimulatory activity for Cyclopia, which are widely consumed as the herbal tea known as honeybush, underpinning further investigations into the potential use of its extracts as adjuvants for mucosal immunotherapy. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Immunization with the DNA-encoding N-terminal domain of proteophosphoglycan of Leishmania donovani generates Th1-type immunoprotective response against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Mukesh; Gupta, Reema; Kumari, Shraddha; Misra, Pragya; Khare, Prashant; Kushawaha, Pramod Kumar; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh Anant; Dube, Anuradha

    2009-07-01

    Leishmania produce several types of mucin-like glycoproteins called proteophosphoglycans (PPGs) which exist as secretory as well as surface-bound forms in both promastigotes and amastigotes. The structure and function of PPGs have been reported to be species and stage specific as in the case of Leishmania major and Leishmania mexicana; there has been no such information available for Leishmania donovani. We have recently demonstrated that PPG is differentially expressed in sodium stibogluconate-sensitive and -resistant clinical isolates of L. donovani. To further elucidate the structure and function of the ppg gene of L. donovani, a partial sequence of its N-terminal domain of 1.6 kb containing the majority of antigenic determinants, was successfully cloned and expressed in prokaryotic as well as mammalian cells. We further evaluated the DNA-encoding N-terminal domain of the ppg gene as a vaccine in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) against the L. donovani challenge. The prophylactic efficacy to the tune of approximately 80% was observed in vaccinated hamsters and all of them could survive beyond 6 mo after challenge. The efficacy was supported by a surge in inducible NO synthase, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-12 mRNA levels along with extreme down-regulation of TGF-beta, IL-4, and IL-10. A rise in the level of Leishmania-specific IgG2 was also observed which was indicative of enhanced cellular immune response. The results suggest the N-terminal domain of L. donovani ppg as a potential DNA vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis.

  7. In vitro treatment with interleukin-2 normalizes type-1 cytokine production by lymphocytes from elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lio, D; Balistreri, C R; Candore, G; D'Anna, C; Di Lorenzo, G; Gervasi, F; Listì, F; Scola, L; Caruso, C

    2000-05-01

    The term immunosenescence is taken to mean the deterioration of immune function seen in elderly, which is manifested in increased susceptibility to infectious diseases, neoplasias, and autoimmune diseases. It is only recently that we have begun to understand the cellular and molecular changes involved. Of special interest in this regard are observations of a decline in synthesis of Type-1 cytokines which predisposes to diminished cell mediated immunity. We have evaluated the production of type 1 cytokines in old and young donors either in presence or in absence of recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2). Lymphocytes were stimulated with plastic bound anti-CD3 and after 48 h the supernatants were harvested and stored at -70 degrees C until assay. Type 1 cytokine, i.e. IL-12 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production by anti-CD3 stimulated lymphocytes from old subjects was significantly reduced when compared to that from young ones. This impaired production was reversed by adding rIL-2 in the culture medium. In previous studies on aged subjects, we have been able to demonstrate that in vitro treatment with rIL-2 completely restores proliferative responses and partially rescues the increased apoptosis of T cell cultures. Present and previous results suggest that rIL-2 completely restores Type 1 responses by overcoming the well known costimulation deficit of aged lymphocytes.

  8. Basal and T₃-induced ROS production in lymphocyte mitochondria is increased in type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthonsen, S; Larsen, J; Pedersen, P L

    2013-01-01

    in human lymphocytes in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM). Lymphocytes from 10 controls and 10 persons with T2DM were examined. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was examined by flow cytometry after staining with MitoTracker Green (MTG). Similarly ROS was measured following staining...

  9. Virus-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Santra, Sampa; Fultz, Patricia N.; Letvin, Norman L.

    1999-01-01

    Chimpanzees have been important in studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis and in evaluation of HIV-1 candidate vaccines. However, little information is available about HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in these animals. In the present study, in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from infected chimpanzees with HIV-1 Gag peptides was shown to be a sensitive, reproducible method of expanding HIV-1-specific CD8+ effector CTL. Of ...

  10. Dendritic Cells Promoted by Ginseng Saponins Drive a Potent Th1 Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Takei

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC play a pivotal role in the initiation of T-cell-mediated immune responses, making them an attractive cellular adjuvant for use in cancer vaccines. The interaction of T cells with DC is crucial for directing T cell differentiation towards the Th1, Th2 or Th17 type, and several factors determining the direction of the T cell polarization. IL-12 plays a central role in the immune system, not only by augmenting the cytotoxic activity of T cells and NK cells and regulating IFN-γ production, but also by the capacity of IL-12 to promote the development of Th1 cells. Therefore, it is important to identify factors that might affect the differentiation, maturation and function of DC. Ginseng is a medicinal herb widely used in Asian countries, and many of its pharmacological actions are attributed to the ginsenosides. Moreover, T-cadinol and calamenene are sesquterpenes isolated from the heartwood of Cryptomeria japonica being pharmacologically active substances. We investigated whether M1 and M4, end products of steroidal ginseng saponins metabolized in digestive tracts, as well as T-cadinol and calamenene can drive DC maturation from human monocytes in vitro. Human monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for 6 days under standard conditions, followed by another 2 days in the presence of M1, M4, T-cadinol or calamenene. The expression levels of CD1a, CD80, CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR on M1-primed DC, M4-primed DC, T-cadinol-primed DC and calamenene-primed DC were enhanced with a concomitant decrease in endocytic activity. M1-primed DC, M4-primed DC, T-cadinol-primed DC or calamenene-primed DC enhanced the T cell stimulatory capacity in an allo MLR (allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction. Naïve T cells co-cultured with allogeneic M1-primed DC, M4-primed DC, T-cadinol-primed DC or calamenene-primed DC turned into typical Th1 cells, which produced large quantities of IFN-γ and released small amounts of IL-4 depending on IL-12 secretion

  11. Dendritic Cells Promoted by Ginseng Saponins Drive a Potent Th1 Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Masao; Tachikawa, Eiichi; Umeyama, Akemi

    2008-04-18

    Dendritic cells (DC) play a pivotal role in the initiation of T-cell-mediated immune responses, making them an attractive cellular adjuvant for use in cancer vaccines. The interaction of T cells with DC is crucial for directing T cell differentiation towards the Th1, Th2 or Th17 type, and several factors determining the direction of the T cell polarization. IL-12 plays a central role in the immune system, not only by augmenting the cytotoxic activity of T cells and NK cells and regulating IFN-gamma production, but also by the capacity of IL-12 to promote the development of Th1 cells. Therefore, it is important to identify factors that might affect the differentiation, maturation and function of DC. Ginseng is a medicinal herb widely used in Asian countries, and many of its pharmacological actions are attributed to the ginsenosides. Moreover, T-cadinol and calamenene are sesquterpenes isolated from the heartwood of Cryptomeria japonica being pharmacologically active substances. We investigated whether M1 and M4, end products of steroidal ginseng saponins metabolized in digestive tracts, as well as T-cadinol and calamenene can drive DC maturation from human monocytes in vitro. Human monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for 6 days under standard conditions, followed by another 2 days in the presence of M1, M4, T-cadinol or calamenene. The expression levels of CD1a, CD80, CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR on M1-primed DC, M4-primed DC, T-cadinol-primed DC and calamenene-primed DC were enhanced with a concomitant decrease in endocytic activity. M1-primed DC, M4-primed DC, T-cadinol-primed DC or calamenene-primed DC enhanced the T cell stimulatory capacity in an allo MLR (allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction). Naïve T cells co-cultured with allogeneic M1-primed DC, M4-primed DC, T-cadinol-primed DC or calamenene-primed DC turned into typical Th1 cells, which produced large quantities of IFN-gamma and released small amounts of IL-4 depending on IL-12 secretion. In the CTL

  12. Intestinal Irradiation and Fibrosis in a Th1-Deficient Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Christine, E-mail: christine.linard@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Billiard, Fabienne; Benderitter, Marc [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Changes in the Th1/Th2 immune balance may play a role in increasing the incidence of radiation-induced toxicity. This study evaluates the consequences of Th1 deficiency on intestinal response (fibrosis and T cell trafficking) to abdominal irradiation and examines in mucosa and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) the differential involvement of the two Th1 pathways, T-bet/STAT1 and IL-12/STAT4, in controlling this balance in mice. Methods and Materials: Using T-bet-deficient mice (T-bet{sup -/-}), we evaluated the mRNA and protein expression of the Th1 pathways (IFN-{gamma}, T-bet/STAT1, and IL-12/STAT4) and the CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} populations in ileal mucosa and MLN during the first 3 months after 10 Gy abdominal irradiation. Results: The T-bet-deficient mice showed an increased fibrotic response to radiation, characterized by higher TGF-{beta}1, col3a1 expression, and collagen deposition in mucosa compared with wild-type mice. This response was associated with drastically lower expression of IFN-{gamma}, the hallmark Th1 cytokine. Analysis of the Th1 expression pathways, T-bet/STAT1 and IL-12/STAT4, showed their equal involvement in the failure of Th1 polarization. A minimal IFN-{gamma} level depended on the IL-23-p19/STAT4 level. In addition, the radiation-induced deficiency in the priming of Th1 by IFN-{gamma} was related to the defective homing capacity of CD8{sup +} cells in the mucosa. Conclusion: Irradiation induces Th2 polarization, and the Th2 immune response may play a role in potentiating irradiation-induced intestinal collagen deposition.

  13. Chronic lymphocytic lymphoma and concomitant renal cell carcinoma (Clear Cell Type: Review of the literature

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    Burak Uz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present report, a 73 years-old male patient who developed clear cell type renal cell carcinoma (RCC 5 years after the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL and plausible explanations for this association were discussed by the authors. The incidence of CLL and RCC occurring in the same patient is higher than that expected in the general population. Various explicative hypotheses of this concurrence include treatment-related development of a second malignancy, immunomodulatory mechanisms, viral aetiology, cytokine (interleukin 6 release from a tumor, and common genetic mutations. Further investigations are warranted.

  14. Defective Autophagy, Mitochondrial Clearance and Lipophagy in Niemann-Pick Type B Lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonico, Barbara; Cesarini, Erica; Salucci, Sara; Luchetti, Francesca; Falcieri, Elisabetta; Di Sario, Gianna; Palma, Fulvio; Papa, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type A (NP-A) and type B (NP-B) are lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) caused by sphingomyelin accumulation in lysosomes relying on reduced or absent acid sphingomyelinase. A considerable body of evidence suggests that lysosomal storage in many LSD impairs autophagy, resulting in the accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins and dysfunctional mitochondria, ultimately leading to cell death. Here we test this hypothesis in a cellular model of Niemann-Pick disease type B, in which autophagy has never been studied. The basal autophagic pathway was first examined in order to evaluate its functionality using several autophagy-modulating substances such as rapamycin and nocodazole. We found that human NP-B B lymphocytes display considerable alteration in their autophagic vacuole accumulation and mitochondrial fragmentation, as well as mitophagy induction (for damaged mitochondria clearance). Furthermore, lipid traceability of intra and extra-cellular environments shows lipid accumulation in NP-B B lymphocytes and also reveals their peculiar trafficking/management, culminating in lipid microparticle extrusion (by lysosomal exocytosis mechanisms) or lipophagy. All of these features point to the presence of a deep autophagy/mitophagy alteration revealing autophagic stress and defective mitochondrial clearance. Hence, rapamycin might be used to regulate autophagy/mitophagy (at least in part) and to contribute to the clearance of lysosomal aberrant lipid storage.

  15. Defective Autophagy, Mitochondrial Clearance and Lipophagy in Niemann-Pick Type B Lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Canonico

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick disease type A (NP-A and type B (NP-B are lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs caused by sphingomyelin accumulation in lysosomes relying on reduced or absent acid sphingomyelinase. A considerable body of evidence suggests that lysosomal storage in many LSD impairs autophagy, resulting in the accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins and dysfunctional mitochondria, ultimately leading to cell death. Here we test this hypothesis in a cellular model of Niemann-Pick disease type B, in which autophagy has never been studied. The basal autophagic pathway was first examined in order to evaluate its functionality using several autophagy-modulating substances such as rapamycin and nocodazole. We found that human NP-B B lymphocytes display considerable alteration in their autophagic vacuole accumulation and mitochondrial fragmentation, as well as mitophagy induction (for damaged mitochondria clearance. Furthermore, lipid traceability of intra and extra-cellular environments shows lipid accumulation in NP-B B lymphocytes and also reveals their peculiar trafficking/management, culminating in lipid microparticle extrusion (by lysosomal exocytosis mechanisms or lipophagy. All of these features point to the presence of a deep autophagy/mitophagy alteration revealing autophagic stress and defective mitochondrial clearance. Hence, rapamycin might be used to regulate autophagy/mitophagy (at least in part and to contribute to the clearance of lysosomal aberrant lipid storage.

  16. Necroptosis takes place in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1-infected CD4+ T lymphocytes.

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    Ting Pan

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection is characterized by progressive depletion of CD4+ T lymphocytes and dysfunction of the immune system. The numbers of CD4+ T lymphocytes in the human body are maintained constantly by homeostatic mechanisms that failed during HIV-1 infection, resulting in progressive loss of CD4+ T cells mainly via apoptosis. Recently, a non-apoptotic form of necrotic programmed cell death, named necroptosis, has been investigated in many biological and pathological processes. We then determine whether HIV-1-infected cells also undergo necroptosis. In this report, we demonstrate that HIV-1 not only induces apoptosis, but also mediates necroptosis in the infected primary CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD4+ T-cell lines. Necroptosis-dependent cytopathic effects are significantly increased in HIV-1-infected Jurkat cells that is lack of Fas-associated protein-containing death domain (FADD, indicating that necroptosis occurs as an alternative cell death mechanism in the absence of apoptosis. Unlike apoptosis, necroptosis mainly occurs in HIV-infected cells and spares bystander damage. Treatment with necrostatin-1(Nec-1, a RIP1 inhibitor that specifically blocks the necroptosis pathway, potently restrains HIV-1-induced cytopathic effect and interestingly, inhibits the formation of HIV-induced syncytia in CD4+ T-cell lines. This suggests that syncytia formation is mediated, at least partially, by necroptosis-related processes. Furthermore, we also found that the HIV-1 infection-augmented tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α plays a key role in inducing necroptosis and HIV-1 Envelope and Tat proteins function as its co-factors. Taken together,necroptosis can function as an alternative cell death pathway in lieu of apoptosis during HIV-1 infection, thereby also contributing to HIV-1-induced cytopathic effects. Our results reveal that in addition to apoptosis, necroptosis also plays an important role in HIV-1-induced pathogenesis.

  17. Lipophilic fractions from the marine sponge Halichondria sitiens decrease secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by dendritic cells and decrease their ability to induce a Th1 type response by allogeneic CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Xiaxia; Oskarsson, Jon T; Omarsdottir, Sesselja; Freysdottir, Jona; Hardardottir, Ingibjorg

    2017-12-01

    Halichondria (Halichondriidae) marine sponges contain components possessing various biological activities, but immunomodulation is not among the ones reported. This study evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of fractions/compounds from Halichondria sitiens Schmidt. Crude dichloromethane/methanol extracts of H. sitiens were subjected to various chromatographic techniques to obtain fractions/compounds with immunomodulatory activity, using bioassay-guided isolation. The effects of the fractions/compounds were determined by measuring secretion of cytokines and expression of surface molecules by dendritic cells (DCs) and their ability to stimulate and modify cytokine secretion by allogeneic CD4+ T cells. The bioactive fractions were chemically analyzed to identify the immunomodulatory constituents by 1D, 2D NMR, and HRMS data. Several lipophilic fractions from H. sitiens at 10 μg/mL decreased secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12p40 and IL-6 by the DCs, with maximum inhibition being 64% and 25%, respectively. In addition, fractions B3b3F and B3b3J decreased the ability of DCs to induce T cell secretion of IFN-γ. Fraction B3b3 induced morphological changes in DCs, characterized by extreme elongation of dendrites and cell clustering. Chemical screening revealed the presence of glycerides and some minor unknown constituents in the biologically active fractions. One new glyceride, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl 2-methylhexadecanoate (1), was isolated from one fraction and two known compounds, 3-[(1-methoxyhexadecyl)oxy]propane-1,2-diol (2) and monoheptadecanoin (3), were identified in another, but none of them had immunomodulatory activity. These results demonstrate that several lipophilic fractions from H. sitiens have anti-inflammatory effects on DCs and decrease their ability to induce a Th1 type immune response.

  18. Intra HLA-D/DR region recombinant detected by primed lymphocyte typing (PLT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, B K; Kristensen, T; Lamm, L U

    1983-01-01

    The chromosome 6 markers, HLA-ABC, D, DR, MT, properdin factor Bf, and complement factors 2 (C2) and 5 (C4), were studied in three families, each of which included two HLA identical siblings, one or both of whom were known to be HLA-B: GLO recombinants. The families were also typed with primed...... lymphocyte typing (PLT) for HLA-D/DR region associated DP antigens. None of these studies gave evidence that the recombinations had occurred within the HLA region. Mixed leucocyte culture (MLC) tests within the families showed no detectable stimulation between the HLA identical siblings in two...... of the families, but a very weak stimulation between the HLA identical siblings (H and G) in the third family (GG). No reactive PLT reagents were generated when cells from the HLA identical siblings of the first two families were primed against each other. In contrast, priming between cells of H and G gave rise...

  19. Deletion of muscarinic type 1 acetylcholine receptors alters splenic lymphocyte functions and splenic noradrenaline concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainke, Susanne; Wildmann, Johannes; Del Rey, Adriana

    2015-11-01

    The existence of interactions between the immune and the sympathetic nervous systems is well established. Noradrenaline can promote or inhibit the immune response, and conversely, the immune response itself can affect noradrenaline concentration in lymphoid organs, such as the spleen. It is also well known that acetylcholine released by pre-ganglionic neurons can modulate noradrenaline release by the postsynaptic neuron. The spleen does not receive cholinergic innervation, but it has been reported that lymphocytes themselves can produce acetylcholine, and express acetylcholine receptors and acetylcholinesterase. We found that the spleen of not overtly immunized mice in which muscarinic type 1 acetylcholine receptors have been knocked out (M1KO) has higher noradrenaline concentrations than that of the wildtype mice, without comparable alterations in the heart, in parallel to a decreased number of IgG-producing B cells. Splenic lymphocytes from M1KO mice displayed increased in vitro-induced cytotoxicity, and this was observed only when CD4(+) T cells were present. In contrast, heterozygous acetylcholinesterase (AChE+/-) mice, had no alterations in splenic noradrenaline concentration, but the in vitro proliferation of AChE+/- CD4(+) T cells was increased. It is theoretically conceivable that reciprocal effects between neuronally and non-neuronally derived acetylcholine and noradrenaline might contribute to the results reported. Our results emphasize the need to consider the balance between the effects of these mediators for the final immunoregulatory outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Transfection of wild-type CFTR into cystic fibrosis lymphocytes restores chloride conductance at G1 of the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, R D; Bubien, J K; Drumm, M L; Zheng, T; Peiper, S C; Collins, F S; Kirk, K L; Frizzell, R A; Rado, T A

    1992-01-01

    We complemented the Cl- conductance defect in cystic fibrosis lymphocytes by transfection with wild-type cDNA for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Stable transfectants were selected and subjected to molecular and functional analyses. We detected expression of endogenous CFTR mRNA in several CF and non-CF lymphoid cell lines by PCR. Expression from cDNA in the transfectants was demonstrated by amplifying vector-specific sequences. Both fluorescence and patch-clamp assays showed that transfectants expressing wild-type CFTR acquired properties previously associated with Cl- conductance (GCl) regulation in non-CF lymphocytes: (i) GCl was elevated in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, (ii) cells fixed at G1 increase GCl in response to increased cellular cAMP or Ca2+, (iii) agonist-induced increases in GCl were lost as the cells progressed to the S phase of the cell cycle. The cell cycle and agonist dependent regulation of GCl was not observed in CF lymphocytes transfected with CFTR cDNA containing stop codons in all reading frames at exon 6. Our findings indicate that lymphocytes express functional CFTR since wild-type CFTR corrects the defects in Cl- conductance regulation found in CF lymphocytes. Evaluation of the mechanism of this novel, CFTR-mediated regulation of GCl during cell cycling should provide further insights into the function of CFTR. Images PMID:1372253

  1. A "new" supertypic HLA-DP related determinant detected by primed lymphocyte typing (PLT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Hofmann, B; Hyldig-Nielsen, J J

    1987-01-01

    Primed Lymphocyte Typing (PLT) with local (CDP) and the 9th International Histocompatibility Workshop reagents (GNN) revealed "cross-reactions" between HLA-DPw6 and the GNN2B but not other DPw2 PLT-cells (GNN2A, CDP2A, CDP2B). We raised and bulk-expanded a well discriminating PLT-reagent (the JET......-reagent) from an HLA-DR identical, DP, GNN2A, CDP2A, CDP2B compatible and GNN2B incompatible responder/stimulator combination. The JET-reagent defined a "new" determinant, JET, which was present in 11% of Danes. The JET determinant was associated with DPw2, w6, and DP-blank: 66% of DPw6 and DP-blank and 20...

  2. Fatal meningitis following lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection reflects delayed-type hypersensitivity rather than cytotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Bro-Jørgensen, K; Volkert, M

    1983-01-01

    Fatal meningitis following intracerebral inoculation of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) reflects an immunopathological lesion believed to be mediated by cytotoxic T cells. The results presented here demonstrate that pretreatment with cyclophosphamide (Cy; 150 mg/kg body weight) 2 days...... before intracerebral infection significantly reduced the lethality of the infection. However, this treatment did not impair the antiviral cytotoxic response as measured in the spleen. On the other hand, virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) was significantly reduced. This reduction seems......-pretreated mice; and (3) inoculation of irrelevant antigen and antigen-primed spleen cells into the footpads of Cy-pretreated, infected mice resulted in a significantly reduced footpad swelling as compared with untreated, infected controls. Taken together, these results indicate that LCMV-induced meningitis does...

  3. Myocardial Gene Expression of T-bet, GATA-3, Ror-γt, FoxP3, and Hallmark Cytokines in Chronic Chagas Disease Cardiomyopathy: An Essentially Unopposed TH1-Type Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Gabriel Nogueira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC, a late consequence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is an inflammatory cardiomyopathy with prognosis worse than those of noninflammatory etiology (NIC. Although the T cell-rich myocarditis is known to play a pathogenetic role, the relative contribution of each of the functional T cell subsets has never been thoroughly investigated. We therefore assessed gene expression of cytokines and transcription factors involved in differentiation and effector function of each functional T cell subset (TH1/TH2/TH17/Treg in CCC, NIC, and heart donor myocardial samples. Methods and Results. Quantitative PCR showed markedly upregulated expression of IFN-γ and transcription factor T-bet, and minor increases of GATA-3; FoxP3 and CTLA-4; IL-17 and IL-18 in CCC as compared with NIC samples. Conversely, cytokines expressed by TH2 cells (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 or associated with Treg (TGF-β and IL-10 were not upregulated in CCC myocardium. Expression of TH1-related genes such as T-bet, IFN-γ, and IL-18 correlated with ventricular dilation, FoxP3, and CTLA-4. Conclusions. Results are consistent with a strong local TH1-mediated response in most samples, possibly associated with pathological myocardial remodeling, and a proportionally smaller FoxP3+CTLA4+ Treg cell population, which is unable to completely curb IFN-γ production in CCC myocardium, therefore fueling inflammation.

  4. Influence of Probiotic Consortium on TH1 and TH2 Immune Response

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    Gulnara Shakhabayeva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main role of probiotics is to maintain homeostasis in the intestines and improve bowel protective function. The aim of the present study is to investigate immuno-modulatory effects of a probiotic consortium. Methods: Observations were carried out in vitro. The presence of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IgA, IgM, and IgE was studied using a solid-phase enzyme immunosorbent assay on the VECTOR-BEST sets (Russia. Results: Immunomodulatory properties of the probiotic consortium were studied, which consisted of the following strains: Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bifidobacterium bifidum. Elevated concentrations of INFγ in control samples decreased 3.9 times (p < 0.05 after a saturation of blood with the probiotic consortium. Significant reduction of cytokine levels after the probiotic effects of the consortium was observed in IL-10 by 2.1 times (p < 0.05 and IgA by 1.87 times (p < 0.0005. There was a significant increase in the levels of IL-4, IgE, IL-6, and IL-8 by 1.3 (p < 0.005, 1.1 (p < 0.5, 18.0 (p < 0.005, and 6 (p < 0.05 times, respectively, in comparison with the control samples. IL-4 and INFγ have different effects on the synthesis of IgE. Soluble low affinity receptors FcεRII (CD23 in association with IL-4 facilitate a differentiation of the B-lymphocytes in IgE-synthesizing cells, while γ-INF inhibits this process. It is known that the intracellular expression of γ-INF and IL-4 is the most reliable marker for Th1 and Th2 immune responses, respectively. The conducted studies determined that the ratio of INF-γ/IL-4 was 0.9 (control 4.8, P < 0.005 after the saturation of the blood cells with probiotic consortium. NF-γ/IL4 ratio decreased by 5.3 times compared with a control value, which indicates a reduction in the functional activity of Th1 type lymphocytes in comparison with the

  5. A "new" primed lymphocyte typing (PLT) defined DP-antigen associated with a private HLA--DR antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, N; Jakobsen, B K; Platz, P

    1980-01-01

    We have recently described a "new" private HLA-DR antigen, DR"LTM", which has a frequency of approximately 0.6% in Danes. Primed Lymphocyte Typing (PLT) cells directed towards DR"LTM"-associated determinants were generated in vitro by haplotype primings in two unrelated families with DR"LTM" posi...

  6. Peptide specificity and HLA restriction do not dictate lymphokine production by allergen-specific T-lymphocyte clones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Neerven, R. J.; van de Pol, M. M.; Wierenga, E. A.; Aalberse, R. C.; Jansen, H. M.; Kapsenberg, M. L.

    1994-01-01

    Human and murine CD4+ T lymphocytes can be subdivided into distinct subsets [T-helper type 0 (Th0), Th1 or Th2], based on their lymphokine production profiles. Not much is known about the factors that determine these restricted lymphokine secretion profiles. Peptide specificity and human leucocyte

  7. Study of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio as novel marker for diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Ashokrao Khandare

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a microvascular complication of diabetes. DN is clinically manifested as an increase in urine albumin excretion. Total white blood cell count is a crude but sensitive indicator of inflammation and studied in many cardiac and noncardiac diseases as an inflammatory marker such as acute myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure. In this study, the association of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR with DN is studied. Patients and Methods: It is an observational cross-sectional study. Totally 115 diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were registered in this study. NLR was calculated by analyzing differential leukocyte count in complete blood picture. Albuminuria was tested by MICRAL-II TEST strips by dipstick method. Results: Totally 115 diabetic patients were registered. About 56 patients had DN and 59 had normal urine albumin. Mean NLR for a normal group is 1.94 ± 0.65 and in DN group is 2.83 ± 0.85 which was highly significant (P < 0.001. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.047 and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (P < 0.001 were also significant. Conclusion: The results of our study show that there was a significant relation between NLR and DN. Therefore, NLR may be considered as a novel surrogate marker of DN in early stages.

  8. Activated rat hepatic stellate cells influence Th1/Th2 profile in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhi-Zhi; Huang, Liu-Ye; Wu, Cheng-Rong; You, Hong; Ma, Hong; Jia, Ji-Dong

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of activated rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) on rat Th1/Th2 profile in vitro. METHODS: Growth and survival of activated HSCs and CD4+ T lymphocytes cultured alone or together was assessed after 24 or 48 h. CD4+ T lymphocytes were then cultured with or without activated HSCs for 24 or 48 h and the proportion of Th1 [interferon (IFN)-γ+] and Th2 [interleukin (IL)-4+] cells was assessed by flow cytometry. Th1 and Th2 cell apoptosis was assessed after 24 h of co-culture using a caspase-3 staining procedure. Differentiation rates of Th1 and Th2 cells from CD4+ T lymphocytes that were positive for CD25 but did not express IFN-γ or IL-4 were also assessed after 48 h of co-culture with activated HSCs. Galectin-9 expression in HSCs was determined by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. ELISA was performed to assess galectin-9 secretion from activated HSCs. RESULTS: Co-culture of CD4+ T lymphocytes with activated rat HSCs for 48 h significantly reduced the proportion of Th1 cells compared to culture-alone conditions (-1.73% ± 0.71%; P < 0.05), whereas the proportion of Th2 cells was not altered; the Th1/Th2 ratio was significantly decreased (-0.44 ± 0.13; P < 0.05). In addition, the level of IFN-γ in Th1 cells was decreased (-65.71 ± 9.67; P < 0.01), whereas the level of IL-4 in Th2 cells was increased (82.79 ± 25.12; P < 0.05) by co-culturing, as measured by mean fluorescence intensity by flow cytometry. Apoptosis rates in Th1 (12.27% ± 0.99%; P < 0.01) and Th2 (1.71% ± 0.185%; P < 0.01) cells were increased 24 h after co-culturing with activated HSCs; the Th1 cell apoptosis rate was significantly higher than in Th2 cells (P < 0.01). Galectin-9 protein expression was significantly decreased in HSCs only 24 h after co-culturing (P < 0.05) but not after 48 h. Co-culture for 48 h significantly increased the differentiation of Th1 and Th2 cells; however, the increase in the proportion of Th2 cells was significantly higher than that

  9. Role of Th1 and Th2 cells in autoimmune demyelinating disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelkerken, L.

    1998-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that Th1 cells play an important role in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), whereas Th2 cells contribute to recovery from disease. A maj or determinant in the development of Th1 and Th2 cells is the type of

  10. Transfer of tolerance to collagen type V suppresses Th-17 lymphocyte mediated acute lung transplant rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Ruedi K.; Molitor-Dart, Melanie; Wigfield, Christopher; Xiang, Zhuzai; Fain, Sean B.; Jankowska-Gan, Ewa; Seroogy, Christine M.; Burlingham, William J.; Wilkes, David S.; Brand, David D.; Torrealba, Jose; Love, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Rat lung allograft rejection is mediated by collagen type V (col(V)) specific Th17 cells. Adoptive transfer of these cells is sufficient to induce rejection pathology in isografts, whereas tolerance to col(V) suppresses allograft rejection. We therefore tested if regulatory T cells from tolerant rats could suppress the Th17 mediated rejection in the syngeneic model of lung transplantation. Methods Rats were subjected to syngeneic left lung transplantation and acute rejection was induced by adoptive transfer of lymph node cells from col(V)-immunized rats. Tolerance was induced by intravenous (iv) injection of col(V) and spleen lymphocytes were used for adoptive transfer. CD4+ T cells were depleted using magnetic beads. Lung isografts were analyzed using micro-PET imaging and histochemistry. The transvivo delayed type hypersensitivity (TV-DTH) assay was used to analyze the Th17 response. Results Adoptive co-transfer of col(V)-specific effector cells with cells from col(V) tolerized rats suppressed severe vasculitis and bronchiolitis with parenchymal inflammation, and the expression of IL-17 transcripts in mediastinal lymph nodes induced by effector cells alone. Analysis by TV-DTH showed that the reactivity to col(V) was dependent on the presence of TNF-α and IL-17, but not IFN-γ. Depletion of CD4+ T cells from the suppressor cell population abrogated the col(V)-specific protection. Conclusion Th17 mediated acute rejection after lung transplantation is ameliorated by CD4+ col(V)-specific regulatory T cells. The mechanism for this Th17 suppression is consistent with tolerance induction to col(V). The goal of transplantation treatment therefore should target Th17 development and not suppression of T cell activation by suppressing IL-2. PMID:20029330

  11. ACTIVITY OF CHIMERIC ANTIBODIES TO CD20 ON B LYMPHOCYTES IN PATIENT WITH SEVERE SYSTEMIC TYPE OF JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    OpenAIRE

    E.I. Alexeeva; K.B. Isaeva; T. M. Bzarova; S. I. Valieva; A.O. Lisitsin; E. L. Semikina; E.A. Kopyl'tsova

    2008-01-01

    Case report about early debut and severe clinical course of system type of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, refractory to treatment with classic immunosuppressive agents and blocker of tumor necrosis factor is presented in this article. A successful application of chimeric antibodies to cd20+ b-lymphocytes rituximab in dose 375 mg/m2 of surface of body weekly intravenously are described. Rituximab infusions were carried out during 4 weeks. Patient took 2 treatment courses of rituximab. Extra ar...

  12. Homing receptor expression is deviated on CD56+ blood lymphocytes during pregnancy in Type 1 diabetic women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne D Burke

    Full Text Available Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM is characterized by an augmented pro-inflammatory immune state. This contributes to the increased risk for gestational complications observed in T1DM mothers. In normal pregnancies, critical immunological changes occur, including the massive recruitment of lymphocytes, particularly CD56bright NK cells, into early decidua basalis and a 2nd trimester shift towards Type 2 immunity. Decidual CD56bright NK cells arise at least partly from circulating progenitors expressing adhesion molecules SELL and ITGA4 and the chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CXCR4. In vitro studies show that T1DM reduces interactions between blood CD56+ NK cells and decidual endothelial cells by reducing SELL and ITGA4-based interactions. To address the mechanisms by which specific lymphocyte subsets may be recruited from the circulation during pregnancy and whether these mechanisms are altered in T1DM, flow cytometry was used to examine eight peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets (Type 1 (IL18R1+ and Type 2 (IL1RL1+ CD56bright NK, CD56dim NK, NKT and T cells from control and T1DM women. Blood was collected serially over pregnancy and postpartum, and lymphocytes were compared for expression of homing receptors SELL, ITGA4, CXCR3, and CXCR4. The decline of Type 1/Type 2 immune cells in normal pregnancy was driven by an increase in Type 2 cells that did not occur in T1DM. CD56bright NK cells from control women had the highest expression of all four receptors with greatest expression in 2nd trimester. At this time, these receptors were expressed at very low levels by CD56bright NK cells from TIDM patients. Type 1/Type 2 NKT cell ratios were not influenced by either pregnancy or TIDM. Our results suggest that T1DM alters immunological balances during pregnancy with its greatest impact on CD56bright NK cells. This implicates CD56bright NK cells in diabetic pregnancy complications.

  13. Restoration of innate immune activation accelerates Th1-cell priming and protection following pulmonary mycobacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Rocky; Jeyanathan, Mangalakumari; Shaler, Christopher R; Damjanovic, Daniela; Khera, Amandeep; Horvath, Carly; Ashkar, Ali A; Xing, Zhou

    2014-05-01

    The immune mechanisms underlying delayed induction of Th1-type immunity in the lungs following pulmonary mycobacterial infection remain poorly understood. We have herein investigated the underlying immune mechanisms for such delayed responses and whether a selected innate immune-modulating strategy can accelerate Th1-type responses. We have found that, in the early stage of pulmonary infection with attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb H37Ra), the levels of infection in the lung continue to increase logarithmically until days 14 and 21 postinfection in C57BL/6 mice. The activation of innate immune responses, particularly DCs, in the lung is delayed. This results in a delay in the subsequent downstream immune responses including the migration of antigen-bearing DCs to the draining lymph node (dLN), the Th1-cell priming in dLN, and the recruitment of Th1 cells to the lung. However, single lung mucosal exposure to the TLR agonist FimH postinfection is able to accelerate protective Th1-type immunity via facilitating DC migration to the lung and draining lymph nodes, enhancing DC antigen presentation and Th1-cell priming. These findings hold implications for the development of immunotherapeutic and vaccination strategies and suggest that enhancement of early innate immune activation is a viable option for improving Th1-type immunity against pulmonary mycobacterial diseases. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A polysaccharide isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill (ABP-AW1) as a potential Th1 immunity-stimulating adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liran; Sun, Yongxu; Xu, Hao; Xu, Huiyu; Cong, Huan; Liu, Jicheng

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, a low molecular weight polysaccharide, ABP-AW1, isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill was assessed for its potential adjuvant activity. ABP-AW1 is considered to create a 'depot' of antigen at a subcutaneous injection site. ICR mice were immunized with 100 μg ovalbumin (OVA) alone or with 100 μg OVA formulated in 0.9% saline containing 200 μg aluminum (alum) or ABP-AW1 (50, 100 and 200 μg) on days 1 and 15. Two weeks after the secondary immunization, splenocyte proliferation, the expression of surface markers, cytokine production and the OVA-specific antibody levels in the serum were determined. The OVA/ABP-AW1 vaccine, in comparison with OVA alone, markedly increased the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes and elicited greater antigen-specific CD4+ T cell activation, as determined by splenic CD4+CD69+ T cells and Th1 cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ release. The combination of ABP-AW1 and OVA also enhanced IgG2b antibody responses to OVA. In conclusion, these data indicated that ABP-AW1 significantly enhanced the humoral and cellular immune responses against OVA in the mice, suggesting that ABP-AW1 stimulated Th1-type immunity. We suggest that ABP-AW1 may serve as a new adjuvant.

  15. Presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes is an independent prognostic factor in type I and II endometrial cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, R A; Leffers, N; Boezen, H M; ten Hoor, K A; van der Zee, A G J; Hollema, H; Nijman, H W

    OBJECTIVE: Presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) is of prognostic importance in a variety of malignancies. This study aims to determine the prognostic value of CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL), FoxP3(+) regulatory T-lymphocytes (Treg) and CD45R0(+) memory T-lymphocytes in endometrial

  16. Prognostic impact of absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count ratio and prognostic score in patients with nasal-type, extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Zhang, Li; Song, Hao-Lan; Zhang, Jing; Weng, Hua-Wei; Zou, Li-Qun

    2017-05-01

    Nasal-type, extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma is a heterogeneous disorder with poor prognosis, requiring risk stratification in this population. The combined value of baseline absolute lymphocyte count and absolute monocyte count provided prognostic information in some malignancies. However, the evidence requires validation in extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma. Aiming to investigate the prognostic significance of absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count ratio and absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count prognostic score for extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, a retrospective research was carried out. A total of 264 patients with newly diagnosed extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma were analyzed in this study. The patients' absolute lymphocyte count and absolute monocyte count tested at initial diagnosis were collected. Receiver operating curve analysis showed that the optimal cut-off values for absolute lymphocyte count and absolute monocyte count were 1.0 × 10(9) and 0.5 × 10(9)L(-1), respectively, and for absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count ratio was 2.85. After a median follow-up of 27 months (range 1-87 months), the 3-year overall survival and progression-free survival was 75.4% and 67.6%, respectively. Patients with absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count ratio ≥ 2.85 had better 3-year overall survival and progression-free survival than those with absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count ratio lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count prognostic score, significant difference has been noticed in 3-year overall survival and progression-free survival (p lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count prognostic score was associated with poorer survival. The International Prognostic Index and Korean Prognostic Index were used for prognosis and showed no significant difference. When adding absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count ratio and absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte

  17. Role of Th1 and Th2 cells in autoimmune demyelinating disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagelkerken L.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is accumulating that Th1 cells play an important role in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE, whereas Th2 cells contribute to recovery from disease. A major determinant in the development of Th1 and Th2 cells is the type of antigen-presenting cell (APC involved and its functional characteristics, e.g., the production of interleukin-12. Therefore, modulation of APC might interfere with the development of Th1 type responses and as such be beneficial for MS and EAE. The potential of cytokines, in particular interleukin-10, and glucocorticoids to exert a selective effect on APC, and as a consequence to affect the Th1-Th2 balance in EAE, is discussed

  18. High neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in type A acute aortic dissection facilitates diagnosis and predicts worse outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbarouni, Eftihia; Georgiadou, Panagiota; Analitis, Antonis; Voudris, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated whether neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (N/L) can contribute to the diagnosis and risk assessment in patients with type A acute aortic dissection (AAD). The authors studied 120 consecutive patients with type A AAD (group I) and compared them with 121 consecutive patients with chronic aneurysms (group II) and 121 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects (group III). It was found that white blood cell count, N/L, D-dimer and C-reactive protein were significantly higher in group I versus both groups II and III (p 4.6 was associated with 0.89 sensitivity and 0.91 specificity for AAD. High N/L may contribute to the diagnostic evaluation and prompt immediate therapy in patients with type A AAD.

  19. What about Th1/Th2 in cutaneous leishmaniasis vaccine discovery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos-Neto A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The T helper cell type 1 (Th1 response is essential to resist leishmaniasis, whereas the Th2 response favors the disease. However, many leishmanial antigens, which stimulate a Th1 immune response during the disease or even after the disease is cured, have been shown to have no protective action. Paradoxically, antigens associated with an early Th2 response have been found to be highly protective if the Th1 response to them is generated before infection. Therefore, finding disease-associated Th2 antigens and inducing a Th1 immune response to them using defined vaccination protocols is an interesting unorthodox alternative approach to the discovery of a leishmania vaccine.

  20. ACTIVITY OF CHIMERIC ANTIBODIES TO CD20 ON B LYMPHOCYTES IN PATIENT WITH SEVERE SYSTEMIC TYPE OF JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Alexeeva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Case report about early debut and severe clinical course of system type of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, refractory to treatment with classic immunosuppressive agents and blocker of tumor necrosis factor is presented in this article. A successful application of chimeric antibodies to cd20+ b-lymphocytes rituximab in dose 375 mg/m2 of surface of body weekly intravenously are described. Rituximab infusions were carried out during 4 weeks. Patient took 2 treatment courses of rituximab. Extra articular symptoms of disease and acute inflammatory lesions in joints were stopped by 8 week. Range of motions in affected joints was increased. A new attack of disease developed in 22 weeks after acute respiratory infection. Increase of level of CD 19+ and CD 20+ b-lymphocytes in peripheral blood was the reason of repeated treatment course, including rituximab in the same scheme. Treatment initiated the development of clinical and laboratory remission, duration of it was equal 22 weeks.Key words: children, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, rituximab.

  1. Leukocyte Composition and Immunophenotype of the Blood Lymphocytes in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya.A. Saienko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is an opinion that changes in some indicators of natural and adaptive immunity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM and overweight are caused by concomitant obesity, as the adipose tissue is the potent secretory organ that produces many cytokines, particularly adipokines playing a key role in various immune responses. It is known that the level of the main adipokines, which regulate the adipose tissue, in the human peripheral blood (PB is determined on the basis of human sexual dimorphism. Purpose of the study — to elucidate the question of the extent, to which the observed changes in the leukocyte composition and lymphocyte immunophenotype in type 2 DM in women are determined by obesity, due to the significant sex differences in the secretion of some adipokines involved in controlling the function of the immune system. Materials and methods. The study included 24 women aged 40 to 65 years with newly diagnosed type 2 DM, who were divided into 2 subgroups: the first one — with a body mass index (BMI < 25 kg/m2 and the second one — with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. The total number of leukocytes in the PB was counted using hematology analyzer. Leucocyte vomposition was determined in smears of the PB per 200 cells stained by Pappenheim. Surface antigens of lymphocytes against membrane antigens: CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20 and CD56 — were labelled by monoclonal antibodies marked with fluorescein isothiocyanate or phycoerythrin. Results. The increase in the total number of leukocytes in the PB of obese patients was more significant than in patients with a normal BMI, i.e. 23.1 versus 14.5 % (p < 0.05. The highest leukocytosis was observed in patients with DM type 2 and obesity, reached 7.61 × 109/L on the average. In the subgroup of healthy women and female patients with normal body mass, the absolute number of segmented neutrophils in the PB of patients with DM type 2 in relation to that of normoglycemic women had

  2. Flow Cytometric Determination of Cellular Sources and Frequencies of Key Cytokine-Producing Lymphocytes Directed against Recombinant LACK and Soluble Leishmania Antigen in Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottrel, R. L. A.; Dutra, W. O.; Martins, F. A.; Gontijo, B.; Carvalho, E.; Barral-Netto, M.; Barral, A.; Almeida, R. P.; Mayrink, W.; Locksley, R.; Gollob, K. J.

    2001-01-01

    Leishmaniasis, caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Leishmania, affects millions of individuals worldwide, causing serious morbidity and mortality. This study directly determined the frequency of cells producing key immunoregulatory cytokines in response to the recombinant antigen Leishmania homolog of receptors for activated kinase C (LACK) and soluble leishmania antigen (SLA), and it determined relative contributions of these antigens to the overall cytokine profile in individuals infected for the first time with Leishmania braziliensis. All individuals presented with the cutaneous clinical form of leishmaniasis and were analyzed for proliferative responses to LACK antigen and SLA, frequency of lymphocyte subpopulations (analyzed ex vivo), and antigen-induced (LACK and SLA) cytokine production at the single-cell level (determined by flow cytometry). The following were determined. (i) The Th1-type response previously seen in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis is due to gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production by several different sources, listed in order of contribution: CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD4−, CD8− lymphocytes, and CD8+ T lymphocytes. (ii) SLA induced a higher frequency of lymphocytes producing IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) than did LACK. (iii) LACK induced an activation of monocyte populations as reflected by an increased percentage of CD14-positive cells. (iv) Neither SLA nor LACK induced detectable frequencies of cells producing interleukin-4 (IL-4) or IL-5. These data demonstrated a multifaceted immune response to SLA in human leishmaniasis involving Th1 CD4+ T lymphocytes (IFN-γ+ and IL-10−/IL-4−), Tc1 CD8+ T cells (IFN-γ+, and IL-10−/IL-4−), and a high frequency of TNF-α-producing lymphocytes. Moreover, it was determined that the recombinant antigen LACK acts as a weak inducer of Th1-type lymphocyte responses compared to SLA. PMID:11292745

  3. Distinct human T-lymphocyte responses triggered by Porphyromonas gingivalis capsular serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernal, Rolando; Diaz-Guerra, Eva; Silva, Augusto; Sanz, Mariano; Garcia-Sanz, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis can synthesize an extracellular capsule and different serotypes have been described based on capsular antigenicity. On dendritic cells (DCs), the type of capsule present plays a role on the strength of the developed immune response. This study aimed to investigate the T-lymphocyte responses when stimulated with autologous mature DCs exposed to different P. gingivalis K-serotypes. Naïve CD4(+) T-lymphocytes were obtained from healthy subjects and stimulated with autologous DCs primed with increasing multiplicity of infections of the different P. gingivalis K-serotypes. The Th1, Th2, Th17 and T-regulatory cytokines and transcription factor levels were quantified. Distinct types of response were detected when T-lymphocytes were stimulated by DCs primed with the different P. gingivalis K-serotypes. T-lymphocytes stimulated by K1 or K2-primed DCs elicited higher levels of Th1 and Th17-associated cytokines, T-bet and RORC2 than T-lymphocytes stimulated with DCs primed with the other serotypes. Conversely, the serotypes K3-K5 induced higher levels of Th2-associated cytokines and GATA-3 than the others. These results demonstrate that DCs primed with the different P. gingivalis K-serotypes elicited distinct T-cell responses. Strains K1 (W83) and K2 (HG184) induced a Th1/Th17 pattern of immune response and K3 (A7A1-28), K4 (ATCC(®49417™) ), and K5 (HG1690) a Th2 response. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Regulation of IL-12p40 by HIF controls Th1/Th17 responses to prevent mucosal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, E; Naudin, C; Nolan, G; Goggins, B J; Burns, G; Mateer, S W; Latimore, J K; Minahan, K; Plank, M; Foster, P S; Callister, R; Veysey, M; Walker, M M; Talley, N J; Radford-Smith, G; Keely, S

    2017-09-01

    Intestinal inflammatory lesions are inherently hypoxic, due to increased metabolic demands created by cellular infiltration and proliferation, and reduced oxygen supply due to vascular damage. Hypoxia stabilizes the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF) leading to a coordinated induction of endogenously protective pathways. We identified IL12B as a HIF-regulated gene and aimed to define how the HIF-IL-12p40 axis influenced intestinal inflammation. Intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) were characterized in wild-type and IL-12p40 -/- murine colitis treated with vehicle or HIF-stabilizing prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitors (PHDi). IL12B promoter analysis was performed to examine hypoxia-responsive elements. Immunoblot analysis of murine and human LPL supernatants was performed to characterize the HIF/IL-12p40 signaling axis. We observed selective induction of IL-12p40 following PHDi-treatment, concurrent with suppression of Th1 and Th17 responses in murine colitis models. In the absence of IL-12p40, PHDi-treatment was ineffective. Analysis of the IL12B promoter identified canonical HIF-binding sites. HIF stabilization in LPLs resulted in production of IL-12p40 homodimer which was protective against colitis. The selective induction of IL-12p40 by HIF-1α leads to a suppression of mucosal Th1 and Th17 responses. This HIF-IL12p40 axis may represent an endogenously protective mechanism to limit the progression of chronic inflammation, shifting from pro-inflammatory IL-12p70 to an antagonistic IL-12p40 homodimer.

  5. Recognition of Highly Diverse Type-1 and -2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses (PRRSVs) by T-Lymphocytes Induced in Pigs after Experimental Infection with a Type-2 PRRSV Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Chungwon J.; Cha, Sang-Ho; Grimm, Amanda L.; Chung, Grace; Gibson, Kathleen A.; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Parish, Steven M.; Ho, Chak-Sum; Lee, Stephen S.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim Live attenuated vaccines confer partial protection in pigs before the appearance of neutralizing antibodies, suggesting the contribution of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). However, PRRSV-specific T-lymphocyte responses and protective mechanisms need to be further defined. To this end, the hypothesis was tested that PRRSV-specific T-lymphocytes induced by exposure to type-2 PRRSV can recognize diverse isolates. Methods An IFN-gamma ELISpot assay was used to enumerate PRRSV-specifi...

  6. Recognition of Highly Diverse Type-1 and -2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses (PRRSVs by T-Lymphocytes Induced in Pigs after Experimental Infection with a Type-2 PRRSV Strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chungwon J Chung

    Full Text Available Live attenuated vaccines confer partial protection in pigs before the appearance of neutralizing antibodies, suggesting the contribution of cell-mediated immunity (CMI. However, PRRSV-specific T-lymphocyte responses and protective mechanisms need to be further defined. To this end, the hypothesis was tested that PRRSV-specific T-lymphocytes induced by exposure to type-2 PRRSV can recognize diverse isolates.An IFN-gamma ELISpot assay was used to enumerate PRRSV-specific T-lymphocytes from PRRSVSD23983-infected gilts and piglets born after in utero infection against 12 serologically and genetically distinct type-1 and -2 PRRSV isolates. The IFN-gamma ELISpot assay using synthetic peptides spanning all open reading frames of PRRSVSD23983 was utilized to localize epitopes recognized by T-lymphocytes. Virus neutralization tests were carried out using the challenge strain (type-2 PRRSVSD23983 and another strain (type-2 PRRSVVR2332 with high genetic similarity to evaluate cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies in gilts after PRRSVSD23983 infection.At 72 days post infection, T-lymphocytes from one of three PRRSVSD23983-infected gilts recognized all 12 diverse PRRSV isolates, while T-lymphocytes from the other two gilts recognized all but one isolate. Furthermore, five of nine 14-day-old piglets infected in utero with PRRSVSD23983 had broadly reactive T-lymphocytes, including one piglet that recognized all 12 isolates. Overlapping peptides encompassing all open reading frames of PRRSVSD23983 were used to identify ≥28 peptides with T-lymphocyte epitopes from 10 viral proteins. This included one peptide from the M protein that was recognized by T-lymphocytes from all three gilts representing two completely mismatched MHC haplotypes. In contrast to the broadly reactive T-lymphocytes, neutralizing antibody responses were specific to the infecting PRRSVSD23983 isolate.These results demonstrated that T-lymphocytes recognizing antigenically and

  7. Recognition of Highly Diverse Type-1 and -2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses (PRRSVs) by T-Lymphocytes Induced in Pigs after Experimental Infection with a Type-2 PRRSV Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chungwon J; Cha, Sang-Ho; Grimm, Amanda L; Chung, Grace; Gibson, Kathleen A; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Parish, Steven M; Ho, Chak-Sum; Lee, Stephen S

    2016-01-01

    Live attenuated vaccines confer partial protection in pigs before the appearance of neutralizing antibodies, suggesting the contribution of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). However, PRRSV-specific T-lymphocyte responses and protective mechanisms need to be further defined. To this end, the hypothesis was tested that PRRSV-specific T-lymphocytes induced by exposure to type-2 PRRSV can recognize diverse isolates. An IFN-gamma ELISpot assay was used to enumerate PRRSV-specific T-lymphocytes from PRRSVSD23983-infected gilts and piglets born after in utero infection against 12 serologically and genetically distinct type-1 and -2 PRRSV isolates. The IFN-gamma ELISpot assay using synthetic peptides spanning all open reading frames of PRRSVSD23983 was utilized to localize epitopes recognized by T-lymphocytes. Virus neutralization tests were carried out using the challenge strain (type-2 PRRSVSD23983) and another strain (type-2 PRRSVVR2332) with high genetic similarity to evaluate cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies in gilts after PRRSVSD23983 infection. At 72 days post infection, T-lymphocytes from one of three PRRSVSD23983-infected gilts recognized all 12 diverse PRRSV isolates, while T-lymphocytes from the other two gilts recognized all but one isolate. Furthermore, five of nine 14-day-old piglets infected in utero with PRRSVSD23983 had broadly reactive T-lymphocytes, including one piglet that recognized all 12 isolates. Overlapping peptides encompassing all open reading frames of PRRSVSD23983 were used to identify ≥28 peptides with T-lymphocyte epitopes from 10 viral proteins. This included one peptide from the M protein that was recognized by T-lymphocytes from all three gilts representing two completely mismatched MHC haplotypes. In contrast to the broadly reactive T-lymphocytes, neutralizing antibody responses were specific to the infecting PRRSVSD23983 isolate. These results demonstrated that T-lymphocytes recognizing antigenically and genetically diverse

  8. Recognition of Highly Diverse Type-1 and -2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses (PRRSVs) by T-Lymphocytes Induced in Pigs after Experimental Infection with a Type-2 PRRSV Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Sang-Ho; Grimm, Amanda L.; Chung, Grace; Gibson, Kathleen A.; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Parish, Steven M.; Ho, Chak-Sum; Lee, Stephen S.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim Live attenuated vaccines confer partial protection in pigs before the appearance of neutralizing antibodies, suggesting the contribution of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). However, PRRSV-specific T-lymphocyte responses and protective mechanisms need to be further defined. To this end, the hypothesis was tested that PRRSV-specific T-lymphocytes induced by exposure to type-2 PRRSV can recognize diverse isolates. Methods An IFN-gamma ELISpot assay was used to enumerate PRRSV-specific T-lymphocytes from PRRSVSD23983-infected gilts and piglets born after in utero infection against 12 serologically and genetically distinct type-1 and -2 PRRSV isolates. The IFN-gamma ELISpot assay using synthetic peptides spanning all open reading frames of PRRSVSD23983 was utilized to localize epitopes recognized by T-lymphocytes. Virus neutralization tests were carried out using the challenge strain (type-2 PRRSVSD23983) and another strain (type-2 PRRSVVR2332) with high genetic similarity to evaluate cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies in gilts after PRRSVSD23983 infection. Results At 72 days post infection, T-lymphocytes from one of three PRRSVSD23983-infected gilts recognized all 12 diverse PRRSV isolates, while T-lymphocytes from the other two gilts recognized all but one isolate. Furthermore, five of nine 14-day-old piglets infected in utero with PRRSVSD23983 had broadly reactive T-lymphocytes, including one piglet that recognized all 12 isolates. Overlapping peptides encompassing all open reading frames of PRRSVSD23983 were used to identify ≥28 peptides with T-lymphocyte epitopes from 10 viral proteins. This included one peptide from the M protein that was recognized by T-lymphocytes from all three gilts representing two completely mismatched MHC haplotypes. In contrast to the broadly reactive T-lymphocytes, neutralizing antibody responses were specific to the infecting PRRSVSD23983 isolate. Conclusion These results demonstrated that T-lymphocytes recognizing

  9. Transient BAFF Blockade Inhibits Type 1 Diabetes Development in Nonobese Diabetic Mice by Enriching Immunoregulatory B Lymphocytes Sensitive to Deletion by Anti-CD20 Cotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiming; Racine, Jeremy J; Ratiu, Jeremy J; Wang, Shu; Ettinger, Rachel; Wasserfall, Clive; Atkinson, Mark A; Serreze, David V

    2017-10-20

    In NOD mice and also likely humans, B lymphocytes play an important role as APC-expanding autoreactive T cell responses ultimately causing type 1 diabetes (T1D). Currently, humans at high future T1D risk can only be identified at late prodromal stages of disease indicated by markers such as insulin autoantibodies. When commenced in already insulin autoantibody(+) NOD mice, continuous BAFFR-Fc treatment alone or in combination with anti-CD20 (designated combo therapy) inhibited T1D development. Despite eliciting broader B lymphocyte depletion, continuous combo therapy afforded no greater T1D protection than did BAFFR-Fc alone. As previously observed, late disease stage-initiated anti-CD20 monotherapy did not inhibit T1D, and in this study was additionally found to be associated with development of drug-blocking Abs. Promisingly, NOD mice given transient late disease stage BAFFR-Fc monotherapy were rendered T1D resistant. However, combo treatment abrogated the protective effect of transient BAFFR-Fc monotherapy. NOD mice receiving transient BAFF blockade were characterized by an enrichment of regulatory B lymphocytes that inhibit T1D development through IL-10 production, but this population is sensitive to deletion by anti-CD20 treatment. B lymphocytes from transient BAFFR-Fc-treated mice suppressed T cell proliferation to a greater extent than did those from controls. Proportions of B lymphocytes expressing CD73, an ecto-enzyme operating in a pathway converting proinflammatory ATP to anti-inflammatory adenosine, were also temporarily increased by transient BAFFR-Fc treatment, but not anti-CD20 therapy. These collective studies indicate transient BAFFR-Fc-mediated B lymphocyte depletion elicits long-term T1D protection by enriching regulatory B lymphocytes that are deleted by anti-CD20 cotherapy. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. Spontaneous human squamous cell carcinomas are killed by a human cytotoxic T lymphocyte clone recognizing a wild-type p53-derived peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röpke, M; Hald, J; Guldberg, Per

    1996-01-01

    A cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clone generated in vitro from the peripheral blood of a healthy HLA-A2-positive individual against a synthetic p53 protein-derived wild-type peptide (L9V) was shown to kill squamous carcinoma cell lines derived from two head and neck carcinomas, which expressed mutant...

  11. DNA methylation is altered in B and NK lymphocytes in obese and type 2 diabetic human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simar, David; Versteyhe, Soetkin; Donkin, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Objective Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation and the infiltration of immune cells in insulin-sensitive tissues, leading to metabolic impairment. Epigenetic mechanisms control immune cell lineage determination, function and migration and are implicated in obesity and type 2 diabetes...... epigenetic signature of the immune system in a cell type-specific manner. These changes could contribute to the altered immune functions associated with obesity and insulin resistance....

  12. Cytotoxic Th1 and Th17 cells infiltrate the intestinal mucosa of Behcet patients and exhibit high levels of TNF-α in early phases of the disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmi, Giacomo; Silvestri, Elena; Bella, Chiara Della; Grassi, Alessia; Benagiano, Marisa; Cianchi, Fabio; Squatrito, Danilo; Cantarini, Luca; Emmi, Lorenzo; Selmi, Carlo; Prisco, Domenico; D’Elios, Mario Milco

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Gastrointestinal involvement is one of the most serious in Behçet disease, potentially leading to severe complications. Aim of this study was to investigate at mucosal level the T-cell responses in Behçet patients with early intestinal involvement. Methods: We isolated T cells from intestinal mucosa of 8 patients with intestinal symptoms started within 6 months. T lymphocytes were cloned and analyzed for surface phenotype and cytokines production. Results: We obtained 382 T-cell clones: 324 were CD4+ and 58 were CD8+. Within the 324 CD4+ clones, 195 were able to secrete IFN-γ and TNF-α, but not IL-4, nor IL-17 thus showing a polarized Th1 profile, whereas CD4 clones producing both IFN-γ and IL-17 (Th1/Th17 profile) were 79. Likewise, the number of CD8 clones producing type 1 cytokines was higher than those of CD8 clones producing both type 1 and 2 cytokines. Almost all intestinal-derived T-cell clones expressed perforin-mediated cytotoxicity and Fas–Fas Ligand-mediated pro-apoptotic activity. Conclusions: Our results indicate that in the early stages of the disease, both Th1 and Th17 cells drive inflammation leading to mucosal damage via abnormal and long-lasting cytokines production as well as via both perforin- and Fas–Fas ligand-mediated cytotoxicity. Finally, all the T cells at mucosal level were able to produce large amount of TNF-α, suggesting that its production is a property of intestinal T cells of patients with early active intestinal disease. These results support the therapy with anti-TNF-α agents and suggest the use of anti-IL-17 monoclonal antibodies in Behçet patients with early intestinal involvement. PMID:27930541

  13. Systematic and Cell Type-Specific Telomere Length Changes in Subsets of Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres, the protective DNA-protein complexes at the ends of linear chromosomes, are important for genome stability. Leukocyte or peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC telomere length is a potential biomarker for human aging that integrates genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors and is associated with mortality and risks for major diseases. However, only a limited number of studies have examined longitudinal changes of telomere length and few have reported data on sorted circulating immune cells. We examined the average telomere length (TL in CD4+, CD8+CD28+, and CD8+CD28− T cells, B cells, and PBMCs, cross-sectionally and longitudinally, in a cohort of premenopausal women. We report that TL changes over 18 months were correlated among these three T cell types within the same participant. Additionally, PBMC TL change was also correlated with those of all three T cell types, and B cells. The rate of shortening for B cells was significantly greater than for the three T cell types. CD8+CD28− cells, despite having the shortest TL, showed significantly more rapid attrition when compared to CD8+CD28+ T cells. These results suggest systematically coordinated, yet cell type-specific responses to factors and pathways contribute to telomere length regulation.

  14. Characterization of T cell receptors of Th1 cells infiltrating inflamed skin of a novel murine model of palladium-induced metal allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Metal allergy is categorized as a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction, and is characterized by the recruitment of lymphocytes into sites of allergic inflammation. Because of the unavailability of suitable animal models for metal allergy, the role of T cells in the pathogenesis of metal allergy has not been explored. Thus, we developed a novel mouse model for metal allergy associated with infiltration of T cells by multiple injections of palladium (Pd plus lipopolysaccharide into the footpad. Using this model, we characterized footpad-infiltrating T cells in terms of phenotypic markers, T cell receptor (TCR repertoires and cytokine expression. CD3+ CD4+ T cells accumulated in the allergic footpads 7 days after Pd challenge. The expression levels of CD25, interleukin-2, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor, but not interleukin-4 and interleukin-5, increased in the footpads after challenge, suggesting CD4+ T helper 1 (Th1 cells locally expanded in response to Pd. Infiltrated T cells in the footpads frequently expressed AV18-1 and BV8-2 T cell receptor (TCR chains compared with T cells in the lymph nodes and exhibited oligoclonality. T-cell clones identified from Pd-allergic mouse footpads shared identical CDR3 sequences containing AV18-1 and BV8-2. These results suggest that TCR AV18-1 and BV8-2 play dominant and critical parts in the antigen specificity of Pd-specific Th1 cells.

  15. Multiparameter fluorescence imaging for quantification of TH-1 and TH-2 cytokines at the single-cell level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekkar, Hakim; Benbernou, N.; Esnault, S.; Shin, H. C.; Guenounou, Moncef

    1998-04-01

    Immune responses are strongly influenced by the cytokines following antigenic stimulation. Distinct cytokine-producing T cell subsets are well known to play a major role in immune responses and to be differentially regulated during immunological disorders, although the characterization and quantification of the TH-1/TH-2 cytokine pattern in T cells remained not clearly defined. Expression of cytokines by T lymphocytes is a highly balanced process, involving stimulatory and inhibitory intracellular signaling pathways. The aim of this study was (1) to quantify the cytokine expression in T cells at the single cell level using optical imaging, (2) and to analyze the influence of cyclic AMP- dependent signal transduction pathway in the balance between the TH-1 and TH-2 cytokine profile. We attempted to study several cytokines (IL-2, IFN-(gamma) , IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Cells were prestimulated in vitro using phytohemagglutinin and phorbol ester for 36h, and then further cultured for 8h in the presence of monensin. Cells were permeabilized and then simple-, double- or triple-labeled with the corresponding specific fluorescent monoclonal antibodies. The cell phenotype was also determined by analyzing the expression of each of CD4, CD8, CD45RO and CD45RA with the cytokine expression. Conventional images of cells were recorded with a Peltier- cooled CCD camera (B/W C5985, Hamamatsu photonics) through an inverted microscope equipped with epi-fluorescence (Diaphot 300, Nikon). Images were digitalized using an acquisition video interface (Oculus TCX Coreco) in 762 by 570 pixels coded in 8 bits (256 gray levels), and analyzed thereafter in an IBM PC computer based on an intel pentium processor with an adequate software (Visilog 4, Noesis). The first image processing step is the extraction of cell areas using an edge detection and a binary thresholding method. In order to reduce the background noise of fluorescence, we performed an opening

  16. Subacute herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis as an initial presentation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and multiple sclerosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corman Lourdes C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis presents acutely in patients who are immunocompetent. We report what we believe to be the first published case of a subacute course of herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis in a patient with asymptomatic chronic lymphocytic leukemia who subsequently developed multiple sclerosis. Case presentation A 49-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of fever blisters presented to the emergency department with a history of left temporal headache for four weeks, and numbness of the left face and leg for two weeks. A complete blood count revealed white blood cell count of 11,820 cells/mL, with an absolute lymphocyte count of 7304 cells/mL. The cerebrospinal fluid contained 6 white blood cells/μL, 63 red blood cells/μL, 54 mg glucose/dL, and 49 mg total protein/dL. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed meningoencephalitis and bilateral ventriculitis. Cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction for herpes simplex virus type 1 was positive, and the patient's symptoms resolved after ten days of treatment with parenteral aciclovir. Incidental findings on peripheral blood smear and flow cytometry testing confirmed chronic lymphocytic leukemia. One month later, she developed bilateral numbness of the hands and feet; a repeat cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction for herpes simplex virus type 1 at this time was negative. A repeat magnetic resonance imaging scan showed an expansion of the peri-ventricular lesions, and the cerebrospinal fluid contained elevated oligoclonal bands and myelin basic protein. A brain biopsy revealed gliosis consistent with multiple sclerosis, and the patient responded to treatment with high-dose parenteral steroids. Conclusion Herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis is a rare presentation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Our patient had an atypical, subacute course, presumably due to immunosuppression from chronic lymphocytic leukemia. This unusual

  17. Modulation of immune cells and Th1/Th2 cytokines in insulin-treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modulation of immune cells and Th1/Th2 cytokines in insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus. Magloire Pandoua Nekoua1, Rufine Fachinan1, Amidou K Atchamou1, Odilon Nouatin2,. Daniel Amoussou-Guenou3, Marcellin K Amoussou-Guenou4, Kabirou Moutairou1, Akadiri Yessoufou1. 1. Laboratory of Cell Biology and ...

  18. Involvement of the Th1 subset of CD4+ T cells in acquired immunity to mouse infection with Trypanosoma equiperdum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perito, S; Calabresi, A; Romani, L; Puccetti, P; Bistoni, F

    1992-09-01

    Heat- or merthiolate-inactivated Trypanosoma equiperdum was administered to recipient mice that were subsequently challenged with viable inocula of the same stabilate. Only mice inoculated with merthiolate-killed parasites were completely protected from a challenge inoculum of 10(3) trypanosomes, an effect that was abolished by prior immunosuppression of mice. Immune sera from protected animals contained high levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma and specific IgG2a antibodies. Spleen cells from these mice produced high amounts of interleukin (IL)-2 and IFN-gamma in vitro in response to specific antigen or concanavalin A, whereas splenocytes from mice receiving heat-killed parasites produced high amounts of IL-6. In contrast, the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and colony-stimulating activity (CSA) was not significantly different in mice receiving either killed parasite preparation. The protection in immunized mice was associated with the detection of strong delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to T. equiperdum antigens, an effect that could be adoptively transferred onto naive recipients by specifically immune CD4+ lymphocytes. These results suggest that the development of protective immunity in mice to T. equiperdum by our immunization protocol may involve the activity of helper/DTH T cells, particularly those of the Th1 subset.

  19. Transfer of tolerance to collagen type V suppresses T-helper-cell-17 lymphocyte-mediated acute lung transplant rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Ruedi K; Molitor-Dart, Melanie; Wigfield, Christopher; Xiang, Zhuzai; Fain, Sean B; Jankowska-Gan, Ewa; Seroogy, Christine M; Burlingham, William J; Wilkes, David S; Brand, David D; Torrealba, Jose; Love, Robert B

    2009-12-27

    Rat lung allograft rejection is mediated by collagen type V (col(V)) specific T-helper-cell 17 (Th17) cells. Adoptive transfer of these cells is sufficient to induce rejection pathology in isografts, whereas tolerance to col(V) suppresses allograft rejection. Therefore, we tested whether regulatory T cells from tolerant rats could suppress the Th17-mediated rejection in the syngeneic model of lung transplantation. Rats were subjected to syngeneic left lung transplantation, and acute rejection was induced by adoptive transfer of lymph node cells from col(V)-immunized rats. Tolerance was induced by intravenous injection of col(V), and spleen lymphocytes were used for adoptive transfer. CD4+ T cells were depleted using magnetic beads. Lung isografts were analyzed using micro-positron emission tomography imaging and histochemistry. The transvivo delayed type hypersensitivity assay was used to analyze the Th17 response. Adoptive cotransfer of col(V)-specific effector cells with cells from col(V)-tolerized rats suppressed severe vasculitis and bronchiolitis with parenchymal inflammation, and the expression of interleukin (IL)-17 transcripts in mediastinal lymph nodes induced by effector cells alone. Analysis by transvivo delayed type hypersensitivity showed that the reactivity to col(V) was dependent on the presence of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-17 but not interferon-gamma. Depletion of CD4+ T cells from the suppressor cell population abrogated the col(V)-specific protection. Th17-mediated acute rejection after lung transplantation is ameliorated by CD4+ col(V)-specific regulatory T cells. The mechanism for this Th17 suppression is consistent with tolerance induction to col(V). The goal of transplantation treatment, therefore, should target Th17 development and not suppression of T-cell activation by suppressing IL-2.

  20. CD4(+) memory T cells with high CD26 surface expression are enriched for Th1 markers and correlate with clinical severity of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakauer, M; Sorensen, P S; Sellebjerg, F

    2006-01-01

    ) memory T lymphocytes contained the high levels of markers of Th1, activation, and effector functions and cell counts of this subset correlated with MS disease severity. This subset had lower expression of PD-1, CCR4, and L-selectin in MS than in controls. These changes were only partially normalised...

  1. Macrophage Tropism of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Facilitates In Vivo Escape from Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutten, M.; van Baalen, C. A.; Guillon, C.; Huisman, R. C.; Boers, P. H. M.; Sintnicolaas, K.; Gruters, R. A.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.

    2001-01-01

    Early after seroconversion, macrophage-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variants are predominantly found, even when a mixture of macrophage-tropic and non-macrophage-tropic variants was transmitted. For virus contracted by sexual transmission, this is presently explained by selection at the port of entry, where macrophages are infected and T cells are relatively rare. Here we explore an additional mechanism to explain the selection of macrophage-tropic variants in cases where the mucosa is bypassed during transmission, such as blood transfusion, needle-stick accidents, or intravenous drug abuse. With molecularly cloned primary isolates of HIV-1 in irradiated mice that had been reconstituted with a high dose of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we found that a macrophage-tropic HIV-1 clone escaped more efficiently from specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) pressure than its non-macrophage-tropic counterpart. We propose that CTLs favor the selective outgrowth of macrophage-tropic HIV-1 variants because infected macrophages are less susceptible to CTL activity than infected T cells. PMID:11222694

  2. Immunoglobulin G, Plasma Cells, and Lymphocytes in the Murine Vagina after Vaginal or Parenteral Immunization with Attenuated Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Earl L.; Parr, Margaret B.

    1998-01-01

    This investigation evaluated immunity to vaginal herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection after local or parenteral immunization with attenuated HSV-2. Vaginal immunization induced sterilizing immunity against challenge with a high dose of wild-type virus, whereas parenteral immunizations protected against neurologic disease but did not entirely prevent infection of the vagina. Vaginal immunization caused 86- and 31-fold increases in the numbers of immunoglobulin G (IgG) plasma cells in the vagina at 6 weeks and 10 months after immunization, whereas parenteral immunizations did not increase plasma cell numbers in the vagina. Vaginal secretion/serum titer ratios and specific antibody activities in vaginal secretions and serum indicated that IgG viral antibody was produced in the vagina and released into vaginal secretions at 6 weeks and 10 months after vaginal immunization but not after parenteral immunizations. In contrast to the case for plasma cells, the numbers of T and B lymphocytes in the vagina were similar in vaginally and parenterally immunized mice. Also, lymphocyte numbers in the vagina were markedly but similarly increased by vaginal challenge with HSV-2 in both vaginally and parenterally immunized mice. Lymphocyte recruitment to the vagina after virus challenge appeared to involve memory lymphocytes, because it was not observed in nonimmunized mice. Thus, local vaginal immunization with attenuated HSV-2 increased the number of IgG plasma cells in the vagina and increased vaginal secretion/serum titer ratios to 3.0- to 4.7-fold higher than in parenterally immunized groups but caused little if any selective homing of T and B lymphocytes to the vagina. PMID:9573285

  3. Keratinocytes determine Th1 immunity during early experimental leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M Ehrchen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Experimental leishmaniasis is an excellent model system for analyzing Th1/Th2 differentiation. Resistance to Leishmania (L. major depends on the development of a L. major specific Th1 response, while Th2 differentiation results in susceptibility. There is growing evidence that the microenvironment of the early affected tissue delivers the initial triggers for Th-cell differentiation. To analyze this we studied differential gene expression in infected skin of resistant and susceptible mice 16h after parasite inoculation. Employing microarray technology, bioinformatics, laser-microdissection and in-situ-hybridization we found that the epidermis was the major source of immunomodulatory mediators. This epidermal gene induction was significantly stronger in resistant mice especially for several genes known to promote Th1 differentiation (IL-12, IL-1beta, osteopontin, IL-4 and for IL-6. Expression of these cytokines was temporally restricted to the crucial time of Th1/2 differentiation. Moreover, we revealed a stronger epidermal up-regulation of IL-6 in the epidermis of resistant mice. Accordingly, early local neutralization of IL-4 in resistant mice resulted in a Th2 switch and mice with a selective IL-6 deficiency in non-hematopoietic cells showed a Th2 switch and dramatic deterioration of disease. Thus, our data indicate for the first time that epidermal cytokine expression is a decisive factor in the generation of protective Th1 immunity and contributes to the outcome of infection with this important human pathogen.

  4. Leprosy As a Complex Infection: Breakdown of the Th1 and Th2 Immune Paradigm in the Immunopathogenesis of the Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rodrigues de Sousa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease whose evolution involves complex immune mechanisms of the host that influence the clinical presentation of the disease. For many years, the main interpretation of the host defense response was based on characterization of the established immune paradigm between T helper (Th 1 and Th2 lymphocytes. However, with advances in the knowledge of immunology, new approaches have emerged along with the development of new immunological pathways that have changed the interpretation of the long-established paradigm of the polar forms of the disease, especially with the identification of new subtypes of T lymphocytes such as Th9, Th17, Th22, and Tregs. Thus, this review discusses the role of these new subtypes of T helper lymphocytes and how the development of the immune response of these cells modifies the pattern of the Th1/Th2 response in the immunopathogenesis of leprosy.

  5. Lymphocyte/Monocyte Ratio is a Novel Predictor for Early Stage Extranodal Natural Killer/T-cell Lymphoma, Nasal Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiao-Xuan; Li, Shao-Hua; Ji, Bao-Yan; Wang, Han-Yu; Li, Yi-Yang; Feng, Ling-Ling; Chen, Kai; Xia, Yun-Fei; Zhang, Yu-Jing

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Great heterogeneity exists in clinical behavior and survival outcome in patients with stage IE/IIE extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL). In this study, we proposed lymphocyte/monocyte ratio (LMR) as a new prognostic factor for these early stage ENKTL. Methods: We retrospectively examined the LMR as a prognostic variable in a cohort of 379 patients with newly diagnosed stage IE/IIE ENKTL. The relationship between the LMR and clinicopathologic variables were analyzed in Kaplan-Meier log-rank survival analysis, and the Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the survival significance of the LMR for both progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: Patients were categorized into two different groups based on the LMR using cut-off value of 2.0. The 5-year PFS rates in the low and high LMR group were 43.9% and 62.7%, respectively, and the 5-year OS rates in the two groups were 59.1% and 77.7%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, low LMR at diagnosis was associated with worse PFS (hazard ratio 1.611, 95% confidence interval: 1.027-2.525, P =0.038) independent of age (P=0.033) and treatment stratagem (Phazard ratio 2.003, 95% confidence interval: 1.124-3.569, P =0.018) independent of age (P=0.007), LDH level (P=0.042), local tumor invasiveness (P=0.008), and treatment stratagem (P<0.001). Conclusion: The LMR is an independent prognostic factor for both DFS and OS in patients with stage IE/IIE ENKTL, and provides additional prognostic value beyond standard clinicopathological parameters.

  6. TH1 and TH2 response to Campylobacter jejuni antigen in Guillain-Barre syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyati, Kishan K; Prasad, Kashi N; Rizwan, Arshi; Verma, Avantika; Paliwal, Vimal K

    2011-04-01

    To determine the expression of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in lymphocytes from the progressive and recovery phases of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) after stimulation with Campylobacter jejuni outer membrane proteins. Case-control study. Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences. Sixty-five patients with GBS, 60 age- and sex-matched disease control individuals, and 68 healthy control individuals were included in the study. Lymphocytes from patients with GBS were stimulated with C jejuni outer membrane proteins, and the levels of different proinflammatory (T(H)1 [helper T cell, subtype 1]) and anti-inflammatory (T(H)2) cytokines were determined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the progressive phase of the disease, the expressions of interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), IL-6, IL-10, and the IFN-γ:IL-4 ratio were significantly upregulated, but expressions of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and IL-4 were lower in patients compared with disease and healthy controls. In contrast, the levels of IFN-γ, IL-1β, TNF, IL-6, IL-10, and the IFN-γ:IL-4 ratio were significantly lower, but TGF-β1 and IL-4 were upregulated in the recovery phase of GBS patients compared with controls. Upregulation of T(H)1 cytokines in the early disease course may be associated with immune-mediated disease progression due to neuronal inflammation, but upregulation of T(H)2 immune response during the later phase aids recovery from the disease.

  7. Immunization of Mice by BCG Formulated HCV Core Protein Elicited Higher Th1-Oriented Responses Compared to Pluronic-F127 Copolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanian, Maryam; Memarnejadian, Arash; Mahdavi, Mehdi; Sadat, Seyed Mehdi; Motevali, Fatemeh; Vahabpour, Rouhollah; Khanahmad, Hossein; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Roohvand, Farzin

    2013-01-01

    Background A supreme vaccine for Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection should elicit strong Th1-oriented cellular responses. In the absence of a Th1-specific adjuvant, immunizations by protein antigens generally induce Th2-type and weak cellular responses. Objectives To evaluate the adjuvant effect of BCG in comparison with nonionic copolymer-Pluronic F127 (F127) as a classic adjuvant in the formulation of HCV core protein (HCVcp) as a candidate vaccine for induction of Th1 immune responses. Materials and Methods Expression of N-terminally His-Tagged HCVcp (1-122) by pIVEX2.4a-core vector harboring the corresponding gene under the control of arabinose-inducible (araBAD) promoter was achieved in BL21-AI strain of E.coli and purified through application of nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) chromatography. Mice were immunized subcutaneously (s.c.) in base of the tail with 100 μl of immunogen (F127+HCVcp or BCG+HCVcp; 5 μgHCVcp/mouse/dose) or control formulations (PBS, BCG, F127) at weeks 0, 3, 6. Total and subtypes of IgG, as well as cellular immune responses (Proliferation, In vivo CTL and IFN-γ/IL-4 ELISpot assays against a strong and dominant H2-d restricted, CD8+-epitopic peptide, core 39-48; RRGPRLGVRA of HCVcp) were compared in each group of immunized animals. Results Expression and purification of core protein around the expected size (21 kDa) was confirmed by Western blotting. The HCVcp + BCG vaccinated mice showed significantly higher lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ production but lower levels of cell lysis (45% versus 62% in CTL assay) than the HCVcp+F127 immunized animals. “Besides, total anti-core IgG and IgG1 levels were significantly higher in HCVcp + F127 immunized mice as compared to HCVcp + BCG vaccinated animals, indicating relatively higher efficacy of F127 for the stimulation of humoral and Th2-oriented immune responses”. Conclusions Results showed that HCVcp + BCG induced a moderate CTL and mixed Th1/Th2 immune responses with higher levels of

  8. Virus elimination in acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Correlation with virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity rather than cytotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Volkert, M; Bro-Jørgensen, K

    1983-01-01

    The immunological effector mechanism responsible for the elimination of virus in murine acute non-fatal extracranial lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection was studied. In this infection virus clearance is generally regarded as the result of a direct action of virus-specific cytotoxic T cells...

  9. Functional studies of chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells expressing β2-integrin type complement receptors CR3 and CR4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzonyi, Barbara; Mácsik-Valent, Bernadett; Lukácsi, Szilvia; Kiss, Richárd; Török, Katalin; Kremlitzka, Mariann; Bajtay, Zsuzsa; Demeter, Judit; Bödör, Csaba; Erdei, Anna

    2017-09-01

    The expression and role of CR3 (CD11b/CD18) and CR4 (CD11c/CD18) in B cells are not yet explored in contrast to myeloid cells, where these β 2 -integrin type receptors are known to participate in various cellular functions, including phagocytosis, adherence and migration. Here we aimed to reveal the expression and role of CR3 and CR4 in human B cells. In B cells of healthy donors CR3 and CR4 are scarcely expressed. However, two patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) characterized by a peculiar immune-phenotype containing both CD5-positive and CD5-negative B cell populations made possible to study these molecules in distinct B cell subsets. We found that CD11b and CD11c were expressed on both CD5-positive and CD5-negative B cells, albeit to different extents. Our data suggest that these receptors are involved in spreading, since this activity of CpG-activated B cells on fibrinogen could be partially blocked by monoclonal antibodies specific for CD11b or CD11c. CpG-stimulation lead to proliferation of both CD5-positive and CD5-negative B cells of the patients with a less pronounced effect on the CD5-positive cells. In contrast to normal B cells, CLL B cells of both patients reacted to CpG-stimulation with robust IL-10 production. The concomitant, suboptimal stimulus via the BCR and TLR9 exerted either a synergistic enhancing effect or resulted in inhibition of proliferation and IL-10 production of patients' B cells. Our data obtained studying B cells of leukemic patients point to the role of CR3 and probably CR4 in the interaction of tumor cells with the microenvironment and suggest the involvement of IL-10 producing B cells in the pathologic process. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Th1 Th2, Tc1 Tc2 cells of patients with otolaryngological diseases

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    Nobuo Ohta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are important regulatory mediators secreted by T cells and other immunoactive cells. Based on the cytokine synthesis patterns, CD4 T cells can often be classified into at least two populations with different immune regulatory functions. The Th1 cells, producing interleukin (IL-2 and interferon (IFN-γ, are often associated with cell-mediated immune responses such as delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH, whereas Th2 cells, secreting IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, usually provide B cell help and enhance allergic reactions. Naïve CD8 T cells, similar to CD4 T cells, can differentiate into at least two subsets of cytolytic effector cells with distinct cytokine patterns. The Tc1 cells secrete a Th 1 - like cytokine pattern, including IL-2 and IFN-γ. The Tc2 cells produce Th2 cytokines, including IL-4, IL-5 and 11—10. There is increasing evidence that Th1/Th2 and Tc1/Tc2 cytokine imbalance has been of patho- genetic importance in various diseases, such as allergic and autoimmune diseases. The present review article focuses on the evidence that the imbalance of Th1/Th2 and Tc1/Tc2 cytokines plays an important role in various otolaryngological diseases, such as Kimura's disease, Wegener's granulomatosism, acute perceptive hearing loss and Meniere's disease. It is concluded that the predominance of Th 1 or Th2 and Tc1 or Tc2 cells may contribute to the mechanism in the pathogenesis of these otolaryngological diseases.

  11. Immunomodulatory effects of oral antidiabetic drugs in lymphocyte cultures from patients with type 2 diabetes Efeito imunomodulador de hipoglicemiantes orais em cultura de linfócitos de pacientes com diabetes tipo 2

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Faccio Mello; Adroaldo Lunardelli; Márcio Vinícius Fagundes Donadio; Eduardo Caberlon; Carmen Silvana Araújo de Oliveira; Carolina Maria Alves Bastos; Melissa Guerra Simões Pires; Fernanda Bordignon Nunes; Jarbas Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that type 2 diabetes is an inflammatory response manifestation. The main drugs used to treat type 2 diabetes are sulphonylureas and biguanides. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the modulatory effects of oral hypoglycemic drugs (chlorpropamide and metformin) on lymphocyte proliferation in vitro and ex vivo. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from human blood by gradient centrifugation. T-lymphocytes were stimulate...

  12. Construction, purification, and characterization of a chimeric TH1 antagonist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier-González Luís

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TH1 immune response antagonism is a desirable approach to mitigate some autoimmune and inflammatory reactions during the course of several diseases where IL-2 and IFN-γ are two central players. Therefore, the neutralization of both cytokines could provide beneficial effects in patients suffering from autoimmune or inflammatory illnesses. Results A chimeric antagonist that can antagonize the action of TH1 immunity mediators, IFN-γ and IL-2, was designed, engineered, expressed in E. coli, purified and evaluated for its in vitro biological activities. The TH1 antagonist molecule consists of the extracellular region for the human IFNγ receptor chain 1 fused by a four-aminoacid linker peptide to human 60 N-terminal aminoacid residues of IL-2. The corresponding gene fragments were isolated by RT-PCR and cloned in the pTPV-1 vector. E. coli (W3110 strain was transformed with this vector. The chimeric protein was expressed at high level as inclusion bodies. The protein was partially purified by pelleting and washing. It was then solubilized with strong denaturant and finally refolded by gel filtration. In vitro biological activity of chimera was demonstrated by inhibition of IFN-γ-dependent HLA-DR expression in Colo 205 cells, inhibition of IFN-γ antiproliferative effect on HEp-2 cells, and by a bidirectional effect in assays for IL-2 T-cell dependent proliferation: agonism in the absence versus inhibition in the presence of IL-2. Conclusion TH1 antagonist is a chimeric protein that inhibits the in vitro biological activities of human IFN-γ, and is a partial agonist/antagonist of human IL-2. With these attributes, the chimera has the potential to offer a new opportunity for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.

  13. COMPENSATION LOW-FREQUENCY ERRORS IN TH-1 SATELLITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The topographic mapping products at 1:50,000 scale can be realized using satellite photogrammetry without ground control points (GCPs, which requires the high accuracy of exterior orientation elements. Usually, the attitudes of exterior orientation elements are obtained from the attitude determination system on the satellite. Based on the theoretical analysis and practice, the attitude determination system exists not only the high-frequency errors, but also the low-frequency errors related to the latitude of satellite orbit and the time. The low-frequency errors would affect the location accuracy without GCPs, especially to the horizontal accuracy. In SPOT5 satellite, the latitudinal model was proposed to correct attitudes using approximately 20 calibration sites data, and the location accuracy was improved. The low-frequency errors are also found in Tian Hui 1 (TH-1 satellite. Then, the method of compensation low-frequency errors is proposed in ground image processing of TH-1, which can detect and compensate the low-frequency errors automatically without using GCPs. This paper deal with the low-frequency errors in TH-1: First, the analysis about low-frequency errors of the attitude determination system is performed. Second, the compensation models are proposed in bundle adjustment. Finally, the verification is tested using data of TH-1. The testing results show: the low-frequency errors of attitude determination system can be compensated during bundle adjustment, which can improve the location accuracy without GCPs and has played an important role in the consistency of global location accuracy.

  14. Th1 and Th2 help for B cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poudrier, J; Owens, T

    1995-01-01

    Sustained interaction with Th1 cells has been shown to induce IL-2 responsiveness by murine B cells. This is equivalently dependent on CD40, CD54/ICAM-1 and MHC II ligation, and co-cross-linking of CD54 and MHC II in the presence of IL-5 up-regulates a functional IL-2R on B cells. We now show...... that IL-5 (125 U/ml) synergizes with Th1 cells to induce B cell responses to IL-2, that are maintained following T-cell removal, e.g. autonomous. Th1 help in the absence of IL-5 resulted in weak or undetectable responses following T cell removal. The mechanism of IL-5 synergy involved persistence of IL-2R...... beta expression following T cell removal, as opposed to enhancement of IL-2R induction or function. The level of contact-induced IL-2R expression on B cells was not itself modified by IL-5. The effects of IL-5 did not overcome the requirement for T contact signals and treatment of B cells with soluble...

  15. Role of T lymphocytes in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiandong; Crowley, Steven D

    2015-04-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the immune system plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases including hypertension. Mice lacking T lymphocytes are resistant to blood pressure elevation, suggesting a key contribution of T lymphocytes to hypertension. However, the individual T cell subsets, including CD8(+), Th1, Th17, and T regulatory T cells have shown widely discrepant effects on blood pressure and target organ damage in this disorder. Moreover, the activation state of a T lymphocyte population exerts considerable influence over its role in hypertension. In turn, activated T cells regulate blood pressure through the elaboration of reactive oxygen species and vasoactive cytokines, altering the inflammatory milieu in the vascular wall and the kidney. Recent GWAS studies similarly point to a role for T lymphocytes in human hypertension. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The TLR4 Agonist Vaccine Adjuvant, GLA-SE, Requires Canonical and Atypical Mechanisms of Action for TH1 Induction.

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    Natasha Dubois Cauwelaert

    Full Text Available The Toll-like receptor 4 agonist glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant formulated in a stable emulsion (GLA-SE promotes strong TH1 and balanced IgG1/IgG2 responses to protein vaccine antigens. This enhanced immunity is sufficient to provide protection against many diseases including tuberculosis and leishmaniasis. To better characterize the adjuvant action it is important to understand how the different cytokines and transcription factors contribute to the initiation of immunity. In the present study using T-bet-/- and IL-12-/- mice and a blocking anti-IFNαR1 monoclonal antibody, we define mechanisms of adjuvant activity of GLA-SE. In accordance with previous studies of TLR4 agonist based adjuvants, we found that TH1 induction via GLA-SE was completely dependent upon T-bet, a key transcription factor for IFNγ production and TH1 differentiation. Consistent with this, deficiency of IL-12, a cytokine canonical to TH1 induction, ablated TH1 induction via GLA-SE. Finally we demonstrate that the innate immune response to GLA-SE, including rapid IFNγ production by memory CD8+ T cells and NK cells, was contingent on type I interferon, a cytokine group whose association with TH1 induction is contextual, and that they contributed to the adjuvant activity of GLA-SE.

  17. Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells Exposed to Microorganisms Involved in Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Induce a Th1-Polarized Immune Response

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    Pallandre, Jean-René; Borg, Christophe; Loeffert, Sophie; Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Millon, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is an immunoallergic disease characterized by a prominent interstitial infiltrate composed predominantly of lymphocytes secreting inflammatory cytokines. Dendritic cells (DCs) are known to play a pivotal role in the lymphocytic response. However, their cross talk with microorganisms that cause HP has yet to be elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the initial interactions between human monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) and four microorganisms that are different in nature (Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula [actinomycetes], Mycobacterium immunogenum [mycobacteria], and Wallemia sebi and Eurotium amstelodami [filamentous fungi]) and are involved in HP. Our objectives were to determine the cross talk between MoDCs and HP-causative agents and to determine whether the resulting immune response varied according to the microbial extract tested. The phenotypic activation of MoDCs was measured by the increased expression of costimulatory molecules and levels of cytokines in supernatants. The functional activation of MoDCs was measured by the ability of MoDCs to induce lymphocytic proliferation and differentiation in a mixed lymphocytic reaction (MLR). E. amstelodami-exposed (EA) MoDCs expressed higher percentages of costimulatory molecules than did W. sebi-exposed (WS), S. rectivirgula-exposed (SR), or M. immunogenum-exposed (MI) MoDCs (P < 0.05, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). EA-MoDCs, WS-MoDCs, SR-MoDCs, and MI-MoDCs induced CD4+ T cell proliferation and a Th1-polarized immune response. The present study provides evidence that, although differences were initially observed between MoDCs exposed to filamentous fungi and MoDCs exposed to bacteria, a Th1 response was ultimately promoted by DCs regardless of the microbial extract tested. PMID:23720369

  18. Starfish, Asterias amurensis and Asterina pectinifera, as potential sources of Th1 immunity-stimulating adjuvants.

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    Kawase, Osamu; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Jujo, Hayato; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2011-02-01

    Saponin is the generic name of steroid or triterpene glycosides, and the capacities of some saponins to stimulate both Th1 immune response and production of cytotoxic T cells are useful as vaccine components against intracellular pathogens. Because saponins have been found commonly in starfish, we assessed the potential of starfish, Asterias amurensis and Asterina pectinifera, as adjuvant sources. Crude starfish saponins had hemolytic activities (EC(50)=10 to 100 µg/ml) and thin layer chromatography indicated heterogeneity of their constituents. When starfish saponis were subcutaneously injected into mice with ovalbumin (OVA), OVA-specific IgG, especially IgG2a instead of IgG1 was produced in mouse blood, suggesting starfish saponins stimulated Th1 type immunity and they were potential sources of new adjuvants.

  19. Balancing reversion of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte and neutralizing antibody escape mutations within human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Env upon transmission.

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    Peut, Viv; Campbell, Shahan; Gaeguta, Adriana; Center, Rob J; Wilson, Kim; Alcantara, Sheilajen; Fernandez, Caroline S; Purcell, Damian F J; Kent, Stephen J

    2009-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope protein (Env) is subject to both neutralizing antibody (NAb) and CD8 T-cell (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte [CTL]) immune pressure. We studied the reversion of the Env CTL escape mutant virus to the wild type and the relationship between the reversion of CTL mutations with N-linked glycosylation site (NLGS)-driven NAb escape in pigtailed macaques. Env CTL mutations either did not revert to the wild type or only transiently reverted 5 to 7 weeks after infection. The CTL escape mutant reversion was coincident, for the same viral clones, with the loss of NLGS mutations. At one site studied, both CTL and NLGS mutations were needed to confer NAb escape. We conclude that CTL and NAb escape within Env can be tightly linked, suggesting opportunities to induce effective multicomponent anti-Env immunity.

  20. Th1 stimulatory proteins of Leishmania donovani: comparative cellular and protective responses of rTriose phosphate isomerase, rProtein disulfide isomerase and rElongation factor-2 in combination with rHSP70 against visceral leishmaniasis.

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    Jaiswal, Anil Kumar; Khare, Prashant; Joshi, Sumit; Kushawaha, Pramod Kumar; Sundar, Shyam; Dube, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    In visceral leishmaniasis, the recovery from the disease is always associated with the generation of Th1-type of cellular responses. Based on this, we have previously identified several Th1-stimulatory proteins of Leishmania donovani -triose phosphate isomerase (TPI), protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and elongation factor-2 (EL-2) etc. including heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) which induced Th1-type of cellular responses in both cured Leishmania patients/hamsters. Since, HSPs, being the logical targets for vaccines aimed at augmenting cellular immunity and can be early targets in the immune response against intracellular pathogens; they could be exploited as vaccine/adjuvant to induce long-term immunity more effectively. Therefore, in this study, we checked whether HSP70 can further enhance the immunogenicity and protective responses of the above said Th1-stimulatory proteins. Since, in most of the studies, immunogenicity of HSP70 of L. donovani was assessed in native condition, herein we generated recombinant HSP70 and tested its potential to stimulate immune responses in lymphocytes of cured Leishmania infected hamsters as well as in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of cured patients of VL either individually or in combination with above mentioned recombinant proteins. rLdHSP70 alone elicited strong cellular responses along with remarkable up-regulation of IFN-γ and IL-12 cytokines and extremely lower level of IL-4 and IL-10. Among the various combinations, rLdHSP70 + rLdPDI emerged as superior one augmenting improved cellular responses followed by rLdHSP70 + rLdEL-2. These combinations were further evaluated for its protective potential wherein rLdHSP70 + rLdPDI again conferred utmost protection (∼80%) followed by rLdHSP70 + rLdEL-2 (∼75%) and generated a strong cellular immune response with significant increase in the levels of iNOS transcript as well as IFN-γ and IL-12 cytokines which was further supported by the high level of IgG2 antibody

  1. Modulation of Dendritic Cell Activation and Subsequent Th1 Cell Polarization by Lidocaine

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    Chung, Yeonseok

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells play an essential role in bridging innate and adaptive immunity by recognizing cellular stress including pathogen- and damage-associated molecular patterns and by shaping the types of antigen-specific T cell immunity. Although lidocaine is widely used in clinical settings that trigger cellular stress, it remains unclear whether such treatment impacts the activation of innate immune cells and subsequent differentiation of T cells. Here we showed that lidocaine inhibited the production of IL–6, TNFα and IL–12 from dendritic cells in response to toll-like receptor ligands including lipopolysaccharide, poly(I:C) and R837 in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, the differentiation of Th1 cells was significantly suppressed by the addition of lidocaine while the same treatment had little effect on the differentiation of Th17, Th2 and regulatory T cells in vitro. Moreover, lidocaine suppressed the ovalbumin-specific Th1 cell responses in vivo induced by the adoptive transfer of ovalbumin-pulsed dendritic cells. These results demonstrate that lidocaine inhibits the activation of dendritic cells in response to toll-like receptor signals and subsequently suppresses the differentiation of Th1 cell responses. PMID:26445366

  2. Omeprazole-induced acute interstitial nephritis: a possible Th1-Th17-mediated injury?

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    Berney-Meyer, Linda; Hung, Noelyn; Slatter, Tania; Schollum, John Bw; Kitching, A Richard; Walker, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    Omeprazole is an important cause of drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (AIN). How omeprazole induces injury is unknown. Detailed clinical assessment of 25 biopsy-proven cases of omeprazole-induced AIN showed that all patients presented with impaired renal function, sterile pyuria with varying amounts of proteinuria but no eosinophiluria and no systemic symptoms to suggest a vasculitis. Histological analyses were characteristic of an acute tubulitis with an inflammatory cellular infiltrate. Using modified Banff scheme criteria, mild tubulitis (t1) was present in 56% of cases, a moderate tubulitis (t2) in 24% of cases, and a severe tubulitis in 20% of cases. Most (78%) of cases had mononuclear cell infiltrates, no significant eosinophilic infiltrates were found, and glomeruli were not involved. Immunostaining for CD4, CD8, IL-17A, IL-17F, Foxp3 and T-bet (T cell subsets), CD20 and CD163 defined the cellular infiltrates. The predominant inflammatory cells were CD4+ lymphocytic aggregates (77% of cases), combined with co-staining of CD4 IL and 17A/F in 44-48% of all cases, suggesting a Th17-mediated inflammatory process. T-bet+ cell infiltrates were present to a lesser degree, suggesting additional Th1 involvement. How omeprazole induces this inflammatory response is unclear, but may include direct effects by IL-17 expressing CD4+ cells on renal tubular cells. This large biopsy series of omeprazole-induced AIN demonstrates the features of acute tubulitis, with significant interstitial infiltrates consistent with immunopathological Th17 and Th1 processes. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  3. Type 1 Diabetes Prone NOD Mice Have Diminished Cxcr1 mRNA Expression in Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils and CD4+ T Lymphocytes.

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    Karine Haurogné

    Full Text Available In humans, CXCR1 and CXCR2 are two homologous proteins that bind ELR+ chemokines. Both receptors play fundamental roles in neutrophil functions such as migration and reactive oxygen species production. Mouse Cxcr1 and Cxcr2 genes are located in an insulin-dependent diabetes genetic susceptibility locus. The non obese diabetic (NOD mouse is a spontaneous well-described animal model for insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes. In this disease, insulin deficiency results from the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells by autoreactive T lymphocytes. This slow-progressing disease is dependent on both environmental and genetic factors. Here, we report descriptive data about the Cxcr1 gene in NOD mice. We demonstrate decreased expression of mRNA for Cxcr1 in neutrophils and CD4+ lymphocytes isolated from NOD mice compared to other strains, related to reduced NOD Cxcr1 gene promoter activity. Looking for Cxcr1 protein, we next analyze the membrane proteome of murine neutrophils by mass spectrometry. Although Cxcr2 protein is clearly found in murine neutrophils, we did not find evidence of Cxcr1 peptides using this method. Nevertheless, in view of recently-published experimental data obtained in NOD mice, we argue for possible Cxcr1 involvement in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis.

  4. [Circulating levels of Th1- and Th2-chemokines increase in patients with early syphilis].

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    Zhu, Anyou; Wang, Chenchen; Sun, Hong; Han, Hongfang; Wang, Fengchao; Zhang, Lunjun; Hu, Jianguo

    2017-03-01

    Objective To study the changes of plasma T helper type I (Th1)-and Th2-chemokine levels and analyze their roles in immune response and pathogenesis of early syphilis. Methods Heparin-anticoagulated peripheral blood was collected from 56 patients with early syphilis (primary syphilis, PS, n=22; secondary syphilis, SS, n=34) and healthy controls (HC, n=20). The levels of plasma Th1 chemokines including monokine induced by interferon-γ (MIG), interferon-γ inducible protein-10 (IP-10), interferon-inducible T-cell α chemoattractant (I-TAC) and Th2 chemokines including thymus-and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) were examined using ELISA. Meanwhile, the levels of plasma cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-4 and TNF-α) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were detected. Results The levels of plasma MIG, IP-10 and TARC, MDC in the patients with PS and SS were significantly higher than those in the healthy controls. Moreover, the level of I-TAC in the patients with SS was significantly higher than that in the healthy controls. In particular, the levels of plasma Th1 chemokines (MIG, IP-10 and I-TAC) in the patients with SS significantly increased compared with those with PS. However, no significant difference was observed in the levels of plasma Th2 chemokines (TARC and MDC) between the patients with PS and SS. The correlation analysis showed that there was an obvious positive correlation between IP-10 and MIG, I-TAC, IFN-γ, TNF-α levels in the patients with early syphilis. Furthermore, the levels of MIG and IP-10 were positively associated with plasma CRP in the patients with early syphilis. Conclusion Both Th1 chemokines and Th2 chemokines are involved in immune response of early syphilis.

  5. Human Rhinovirus Proteinase 2A Induces Th1 and Th2 Immunity in COPD

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    Singh, Manisha; Lee, Seung-Hyo; Porter, Paul; Xu, Chuang; Ohno, Ayako; Atmar, Robert L.; Greenberg, Stephen B.; Bandi, Venkata; Gern, Jim; Amineva, Svetlana; Aminev, Alex; Skern, Tim; Smithwick, Pamela; Perusich, Sarah; Barrow, Nadia; Roberts, Luz; Corry, David B.; Kheradmand, Farrah

    2010-01-01

    Background Tobacco related lung diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are major causes of lung-related disability and death worldwide. Acute exacerbation of COPD (AE-COPD) is commonly associated with upper and lower respiratory viral infections and may result in respiratory failure in those with advanced lung disease. Objective We sought to determine the mechanism underlying COPD exacerbation, and host response to pathogen-derived factors. Methods Over a 24 months period, we assessed the viral causes for upper and lower respiratory infections in COPD (n=155) and control (n=103) subjects. We collected nasal and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and peripheral blood under baseline and exacerbated condition. We determined the effect of human rhinovirus (HRV) proteinases on T cell activation in humans, and in mice. Results HRVs are isolated from nasal and lung fluid from subjects with AE-COPD. BAL fluid, and CD4 T cells from COPD patients exhibited a type 1 T helper (Th1), and Th2 cell cytokine phenotype during acute infection. HRV-encoded proteinase 2A activated monocyte-derived dendritic cells in vitro, and induced strong Th1, and Th2 immune responses from CD4 T cells. Intranasal administration of recombinant rhinovirus proteinase 2A in mice resulted in an increase in airway hyperreactivity, lung inflammation, and IL-4 and IFN-γ production from CD4 T cells. Conclusion Our findings suggest that patients with severe COPD show Th1 and Th2 bias responses during AE-COPD. HRV-encoded proteinase 2A, like other microbial proteinases, could provide a Th1 and Th2-biasing adjuvant factor during upper and lower respiratory infection in patients with severe COPD. Alteration of the immune response to secreted viral proteinases may contribute to worsening of dyspnea and respiratory failure in COPD. PMID:20430426

  6. Th1-Th17 cells mediate protective adaptive immunity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans infection in mice.

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    Lin Lin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We sought to define protective mechanisms of immunity to Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans bloodstream infections in mice immunized with the recombinant N-terminus of Als3p (rAls3p-N vaccine plus aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH(3 adjuvant, or adjuvant controls. Deficiency of IFN-gamma but not IL-17A enhanced susceptibility of control mice to both infections. However, vaccine-induced protective immunity against both infections required CD4+ T-cell-derived IFN-gamma and IL-17A, and functional phagocytic effectors. Vaccination primed Th1, Th17, and Th1/17 lymphocytes, which produced pro-inflammatory cytokines that enhanced phagocytic killing of both organisms. Vaccinated, infected mice had increased IFN-gamma, IL-17, and KC, increased neutrophil influx, and decreased organism burden in tissues. In summary, rAls3p-N vaccination induced a Th1/Th17 response, resulting in recruitment and activation of phagocytes at sites of infection, and more effective clearance of S. aureus and C. albicans from tissues. Thus, vaccine-mediated adaptive immunity can protect against both infections by targeting microbes for destruction by innate effectors.

  7. Response of lymphocyte subsets and cytokines to Shenyang prescription in Sprague-Dawley rats with tongue squamous cell carcinomas induced by 4NQO

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    He Di

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study was designed to investigate immunocompetence in relation to cancer progression in rat and to assess the effect of the traditional Chinese anti-cancer medicine, "Shenyang" prescription, on immunity. Methods 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO was administered to 80 Sprague-Dawley (SD rats via the drinking water for up to 36 weeks. Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC was confirmed by pathological examination in 61 rats. "Shenyang" prescription was administered to subgroups of these rats, and blood samples were taken before and after treatment. Lymphocyte subsets were determined by flow cytometry. Serum Th1 and Th2-type cytokines were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results As the cancer progressed at the tongue root, the percentage of CD3+CD4+ T lymphocytes and NK cells and the levels of IFN-γ and IL-2 decreased gradually, while the percentage of CD3+CD8+ T lymphocytes and the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 increased. The CD4+/CD8+ ratios were lower in the cancer groups than in the control group. However, after administering "Shenyang" prescription, the levels of CD3+CD4+ T lymphocytes, NK cells, IFN-γ and IL-2 increased, while the CD3+CD8+ T lymphocyte counts and the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 decreased. Conclusion 4NQO-induced lesions were good models for exploring oral cavity carcinogenesis. The rats with 4NQO-induced SCC demonstrated abnormalities in lymphocyte subsets and a shift from Th1-type to Th2-type, which were good models for assessing the effect of anticancer agent on immunity. Oral cancer progression was associated with an aggressive disturbance of immune function. "Shenyang" prescription has the ability to improve the disturbance of immune function.

  8. Th1-biased immunomodulation and therapeutic potential of Artemisia annua in murine visceral leishmaniasis.

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    Mohammad Islamuddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of vaccines and limitations of currently available chemotherapy, development of safe and efficacious drugs is urgently needed for visceral leishmaniasis (VL that is fatal, if left untreated. Earlier we reported in vitro apoptotic antileishmanial activity of n-hexane fractions of Artemisia annua leaves (AAL and seeds (AAS against Leishmania donovani. In the present study, we investigated the immunostimulatory and therapeutic efficacy of AAL and AAS.Ten-weeks post infection, BALB/c mice were orally administered AAL and AAS for ten consecutive days. Significant reduction in hepatic (86.67% and 89.12% and splenic (95.45% and 95.84% parasite burden with decrease in spleen weight was observed. AAL and AAS treated mice induced the strongest DTH response, as well as three-fold decrease in IgG1 and two-fold increase in IgG2a levels, as compared to infected controls. Cytometric bead array further affirmed the elicitation of Th1 immune response as indicated by increased levels of IFN-γ, and low levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10 in serum as well as in culture supernatant of lymphocytes from treated mice. Lymphoproliferative response, IFN-γ producing CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and nitrite levels were significantly enhanced upon antigen recall in vitro. The co-expression of CD80 and CD86 on macrophages was significantly augmented. CD8+ T cells exhibited CD62Llow and CD44hi phenotype, signifying induction of immunological memory in AAL and AAS treated groups. Serum enzyme markers were in the normal range indicating inertness against nephro- and hepato-toxicity.Our results establish the two-prong antileishmanial efficacy of AAL and AAS for cure against L. donovani that is dependent on both the direct leishmanicidal action as well as switching-on of Th1-biased protective cell-mediated immunity with generation of memory. AAL and AAS could represent adjunct therapies for the treatment of leishmaniasis, either alone or in combination with

  9. Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses to academic stress.

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    Kang, D H; Fox, C

    2001-08-01

    Predominant Th2 profiles are associated with the worsening of asthma, and stress is speculated to induce a Th2 profile. The goals of this study were to examine the responses of the cytokines Th1 (IFN-gamma and IL-2) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6) to a stressor and to look at the relationships between cytokine and psychological responses. Twenty-four students with and without a history of asthma completed questionnaires and gave blood samples during nonexam and exam periods. Cytokines were measured by ELISA from supernatants of stimulated mononuclear cells (MNC) and whole blood. During examinations, there were a significant decrease in IL-2 and a significant increase in IL-6 production (both cultures) and a significant decrease in IFN-gamma production (MNC cultures). Baseline IL-2 levels showed significant negative correlations with several stress and mood scores. Findings of this study indicate a down-regulation of Th1 and a selective up-regulation of Th2 cytokines during a stressful exposure. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Ulmus davidiana var. japonica Nakai upregulates eosinophils and suppresses Th1 and Th17 cells in the small intestine.

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    Han-Sung Lee

    Full Text Available The bark of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica Nakai (Ulmaceae has been used in traditional Korean medicine for chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Here we investigated the frequency and cytokine profile of the major immune cells in the small intestinal lamina propria (SI LP, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs of mice treated orally with Ulmus davidiana var. japonica Nakai bark water extract (UDE to address the immunomodulatory role of this herb in intestinal homeostasis. B6 mice were given 5g/kg UDE once daily for 14 days. They were then sacrificed, and cells were isolated from the spleen, MLNs, and SI LP. The proportion of B versus T lymphocytes, CD4(+ versus CD8(+ T lymphocytes, Th1 and Th17 cells, and Foxp3(+ regulatory T cells in the spleen, MLNs, and SI LP were analyzed. The frequency of antigen-presenting cells (APCs, including dendritic cells, macrophages, and eosinophils in the SI LP and the expression of costimulatory molecules on APCs were also evaluated. The numbers and frequencies of Th1 and Th17 cells in the SI LP were significantly reduced in the UDE-treated mice compared with PBS controls. In addition, the proportion of IL-4-producing eosinophils in the SI LP was significantly elevated in the UDE-treated mice compared with controls. Taken together, these data indicate that UDE up-regulates the number and frequency of SI LP eosinophils, which can down-regulate the Th1 and Th17 responses via IL-4 secretion and contribute to intestinal homeostasis.

  11. Reversal of paralysis and reduced inflammation from peripheral administration of β-amyloid in TH1 and TH17 versions of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    Grant, Jacqueline L; Ghosn, Eliver Eid Bou; Axtell, Robert C; Herges, Katja; Kuipers, Hedwich F; Woodling, Nathan S; Andreasson, Katrin; Herzenberg, Leonard A; Herzenberg, Leonore A; Steinman, Lawrence

    2012-08-01

    β-Amyloid 42 (Aβ42) and β-amyloid 40 (Aβ40), major components of senile plaque deposits in Alzheimer's disease, are considered neurotoxic and proinflammatory. In multiple sclerosis, Aβ42 is up-regulated in brain lesions and damaged axons. We found, unexpectedly, that treatment with either Aβ42 or Aβ40 peptides reduced motor paralysis and brain inflammation in four different models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) with attenuation of motor paralysis, reduction of inflammatory lesions in the central nervous system (CNS), and suppression of lymphocyte activation. Aβ42 and Aβ40 treatments were effective in reducing ongoing paralysis induced with adoptive transfer of either autoreactive T helper 1 (T(H)1) or T(H)17 cells. High-dimensional 14-parameter flow cytometry of peripheral immune cell populations after in vivo Aβ42 and Aβ40 treatment revealed substantial modulations in the percentage of lymphoid and myeloid subsets during EAE. Major proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were reduced in the blood after Aβ peptide treatment. Protection conferred by Aβ treatment did not require its delivery to the brain: Adoptive transfer with lymphocytes from donors treated with Aβ42 attenuated EAE in wild-type recipient mice, and Aβ deposition in the brain was not detected in treated EAE mice by immunohistochemical analysis. In contrast to the improvement in EAE with Aβ treatment, EAE was worse in mice with genetic deletion of the amyloid precursor protein. Therefore, in the absence of Aβ, there is exacerbated clinical EAE disease progression. Because Aβ42 and Aβ40 ameliorate experimental autoimmune inflammation targeting the CNS, we might now consider its potential anti-inflammatory role in other neuropathological conditions.

  12. Influence of low absolute lymphocyte count of patients with nongerminal center type diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with R-CHOP therapy.

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    Song, M-K; Chung, J-S; Seol, Y-M; Kim, S-G; Shin, H-J; Choi, Y-J; Cho, G-J; Shin, D-H

    2010-01-01

    Rituximab has dramatic impact on outcome of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), especially nongerminal center (non-GC) type. A low absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) before rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, adriamycin, and prednisone (R-CHOP) therapy as a surrogate marker of immune status is associated with poor clinical outcome in DLBCL. Therefore, we hypothesized that low ALC before R-CHOP would have effect on the survival in non-GC type. One hundred and thirty-six DLBCL patients who were treated with R-CHOP from 2003 to 2007 were analyzed in the present study. ALC > or = 1.0 x 10(9)/l predicted a longer 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and 3-year overall survival (OS) versus ALC type had similar PFS and OS to germinal center type (68.2% versus 80.0%, P = 0.074 and 72.7% versus 82.9%, P = 0.111, respectively). However, considering clinical influence of the ALC according to immunophenotype, low ALC in non-GC type DLBCL was associated with lower PFS and OS compared with others (PFS, P = 0.002; OS, P type had lower PFS [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.324, P = 0.001] and OS (HR = 4.318, P type DLBCL counteracted the beneficial effect of rituximab on survival.

  13. Regulation of nasal airway homeostasis and inflammation in mice by SHP-1 and Th2/Th1 signaling pathways.

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    Seok Hyun Cho

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis is a chronic inflammatory disease orchestrated by Th2 lymphocytes. Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP-1 is known to be a negative regulator in the IL-4α/STAT-6 signaling pathway of the lung. However, the role of SHP-1 enzyme and its functional relationship with Th2 and Th1 cytokines are not known in the nasal airway. In this study, we aimed to study the nasal inflammation as a result of SHP-1 deficiency in viable motheaten (mev mice and to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved. Cytology, histology, and expression of cytokines and chemokines were analyzed to define the nature of the nasal inflammation. Targeted gene depletion of Th1 (IFN-γ and Th2 (IL-4 and IL-13 cytokines was used to identify the critical pathways involved. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs were studied to demonstrate the clearance mechanism of recruited inflammatory cells into the nasal airway. We showed here that mev mice had a spontaneous allergic rhinitis-like inflammation with eosinophilia, mucus metaplasia, up-regulation of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13, chemokines (eotaxin, and MMPs. All of these inflammatory mediators were clearly counter-regulated by Th2 and Th1 cytokines. Deletion of IFN-γ gene induced a strong Th2-skewed inflammation with transepithelial migration of the inflammatory cells. These findings suggest that SHP-1 enzyme and Th2/Th1 paradigm may play a critical role in the maintenance of nasal immune homeostasis and in the regulation of allergic rhinitis.

  14. Changes of mouse cytokines and Th1/Th2 balance in acute stress induced by millimeter-wave

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    Rong SUN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the regular pattern of variation of cytokines, especially the Th1/Th2 cytokines, and its effect on immune balance in stress induced by 35GHz millimeter-wave (MMW exposure in mice. Methods BALB/c mice were exposed to 420mW/cm2, 35GHz MMW for 60s, and the dorsal skin temperature was real-time monitored with infrared monitor during the period of exposure. Peripheral WBC, thymic and splenic indexes of mice were detected at different time points after MMW exposure. Meanwhile, the contents of serum IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and Th1/Th2 cytokines IFN-γ, IL-4 were analyzed by ELISA. Results The temperature of ear auricle rapidly increased to 50℃ after initiation of exposure, and continuously rose to about 60℃ at 50s to 60s. Peripheral WBC and lymphocytes showed transient reduction at 6h and restored to the control level from 1 to 7d after radiation exposure. Compared with control group, thymus index displayed a transient increase at 6h and thereafter decreased, and then diminished to which significantly lower than control level 7d after radiation exposure. However, spleen index increased significantly on day 3 and day 7 after radiation exposure. Peripheral IL-1β levels immediately increased to the maximum at 6h and decreased to the minimum at 1d (P<0.05, then gradually recovered to control level during 3d and 7d after radiation exposure. However, IL-6 level displayed a significant increment from 6h to 3d, and increased to peak value at 1d and still obviously higher than that of control group up to 7d (P<0.05 after radiation exposure. Simultaneously, Th1/Th2 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-4 both increased to the maximal at 3d and still significantly higher than those of control group at 7d (P<0.01 after radiation exposure. Ratios of Th1/Th2 (IFN-γ/IL-4 evidently raised to 1.34 and 1.66 times of control values at 1d and 3d respectively (P<0.05. Conclusions 35GHz MMW exposure can induce obvious thermal effects in mice, and serum

  15. Dysregulated cytokine expression by CD4+ T cells from post-septic mice modulates both Th1 and Th2-mediated granulomatous lung inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F Carson

    Full Text Available Previous epidemiological studies in humans and experimental studies in animals indicate that survivors of severe sepsis exhibit deficiencies in the activation and effector function of immune cells. In particular, CD4+ T lymphocytes can exhibit reduced proliferative capacity and improper cytokine responses following sepsis. To further investigate the cell-intrinsic defects of CD4+ T cells following sepsis, splenic CD4+ T cells from sham surgery and post-septic mice were transferred into lymphopenic mice. These recipient mice were then subjected to both TH1-(purified protein derivative and TH2-(Schistosoma mansoni egg antigen driven models of granulomatous lung inflammation. Post-septic CD4+ T cells mediated smaller TH1 and larger TH2 lung granulomas as compared to mice receiving CD4+ T cells from sham surgery donors. However, cytokine production by lymph node cells in antigen restimulation assays indicated increased pan-specific cytokine expression by post-septic CD4+ T cell recipient mice in both TH1 and TH2 granuloma models. These include increased production of T(H2 cytokines in TH1 inflammation, and increased production of T(H1 cytokines in TH2 inflammation. These results suggest that cell-intrinsic defects in CD4+ T cell effector function can have deleterious effects on inflammatory processes post-sepsis, due to a defect in the proper regulation of TH-specific cytokine expression.

  16. Laboratorial diagnosis of lymphocytic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    Full Text Available Meningitis is the main infectious central nervous system (CNS syndrome. Viruses or bacteria can cause acute meningitis of infectious etiology. The term "Aseptic Meningitis" denotes a clinical syndrome with a predominance of lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, with no common bacterial agents identified in the CSF. Viral meningitis is considered the main cause of lymphocyte meningitis. There are other etiologies of an infectious nature. CSF examination is essential to establish the diagnosis and to identify the etiological agent of lymphocytic meningitis. We examined CSF characteristics and the differential diagnosis of the main types of meningitis.

  17. Cell-Surface Integrins and CAR Are Both Essential for Adenovirus Type 5 Transduction of Canine Cells of Lymphocytic Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Payal; Gammon, Elizabeth A; Sajib, Abdul Mohin; Sandey, Maninder; Smith, Bruce F

    2017-01-01

    Adenoviruses are the most widely used vectors in cancer gene therapy. Adenoviruses vectors are well characterized and are easily manipulated. Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is the most commonly used human serotype. Ad5 internalization into host cells is a combined effect of binding of Ad5 fiber knob with the coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and binding of RGD motifs in viral penton to cell surface integrins (αvβ3, αvβ5). Ad5's wide range of host-cell transduction and lack of integration into the host genome have made it an excellent choice for cancer therapeutics. However, Ad5 has limited ability to transduce cells of hematopoietic origin. It has been previously reported that low or no expression of CAR is a potential obstacle to Ad5 infection in hematopoietic origin cells. In addition, we have previously reported that low levels of cell surface integrins (αvβ3, αvβ5) may inhibit Ad5 infection in canine lymphoma cell lines. In the current report we have examined the ability of an Ad5 vector to infect human (HEK293) and canine non-cancerous (NCF and PBMC), canine non-hematopoietic origin cancer (CMT28, CML7, and CML10), and canine hematopoietic origin cancer (DH82, 17-71, OSW, MPT-1, and BR) cells. In addition, we have quantified CAR, αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrin transcript expression in these cells by using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (q-RT-PCR). Low levels of integrins were present in MPT1, 17-71, OSW, and PBMC cells in comparison to CMT28, DH82, and BR cells. CAR mRNA levels were comparatively higher in MPT1, 17-71, OSW, and PBMC cells. This report confirms and expands the finding that low or absent expression of cell surface integrins may be the primary reason for the inability of Ad5-based vectors to transduce cells of lymphocytic origin and some myeloid cells but this is not true for all hematopoietic origin cells. For efficient use of Ad5-based therapeutic vectors in cancers of lymphocytic origin, it is important to address the

  18. Mycobacterium tuberculosislpdC, Rv0462, induces dendritic cell maturation and Th1 polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Deok Rim [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sung Jae; Kim, Woo Sik [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Munwha-Dong, Jung-Ku, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Kyung Tae; Park, Jin Wook; Son, Kwang Hee [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won Sun [Department of Physiology, Kangwon National University, School of Medicine, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Min-Goo [Department of Physiology, Korea University, College of Medicine, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Daejin [Department of Anatomy, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, 221 Heuksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Yong Kyoo [Department of Pharmacology, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, 221 Heuksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, In Duk, E-mail: jungid@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yeong-Min, E-mail: immunpym@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment with Rv0462 induces the expression of surface molecules and the production of cytokines in DCs. {yields} Rv0462 induces the activation of MAPKs. {yields} Rv0462-treated DCs enhances the proliferation of CD4{sup +} T cells. -- Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological factor of pulmonary tuberculosis, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Activation of host immune responses for containment of mycobacterial infections involves participation of innate immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we demonstrated that the gene encoding lipoamide dehydrogenase C (lpdC) from M. tuberculosis, Rv0462, induce maturation and activation of DCs involved in the MAPKs signaling pathway. Moreover, Rv0462-treated DCs activated naive T cells, polarized CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells to secrete IFN-{gamma} in syngeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions, which would be expected to contribute to Th1 polarization of the immune response. Our results suggest that Rv0462 can contribute to the innate and adaptive immune responses during tuberculosis infection, and thus modulate the clinical course of tuberculosis.

  19. Neutrophils exert a suppressive effect on Th1 responses to intracellular pathogen Brucella abortus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Barquero-Calvo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs are the first line of defense against microbial pathogens. In addition to their role in innate immunity, PMNs may also regulate events related to adaptive immunity. To investigate the influence of PMNs in the immune response during chronic bacterial infections, we explored the course of brucellosis in antibody PMN-depleted C57BL/6 mice and in neutropenic mutant Genista mouse model. We demonstrate that at later times of infection, Brucella abortus is killed more efficiently in the absence of PMNs than in their presence. The higher bacterial removal was concomitant to the: i comparatively reduced spleen swelling; ii augmented infiltration of epithelioid histiocytes corresponding to macrophages/dendritic cells (DCs; iii higher recruitment of monocytes and monocyte/DCs phenotype; iv significant activation of B and T lymphocytes, and v increased levels of INF-γ and negligible levels of IL4 indicating a balance of Th1 over Th2 response. These results reveal that PMNs have an unexpected influence in dampening the immune response against intracellular Brucella infection and strengthen the notion that PMNs actively participate in regulatory circuits shaping both innate and adaptive immunity.

  20. Characterization of glycolytic enzymes--rAldolase and rEnolase of Leishmania donovani, identified as Th1 stimulatory proteins, for their immunogenicity and immunoprophylactic efficacies against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Reema; Kumar, Vikash; Kushawaha, Pramod Kumar; Tripathi, Chandradev Pati; Joshi, Sumit; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh Anant; Mitra, Kalyan; Sundar, Shyam; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Dube, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Th1 immune responses play an important role in controlling Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) hence, Leishmania proteins stimulating T-cell responses in host, are thought to be good vaccine targets. Search of such antigens eliciting cellular responses in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cured/exposed/Leishmania patients and hamsters led to the identification of two enzymes of glycolytic pathway in the soluble lysate of a clinical isolate of Leishmania donovani--Enolase (LdEno) and aldolase (LdAld) as potential Th1 stimulatory proteins. The present study deals with the molecular and immunological characterizations of LdEno and LdAld. The successfully cloned and purified recombinant proteins displayed strong ability to proliferate lymphocytes of cured hamsters' along with significant nitric-oxide production and generation of Th1-type cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12) from stimulated PBMCs of cured/endemic VL patients. Assessment of their prophylactic potentials revealed ∼ 90% decrease in parasitic burden in rLdEno vaccinated hamsters against Leishmania challenge, strongly supported by an increase in mRNA expression levels of iNOS, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-12 transcripts along with extreme down-regulation of TGF-β, IL-4 and IL-10. However, animals vaccinated with rLdAld showed comparatively lesser prophylactic efficacy (∼ 65%) with inferior immunological response. Further, with a possible implication in vaccine design against VL, identification of potential T-cell epitopes of both the proteins was done using computational approach. Additionally, in-silico 3-D modelling of the proteins was done in order to explore the possibility of exploiting them as potential drug targets. The comparative molecular and immunological characterizations strongly suggest rLdEno as potential vaccine candidate against VL and supports the notion of its being effective T-cell stimulatory protein.

  1. Determinants of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Escape from the Primary CD8+ Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nicola A.; Wei, Xiping; Flower, Darren R.; Wong, MaiLee; Michor, Franziska; Saag, Michael S.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Nowak, Martin A.; Shaw, George M.; Borrow, Persephone

    2004-01-01

    CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play an important role in containment of virus replication in primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. HIV's ability to mutate to escape from CTL pressure is increasingly recognized; but comprehensive studies of escape from the CD8 T cell response in primary HIV infection are currently lacking. Here, we have fully characterized the primary CTL response to autologous virus Env, Gag, and Tat proteins in three patients, and investigated the extent, kinetics, and mechanisms of viral escape from epitope-specific components of the response. In all three individuals, we observed variation beginning within weeks of infection at epitope-containing sites in the viral quasispecies, which conferred escape by mechanisms including altered peptide presentation/recognition and altered antigen processing. The number of epitope-containing regions exhibiting evidence of early CTL escape ranged from 1 out of 21 in a subject who controlled viral replication effectively to 5 out of 7 in a subject who did not. Evaluation of the extent and kinetics of HIV-1 escape from >40 different epitope-specific CD8 T cell responses enabled analysis of factors determining escape and suggested that escape is restricted by costs to intrinsic viral fitness and by broad, codominant distribution of CTL-mediated pressure on viral replication. PMID:15545352

  2. Atypical variants of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma show low microvessel density and vessels of distention type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidt, Victoria; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Schuhmacher, Bianca; Döring, Claudia; Hartmann, Sylvia

    2017-02-01

    Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) presents different histopathologic growth patterns, including atypical forms showing overlapping histopathologic and clinical features with T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma (THRLBCL). Because growth patterns are associated with vessel distribution, the aim of the present study was to compare angiogenesis in different NLPHL patterns with THRLBCL as well as other lymphomas. Atypical variants of NLPHL and THRLBCL (n=10 per group) both showed a low microvessel density (MVD; 1.16-1.31/μm2) with a diffuse vessel distribution. In contrast, in typical NLPHL (n=10), follicular areas with low MVD were retained, whereas an increase in vessels in the interfollicular areas was observed (MVD 1.35/μm2). THRLBCL and typical NLPHL could additionally be distinguished by differences in their molecular angiogenesis signature. Furthermore, the number of intravascular T cells was significantly reduced in THRLBCL (0.0028 T cells/mm2 vessel area) when compared with typical NLPHL (0.0059 T cells/mm2 vessel area), potentially reflecting the different composition of the microenvironment in these 2 lymphoma entities. The results of our study reveal a similar vascular pattern and angiogenesis behavior in atypical NLPHL variants and THRLBCL in contrast to the retained follicular pattern in typical NLPHL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of prevaccination immunity on the human B-lymphocyte response to a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, T; Kristensen, K; Henrichsen, J

    1991-01-01

    revaccination with PRP-D, small increases in the level of PRP antibodies (median, 2.9 micrograms/ml; n = 11) were found; no significant increase in the level of DT antibodies was seen. The numbers of PRP AbSC were lower (P = 0.04) and peaked earlier (day 7) than after the first vaccination. The isotype pattern...... of PRP AbSC, which was dominated by immunoglobulin A (IgA) after the first vaccination, now showed a more equal distribution between IgG and IgA AbSC. It is concluded that after immunization with PRP-D both the magnitude and the kinetics of the antipolysaccharide B-cell response are influenced......The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preexisting immunity to components of a polysaccharide-protein conjugate influences the B-lymphocyte response to vaccination with the conjugate. Thirty-two healthy adults were vaccinated once or twice with a conjugate (PRP-D) consisting...

  4. Korean patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia show the similar types of chromosomal aberrations as those in Europe and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yoon Hwan; Park, Junwan; Kim, Hee Chan; Chun, Hong Ku; Kim, Young Ree; Kim, Myungshin; Han, Kyungja; Lee, Je-Hwan; Lee, Kyoo-Hyung; Cho, Han Ik; Lee, Yun Song; Lee, Dong Soon

    2006-06-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is frequent in the West, but rare in Korea. In this study, the frequency of chromosome aberration in Korean CLL patients was examined by applying interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Conventional cytogenetic test and FISH were performed on bone marrow aspirates obtained from 16 CLL patients. By applying DNA probes (Vysis, Downers Grove, IL, USA), the deletion in 11q22-23, 13q14, 13q34, and 17p13, and trisomy 12 were examined. With FISH, molecular cytogenetic aberration was detected in 10 of 16 patients [63%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 39-86], whereas with conventional cytogenetic test, chromosomal aberration was detected only in 2 out of 13 cases (15%, 95% CI 0-35). In total, the cases with one or more chromosomal aberrations were 11 out of 16 cases (69%, 95% CI 46-92). The most frequently detected aberration was the 13q14 deletion (69%, 95% CI 44-94), followed by trisomy 12 (19%, 95% CI 0-38) and 11q22 deletion (14%, 95% CI 0-33). No deletion in 17p13 was observed. In conclusion, CLL in Korean is a heterogeneous genetic disorder, showing similar genetic changes in Europe and North America.

  5. EXPERIENCE OF TREATMENT WITH INHIBITOR OF T-LYMPHOCYTES CO-STIMULATION ABATACEPT IN PATIENT WITH POLYARTICULAR TYPE OF JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Bzarova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a case report of recurrent clinical course of polyarticular type of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, which is characterized with rapid development of disability, low quality of life, high index of functional insufficiency, torpid flow. The disease developed with intolerance to metotrexate and presence of contra-indications to blockers of tumor necrotizing factor _. Authors describe successful treatment with inhibitor of T-lymphocytes co-stimulation abatacept. The dose of drug was 10 mg/kg of body weight during 24 weeks. In two weeks after the beginning of treatment pain and exudative lesions in joints were lessened, joint range of motions significantly increased. The quality of life of patient and her family increased in 4 weeks of treatment with abatacept. The drug induced clinical and laboratory remission in 24 weeks.Key words: children, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, abatacept, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(4:147-154

  6. Clustering patterns of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proteins reveal imprints of immune evasion on HIV-1 global variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yusim, K.; Kesmir, Can; Gaschen, B.

    2002-01-01

    The human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been intensely studied, and hundreds of CTL epitopes have been experimentally defined, published, and compiled in the HIV Molecular Immunology Database. Maps of CTL epitopes on HIV-1 protein sequences...... reveal that defined epitopes tend to cluster. Here we integrate the global sequence and immunology databases to systematically explore the relationship between HIV-1 amino acid sequences and CTL epitope distributions. CTL responses to five HIV-1 proteins, Gag p17, Gag p24, reverse transcriptase (RT), Env......, and Nef, have been particularly well characterized in the literature to date. Through comparing CTL epitope distributions in these five proteins to global protein sequence alignments, we identified distinct characteristics of HIV amino acid sequences that correlate with CTL epitope localization. First...

  7. Oral administration of synthetic selenium nanoparticles induced robust Th1 cytokine pattern after HBs antigen vaccination in mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Mehdi; Mavandadnejad, Faranak; Yazdi, Mohammad H; Faghfuri, Elnaz; Hashemi, Hura; Homayouni-Oreh, Somayeh; Farhoudi, Ramin; Shahverdi, Ahmad R

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is known as a life-threatening liver infection and leads to chronic liver disease if left untreated. Nevertheless, the prevalence of HBV infection has been reduced by an approved vaccination approach using recombinant Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) and Alum, known as the HBV vaccine. Alum can be used as an adjuvant to increase HBsAg immunogenicity as a strong Th2 stimulator. There is a vital need to stimulate Th1 immunity by HBsAg vaccination; however, the present vaccine does not induce a prophylactic immune response in some groups. The main aim of the present study was to induce a Th1 cytokine pattern and stimulate an immune response after HBsAg vaccination. Experimental mice were fed selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) and were later immunized with 5μg of Hepatitis B Vaccine. After a period of 30 days, the experimental animals were given two booster doses of SeNPs during their vaccination course. Group one, i.e., the control vaccine group, was only administered the HBsAg vaccine. The two treated groups, Groups 2 and 3, were daily fed different doses of SeNPs (100μg and 200μg, respectively) via gavage. Group four was considered the control group and was only given phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Lymphocyte proliferation, IFN-γ and IL-4 levels, total antibody and the isotypes of IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgM were measured by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The administration of SeNPs and the HBs antigen vaccine affected the lymphocyte proliferation; moreover, the total antibody responses also increased the IFN-γ level and induced a Th1 response. The present study proposed that the administration of SeNPs with a conventional HBs antigen vaccine induces a better immune response with a Th1 bias. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. File list: DNS.Bld.10.AllAg.Th1_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Bld.10.AllAg.Th1_Cells hg19 DNase-seq Blood Th1 Cells SRX069185,SRX201259,SRX20...1263,SRX201270,SRX193612,SRX037118,SRX201262 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Bld.10.AllAg.Th1_Cells.bed ...

  9. File list: DNS.Bld.05.AllAg.Th1_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Bld.05.AllAg.Th1_Cells hg19 DNase-seq Blood Th1 Cells SRX069185,SRX201259,SRX20...1263,SRX201270,SRX193612,SRX037118,SRX201262 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Bld.05.AllAg.Th1_Cells.bed ...

  10. Dectin-1 activation unlocks IL12A expression and reveals the TH1 potency of neonatal dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Sébastien; Jaron, Barbara; Tabka, Sabrine; Ettreiki, Chourouk; Deriaud, Edith; Zhivaki, Dania; Le Ray, Camille; Launay, Odile; Majlessi, Laleh; Tissieres, Pierre; Leclerc, Claude; Lo-Man, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Early life is characterized by a high susceptibility to infection and a TH2-biased CD4 T-cell response to vaccines. Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists are currently being implemented as new vaccine adjuvants for TH1 activation, but their translation to the field of pediatric vaccines is facing the impairment of neonatal innate TLR responses. We sought to analyze C-type lectin receptor pathways as an alternative or a coactivator to TLRs for neonatal dendritic cell activation for TH1 polarization. Neonatal monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) were exposed to various combinations of TLR agonists with or without Dectin-1 agonist. IL-12 and IL-23 responses were analyzed at the transcriptional and protein levels after stimulation. The intracellular pathways triggered by combined TLR plus Dectin-1 stimulation was determined by using pharmacologic inhibitors. The capacity of neonatal moDCs to differentiate naive CD4 TH cells was evaluated in cocultures with heterologous neonatal naive T cells. Curdlan was finally tested as an adjuvant within a subunit tuberculosis vaccine in neonatal mice. Simultaneous coactivation through Dectin-1 and TLRs induced robust secretion of IL-12p70 by neonatal moDCs by unlocking transcriptional control on the p35 subunit of IL-12. Both the spleen tyrosine kinase and Raf-1 pathways were involved in this process, allowing differentiation of neonatal naive T cells toward IFN-γ-producing TH1 cells. In vivo a Dectin-1 agonist as adjuvant was sufficient to induce TH1 responses after vaccination of neonatal mice. Coactivation of neonatal moDCs through Dectin-1 allows TLR-mediated IL-12p70 secretion and TH1 polarization of neonatal T cells. Dectin-1 agonists represent a promising TH1 adjuvant for pediatric vaccination. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a marker of, but not essential for the development of human Th1 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, Niels; Bregenholt, S; Eriksen, K W

    1999-01-01

    The CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) has recently been described as a surface marker of human T cells producing type 1 (Th1) cytokines. Here we confirm that CCR5 is expressed on human Th1 but not on Th2 T-cell clones. Using intracellular cytokine staining, we show that alloantigen specific CD4+ T....... These results were similar to those obtained from alloantigen specific CD4+ T-cell lines derived from CCR5 expressing individuals. An enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed that the Th1 cytokine-positive cells from the CCR5-deficient individual were able to produce equal amounts of cytokines when...

  12. TH1 and TH17 cells promote crescent formation in experimental autoimmune glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hünemörder, Stefanie; Treder, Julia; Ahrens, Stefanie; Schumacher, Valéa; Paust, Hans-Joachim; Menter, Thomas; Matthys, Patrick; Kamradt, Thomas; Meyer-Schwesinger, Catherine; Panzer, Ulf; Hopfer, Helmut; Mittrücker, Hans-Willi

    2015-09-01

    Autoimmunity against the Goodpasture antigen α3IV-NC1 results in crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN). Both antibodies and T cells directed against α3IV-NC1 have been implicated in disease development and progression. Using the model of experimental autoimmune glomerulonephritis (EAG) in DBA/1 mice, we aimed to characterize the frequency and function of α3IV-NC1-specific CD4(+) T cells in the kidneys. DBA/1 mice repeatedly immunized with human α3IV-NC1 developed necrotizing/crescentic GN. Kidneys with crescentic GN contained CD4(+) cells responding to α3IV-NC1 with the production of IFN-γ or IL-17A, demonstrating the accumulation of both α3IV-NC1-specific TH1 and TH17 cells. To test the functional relevance of TH1 and TH17 cells, EAG was induced in DBA/1 mice deficient in IFN-γR, IL-17A or IL-23p19. Mice of all knockout groups mounted α3IV-NC1 IgG, developed nephrotic range proteinuria, and IgG deposition to the glomerular basement membranes at levels similar to immunized wild-type mice. However, all knockout groups showed significantly fewer glomerular crescents and attenuated tubulointerstitial damage. Our results suggest that both α3IV-NC1-specific TH1 and TH17 cells accumulate in the kidneys and are crucial for the development of necrotizing/crescentic GN. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The Expression of Programmed Death-1 on CD4+ and CD8+ T Lymphocytes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Severe Sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Jia

    Full Text Available To investigate the expression of Programmed death-1 (PD-1 on T lymphocytes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and severe sepsis, we determined PD-1 expression on CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes of patients with T2DM, severe sepsis, and T2DM combined with severe sepsis.This prospective and observational study included 50 healthy controls, 80 cases of T2DM without infection (T2DM group, 88 cases of severe sepsis without T2DM (SS group, and 77 cases of severe sepsis combined with T2DM (SS+T2DM group. Expression of peripheral blood PD-1+ CD4+ T cells and PD-1+ CD8+ T cells were compared between these 4 groups. Then, 28-day survival of the SS and SS+T2DM patients was assessed, and the expression of PD-1 on T cells was also compared between survivors and non-survivors.Percentages of PD-1+ CD4+ T cells and PD-1+ CD8+ T cells were higher in the T2DM group than in the healthy control group, and were highest in the SS and SS+T2DM groups. However, the expression of PD-1 on T cells and the mortality showed no significant difference between the SS and SS+T2DM groups. The expression of PD-1 on T cells was higher in non-survivors than survivors, but within the survivor group or non-survivor group, no difference can be detected between those with T2DM and those without T2DM.The expression of PD-1 on T cells was increased in both T2DM and severe septic patients, but combining T2DM did not cause a further increase on the PD-1 expression in patients with severe sepsis.

  14. Human T lymphotropic virus type-1 p30II alters cellular gene expression to selectively enhance signaling pathways that activate T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feuer Gerold

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1 is a deltaretrovirus that causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and is implicated in a variety of lymphocyte-mediated disorders. HTLV-1 contains both regulatory and accessory genes in four pX open reading frames. pX ORF-II encodes two proteins, p13II and p30II, which are incompletely defined in the virus life cycle or HTLV-1 pathogenesis. Proviral clones of the virus with pX ORF-II mutations diminish the ability of the virus to maintain viral loads in vivo. Exogenous expression of p30II differentially modulates CREB and Tax-responsive element-mediated transcription through its interaction with CREB-binding protein/p300 and represses tax/rex RNA nuclear export. Results Herein, we further characterized the role of p30II in regulation of cellular gene expression, using stable p30II expression system employing lentiviral vectors to test cellular gene expression with Affymetrix U133A arrays, representing ~33,000 human genes. Reporter assays in Jurkat T cells and RT-PCR in Jurkat and primary CD4+ T-lymphocytes were used to confirm selected gene expression patterns. Our data reveals alterations of interrelated pathways of cell proliferation, T-cell signaling, apoptosis and cell cycle in p30II expressing Jurkat T cells. In all categories, p30II appeared to be an overall repressor of cellular gene expression, while selectively increasing the expression of certain key regulatory genes. Conclusions We are the first to demonstrate that p30II, while repressing the expression of many genes, selectively activates key gene pathways involved in T-cell signaling/activation. Collectively, our data suggests that this complex retrovirus, associated with lymphoproliferative diseases, relies upon accessory gene products to modify cellular environment to promote clonal expansion of the virus genome and thus maintain proviral loads in vivo.

  15. New approach for in vivo detection of insulitis in type I diabetes: activated lymphocyte targeting with [sup 123]I-labelled interleukin 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signore, S.; Chianelli, M.; Ferretti, E.; Toscano, A.; Britton, K.E.; Andreani, D.; Gale, E.A.M.; Pozzilli, P. (Clinical Medica II, Univ. of Rome (Italy))

    1994-10-01

    Insulitis is considered the histopathological hallmark of type I diabetes. In the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, diabetes has never been observed in the absence of insulitis. The in vivo detection of insulitis could be of relevance for early prediction of diabetes. As approximately 15% of islet-infiltrating lymphocytes express interleukin 2 receptors, the authors have labelled recombinant inter-leukin 2 with [sup 123]I and used this radiopharmaceutical to detect insulitis by gamma camera imaging. The authors studied 71 prediabetic NOD and 27 normal Balb/c mice. Labelled [alpha]-lactalbumin was used as the control protein. In the first set of experiments the tissue distribution of radiolabelled interleukin 2 in isolated organs from animals sacrificed at different time points was studied. Higher radioactivity was detected in the pancreas of NOD mice injected with labelled interleukin 2, as compared to NOD mice receiving labelled [alpha]-lactalbumin. In another set of experiments, gamma camera images have been acquired after injection of [sup 123]I-labelled interleukin 2. Radioactivity in the pancreatic region of prediabetic NOD and Balb/c mice showed similar kinetics to those observed by single organ counting, with higher accumulation in the pancreatic region of NOD mice. Finally, a positive correlation was found between the radioactivity in the pancreas and the extent of lymphocytic infiltration. This study demonstrates that [sup 123]I-labelled interleukin 2 administered intravenously accumulates specifically in the inflamed pancreas of diabetes-prone NOD mice, suggesting its potential application in human insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Obinutuzumab (GA101) for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell non-hodgkin's lymphomas: a glycoengineered type II CD20 antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goede, Valentin; Klein, Christian; Stilgenbauer, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Obinutuzumab (GA101) is a humanized, monoclonal type II CD20 antibody modified by glycoengineering. The glycoengineered Fc portion enhances the binding affinity to the FcγRIII receptor on immune effector cells, resulting in increased antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and phagocytosis. In addition, the type II antibody binding characteristics of obinutuzumab to CD20 lead to an efficient induction of direct non-apoptotic cell death. Preclinical data demonstrated more efficient B-cell depletion in whole blood and superior antitumor activity in xenograft models of obinutuzumab as compared to the type I CD20 antibody rituximab. In previously untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and comorbidities, obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil increased response rates and prolonged progression-free survival compared with rituximab plus chlorambucil. Obinutuzumab had an acceptable and manageable safety profile, with infusion-related reactions during the first infusion as the most common adverse event. Further phase I/II clinical trials have also shown promising activity in other CD20-positive B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL). Therefore, several clinical studies are planned or ongoing to investigate obinutuzumab with different combination partners in both untreated and relapsed/refractory patients with different B-cell NHL entities, which in addition to CLL include diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  17. T-cell effector function and unresponsiveness in the murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. I. On the mechanism of a selective suppression of the virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker, O; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    1986-01-01

    When the virus dose is increased from 10(2) (low dose) to 10(4) LD50 (high dose) a fatal lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection is changed into a subclinical one, and a selective virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) unresponsiveness is induced, while the cytotoxic T...

  18. Quantitative trait loci for CD4:CD8 lymphocyte ratio are associated with risk of type 1 diabetes and HIV-1 immune control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, Manuel A. R.; Mangino, Massimo; Brumme, Chanson J.; Zhao, Zhen Zhen; Medland, Sarah E.; Wright, Margaret J.; Nyholt, Dale R.; Gordon, Scott; Campbell, Megan; McEvoy, Brian P.; Henders, Anjali; Evans, David M.; Lanchbury, Jerry S.; Pereyra, Florencia; Walker, Bruce D.; Haas, David W.; Soranzo, Nicole; Spector, Tim D.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Frazer, Ian H.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Agan, Brian; Agarwal, Shanu; Allen, Brady; Altidor, Sherly; Altschuler, Eric; Ambardar, Sujata; Anastos, Kathryn; Anderson, Ben; Andrady, Ushan; Angell, Teresa; Appelbaum, Jonathan; Arnold, Kathy; Arroyo, Julio; Arthur, Ernie; Barbaro, Daniel; Barrett, Tom; Barrie, William; Barthel, Vincent; Bartlett, Mary E.; Barton, Simon; Basden, Pat; Basgoz, Nesli; Bellos, Nicholas; Berger, Judith; Bernard, Annette; Bernard, Nicole; Blair, Donald; Bodner, Stanley; Bolan, Robert; Boudreaux, Emilie; Braun, James; Brndjar, Jon; Brooks, Edward; Brown, Kathy; Brown, Stephen; Bryant, Susan; Bryson, Rena; Buchbinder, Susan; Bullock, Diane; Burack, Jedidah; Busalacchi, Mary; Bush, Larry; Cafaro, Virginia; Campbell, John; Cardosi, Beth; Carlson, Rob; Carmichael, Kevin; Carr, Pat; Carrington, Mary; Cavacuiti, Chris; Celestin, Greg; Chaborek, Michele; Chau, John; Chez, Nancy; Cimoch, Paul; Cohen, Daniel E.; Cohn, Bruce; Cohn, Lillian; Conway, Brian; Cooper, David; Cooper, Julie; Cornellson, Brian; Cowles, Anastacia; Cox, David; Cox-Iyamu, Roxanne; Cuchural, George; Daily, Michael; Daly, Jennifer; Dang, Son; Davis, Benjamin; Davis, Kristine; de Koning, P.; DeCardi Hladek, Melissa; Dechter, Mark; Deeks, Steven; DeFoto, Joseph; DeJesus, Edwin; Dennis, Deborah T.; Dolan, Matthew; Duggan, Joan; Dunn, Michael; Egenes, Karen; Ellerin, Todd; Elliott, Kathy; Eron, Joe; Fangman, John; Ferlazzo, Helen; Figueroa, Yvette; Fiola, Terri; Fisk, Stuart; Flaherty, Maureen; Fleenor-Ford, Anita; Forster, Alice; Fralich, Todd; Francke, Elliott; Frankel, Renee; Freedburg, Kenneth; French, Neel; Fuchs, Jonathan D.; Fuller, John; Gaberman, Jonna I.; Gallant, Joel; Gandhi, Rajesh; Ganesan, Anurdha; Garcia, Efrain; Gardner, Adrian; Garver, Patricia; Gastaldo, Joseph; Gathe, Joseph; Gaultier, Cyril; Gebre, Wondwoosen; Gelman, Marcy; Gilman, Frank; Gilmore, John; Gimbarevsky, Boris; Glaser, Jordan; Goepfert, Paul; Good, Gary; Gottlieb, Michael; Goulston, Claudia; Grimm, William; Groger, Richard; Guiteau, Jacques; Gurley, T. Douglas; Haber, Stuart; Hale, Braden; Halpenny, Roberta; Hardin, Theresa; Hardy, W. David; Hargan, Todd; Harrigan, Richard; Haston, Janna; Hawkins, Trevor; Hellinger, Walter; Henderson, Robert; Henderson, Tom; Henry, Keith; Hermann, Susan; Hernandez, Salvador; Hicks, Claire; Hoffman, Robert; Holland, Chris; Horton, James; Hoskinson, Scott; Hsu, Ricky K.; Huber, Janice; Huhn, Gregory; Humphrey, Rene; Hupert, Mark; Hurtado, Rocio; Illeman, Mark; Israelski, Dennis; Jellinger, Robert; Jessen, Heiko; John, Mina; Johnson, Kay; Jones, Mary; Jordan, Wilbert; Kauffman, Carol; Keba, Anna; Khanlou, Homayoon; Killian, Rob; Kim, Arthur; Kim, David; Kinder, Ford; Kirchner, Jeff; Kish, Mary Ann; Kocurek, Kathryn; Kogelman, Laura; Kojic, E. Milu; Kortuis, Todd; Kovacs, Julia; Kreiswirth, Stacey; Kuldanek, Greg; Kurisu, Wayne; Lackey, Phillip; Ladan, Ahmadi; Lanzafame, Massimiliano; Lederman, Michael; Lee, David; Lee, Ed; Lee, Jenny; Lee, Marah; LeGrand, James; Lemoine, Janice; Levin, Steve; Levy, Jay; Liguori, Michael; Lin, Nina; Little, Susan; Livine, Richard; Llibre, Josep M.; Lopez, Al; Loutfy, Mona; Loy, Dawn; Lubarda, Barbara; Magee, Thomas; Maksvytis, Harvey; Man, Alan; Mancuso, Stacey; Marconi, Vincent; Markowitz, Martin; Marques, Rui; Martin, William; Mayer, Gal; Mayer, Kenneth; McCrone, Cindy; McDonald, Cheryl; McGhee, Theresa; McIntyre, Dawn; McLean, P. Scott; McNett, Michael; Mead, Hazel; Mechling, Katherine; Melia, Michael; Metroka, Craig; Meyer-Olson, Dirk; Michael, Brent; Miller, Andy; Montana, John; Montgomery, Kate; Morice, Anthony; Mounzer, Karam; Munoz, Michael; Nagin, Iris; Nahass, Ron; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Nelson, Sandra; Nielsen, Craig; Norene, David; Novales, Susan; O'Connor, David; O'Donnell, Laura; Oldfield, Edward; Olender, Susan; Ojikutu, Bisola; Owens, William; Panzer, Todd; Parks, Brad; Pattison, Julie; Pavlatos, Andy; Perlmutter, Aaron; Pierce, Michael Norman; Pollak, Deborah; Rowe, Emile; Pressnell, Richard; Price, Lawrence; Proia, Laurie; Prokesch, Richard; Prutch, Peter; Pujet, Heather; Rausch, Michael; Ravinshankar, Jayashree; Restrepo, Dalilah; Rhame, Frank; Richards, Constance; Richman, Douglas D.; Robbins, Gregory; Rose, Richard; Rosenthal, Daniel; Ross, Polly; Rubin, David; Rumbaugh, Elease; Sanchez, Will; Sanjana, Veeraf; Santiago, Stephen; Santos, Rene; Sax, Paul; Scherman, Debra; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Shrader, Shannon; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Scribner, Anita; Sestak, Phillip; Shalit, Peter; Shay, William; Sherman, Jeffrey; Shirvani, Vivian; Sims, James; Sizemore, Jay; Slotten, Ross; Smiddy, Joseph; Sokol-Anderson, Marcia; Somogi, Rachel; Sordjan, Renee; Sosman, James; Stabile, Paul; Stapleton, Jack; Starrett, Sharee; Staszkow, Kaleo; Stearn, Ben; Stellbrink, Hans-Jurgen; Sterman, Lisa; Steyn, Tinus; Stone, David; Stone, Valerie; Ta, Ha; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Taplitz, Randy; Tashmia, Karen; Tavari, Daniel; Tedaldi, Ellen; Telenti, Amalio; Tierney, Marianne; Tillquist, Carolyn; Tosiello, Lorraine; Tremblay, Cécile; Triant, Virginia Jeanne; Tribble, Marc; Trinh, P.; Tuscher, Susan; Vaccaro, Anthony J.; Valadas, Emilia; Vecino, Isabel; Wagner, Theresa; Walworth, Charles; Wanidworanun, Chingchai; Ward, Douglas; Warner, Daniel; Watson, Terry; Weber, Karl; Weber, Terry; Webster, Duncan; Weinberg, Winkler; Weintrob, Amy; Weis, Steve; Wenger, Scott; Werntz, Gary; Wheeler, David; White, David; Wilkins, Ed; Winston, Alan; Wlodaver, Clifford; Wolf, Eva; Wright, David; Yang, Otto; Yawetz, Sigal; Yurdin, David L.; Zabukovic, Brandon; Zachary, Kimon; Zeeman, Beth; Baker, Brett; Block, Brian; Braaten, Conrad; Darrah, Aisha Tiala; LaTour, Brooke; Lian, Jeffrey; McClurg, Cheryl; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Proudfoot, Jacqueline; Rothchild, Alissa; Toth, Ildiko; Barefoot, Laurie; Bazner, Suzane; Cutrell, Emily; Johnston, Mary; Lemay, Paul; Moss, Kristin; Oladehin, Olakunle; Rosenberg, Rachel; Tinsley, Jake; Tsao, Alice; Addo, Marylyn; Allen, Todd; Alter, Galit; Altfeld, Marcus; Legall, Sylvie; Walker, Bruce; Yu, Xu; Burtt, Noël; Carmago, Amy; Crawford, Gabriel; Crenshaw, Andrew; Davies, Leela; Gabriel, Stacey; Gianniny, Lauren; Guiducci, Candace; Brumme, Chanson; de Bakker, Paul; Jia, Xiaoming; McLaren, Paul; Haas, David; Kuritzkes, Daniel; Gulick, Roy; Ribaudo, Heather; Deeks, Steve; Henn, Matthew; Le Gall, Sylvie; Heckerman, David

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal expansion or depletion of particular lymphocyte subsets is associated with clinical manifestations such as HIV progression to AIDS and autoimmune disease. We sought to identify genetic predictors of lymphocyte levels and reasoned that these may play a role in immune-related diseases. We

  19. T-bet-independent Th1 response induces intestinal immunopathology during Toxoplasma gondii infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Yglesias, Américo H; Burger, Elise; Araujo, Alessandra; Martin, Andrew T; Yarovinsky, Felix

    2018-01-03

    Coordinated production of IFN-γ by innate and adaptive immune cells is central for host defense, but can also trigger immunopathology. The investigation of the lymphoid cell-specific contribution to the IFN-γ-mediated intestinal pathology during Toxoplasma gondii infection identified CD4+ T cells as a key cell population responsible for IFN-γ-dependent intestinal inflammation and Paneth cell loss, where T-bet-dependent group 1 innate lymphoid cells have a minor role in driving the parasite-induced immunopathology. This was evident from the analysis of T-bet deficiency that did not prevent the intestinal inflammation and instead revealed that T-bet-deficient CD4+ Th1 cells are sufficient for T. gondii-triggered acute ileitis and Paneth cell loss. These results revealed that T-bet-independent Th1 effector cells are major functional mediators of the type I immunopathological response during acute gastrointestinal infection.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 3 January 2018 2017; doi:10.1038/mi.2017.102.

  20. CXCL13 and TH1/Th2 cytokines in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of neurosyphilis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yongxing; Wang, Jun; Qu, Bin; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Yingnan; Liu, Huili; Wu, Chunli

    2017-11-01

    Neurosyphilis is a chronic infectious disease with involvement of central nervous system infection by Treponema pallidum. This study was to investigate the contents of B lymphocyte chemokine 1 (BLC-1/chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 13), Th1 cytokines (Interleukin [IL]-2, IL-12, and Interferon [IFN]-γ), and Th2 cytokines (IL-6 and IL-10) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of HIV-negative patients with neurosyphilis before and after treatment, aiming to elucidate roles of CXCL13 and Th1/Th2 cytokines in immune response to and pathogenesis of neurosyphilis.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was employed to detect the contents of CXCL13, IL-2, IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-10 in serum and CSF of 47 HIV-negative patients with neurosyphilis, 36 syphilis patients without neurological involvement and 23 controls (noninfectious intracranial disease) before, 3 and 12 months after treatment with high dose penicillin.Results showed that there was no significant difference in blood CXCL13 content among 3 groups (P > .05); CSF CXCL13 content in neurosyphilis patients was significantly higher than in other 2 groups (P  .05). CSF CXCL13 content was positively related with IL-6 and IL-10 content, while negatively related to IL-12 content in neurosyphilis patients. CSF IL-6 content was negatively related with IL-12 content. In neurosyphilis patients, the CSF CXCL13 content reduced significantly at 3 and 12 months (P cytokines are involved in the immune response of neurosyphilis patients. CSF CXCL13 and Th1/Th2 cytokines contents may be used for the diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of neurosyphilis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Th1 and Th2 immune response to P30 and ROP18 peptides in human toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Morales, Elizabeth; Taborda, Laura; Cardona, Nestor; De-la-Torre, Alejandra; Sepulveda-Arias, Juan Carlos; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso; Gomez-Marin, Jorge Enrique

    2014-10-01

    We determined the specific lymphocyte proliferative response and cytokine profile production regarding Toxoplasma P30 (2017 from virulent and non-virulent strain) and ROP18 protein-derived peptides (from clonal lineages I, II and III) in 19 patients having ocular toxoplasmosis, five suffering chronic asymptomatic infection, nine with congenital toxoplasmosis and eight Toxoplasma negative people. A Beckman Coulter FC500 flow cytometer was used for determining antigen-specific T cells (CD3+ CD4+ or CD3+ CD8+ cells) in peripheral blood culture. IFN γ and IL10 levels were determined in culture supernatants. Specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell response to total antigen and P30- and ROP18-derived peptides was observed in infected people. Ocular toxoplasmosis patients had a preferential Th2 response after antigenic stimulation. Non-virulent peptide 2017 was able to shift response toward Th1 in congenitally infected children and virulent peptide 2017 induced a Th2 response in chronically infected, asymptomatic people. An immune response in human toxoplasmosis after ex vivo antigenic stimulation was Th1- or Th2-skewed, depending on a patient's clinical condition. Colombian ocular toxoplasmosis patients' immune response was Th2-skewed, regardless of the nature of antigen stimulus.

  2. Recombinant murine IL-12 promotes a protective Th1/cellular response in Mongolian gerbils infected with Sporothrix schenckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-García, Aurelio; Velarde-Félix, Jesús Salvador; Garibaldi-Becerra, Vicente; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor; Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Zepeda-Carrillo, Eloy Alfonso; Ruíz-Bernés, Salvador; Ochoa-Ramírez, Luis Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Sporotrichosis is a cutaneous fungal infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii. It is known to be mainly contained by Th1 responses. As IL-12 is crucial for Th1 response, we investigated if treatment with recombinant murine IL-12 (rmIL-12) promoted Th1 immunity and/or clinical improvement in an experimental sporotrichosis gerbil model. Gerbils were inoculated with S. schenckii in the footpad and treated with rmIL-12. Seven days post infection there was a significant increase in macrophage phagocytosis and oxidative burst, and in delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction in rmIL-12 treated gerbils, as well as a ∼10-fold increase of serum IFN-gamma and a decrease of IL-4 and IL-10. Moreover, rmIL-12 substantially decreased (∼70%) S. schenckii burden in liver and spleen and improved the clinical outcome preventing footpad ulcer and tail nodules observed in untreated gerbils. Our study demonstrates that rmIL-12 promotes Th1 immune response against S. schenckii favouring its clearance and preventing clinical symptoms.

  3. Occurrence of nodular lymphocyte-predominant hodgkin lymphoma in hermansky-pudlak type 2 syndrome is associated to natural killer and natural killer T cell defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Lorenzi

    Full Text Available Hermansky Pudlak type 2 syndrome (HPS2 is a rare autosomal recessive primary immune deficiency caused by mutations on β3A gene (AP3B1 gene. The defect results in the impairment of the adaptor protein 3 (AP-3 complex, responsible for protein sorting to secretory lysosomes leading to oculo-cutaneous albinism, bleeding disorders and immunodeficiency. We have studied peripheral blood and lymph node biopsies from two siblings affected by HPS2. Lymph node histology showed a nodular lymphocyte predominance type Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL in both HPS2 siblings. By immunohistochemistry, CD8 T-cells from HPS2 NLPHL contained an increased amount of perforin (Prf + suggesting a defect in the release of this granules-associated protein. By analyzing peripheral blood immune cells we found a significant reduction of circulating NKT cells and of CD56(brightCD16(- Natural Killer (NK cells subset. Functionally, NK cells were defective in their cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines including Hodgkin Lymphoma as well as in IFN-γ production. This defect was associated with increased baseline level of CD107a and CD63 at the surface level of unstimulated and IL-2-activated NK cells. In summary, these results suggest that a combined and profound defect of innate and adaptive effector cells might explain the susceptibility to infections and lymphoma in these HPS2 patients.

  4. FOXP3+T-REGULATORY LYMPHOCYTES AND AUTOANTIBODIES IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION, ASSOCIATED WITH DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2 AND IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Kologrivova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When studying patients with an association of arterial hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus, we have shown a lower number of FoxP3+T-regulatory cells, as well as elevated levels of anti-myocardial antibodies and autoantibodies to nuclear antigens. In a group with combination of impaired glucose tolerance and arterial hypertension, a decrease in T-regulatory lymphocytes’ numbers, along with increased rheumatoid factor and antimitochondrial autoantibodies concentrations were observed. Arterial hypertension was combined with dyslipidemia, being accompanied by higher levels of rheumatoid factor and antibodies to nuclear antigens. In all these clinical groups, we revealed close correlations between concentrations of autoantibodies, FoxP3+T-regulatory lymphocyte scores, and parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The results, obtained in present study, allow us to suggest that metabolic disturbances may be associated with altered immune tolerance mechanisms and activation of humoral immune response that are detectable since early stages of the disease and may contribute to development of complications occurring in diabetes mellitus type 2.

  5. Dendritic cells preferentially transfer CXCR4-using human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants to CD4(+) T lymphocytes in trans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Montfort, Thijs; Thomas, Adri A. M.; Pollakis, Georgios; Paxton, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) preferentially utilizes the CCR5 coreceptor for target cell entry in the acute phase of infection, while later in disease progression the virus switches to the CXCR4 coreceptor in approximately 50% of patients. In response to IHV-I the adaptive immune

  6. Th1/Th2 cell dichotomy in acquired immunity to Bordetella pertussis: variables in the in vivo priming and in vitro cytokine detection techniques affect the classification of T cell subsets as Th1, Th2 or Th0

    OpenAIRE

    MILLS, KINGSTON

    1996-01-01

    PUBLISHED In studies of the mechanism of immunity to Bordetella pertussis in a murine respiratory infection model, we have previously demonstrated that natural infection of immunization with a whole cell vaccine induces a potent protective immune response, which is mediated by T-helper type-1 (Th1) cells. In contrast an acellular vaccine generates Th2 cells and is associated with delayed bacterial clearance following respiratory challenge. In the present study we have investigated the appa...

  7. Molecular insight into the immune up-regulatory properties of the leaf extract of Ashwagandha and identification of Th1 immunostimulatory chemical entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sheema; Malik, Fayaz; Suri, Krishan A; Singh, Jaswant

    2009-10-09

    Withania somnifera, commonly called Ashwagandha in the Indian traditional system of medicine has been reported for several pharmacological activities. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the potential role of the chemically standardized leaf extract of W. somnifera (WSL) and it's identified component in activating immune system. WSL enhanced Th1 cytokine IFN-gamma expression in Con A primed splenocytes in vitro. When given orally for 2 weeks to BALB/c mice immunized with emulsion of OVA in Freund's adjuvant (OVA-FCA), it caused dose-dependent proliferation of T cells and improved their ability to secrete IL-2 and IFN-gamma, but moderately down-regulated Th2 cytokine IL-4. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte surface markers of T cells CD3(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+), and B cells CD19(+) indicated prominent enhancement in proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes. Further, the effect of WSL in immunized mice elicited up-regulation of beta-integrins LFA (CD11a) and Mac-1 (CD11b) in splenocytes. Co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 that are important secondary signals for the activation of immune system elicited remarkable enhanced expression when observed in spleen-derived macrophages isolated from WSL treated mice. Chemical standardization of WSL suggested that the withanolide 2,3 dihydro-3-sulphonile withanone is a major constituent of WSL responsible for skewing to Th1 immune polarization by stimulating the expression of IFN-gamma and B cell switch over to secrete IgG2a while simultaneously enhancing the expression of co-stimulatory molecules and integrins. These studies demonstrate the possible usefulness of WSL and its major constituent WSL-2 as Th1 immune adjuvants for chronic infectious ailments where patients suffer from weakened Th1 immunity.

  8. Cathepsin B in antigen-presenting cells controls mediators of the Th1 immune response during Leishmania major infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris J Gonzalez-Leal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Resistance and susceptibility to Leishmania major infection in the murine model is determined by the capacity of the host to mount either a protective Th1 response or a Th2 response associated with disease progression. Previous reports involving the use of cysteine cathepsin inhibitors indicated that cathepsins B (Ctsb and L (Ctsl play important roles in Th1/Th2 polarization during L. major infection in both susceptible and resistant mouse strains. Although it was hypothesized that these effects are a consequence of differential patterns of antigen processing, the mechanisms underlying these differences were not further investigated. Given the pivotal roles that dendritic cells and macrophages play during Leishmania infection, we generated bone-marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC and macrophages (BMM from Ctsb-/- and Ctsl-/- mice, and studied the effects of Ctsb and Ctsl deficiency on the survival of L. major in infected cells. Furthermore, the signals used by dendritic cells to instruct Th cell polarization were addressed: the expression of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules, and cytokine production. We found that Ctsb-/- BMDC express higher levels of MHC class II molecules than wild-type (WT and Ctsl-/- BMDC, while there were no significant differences in the expression of co-stimulatory molecules between cathepsin-deficient and WT cells. Moreover, both BMDC and BMM from Ctsb-/- mice significantly up-regulated the levels of interleukin 12 (IL-12 expression, a key Th1-inducing cytokine. These findings indicate that Ctsb-/- BMDC display more pro-Th1 properties than their WT and Ctsl-/- counterparts, and therefore suggest that Ctsb down-regulates the Th1 response to L. major. Moreover, they propose a novel role for Ctsb as a regulator of cytokine expression.

  9. Polysaccharides from Ganoderma formosanum function as a Th1 adjuvant and stimulate cytotoxic T cell response in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Chia-Chen; Chu, Ching-Liang; Lu, Chu-Ying; Zhuang, Yu-Jing; Wang, Cheng-Li; Yu, Yao-Hsuan; Wang, Hui-Yi; Lin, Chih-Chung; Chen, Chun-Jen

    2014-01-09

    The fungus of Ganoderma is a basidiomycete that possesses a variety of pharmacological effects and has been used in traditional Asian medicine for centuries. Ganoderma formosanum is a native Ganoderma species isolated in Taiwan, and we have previously demonstrated that PS-F2, a polysaccharide fraction purified from the submerged culture broth of G. formosanum, exhibits immunostimulatory properties in macrophages. In this study, we further characterized the adjuvant functions of PS-F2. In vitro, PS-F2 stimulated dendritic cells (DCs) to produce proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-12/IL-23 p40. PS-F2 also stimulated DCs to express the maturation markers CD40, CD80, CD86, and MHC class II. In a murine splenocyte culture, PS-F2 treatment resulted in elevated expression of T-bet and interferon (IFN)-γ in T lymphocytes. When used as an adjuvant in vivo with the ovalbumin (OVA) antigen, PS-F2 stimulated OVA-specific antibody production and primed IFN-γ production in OVA-specific T lymphocytes. PS-F2-adjuvated immunization also induced OVA-specific CTLs, which protected mice from a challenge with tumor cells expressing OVA. Collectively, our data show that PS-F2 functions as an adjuvant capable of inducing a Th1-polarized adaptive immune response, which would be useful in vaccines against viruses and tumors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of the T and B lymphocytes in pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydzewska, Marta; Jaromin, Michał; Pasierowska, Izabela Elżbieta; Stożek, Karlina; Bossowski, Artur

    2018-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITD) broadly include Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis which are the most common causes of thyroid gland dysfunctions. These disorders develop due to complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors and are characterized by reactivity to self-thyroid antigens due to autoreactive lymphocytes escaping tolerance. Both cell-mediated and humoral responses lead to tissue injury in autoimmune thyroid disease. The differentiation of CD4+ cells in the specific setting of immune mediators (for example cytokines, chemokines) results in differentiation of various T cell subsets. T cell identification has shown a mixed pattern of cytokine production indicating that both subtypes of T helper, Th1 and Th2, responses are involved in all types of AITD. Furthermore, recent studies described T cell subtypes Th17 and Treg which also play an essential role in pathogenesis of AITD. This review will focus on the role of the T regulatory (Treg) and T helper (Th) (especially Th17) lymphocytes, and also of B lymphocytes in AITD pathogenesis. However, we have much more to learn about cellular mechanisms and interactions in AITD before we can develop complete understanding of AITD pathophysiology.

  11. 5-Lipoxygenase negatively regulates Th1 response during Brucella abortus infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahel, Júlia Silveira; de Souza, Mariana Bueno; Gomes, Marco Túlio Ribeiro; Corsetti, Patricia P; Carvalho, Natalia B; Marinho, Fabio A V; de Almeida, Leonardo A; Caliari, Marcelo V; Machado, Fabiana Simão; Oliveira, Sergio Costa

    2015-03-01

    Brucella abortus is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects humans and cattle, causing a chronic inflammatory disease known as brucellosis. A Th1-mediated immune response plays a critical role in host control of this pathogen. Recent findings indicate contrasting roles for lipid mediators in host responses against infections. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) is an enzyme required for the production of the lipid mediators leukotrienes and lipoxins. To determine the involvement of 5-LO in host responses to B. abortus infection, we intraperitoneally infected wild-type and 5-LO-deficient mice and evaluated the progression of infection and concomitant expression of immune mediators. Here, we demonstrate that B. abortus induced the upregulation of 5-LO mRNA in wild-type mice. Moreover, this pathogen upregulated the production of the lipid mediators leukotriene B4 and lipoxin A4 in a 5-LO-dependent manner. 5-LO-deficient mice displayed lower bacterial burdens in the spleen and liver and less severe liver pathology, demonstrating an enhanced resistance to infection. Host resistance paralleled an increased expression of the proinflammatory mediators interleukin-12 (IL-12), gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) during the course of infection. Moreover, we demonstrated that 5-LO downregulated the expression of IL-12 in macrophages during B. abortus infection. Our results suggest that 5-LO has a major involvement in B. abortus infection, by functioning as a negative regulator of the protective Th1 immune responses against this pathogen. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Production of IL-16 correlates with CD4+ Th1 inflammation and phosphorylation of axonal cytoskeleton in multiple sclerosis lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Juan

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS is a central nervous system-specific autoimmune, demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease. Infiltration of lesions by autoaggressive, myelin-specific CD4+Th1 cells correlates with clinical manifestations of disease. The cytokine IL-16 is a CD4+ T cell-specific chemoattractant that is biased towards CD4+ Th1 cells. IL-16 precursor is constitutively expressed in lymphocytes and during CD4+ T cell activation; active caspase-3 cleaves and releases C-terminal bioactive IL-16. Previously, we used an animal model of MS to demonstrate an important role for IL-16 in regulation of autoimmune inflammation and subsequent axonal damage. This role of IL-16 in MS is largely unexplored. Here we examine the regulation of IL-16 in relation to CD4+ Th1 infiltration and inflammation-related changes of axonal cytoskeleton in MS lesions. Methods We measured relative levels of IL-16, active caspase-3, T-bet, Stat-1 (Tyr 701, and phosphorylated NF(M+H, in brain and spinal cord lesions from MS autopsies, using western blot analysis. We examined samples from 39 MS cases, which included acute, subacute and chronic lesions, as well as adjacent, normal-appearing white and grey matter. All samples were taken from patients with relapsing remitting clinical disease. We employed two-color immunostaining and confocal microscopy to identify phenotypes of IL-16-containing cells in frozen tissue sections from MS lesions. Results We found markedly increased levels of pro- and secreted IL-16 (80 kD and 22 kD, respectively in MS lesions compared to controls. Levels of IL-16 peaked in acute, diminished in subacute, and were elevated again in chronic active lesions. Compared to lesions, lower but still appreciable IL-6 levels were measured in normal-appearing white matter adjacent to active lesions. Levels of IL-16 corresponded to increases in active-caspase-3, T-bet and phosphorylated Stat-1. In MS lesions, we readily observed IL-16

  13. Regulatory role of pro-Th1 and pro-Th2 cytokines in modulating the activity of Th1 and Th2 cells when B cell and macrophages are used as antigen presenting cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrewala Javed N

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presence of antigen presenting cells, expression of costimulatory molecules, the strength of first signal and cytokine milieu are quite important in influencing the reactivation of differentiated Th1 and Th2 cells. Results In the present study, we have analyzed the concerted action of pro-Th1 and pro-Th2 cytokines in the presence of B cells, peritoneal and splenic macrophages as antigen presenting cells and varied concentration of first (anti-CD3 Ab and second (B7-1 transfectant signals on the proliferation and cytokine secretion by Th1 and Th2 cells. Interesting observations were made that IFN-γ significantly augmented the secretion of IL-4 by Th2 cells when either B cells or splenic or peritoneal macrophages were used as APC. Further, IFN-γ significantly inhibited the proliferation of Th1 cells only in the presence of peritoneal macrophages. We have also observed that B cells could significantly respond to cytokines to further enhance the proliferation and cytokine release by Th1 and Th2 cells. But not much effect on addition of exogenous cytokines IL-1, IL-4, IL-5, IL-12 was observed on the proliferation of Th1 and Th2 cells in the presence of macrophages. In contrast, both IFN-γ and IL-2 significantly enhanced the production of IL-4 and IL-5 respectively, by Th2 cells in presence of B cells, splenic and peritoneal macrophages. Another important observation was that the addition of B7-1 transfectants in the cultures, which were stimulated with low dose of anti-CD3 Ab significantly, enhanced the proliferation and cytokine secretion. Conclusion This study indicates involvement of different type of APCs, cytokine milieu, dose of first and second signals in a concerted manner in the outcome of the immune response. The significance of this study is that the immunization with antigen along with costimulatory molecules may significantly reduce the dose of antigen and can generate better immune response than antigen alone.

  14. Cigarette smoke induction of Interleukin-27/WSX-1 regulates the differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells in a smoking mouse model of emphysema

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    Shi-Lin Qiu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available IFN-γ-producing CD4+T (Th1 cells and IL-17-producing CD4+T (Th17 cells play a critical role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, the immune regulation between Th1 and Th17 cells remains unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated that IL-27/WSX-1 exerted pro- or anti-inflammatory effects in many acute inflammatory diseases by modulating T cell-mediated immune response, but little was known about its role in chronic inflammatory disease, especially in smoking-related lung diseases. Considering IL-27 is an important regulator in T lymphocytes immune responses and was markedly increased in patients with COPD, we hypothesize that IL-27/WSX-1 may exert immuno-regulatory effects on the differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells in smoking-related COPD. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the expression of IL-27 in patients with COPD and explore the role of IL-27/WSX-1 on Th1 and Th17 cells differentiation in a smoking mouse model of emphysema. We found that elevated expression of IL-27 was associated with increased proportion of Th1 cells and Th17 cells in patients with COPD and demonstrated parallel findings in cigarette smoke exposed mice. In addition, cigarette smoke exposure up-regulated the expression of IL-27R (WSX-1 by naive CD4+T cells in mice. In vitro, IL-27 significantly augmented the secretion of IFN-γ by naive CD4+ T cells via a T-bet, p-STAT1 and p-STAT3-dependent manner, but inhibited the production of IL-17 by a ROR-γt and p-STAT1-dependent way. Furthermore, anti-IL27 treatment dramatically decreased the expression of IFN-γ-producing CD+4 T cells in cigarette smoke exposed mice. These findings proposed that IL-27 has functions for promoting the expression of Th1 cells but inhibiting the expression of Th17 cells in vitro and IL-27 neutralization attenuated Th1-mediated inflammation in vivo, suggesting targeting IL-27/WSX-1 may provide a new therapeutic approach for smoking-related COPD.

  15. Selective destruction of mouse islet beta cells by human T lymphocytes in a newly-established humanized type 1 diabetic model

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    Zhao, Yong, E-mail: yongzhao@uic.edu [Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Guo, Chengshan; Hwang, David; Lin, Brian; Dingeldein, Michael; Mihailescu, Dan; Sam, Susan; Sidhwani, Seema [Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Zhang, Yongkang [Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Jain, Sumit [Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Skidgel, Randal A. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Prabhakar, Bellur S. [Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Mazzone, Theodore [Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Holterman, Mark J. [Department of Surgery, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Establish a human immune-mediated type 1 diabetic model in NOD-scid IL2r{gamma}{sup null} mice. {yields} Using the irradiated diabetic NOD mouse spleen mononuclear cells as trigger. {yields} The islet {beta} cells were selectively destroyed by infiltrated human T cells. {yields} The model can facilitate translational research to find a cure for type 1 diabetes. -- Abstract: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by a T cell-mediated autoimmune response that leads to the loss of insulin-producing {beta} cells. The optimal preclinical testing of promising therapies would be aided by a humanized immune-mediated T1D model. We develop this model in NOD-scid IL2r{gamma}{sup null} mice. The selective destruction of pancreatic islet {beta} cells was mediated by human T lymphocytes after an initial trigger was supplied by the injection of irradiated spleen mononuclear cells (SMC) from diabetic nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. This resulted in severe insulitis, a marked loss of total {beta}-cell mass, and other related phenotypes of T1D. The migration of human T cells to pancreatic islets was controlled by the {beta} cell-produced highly conserved chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and its receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor (CXCR) 4, as demonstrated by in vivo blocking experiments using antibody to CXCR4. The specificity of humanized T cell-mediated immune responses against islet {beta} cells was generated by the local inflammatory microenvironment in pancreatic islets including human CD4{sup +} T cell infiltration and clonal expansion, and the mouse islet {beta}-cell-derived CD1d-mediated human iNKT activation. The selective destruction of mouse islet {beta} cells by a human T cell-mediated immune response in this humanized T1D model can mimic those observed in T1D patients. This model can provide a valuable tool for translational research into T1D.

  16. Liposome delivery of Chlamydia muridarum major outer membrane protein primes a Th1 response that protects against genital chlamydial infection in a mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jon; Jensen, Klaus Thorleif; Follmann, Frank

    2008-01-01

    reported as being important for raising protective immunity. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with native refolded Chlamydia muridarum major outer membrane protein (MOMP) adjuvanted with either Th1-promoting cationic adjuvant formulation 1 (CAF01) or T helper cells type 2-promoting aluminum hydroxide (alum......BACKGROUND: Immunity to chlamydia is thought to rely on interferon (IFN)-gamma-secreting T helper cells type 1 (Th1) with an additional effect of secreted antibodies. A need for Th1-polarizing adjuvants in experimental chlamydia vaccines has been demonstrated, and antigen conformation has also been......) received a genital inoculation of 1.5 x 10(5) inclusion-forming units of C. muridarum. The role played by CD4(+) T cells in MOMP/CAF01-raised immunity was investigated by depleting CD4(+) T cells in vaccinated mice, and antigen conformation dependence was evaluated by vaccination with recombinant MOMP...

  17. Memory Th1 Cells Are Protective in Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brown, Aisling F

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of protective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans remain elusive. While the importance of cellular immunity has been shown in mice, T cell responses in humans have not been characterised. Using a murine model of recurrent S. aureus peritonitis, we demonstrated that prior exposure to S. aureus enhanced IFNγ responses upon subsequent infection, while adoptive transfer of S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells was protective in naïve mice. Translating these findings, we found that S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells were also significantly expanded during human S. aureus bloodstream infection (BSI). These Th1 cells were CD45RO+, indicative of a memory phenotype. Thus, exposure to S. aureus induces memory Th1 cells in mice and humans, identifying Th1 cells as potential S. aureus vaccine targets. Consequently, we developed a model vaccine comprising staphylococcal clumping factor A, which we demonstrate to be an effective human T cell antigen, combined with the Th1-driving adjuvant CpG. This novel Th1-inducing vaccine conferred significant protection during S. aureus infection in mice. This study notably advances our understanding of S. aureus cellular immunity, and demonstrates for the first time that a correlate of S. aureus protective immunity identified in mice may be relevant in humans.

  18. Memory Th1 Cells Are Protective in Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisling F Brown

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of protective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans remain elusive. While the importance of cellular immunity has been shown in mice, T cell responses in humans have not been characterised. Using a murine model of recurrent S. aureus peritonitis, we demonstrated that prior exposure to S. aureus enhanced IFNγ responses upon subsequent infection, while adoptive transfer of S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells was protective in naïve mice. Translating these findings, we found that S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells were also significantly expanded during human S. aureus bloodstream infection (BSI. These Th1 cells were CD45RO+, indicative of a memory phenotype. Thus, exposure to S. aureus induces memory Th1 cells in mice and humans, identifying Th1 cells as potential S. aureus vaccine targets. Consequently, we developed a model vaccine comprising staphylococcal clumping factor A, which we demonstrate to be an effective human T cell antigen, combined with the Th1-driving adjuvant CpG. This novel Th1-inducing vaccine conferred significant protection during S. aureus infection in mice. This study notably advances our understanding of S. aureus cellular immunity, and demonstrates for the first time that a correlate of S. aureus protective immunity identified in mice may be relevant in humans.

  19. Delayed Activation Kinetics of Th2- and Th17 Cells Compared to Th1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duechting, Andrea; Przybyla, Anna; Kuerten, Stefanie; Lehmann, Paul V

    2017-09-12

    During immune responses, different classes of T cells arise: Th1, Th2, and Th17. Mobilizing the right class plays a critical role in successful host defense and therefore defining the ratios of Th1/Th2/Th17 cells within the antigen-specific T cell repertoire is critical for immune monitoring purposes. Antigen-specific Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells can be detected by challenging peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with antigen, and establishing the numbers of T cells producing the respective lead cytokine, IFN-γ and IL-2 for Th1 cells, IL-4 and IL-5 for Th2, and IL-17 for Th-17 cells, respectively. Traditionally, these cytokines are measured within 6 h in flow cytometry. We show here that 6 h of stimulation is sufficient to detect peptide-induced production of IFN-γ, but 24 h are required to reveal the full frequency of protein antigen-specific Th1 cells. Also the detection of IL-2 producing Th1 cells requires 24 h stimulation cultures. Measurements of IL-4 producing Th2 cells requires 48-h cultures and 96 h are required for frequency measurements of IL-5 and IL-17 secreting T cells. Therefore, accounting for the differential secretion kinetics of these cytokines is critical for the accurate determination of the frequencies and ratios of antigen-specific Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells.

  20. Memory Th1 Cells Are Protective in Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Stephen J.; Leech, John M.; O’Keeffe, Kate M.; Mac Aogáin, Micheál; O’Halloran, Dara P.; Lacey, Keenan A.; Tavakol, Mehri; Hearnden, Claire H.; Fitzgerald-Hughes, Deirdre; Humphreys, Hilary; Fennell, Jérôme P.; van Wamel, Willem J.; Foster, Timothy J.; Geoghegan, Joan A.; Lavelle, Ed C.; Rogers, Thomas R.; McLoughlin, Rachel M.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of protective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans remain elusive. While the importance of cellular immunity has been shown in mice, T cell responses in humans have not been characterised. Using a murine model of recurrent S. aureus peritonitis, we demonstrated that prior exposure to S. aureus enhanced IFNγ responses upon subsequent infection, while adoptive transfer of S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells was protective in naïve mice. Translating these findings, we found that S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells were also significantly expanded during human S. aureus bloodstream infection (BSI). These Th1 cells were CD45RO+, indicative of a memory phenotype. Thus, exposure to S. aureus induces memory Th1 cells in mice and humans, identifying Th1 cells as potential S. aureus vaccine targets. Consequently, we developed a model vaccine comprising staphylococcal clumping factor A, which we demonstrate to be an effective human T cell antigen, combined with the Th1-driving adjuvant CpG. This novel Th1-inducing vaccine conferred significant protection during S. aureus infection in mice. This study notably advances our understanding of S. aureus cellular immunity, and demonstrates for the first time that a correlate of S. aureus protective immunity identified in mice may be relevant in humans. PMID:26539822

  1. Microscopic colitis patients demonstrate a mixed Th17/Tc17 and Th1/Tc1 mucosal cytokine profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumawat, Ashok Kumar; Strid, Hilja; Tysk, Curt; Bohr, Johan; Hörnquist, Elisabeth Hultgren

    2013-10-01

    Microscopic colitis (MC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disorder of unknown aetiology comprising collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC). Data on the local cytokine profile in MC is limited. This study investigated the T helper (Th) cell and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) mucosal cytokine profile at messenger and protein levels in MC patients. Mucosal biopsies from CC (n=10), LC (n=5), and CC or LC patients in histopathological remission (CC-HR, n=4), (LC-HR, n=6), ulcerative colitis (UC, n=3) and controls (n=10) were analysed by real-time PCR and Luminex for expression/production of IL-1β, -4, -5, -6, -10, -12, -17, -21, -22, -23, IFN-γ, TNF-α, T-bet and RORC2. Mucosal mRNA but not protein levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 were significantly up regulated in CC, LC as well as UC patients compared to controls. Transcription of the Th1 transcription factor T-bet was significantly enhanced in CC but not LC patients. mRNA levels for IL-17A, IL-21, IL-22 and IL-6 were significantly up regulated in CC and LC patients compared to controls, albeit less than in UC patients. Significantly enhanced IL-21 protein levels were noted in both CC and LC patients. IL-6 protein and IL-1β mRNA levels were increased in CC and UC but not LC patients. Increased mucosal mRNA levels of IFN-γ, IL-21 and IL-22 were correlated with higher clinical activity, recorded as the number of bowel movements per day, in MC patients. Although at lower magnitude, IL-23A mRNA was upregulated in CC and LC, whereas TNF-α protein was increased in CC, LC as well as in UC patients. Neither mRNA nor protein levels of IL-4, IL-5 or IL-10 were significantly changed in any of the colitis groups. LC-HR and especially CC-HR patients had normalized mRNA and protein levels of the above cytokines compared to LC and CC patients. No significant differences were found between LC and CC in cytokine expression/production. LC and CC patients demonstrate a mixed Th17/Tc17 and Th1/Tc1 mucosal cytokine profile

  2. Administration of 6-gingerol greatly enhances the number of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in murine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Seong-A; Park, Sang-Min; Lee, Yea-Sol; Bae, Jun-Hyeong; Yu, Rina; An, Won G; Suh, Jae-Hee; Kim, Byung-Sam

    2012-06-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) play critical roles in host antitumor immune responses. It is known that cancer patients with tumor-reactive lymphocyte infiltration in their tumors have better prognoses, while patients with tumors infiltrated by immunosuppressive cells have worse prognoses. We found that administration of 6-gingerol, which is a component of ginger, inhibited tumor growth in several types of murine tumors, such as B16F1 melanomas, Renca renal cell carcinomas and CT26 colon carcinomas, which were established by inoculating tumor cells on the flanks of mice. However, administration of 6-gingerol did not lead to complete eradication of the tumors. 6-Gingerol treatment of tumor-bearing mice caused massive infiltration of CD4 and CD8 T-cells and B220(+) B-cells, but reduced the number of CD4(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T-cells. The CD8 tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes in 6-gingerol-treated mice strongly expressed IFN-γ, a marker of activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) CD107a and chemokine receptors that are expressed on T(H) 1 cells, such as CXCR3 and CCR5. To test whether 6-gingerol could promote infiltration of tumor antigen-specific CD8 T-cells into tumors, we adoptively transferred CFSE-labeled OT-1 CD8 T-cells into EG7 tumor-bearing mice. We found that CD8 T cells isolated from 6-gingerol pretreated OT-1 mice, but not from control OT-1 mice, massively infiltrated tumors and tumor draining lymph nodes and divided several times. Our results strongly suggest that 6-gingerol can be used in tumor immunotherapy to increase the number of TILs. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  3. Reduction of IL-17A Might Suppress the Th1 Response and Promote the Th2 Response by Boosting the Function of Treg Cells during Silica-Induced Inflammatory Response In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica inhalation can induce chronic lung inflammation and fibrosis. Upon silica stimulation, activated macrophages trigger the T-lymphocyte which can differentiate into many different types of Th cells, including the recently discovered Th17 cells. IL-17A, the typical Th17 cytokine, is reported in some inflammatory diseases. However, the role of IL-17A in silica-induced inflammatory response is still not clear. The regulatory mechanism of silica-induced Th17 response also needs to be investigated. So we established a mice primary cell coculture system (macrophage and lymphocyte to investigate the role of IL-17A in silica-induced inflammatory response in vitro, by using anti-IL-17A mAb and IL-1Ra. Both anti-IL-17A mAb and IL-1Ra decreased the level of IL-17A and increased the function of Treg cells. The Th1 response was suppressed and the Th2 response was promoted by the addition of anti-IL-17A mAb or IL-1Ra. IL-1Ra treatment decreased the level of IL-6, whereas the levels of IL-23 and ROR-γt were increased. Our study demonstrated that IL-17A reduction altered the pattern of silica-induced Th responses by boosting the function of Treg cells in vitro. Blocking the function of IL-1 signal pathway could suppress the level of IL-17A, which played the major role in modulating silica-induced Th responses in vitro.

  4. Unique transcriptome signatures and GM-CSF expression in lymphocytes from patients with spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mossawi, M H; Chen, L; Fang, H; Ridley, A; de Wit, J; Yager, N; Hammitzsch, A; Pulyakhina, I; Fairfax, B P; Simone, D; Yi, Yao; Bandyopadhyay, S; Doig, K; Gundle, R; Kendrick, B; Powrie, F; Knight, J C; Bowness, P

    2017-11-15

    Spondyloarthritis encompasses a group of common inflammatory diseases thought to be driven by IL-17A-secreting type-17 lymphocytes. Here we show increased numbers of GM-CSF-producing CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes in the blood and joints of patients with spondyloarthritis, and increased numbers of IL-17A+GM-CSF+ double-producing CD4, CD8, γδ and NK cells. GM-CSF production in CD4 T cells occurs both independently and in combination with classical Th1 and Th17 cytokines. Type 3 innate lymphoid cells producing predominantly GM-CSF are expanded in synovial tissues from patients with spondyloarthritis. GM-CSF+CD4+ cells, isolated using a triple cytokine capture approach, have a specific transcriptional signature. Both GM-CSF+ and IL-17A+GM-CSF+ double-producing CD4 T cells express increased levels of GPR65, a proton-sensing receptor associated with spondyloarthritis in genome-wide association studies and pathogenicity in murine inflammatory disease models. Silencing GPR65 in primary CD4 T cells reduces GM-CSF production. GM-CSF and GPR65 may thus serve as targets for therapeutic intervention of spondyloarthritis.

  5. Continuous and Discontinuous Cigarette Smoke Exposure Differentially Affects Protective Th1 Immunity against Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaler, Christopher R.; Horvath, Carly N.; McCormick, Sarah; Jeyanathan, Mangalakumari; Khera, Amandeep; Zganiacz, Anna; Kasinska, Joanna; Stampfli, Martin R.; Xing, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is the leading cause of death due to a bacterial pathogen. Emerging epidemiologic evidence suggests that the leading risk factor associated with TB mortality is cigarette smoke exposure. Despite this, it remains poorly understood what is the effect of cigarette smoke exposure on anti-TB immunity and whether its potential detrimental effect can be reversed by cigarette smoking cessation. In our current study, we have investigated the impact of both continuous and discontinuous cigarette smoke exposure on the development of anti-mycobacterial type 1 immunity in murine models. We find that while continuous cigarette smoke exposure severely impairs type 1 immunity in the lung, a short-term smoking cessation allows rapid restoration of anti-mycobacterial immunity. The ability of continuous cigarette smoke exposure to dampen type 1 protective immunity is attributed locally to its affects on innate immune cells in the lung. Continuous cigarette smoke exposure locally, by not systemically, impairs APC accumulation and their production of TNF, IL-12, and RANTES, blunts the recruitment of CD4+IFN-γ+ T cells to the lung, and weakens the formation of granuloma. On the other hand, smoking cessation was found to help restore type 1 immunity by rapidly improving the functionality of lung APCs, enhancing the recruitment of CD4+IFN-γ+ T cells to the lung, and promoting the formation of granuloma. Our study for the first time demonstrates that continuous, but not discontinuous, cigarette smoke exposure severely impedes the lung expression of anti-TB Th1 immunity via inhibiting innate immune activation and lung T cell recruitment. Our findings thus suggest cigarette smoking cessation to be beneficial to the control of pulmonary TB. PMID:23527127

  6. Th1 Cytokine-Secreting Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin and Prospective Use in Immunotherapy of Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Luo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravesical instillation of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG has been used for treating bladder cancer for 3 decades. However, BCG therapy is ineffective in approximately 30–40% of cases. Since evidence supports the T helper type 1 (Th1 response to be essential in BCG-induced tumor destruction, studies have focused on enhancing BCG induction of Th1 immune responses. Although BCG in combination with Th1 cytokines (e.g., interferon-α has demonstrated improved efficacy, combination therapy requires multiple applications and a large quantity of cytokines. On the other hand, genetic manipulation of BCG to secrete Th1 cytokines continues to be pursued with considerable interest. To date, a number of recombinant BCG (rBCG strains capable of secreting functional Th1 cytokines have been developed and demonstrated to be superior to BCG. This paper discusses current rBCG research, concerns, and future directions with an intention to inspire the development of this very promising immunotherapeutic modality for bladder cancer.

  7. Heavy metal mediated innate immune responses of the Indian green frog, Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Anura: Ranidae): Cellular profiles and associated Th1 skewed cytokine response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayawardena, Uthpala A.; Ratnasooriya, Wanigasekara D.; Wickramasinghe, Deepthi D.; Udagama, Preethi V., E-mail: dappvr@yahoo.com

    2016-10-01

    Immune cell and cytokine profiles in relation to metal exposure though much studied in mammals has not been adequately investigated in amphibians, due mainly to lack of suitable reagents for cytokine profiling in non-model species. However, interspecies cross reactivity of cytokines permitted us to assay levels of IFNγ, TNFα, IL6 and IL10in a common anuran, the Indian green frog (Euphlyctis hexadactylus), exposed to heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb, at ~ 5 ppm each) under field and laboratory settings in Sri Lanka. Enumeration of immune cells in blood and melanomacrophages in the liver, assay of serum and hepatic cytokines, and Th1/Th2 cytokine polarisation were investigated. Immune cell counts indicated overall immunosuppression with decreasing total WBC and splenocyte counts while neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio increased with metal exposure, indicating metal mediated stress. Serum IL6 levels of metal exposed frogs reported the highest (~ 9360 pg/mL) of all cytokines tested. Significantly elevated IFNγ production (P < 0.05) was evident in heavy metal exposed frogs. Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio in both serum and liver tissue homogenates was Th1 skewed due to significantly higher production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IFNγ in serum and TNFα in the liver (P < 0.01).Metal mediated aggregations of melanomacrophages in the liver were positively and significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with the hepatic expression of TNFα, IL6 and IL10 activity. Overall, Th1 skewed response may well be due to oxidative stress mediated nuclear factor κ-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) which enhances the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Xenobiotic stress has recently imposed an unprecedented level of threat to wildlife, particularly to sensitive species such as amphibians. Therefore, understanding the interactions between physiological stress and related immune responses is fundamental to conserve these environmental sentinels in the face of emerging eco

  8. Metal ion levels and lymphocyte counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Ø; Varmarken, Jens-Erik; Ovesen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wear particles from metal-on-metal arthroplasties are under suspicion for adverse effects both locally and systemically, and the DePuy ASR Hip Resurfacing System (RHA) has above-average failure rates. We compared lymphocyte counts in RHA and total hip arthroplasty (THA....../ppb. INTERPRETATION: Circulating T-lymphocyte levels may decline after surgery, regardless of implant type. Metal ions-particularly cobalt-may have a general depressive effect on T- and B-lymphocyte levels. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov under # NCT01113762....

  9. T-helper type 1 bias in healthy people is associated with cytomegalovirus serology and atherosclerosis: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Russell P; Doyle, Margaret F; Olson, Nels C; Huber, Sally A; Jenny, Nancy S; Sallam, Reem; Psaty, Bruce M; Kronmal, Richard A

    2013-05-20

    Although T-helper type 1 (Th1) cells are considered important in atherosclerosis, the relationships between Th1 and Th2 cells and atherosclerosis have not been examined in population-based studies. We measured Th cells as a percentage of lymphocytes by flow cytometry using CD4 staining (%CD4) in 917 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. We also measured interferon gamma-positive and interleukin-4-positive CD4(+) cells, representing Th1 and Th2 subpopulations (%Th1 and %Th2), respectively. We found that %CD4 was 1.5% lower per 10 years of age (Pmedia thickness (β=0.02 and -0.02, respectively; both Pbias is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in a multiethnic population. The main Th1 correlate was CMV infectious burden. These findings are consistent with a role of Th1 cells in atherosclerosis and suggest the importance of prospective studies of T-helper cell biasing in CVD.

  10. Use of a Th1 Stimulator Adjuvant for Vaccination against Neospora caninum Infection in the Pregnant Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monney, Thierry; Grandgirard, Denis; Leib, Stephen L; Hemphill, Andrew

    2013-03-27

    Vertical transmission from an infected cow to its fetus accounts for the vast majority of new Neospora caninum infections in cattle. A vaccine composed of a chimeric antigen named recNcMIC3-1-R, based on predicted immunogenic domains of the two microneme proteins NcMIC1 and NcMIC3, the rhoptry protein NcROP2, and emulsified in saponin adjuvants, significantly reduced the cerebral infection in non-pregnant BALB/c mice. Protection was associated with a mixed Th1/Th2-type cytokine response. However, the same vaccine formulation elicited a Th2-type immune response in pregnant mice and did not prevent vertical transmission or disease, neither in dams nor in offspring mice. In this study, an alternative vaccine formulation containing recNcMIC3-1-R emulsified in Freund's incomplete adjuvant, a stimulator of the cellular immunity, was investigated. No protection against vertical transmission and cerebral infection in the pregnant mice and a very limited protective effect in the non-pregnant mice were observed. The vaccine induced a Th1-type immune response characterized by high IgG2a titres and strong IFN-γ expression, which appeared detrimental to pregnancy.

  11. Use of a Th1 Stimulator Adjuvant for Vaccination against Neospora caninum Infection in the Pregnant Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Grandgirard

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vertical transmission from an infected cow to its fetus accounts for the vast majority of new Neospora caninum infections in cattle. A vaccine composed of a chimeric antigen named recNcMIC3-1-R, based on predicted immunogenic domains of the two microneme proteins NcMIC1 and NcMIC3, the rhoptry protein NcROP2, and emulsified in saponin adjuvants, significantly reduced the cerebral infection in non-pregnant BALB/c mice. Protection was associated with a mixed Th1/Th2-type cytokine response. However, the same vaccine formulation elicited a Th2-type immune response in pregnant mice and did not prevent vertical transmission or disease, neither in dams nor in offspring mice. In this study, an alternative vaccine formulation containing recNcMIC3-1-R emulsified in Freund’s incomplete adjuvant, a stimulator of the cellular immunity, was investigated. No protection against vertical transmission and cerebral infection in the pregnant mice and a very limited protective effect in the non-pregnant mice were observed. The vaccine induced a Th1-type immune response characterized by high IgG2a titres and strong IFN-γ expression, which appeared detrimental to pregnancy.

  12. Indications of Th1 and Th17 responses in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis: a large retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malmvall Bo-Eric

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies indicate that successful resolution of Lyme neuroborreliosis (NB is associated with a strong T helper (Th 1-type cytokine response in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF followed by a down-regulating Th2 response, whereas the role of the recently discovered Th17 cytokine response is unknown. Methods To investigate the relative contribution of different Th associated cytokine/chemokine responses, we used a multiple bead array to measure the levels of CXCL10 (Th1 marker, CCL22 (Th2 marker, IL-17 (Th17 marker and CXCL8 (general inflammation marker, in serum and in CSF from untreated patients with confirmed NB (n = 133, and non-NB patients (n = 96, and related the findings to clinical data. Samples from patients with possible early NB (n = 15 and possible late NB (n = 19 were also analysed, as well as samples from an additional control group with orthopaedic patients (n = 17, where CSF was obtained at spinal anaesthesia. Results The most prominent differences across groups were found in the CSF. IL-17 was elevated in CSF in 49% of the patients with confirmed NB, but was not detectable in the other groups. Patients with confirmed NB and possible early NB had significantly higher CSF levels of CXCL10, CCL22 and CXCL8 compared to both the non-NB group and the control group (p Borrelia-antibodies. Conclusion Our results support the notion that early NB is dominated by a Th1-type response, eventually accompanied by a Th2 response. Interestingly, IL-17 was increased exclusively in CSF from patients with confirmed NB, suggesting a hitherto unknown role for Th17 in NB. However, for conclusive evidence, future prospective studies are needed.

  13. Grass pollen immunotherapy for hayfever is associated with increases in local nasal but not peripheral Th1:Th2 cytokine ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachholz, Petra A; Nouri-Aria, Kayhan T; Wilson, Duncan R; Walker, Samantha M; Verhoef, Adrienne; Till, Stephen J; Durham, Stephen R

    2002-01-01

    Grass pollen immunotherapy is the only treatment for hayfever that is both effective and confers long-term benefit. Immunotherapy may act by altering the local nasal mucosal T helper type 2 (Th2) to type 1 (Th1) cytokine balance either by down-regulation and/or immune deviation of T-lymphocyte responses. There is controversy as to whether these changes are detectable in peripheral blood. We therefore examined both local nasal and peripheral T-cell responses to allergen exposure in the same subjects before and after immunotherapy. In a double-blind trial of grass pollen immunotherapy, nasal biopsies were obtained at baseline and during the peak pollen season following 2 years of immunotherapy. Placebo-treated patients showed a seasonal increase in CD3(+) T cells (P = 0.02) and in interleukin-5 (IL-5) mRNA(+) cells (P = 0.03) and no change in interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma ) mRNA(+) cells (P = 0.2) in the nasal mucosa. In contrast, in the immunotherapy-treated group, there were no changes in the number of CD3(+) T cells (P = 0.3) and IL-5 mRNA+ cells (P = 0.2) but a significant increase in the number of IFN-gamma mRNA(+) cells (P = 0.03). Furthermore, clinical improvement in the immunotherapy-treated group was accompanied by a seasonal increase in the ratio of IFN-gamma to IL-5 mRNA(+) cells in the nasal mucosa (P = 0.03). In contrast, there were no significant changes in peripheral T-cell proliferative responses or cytokine production for IFN-gamma or IL-5 in response to grass pollen either within or between the two treatment groups. We conclude that successful grass pollen immunotherapy was associated with an increase in the ratio of IFN-gamma to IL-5 mRNA(+) cells in the nasal mucosa, whereas these changes were not reflected by alterations in peripheral blood T-cell proliferative responses or cytokine production before/after treatment.

  14. Cytokine production by lymphocytes in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szereday, L; Varga, P; Szekeres-Bartho, J

    1997-12-01

    In the presence of progesterone lymphocytes of pregnant women release a 34-kDa protein named the progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF). PIBF mediates the immunomodulatory and anti-abortive effects of progesterone and its presence is related to the outcome of pregnancy. PIBF induces production of Th2 type cytokines by activated lymphocytes. The in vivo relationship between PIBF- and cytokine production of pregnancy lymphocytes and the outcome of pregnancy was investigated. Interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-10 production and PIBF expression in peripheral lymphocytes of 111 healthy pregnant women and 120 women at risk for premature pregnancy termination were detected by immunocytochemistry. We found increased IL-12 and low PIBF and IL-10 expression on lymphocytes of "risk" patients, and a high rate of IL-10 and PIBF positivity on lymphocytes from healthy pregnant women. The cytokine production pattern of the lymphocytes was related to the presence or absence of previous abortions as well as to the outcome of pregnancy. These data suggest the involvement of an altered cytokine production pattern in the immunologic effects of progesterone.

  15. File list: NoD.Bld.50.AllAg.Th1_Cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Bld.50.AllAg.Th1_Cells hg19 No description Blood Th1 Cells SRX290670,SRX290664,...5,SRX736616,SRX736618 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Bld.50.AllAg.Th1_Cells.bed ...

  16. Adeno-Associated Virus Type 2 (AAV2) Capsid-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Eliminate Only Vector-Transduced Cells Coexpressing the AAV2 Capsid In Vivo▿

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chengwen; Hirsch, Matthew; Asokan, Aravind; Zeithaml, Brian; Ma, Hong; Kafri, Tal; Samulski, R. Jude

    2007-01-01

    A recent clinical trial has suggested that recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector transduction in humans induces a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against the AAV2 capsid. To directly address the ability of AAV capsid-specific CTLs to eliminate rAAV-transduced cells in vitro and in vivo in mice, we first demonstrated that AAV2 capsid-specific CTLs could be induced by dendritic cells with endogenous AAV2 capsid expression or pulsed with AAV2 vectors. These CTLs were able to kil...

  17. Toxoplasma Co-infection Prevents Th2 Differentiation and Leads to a Helminth-Specific Th1 Response

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    Norus Ahmed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nematode infections, in particular gastrointestinal nematodes, are widespread and co-infections with other parasites and pathogens are frequently encountered in humans and animals. To decipher the immunological effects of a widespread protozoan infection on the anti-helminth immune response we studied a co-infection with the enteric nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus in mice previously infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Protective immune responses against nematodes are dependent on parasite-specific Th2 responses associated with IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IgE, and IgG1 antibodies. In contrast, Toxoplasma gondii infection elicits a strong and protective Th1 immune response characterized by IFN-γ, IL-12, and IgG2a antibodies. Co-infected animals displayed significantly higher worm fecundity although worm burden remained unchanged. In line with this, the Th2 response to H. polygyrus in co-infected animals showed a profound reduction of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and GATA-3 expressing T cells. Co-infection also resulted in the lack of eosinophilia and reduced expression of the Th2 effector molecule RELM-β in intestinal tissue. In contrast, the Th1 response to the protozoan parasite was not diminished and parasitemia of T. gondii was unaffected by concurrent helminth infection. Importantly, H. polygyrus specific restimulation of splenocytes revealed H. polygyrus-reactive CD4+ T cells that produce a significant amount of IFN-γ in co-infected animals. This was not observed in animals infected with the nematode alone. Increased levels of H. polygyrus-specific IgG2a antibodies in co-infected mice mirrored this finding. This study suggests that polarization rather than priming of naive CD4+ T cells is disturbed in mice previously infected with T. gondii. In conclusion, a previous T. gondii infection limits a helminth-specific Th2 immune response while promoting a shift toward a Th1-type immune response.

  18. Mycobacterium vaccae induces a strong Th1 response that subsequently declines in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijiao; Jiang, Yanlong; Cui, Ziyin; Yang, Wentao; Yue, Limin; Ma, Yingcong; Shi, Shaohua; Wang, Chunfang; Wang, Chunfeng; Qian, Aidong

    2016-12-30

    Mycobacterium (M.) vaccae is a fast-growing species of saprophytic bacteria that is widely distributed. To understand the host immune responses induced by M. vaccae isolated from bovine submaxillary lymph nodes, C57BL/6 mice were infected with reference strain M. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and isolated M. vaccae using intraperitoneal injections. Comparison of the bacterial replication and organ pathology between M. vaccae and M. bovis BCG revealed that M. vaccae was more malignant than M. bovis in mice. We also demonstrated that serum from the M. vaccae-infected mice contained a higher expression level of gamma-interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-12, IL-10 and transforming growth factor beta than did the other groups, especially after week 4. Furthermore, when the numbers of CD3⁺CD4⁺IFN-γ⁺ and CD3⁺CD4⁺IL4⁺cells in the infected mice were observed by flow cytometry, we found that a powerful T helper 1 (Th1) response was induced by M. vaccae infection, which was associated with the emergence of CD3⁺CD4⁺IFN-γ⁺cells. However, the Th1 response declined over time, which was associated with appearance of the CD4⁺CD25⁺FoxP3⁺ and CD4⁺CD25⁺CD152⁺Treg cell reaction. In addition, a strong Th2 response was found. Finally, we found that M. vaccae infection increased the production of type I IFNs, which was associated with a reduced Th1 response.

  19. Intratumoral Th2 predisposition combines with an increased Th1 functional phenotype in clinical response to intravesical BCG in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Renate; Gruenbacher, Georg; Culig, Zoran; Brunner, Andrea; Fuchs, Dietmar; Fritz, Josef; Gander, Hubert; Rahm, Andrea; Thurnher, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Th1-type immunity is considered to be required for efficient response to BCG in bladder cancer, although Th2 predisposition of BCG responders has recently been reported. The aim was to evaluate the relationship of Th1 and Th2 components in 23 patients undergoing BCG treatment. Peripheral blood, serum and urine samples were prospectively collected at baseline, during and after BCG. Th1 (neopterin, tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine-to-tryptophan ratio (KTR), IL-12, IFN-γ, soluble TNF-R75 and IL-2Rα) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-10) biomarkers as well as CD4 expression in T helper (Th), effector and regulatory T cells were determined. Local immune cell subsets were measured on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cancer tissue by immunohistochemistry to examine expression of transcription factors that control Th1 (T-bet) and Th2-type (GATA3) immunity. We confirmed a Th2 predisposition with a mean GATA3/T-bet ratio of 5.51. BCG responders showed significantly higher levels of urinary (p = 0.003) and serum neopterin (p = 0.012), kynurenine (p = 0.015), KTR (p = 0.005), IFN-γ (p = 0.005) and IL-12 (p = 0.003) during therapy, whereas levels of IL-10 decreased significantly (p BCG instillation. We observed a significant increase in CD4 expression in the Th cell population (p BCG response. Th2-promoting factors such as GATA3 may trigger Th1-type immune responses and thus contribute to the BCG success.

  20. Academic stress-induced changes in Th1- and Th2-cytokine response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areej M. Assaf

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress stimulates physiological responses releasing catecholamines and corticoids, which act via corresponding receptors on immune cells, producing a shift in the cytokine balance. These responses are variable depending on the nature of stressors. The effect of the academic stress on the production of the Th1-cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8 and Th2-cytokines (IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 on 35 medical/health sciences students after completing their questionnaires was investigated. Blood samples were taken at three stages; baseline stage at the beginning, midterm and final academic examination stages. Plasma cortisol and cytokines were measured during the three stages. The last two stages were compared with the baseline non-stress period. Results of the stress induced during the final examination stage were the highest with a significant increase in cortisol release, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-1ra release with a shift in Th1:Th2 cytokines balance towards Th2. Whereby, the midterm stage did not show significant reduction in Th1-cytokines except for TNF-α, with an increase in IFN-γ level that was reduced in the third stage. Th2 cytokine, IL-1ra, had positive correlations with Th1 cytokines; IL-2 and IFN-γ in the second stage and IL-6 cytokine in the third stage. Cortisol was positively correlated with IL-8 in the last stage and heart rates had negative correlation with IL-10 in the first and last stages. Findings of this study indicate that exam stress down-regulates Th1 with a selective up-regulation of Th2-cytokines. In conclusion, Cortisol might have a role in suppressing the release of Th1- mediated cellular immune response which could increase the vulnerability among the students to infectious diseases.

  1. Academic stress-induced changes in Th1- and Th2-cytokine response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Areej M; Al-Abbassi, Reem; Al-Binni, Maysaa

    2017-12-01

    Psychological stress stimulates physiological responses releasing catecholamines and corticoids, which act via corresponding receptors on immune cells, producing a shift in the cytokine balance. These responses are variable depending on the nature of stressors. The effect of the academic stress on the production of the Th1-cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8) and Th2-cytokines (IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10) on 35 medical/health sciences students after completing their questionnaires was investigated. Blood samples were taken at three stages; baseline stage at the beginning, midterm and final academic examination stages. Plasma cortisol and cytokines were measured during the three stages. The last two stages were compared with the baseline non-stress period. Results of the stress induced during the final examination stage were the highest with a significant increase in cortisol release, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-1ra release with a shift in Th1:Th2 cytokines balance towards Th2. Whereby, the midterm stage did not show significant reduction in Th1-cytokines except for TNF-α, with an increase in IFN-γ level that was reduced in the third stage. Th2 cytokine, IL-1ra, had positive correlations with Th1 cytokines; IL-2 and IFN-γ in the second stage and IL-6 cytokine in the third stage. Cortisol was positively correlated with IL-8 in the last stage and heart rates had negative correlation with IL-10 in the first and last stages. Findings of this study indicate that exam stress down-regulates Th1 with a selective up-regulation of Th2-cytokines. In conclusion, Cortisol might have a role in suppressing the release of Th1- mediated cellular immune response which could increase the vulnerability among the students to infectious diseases.

  2. Transformation of Bloom syndrome T-lymphocytes by cocultivation with a lethally irradiated human T-cell line carrying type C virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Y; Fujishita, M; Miyoshi, I; Kondo, N; Orii, T

    1983-04-01

    The present study describes the establishment of T-cell lines from the peripheral blood of two Bloom syndrome (BS) patients and one healthy female by co-cultivation with a lethally irradiated human T-cell line (MT-2) carrying adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) virus (ATLV). The cell lines from normal and BS subjects exhibited cell surface markers compatible with T-cell origin, and BS T-cell lines retained the original cytogenetic characteristics of the syndrome. Even though phytohemagglutinin-stimulated BS lymphocytes from the two BS patients studied all showed high levels of sister chromatid exchange (SCE), one of the BS T-lines retained the high SCE level in 100% of the cells and the other BS T-line contained two populations, one with high SCE (70%) and the other with normal SCE (30%), at a relatively constant frequency over 6 months. Transformation of normal and BS cells by cocultivation with MT-2, which carries ATLV, did not cause karyotypic changes over 6 months. ATLV infection, chromosome instability, karyotypic abnormality and SCE in BS T-lymphocytes are also discussed.

  3. Effects of HIV on metabolic and biological pathways of CD4+T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanli; Zhao, Wenge; Shi, Changhe; Wang, Ning; Fan, Tianli

    2018-03-01

    The effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on the metabolic and biological pathways of cluster of differentiation (CD)4 + T lymphocytes were investigated. A total of 150 patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and 50 healthy individuals who were admitted to hospital for physical examination during the period of June 2016 to January 2017, were selected as subjects in the present study. According to the virus load, 150 AIDS patients were divided into three groups: i) Viral load >10 6 copies/ml (group A, n=39), ii) 10 4 copies/ml T lymphocyte counts was assessed. Active lymphocytes were isolated from T lymphocytes in the subjects, and the ratio of Th1 to Th2 was measured by flow cytometry. Effects of HIV on human T-lymphocyte differentiation were observed. Differences in T-lymphocyte metabolites were detected by proton nuclear magnetic resonance and their biological pathways analyzed. The results showed that CD4 + T-cell counts were decreased with the increase of the viral loads of patients. The viral loads of AIDS patients differentiated T lymphocytes. In other words, high viral loads accelerated the differentiation of T lymphocytes into Th1 cells. In the high HIV viral load group, the levels of glycerol phosphodiesterase, 7-dehydrocholesterol, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, cholesterol and deoxyuridine were increased, but the levels of 3-methoxytyramine, cytidine deaminase, deoxycorticosterone and 3-hydroxybutyric acid were decreased. The viral loads of AIDS patients are associated with CD4 + T-cell counts and the ratio of CD4 + T to CD8 + T cells. At the same time, HIV viral loads can affect the lipid biosynthesis of T-lymphocyte membranes, thus affecting the differentiation and proliferation of T lymphocytes and finally intervening its mediated immune responses.

  4. Modelo natural de dicotomía TH1-TH2: La enfermedad de Hansen Th1-TH2 balance. Natural model: Hansen'disease

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    N. L Vaquero

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Hansen producida por el Mycobacterium leprae, es una enfermedad infecciosa cuyo amplio espectro clínico e inmunopatológico se correlaciona con los diferentes patrones de respuesta Th1/Th2. La activación preferencial de esas subpoblaciones de linfocitos T CD4 juega un rol importante en su patogenia y constituye un modelo natural de esa dicotomía de la respuesta inmune. Ambas formas polares de la lepra presentan un perfil definido de secreción de citoquinas: Th1 (IL2 e IFN? en el polo tuberculoide y Th2 (IL4, IL5, IL10 en el polo lepromatoso. En el primer caso, la respuesta celular adecuada estimula la activación macrofágica y lleva a la destrucción del bacilo. Las lesiones son escasas y limitadas a la piel y nervios periféricos. En el segundo en cambio, la respuesta celular es casi nula y los bacilos se multiplican descontroladamente dentro de los macrófagos, llevando a la diseminación de las lesiones y afectación de otros órganos. La inmunidad humoral está exacerbada y hay un alto nivel de anticuerpos que no pueden eliminar el germen intracelular. Los factores que determinan la diferenciación hacia una respuesta Th1 ó Th2 no se han esclarecido totalmente. Se han postulado varias hipótesis que hacen referencia a factores genéticos, prevalencia de citoquinas en el microambiente celular, disfunción macrofágica; alteración en los receptores Toll de la inmunidad innata, en la expresión de moléculas coestimulatorias, etc En los últimos años se han descubierto nuevas subpoblaciones de linfocitos, (CD4+ CD25+, Tr1, Th3 y Th17 que estarían implicadas en la desregulación de estas respuestas inmunes.Hansen' disease, caused by Mycobacterium leprae, is an infectious illness whose wide clinical and immunopathologic spectrum correl with different Th1/Th2 responses patterns. The prefferencial activation of the CD4 T cells subset play an important rol in it's pathogenia and provides a natural model of that balance

  5. Carbohydrate and glutamine supplementation modulates the Th1/Th2 balance after exercise performed at a simulated altitude of 4500 m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caris, Aline V; Lira, Fábio S; de Mello, Marco T; Oyama, Lila M; dos Santos, Ronaldo V T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of carbohydrate or glutamine supplementation, or a combination of the two, on the immune system and inflammatory parameters after exercise in simulated hypoxic conditions at 4500 m. Nine men underwent three sessions of exercise at 70% VO2peak until exhaustion as follows: 1) hypoxia with a placebo; 2) hypoxia with 8% maltodextrin (200 mL/20 min) during exercise and for 2 h after; and 3) hypoxia after 6 d of glutamine supplementation (20 g/d) and supplementation with 8% maltodextrin (200 mL/20 min) during exercise and for 2 h after. All procedures were randomized and double blind. Blood was collected at rest, immediately before exercise, after the completion of exercise, and 2 h after recovery. Glutamine, cortisol, cytokines, glucose, heat shock protein-70, and erythropoietin were measured in serum, and the cytokine production from lymphocytes was measured. Erythropoietin and interleukin (IL)-6 increased after exercise in the hypoxia group compared with baseline. IL-6 was higher in the hypoxia group than pre-exercise after exercise and after 2 h recovery. Cortisol did not change, whereas glucose was elevated post-exercise in the three groups compared with baseline and pre-exercise. Glutamine increased in the hypoxia + carbohydrate + glutamine group after exercise compared with baseline. Heat shock protein-70 increased post-exercise compared with baseline and pre-exercise and after recovery compared with pre-exercise, in the hypoxia + carbohydrate group. No difference was observed in IL-2 and IL-6 production from lymphocytes. IL-4 was reduced in the supplemented groups. Carbohydrate or glutamine supplementation shifts the T helper (Th)1/Th2 balance toward Th1 responses after exercise at a simulated altitude of 4500 m. The nutritional strategies increased in IL-6, suggesting an important anti-inflammatory effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. T cell clones from Schistosoma haematobium infected and exposed individuals lacking distinct cytokine profiles for Th1/Th2 polarisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mduluza T

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available T cell clones were derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Schistosoma haematobium infected and uninfected individuals living in an endemic area. The clones were stimulated with S. haematobium worm and egg antigens and purified protein derivative. Attempts were made to classify the T cell clones according to production of the cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-gamma. All the T cell clones derived were observed to produce cytokines used as markers for the classification of Th1/Th2 subsets. However, the 'signature' cytokines marking each subset were produced at different levels. The classification depended on the dominating cytokine type, which was having either Th0/1 or Th0/2 subsets. The results indicated that no distinct cytokine profiles for polarisation of Th1/Th2 subsets were detected in these S. haematobium infected humans. The balance in the profiles of cytokines marking each subset were related to infection and re-infection status after treatment with praziquantel. In the present study, as judged by the changes in infection status with time, the T cell responses appeared to be less stable and more dynamic, suggesting that small quantitative changes in the balance of the cytokines response could result in either susceptibility or resistant to S. haematobium infection.

  7. Comparisons of CVID and IgGSD: Referring Physicians, Autoimmune Conditions, Pneumovax Reactivity, Immunoglobulin Levels, Blood Lymphocyte Subsets, and HLA-A and -B Typing in 432 Adult Index Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Barton

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID and immunoglobulin (Ig G subclass deficiency (IgGSD are heterogeneous disorders characterized by respiratory tract infections, selective Ig isotype deficiencies, and impaired antibody responses to polysaccharide antigens. Using univariable analyses, we compared observations in 34 CVID and 398 IgGSD adult index patients (81.9% women referred to a hematology/oncology practice. Similarities included specialties of referring physicians, mean ages, proportions of women, reactivity to Pneumovax, median serum IgG3 and IgG4 levels, median blood CD56+/CD16+ lymphocyte levels, positivity for HLA-A and -B types, and frequencies of selected HLA-A, -B haplotypes. Dissimilarities included greater prevalence of autoimmune conditions, lower median IgG, IgA, and IgM, and lower median CD19+, CD3+/CD4+, and CD3+/CD8+ blood lymphocytes in CVID patients. Prevalence of Sjögren’s syndrome and hypothyroidism was significantly greater in CVID patients. Combined subnormal IgG1/IgG3 occurred in 59% and 29% of CVID and IgGSD patients, respectively. Isolated subnormal IgG3 occurred in 121 IgGSD patients (88% women. Logistic regression on CVID (versus IgGSD revealed a significant positive association with autoimmune conditions and significant negative associations with IgG1, IgG3, and IgA and CD56+/CD16+ lymphocyte levels, but the odds ratio was increased for autoimmune conditions alone (6.9 (95% CI 1.3, 35.5.

  8. Expression of CD4+ CD28null T lymphocytes in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus: Relation to microvascular complications, aortic elastic properties, and carotid intima media thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Samahy, Mona H; Tantawy, Azza A G; Adly, Amira A M; Habeeb, Nevin M; Ismail, Eman A R; Hamed, Gehan M; Eladawy, Rasha

    2017-12-01

    Cardiovascular risk in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and altered immunity. CD4+ CD28null T-cells are a subset of long-lived cytotoxic CD4+ T-lymphocytes with proatherogenic and plaque-destabilizing properties. We hypothesized that the frequency of CD4+ CD28null T-cells may be altered in T1DM and related to vascular complications. To assess the percentage of CD4+ CD28null T-lymphocytes in children and adolescents with T1DM and their relation to vascular structure and glycemic control. Totally 100 patients with T1DM were divided into 2 groups according to the presence of microvascular complications and compared with 50 healthy controls. CD4+ CD28null T-lymphocytes were analyzed using flow cytometry. Aortic elastic properties and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) were assessed. Aortic stiffness index and CIMT were significantly higher among patients compared with healthy controls while aortic strain and distensibility were decreased. The percentage of CD4+ CD28null T-cells was significantly higher in patients with and without microvascular complications compared with controls. High frequency of CD4+ CD28null T-cells was found among patients with microalbuminuria or peripheral neuropathy. Patients with CD4+ CD28null T-cells ≥10% had higher HbA1c, urinary albumin creatinine ratio, aortic stiffness, and CIMT. CD4+ CD28null T-cells were positively correlated to HbA1c, aortic stiffness index, and CIMT. Changes in aortic elastic properties and increased CIMT among young patients with T1DM may enable the recognition of preclinical cardiac impairment. The correlation between CD4+ CD28null T-cells and assessed parameters of vascular structure highlights the role of altered immune response in the occurrence of diabetic vascular complications. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Microscopic Colitis Evolved Into Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Is Characterized by Increased Th1/Tc1 Cells in Colonic Mucosal Lamina Propria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Yan, Yuchu; Meng, Ziran; Liu, Shuhong; Beck, Paul L; Ghosh, Subrata; Qian, Jiaming; Gui, Xianyong

    2017-10-01

    An association between microscopic colitis (MC), i.e., lymphocytic colitis (LC) and collagenous colitis (CC), and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) has been noticed. A subset of MC cases may evolve into IBD, and IBD in remission may present as MC in a histologic pattern. Moreover, MC and IBD may coexist in different regions of the bowel. A link between MC and IBD in their pathogenesis is, therefore, suggested. Abnormal mucosal immunity is likely the key. We reviewed 2324 MC cases in Calgary over 14 years and identified 20 cases evolved into IBD (IBD transformers). 13 of them were further investigated for colonic mucosal lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMNCs), as opposed to 22 cases whose MC resolved. On their index colonic biopsy immunohistochemistry was performed to detect major T cell subsets characterized by key cytokines and master transcription factors (IFNγ and T-bet for Th1/Tc1, GATA-3 for Th2/Tc2, IL-17 and RORc for Th17/Tc17, FoxP3 for Treg/Tcreg) as well as TNFα+ cells (partly representing Th1). LPMNCs positive for each marker were counted (average number per high-power field). IBD transformers had increased IFNγ+, T-bet+, TNF-α+, and GATA-3+ LPMNCs compared to the MC-resolved cases. The LC-to-IBD subgroup had increased IFNγ+ and GATA-3+ cells compared to the LC-resolved subgroup. The CC-to-IBD subgroup had increased T-bet+, TNF-α+, and GATA-3+ cells compared to the CC-resolved subgroup. Among MC-resolved patients, more TNF-α+ and RORc+ cells were seen in LC than in CC. Th1/Tc1- and TNFα-producing cells, and likely a subset of Th2/Tc2 cells as well, may be involved in the MC-to-IBD transformation.

  10. Immunopathology and Th1/Th2 immune response of Campylobacter jejuni-induced paralysis resembling Guillain-Barré syndrome in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyati, Kishan K; Prasad, Kashi N; Kharwar, Nagendra K; Soni, Priyanka; Husain, Nuzhat; Agrawal, Vinita; Jain, Arun K

    2012-05-01

    Immunopathogenesis of Campylobacter jejuni-associated Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is not yet well established probably due to lack of experimental model. Therefore, we studied the Th1/Th2 immune response and pathological changes in C. jejuni-induced chicken model for GBS. C. jejuni (5 × 10(9) CFU/ml) and placebo were fed to 30 chickens each. Stools of all birds were negative for C. jejuni by culture and PCR before experiment. The birds were regularly assessed for disease symptoms up to 30 days. Sciatic nerves from all chickens were examined at 5 days intervals by histopathology and immunohistochemistry, and also for the expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines. Twenty-two chickens (73.3%) developed diarrhea after C. jejuni infection; 18 (60.0%) experimental chickens developed GBS-like paralytic neuropathy. Pathology in the sciatic nerves of these chickens included perinodal and/or patchy demyelination, perivascular focal lymphocytic infiltration, myelin swelling and presence of macrophages within the nerve fibers on 10th-20th post-infection day (PID). Cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-2) were elevated in early phase (5th-15th PID) and TGF-β2, IL-10 and IL-4 in the recovery phase (25th-30th PID) of the disease. The study provides evidence that C. jejuni infection in the chicken can provide an experimental animal model of GBS.

  11. 17beta-Estradiol and soy phytochemicals selectively induce a type 2 polarization in mesenteric lymph nodes of ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Daniela; Battaglia, Alessandra; Mantuano, Elisabetta; Travaglia, Daniele; De Stefano, Ilaria; Buzzonetti, Alexia; Scambia, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of 17beta-estradiol (17beta-E2) and a phytoestrogen-containing soy extract on the immune system in an ovariectomized rat model of menopause. Specifically, T- and B-lymphocyte subsets, the balance of type 1 and 2 immune responses in the mesenteric lymph nodes, and serum levels of different classes of immunoglobulin were examined as study endpoints. Ovariectomized rats were treated with either the phytoestrogen-containing soy extract (50 or 100 mg/kg/day PO), 17beta-E2 (0.5 mg/kg/day PO), or vehicle; a sham control was included in the study. After the rats were killed, mesenteric lymph nodes and blood samples were collected. B- and T (CD4 and CD8)-lymphocyte subsets in mesenteric lymph nodes were evaluated by flow cytometry analysis. Cytokine-producing T lymphocytes were identified within each T-lymphocyte subset as TH1 (interferon-gamma CD4), TH2 (interleukin-4 CD4), TC1 (interferon-gamma CD8), and TC2 (interferon-4 CD8) lymphocytes. Serum levels of immunoglobulin classes were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. There were no differences in the proportions of B lymphocytes and CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes among groups. Treatment with 17beta-E2 and phytoestrogen-containing soy extract induced a reduction in TH1 and TC1 lymphocytes paralleled by a slight, nonsignificant, increase in the frequency of TH2. Data expressed as TH1/TH2 and TC1/TC2 ratios depicted a significant polarization of local immunity toward a humoral response. Evaluation of immunoglobulin serum levels did not show any significant difference among groups. Here we show that estrogens and soy phytochemicals similarly polarize the immune system toward a type 2 immune response in a preclinical model of menopause; our data draw attention to the crucial need to evaluate in clinical studies the potential side effects on the immune system of the complex soy products that are actually consumed in the postmenopausal setting.

  12. Comparison of Th1- and Th2-associated immune reactivities stimulated by single versus multiple vaccination of mice with irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caulada-Benedetti, Z.; Al-Zamel, F.; Sher, A.; James, S. (NIAID, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Mice immunized against Schistosoma mansoni by a single percutaneous exposure to radiation-attenuated parasite larvae demonstrate partial resistance to challenge infection that has been shown to correlate with development of cell-mediated immunity, whereas mice hyperimmunized by multiple exposure to attenuated larvae produce antibodies capable of transferring partial protection to naive recipients. Measurement of Ag-specific lymphokine responses in these animals suggested that the difference in resistance mechanisms may be due to the differential induction of Th subset response by the two immunization protocols. Thus, upon Ag stimulation, singly immunized mice predominantly demonstrated responses associated with Th1 reactivity, including IL-2 and IFN-gamma production, whereas multiply immunized animals showed increased IL-5, IL-4, and IgG1 antibody production associated with enhanced Th2 response. These responses demonstrated some degree of organ compartmentalization, with splenocytes demonstrating higher Th1-related lymphokine production and cells from draining lymph nodes showing stronger proliferation and Th2 type reactivity. However, hyperimmunized mice also continued to demonstrate substantial Th1-associated immune reactivity. Moreover, in vivo Ag challenge elicited activated larvacidal macrophages in hyperimmunized animals. These observations indicate that protective cell-mediated mechanisms associated with induction of CD4+ Th1 cell reactivity predominate in singly vaccinated mice. Further vaccination stimulates Th2 responses, such as enhanced IgG1 production, that may also contribute to protective immunity.

  13. Mice lacking IL-12 develop polarized Th1 cells during viral infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Schijns, Virgil E.C.J.; Haagmans, B.L.; Wierda, C.M.; Kruithof, Boudewijn; Heijnen, I.A.; Alber, G.

    1998-01-01

    Studies in IL-12-deficient mice established the necessity for IL-12 to generate a Th1 cytokine response that is often required for elimination of intracellular pathogens. In this study, we demonstrate that mice with a targeted disruption of the IL-12p40 and/or p35 gene effectively control liver

  14. Antigen experience shapes phenotype and function of memory Th1 cells.

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    Aaruni Khanolkar

    Full Text Available Primary and secondary (boosted memory CD8 T cells exhibit differences in gene expression, phenotype and function. The impact of repeated antigen stimulations on memory CD4 T cells is largely unknown. To address this issue, we utilized LCMV and Listeria monocytogenes infection of mice to characterize primary and secondary antigen (Ag-specific Th1 CD4 T cell responses. Ag-specific primary memory CD4 T cells display a CD62L(loCCR7(hi CD27(hi CD127(hi phenotype and are polyfunctional (most produce IFNγ, TNFα and IL-2. Following homologous prime-boost immunization we observed pathogen-specific differences in the rate of CD62L and CCR7 upregulation on memory CD4 T cells as well as in IL-2+IFNγco-production by secondary effectors. Phenotypic and functional plasticity of memory Th1 cells was observed following heterologous prime-boost immunization, wherein secondary memory CD4 T cells acquired phenotypic and functional characteristics dictated by the boosting agent rather than the primary immunizing agent. Our data also demonstrate that secondary memory Th1 cells accelerated neutralizing Ab formation in response to LCMV infection, suggesting enhanced capacity of this population to provide quality help for antibody production. Collectively these data have important implications for prime-boost vaccination strategies that seek to enhance protective immune responses mediated by Th1 CD4 T cell responses.

  15. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1/LFA-1 ligation favors human Th1 development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Hermelijn H.; de Jong, Esther C.; Schuitemaker, Joost H. N.; Geijtenbeek, Theo B. H.; van Kooyk, Yvette; Kapsenberg, Martien L.; Wierenga, Eddy A.

    2002-01-01

    Th cell polarization toward Th1 or Th2 cells is strongly driven by exogenous cytokines, in particular IL-12 or IL-4, if present during activation by Ag-presenting dendritic cells (DC). However, additional Th cell polarizing mechanisms are induced by the ligation of cell surface molecules on DC and

  16. Sex-Based Selectivity of PPARγ Regulation in Th1, Th2, and Th17 Differentiation

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    Hong-Jai Park

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ has recently been recognized to regulate adaptive immunity through Th17 differentiation, Treg functions, and TFH responses. However, its role in adaptive immunity and autoimmune disease is still not clear, possibly due to sexual differences. Here, we investigated in vitro treatment study with the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone to compare Th1, Th2, and Th17 differentiation in male and female mouse splenic T cells. Pioglitazone treatment significantly inhibited various effector T cell differentiations including Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells from female naïve T cells, but it selectively reduced IL-17 production in male Th17 differentiation. Interestingly, pioglitazone and estradiol (E2 co-treatment of T cells in males inhibited differentiation of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells, suggesting a mechanism for the greater sensitivity of PPARγ to ligand treatment in the regulation of effector T cell differentiation in females. Collectively, these results demonstrate that PPARγ selectively inhibits Th17 differentiation only in male T cells and modulates Th1, Th2, and Th17 differentiation in female T cells based on different level of estrogen exposure. Accordingly, PPARγ could be an important immune regulator of sexual differences in adaptive immunity.

  17. Immunomodulatory Effects of Taiwanese Neolitsea Species on Th1 and Th2 Functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ih-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Neolitsea species, medicinal plants belonging to Lauraceae, contain rich alkaloids, steroids, sesquiterpenoids, and triterpenoids which possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. However, species differences in the immunomodulatory effects and evidence pertaining to the effects of Neolitsea species on adaptive immunity are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory properties of ten Taiwanese Neolitsea plants on T helper (Th) cell functionality, especially Th1 and Th2. Most of the 29 crude extracts of Neolitsea were not toxic to splenocytes, except N. buisanensis roots. N. aciculata and N. villosa leaf extracts possessed differential immunomodulatory effects on Th1/Th2 balance. N. aciculata var. variabillima and N. hiiranensis leaf extracts attenuated both Th1 and Th2 cytokines while N. konishii dramatically suppressed IFN-γ production. As N. aciculata var. variabillima and N. konishii leaf extracts significantly attenuated Th1 functionality, we further evaluated their effects on CD4 cells under CD3/CD28 stimulation. N. aciculata var. variabillima significantly suppressed IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-17, demonstrating the broad suppressive effects on T helper cells; N. konishii significantly suppressed IFN-γ and IL-10 production, while the production of IL-17 was not altered. Collectively, these data demonstrated that leaf extracts of Taiwanese Neolitsea species contain phytochemicals with potentials to be developed as selective immunomodulators. PMID:28781969

  18. The inflammasome drives protective Th1 and Th17 cellular responses in disseminated candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Veerdonk, Frank L.; Joosten, Leo A.B.; Shaw, Patrick J.; Smeekens, Sanne P.; Malireddi, Subbarao; van der Meer, Jos W.M.; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Netea, Mihai G.; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2014-01-01

    The Nlrp3 inflammasome has been proposed to play an important role in antifungal host defense. However, studies exploring the role of the inflammasome in antifungal host defense have been limited to the direct effects on IL-1β processing. Although IL-1β has important direct effects on the innate immune response, important effects of the caspase-1-dependent cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 are exerted on the initiation of adaptive cellular responses Th1 and Th17. No studies have been employed to assess the impact of the inflammasome on the Th1/Th17 defense mechanisms in-vivo during candidiasis. In the present study we demonstrate an essential role for caspase-1 and ASC in disseminated candidiasis through regulating antifungal Th1 and Th17 responses. Caspase-1−/− and ASC−/− mice display diminished Th1/Th17 responses, followed by increased fungal outgrowth and lower survival. These observations identify a critical role for the inflammasome in controlling protective adaptive immune responses during invasive fungal infection. PMID:21681738

  19. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells induce immunosuppressive IL-10-producing Th1 cells via the Notch pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, Katrin; Rudolph, Christine; Neumann, Christian; Janke, Marko; Amsen, Derk; Scheffold, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Under homeostasis, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) shift intrahepatic T-cell responses towards tolerance. However, the role of LSECs in the regulation of T-cell-induced liver inflammation is less clear. Here, we studied the capacity of LSECs to modulate pro-inflammatory Th1-cell

  20. Impaired Th1 cytokine production in spondyloarthropathy is restored by anti-TNFalpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeten, D.; van Damme, N.; van den Bosch, F.; Kruithof, E.; de Vos, M.; Mielants, H.; Veys, E. M.; de Keyser, F.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of anti-TNFalpha on the Th1 and Th2 cytokines in patients with spondyloarthropathy (SpA). METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from 20 patients with active SpA treated with infliximab (5 mg/kg). For comparison, PBMC were also obtained

  1. Transcription factor IRF8 controls Th1-like regulatory T-cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonyong; Kim, Hyeong Su; Baek, Song Yi; Lee, Gap Ryol

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested that regulatory T (Treg) cells comprise a heterogeneous population that regulates various aspects of the immune response, and that Treg cells use the factors that are expressed in their target cells to regulate them. We searched for factors that regulate Th1 response in Treg cells using a meta-analysis. In the process, we discovered that transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) was selectively expressed in Treg and Th1 cells. IRF8-deficient Treg cells showed defective expression of CXCR3 and aberrant expression of the Il4 and Il17 genes. Upon treatment with alpha galactosyl-C18-ceramide (αGal-C18-Cer), IRF8-deficient mice showed defective Treg cell recruitment in the liver. Eliciting Th1 immune response by anti-CD40 antibody injection in mice induced IRF8 expression in Treg cells. The expression of IRF8 was induced by Foxp3 in Treg cells. IRF8 had no effect on T-bet expression in Treg and vice versa. Thus, our results strongly suggest that IRF8 controls Th1 immune response in Treg cells independent of T-bet.

  2. Preliminary Location Accuracy Assessments of 3rd Satellite of TH-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Renxiang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The TH-1 satellite is the first stereo mapping transmission satellite in China, and the primary mission goal of the satellite is for topographic mapping at 1:50 000 scale and high-accuracy location without Ground Control Points (GCPs. 1st, 2nd satellites of TH-1 were launched on August 24, 2010, May 6, 2012, and 3rd satellite was launched on October 26, 2015. Now, three satellites of TH-1 are well operating on its orbit. After evaluation, the location accuracy of 1st satellite without GCPs is 10.3 m/5.7 m (horizontal accuracy/vertical elevation accuracy, and the location accuracy of 2nd is equivalent with 1st satellite. In this paper, the system overview of TH-1 and the key technical in ground image processing are introduced. Then, the preliminary location accuracy of 3rd is assessed. The results are shown using three routes images:the location accuracy of 3rd is higher than 2nd, and can realize high accuracy location without GCPs, in which the horizontal accuracy is 7.2 m, and the vertical elevation accuracy is 2.6 m.

  3. Immunological mechanisms underlying delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to glatiramer acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, Cristobalina; Blazquez, Ana B; Doña, Inmaculada; Gomez, Francisca; Chaves, Patricia; Sanchez-Quintero, Maria J; Blanca-López, Natalia; Melendez, Lidia; Blanca, Miguel; Torres, Maria Jose

    2012-07-01

    Delayed-type hypersensitivity to glatiramer acetate is rare, and the underlying immunological mechanisms are not completely understood. To study the immunologic response in 2 patients with multiple sclerosis who developed maculopapular exanthema related with the administration of glatiramer acetate. The allergologic study included general blood tests, viral serologic tests, and skin tests (patch and intradermal tests). The immunologic study was performed in skin biopsy specimens by immunohistochemistry and in the peripheral blood by flow cytometry and the lymphocyte transformation test. Skin test results were negative in both patients, and the diagnosis was confirmed by a drug provocation test. The evaluation of the acute phase showed an increase in the percentage of CD8 T lymphocytes (>50%) and the percentage of cells expressing skin-homing receptor (cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen) (>70%) and chemokine receptors (CCR4 and CXCR3) at T1. A positive proliferative response was observed in T lymphocytes (stimulation index [SI] = 3.5 in patient 1 and 3.59 in patient 2), especially the CD8(+) subpopulation (SI = 5.5 and 4.6 in patients 1 and 2, respectively), and NK lymphocytes (SI = 3.9 and 8.5 in patients 1 and 2, respectively) after glatiramer acetate stimulation. This study demonstrates the important role of T(H)1 cells expressing skin-homing receptors in delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to glatiramer acetate. A lymphocyte transformation test revealed a specific glatiramer acetate recognition by T lymphocytes and NK lymphocytes. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells are active participants in microenvironmental cross-talk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Attekum, Martijn H. A.; Eldering, Eric; Kater, Arnon P.

    2017-01-01

    The importance of the tumor microenvironment in chronic lymphocytic leukemia is widely accepted. Nevertheless, the understanding of the complex interplay between the various types of bystander cells and chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells is incomplete. Numerous studies have indicated that bystander

  5. Th1 and Th2 immune responses related to pelvic endometriosis Resposta imunológica Th1 e Th2 relacionada à endometriose pélvica

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    Sergio Podgaec

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the relationship between clinical characteristics of endometriosis and Th1/Th2 immune response patterns. METHODS: A prospective study was performed with 65 patients with endometriosis (Group A and 33 without the disease (Group B. Measurement of IL 2, 4 and 10, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma was carried out in peripheral blood and peritoneal fluid. RESULTS: Serum TNF-alpha was higher in patients with endometriosis who had deep dyspareunia compared to controls (mean 4.5 pg/ml and 2.3 pg/ml, pOBJETIVO: Este estudo analisa a relação entre as características clínicas da endometriose e os padrões da resposta imune Th1/Th2. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo realizado com 65 pacientes com endometriose (Grupo A e 33 pacientes sem a doença (Grupo B. Foram realizadas avaliação no fluido peritoneal e sangue periférico de IL 2, 4 e 10, TNF-alfa e IFN-gama. A significância foi estabelecida em p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: TNF-alfa encontrava-se elevado em pacientes com endometriose que apresentavam dispareunia de profundidade comparado com controle (média 4,5 pg/ml e 2,3 pg/ml, p< 0,05. Dentre essas pacientes (n=32, 65,5% apresentavam endometriose profunda. Pacientes com endometriose e infertilidade apresentavam concentrações maiores de IL-2 no fluido peritoneal quando comparadas com controle (média 5,9 pg/ml e 0,2 pg/ml, p< 0,05, sendo que neste grupo, 63,5% (n=14 apresentavam endometriose profunda. Foi observada também maior concentração de IL-10 nas pacientes que apresentavam endometriose ovariana quando comparadas às sem esse tipo de endometriose, assim como quando comparadas às pacientes do grupo controle (média 50pg/ml, 18,7pg/ml e 25,7pg/ml, p<0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Estes resultados sugerem que quando dados clínicos específicos associam-se a uma produção elevada de certas citocinas, ocorre um padrão de resposta Th1 que pode estar associado à endometriose profunda.

  6. Serum Levels of IL-6 Type Cytokines and Soluble IL-6 Receptors in Active B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and in Cladribine Induced Remission

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    T. Robak

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the serum concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and two IL-6 family cytokines-oncostatin M (OSM and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF-in 63 patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL and 17 healthy controls using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Simultaneously, we measured the serum levels of the soluble forms of two subunits of the IL-6 receptor complex-ligand binding glycoprotein 80 (sIL-6R and glycoprotein 130 (sgp130. The cytokines and receptors were evaluated in 25 untreated patients and 38 patients treated with cladribine (2-CdA, as well as in 17 healthy controls. We have correlated the serum levels of these proteins with Rai's clinical stage of the disease, the response to 2-CdA treatment and some hematological parameters. We have also evaluated the correlation of the IL-6 serum level with the concentration of OSM and IL-6 soluble receptors. IL-6 was measurable in 62/63 (98.4%, OSM in 20/25 (80% of untreated and 14/38 (37.8% of the treated patients. sIL-6R and sgp130 were detectable in all 63 patients and LIF in none of the CLL patients. IL-6 serum level in untreated patients was not significantly different as compared to its concentration in the control group (P>0.05. However, in the patients treated with 2-CdA the IL-6 level was significantly lower (P0.05. We have found significant positive correlation between the levels of sIL6R and the lymphocytes count in CLL patients (Ρ=0.423; P<0.001. In addition, sIL-6R and OSM serum concentrations correlated also with CLL Rai stage. In conclusion, the serum level of IL-6, OSM and sIL-6R, but not LIF and sgp130, are useful indicators of CLL activity.

  7. NF-kappa B1 is required for optimal CD4+ Th1 cell development and resistance to Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artis, David; Speirs, Kendra; Joyce, Karen; Goldschmidt, Michael; Caamaño, Jorge; Hunter, Christopher A; Scott, Phillip

    2003-02-15

    The NF-kappaB family of transcription factors regulates the expression of a wide range of immune response genes involved in immunity to pathogens. However, the need for individual family members in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses in vivo has yet to be clearly defined. We investigated the role of NF-kappaB1 in the induction of protective IL-12-dependent Th1 cell responses following infection with the intracellular protozoan parasite Leishmania major. Whereas wild-type C57BL/6 mice controlled parasite replication, NF-kappaB1 knockout (KO) mice were susceptible to infection, developing chronic unresolving lesions associated with persistent parasites. There was a profound defect in Ag-specific CD4(+) T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production in infected KO mice, although innate responses-including IL-12 production and control of intracellular parasite replication by macrophages-were intact. In vitro polyclonal stimulation of purified naive KO T cells revealed an intrinsic defect in CD4(+) T cell proliferation associated with reduced IL-2 receptor expression, but operating independently of APC function and IL-2 production. Critically, the frequency of proliferating KO CD4(+) T cells secreting IFN-gamma matched that of wild-type cells, suggesting that NF-kappaB1 was not required for efficient transcription of the IFN-gamma gene. Taken together, these results identify a novel role for NF-kappaB1 in CD4(+) T cell proliferation and the development of Th1 cell responses required for protective immunity against intracellular pathogens.

  8. Th1 Differentiation Drives the Accumulation of Intravascular, Non-protective CD4 T Cells during Tuberculosis

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    Michelle A. Sallin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent data indicate that the differentiation state of Th1 cells determines their protective capacity against tuberculosis. Therefore, we examined the role of Th1-polarizing factors in the generation of protective and non-protective subsets of Mtb-specific Th1 cells. We find that IL-12/23p40 promotes Th1 cell expansion and maturation beyond the CD73+CXCR3+T-betdim stage, and T-bet prevents deviation of Th1 cells into Th17 cells. Nevertheless, IL- 12/23p40 and T-bet are also essential for the production of a prominent subset of intravascular CX3CR1+KLRG1+ Th1 cells that persists poorly and can neither migrate into the lung parenchyma nor control Mtb growth. Furthermore, T-bet suppresses development of CD69+CD103+ tissue resident phenotype effectors in lung. In contrast, Th1-cell-derived IFN-γ inhibits the accumulation of intravascular CX3CR1+KLRG1+ Th1 cells. Thus, although IL-12 and T-bet are essential host survival factors, they simultaneously oppose lung CD4 T cell responses at several levels, demonstrating the dual nature of Th1 polarization in tuberculosis.

  9. Th1 Differentiation Drives the Accumulation of Intravascular, Non-protective CD4 T Cells during Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallin, Michelle A; Sakai, Shunsuke; Kauffman, Keith D; Young, Howard A; Zhu, Jinfang; Barber, Daniel L

    2017-03-28

    Recent data indicate that the differentiation state of Th1 cells determines their protective capacity against tuberculosis. Therefore, we examined the role of Th1-polarizing factors in the generation of protective and non-protective subsets of Mtb-specific Th1 cells. We find that IL-12/23p40 promotes Th1 cell expansion and maturation beyond the CD73 + CXCR3 + T-bet dim stage, and T-bet prevents deviation of Th1 cells into Th17 cells. Nevertheless, IL- 12/23p40 and T-bet are also essential for the production of a prominent subset of intravascular CX3CR1 + KLRG1 + Th1 cells that persists poorly and can neither migrate into the lung parenchyma nor control Mtb growth. Furthermore, T-bet suppresses development of CD69 + CD103 + tissue resident phenotype effectors in lung. In contrast, Th1-cell-derived IFN-γ inhibits the accumulation of intravascular CX3CR1 + KLRG1 + Th1 cells. Thus, although IL-12 and T-bet are essential host survival factors, they simultaneously oppose lung CD4 T cell responses at several levels, demonstrating the dual nature of Th1 polarization in tuberculosis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) is a disorder of innate immunity and Th1 activation responsive to IL-1 blockade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanov, Silvia; Lapidus, Sivia; Chitkara, Puja; Feder, Henry; Salazar, Juan C.; Fleisher, Thomas A.; Brown, Margaret R.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Ward, Michael M.; Colbert, Robert A.; Sun, Hong-Wei; Wood, Geryl M.; Barham, Beverly K.; Jones, Anne; Aksentijevich, Ivona; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Athreya, Balu; Barron, Karyl S.; Kastner, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    The syndrome of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) is the most common periodic fever disease in children. However, the pathogenesis is unknown. Using a systems biology approach we analyzed blood samples from PFAPA patients whose genetic testing excluded hereditary periodic fevers (HPFs), and from healthy children and pediatric HPF patients. Gene expression profiling could clearly distinguish PFAPA flares from asymptomatic intervals, HPF flares, and healthy controls. During PFAPA attacks, complement (C1QB, C2, SERPING1), IL-1–related (IL-1B, IL-1RN, CASP1, IL18RAP), and IFN-induced (AIM2, IP-10/CXCL10) genes were significantly overexpressed, but T cell-associated transcripts (CD3, CD8B) were down-regulated. On the protein level, PFAPA flares were accompanied by significantly increased serum levels of chemokines for activated T lymphocytes (IP-10/CXCL10, MIG/CXCL9), G-CSF, and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-18, IL-6). PFAPA flares also manifested a relative lymphopenia. Activated CD4+/CD25+ T-lymphocyte counts correlated negatively with serum concentrations of IP-10/CXCL10, whereas CD4+/HLA-DR+ T lymphocyte counts correlated positively with serum concentrations of the counterregulatory IL-1 receptor antagonist. Based on the evidence for IL-1β activation in PFAPA flares, we treated five PFAPA patients with a recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist. All patients showed a prompt clinical and IP-10/CXCL10 response. Our data suggest an environmentally triggered activation of complement and IL-1β/-18 during PFAPA flares, with induction of Th1-chemokines and subsequent retention of activated T cells in peripheral tissues. IL-1 inhibition may thus be beneficial for treatment of PFAPA attacks, with IP-10/CXCL10 serving as a potential biomarker. PMID:21478439

  11. Chemokines, lymphocytes, and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farber J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are members of a family of more than 30 human cytokines whose best-described activities are as chemotactic factors for leukocytes and that are presumed to be important in leukocyte recruitment and trafficking. While many chemokines can act on lymphocytes, the roles of chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte biology are poorly understood. The recent discoveries that chemokines can suppress infection by HIV-1 and that chemokine receptors serve, along with CD4, as obligate co-receptors for HIV-1 entry have lent urgency to studies on the relationships between chemokines and lymphocytes. My laboratory has characterized Mig and Crg-2/IP-10, chemokines that are induced by IFN-g and that specifically target lymphocytes, particularly activated T cells. We have demonstrated that the genes for these chemokines are widely expressed during experimental infections in mice with protozoan and viral pathogens, but that the patterns of mig and crg-2 expression differed, suggesting non-redundant roles in vivo. Our related studies to identify new chemokine receptors from activated lymphocytes resulted in the cloning of STRL22 and STRL33. We and others have shown that STRL22 is a receptor for the CC chemokine MIP-3a, and STRL22 has been re-named CCR6. Although STRL33 remains an orphan receptor, we have shown that it can function as a co-receptor for HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, and that it is active with a broader range of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins than the major co-receptors described to date. The ability of STRL33 to function with a wide variety of envelope glycoproteins may become particularly important if therapies are instituted to block other specific co-receptors. We presume that investigations into the roles of chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte biology will provide information important for understanding the pathogenesis of AIDS and for manipulating immune and inflammatory responses for clinical benefit

  12. The Th1:Th2 Dichotomy of Pregnancy and Preterm Labour

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    Lynne Sykes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a unique immunological state in which a balance of immune tolerance and suppression is needed to protect the fetus without compromising the mother. It has long been established that a bias from the T helper 1 cytokine profile towards the T helper 2 profile contributes towards successful pregnancy maintenance. The majority of publications that report on aberrant Th1:Th2 balance focus on early pregnancy loss and preeclampsia. Over the last few decades, there has been an increased awareness of the role of infection and inflammation in preterm labour, and the search for new biomarkers to predict preterm labour continues. In this paper, we explore the evidence for an aberrant Th1:Th2 profile associated with preterm labour. We also consider the potential for its use in screening women at high risk of preterm labour and for prophylactic therapeutic measures for the prevention of preterm labour and associated neonatal adverse outcomes.

  13. Jessner lymphocytic infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martine Prütz; Vestergaard, Vibeke; Bygum, Anette

    2017-01-01

    We present a 13-year-old girl with Jessner lymphocytic infiltrate of the skin, who has suffered from the disease since the age of 9 years. It is a rare disease in childhood, and we highlight the clinical features and therapeutic response of tacrolimus.......We present a 13-year-old girl with Jessner lymphocytic infiltrate of the skin, who has suffered from the disease since the age of 9 years. It is a rare disease in childhood, and we highlight the clinical features and therapeutic response of tacrolimus....

  14. Suppression of Th1-mediated autoimmunity by embryonic stem cell-derived dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokunori Ikeda

    Full Text Available We herein demonstrate the immune-regulatory effect of embryonic stem cell-derived dendritic cells (ES-DCs using two models of autoimmune disease, namely non-obese diabetic (NOD mice and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. Treatment of pre-diabetic NOD mice with ES-DCs exerted almost complete suppression of diabetes development during the observation period for more than 40 weeks. The prevention of diabetes by ES-DCs was accompanied with significant reduction of insulitis and decreased number of Th1 and Th17 cells in the spleen. Development of EAE was also inhibited by the treatment with ES-DCs, and the therapeutic effect was obtained even if ES-DCs were administrated after the onset of clinical symptoms. Treatment of EAE-induced mice with ES-DCs reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the spinal cord and suppressed the T cell response to the myelin antigen. Importantly, the ES-DC treatment did not affect T cell response to an exogenous antigen. As the mechanisms underlying the reduction of the number of infiltrating Th1 cells, we observed the inhibition of differentiation and proliferation of Th1 cells by ES-DCs. Furthermore, the expression of VLA-4α on Th1 cells was significantly inhibited by ES-DCs. Considering the recent advances in human induced pluripotent stem cell-related technologies, these results suggest a clinical application for pluripotent stem cell-derived dendritic cells as a therapy for T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases.

  15. Th1-skewed tissue responses to a mycolyl glycolipid in mycobacteria-infected rhesus macaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Ayumi; Hattori, Yuki; Komori, Takaya [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Nakamura, Takashi [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita 12 Nishi 6, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan); Igarashi, Tatsuhiko, E-mail: tigarash@virus.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Primate Model, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Harashima, Hideyoshi, E-mail: harasima@pharm.hokudai.ac.jp [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita 12 Nishi 6, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan); Sugita, Masahiko, E-mail: msugita@virus.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Glucose monomycolate (GMM) is a marker glycolipid for active tuberculosis. •Tissue responses to GMM involved up-regulation of Th1-attracting chemokines. •Th1-skewed local responses were mounted at the GMM-injected tissue. -- Abstract: Trehalose 6,6′-dimycolate (TDM) is a major glycolipid of the cell wall of mycobacteria with remarkable adjuvant functions. To avoid detection by the host innate immune system, invading mycobacteria down-regulate the expression of TDM by utilizing host-derived glucose as a competitive substrate for their mycolyltransferases; however, this enzymatic reaction results in the concomitant biosynthesis of glucose monomycolate (GMM) which is recognized by the acquired immune system. GMM-specific, CD1-restricted T cell responses have been detected in the peripheral blood of infected human subjects and monkeys as well as in secondary lymphoid organs of small animals, such as guinea pigs and human CD1-transgenic mice. Nevertheless, it remains to be determined how tissues respond at the site where GMM is produced. Here we found that rhesus macaques vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guerin mounted a chemokine response in GMM-challenged skin that was favorable for recruiting T helper (Th)1 T cells. Indeed, the expression of interferon-γ, but not Th2 or Th17 cytokines, was prominent in the GMM-injected tissue. The GMM-elicited tissue response was also associated with the expression of monocyte/macrophage-attracting CC chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL4 and CCL8. Furthermore, the skin response to GMM involved the up-regulated expression of granulysin and perforin. Given that GMM is produced primarily by pathogenic mycobacteria proliferating within the host, the Th1-skewed tissue response to GMM may function efficiently at the site of infection.

  16. Differential expression of CD300a/c on human TH1 and TH17 cells

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    Borrego Francisco

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human memory CD4+ T cells can be either CD300a/c+ or CD300a/c- and subsequent analyses showed that CD4+ effector memory T (TEM cells are mostly CD300a/c+, whereas CD4+ central memory T (TCM cells have similar frequencies of CD300a/c+ and CD300a/c- cells. Results Extensive phenotypical and functional characterization showed that in both TCM and TEM cells, the CD300a/c+ subset contained a higher number of TH1 (IFN-γ producing cells. Alternatively, TH17 (IL-17a producing cells tend to be CD300a/c-, especially in the TEM subset. Further characterization of the IL-17a+ cells showed that cells that produce only this cytokine are mostly CD300a/c-, while cells that produce IL-17a in combination with other cytokines, especially IFN-γ, are mostly CD300a/c+, indicating that the expression of this receptor is associated with cells that produce IFN-γ. Co-ligation of the TCR and CD300a/c in CD4+ T cells inhibited Ca2+ mobilization evoked by TCR ligation alone and modulated IFN-γ production on TH1 polarized cells. Conclusion We conclude that the CD300a/c receptors are differentially expressed on human TH1 and TH17 cells and that their ligation is capable of modulating TCR mediated signals.

  17. Thermophysical and anion diffusion properties of (Ux,Th1−x)O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael W. D.; Murphy, Samuel T.; Fossati, Paul C. M.; Rushton, Michael J. D.; Grimes, Robin W.

    2014-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics, the thermophysical properties of the (Ux,Th1−x)O2 system have been investigated between 300 and 3600 K. The thermal dependence of lattice parameter, linear thermal expansion coefficient, enthalpy and specific heat at constant pressure is explained in terms of defect formation and diffusivity on the oxygen sublattice. Vegard's law is approximately observed for solid solution thermal expansion below 2000 K. Different deviations from Vegard's law above this temperature occur owing to the different temperatures at which the solid solutions undergo the superionic transition (2500–3300 K). Similarly, a spike in the specific heat, associated with the superionic transition, occurs at lower temperatures in solid solutions that have a high U content. Correspondingly, oxygen diffusivity is higher in pure UO2 than in pure ThO2. Furthermore, at temperatures below the superionic transition, oxygen mobility is notably higher in solid solutions than in the end members. Enhanced diffusivity is promoted by lower oxygen-defect enthalpies in (Ux,Th1−x)O2 solid solutions. Unlike in UO2 and ThO2, there is considerable variety of oxygen vacancy and oxygen interstitial sites in solid solutions generating a wide range of property values. Trends in the defect enthalpies are discussed in terms of composition and the lattice parameter of (Ux,Th1−x)O2. PMID:25383028

  18. Diisononyl phthalate induces asthma via modulation of Th1/Th2 equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yun-Ho; Paik, Man-Jeong; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2017-04-15

    Diisononyl phthalate (DINP), a member of the phthalate family, is used to plasticize polyvinyl chloride (PVC). This chemical is known to enhance airway inflammation in the OVA-induced asthma model (adjuvant effects) and aggravate allergic dermatitis. Moreover, DINP enhances the production of interleukin-4 in activated CD4(+) T cells. However, the effect of DINP itself on the differentiation of naïve CD4(+) T cells into T helper cells (Th1/Th2) in vitro and allergic asthma in vivo has not yet been studied. In this study, DINP was shown to suppress the polarization of Th1 and enhance the polarization of Th2 from naïve CD4(+) T cells in vitro. Also, DINP induced allergic asthma via the production of IL-4, IL-5, IgE and IgG1 and the reduction of IFN-γ and IgG2a. Finally, we confirmed that exposure to DINP induces the infiltration of inflammatory cells and PAS positive cells and increases the expression of caspase-1 and caspase-3 in asthmatic mice. In conclusion, we suggest that DINP as an environmental pollutant or endocrine disruptor (ECD) induces asthma via the modulation of the Th1/Th2 equilibrium and production of Th2 mediated cytokines and immunoglobulin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Th-1, Th-2 Cytokines Profile among Madurella mycetomatis Eumycetoma Patients.

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    Amre Nasr

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Eumycetoma is a progressive and destructive chronic granulomatous subcutaneous inflammatory disease caused by certain fungi, the most common being Madurella mycetomatis. The host defence mechanisms against fungi usually range from an early non-specific immune response to activation and induction of specific adaptive immune responses by the production of Th-1 and Th-2 cytokines. The aim of this study is to determine the levels of Th-1 and Th-2 cytokines in patients infected with Madurella mycetomatis, and the association between their levels and disease prognosis. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at the Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, Sudan, where 70 patients with confirmed M. mycetomatis eumycetoma were enrolled; 35 with, and 35 without surgical excision. 70 healthy individuals from mycetoma endemic areas were selected as controls. The levels of serum cytokines were determined by cytometric bead array technique. Significantly higher levels of the Th-1 cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-2 were recorded in patients treated with surgical excision, compared to those treated without surgical excision. In contrast, the Th-2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly lower in patients treated with surgical excision compared to those treated without surgical excision. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that cell-mediated immunity can have a role to play in the pathogenesis of eumycetoma.

  20. Dectin-1 isoforms contribute to distinct Th1/Th17 cell activation in mucosal candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Agostinho; Giovannini, Gloria; De Luca, Antonella; D'Angelo, Carmen; Casagrande, Andrea; Iannitti, Rossana G; Ricci, Giovanni; Cunha, Cristina; Romani, Luigina

    2012-01-01

    The recognition of β-glucans by dectin-1 has been shown to mediate cell activation, cytokine production and a variety of antifungal responses. Here, we report that the functional activity of dectin-1 in mucosal immunity to Candida albicans is influenced by the genetic background of the host. Dectin-1 was required for the proper control of gastrointestinal and vaginal candidiasis in C57BL/6, but not BALB/c mice; in fact, the latter showed increased resistance in the absence of dectin-1. The susceptibility of dectin-1-deficient C57BL/6 mice to infection was associated with defects in IL-17A and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent IL-22 production and in adaptive Th1 responses. In contrast, the resistance of dectin-1-deficient BALB/c mice was associated with increased IL-17A and IL-22 production and the skewing towards Th1/Treg immune responses that provide immunological memory. Disparate canonical/noncanonical NF-κB signaling pathways downstream of dectin-1 were activated in the two different mouse strains. Thus, the net activity of dectin-1 in antifungal mucosal immunity is dependent on the host's genetic background, which affects both the innate cytokine production and the adaptive Th1/Th17 cell activation upon dectin-1 signaling. PMID:22543832

  1. Role of Th1/Th2 cytokines in the diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, J T; Zhang, D H; Fang, P F; Li, M H; Wang, R J; Li, S H

    2017-03-16

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS), a progressive disease of the spine, manifests as peripheral arthritis with tendon and ligament inflammation that restricts activity. AS is a rheumatoid autoimmune disease although the rheumatoid factor is absent in patients with AS. It is characterized by inflammatory changes such as elevated levels of serum inflammatory factors. The roles of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in autoimmune diseases are well known. However, the roles of these cytokines in the diagnosis and prognosis of AS is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of Th1/Th2 cytokines in the diagnosis and prognosis of AS. The BASDAI activity, BASFI functional index, BASMI measurement score, and the levels of CRP and ESR were measured during the treatment of patients with active AS. The levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α (Th1 cytokines) and IL-4 and IL-10 (Th2 cytokines) were quantified. The levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were significantly low in the serum of patients with active AS, who also had high IFN-γ and TNF-α levels compared to those in the control individuals (P cytokines in patients with AS may reflect disease activity and prognosis.

  2. Th1 and Th17 Cells in Tuberculosis: Protection, Pathology, and Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Lyadova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb infection ranges from a complete pathogen clearance through asymptomatic latent infection (LTBI to active tuberculosis (TB disease. It is now understood that LTBI and active TB represent a continuous spectrum of states with different degrees of pathogen “activity,” host pathology, and immune reactivity. Therefore, it is important to differentiate LTBI and active TB and identify active TB stages. CD4+ T cells play critical role during Mtb infection by mediating protection, contributing to inflammation, and regulating immune response. Th1 and Th17 cells are the main effector CD4+ T cells during TB. Th1 cells have been shown to contribute to TB protection by secreting IFN-γ and activating antimycobacterial action in macrophages. Th17 induce neutrophilic inflammation, mediate tissue damage, and thus have been implicated in TB pathology. In recent years new findings have accumulated that alter our view on the role of Th1 and Th17 cells during Mtb infection. This review discusses these new results and how they can be implemented for TB diagnosis and monitoring.

  3. THE ROLE OF Th1 AND Th2 CELLS IN ATOPIC AND AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES

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    Snežana Cekić

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available –helper cells can be divided into two distinct subtypes of effector cells based on the profile of cytokines they produce. Th1 cells produce interferon– γ (IFN– γ and tumor necrosis factor β (TNF– β, and are associated with cell– mediated responses, particularly with resistance to intracellular pathogens (bacteria, parasites, yeasts and viruses. In contrast, Th2 . cells produce IL– 4, IL– 5, IL– 9 and IL– 13. Th2 cells are involved in antibody responses and IgE production, as well as tissue fibrosis, and eosinophilia. Th2 responses are important in the resistance to infection with helminth parasites. Although both Th responses are protective against certain infectious pathogens, they can themselves be pathogenic: Th1 cell responses can mediate autoimmune diseases, whereas dysregulation of Th2 responses is implicated inatopic diseases (allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic eczema, food allergy and anaphylaxis. The recent progress in our understanding of the mechanism of initiation and control of Th1 and Th2 cell responses will eventually lead to new therapeutic strategies.

  4. Variation of transaminases, HCV-RNA levels and Th1/Th2 cytokine production during the post-partum period in pregnant women with chronic hepatitis C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeles Ruiz-Extremera

    Full Text Available This study analyses the evolution of liver disease in women with chronic hepatitis C during the third trimester of pregnancy and the post-partum period, as a natural model of immune modulation and reconstitution. Of the 122 mothers recruited to this study, 89 were HCV-RNA+ve/HIV-ve and 33 were HCV-RNA-ve/HIV-ve/HCVantibody+ve and all were tested during the third trimester of pregnancy, at delivery and post-delivery. The HCV-RNA+ve mothers were categorized as either Type-A (66%, with an increase in ALT levels in the post-partum period (>40 U/L; P<0.001 or as Type-B (34%, with no variation in ALT values. The Type-A mothers also presented a significant decrease in serum HCV-RNA levels in the post-delivery period (P<0.001 and this event was concomitant with an increase in Th1 cytokine levels (INFγ, P = 0.04; IL12, P = 0.01 and IL2, P = 0.01. On the other hand, the Type-B mothers and the HCV-RNA-ve women presented no variations in either of these parameters. However, they did present higher Th1 cytokine levels in the partum period (INFγ and IL2, P<0.05 than both the Type-A and the HCV-RNA-ve women. Cytokine levels at the moment of delivery do not constitute a risk factor associated with HCV vertical transmission. It is concluded that differences in the ALT and HCV-RNA values observed in HCV-RNA+ve women in the postpartum period might be due to different ratios of Th1 cytokine production. In the Type-B women, the high partum levels of Th1 cytokines and the absence of post-partum variation in ALT and HCV-RNA levels may be related to permanent Th1 cytokine stimulation.

  5. Cytotoxic lymphocytes in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; de Grooth, B.G.; Segers-Nolten, Gezina M.J.; Greve, Jan

    1990-01-01

    The occurrence of cytotoxic lymphocyte subpopulations (i.e., CD 16+, CD57+ and cytotoxic CD 8+) was studied in the peripheral blood of 18 B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patients. The absolute numbers of CD 57+, CD 16+ and cytotoxic CD 8+ lymphocytes were increased in the peripheral

  6. T lymphocyte subset imbalances in patients contribute to ankylosing spondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, CHENGGONG; LIAO, QIANDE; HU, YIHE; ZHONG, DA

    2015-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease, which is characterized by inflammation of the spine and the sacroiliac joints. To date, the disease etiology remains unclear. In the present study, the correlation of T lymphocyte subset changes with the progression of ankylosing spondylitis was investigated. A total of 55 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (22 severe and 23 mild cases) and 20 healthy individuals were selected. Firstly, the punctured cells in the lesions and the serum were collected, and the lymphocytes and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells were prepared. Secondly, quantitative PCR, ELISA and flow cytometry analyses were carried out to detect the levels of a series of immunoglobulins, complements, helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, regulatory cells and cytokines. The expression levels of α-globulin, γ-globulin, immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA, IgM, serum complement C3, and complement C4 were found to be significantly increased in ankylosing spondylitis patients. In addition, the percentage of Th1 and Th17 cells was found to be significantly higher in the ankylosing spondylitis groups (mild and severe) compared with the healthy individuals. As a result, the Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg ratios were significantly higher in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. In addition, T lymphocyte subset ratio imbalances contributed to an increased expression of immune mediators, including interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-17A. The mRNA and protein expression levels of IFN-γ and IL-17A were found to be higher in the ankylosing spondylitis groups compared with the control group. The present study provided further evidence on the function and underlying mechanism of T lymphocyte subsets, which may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of ankylosing spondylitis. PMID:25452811

  7. Rhodiola rosea suppresses thymus T-lymphocyte apoptosis by downregulating tumor necrosis factor-α-induced protein 8-like-2 in septic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Wei; Su, Mei-Xian; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Lin-Ming; Wang, Yun-Hui; Qian, Chuan-Yun

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, several studies have shown that Rhodiola rosea can enhance cellular immunity and humoral immune function in mice, and thus, it has become a research hotspot. However, its underlying mechanism of action has remained elusive. The present study investigated whether Rhodiola rosea was able to downregulate the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α-inducible protein 8-like 2 (TIPE2), thereby inhibiting the expression of apoptotic genes, attenuating T-lymphocyte apoptosis and improving immunity in septic mice. A mouse model of caecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis was established, and animals in the treatment group were pre-treated with an intraperitoneal injection of Rhodiola rosea extract, while animals in the control group and sham-operated group were injected with an equivalent amount of normal saline. TIPE2, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) mRNA and protein levels in thymic T cells were determined using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. Furthermore, the thymus T-lymphocyte apoptosis rate, thymus T-lymphocyte count and thymus T-lymphocyte sub-sets were assessed using flow cytometry. Levels of T-helper cell type 1 (Th1) cytokines [Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ] and Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) were determined using ELISA. The results showed that, compared to that in the CLP group, the expression of TIPE2, Fas and FasL in the treatment group was significantly decreased, while the expression of Bcl-2 was increased (PRhodiola rosea rescued decreased in the counts of the CD3(+) T and CD4(+) T sub-sets of thymus T lymphocytes in the CLP group (PRhodiola rosea led to further increases. The thymus index of septic mice treated with Rhodiola rosea as well as their survival rate were improved as compared with those in the CLP group. These findings suggested that Rhodiola rosea has protective effects against sepsis by decreasing apoptosis

  8. Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Postoperative Pain after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... patients' pain perceptions.[2]. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is relatively new recognized inflammation marker and significant relationship between NLR and outcomes and/or prognosis of many clinical situations including different types of cancers. (colorectal, gastric, pancreatic, esophageal, lung, etc.),.

  9. Stages of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Chronic ...

  10. Ghrelin Increases Lymphocytes in Chronic Normobaric Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Mirzaie Bavil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Hypoxia is a condition of decreased availability of oxygen. To adapt hypoxia, some changes in blood cells occur in the body. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ghrelin on different types of blood cell in normobaric hypoxia situation. Methods: Thirty-two animals were divided in 4 groups (n=8: control (C, ghrelin (G, hypoxia (H, and hypoxic animals that received ghrelin (H+G. Hypoxia (11% was induced by an Environmental Chamber System GO2 Altitude. Animals in ghrelin groups received a subcutaneous injection of ghrelin (150 μg/kg/day for 14 days. Results: Our results show that ghrelin significantly (p<0.05 increased RBC and Hct levels, whereas it significantly (p<0.05 decreased lymphocytes in the blood. RBC, Hct, Hb concentration, platelet and MCV increased significantly (p<0.05 in hypoxic conditions but lymphocytes, monocytes and Polymorphonuclears did not show any significant changes. Platelets had a significant (p<0.05 decrease in hypoxic conditions and ghrelin administration in hypoxic conditions could increase lymphocyte levels significantly (p<0.05. Conclusion: Effect of ghrelin on blood cells could be related to blood oxygen level. Ghrelin in normal oxygen conditions increases RBC and Hct levels but decreases lymphocytes, whereas in hypoxic conditions, ghrelin increases blood lymphocytes.

  11. Treatment with Bifidobacterium bifidum 17 partially protects mice from Th1-driven inflammation in a chemically induced model of colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, David; Heupel, Esther; Blum-Sperisen, Stephanie; Riedel, Christian U

    2011-09-01

    Probiotics have been suggested as an alternative therapeutical approach in the intervention of inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Application of single strains or probiotic mixtures has shown promising results in animal models and patients of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We recently demonstrated potent inhibitory capacity of a Bifidobacterium bifidum S17 on LPS-induced inflammatory events in cell culture models using intestinal epithelial cells and verified these anti-inflammatory effects in two mouse models of colitis. In the present study we analyze the anti-inflammatory effect of this potential probiotic strain in a chemically-induced model of colitis in C57BL/6 mice. This model is characterized by a strong type 1T helper (Th1) response resembling Crohn's disease, one of the two most prevalent forms of IBD. We performed macroscopic analysis and determined the effect of B. bifidum S17 on the cytokine balance in biopsies of the colonic mucosa. While treatment with B. bifidum S17 only had a marginal effect on weight loss, no difference was observed in the macroscopic parameters. However, a significant reduction in histology scores and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) and the inflammatory markers cyclooxigenase 2 (Cox-2) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) was observed. These results indicate that treatment with B. bifidum S17 is able to partially inhibit the strong Th1-driven intestinal inflammation induced in our model of colitis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. LYMPHOCYTE APOPTOSIS IN PSORIASIS

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    О. M. Kapuler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Forty-two patients with progressive vulgar psoriasis (PASI = 19.7 ± 1.5 and 40 healthy volunteers were under investigation. Psoriatic patients were characterized by increased number of CD4+ CD95+ peripheral blood T lymphocytes, which correlates with clinical psoriatic score, and by increased levels of soluble Fas (sFas in serum, as compared to controls (resp., 1868.1 ± 186.8 pg/ml vs. 1281.4 ± 142.5 pg/ml, PLSD = 0.019. The levels of spontaneous lymphocyte apoptosis and anti-Fas (Mab-induced apoptosis in psoriatic patients did not differ from the controls. However, apoptosis induced by “oxidative stress” (50 M Н202, 4 hrs was depressed in the patients. Moreover, a simultaneous assessment of cell cycle structure (metachromatic staining with Acridine Orange, apoptosis and Fas receptor expression (AnnV-FITC/antiFas mAbs-PE staining following a short-term mitogenic stimulation (PHA-P, 5 µg/ml, 24 hrs were performed. We found no marked differences in mitogenic reactivity, activation-induced apoptosis, and activation-induced Fas receptor expression when studying lymphocytes from healthy donors and psoriatic patients. However, PHA-activated lymphocytes from psoriatic patients displayed a significantly decreased ratio of AnnV+CD95+ to the total AnnV+ subpopulation, thus suggesting a decreased role of Fas-dependent mechanisms of apoptosis during the cell activation. The data obtained confirm a view, that an abnormal lymphocyte “apoptotic reactivity”, which plays a crucial role in the mechanisms of autoimmunity, may also of importance in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  13. Efficacy of Leishmania donovani trypanothione reductase, identified as a potent Th1 stimulatory protein, for its immunogenicity and prophylactic potential against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Prashant; Jaiswal, Anil Kumar; Tripathi, Chandra Dev Pati; Joshi, Sumit; Sundar, Shyam; Dube, Anuradha

    2014-03-01

    In visceral leishmaniasis (VL), Th1-type of immune responses play an important role which correlates with recovery from and resistance to disease resulting in lifelong immunity. Based on this rationale, the soluble leishmanial antigens that elicit cellular responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cured Leishmania patients were characterized through immunoproteomic approach which led to the identification of trypanothione reductase (TPR) (a cytosolic enzyme explored as a drug target), as one of the potent Th1 stimulatory protein. In this study, the immunogenicity of recombinant Leishmania donovani TPR (rLdTPR) was assessed in PBMCs of cured Leishmania-infected patients/hamsters and further evaluated its prophylactic efficacy against L. donovani challenges in hamsters. Substantial proliferative responses to rLdTPR, as compared to soluble L. donovani antigen, were observed in Leishmania-infected cured patients as well as in hamsters. Moreover, rLdTPR reasonably stimulated PBMCs of cured Leishmania patients to produce IFNγ, IL-12, and TNF-α but not IL-4 or IL-10. On the other hand, the protein downregulated LPS-induced IL-10 as well as soluble L. donovani antigen-induced IL-4 production in PBMCs of Leishmania patients. In case of cured hamsters, rLdTPR generates mixed Th1 and Th2 immune response. Vaccination with rLdTPR along with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) was able to provide considerably good prophylactic efficacy (~60%) against L. donovani challenge in hamsters. The efficacy was supported by the increased inducible NO synthase mRNA transcript and Th1-type cytokines IFNγ, IL-12, and TNF-α and downregulation of IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β. Since rLdTPR protein is an important target, further attempts towards determination of immunodominant regions for designing fusion peptides may be taken up to optimize its prophylactic efficacy.

  14. Multidose Streptozotocin Induction of Diabetes in BALB/c Mice Induces a Dominant Oxidative Macrophage and a Conversion of TH1 to TH2 Phenotypes During Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naxin Sun

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages (Mp are implicated in both early and late phases in type 1 diabetes development. Recent study has suggested that a balance between reductive Mp (RMp and oxidative Mp (OMp is possible to regulate TH1/TH2 balance. The aim of this study is to investigate the redox status of peritoneal Mp and its cytokine profile during the development of autoimmune diabetes induced by multiple low-dose streptozotocin in BALB/c mice. Meanwhile, the polarization of TH1/TH2 of splenocytes or thymocytes was also examined. We found that peritoneal Mp appeared as an “incomplete” OMp phenotype with decreased icGSH along with disease progression. The OMp showed reduced TNF-α, IL-12, and NO production as well as defective phagocytosis activity compared to nondiabetic controls; however, there was no significant difference with IL-6 production. On the other hand, the levels of IFN-γ or IL-4 of splenocytes in diabetic mice were significantly higher compared to the control mice. The ratio of IFN-γ to IL-4 was also higher at the early stage of diabetes and then declined several weeks later after the occurrence of diabetes, suggesting a pathogenetic TH1 phenotype from the beginning gradually to a tendency of TH2 during the development of diabetes. Our results implied that likely OMp may be relevant in the development of type 1 diabetes; however, it is not likely the only factor regulating the TH1H/TH2 balance in MLD-STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  15. Immunomodulatory effect of tea saponin in immune T-cells and T-lymphoma cells via regulation of Th1, Th2 immune response and MAPK/ERK2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Chaudhary, Narendra; Seo, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Min-Yong; Shin, Tai-Sun; Kim, Jong-Deog

    2014-06-01

    The anti-cancer activity of saponins and phenolic compounds present in green tea was previously reported. However, the immunomodulatory and adjuvanticity activity of tea saponin has never been studied. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effect of tea saponin in T-lymphocytes and EL4 cells via regulation of cytokine response and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway. Quantitative analysis of mRNA expression level of cytokines were performed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction following stimulation with tea saponin, ovalbumin (OVA) alone or tea saponin in combination with OVA. Tea saponin inhibited the proliferation of EL4 cells measured in a dose-dependent manner. No cytotoxicity effect of tea saponin was detected in T-lymphocytes; rather, tea saponin enhanced the proliferation of T-lymphocytes. Tea saponin with OVA increased the expression of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, IL-12, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and decreased the expression level of IL-10 and IL-8 in T-lymphocytes. Furthermore, tea saponin, in the presence of OVA, downregulated the MAPK signaling pathway via inhibition of IL-4, IL-8 and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) in EL4 cells. Th1 cytokines enhancer and Th2 cytokines and NF-κB inhibitor, tea saponin can markedly inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness of T-lymphoma (EL4) cells, possibly due to TNF-α- and NF-κB-mediated regulation of MAPK signaling pathway.

  16. Respostas Th1 e Th2 desencadeadas por Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulento em doentes com tuberculose pulmonar

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    Diane J. Ordway

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Analisaram-se as respostas Th1 e Th2 desencadeadas por Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulento em doentes com tuberculose pulmonar (TP e em dadores saudáveis vacinados pela BCG. Efectuaramse comparações entre a capacidade que as células T apresentavam para proliferar e para produzir IFN-γ e IL-5 em resposta aos derivados de proteíns purificada (PPD, M. tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb, e M. tuberculosis H37Rv inactivado pelo calor (hk Mtb.Este estudo demoostrou que os individuos saudá-vels vacínados com BCG evidenciaram um máximo de proliferação e produção de IFN-γ em resposta ao painel de antigénios, e que Mtb vívo destencadeou uma resposta significativamente mais forte que a obtida pelo Mtb inactivado pelo calor. Embora os doentes com tuberculose pulmonary mostrassem respostas medias mais baxies de proliferação e produção de IFN-γ cm relação aos eontrolos saúdaveis, a resposta proliferativa ao PPD não foi significativamente reduzida, enquanto que a resposta ao Mtb e hk Mtb foram, significativas estatisticamitante. Em conclusão na tuberculose pulmonar a produção de IFN-γ pode estar reduzida sem um concomitante aumento de IL-5, confirmandose assim não existir uma mudança de resposta Th1 para Th2 na tuberculose pulmonar.REV PORT PNEUMOL 1998; IV (4:393-402 ABSTRACT: The contribution of Th1 and Th2 responses elicited by virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis was investigated, in healthy BCG vaccinated individuals and pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Comparisons were made between the T cell capacity to proliferate, produce IFN-γ and IL-5 in response to the soluable antigen purified protein derivative (PPD, live M. tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb and heat killed M tuberculosis H37Rv (hk Mtb. These studies demonstrated that control individuals showed the strongest mean proliferative and IFN-γ responses towards the antigen antigen panel and Mth elicited a significantly

  17. Analysis of serum th1/th2 cytokine levels in patients with acute mumps infection

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    Jeevan Malaiyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mumps virus is frequently the causative agent of parotitis. There has been no study on serum cytokine levels of acute mumps parotitis except for a few which document cytokine levels in cerebrospinal fluid of mumps meningitis. It is with this notion, our study aimed to find Th1/Th2 cytokine levels from patients with acute mumps parotitis. Materials and Methods: Concentrations of mumps-specific IgM, mumps, measles, rubella-specific IgG antibody, and Th1/Th2 cytokines, namely interferon-g (IFN-g, interleukin-2 (IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 were measured simultaneously in serum from 74 patients (42 pediatric and 32 adult cases, 40 healthy subjects (20 pediatric and 20 adults and in the supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with mumps virus genotype C which served as the positive control. Statistical significance was analyzed between each group by means of Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Spearman′s rank correlation coefficient test. Results: IgM positivity confirmed acute infection in all 74 patients and of these 67 were vaccinated cases; however, very few of them (10/67 were positive for mumps IgG. We found that IFN-g, IL-2, and IL-10 showed a statistically significant increase in both pediatric and adult patients with acute mumps infection when compared to healthy controls and values were comparable to the positive control. Conclusion: The Th1 cells play important roles during the acute phase of mumps parotitis.

  18. Th1, Th2, and Th17 Cytokine Involvement in Thyroid Associated Ophthalmopathy

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    Jie Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine serum cytokine profiles in Graves’ disease (GD patients with or without active and inactive thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO, we recruited 65 subjects: 10 GD only (without TAO, 25 GD + active TAO, 20 GD + TAO, and 10 healthy controls. Liquid chip assay was used to measure serum Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines including IFN-γ (interferon-gamma, TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1α (interleukin-1 alpha, IL-1Ra (IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-17 and two chemokines: RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted and IP-10 (IFN-γ-induced protein 10. Serum levels of TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone receptor autoantibodies (TRAb were measured using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Compared with healthy controls, TAO patients showed significantly elevated serum levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, and IP-10. Comparing active and inactive TAO, serum Th1 cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α were elevated in active TAO, while serum Th2 cytokine IL-4 was elevated in inactive TAO. Serum Th17 cytokine IL-17 was elevated in GD but reduced in both active and inactive TAO. A positive correlation was found between TRAb and IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6. Taken together, serum Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines and chemokines reflect TAO disease activity and may be implicated in TAO pathogenesis.

  19. CD4 T-cell subsets in Malaria: TH1/TH2 revisited

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    Damian ePerez-Mazliah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CD4+ T cells have been shown to play a central role in immune control of infection with Plasmodium parasites. At the erythrocytic stage of infection, IFN-γ production by CD4+ T cells and CD4+ T-cell help for the B-cell response are required for control and elimination of infected red blood cells. CD4+ T cells are also important for controlling Plasmodium pre-erythrocytic stages through the activation of parasite-specific CD8+ T cells. However, excessive inflammatory responses triggered by the infection have been shown to drive pathology. Early classical experiments demonstrated a biphasic CD4+ T-cell response against erythrocytic stages in mice, in which T helper (Th1 and antibody helper CD4+ T cells appear sequentially during a primary infection. While IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells do play a role in controlling acute infections, and they contribute to acute erythrocytic-stage pathology, it became apparent that a classical Th2 response producing IL-4 is not a critical feature of the CD4+ T cell response during the chronic phase of infection. Rather, effective CD4+ T-cell help for B cells, which can occur in the absence of IL-4, is required to control chronic parasitemia. IL-10, important to counterbalance inflammation and associated with protection from inflammatory-mediated severe malaria in both humans and experimental models, was originally considered be produced by CD4+ Th2 cells during infection. We review the interpretations of CD4+ T cell responses during Plasmodium infection, proposed under the original Th1/Th2 paradigm, in light of more recent advances, including the identification of multifunctional T cells such as Th1 cells co-expressing IFN-γ and IL-10, the identification of follicular helper T cells (Tfh as the predominant CD4+ T helper subset for B cells, and the recognition of inherent plasticity in the fates of different CD4+ T cells.

  20. Distinct DC subsets regulate adaptive Th1 and 2 responses during Trichuris muris infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demiri, M.; Müller-Luda, K.; Agace, William Winston

    2017-01-01

    Low- and high-dose infections with the murine large intestinal nematode Trichuris muris are associated with induction of adaptive Th1 and Th2 responses, respectively, in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). Classical dendritic cells (cDC) accumulate in the large intestinal mucosa and MLN upon T. muris...... response and clear a low-dose infection. Collectively, these results suggest that IRF4- and IRF8-dependent cDC act antagonistically during T. muris infection, and demonstrate that intestinal Th2 responses can be generated towards T. muris in the absence of IRF4-dependent cDC....

  1. The Mincle-activating adjuvant TDB induces MyD88-dependent Th1 and Th17 responses through IL-1R signaling.

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    Christiane Desel

    Full Text Available Successful vaccination against intracellular pathogens requires the generation of cellular immune responses. Trehalose-6,6-dibehenate (TDB, the synthetic analog of the mycobacterial cord factor trehalose-6,6-dimycolate (TDM, is a potent adjuvant inducing strong Th1 and Th17 immune responses. We previously identified the C-type lectin Mincle as receptor for these glycolipids that triggers the FcRγ-Syk-Card9 pathway for APC activation and adjuvanticity. Interestingly, in vivo data revealed that the adjuvant effect was not solely Mincle-dependent but also required MyD88. Therefore, we dissected which MyD88-dependent pathways are essential for successful immunization with a tuberculosis subunit vaccine. We show here that antigen-specific Th1/Th17 immune responses required IL-1 receptor-mediated signals independent of IL-18 and IL-33-signaling. ASC-deficient mice had impaired IL-17 but intact IFNγ responses, indicating partial independence of TDB adjuvanticity from inflammasome activation. Our data suggest that the glycolipid adjuvant TDB triggers Mincle-dependent IL-1 production to induce MyD88-dependent Th1/Th17 responses in vivo.

  2. Elevated expression of miR-146, miR-139 and miR-340 involved in regulating Th1/Th2 balance with acute exposure of fine particulate matter in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tianfang; Liao, Jiping; Zhang, Cheng; Sun, Chao; Li, Xueying; Wang, Guangfa

    2018-01-01

    Airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is detrimental to human health, and frequently leads to a variety of lung diseases. Recently, IARC conclude that particulate matter is carcinogenic to humans (level one). However, the pulmonary toxicological mechanism induced by PM2.5 remains obscure. Our previous studies confirmed that PM2.5 hurt the human immune system by means of causing the imbalance of Th1/Th2 lymphocytes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional gene suppressors and potential mediators of environmental effects, which play an important role in the regulation of CD4+T lymphocyte differentiation. In order to further understand the roles of microRNAs in regulating the imbalance of Th1/Th2 differentiation triggered by PM2.5, mice were subjected to intratracheal instillation of 2.5, 10, or 20mg/kg PM2.5 in this study. Mice were euthanized on the 1st, 7th and 14th day to screen out differential miRNAs in lung tissue by employing the miRNA microarray. The expression levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were quantified by ELISA and their mRNA expressions in lung tissue were detected by qRT-PCR. The experiment demonstrated that 10 differential miRNAs (miR-146a, -146b, -139, -129, -340, -691, -181a, -155, -21-3p, and -21-5p) were up-regulated. IL-4 levels were found decreased, nevertheless, IFN-γ levels were increased, and the IL-4/IFN-γ ratio was inclined to Th1 shifting. Besides that, we also found that miRNA-691, -181a, -146a, -146b, -21a-3p, -21a-5p, and -340 had a positive linear correlation with BALF IFN-γ, while a negative linear correlation between microRNAs (miR-146, -139, -340, -21, and -181a) and the IL-4/IFN-γ level of BALF was observed. In conclusion, elevated microRNAs profiles correlated with T lymphocyte immune imbalance, driving a Th1-biased immune response after acute PM2.5 exposure. These findings improve our understanding of the toxicological pathways of PM2.5 exposure. Copyright © 2017. Published by

  3. The Comparison of TH1 and TH2 Cytokines Gene Expression in Allergic and Non-Allergic Patients With Nasal Polyps By PCR

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    Javadinia Sh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Too many studies are in the process of determining the probable role of immune system in the etiopathogenesis of nasal polyposis. This study was designed to identify the probable participation of Th1, Th2 lymphocytes in the induction and progression of nasal polyposis.Methods: Seventy-five patients, 42 male and 33 female, with nasal polyposis were examined for total serum IgE, specific serum IgE and reaction to skin test for differentiating allergic from non-allergic participants in Rasoul Akram Hospital during 2010. To determine the possible correlation of allergic reactions in the upper respiratory tract and nasal polyposis, cytokine gene expression was evaluated on the extracted RNA by RT-PCR. The data were analyzed by using c2, independent t-test, correlation and Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve.Results: The mean age of participants was 38 years (18-81 years. IFN-γ and IL-4 gene expressions were more prevalent in allergic than non-allergic individuals (IFN-γ: 39.5% vs. 14.2%, P=0.3 and IL-4: 44.7% vs. 18.9%, P=0.02, respectively. IL-10 and IL-12 (P35 and P40 fractions genes were not significantly different between the two groups. IL-10 and IL-12 (P35, P40 genes did not differ significantly either.Conclusion: This research suggests that overproduction of cytokines and an imbalance of Th1 and Th2 cell production may play an important role in the pathophysiology of allergic or non-allergic nasal polyp formation. Thus, although nasal polyposis is a multifactorial disease with several different etiological factors, chronic persistent inflammation is undoubtedly a major factor irrespective of the etiology.

  4. Dynamics of adrenal steroids are related to variations in Th1 and Treg populations during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in HIV positive persons.

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    Maria Florencia Quiroga

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains the most frequent cause of illness and death from an infectious agent, and its interaction with HIV has devastating effects. We determined plasma levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, its circulating form DHEA-suphate (DHEA-s and cortisol in different stages of M. tuberculosis infection, and explored their role on the Th1 and Treg populations during different scenarios of HIV-TB coinfection, including the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS, a condition related to antiretroviral treatment. DHEA levels were diminished in HIV-TB and HIV-TB IRIS patients compared to healthy donors (HD, HIV+ individuals and HIV+ individuals with latent TB (HIV-LTB, whereas dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s levels were markedly diminished in HIV-TB IRIS individuals. HIV-TB and IRIS patients presented a cortisol/DHEA ratio significantly higher than HIV+, HIV-LTB and HD individuals. A positive correlation was observed between DHEA-s and CD4 count among HIV-TB individuals. Conversely, cortisol plasma level inversely correlated with CD4 count within HIV-TB individuals. M. tuberculosis-specific Th1 lymphocyte count was increased after culturing PBMC from HIV-TB individuals in presence of DHEA. We observed an inverse correlation between DHEA-s plasma level and Treg frequency in co-infected individuals, and CD4+FoxP3+ Treg frequency was increased in HIV-TB and IRIS patients compared to other groups. Strikingly, we observed a prominent CD4+CD25-FoxP3+ population across HIV-TB and HIV-TB IRIS patients, which frequency correlated with DHEA plasma level. Finally, DHEA treatment negatively regulated FoxP3 expression without altering Treg frequency in co-infected patients. These data suggest an enhancing role for DHEA in the immune response against M. tuberculosis during HIV-TB coinfection and IRIS.

  5. Enhanced Th1/Th17 Functions of CD161+ CD8+ T Cells in Mucosal Tissues of Rhesus Macaques.

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    Namita Rout

    Full Text Available Expression of the C-type lectin-like receptor CD161 by human T cells is associated with type-17 responses, which play critical regulatory roles in immunity and inflammation at mucosal sites. However, the functions of CD161-expressing T cells in macaques, the pre-clinical model of several human diseases, remain unknown. This study examined the phenotypic and functional characteristics of CD161+ T cells in peripheral blood, mucosal tissues and lymph nodes of rhesus macaques. Majority of CD161-expressing T cells in peripheral blood and lung/intestinal mucosal tissues of rhesus macaques were found to be CD8+CD4- in phenotype. There was a significant enrichment of CD161+CD8+ T cells in the lungs and colonic mucosa (16.1%±6.6 and 16.8%±5.7 in comparison to peripheral blood (4.2%±1.2 and mesenteric lymph nodes (1.3%±0.8. Regardless of the tissue compartment, CD161+CD8+ T cells mainly comprised of γδ T cells and TCR Vα7.2+ MAIT cells (up to 80%, and displayed Th1 and Th17 cytokine responses to mitogen stimulation. Mucosal CD161+CD8+ T cells were characterized by very high expression of CD69, a recent activation marker that is preferentially expressed on tissue resident cells. Furthermore, lung and colonic mucosal CD161+CD8+ T cells showed enhanced IFN-γ, IL-17, and Perforin production in comparison to those in blood. Thus, macaque CD161+CD8+ T cells represent mucosal tissue-homing innate-like CD8+ T-cell populations with Th1/Th17 type cytokine and cytotoxic effector functions that can potentially enhance the recruitment of adaptive immune cells and control initial pathogen burden/dissemination in tissues. Analysis of their role in early immune responses to mucosal pathogens will be valuable in the design of vaccines and therapeutics.

  6. Coincident diabetes mellitus modulates Th1-, Th2-, and Th17-cell responses in latent tuberculosis in an IL-10- and TGF-β-dependent manner.

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    Kumar, Nathella Pavan; Moideen, Kadar; George, Parakkal Jovvian; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Kumaran, Paul; Babu, Subash

    2016-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for the development of active tuberculosis (TB), although its role in the TB-induced responses in latent TB (LTB) is not well understood. Since Th1, Th2, and Th17 responses are important in immunity to LTB, we postulated that coincident DM could alter the function of these CD4(+) T-cell subsets. To this end, we examined mycobacteria-induced immune responses in the whole blood of individuals with LTB-DM and compared them with responses of individuals without DM (LTB-NDM). T-cell responses from LTB-DM are characterized by diminished frequencies of mono- and dual-functional CD4(+) Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells at baseline and following stimulation with mycobacterial antigens-purified protein derivative, early secreted antigen-6, and culture filtrate protein-10. This modulation was at least partially dependent on IL-10 and TGF-β, since neutralization of either cytokine resulted in significantly increased frequencies of Th1 and Th2 cells but not Th17 cells in LTB-DM but not LTB individuals. LTB-DM is therefore characterized by diminished frequencies of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells, indicating that DM alters the immune response in latent TB leading to a suboptimal induction of protective CD4(+) T-cell responses, thereby providing a potential mechanism for increased susceptibility to active disease. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. SjCRT, a recombinant Schistosoma japonicum calreticulin, induces maturation of dendritic cells and a Th1-polarized immune response in mice

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    Lizhen Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that immunization of radiation-attenuated (RA schistosoma cercariae or schistosomula can induce high levels of protective immunity against schistosoma cercariae reinfection in many animals. Many studies have shown that the Th1 cellular immune response is crucial for the protective effect elicited by RA schistosomula. However, the molecular mechanism of this strong protective immunity remains unclear. Methods The expression profiles of Schistosoma japonicum calreticulin (SjCRT in RA and normal schistosoma-derived cells were investigated by flow cytometry. The effect of recombinant SjCRT (rSjCRT on mouse dendritic cells (DCs was determined by FACS, ELISA and RT-PCR analysis. We also analyzed the effects of SjCRT on the activation of spleen cells from mice immunized with rSjCRT by detecting lymphocyte proliferation and the cytokine profiles of splenocytes. Results We found that the expression level of SjCRT in the cells from RA larvae was significantly higher than that in cells from normal schistosomula at early stages of development (day 4. The results of effect of rSjCRT on mouse DCs showed that rSjCRT could induce phenotypic and functional maturation of DCs, and SjCRT bound to the surface of DCs through the CD91 receptor and could be engulfed by DCs. The results of activation of splenocytes from mice immunized with rSjCRT also demonstrate that rSjCRT can effectively stimulate the proliferative response of splenic lymphocytes, elicit splenocytes from immunized mice to secrete high levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-4, and activate CD4+ T cells to produce high levels of IFN-γ. Conclusion SjCRT is one of the immunostimulatory molecules released from RA schistosomula cells, might play a crucial role in conferring a Th1-polarized immune response induced by RA cercariae/schistosomula in mice, and is a candidate molecule responsible for the high levels of protective immunity induced by RA schistosomula.

  8. Genetic immunization against cervical carcinoma : induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity with a recombinant alphavirus vector expressing human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daemen, T; Pries, F; Bungener, L; Kraak, M; Regts, J; Wilschut, J

    2000-01-01

    infection of genital epithelial cells with human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 is closely associated with the development of cervical carcinoma. The transforming potential of these high-risk HPVs depends on the expression of the E6 and E7 early viral gene products. Since the expression of E6

  9. IFNbeta-1a treatment and reestablishment of Th1 regulation in MS patients: dose effects.

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    Pellegrini, Patrizia; Totaro, Rocco; Contasta, Ida; Berghella, Anna Maria; Russo, Tomassina; Carolei, Antonio; Adorno, Domenico

    2004-01-01

    The authors evaluated the relationships between clinical and pharmacologic parameters and the Th1/Th2/Th3 cytokine network in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis treated with differing doses of interferon-beta1a (IFN-beta1a). Their results show that low doses are ineffective but that high doses restore Th1 regulation of the maturation and activation of monocytes, T cells, immature dendritic cells, dendritic cells, and T regulatory cells for central and peripheral self-tolerance. Interaction between interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12 p70, and IL-6 production appears to play an important role in the control of the maturation and activation states of dendritic cells and T regulatory cells, and is at the basis of the benefit of high doses. The results also indicate that the physiologic mechanisms involved in aging help immunologic reestablishment in IFNbeta-1a-treated patients. Finally, it would appear that the failure of IFNbeta-1a therapy to resolve multiple sclerosis completely is due to the suppression of IL-12 p70 mechanisms (responsible for the physiologic deletion of self-reactive cells) in activation conditions, probably by IFNbeta-1a itself.

  10. Bordetella pertussis commits human dendritic cells to promote a Th1/Th17 response through the activity of adenylate cyclase toxin and MAPK-pathways.

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    Giorgio Fedele

    Full Text Available The complex pathology of B. pertussis infection is due to multiple virulence factors having disparate effects on different cell types. We focused our investigation on the ability of B. pertussis to modulate host immunity, in particular on the role played by adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA, an important virulence factor of B. pertussis. As a tool, we used human monocyte derived dendritic cells (MDDC, an ex vivo model useful for the evaluation of the regulatory potential of DC on T cell immune responses. The work compared MDDC functions after encounter with wild-type B. pertussis (BpWT or a mutant lacking CyaA (BpCyaA-, or the BpCyaA- strain supplemented with either the fully functional CyaA or a derivative, CyaA*, lacking adenylate cyclase activity. As a first step, MDDC maturation, cytokine production, and modulation of T helper cell polarization were evaluated. As a second step, engagement of Toll-like receptors (TLR 2 and TLR4 by B. pertussis and the signaling events connected to this were analyzed. These approaches allowed us to demonstrate that CyaA expressed by B. pertussis strongly interferes with DC functions, by reducing the expression of phenotypic markers and immunomodulatory cytokines, and blocking IL-12p70 production. B. pertussis-treated MDDC promoted a mixed Th1/Th17 polarization, and the activity of CyaA altered the Th1/Th17 balance, enhancing Th17 and limiting Th1 expansion. We also demonstrated that Th1 effectors are induced by B. pertussis-MDDC in the absence of IL-12p70 through an ERK1/2 dependent mechanism, and that p38 MAPK is essential for MDDC-driven Th17 expansion. The data suggest that CyaA mediates an escape strategy for the bacterium, since it reduces Th1 immunity and increases Th17 responses thought to be responsible, when the response is exacerbated, for enhanced lung inflammation and injury.

  11. Immunomodulatory effects of oral antidiabetic drugs in lymphocyte cultures from patients with type 2 diabetes Efeito imunomodulador de hipoglicemiantes orais em cultura de linfócitos de pacientes com diabetes tipo 2

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    Karina Faccio Mello

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that type 2 diabetes is an inflammatory response manifestation. The main drugs used to treat type 2 diabetes are sulphonylureas and biguanides. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the modulatory effects of oral hypoglycemic drugs (chlorpropamide and metformin on lymphocyte proliferation in vitro and ex vivo. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from human blood by gradient centrifugation. T-lymphocytes were stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA and oral hypoglycemic drugs. RESULTS: In both in vitro and ex vivo experiments, there was a reduction in cell proliferation after treatment with oral hypoglycemic drugs. When both drugs were used in combination, a high level of cytotoxicity was observed, which made analysis of immunomodulatory effects unfeasible. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that diabetes itself may reduce cell proliferation significantly when stimulated by PHA, which may indicate that diabetic patients have difficulties in promoting an efficient inflammatory response. Moreover, the use of oral hypoglycemic drugs may aggravate this situation.INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVOS: Tem sido sugerido que o diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2 é uma manifestação da resposta inflamatória. As principais drogas utilizadas no tratamento do DM2 são as sulfonilureias e as biguanidas. O objetivo deste trabalho é demonstrar os efeitos moduladores na proliferação de linfócitos causada pelos hipoglicemiantes orais (clorpropamida e metformina, in vitro e ex vivo. MÉTODOS: Células mononucleares de sangue periférico foram isoladas de seres humanos por gradiente de centrifugação. Os linfócitos T foram estimulados com fito-hemaglutinina (PHA e hipoglicemiantes. RESULTADOS: Nos experimentos in vitro e ex vivo, mostramos a redução da proliferação celular quando do tratamento com drogas hipoglicemiantes orais. Quando as drogas foram utilizadas em combinação, foi

  12. The role of chemokines in the recruitment of lymphocytes to the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, Ye H; Adams, David H

    2010-02-01

    Chemokines direct leukocyte trafficking and positioning within tissues. They thus play critical roles in regulating immune responses and inflammation. The chemokine system is complex involving interactions between multiple chemokines and their receptors that operate in combinatorial cascades with adhesion molecules. The involvement of multiple chemokines and chemokine receptors in these processes brings flexibility and specificity to recruitment. The hepatic vascular bed is a unique low flow environment through which leukocyte are recruited to the liver during homeostatic immune surveillance and in response to infection or injury. The rate of leukocyte recruitment and the nature of cells recruited through the sinusoids in response to inflammatory signals will shape the severity of disease. At one end of the spectrum fulminant liver failure results from a rapid recruitment of leukocytes that leads to hepatocyte destruction and liver failure at the other diseases such as chronic hepatitis C infection may progress over many years from hepatitis to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Chronic hepatitis is charactezised by a T lymphocyte rich infiltrate and the nature and outcome of hepatitis will depend on the T cell subsets recruited, their activation and function within the liver. Different subsets of effector T cells have been described based on their secretion of cytokines and specific functions. These include Th1 and Th2 cells and more recently Th17 and Th9 cells which are associated with different types of immune response and which express distinct patterns of chemokine receptors that promote their recruitment under particular conditions. The effector function of these cells is balanced by the recruitment of regulatory T cells that are able to suppress antigen-specific effectors to allow resolution of immune responses and restoration of immune homeostasis. Understanding the signals that are responsible for recruiting different lymphocyte subsets to the liver will elucidate

  13. Down-regulation of the interferon signaling pathway in T lymphocytes from patients with metastatic melanoma.

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    Rebecca J Critchley-Thorne

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunction of the immune system has been documented in many types of cancers. The precise nature and molecular basis of immune dysfunction in the cancer state are not well defined.To gain insights into the molecular mechanisms of immune dysfunction in cancer, gene expression profiles of pure sorted peripheral blood lymphocytes from 12 patients with melanoma were compared to 12 healthy controls. Of 25 significantly altered genes in T cells and B cells from melanoma patients, 17 are interferon (IFN-stimulated genes. These microarray findings were further confirmed by quantitative PCR and functional responses to IFNs. The median percentage of lymphocytes that phosphorylate STAT1 in response to interferon-alpha was significantly reduced (Delta = 16.8%; 95% confidence interval, 0.98% to 33.35% in melanoma patients (n = 9 compared to healthy controls (n = 9 in Phosflow analysis. The Phosflow results also identified two subgroups of patients with melanoma: IFN-responsive (33% and low-IFN-response (66%. The defect in IFN signaling in the melanoma patient group as a whole was partially overcome at the level of expression of IFN-stimulated genes by prolonged stimulation with the high concentration of IFN-alpha that is achievable only in IFN therapy used in melanoma. The lowest responders to IFN-alpha in the Phosflow assay also showed the lowest gene expression in response to IFN-alpha. Finally, T cells from low-IFN-response patients exhibited functional abnormalities, including decreased expression of activation markers CD69, CD25, and CD71; TH1 cytokines interleukin-2, IFN-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, and reduced survival following stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies compared to controls.Defects in interferon signaling represent novel, dominant mechanisms of immune dysfunction in cancer. These findings may be used to design therapies to counteract immune dysfunction in melanoma and to improve cancer immunotherapy.

  14. Flavopiridol in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

  15. Sustained exogenous expression of therapeutic levels of IFN-gamma ameliorates atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice via Th1 polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kayoko; Nishikawa, Makiya; Watcharanurak, Kanitta; Ikoma, Akihiko; Kabashima, Kenji; Toyota, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Yuki; Takahashi, Rei; Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2010-03-01

    The short in vivo half-life of IFN-gamma can prevent the cytokine from inducing immunological changes that are favorable for the treatment of Th2-dominant diseases, such as atopic dermatitis. To examine whether a sustained supply of IFN-gamma is effective in regulating the balance of Th lymphocyte subpopulations, plasmid vector encoding mouse IFN-gamma, pCpG-Mugamma, or pCMV-Mugamma was injected into the tail vein of NC/Nga mice, a model for human atopic dermatitis. A single hydrodynamic injection of a CpG motif reduced pCpG-Mugamma at a dose of 0.14 microg/mouse resulted in a sustained concentration of IFN-gamma in the serum, and the concentration was maintained at >300 pg/ml over 80 d. The pCpG-Mugamma-mediated IFN-gamma gene transfer was associated with an increase in the serum concentration of IL-12, reduced production of IgE, and inhibition of mRNA expression of IL-4, -5, -10, -13, and -17 and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine in the spleen. These immunological changes were not clearly observed in mice receiving two injections of 20 microg pCMV-Mugamma, a CpG-replete plasmid DNA, because of the transient nature of the expression from the vector. The mice receiving pCpG-Mugamma showed a significant reduction in the severity of skin lesions and in the intensity of their scratching behavior. Furthermore, high transepidermal water loss, epidermal thickening, and infiltration of lymphocytes and eosinophils, all of which were obvious in the untreated mice, were significantly inhibited. These results indicate that an extraordinary sustained IFN-gamma expression induces favorable immunological changes, leading to a Th1-dominant state in the atopic dermatitis model.

  16. Mucosal Immunity to Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection in the Mouse Vagina Is Impaired by In Vivo Depletion of T Lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Margaret B.; Parr, Earl L.

    1998-01-01

    Intravaginal (IVAG) inoculation of wild-type herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in mice causes epithelial infection followed by lethal neurological illness, while IVAG inoculation of attenuated HSV-2 causes epithelial infection followed by development of protective immunity against subsequent IVAG challenge with wild-type virus. The role of T cells in this immunity was studied by in vivo depletion of these cells with monoclonal antibodies. Three groups of mice were used for each experiment: nonimmune/challenged mice, immune/challenged mice, and immune depleted mice [immune mice depleted of a T-cell subset(s) shortly before challenge with HSV-2]. Mice were assessed for epithelial infection 24 h after challenge, virus protein in the vaginal lumen 3 days after challenge, and neurological illness 8 to 14 days after challenge. Monoclonal antibodies to CD4, CD8, or Thy-1 markedly reduced T cells in blood, spleen, and vagina, but major histocompatibility complex class II antigens were still partially upregulated in the vaginal epithelium after virus challenge, indicating that virus-specific memory T-cell function was not entirely eliminated from the vagina. Nevertheless, immune mice depleted of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, Thy-1+ T cells, or CD8+ T cells alone had greater viral infection in the vaginal epithelium than nondepleted immune mice, indicating that T cells contribute to immunity against vaginal HSV-2 infection. All immune depleted mice retained substantial immunity to epithelial infection and were immune to neurological illness, suggesting that other immune mechanisms such as virus-specific antibody may also contribute to immunity. PMID:9525585

  17. Detection of intracytoplasmic Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles in patients with sepsis and severe sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadinejad Z

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sepsis is the leading cause of death in critically ill patients throughout the world. The incidence is increasing despite the major advances in the development of antimicrobial agents and other supportive treatments. Based on multiple studies, it has been shown that patient outcome depends on Th1 and Th2 cytokine response. Moreover, whenever the Th2 response is predominant, the sepsis is more severe. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between cytokine levels and the severity of sepsis in patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study on the cellular levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines was carried out in patients with sepsis and severe sepsis. The study included 37 patients (24 men and 13 women, 26 of them had sepsis and 11 had the severe form of sepsis Thirty-seven healthy volunteers served as controls. The average age of the patients was 57 years (±23.3 years, with a range of 21 to 92 years. From the whole blood of the subjects, we separated the monocytes and leukocytes, which were then cultured. Using an ELISA method, we measured levels of IFN- and IL-12 (associated with Th1, and IL-4 and IL-10 (associated with Th2 in the cultured cells with and without cell stimulation. Results: No correlation was found for IFN- production in the cells of patients with sepsis and severe sepsis, regardless of whether the patients had died or survived. However, IL-12 levels were significantly decreased in severe sepsis compared with those of sepsis patients (P=0.048. Furthermore, the cells of expired patients also had significantly decreased IL-12 levels compared with those of surviving patients (P=0.028. We also found that the levels of IFN-, IL-4, and IL-10 were decreased in patients compared with those of controls, which correlated to their production. However, there was no correlation for IL-12 production between the cells of the patients compared with those of the controls. There was also no correlation for

  18. Tositumomab and Iodine I 131 Tositumomab in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma in First Remission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-10

    Lymphoid Leukemia in Remission; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  19. Combining network modeling and gene expression microarray analysis to explore the dynamics of Th1 and Th2 cell regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedicini, Marco; Barrenäs, Fredrik; Clancy, Trevor; Castiglione, Filippo; Hovig, Eivind; Kanduri, Kartiek; Santoni, Daniele; Benson, Mikael

    2010-12-16

    Two T helper (Th) cell subsets, namely Th1 and Th2 cells, play an important role in inflammatory diseases. The two subsets are thought to counter-regulate each other, and alterations in their balance result in different diseases. This paradigm has been challenged by recent clinical and experimental data. Because of the large number of genes involved in regulating Th1 and Th2 cells, assessment of this paradigm by modeling or experiments is difficult. Novel algorithms based on formal methods now permit the analysis of large gene regulatory networks. By combining these algorithms with in silico knockouts and gene expression microarray data from human T cells, we examined if the results were compatible with a counter-regulatory role of Th1 and Th2 cells. We constructed a directed network model of genes regulating Th1 and Th2 cells through text mining and manual curation. We identified four attractors in the network, three of which included genes that corresponded to Th0, Th1 and Th2 cells. The fourth attractor contained a mixture of Th1 and Th2 genes. We found that neither in silico knockouts of the Th1 and Th2 attractor genes nor gene expression microarray data from patients with immunological disorders and healthy subjects supported a counter-regulatory role of Th1 and Th2 cells. By combining network modeling with transcriptomic data analysis and in silico knockouts, we have devised a practical way to help unravel complex regulatory network topology and to increase our understanding of how network actions may differ in health and disease.

  20. The role of triple infection with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV type-1 on CD4+ lymphocyte levels in the highly HIV infected population of North-Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Forbi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We set out to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C among human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 infected individuals in North-Central Nigeria to define the influence of these infections on CD4+ lymphocytes cells among our patients as access to antiretroviral therapy improves across the Nigerian nation. The CD4+ values of 180 confirmed HIV-1 infected individuals were enumerated using a superior fluorescence-activated cell sorter system. These patients were tested for the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV using third generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Fifty (27.8% patients had active hepatitis B virus (HBV infection while 33 (18.3% tested positive for anti-HCV antibody. Of these infections, 110 (61.1%, 37 (20.6%, and 20 (11.1% had HIV only, HBV/HIV-only, and HCV/HIV-only respectively. A HBV/HCV/HIV coinfection prevalence of 7.2% (13 patients was recorded. Patients coinfected with HIV/HBV/HCV appeared to have lower CD4+ counts (mean = 107 cells/µl; AIDS defining when compared to HBV/HIV-only (mean = 377 cells/µl, HCV/HIV-only (mean = 373 cells/µl and patients with mono HIV infection (mean = 478 cells/µl. Coinfection with HBV or HCV is relatively common among HIV-infected patients in Nigeria and should be a big consideration in the initiation and choice of therapy.

  1. The role of triple infection with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type-1 on CD4+ lymphocyte levels in the highly HIV infected population of North-Central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbi, J C; Gabadi, S; Alabi, R; Iperepolu, H O; Pam, C R; Entonu, P E; Agwale, S M

    2007-06-01

    We set out to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C among human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infected individuals in North-Central Nigeria to define the influence of these infections on CD4+ lymphocytes cells among our patients as access to antiretroviral therapy improves across the Nigerian nation. The CD4+ values of 180 confirmed HIV-1 infected individuals were enumerated using a superior fluorescence-activated cell sorter system. These patients were tested for the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) using third generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Fifty (27.8%) patients had active hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection while 33 (18.3%) tested positive for anti-HCV antibody. Of these infections, 110 (61.1%), 37 (20.6%), and 20 (11.1%) had HIV only, HBV/HIV-only, and HCV/HIV-only respectively. A HBV/HCV/HIV coinfection prevalence of 7.2% (13 patients) was recorded. Patients coinfected with HIV/HBV/HCV appeared to have lower CD4+ counts (mean = 107 cells/microl; AIDS defining) when compared to HBV/HIV-only (mean = 377 cells/microl), HCV/HIV-only (mean = 373 cells/microl) and patients with mono HIV infection (mean = 478 cells/microl). Coinfection with HBV or HCV is relatively common among HIV-infected patients in Nigeria and should be a big consideration in the initiation and choice of therapy.

  2. HLA-B57/B*5801 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 elite controllers select for rare gag variants associated with reduced viral replication capacity and strong cytotoxic T-lymphocyte [corrected] recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Toshiyuki; Brockman, Mark A; Schneidewind, Arne; Lobritz, Michael; Pereyra, Florencia; Rathod, Almas; Block, Brian L; Brumme, Zabrina L; Brumme, Chanson J; Baker, Brett; Rothchild, Alissa C; Li, Bin; Trocha, Alicja; Cutrell, Emily; Frahm, Nicole; Brander, Christian; Toth, Ildiko; Arts, Eric J; Allen, Todd M; Walker, Bruce D

    2009-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) elite controllers (EC) maintain viremia below the limit of commercial assay detection (B57 and the closely related allele B*5801 are particularly associated with enhanced control and recognize the same Gag(240-249) TW10 epitope. The typical escape mutation (T242N) within this epitope diminishes viral replication capacity in chronically infected persons; however, little is known about TW10 epitope sequences in residual replicating viruses in B57/B*5801 EC and the extent to which mutations within this epitope may influence steady-state viremia. Here we analyzed TW10 in a total of 50 B57/B*5801-positive subjects (23 EC and 27 viremic subjects). Autologous plasma viral sequences from both EC and viremic subjects frequently harbored the typical cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-selected mutation T242N (15/23 sequences [65.2%] versus 23/27 sequences [85.1%], respectively; P = 0.18). However, other unique mutants were identified in HIV controllers, both within and flanking TW10, that were associated with an even greater reduction in viral replication capacity in vitro. In addition, strong CTL responses to many of these unique TW10 variants were detected by gamma interferon-specific enzyme-linked immunospot assay. These data suggest a dual mechanism for durable control of HIV replication, consisting of viral fitness loss resulting from CTL escape mutations together with strong CD8 T-cell immune responses to the arising variant epitopes.

  3. Increased Th1/Th17 Responses Contribute to Low-Grade Inflammation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiajia; Wang, Wenzhan; Li, Qiuming

    2017-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the primary cause of senior blindness in developed countries. Mechanisms underlying initiation and development of AMD remained known. We examined the CD4+ T cell compartments and their functions in AMD patients. AMD patients presented significantly higher frequencies of interferon (IFN)-γ-expressing and interleukin (IL)-17-expressing CD4+ T cells than healthy controls. The levels of IFN-γ and IL-17 expression by CD4+ T cells were significantly higher in AMD patients. These IFN-γ-expressing Th1 cells and IL-17-expressing Th17 cells could be selectively enriched by surface CCR3+ and CCR4+CCR6+ expression, respectively. Th1 and Th17 cells from AMD patients promoted the differentiation of monocytes toward M1 macrophages, which were previously associated with retinal damage. Th1 and Th17 cells also increased the level of MHC class I expression in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE)-1 cells, while Th1 cells increased the frequency of MHC class II-expressing RPE-1 cells. These proinflammatory effects were partly, but not entirely, induced by the secretion of IFN-γ and IL-17. This study demonstrated an enrichment of Th1 cells and Th17 cells in AMD patients. These Th1 and Th17 cells possessed proinflammatory roles in an IFN-γ- and IL-17-dependent fashion, and could potentially serve as therapeutic targets. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Increased Th1/Th17 Responses Contribute to Low-Grade Inflammation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the primary cause of senior blindness in developed countries. Mechanisms underlying initiation and development of AMD remained known. Methods: We examined the CD4+ T cell compartments and their functions in AMD patients. Results: AMD patients presented significantly higher frequencies of interferon (IFN-γ-expressing and interleukin (IL-17-expressing CD4+ T cells than healthy controls. The levels of IFN-γ and IL-17 expression by CD4+ T cells were significantly higher in AMD patients. These IFN-γ-expressing Th1 cells and IL-17-expressing Th17 cells could be selectively enriched by surface CCR3+ and CCR4+CCR6+ expression, respectively. Th1 and Th17 cells from AMD patients promoted the differentiation of monocytes toward M1 macrophages, which were previously associated with retinal damage. Th1 and Th17 cells also increased the level of MHC class I expression in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE-1 cells, while Th1 cells increased the frequency of MHC class II-expressing RPE-1 cells. These proinflammatory effects were partly, but not entirely, induced by the secretion of IFN-γ and IL-17. Conclusions: This study demonstrated an enrichment of Th1 cells and Th17 cells in AMD patients. These Th1 and Th17 cells possessed proinflammatory roles in an IFN-γ- and IL-17-dependent fashion, and could potentially serve as therapeutic targets.

  5. Inhibition of Th1 and Th17 Cells by Medicinal Plants and Their Derivatives: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Samani, Majid; Bagheri, Nader; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Shirzad, Hedayatollah

    2017-08-01

    Searching for new natural drugs that are capable of targeting Th1 and Th17 may lead to development of more effective treatments for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Most of the natural drugs can be derived from plants that are used in traditional medicine and folk medicine. The aim of this systematic review is to identify and introduce plants or plant derivatives that are effective on inflammatory diseases by inhibiting Th1 and Th17 responses. To achieve this purpose, the search terms herb, herbal medicine, herbal drug, medicinal plant, phytochemical, traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurvedic medicine, natural compound, inflammation, inflammatory diseases, Th1, Th17, T helper 1 or T helper 17 were used separately in Title/Keywords/Abstract in Web of Science and PubMed databases. In articles investigating the effect of the medicinal plants and their derivatives in inhibiting Th1 and Th17 cells, the effects of eight extracts of the medicinal plants, 21 plant-based compounds and some of their derivatives, and eight drugs derived from the medicinal plants' compounds in inhibiting Th1 and Th17 cells were reviewed. The results showed that medicinal plants and their derivates are able to suppress Th17 and Th1 T cell functions as well as cytokine secretion and differentiation. The results can be used to produce herbal drugs that suppress Th, especially Th17, responses. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The influence of leptin on Th1/Th2 balance in obese children with asthma

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    Doaa Mohammed Youssef

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In individuals with asthma, obesity induces the production of leptin and is associated with disease severity. Our objective was to evaluate the levels of serum leptin and their effect on Th1/Th2 balance in obese and non-obese children with asthma, as well as to investigate the association between serum leptin levels and clinical outcomes. METHODS: We evaluated 50 atopic children with physician-diagnosed moderate-to-severe persistent asthma and 20 controls. The children with asthma were divided into two groups, by body mass index percentile: obese (n = 25 and non-obese (n = 25. From all subjects, we collected peripheral blood samples in order to determine the levels of leptin, IFN-γ, and IL-4. Asthma severity was assessed by an asthma symptom score, and the results were correlated with the parameters studied. RESULTS: Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in the obese asthma group than in the non-obese asthma group, as well as being significantly higher in the children with asthma than in the controls, whereas IFN-γ levels were significantly higher and IL-4 levels were significantly lower in the obese asthma group than in the non-obese asthma group. In addition, the obese asthma group showed higher asthma symptom scores and significantly lower FEV1 (% of predicted than did the non-obese asthma group. There was a significant positive correlation between leptin and IFN-γ levels only in the obese asthma group. CONCLUSIONS: Although leptin is involved in the pathogenesis of asthma in obese and non-obese children, its effect is more pronounced in the former. In the presence of high leptin levels, only obese children with asthma exhibited Th1 polarization, with higher IFN-γ levels and greater asthma severity.

  7. Alpha-tocopherol ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis through the regulation of Th1 cells

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    Haikuo Xue

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a serious neurological autoimmune disease, it commonly affects young adults. Vitamin E (Vit E is an important component of human diet with antioxidant activity, which protects the body’s biological systems. In order to assess the effect of Vit E treatment on this autoimmune disease, we established experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, the animal model of MS, and treated EAE with α-tocopherol (AT which is the main content of Vit E. Materials and Methods:Twenty C57BL/6 adult female mice were used and divided into two groups randomly. EAE was induced with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG, and one group was treated with AT, at a dose of 100 mg/kg on the 3th day post-immunization with MOG, the other group was treated with 1% alcohol. Mice were euthanized on day 14, post-immunization, spleens were removed for assessing splenocytes proliferation and cytokine profile, and spinal cords were dissected to assess the infiltration of inflammatory cells in spinal cord. Results:AT was able to attenuate the severity of EAE and delay the disease progression. H&E staining and fast blue staining indicated that AT reduced the inflammation and the demyelination reaction in the spinal cord. Treatment with AT significantly decreased the proliferation of splenocytes. AT also inhibited the production of IFN-γ (Th1 cytokine, though the other cytokines were only affected slightly. Conclusion:According to the results, AT ameliorated EAE, through suppressing the proliferation of T cells and the Th1 response. AT may be used as a potential treatment for MS.

  8. Specific dietary oligosaccharides increase Th1 responses in a mouse respiratory syncytial virus infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijf, Marcel A; Kruijsen, Debby; Bastiaans, Jacqueline; Coenjaerts, Frank E J; Garssen, Johan; van Bleek, Grada M; van't Land, Belinda

    2012-11-01

    Breast feeding reduces the risk of developing severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in infants. In addition to maternal antibodies, other immune-modulating factors in human milk contribute to this protection. Specific dietary prebiotic oligosaccharides, similar to oligosaccharides present in human milk, were evaluated in a C57BL/6 mouse RSV infection model. During primary RSV infection, increased numbers of RSV-specific CD4(+) T cells producing gamma interferon (IFN-γ) were found in the lungs at days 8 to 10 postinfection in mice receiving diet containing short-chain galactooligosacharides, long-chain fructooligosaccharides, and pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (termed scGOS/lcFOS/pAOS). In a Th2-skewed formalin-inactivated (FI)-RSV vaccination model, the prebiotic diet reduced RSV-specific Th2 cytokine (interleukin-4 [IL-4], IL-5, and IL-13)-producing CD4(+) T cells in the lung and the magnitude of airway eosinophilia at day 4 and 6 after infection. This was accompanied by a decreased influx of inflammatory dendritic cells (CD11b(+)/CD11c(+)) and increased numbers of IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells at day 8 after viral challenge. These findings suggest that specific dietary oligosaccharides can influence trafficking and/or effector functions of innate immune, CD4(+), and CD8(+) T cell subsets in the lungs of RSV-infected mice. In our models, scGOS/lcFOS/pAOS had no effect on weight but increased viral clearance in FI-RSV-vaccinated mice 8 days after infection. The increased systemic Th1 responses potentiated by scGOS/lcFOS/pAOS might contribute to an accelerated Th1/Th2 shift of the neonatal immune system, which might favor protective immunity against viral infections with a high attack rate in early infancy, such as RSV.

  9. Antibiotic resistance free plasmid DNA expressing LACK protein leads towards a protective Th1 response against Leishmania infantum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, I; Alonso, A; Peris, A; Marcen, J M; Abengozar, M A; Alcolea, P J; Castillo, J A; Larraga, V

    2009-11-12

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis is a serious public health concern in the Mediterranean basin since dogs are the main Leishmania infantum reservoir. However, there is not a vaccination method in veterinary use in this area, and therefore the development of a vaccine against this parasite is essential for the possible control of the disease. Previous reports have shown the efficacy of heterologous prime-boost vaccination with the pCIneo plasmid and the poxvirus VV (both Western Reserve and MVA strains) expressing L. infantum LACK antigen against canine leishmaniasis. As pCIneo-LACK plasmid contains antibiotic resistance genes, its use as a profilactic method is not recommended. Hence, the antibiotic resistance gene free pORT-LACK plasmid is a more suitable tool for its use as a vaccine. Here we report the protective and immunostimulatory effect of the prime-boost pORT-LACK/MVA-LACK vaccination tested in a canine experimental model. Vaccination induced a reduction in clinical signs and in parasite burden in the liver, an induction of the Leishmania-specific T cell activation, as well as an increase of the expression of Th1 type cytokines in PBMC and target organs.

  10. Increased intracellular Th1 cytokines in scid mice with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregenholt, S; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1998-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice engrafted with small pieces of full thickness gut wall from immunocompetent syngenic donors develop a chronic and lethal colitis. Lymphocytes from the lamina propria of engrafted mice were analyzed for phorbol ester/ionomycin-induced cytokine production...... by intracellular staining. A 4-5-fold increase in the fraction of IFN-gamma-producing CD4+ lamina propria T cells was found in moderately and severely diseased mice when compared to healthy congenic C.B-17 control mice. The number of IL-2-producing T cells was increased by approximately 2-fold when comparing mice...

  11. Immunoproteasome-deficiency has no effects on NK cell education, but confers lymphocytes into targets for NK cells in infected wild-type mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary J G van Helden

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are part of the innate immune system and contribute to the eradication of virus infected cells and tumors. NK cells express inhibitory and activating receptors and their decision to kill a target cell is based on the balance of signals received through these receptors. MHC class I molecules are recognized by inhibitory receptors, and their presence during NK cell education influences the responsiveness of peripheral NK cells. We here demonstrate that mice with reduced MHC class I cell surface expression, due to deficiency of immunoproteasomes, have responsive NK cells in the periphery, indicating that the lower MHC class I levels do not alter NK cell education. Following adoptive transfer into wild-type (wt recipients, immunoproteasome-deficient splenocytes are tolerated in naive but rejected in virus-infected recipients, in an NK cell dependent fashion. These results indicate that the relatively low MHC class I levels are sufficient to protect these cells from rejection by wt NK cells, but that this tolerance is broken in infection, inducing an NK cell-dependent rejection of immunoproteasome-deficient cells.

  12. Overexpression of HO-1 Contributes to Sepsis-Induced Immunosuppression by Modulating the Th1/Th2 Balance and Regulatory T-Cell Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seong-Jin; Kim, So-Jin; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2017-05-15

    Countervailing anti-inflammatory response and immunosuppression can cause death in late sepsis. Depletion and dysfunction of T cells are critical for developing sepsis-induced immunosuppression. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has a regulatory effect on differentiation and function of T cells and anti-inflammatory properties. We therefore investigated the immunosuppressive role of HO-1 in sepsis with a focus on its effects on helper T-cell (Th) differentiation and regulatory T cells (Treg). Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Mice were intraperitoneally injected with zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP; 25 mg/kg), an HO-1 inhibitor, or hemin (20 mg/kg), an HO-1 inducer, at 24 and 36 hours post-CLP. Splenocytes were isolated 48 hours post-CLP. Mice were intranasally infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4 days post-CLP as a secondary pneumonia infection model. ZnPP improved survival and bacterial clearance, whereas hemin had the opposite effect in septic mice. CLP induced lymphocyte apoptosis and a proinflammatory Th1 to anti-inflammatory Th2 shift, which was attenuated by ZnPP. ZnPP attenuated the CLP-induced Treg population and protein expression of inhibitory costimulatory molecules. Furthermore, ZnPP improved survival in the secondary pneumonia infection model. Our findings suggest that HO-1 overexpression contributes to sepsis-induced immunosuppression during late phase sepsis by promoting Th2 polarization and Treg function.

  13. Toll-like receptor 9 is required for full host resistance to Mycobacterium avium infection but plays no role in induction of Th1 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Natália B; Oliveira, Fernanda S; Durães, Fernanda V; de Almeida, Leonardo A; Flórido, Manuela; Prata, Luana O; Caliari, Marcelo V; Appelberg, Rui; Oliveira, Sérgio C

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the role of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in innate immunity to Mycobacterium avium, TLR9, TLR2, and MyD88 knockout (KO) mice were infected with this bacterium. Bacterial burdens were higher in the spleens, livers, and lungs of infected TLR9 KO mice than in those of C57BL/6 mice, indicating that TLR9 is required for efficient control of M. avium infection. However, TLR9 KO or TLR2 KO spleen cells displayed normal M. avium-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) responses. This finding was confirmed by determining the number of splenic CD4(+) T cells producing IFN-γ by flow cytometry. Furthermore, TLR2 and MyD88, but not TLR9, played a major role in interleukin-12 and TNF-α production by M. avium-infected macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). We also found that major histocompatibility complex class II molecule expression on DCs is regulated by TLR2 and MyD88 signaling but not by TLR9. Finally, lack of TLR9, TLR2, or MyD88 reduced the numbers of macrophages, epithelioid cells, and lymphocytes in M. avium-induced granulomas but only MyD88 deficiency affected the number of liver granulomas. In summary, our data demonstrated that the involvement of TLR9 in the control of M. avium infection is not related to the induction of Th1 responses.

  14. Genetic immunization against cervical carcinoma: induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity with a recombinant alphavirus vector expressing human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daemen, T; Pries, F; Bungener, L; Kraak, M; Regts, J; Wilschut, J

    2000-11-01

    Infection of genital epithelial cells with human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 is closely associated with the development of cervical carcinoma. The transforming potential of these high-risk HPVs depends on the expression of the E6 and E7 early viral gene products. Since the expression of E6 and E7 is selectively maintained in premalignant and malignant cervical lesions these proteins are attractive candidates for immunotherapeutic and prophylactic strategies. This report describes the construction, characterization and the in vivo immunotherapeutic potential of recombinant Semliki Forest virus (SFV) expressing the HPV16 E6 and E7 proteins (SFV-E6E7). Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining demonstrated expression of E6 and E7 in BHK cells infected with SFV-E6E7. Immunization of mice with SFV-E6E7 resulted in an efficient in vivo priming of HPV-specific CTL activity. The induced CTL lysed murine tumor cells transformed with the HPV16 genome and EL4 cells loaded with an immunodominant class I-binding HPV E7 peptide. CTLs could reproducibly be induced by immunization with three injections of as few as 10(5) infectious units of SFV-E6E7. Protection from tumor challenge was studied using the tumor cell line TC-1. Immunization with 5 x 10(6) SFV-E6E7 particles protected 40% of the mice from tumor challenge. These results indicate that E6E7 expression by the efficient and safe recombinant SFV system represents a promising strategy for immunotherapy or immunoprophylaxis of cervical carcinoma.

  15. Testosterone-Mediated Endocrine Function and TH1/TH2 Cytokine Balance after Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorooctane Sulfonate: By Sex Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Qiang Zhong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Little information exists about the evaluation of potential developmental immunotoxicity induced by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, a synthetic persistent and increasingly ubiquitous environmental contaminant. To assess potential sex-specific impacts of PFOS on immunological health in the offspring, using male and female C57BL/6 mice, pups were evaluated for developmental immunotoxic effects after maternal oral exposure to PFOS (0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 mg PFOS/kg/day during Gestational Days 1–17. Spontaneous TH1/TH2-type cytokines, serum levels of testosterone and estradiol were evaluated in F1 pups at four and eight weeks of age. The study showed that male pups were more sensitive to the effects of PFOS than female pups. At eight weeks of age, an imbalance in TH1/TH2-type cytokines with excess TH2 cytokines (IL-4 was found only in male pups. As for hormone levels, PFOS treatment in utero significantly decreased serum testosterone levels and increased estradiol levels only in male pups, and a significant interaction between sex and PFOS was observed for serum testosterone at both four weeks of age (pinteraction = 0.0049 and eight weeks of age (pinteraction = 0.0227 and for estradiol alternation at four weeks of age (pinteraction = 0.0351. In conclusion, testosterone-mediated endocrine function may be partially involved in the TH1/TH2 imbalance induced by PFOS, and these deficits are detectable among both young and adult mice and may affect males more than females.

  16. The Relationship between the Antitumor Effect of the IL-12 Gene Therapy and the Expression of Th1 Cytokines in an HPV16-Positive Murine Tumor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor García Paz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effect of IL-12 expressed in plasmid on the Th1 cytokine profile in an experimental HPV16-positive murine tumor model and the association with the IL-12’s antitumor effect. Methods. Mice were injected with BMK-16/myc cells to establish HPV16-positive tumor and then pNGVL3-mIL-12 plasmid; pcDNA3 plasmid or PBS was injected directly into tumor site. The antitumor effect of the treatment was evaluated and the cytokines expression profile in each tumor tissue was analyzed. Results. Treatment with pNGVL3-mIL-12 plasmid had a significant antitumor effect, and a Th2-Th3-type cytokines prolife was detected in the murine tumor model with expression of the cytokines IL-10, IL-4, and TGF-β1. However, after the tumor was treated with three intratumoral injections of plasmid containing IL-12 cDNA, it showed a cytokine profile associated with Th1 with expression of IL-2, IL-12, and IFN-γ cytokines and reduced expression of IL-10, IL-4, and TGF-β1. Conclusions. The treatment with the IL-12 gene in the experimental HPV16-positive tumor model promoted the activation of the cellular immune response via expression of a Th1-type cytokine profile and was associated with the inhibition of tumor growth. Thus, IL-12 treatment represents a novel approach for gene therapy against cervical cancer.

  17. Lymphocyte Trafficking to Mucosal Tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikhak, Zamaneh; Agace, William Winston; Luster, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphocytes are the key cells of the adaptive immune system that provide antigen-specific responses tailored to the context of antigen exposure. Through cytokine release and antibody production, lymphocytes orchestrate and amplify the recruitment and function of other immune cells and contribute...

  18. Obinutuzumab in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Jehan

    2015-09-01

    Obinutuzumab is the second next-generation monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody (after ofatumumab) to enter clinical practice in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Its superiority in association with chlorambucil as compared with chlorambucil alone has led to its approval as a first-line treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, for patients who are not candidates for a more intensive treatment.

  19. Lymphocyte Perturbations in Malawian Children with Severe and Uncomplicated Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Wilson L; Msefula, Chisomo L; Gondwe, Esther N; Gilchrist, James J; Graham, Stephen M; Pensulo, Paul; Mwimaniwa, Grace; Banda, Meraby; Taylor, Terrie E; Molyneux, Elizabeth E; Drayson, Mark T; Ward, Steven A; Molyneux, Malcolm E; MacLennan, Calman A

    2015-11-18

    Lymphocytes are implicated in immunity and pathogenesis of severe malaria. Since lymphocyte subsets vary with age, assessment of their contribution to different etiologies can be difficult. We immunophenotyped peripheral blood from Malawian children presenting with cerebral malaria, severe malarial anemia, and uncomplicated malaria (n = 113) and healthy aparasitemic children (n = 42) in Blantyre, Malawi, and investigated lymphocyte subset counts, activation, and memory status. Children with cerebral malaria were older than those with severe malarial anemia. We found panlymphopenia in children presenting with cerebral malaria (median lymphocyte count, 2,100/μl) and uncomplicated malaria (3,700/μl), which was corrected in convalescence and was absent in severe malarial anemia (5,950/μl). Median percentages of activated CD69(+) NK (73%) and γδ T (60%) cells were higher in cerebral malaria than in other malaria types. Median ratios of memory to naive CD4(+) lymphocytes were higher in cerebral malaria than in uncomplicated malaria and low in severe malarial anemia. The polarized lymphocyte subset profiles of different forms of severe malaria are independent of age. In conclusion, among Malawian children cerebral malaria is characterized by lymphocyte activation and increased memory cells, consistent with immune priming. In contrast, there are reduced memory cells and less activation in severe malaria anemia. Further studies are required to understand whether these immunological profiles indicate predisposition of some children to one or another form of severe malaria. Copyright © 2016 Mandala et al.

  20. Human eosinophil-lymphocyte interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weller Peter F

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available While the eosinophil's effector functions clearly can contribute to the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, the evolutionary benefit to having eosinophils as a distinct class of leukocytes is not clear, especially if one must reconsider the nominally beneficial role of eosinophils in parasite host defense. Eosinophils are equipped to respond to lymphocytes and their cytokines (and not solely the eosinophil growth factor cytokines, but the functional consequences of such eosinophil responses need to be defined. Conversely, eosinophils, as antigen-presenting cells (APCs or sources of lymphocyte-active cytokines, may stimulate and effect lymphocyte functioning. Eosinophils share with CD4+ lymphocytes expression of a number of receptors, including CD4 and IL-2R, and specific alpha4 integrins that may help in their common recruitment and activation. Further, elucidation of the interactions between lymphocytes and eosinophils will contribute to a broader understanding of the functioning of eosinophils in "normal" ongoing immune responses and in allergic disorders.

  1. Gremlin-1 Overexpression in Mouse Lung Reduces Silica-Induced Lymphocyte Recruitment – A Link to Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis through Negative Correlation with CXCL10 Chemokine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koli, Katri; Sutinen, Eva; Rönty, Mikko; Rantakari, Pia; Fortino, Vittorio; Pulkkinen, Ville; Greco, Dario; Sipilä, Petra; Myllärniemi, Marjukka

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by activation and injury of epithelial cells, the accumulation of connective tissue and changes in the inflammatory microenvironment. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibitor protein gremlin-1 is associated with the progression of fibrosis both in human and mouse lung. We generated a transgenic mouse model expressing gremlin-1 in type II lung epithelial cells using the surfactant protein C (SPC) promoter and the Cre-LoxP system. Gremlin-1 protein expression was detected specifically in the lung after birth and did not result in any signs of respiratory insufficiency. Exposure to silicon dioxide resulted in reduced amounts of lymphocyte aggregates in transgenic lungs while no alteration in the fibrotic response was observed. Microarray gene expression profiling and analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytokines indicated a reduced lymphocytic response and a downregulation of interferon-induced gene program. Consistent with reduced Th1 response, there was a downregulation of the mRNA and protein expression of the anti-fibrotic chemokine CXCL10, which has been linked to IPF. In human IPF patient samples we also established a strong negative correlation in the mRNA expression levels of gremlin-1 and CXCL10. Our results suggest that in addition to regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk during tissue injury, gremlin-1 modulates inflammatory cell recruitment and anti-fibrotic chemokine production in the lung. PMID:27428020

  2. Gremlin-1 Overexpression in Mouse Lung Reduces Silica-Induced Lymphocyte Recruitment - A Link to Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis through Negative Correlation with CXCL10 Chemokine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Koli

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is characterized by activation and injury of epithelial cells, the accumulation of connective tissue and changes in the inflammatory microenvironment. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP inhibitor protein gremlin-1 is associated with the progression of fibrosis both in human and mouse lung. We generated a transgenic mouse model expressing gremlin-1 in type II lung epithelial cells using the surfactant protein C (SPC promoter and the Cre-LoxP system. Gremlin-1 protein expression was detected specifically in the lung after birth and did not result in any signs of respiratory insufficiency. Exposure to silicon dioxide resulted in reduced amounts of lymphocyte aggregates in transgenic lungs while no alteration in the fibrotic response was observed. Microarray gene expression profiling and analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytokines indicated a reduced lymphocytic response and a downregulation of interferon-induced gene program. Consistent with reduced Th1 response, there was a downregulation of the mRNA and protein expression of the anti-fibrotic chemokine CXCL10, which has been linked to IPF. In human IPF patient samples we also established a strong negative correlation in the mRNA expression levels of gremlin-1 and CXCL10. Our results suggest that in addition to regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk during tissue injury, gremlin-1 modulates inflammatory cell recruitment and anti-fibrotic chemokine production in the lung.

  3. Gremlin-1 Overexpression in Mouse Lung Reduces Silica-Induced Lymphocyte Recruitment - A Link to Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis through Negative Correlation with CXCL10 Chemokine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koli, Katri; Sutinen, Eva; Rönty, Mikko; Rantakari, Pia; Fortino, Vittorio; Pulkkinen, Ville; Greco, Dario; Sipilä, Petra; Myllärniemi, Marjukka

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by activation and injury of epithelial cells, the accumulation of connective tissue and changes in the inflammatory microenvironment. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibitor protein gremlin-1 is associated with the progression of fibrosis both in human and mouse lung. We generated a transgenic mouse model expressing gremlin-1 in type II lung epithelial cells using the surfactant protein C (SPC) promoter and the Cre-LoxP system. Gremlin-1 protein expression was detected specifically in the lung after birth and did not result in any signs of respiratory insufficiency. Exposure to silicon dioxide resulted in reduced amounts of lymphocyte aggregates in transgenic lungs while no alteration in the fibrotic response was observed. Microarray gene expression profiling and analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytokines indicated a reduced lymphocytic response and a downregulation of interferon-induced gene program. Consistent with reduced Th1 response, there was a downregulation of the mRNA and protein expression of the anti-fibrotic chemokine CXCL10, which has been linked to IPF. In human IPF patient samples we also established a strong negative correlation in the mRNA expression levels of gremlin-1 and CXCL10. Our results suggest that in addition to regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk during tissue injury, gremlin-1 modulates inflammatory cell recruitment and anti-fibrotic chemokine production in the lung.

  4. Notch and presenilin regulate cellular expansion and cytokine secretion but cannot instruct Th1/Th2 fate acquisition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Tong Ong

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports suggested that Delta1, 4 and Jagged1, 2 possessed the ability to instruct CD4(+ T cell into selection of Th1 or Th2 fates, respectively, although the underlying mechanism endowing the cleaved Notch receptor with memory of ligand involved in its activation remains elusive. To examine this, we prepared artificial antigen-presenting cells expressing either DLL1 or Jag1. Although both ligands were efficient in inducing Notch2 cleavage and activation in CD4(+ T or reporter cells, the presence of Lunatic Fringe in CD4(+ T cells inhibited Jag1 activation of Notch1 receptor. Neither ligand could induce Th1 or Th2 fate choice independently of cytokines or redirect cytokine-driven Th1 or Th2 development. Instead, we find that Notch ligands only augment cytokine production during T cell differentiation in the presence of polarizing IL-12 and IL-4. Moreover, the differentiation choices of naïve CD4(+ T cells lacking gamma-secretase, RBP-J, or both in response to polarizing cytokines revealed that neither presenilin proteins nor RBP-J were required for cytokine-induced Th1/Th2 fate selection. However, presenilins facilitate cellular proliferation and cytokine secretion in an RBP-J (and thus, Notch independent manner. The controversies surrounding the role of Notch and presenilins in Th1/Th2 polarization may reflect their role as genetic modifiers of T-helper cells differentiation.

  5. Leishmania donovani-reactive Th1- and Th2-like T-cell clones from individuals who have recovered from visceral leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Kurtzhals, J A; Bendtzen, K

    1993-01-01

    Infections in humans by Leishmania donovani parasites can result in a fatal disease, visceral leishmaniasis (VL), or in a self-limiting asymptomatic infection. In murine models of the infection employing Leishmania major, the course of the disease can be directed into a VL-like syndrome by interl......Infections in humans by Leishmania donovani parasites can result in a fatal disease, visceral leishmaniasis (VL), or in a self-limiting asymptomatic infection. In murine models of the infection employing Leishmania major, the course of the disease can be directed into a VL-like syndrome...... only IFN-gamma. This is the first report of a Th1- and Th2-type response in human leishmaniasis. These results suggest that in analogy with murine models, there is a dichotomy in the human T-cell response to L. donovani infections. Preferential activation of IL-4-producing Th2-like cells may...... be involved in the exacerbation of human VL, whereas activation of IFN-gamma-producing Th1 cells may protect the host from severe disease. Identification of leishmanial antigens activating one or the other type of T cells will be important in the development of vaccines against leishmaniasis....

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles in children with enterovirus 71-associated meningoencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huajun; Li, Shuxian; Zheng, Jianfeng; Cai, Chunyan; Ye, Bin; Yang, Jun; Chen, Zhimin

    2015-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection can cause severe neurological complications including meningoencephalitis (ME) in some patients with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). However, to date no studies have reported changes in cytokine concentrations and their correlations with clinical variables in patients with ME following EV71 infection. In this study, responses of Th1/Th2 cytokine, including IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with EV71-related HFMD with ME and patients with febrile convulsions (FC) were analyzed using cytometric bead array technology. It was found that CSF IL-6 and IFN-γ concentrations were significantly higher in patients with EV71-related ME than in those with FC. Additionally, both CSF IL-6 and IFN-γ concentrations were correlated with CSF cytology, fever duration and duration of hospital stay. More interestingly, a positive correlation between CSF IL-6 and IFN-γ concentrations was observed. Finally, receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that when a cutoff value of 9.40 pg/mL was set for IL-6, the sensitivity and specificity were 84.5% and 85.5%, respectively, for discriminating EV71-related ME from FC. In conclusion, IL-6 and IFN-γ may be associated with EV71-induced neuropathology. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Preferential Th1 cytokine profile of phosphoantigen-stimulated human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dunne, Margaret R

    2010-01-01

    Human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells recognise pyrophosphate-based antigens (phosphoantigens) and have multiple functions in innate and adaptive immunity, including a unique ability to activate other cells of the immune system. We used flow cytometry and ELISA to define the early cytokine profiles of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells stimulated in vitro with isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2 enyl pyrophosphate (HMB-PP) in the absence and presence of IL-2 and IL-15. We show that fresh Vγ9Vδ2 T cells produce interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) within 4 hours of stimulation with phosphoantigen, but neither IL-10, IL-13, nor IL-17 was detectable up to 72 hours under these conditions. Cytokine production was not influenced by expression or lack, thereof, of CD4 or CD8. Addition of IL-2 or IL-15 caused expansion of IFN-γ-producing Vγ9Vδ2 T cells, but did not enhance IFN-γ secretion after 24-72 hours. Thus, phosphoantigen-stimulated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells have potential as Th1-biasing adjuvants for immunotherapy.

  8. Th1 and Th2-like protein balance in human inflammatory radicular cysts and periapical granulomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Fraga, Carlos Alberto; Alves, Lucas Rodrigues; de Sousa, Adriana Alkmim; de Jesus, Sabrina Ferreira; Vilela, Daniel Nogueira; Pereira, Camila Santos; Batista Domingos, Patrícia Luciana; Viana, Agostinho Gonçalves; Jham, Bruno Correia; Batista de Paula, Alfredo Maurício; Sena Guimarães, André Luiz

    2013-04-01

    Chronic dental periapical lesions result from chronic inflammation of periapical tissues caused by continuous antigenic stimulation from infected root canals. Recent findings have suggested that T helper (Th) 1 and Th2-like cytokines are important in the pathogenesis of chronic periapical inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms regulating these immunoinflammatory pathways have not been fully elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate interleukin (IL)-4, IL-12, and interferon γ (IFN-γ) protein levels in human radicular cysts and periapical granulomas. Archived samples of cysts (n = 52) and granulomas (n = 27) were sectioned and submitted to immunohistochemistry to evaluate the tissue expression of IL-4, IL-12, and IFN-γ. The data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test (P radicular cysts. IL-4 expression was stronger in periapical granulomas than in radicular cysts. IL-12 was not detected in any of the samples. Our study showed that IFN-γ protein levels are increased in radicular cysts, whereas IL-4 expression is stronger in samples of periapical granulomas. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the signaling pathways mediated by these cytokines and to facilitate the development of more effective periapical disease management strategies. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  9. Distinct Th1, Th2 and Treg cytokines balance in chronic periapical granulomas and radicular cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira-Salum, Tatiana Beber; Rodrigues, Denise Bertulucci Rocha; Gervásio, Aurélia M; Souza, Cássio J A; Rodrigues, Virmondes; Loyola, Adriano Motta

    2010-03-01

    Periapical lesions are a host response that involves immune reaction to prevent dissemination of bacteria from an infected root canal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the levels of nitric oxide (NO), IL-4, TGF-beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in chronic periapical lesions and to determine their possible association with clinical and radiographic parameters. Seventeen human radicular cysts and 30 periapical granulomas were used in this study. Cytokines and NO were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by the Griess reaction respectively confirmed by immunohistochemical. TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma were detected in 10% of granulomas and in 41.2% and 70% of radicular cysts. IL-4 was reactive in 24% of cysts, and TGF-beta was positive in all samples. Patients with tenderness showed significantly higher levels of IFN-gamma and IL-4 (P radicular cysts has mist Th1 and Th2 inflammatory reaction with the presence of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-4.

  10. [Effect of pulmonary surfactant on Th1/Th2 balance in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Shu-Fen; Liu, Cui-Qing; Ping, Li-Li; Tian, Bao-Li

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the effect of pulmonary surfactant (PS) on the Th1/Th2 balance and serum levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and IgE in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). A total of 58 neonates with RDS were divided into control (n=20) and PS treatment groups (n=38). The control group underwent mechanical ventilation and other conventional treatment, while the PS treatment group received with bovine PS treatment within 1 hour of being admitted to the hospital together with mechanical ventilation and other conventional treatment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure serum levels of IL-4, IFN-γ and IgE before treatment and 24, 48 and 72 hours after treatment. Simultaneously, arterial blood gas, respiratory system compliance, and other ventilator parameters were recorded. Compared with the control group, the PS treatment group showed significantly shorter duration of mechanical ventilation and oxygen exposure time (Pneonates with RDS, thus inhibiting lung inflammatory response and reducing lung injury.

  11. Anti-asthma effects of synthetic salidroside through regulation of Th1/Th2 balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Jin, Rong-Guang; Xiao, Lu; Wang, Qiu-Juan; Yan, Tian-Hua

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of action of synthetic salidroside in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model in mice. BALB/c mice were sensitized with an intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA) to induce a mouse model of asthma in paracmasis. The mice were treated with dexamethasone as the positive control. At the end of the study, respiratory reactivity was detected, the numbers of various kinds of white blood cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were counted, and the levels of IL-4 and INF-γ in BALF were determined. Quantitative PCR was used to detect the mRNA contents of IL-4 and INF-γ in lung tissue. Histologic examination was performed to observe inflammatory cellular infiltration. Salidroside treatment virtually eliminated airway hyper-reactivity, markedly reduced the eosinophil percent, obviously reduced the levels of IL-4 and raised INF-γ in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) compared with the sham-treated group. Quantitative PCR on the mRNA content of IL-4 and INF-γ provided confirmation. Lung histologic observations showed that salidroside reduced inflammation and edema. These effects were equivalent to the effects of dexamethasone. Synthetic salidroside exhibits an anti-asthma effect which is related to the regulation of Th1/Th2 balance. This provides a new possibility for treatment of allergic asthma. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Preinfection human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes failed to prevent HIV type 1 infection from strains genetically unrelated to viruses in long-term exposed partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Woodward, Amanda; Zhu, Haiying; Andrus, Thomas; McNevin, John; Lee, Jean; Mullins, James I; Corey, Lawrence; McElrath, M Juliana; Zhu, Tuofu

    2009-10-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying potential altered susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in highly exposed seronegative (ES) individuals and the later clinical consequences of breakthrough infection can provide insight into strategies to control HIV-1 with an effective vaccine. From our Seattle ES cohort, we identified one individual (LSC63) who seroconverted after over 2 years of repeated unprotected sexual contact with his HIV-1-infected partner (P63) and other sexual partners of unknown HIV-1 serostatus. The HIV-1 variants infecting LSC63 were genetically unrelated to those sequenced from P63. This may not be surprising, since viral load measurements in P63 were repeatedly below 50 copies/ml, making him an unlikely transmitter. However, broad HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses were detected in LSC63 before seroconversion. Compared to those detected after seroconversion, these responses were of lower magnitude and half of them targeted different regions of the viral proteome. Strong HLA-B27-restricted CTLs, which have been associated with disease control, were detected in LSC63 after but not before seroconversion. Furthermore, for the majority of the protein-coding regions of the HIV-1 variants in LSC63 (except gp41, nef, and the 3' half of pol), the genetic distances between the infecting viruses and the viruses to which he was exposed through P63 (termed the exposed virus) were comparable to the distances between random subtype B HIV-1 sequences and the exposed viruses. These results suggest that broad preinfection immune responses were not able to prevent the acquisition of HIV-1 infection in LSC63, even though the infecting viruses were not particularly distant from the viruses that may have elicited these responses.

  13. Growth Factor Midkine Promotes T-Cell Activation through Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells Signaling and Th1 Cell Differentiation in Lupus Nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Tomohiro; Maeda, Kayaho; Sato, Waichi; Kosugi, Tomoki; Sato, Yuka; Kojima, Hiroshi; Kato, Noritoshi; Ishimoto, Takuji; Tsuboi, Naotake; Uchimura, Kenji; Yuzawa, Yukio; Maruyama, Shoichi; Kadomatsu, Kenji

    2017-04-01

    Activated T cells play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, including lupus nephritis (LN). The activation of calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and STAT4 signaling is essential for T cells to perform various effector functions. Here, we identified the growth factor midkine (MK; gene name, Mdk) as a novel regulator in the pathogenesis of 2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane-induced LN via activation of NFAT and IL-12/STAT4 signaling. Wild-type (Mdk +/+ ) mice showed more severe glomerular injury than MK-deficient (Mdk -/- ) mice, as demonstrated by mesangial hypercellularity and matrix expansion, and glomerular capillary loops with immune-complex deposition. Compared with Mdk -/- mice, the frequency of splenic CD69 + T cells and T helper (Th) 1 cells, but not of regulatory T cells, was augmented in Mdk +/+ mice in proportion to LN disease activity, and was accompanied by skewed cytokine production. MK expression was also enhanced in activated CD4 + T cells in vivo and in vitro. MK induced activated CD4 + T cells expressing CD69 through nuclear activation of NFAT transcription and selectively increased in vitro differentiation of naive CD4 + T cells into Th1 cells by promoting IL-12/STAT4 signaling. These results suggest that MK serves an indispensable role in the NFAT-regulated activation of CD4 + T cells and Th1 cell differentiation, eventually leading to the exacerbation of LN. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantificação das citocinas séricas Th1/Th2 por citometria de fluxo no linfoma de Hodgkin clássico Measurement of Th1/Th2 serum cytokines by flow cytometry in classical Hodgkin lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana K. Mitelman

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O linfoma de Hodgkin clássico (LHC é uma neoplasia com distúrbio na produção de citocinas. Estudos demonstram que o padrão anormal das citocinas no linfonodo acometido pela lesão contribui não somente com a proliferação das células malignas H-RS, como também com o característico infiltrado hiper-reativo que compõe o tecido no LHC. Esta disfunção pode ser observada tanto no quadro clínico dos pacientes, como nas características histopatológicas: sintomas B, deficiência na resposta imune celular, bandas de colágeno e eosinofilia. As concentrações séricas das citocinas Th1 (IL-2, TNF, INF-γ e Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 foram estudadas em 45 pacientes com LHC, ao diagnóstico, e em 34 doadores saudáveis, por citometria de fluxo (CBA - cytometric beads array. Houve aumento das concentrações das citocinas TNF (pClassical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL is a malignancy with an abnormal or unbalanced secretion/production of cytokines, which might support the growth of H-RS cells, their surrounding reactive bystander cells and may be responsible for the typical clinical and histopathologic features of CHL: systemic B symptoms, an apparent defect in cell-mediated immune response, tumor fibrosis and eosinophilic infiltrate. Serum concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, IL5, IL-10, TNF and IFN-γ (Th1/Th2 were measured in 45 patients at diagnosis of classical Hodgkin lymphoma and in 34 healthy controls by cytometric beads array (CBA. Levels of TNF (p<0.01, INF-γ(p<0.01, IL-4 (p=0.01, IL-5 (p<0.01 e IL-10 (p<0.01 were significantly higher in patients compared to the control group. No difference was observed for IL-2 between the two groups. On correlating Th1/Th2 cytokine concentrations with clinical risk factors, elevated IL-10 (Th2 levels are associated with variables that suggest worse prognoses including III/IV stage (p=0.01, B-symptoms (p=0.04, hemoglobin < 10.5g/dL (p=0.01, lymphocytes < 600/mm³ (p=0.01 and according to the seven

  15. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 mediates migration of Th1 and Th17 cells across human retinal vascular endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Arpita S; Schewitz-Bowers, Lauren P; Wei, Lai; Lee, Richard W J; Smith, Justine R

    2013-10-23

    Autoimmune inflammation of the retina causes vision loss in the majority of affected individuals. Th1 or Th17 cells initiate the disease on trafficking from the circulation into the eye across the retinal vascular endothelium. We investigated the ability of human Th1- and Th17-polarized cells to cross a simulated human retinal endothelium, and examined the role of IgG superfamily members in this process. Th1- and Th17-polarized cell populations were generated from human peripheral blood CD4(+) T cells, using two Th1- and Th17-polarizing protocols. Transendothelial migration assays were performed over 18 hours in Boyden chambers, after seeding the transwell membrane with human retinal endothelial cells. In some assays intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), or activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) blocking antibody, or isotype- and concentration-matched control antibody, was added to the upper chambers. Th1- and Th17-polarized cells migrated equally efficiently across the human retinal endothelial monolayer. The percentage of IL-17(+) IFN-γ(-) Th17-polarized cells was reduced following migration. Blocking ICAM-1, but not VCAM-1 or ALCAM, significantly reduced migration of Th1- and Th17-polarized cells for a majority of human donors. Taken in the context of other literature on transendothelial migration, our results illustrate the importance of investigating the specific tissue and vascular endothelium when considering helper T cell migration in autoimmune inflammation. Our findings further indicate that while generalizations about involvement of specific adhesion molecules in uveitis and other autoimmune disease may be possible, these may not apply to individual patients universally. The observations are relevant to the use of adhesion blockade for therapeutic purposes.

  16. Lithocholic acid controls adaptive immune responses by inhibition of Th1 activation through the Vitamin D receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchner, Teresa; Korkmaz, H. Inci; Vos, Mariska; Soeters, Maarten R.; de Vries, Carlie J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids are established signaling molecules next to their role in the intestinal emulsification and uptake of lipids. We here aimed to identify a potential interaction between bile acids and CD4+ Th cells, which are central in adaptive immune responses. We screened distinct bile acid species for their potency to affect T cell function. Primary human and mouse CD4+ Th cells as well as Jurkat T cells were used to gain insight into the mechanism underlying these effects. We found that unconjugated lithocholic acid (LCA) impedes Th1 activation as measured by i) decreased production of the Th1 cytokines IFNγ and TNFαα, ii) decreased expression of the Th1 genes T-box protein expressed in T cells (T-bet), Stat-1 and Stat4, and iii) decreased STAT1α/β phosphorylation. Importantly, we observed that LCA impairs Th1 activation at physiological relevant concentrations. Profiling of MAPK signaling pathways in Jurkat T cells uncovered an inhibition of ERK-1/2 phosphorylation upon LCA exposure, which could provide an explanation for the impaired Th1 activation. LCA induces these effects via Vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling since VDR RNA silencing abrogated these effects. These data reveal for the first time that LCA controls adaptive immunity via inhibition of Th1 activation. Many factors influence LCA levels, including bile acid-based drugs and gut microbiota. Our data may suggest that these factors also impact on adaptive immunity via a yet unrecognized LCA-Th cell axis. PMID:28493883

  17. Lithocholic acid controls adaptive immune responses by inhibition of Th1 activation through the Vitamin D receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thijs W H Pols

    Full Text Available Bile acids are established signaling molecules next to their role in the intestinal emulsification and uptake of lipids. We here aimed to identify a potential interaction between bile acids and CD4+ Th cells, which are central in adaptive immune responses. We screened distinct bile acid species for their potency to affect T cell function. Primary human and mouse CD4+ Th cells as well as Jurkat T cells were used to gain insight into the mechanism underlying these effects. We found that unconjugated lithocholic acid (LCA impedes Th1 activation as measured by i decreased production of the Th1 cytokines IFNγ and TNFαα, ii decreased expression of the Th1 genes T-box protein expressed in T cells (T-bet, Stat-1 and Stat4, and iii decreased STAT1α/β phosphorylation. Importantly, we observed that LCA impairs Th1 activation at physiological relevant concentrations. Profiling of MAPK signaling pathways in Jurkat T cells uncovered an inhibition of ERK-1/2 phosphorylation upon LCA exposure, which could provide an explanation for the impaired Th1 activation. LCA induces these effects via Vitamin D receptor (VDR signaling since VDR RNA silencing abrogated these effects. These data reveal for the first time that LCA controls adaptive immunity via inhibition of Th1 activation. Many factors influence LCA levels, including bile acid-based drugs and gut microbiota. Our data may suggest that these factors also impact on adaptive immunity via a yet unrecognized LCA-Th cell axis.

  18. Epitope based recombinant BCG vaccine elicits specific Th1 polarized immune responses in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Aparna Josephine; Dharman, Karthika; Dhandapaani, Gayatri; Palaniyandi, Kannan; Gupta, Umesh D; Gupta, Pushpa; Ignacimuthu, S; Narayanan, Sujatha

    2012-02-08

    Developing an efficacious vaccine is one of the highest priorities in tuberculosis research. A vaccine based on T cell epitopes representing multiple antigens is an ideal approach to generate effective cellular immunity against the disease. In the present study, we have selected four T cell epitopes from four well defined Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens, Ag85C (Rv2903c), 10-kDa culture filtrate protein (CFP-10) (Rv3874), PPE68 (Rv3873) and INV (Rv1478). The epitope encoding genes were grafted into a Cpn 10 based epitope delivery system. The cpn 10-epitope chimeras were further cloned and expressed in BCG to obtain four rBCGs (BCG::CFP, BCG::FBP, BCG::PPE and BCG::INV). Both cellular and humoral immune responses induced by these r-BCG strains were evaluated in BALB/c mice after subcutaneous injection of a single dose of 1×10(6)CFU of the individual rBCGs. Compared to the parent BCG immunized animals the splenocytes derived from rBCG vaccinated groups showed greater antigen specific proliferation, characterized with higher IFN-γ response and reduced IL-4 secretion. Also rBCG vaccination was able to induce specific humoral immune response with an enhanced IgG2a/IgG1 ratio. The rBCGs therefore favor an epitope specific Th1 type response, which is known to be important for mycobacterial immunity. Further when two of the rBCGs (BCG::CFP and BCG::FBP) were tested for their protective efficacy both the rBCGs were comparable to BCG in a H37Rv challenge study performed in guinea pigs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anisakis simplex allergy: a murine model of anaphylaxis induced by parasitic proteins displays a mixed Th1/Th2 pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, M L; Conejero, L; Higaki, Y; Martín, E; Pérez, C; Infante, S; Rubio, M; Zubeldia, J M

    2005-01-01

    The study of the singular hypersensitivity reactions to Anisakis simplex (A.s) proteins, may help us to undestand many of the unknown immune interactions between helmiths infections and allergy. We have developed a murine model of allergy to A. simplex, that mimics human A. simplex allergy to study the specific aspects of anaphylaxis induced by parasites. Male C3H/HeJ mice were intraperitoneally sensitized to A. simplex. Mice were then intravenous or orally challenged with A. simplex. Antigen-specific immunoglobulins, polyclonal IgE, anaphylactic symptoms, plasma histamine levels and cytokine profiles were determined. Comparative IgE immunoblot analyses were also performed. Specific IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a were detected in sensitized mice since week 3. Polyclonal IgE raised and peaked with different kinetics. Intravenous A. simplex challenge produced anaphylaxis in mice, accompanied by plasma histamine release. Oral A. simplex challenge in similarly sensitized mice did not caused symptoms nor histamine release. Numerous A. simplex allergens were recognized by sensitized mouse sera, some of them similar to human serum. The A. simplex stimulated splenocytes released IL-10, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-13 and IL-5. We describe a new animal model of anaphylaxis. It exhibits characteristics of type I hypersensitivity reactions to Anisakis simplex similar to those observed in allergic humans. Different responses to i.v. or oral A. simplex challenges emerged, which did not reflect a window tolerization period. The cytokine profile developed (mixed Th1/Th2 pattern) differed from the observed in classical models of anaphylaxis or allergy to food antigens. This model may permit to investigate the peculiar allergic reactions to parasitic proteins. PMID:16297154

  20. Targeting beta- and alpha-adrenergic receptors differentially shifts Th1, Th2, and inflammatory cytokine profiles in immune organs to attenuate adjuvant arthritis

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    Dianne eLorton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The sympathetic nervous system (SNS regulates host defense responses and restores homeostasis. SNS-immune regulation is altered in rheumatoid arthritis (RA and rodent models of RA, characterized by nerve remodeling in immune organs and defective adrenergic receptor (AR signaling to immune cell targets that typically promotes or suppresses inflammation via α- and β2-AR activation, respectively, and indirectly drives humoral immunity by blocking Th1 cytokine secretion. Here, we investigate how β2-AR stimulation and/or α-AR blockade at disease onset affects disease pathology and cytokine profiles in relevant immune organs from male Lewis rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA. Rats challenged to induce AA were treated with terbutaline (TERB, a β2-AR agonist (600 μg/kg/day and/or phentolamine (PHEN, an α-AR antagonist (5.0 mg/kg/day or vehicle from disease onset through severe disease. We report that in spleen, mesenteric (MLN and draining lymph node (DLN cells, TERB reduces proliferation, an effect independent of IL-2. TERB also fails to shift Th cytokines from a Th1 to Th2 profile in spleen and MLN (no effect on IFN-γ and DLN (greater IFN-γ cells. In splenocytes, TERB, PHEN and co-treatment (PT promotes an anti-inflammatory profile (greater IL-10 and lowers TNF-α (PT only. In DLN cells, drug treatments do not affect inflammatory profiles, except PT, which raised IL-10. In MLN cells, TERB or PHEN lowers MLN cell secretion of TNF-α or IL-10, respectively. Collectively, our findings indicate disrupted β2-AR, but not α-AR signaling in AA. Aberrant β2-AR signaling consequently derails the sympathetic regulation of lymphocyte expansion, Th cell differentiation, and inflammation in the spleen, DLNs and MLNs that is required for immune system homeostasis. Importantly, this study provides potential mechanisms through which reestablished balance between α- and β2-AR function in the immune system ameliorates inflammation and joint

  1. Change in function of thl - and th2-lymphocytes and cytokine profile at chronic intoxication of ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    A.A. Svistunov; P.F. Zabrodsky V.G. Lim; V.A. Grishin

    2010-01-01

    It has been established during the experiments carried on noninbred rats that chronic intoxication of ethanol (30 days, total dose - 6,0 LD50) essentially reduces concentration of cytokines (IFNy, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6,IL-10) in blood, reduces interrelation of IFNy/IL-4 in comparison with the control, suppresses immune reactions, indicating the greater lesion of Th1-cells in comparison with Th2-lymphocytes

  2. Change in function of thl - and th2-lymphocytes and cytokine profile at chronic intoxication of ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Svistunov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been established during the experiments carried on noninbred rats that chronic intoxication of ethanol (30 days, total dose - 6,0 LD50 essentially reduces concentration of cytokines (IFNy, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6,IL-10 in blood, reduces interrelation of IFNy/IL-4 in comparison with the control, suppresses immune reactions, indicating the greater lesion of Th1-cells in comparison with Th2-lymphocytes

  3. Measurement of lymphocyte aggregation by flow cytometry-physiological implications in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezorella, Nili; Kay, Sigi; Baron, Shoshana; Shapiro, Mika; Porat, Ziv; Deutsch, Varda; Herishanu, Yair; Katz, Ben-Zion

    2016-05-01

    Cellular aggregation is a physiological response of lymphocytes to various extracellular stimuli. Currently, lymphocytes aggregation is only evaluated qualitatively or by semiquantitative methods. In this study, we assessed the capacity of flow cytometry to measure lymphocytes aggregation in a quantitative, accurate, and reproducible manner, and examined the significance of aggregation responses in various lymphoproliferative diseases. Extracellular triggers such as anti-CD19 antibodies or phorbol ester were utilized to induce lymphoid cells aggregation in a concentration dependent manner. Aggregation was quantified by flow cytometry based on the forward or side scatter (SSC), or by dark-field SSC of aggregates measured by ImageStreamX. Accuracy, reproducibility, and limitations of the methodology were evaluated. Aggregation responses were measured in various types of lymphoproliferative diseases, and correlated with immunophenotyping and IGHV mutational status in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Lymphoid aggregates provoked by extracellular stimuli elevate the forward and SSC signals relatively to the number of cells in each event. Aggregation responses vary among different types of lymphoproliferative diseases. Moreover, elevated levels of CD19-induced aggregation are associated with aberrant chronic lymphocytic leukemia characteristics, but not with IGHV mutational status of the disease We have demonstrated that flow cytometry can provide accurate and reproducible measurement of both primary as well as T and B cell lines aggregation in response to extracellular stimuli. The use of quantitative evaluation of activation driven or other cellular aggregation may provide an analytical tool to elucidate biochemical and molecular mechanisms associated with lymphoproliferative diseases. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  4. Acute ethanol treatment upregulates th1, th2 and hdc in larval zebrafish in stable networks

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    Henri ePuttonen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies in zebrafish have revealed that acutely given ethanol has a stimulatory effect on locomotion in fish larvae but the mechanism of this effect has not been revealed. We studied the effects of ethanol concentrations between 0.75% and 3.00% on 7-day-old larval zebrafish (Danio rerio of the Turku strain. At 0.75-3% concentrations ethanol increased swimming speed during the first minute. At 3% the swimming speed decreased rapidly after the first minute, whereas at 0.75 and 1.5% a prolonged increase in swimming speed was seen. At the highest ethanol concentration dopamine levels decreased significantly after a 10-min treatment. We found that ethanol upregulates key genes involved in the biosynthesis of histamine (hdc and dopamine (th1 and th2 following a short 10-min ethanol treatment, measured by qPCR. Using in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry, we further discovered that the morphology of the histaminergic and dopaminergic neurons and networks in the larval zebrafish brain was unaffected by both the 10-min and a longer 30-min treatment. The results suggest that acute ethanol rapidly decreases dopamine levels, and activates both forms or th to replenish the dopamine stores within 30 minutes. The dynamic changes in histaminergic and dopaminergic system enzymes occured in the same cells which normally express the transcripts. As both dopamine and histamine are known to be involved in the behavioural effects of ethanol and locomotor stimulation, these results suggest that rapid adaptations of these networks are associated with altered locomotor activity.

  5. Obinutuzumab for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioufol, Catherine; Salles, Gilles

    2014-10-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a frequent hematological malignancy that is incurable using standard approaches. Two anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAb), rituximab and ofatumumab, have been approved for CLL treatment. A new glycoengineered type II humanized anti-CD20 mAb, obinutuzumab (GA101), has been developed and demonstrates increased activity against B-cell malignancies by inducing direct cell death and better antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. In a recent randomized Phase III study in patients with newly diagnosed CLL and coexisting conditions, obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil demonstrated significant improvement in progression-free survival and several other outcome parameters, in contrast to rituximab plus chlorambucil. Grade 3-4 infusion-related reactions and neutropenia occurred more frequently in patients who received obinutuzumab compared with those who received rituximab; however, the rate of serious infections was similar. Obinutuzumab represents a promising new option for patients with CLL and must be investigated with other chemotherapy regimens or with new targeted agents.

  6. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Marina; Wierda, William G.; Ferrajoli, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Patients with purine analogue-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have short survival and limited treatment options. Defining the best salvage strategies for this population is challenging, because limited data are available from clinical trials, and because studies have enrolled mixed populations (patients with recurrent and refractory disease or patients with refractory disease and Richter transformation). Moreover, patients with refractory CLL have a high incidence of unfavorable molecular and clinical features, such as high-risk genomic profiles, unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes, expression of zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70, and bulky lymphadenopathies. These patients are also severely immunosuppressed because of the underlying disease and the treatments received, and experience a high rate of infectious complications that pose an additional difficulty in selecting treatment. Despite these challenges, in parallel with better characterizations of the biologic features of refractory CLL, the number of available treatment modalities for this population has increased. Several chemoimmunotherapy combinations have been developed, and novel agents with a different mechanism of action are being investigated in clinical trials. Furthermore, allogeneic stem cell transplantation with nonmyeloablative conditioning regimens is a therapeutic strategy that is increasingly offered to patients with refractory CLL. PMID:19536902

  7. Lymphocytic hypophysitis masquerading as pituitary adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Mittal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pituitary hypophysitis (PH is characterized by pituitary infiltration of lymphocytes, macrophages, and plasma cells that could lead to loss of pituitary function. Hypophysitis may be autoimmune or secondary to systemic diseases or infections. Based on the histopathological findings PH is classified into lymphocytic, granulomatous, xanthomatous, mixed forms (lymphogranulomatous, xanthogranulomatous, necrotizing and Immunoglobulin- G4 (IgG4 plasmacytic types. Objective: To report a case of lymphocytic hypophysitis (LH. Case Report: A 15-year-old girl presented with history of headache, amenorrhea, and history of polyuria for past 4 months. Initial evaluation had suppressed follicular stimulating hormone (<0.01 mIU/ml, high prolactin levels (110.85 ng/ml and diabetes insipidus (DI. Magnetic resonance imaging of sella was suggestive of pituitary macroadenoma with partial compression over optic chiasma. Patient underwent surgical decompression. Yellowish firm tissue was evacuated and xanthochromic fluid was aspirated. Histopathology was suggestive of LH. She resumed her cycles postoperatively after 4 months, prolactin levels normalized, however, she continues to have DI and is on desmopressin spray. This case has been presented here for its rare presentation in an adolescent girl because it is mostly seen in young females and postpartum period and its unique presentation as an expanding pituitary mass with optic chiasma compression. Conclusion: Definitive diagnosis of LH is based on histopathological evaluation. Therapeutic approach should be based on the grade of suspicion and clinical manifestations of LH.

  8. A Polysaccharide isolated from the liquid culture of Lentinus edodes (Shiitake) mushroom mycelia containing black rice bran protects mice against salmonellosis through upregulation of the Th1 immune reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Phil; Park, Sun Ok; Lee, Sang Jong; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2014-03-19

    The present study investigated the antibacterial effect of a bioprocessed polysaccharide (BPP) isolated from Lentinus edodes liquid mycelial culture supplemented with black rice bran against murine salmonellosis. BPP was not bactericidal in vitro, it did, however, stimulate uptake of the bacteria into RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells, as indicated by increased colony-forming unit (CFU) counts of the contents of the lysed macrophages incubated with Salmonella Typhimurium for 30 and 60 min. Two hours postinfection, the bacterial counts drastically increased in the macrophages, but 4 and 8 h postinfection BPP extract-treated cells showed lower bacterial counts than the vehicle (saline phosphate pH 7.4 buffer, PBS)-treated control. BPP elicited altered morphology and markedly elevated inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) mRNA and protein expression in the infected macrophage cells. BPP also activated leukocytes in S. Typhimurium-infected mice, as determined by spleen lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ levels in mice sera. ELISA analysis on cytokine production by Th1 and Th2 immune cells from splenocytes of infected mice showed significant increases in the levels of the following Th1 cytokines: IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-12. Histology assays of the livers of mice infected with a sublethal dose (1 × 10(4) CFU) of S. Typhimurium showed that BPP, administered daily through an intraperitoneal (ip) or oral route, protected against necrosis of the liver, a biomarker of in vivo salmonellosis. The lifespan of mice similarly infected with a lethal dose of S. Typhimurium (1 × 10(5) CFU) was significantly extended by ip injection or oral administration of the BPP without side effects. These results suggest that the activity of BPP against bacterial infection in mice occurs mainly through the activation of macrophage-mediated immune response resulting from augmented Th1 immunity. The significance of the results for microbial food safety and human health and further

  9. Initiation of lymphocyte DNA synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, F D; Fresa, K L; Cohen, S

    1991-01-01

    The initiation of DNA replication in T lymphocytes appears to be regulated by two distinct activities: one associated with proliferation which mediates initiation, and another associated with quiescence which blocks initiation. Activated lymphocytes and proliferating lymphoid cell lines produce an activity, termed ADR, which can initiate DNA replication in isolated, quiescent nuclei. ADR is heat-labile, has protease activity or interacts closely with a protease, and is distinct from the DNA polymerases. ADR activity is absent in quiescent lymphocytes and appears in mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes after IL-2 binding. The generation of active ADR appears to be mediated by phosphorylation of a precursor which is present in resting cells. Nuclei from mitogen-unresponsive lymphocytes fail to initiate DNA replication in response to ADR, of potential importance in the age-related decline of immunity. Quiescent lymphocytes lack ADR and synthesize an ADR-inhibitory activity. The ADR inhibitor is a heat-stable protein which suppresses the initiation of DNA synthesis, but is ineffective at suppressing elongation once DNA strand replication has begun. Nuclei from several neoplastic cell lines fail to respond to the ADR inhibitor, which may play a role in the continuous proliferation of these cells. At least one of these neoplastic cell lines produces both ADR and an inhibitory factor. These findings suggest that the regulation of proliferation is dependent on the balance between activating and inhibitory pathways.

  10. FEATURES OF IMMUNE RESPONSE AMONG MAJOR LYMPHOCYTE SUBPOPULATIONS FROM PERIPHERAL BLOOD DURING EXACERBATION OF CHRONIC GASTRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Matveeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify and evaluate the features of immune response for main subpopulations of peripheral blood lymphocytes during exacerbation of chronic gastritis, depending on the severity of gastric mucosal atrophy. A comprehensive survey of 122 patients with acute exacerbation of chronic gastritis was performed. The patients with chronic focal-atrophic and atrophic gastritis in acute stage were characterized by increased numbers of CD3+ lymphocytes, CD4+, CD8+ and CD16+ cell populations, decreased CD19+ lymphocyte counts in peripheral blood. During exacerbation of non-atrophic gastritis, an increase of CD4+ and CD16+ cell counts was associated with a decrease in the CD8+ and CD19+ lymphocytes. A concomitant increase in CD4+ cell numbers, as well as elevated IL-2 and IFNγ levels in peripheral blood of patients may reflect activation of cellular immunity, which could be induced by the dysplasia of gastric mucosa and co-infection with Helicobacter/herpesvirus. Domination of increased IL-2 and IFNγ over IL-4 and IL-10 levels suggests the Th1-profile of cellular immune response. Upon exacerbation of non-atrophic gastritis, the immunoregulatory index exceeded the values of clinically healthy subjects and those of patients with atrophic gastritis. We observed statistically significant differences for CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD19+ lymphocytes, immunoregulatory index, and serum levels of IL-2, depending on presence and severity of gastric mucosal atrophy. 

  11. Decreased gut microbiota diversity, delayed Bacteroidetes colonisation and reduced Th1 responses in infants delivered by caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Hedvig E; Abrahamsson, Thomas R; Jenmalm, Maria C; Harris, Keith; Quince, Christopher; Jernberg, Cecilia; Björkstén, Bengt; Engstrand, Lars; Andersson, Anders F

    2014-04-01

    The early intestinal microbiota exerts important stimuli for immune development, and a reduced microbial exposure as well as caesarean section (CS) has been associated with the development of allergic disease. Here we address how microbiota development in infants is affected by mode of delivery, and relate differences in colonisation patterns to the maturation of a balanced Th1/Th2 immune response. The postnatal intestinal colonisation pattern was investigated in 24 infants, born vaginally (15) or by CS (nine). The intestinal microbiota were characterised using pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes at 1 week and 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after birth. Venous blood levels of Th1- and Th2-associated chemokines were measured at 6, 12 and 24 months. Infants born through CS had lower total microbiota diversity during the first 2 years of life. CS delivered infants also had a lower abundance and diversity of the Bacteroidetes phylum and were less often colonised with the Bacteroidetes phylum. Infants born through CS had significantly lower levels of the Th1-associated chemokines CXCL10 and CXCL11 in blood. CS was associated with a lower total microbial diversity, delayed colonisation of the Bacteroidetes phylum and reduced Th1 responses during the first 2 years of life.

  12. C5a regulates IL-12+ DC migration to induce pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells in sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It is well known that complement system C5a is excessively activated during the onset of sepsis. However, it is unclear whether C5a can regulate dentritic cells (DCs to stimulate adaptive immune cells such as Th1 and Th17 in sepsis. METHODS: Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP. CLP-induced sepsis was treated with anti-C5a or IL-12. IL-12(+DC, IFNγ(+Th1, and IL-17(+Th17 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. IL-12 was measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Our studies here showed that C5a induced IL-12(+DC cell migration from the peritoneal cavity to peripheral blood and lymph nodes. Furthermore, IL-12(+DC cells induced the expansion of pathogenic IFNγ(+Th1 and IL-17(+Th17 cells in peripheral blood and lymph nodes. Moreover, IL-12, secreted by DC cells in the peritoneal cavity, is an important factor that prevents the development of sepsis. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that C5a regulates IL-12(+DC cell migration to induce pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells in sepsis.

  13. Th1 Cell Development Induced by Cysteine Proteinases A and B in Localized Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Due to Leishmania guyanensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascalis, Hervé; Lavergne, Anne; Bourreau, Eliane; Prévot-Linguet, Ghislaine; Kariminia, Amina; Pradinaud, Roger; Rafati, Sima; Launois, Pascal

    2003-01-01

    The cysteine proteinases CPA and CPB from Leishmania major induced Th1 responses in patients with leishmaniasis due to Leishmania guyanensis. Furthermore, cysteine proteinases induced neither interleukin 4 (IL-4) nor IL-13 and low levels of IL-10 in controls and patients. The results suggest that CPs would be quite good candidates for a vaccine against different Leishmania species. PMID:12704171

  14. Lactobacillus Acidophilus Strain L-92 Regulates the Production of Th1 Cytokine as well as Th2 Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Torii

    2007-01-01

    Conclusions: Oral L-92 administration regulated both Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses, suppressed serum OVA-specific IgE, and induced TGF-β production in PPs. TGF-β is known to be associated with activation of regulatory T (Treg cells. These data suggest that LAB may have immunomodulative effect by Treg cells via TGF-β activity.

  15. Lymphocyte recruitment to the liver in alcoholic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydon, Geoffrey; Lalor, Patricia F; Hubscher, Stefan G; Adams, David H

    2002-05-01

    The normal liver contains a large number of lymphocytes, which include not only specialized natural killer (NK) and NKT cells but also CD4 and CD8 T cells. Whereas some of these cells are terminally differentiated effector cells that are destined to die by apoptosis, many of them are not and include immunocompetent cells that traffic through the liver to provide continuing immune surveillance as well as epithelial-associated effector T cells. In alcoholic liver disease the number of lymphocytes in the liver increases and the type and distribution of these infiltrating cells will determine the nature of the inflammation. For instance, a predominance of parenchymal inflammation is a feature of alcoholic hepatitis, whereas a predominantly portal infiltrate is a feature of cirrhosis. In this article we discuss the molecular mechanisms that regulate the entry of lymphocytes to the inflamed liver in alcoholic hepatitis. Lymphocytes play a critical role in regulating the immune/inflammatory response to alcohol, and understanding how these cells are recruited to the liver has important implications for understanding the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease in which parenchymal infiltration is a critical determinant of disease progression. Aberrant recruitment and retention of lymphocytes in the liver may explain why some patients with alcoholic liver disease show progressive inflammatory damage whereas in others the disease takes a more indolent course. Similarly, leukocyte recruitment may present new therapeutic targets in which lymphocyte recruitment to the specific liver compartments can be inhibited, thereby minimizing tissue damage whilst leaving generalized lymphocyte recirculation intact. Potentially the most exciting potential is to modulate the nature of the lymphocyte subsets recruited to the liver, so that harmful cells are excluded and beneficial subsets are preferentially recruited.

  16. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte clones, established by stimulation with the HLA-A2 binding p5365-73 wild type peptide loaded on dendritic cells In vitro, specifically recognize and lyse HLA-A2 tumour cells overexpressing the p53 protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Annette Malene; Petersen, T R; Kirkin, A F

    2000-01-01

    Mutations in the tumour suppressor gene p53 are among the most frequent genetic alterations in human malignancies, often associated with an accumulation of the p53 protein in the cytoplasm. We have generated a number of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones that specifically recognize the HLA-A*0201...... of recognizing p53 derived wild type (self) peptides. Furthermore, the capacity of R9V specific T cell clones to exert HLA restricted cytotoxicity, argues that the R9V peptide is naturally presented on certain cancer cells. This supports the view that p53 derived wild type peptides might serve as candidate...

  17. Vitamin D Counteracts Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Induced Cathelicidin Downregulation in Dendritic Cells and Allows Th1 Differentiation and IFNγ Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. O. Rode

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB presents a serious health problem with approximately one-third of the world’s population infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a latent state. Experience from the pre-antibiotic era and more recent clinical studies have established a beneficial role of sunlight and vitamin D in patients with TB. At the same time, experimental data have shown that Th1 cells through production of IFNγ are crucial for cathelicidin release by macrophages, bacterial killing, and containment of M. tuberculosis in granulomas. Paradoxically, vitamin D has repeatedly been ascribed an immune-suppressive function inhibiting Th1 differentiation and production of IFNγ in T cells. The aim of this study was to investigate this apparent paradox. We studied naïve human CD4+ T cells activated either with CD3 and CD28 antibodies or with allogeneic dendritic cells (DC stimulated with heat-killed M. tuberculosis (HKMT or purified toll-like receptor (TLR ligands. We show that vitamin D does not block differentiation of human CD4+ T cells to Th1 cells and that interleukin (IL-12 partially counteracts vitamin D-mediated inhibition of IFNγ production promoting production of equal amounts of IFNγ in Th1 cells in the presence of vitamin D as in T cells activated in the absence of vitamin D and IL-12. Furthermore, we show that HKMT and TLR2 ligands strongly downregulate cathelicidin expression in DC and that vitamin D counteracts this by upregulating cathelicidin expression. In conclusion, we demonstrate that vitamin D counteracts M. tuberculosis-induced cathelicidin downregulation and allows Th1 differentiation and IFNγ secretion.

  18. Assessment of a One-Step Intracellular Staining in Th1, Th2 and Th17 Cells of Clinical Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xianghua; Luo, Xiaohong; Wang, Ying; Wu, Qiuju; Xiao, Wangxian; Lin, Dijing; Duan, Chaohui

    2015-01-01

    Flow cytometry is a potent tool to dissect the phenotypes and functions of cell subsets by measuring multiple parameters on a single-cell basis. However, intracellular staining may be time consuming and more steps, particularly in cytokines, could be problematic for its use in daily routine or in large cohort testing. Lately, a novel reagent has been developed to perform intracellular staining in one step. The objective of our study was thus to assess this new method in comparison with the reference technique by focusing on CD4+ T-cell subsets such as Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells in clinical samples. Peripheral blood was collected from 10 children with aplastic anemia and 10 healthy volunteers and stained using the reference and one-step methods. Different subsets of CD4+ T-cells, which are defined as Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells, were investigated by flow cytometry. The repetitive experiment was designed to study intraassay precision. Correlations were studied using Pearson's correlation coefficient test. When comparing results obtained with the two techniques, no statistical differences between the percentages of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells were observed. Besides, a nice correlation between percentages of Th1 cells obtained with the two different methods was identified in the global population (r: 0.777, p cells (r: 0.875, p cells (r: 0.886, p step procedures. Importantly, flow cytometry staining obtained with the one-step method was very robust with a nice intra-assay precision and a better discriminative power and repeatability. With better staining quality and a shorter realization time, one-step intracellular staining may provide an efficient way for daily routine testing of Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells, as well as for further research.

  19. Dimethyl Fumarate Selectively Reduces Memory T Cells and Shifts the Balance between Th1/Th17 and Th2 in Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi; Wang, Qin; Mao, Guangmei; Dowling, Catherine A; Lundy, Steven K; Mao-Draayer, Yang

    2017-04-15

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF; trade name Tecfidera) is an oral formulation of the fumaric acid ester that is Food and Drug Administration approved for treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. To better understand the therapeutic effects of Tecfidera and its rare side effect of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, we conducted cross-sectional and longitudinal studies by immunophenotyping cells from peripheral blood (particularly T lymphocytes) derived from untreated and 4-6 and 18-26 mo Tecfidera-treated stable relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients using multiparametric flow cytometry. The absolute numbers of CD4 and CD8 T cells were significantly decreased and the CD4/CD8 ratio was increased with DMF treatment. The proportions of both effector memory T cells and central memory T cells were reduced, whereas naive T cells increased in treated patients. T cell activation was reduced with DMF treatment, especially among effector memory T cells and effector memory RA T cells. Th subsets Th1 (CXCR3 + ), Th17 (CCR6 + ), and particularly those expressing both CXCR3 and CD161 were reduced most significantly, whereas the anti-inflammatory Th2 subset (CCR3 + ) was increased after DMF treatment. A corresponding increase in IL-4 and decrease in IFN-γ and IL-17-expressing CD4 + T cells were observed in DMF-treated patients. DMF in vitro treatment also led to increased T cell apoptosis and decreased activation, proliferation, reactive oxygen species, and CCR7 expression. Our results suggest that DMF acts on specific memory and effector T cell subsets by limiting their survival, proliferation, activation, and cytokine production. Monitoring these subsets could help to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DMF treatment. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. Toll-Like Receptor 9 Is Required for Full Host Resistance to Mycobacterium avium Infection but Plays No Role in Induction of Th1 Responses▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Natália B.; Oliveira, Fernanda S.; Durães, Fernanda V.; de Almeida, Leonardo A.; Flórido, Manuela; Prata, Luana O.; Caliari, Marcelo V.; Appelberg, Rui; Oliveira, Sérgio C.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the role of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in innate immunity to Mycobacterium avium, TLR9, TLR2, and MyD88 knockout (KO) mice were infected with this bacterium. Bacterial burdens were higher in the spleens, livers, and lungs of infected TLR9 KO mice than in those of C57BL/6 mice, indicating that TLR9 is required for efficient control of M. avium infection. However, TLR9 KO or TLR2 KO spleen cells displayed normal M. avium-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) responses. This finding was confirmed by determining the number of splenic CD4+ T cells producing IFN-γ by flow cytometry. Furthermore, TLR2 and MyD88, but not TLR9, played a major role in interleukin-12 and TNF-α production by M. avium-infected macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). We also found that major histocompatibility complex class II molecule expression on DCs is regulated by TLR2 and MyD88 signaling but not by TLR9. Finally, lack of TLR9, TLR2, or MyD88 reduced the numbers of macrophages, epithelioid cells, and lymphocytes in M. avium-induced granulomas but only MyD88 deficiency affected the number of liver granulomas. In summary, our data demonstrated that the involvement of TLR9 in the control of M. avium infection is not related to the induction of Th1 responses. PMID:21300776

  1. Innate PI3K p110δ regulates Th1/Th17 development and microbiota-dependent colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Erin C; Kobayashi, Taku; Russo, Steven M; Sheikh, Shehzad Z; Gipson, Gregory R; Kennedy, Samantha T; Uno, Jennifer K; Mishima, Yoshiyuki; Borst, Luke B; Liu, Bo; Herfarth, Hans; Ting, Jenny P Y; Sartor, R Balfour; Plevy, Scott E

    2014-04-15

    The p110δ subunit of class IA PI3K modulates signaling in innate immune cells. We previously demonstrated that mice harboring a kinase-dead p110δ subunit (p110δ(KD)) develop spontaneous colitis. Macrophages contributed to the Th1/Th17 cytokine bias in p110δ(KD) mice through increased IL-12 and IL-23 expression. In this study, we show that the enteric microbiota is required for colitis development in germfree p110δ(KD) mice. Colonic tissue and macrophages from p110δ(KD) mice produce significantly less IL-10 compared with wild-type mice. p110δ(KD) APCs cocultured with naive CD4+ Ag-specific T cells also produce significantly less IL-10 and induce more IFN-γ- and IL-17A-producing CD4+ T cells compared with wild-type APCs. Illustrating the importance of APC-T cell interactions in colitis pathogenesis in vivo, Rag1(-/-)/p110δ(KD) mice develop mild colonic inflammation and produced more colonic IL-12p40 compared with Rag1(-/-) mice. However, CD4+ CD45RB(high/low) T cell Rag1(-/-)/p110δ(KD) recipient mice develop severe colitis with increased percentages of IFN-γ- and IL-17A-producing lamina propria CD3+D4+ T cells compared with Rag1(-/-) recipient mice. Intestinal tissue samples from patients with Crohn's disease reveal significantly lower expression of PIK3CD compared with intestinal samples from non-inflammatory bowel disease control subjects (p < 0.05). PIK3CD expression inversely correlates with the ratio of IL12B:IL10 expression. In conclusion, the PI3K subunit p110δ controls homeostatic APC-T cell interactions by altering the balance between IL-10 and IL-12/23. Defects in p110δ expression and/or function may underlie the pathogenesis of human inflammatory bowel disease and lead to new therapeutic strategies.

  2. Lymphocyte recovery after breast cancer treatment and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengacher, Cecile A; Kip, Kevin E; Post-White, Janice; Fitzgerald, Shirley; Newton, Cathy; Barta, Michelle; Jacobsen, Paul B; Shelton, Melissa M; Moscoso, Manolete; Johnson-Mallard, Versie; Harris, Eleanor; Loftus, Loretta; Cox, Charles; Le, Nancy; Goodman, Matthew; Djeu, Julie; Widen, Raymond H; Bercu, Barry B; Klein, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial was conducted to examine immune recovery following breast cancer (BC) therapy and evaluate the effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction therapy (MBSR) on immune recovery with emphasis on lymphocyte subsets, T cell activation, and production of T-helper 1 (Th1; interferon [IFN]-γ) and T-helper 2 (Th2; interleukin-4 [IL-4]) cytokines. Participants who completed the study consisted of 82 patients diagnosed with Stage 0-III BC, who received lumpectomy and adjuvant radiation ± chemotherapy. Patients were randomized into an MBSR(BC) intervention program or a control (usual care) group. Immune cell measures were assessed at baseline and within 2 weeks after the 6-week intervention. The numbers and percentages of lymphocyte subsets, activated T cells, and Th1 and Th2 cells in peripheral blood samples were determined by immunostaining and flow cytometry. Immune subset recovery after cancer treatment showed positive associations with time since treatment completion. The B and natural killer (NK) cells were more susceptible than T cells in being suppressed by cancer treatment. Women who received MBSR(BC) had T cells more readily activated by the mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and an increase in the Th1/Th2 ratio. Activation was also higher for the MBSR(BC) group if <12 weeks from the end of treatment and women in MBSR(BC) <12 weeks had higher T cell count for CD4(+). MBSR(BC) promotes a more rapid recovery of functional T cells capable of being activated by a mitogen with the Th1 phenotype, whereas substantial recovery of B and NK cells after completion of cancer treatment appears to occur independent of stress-reducing interventions.

  3. Reactivity of eleven anti-human leucocyte monoclonal antibodies with lymphocytes from several domestic animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasted, Bent; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete; Larsen, Else Bang

    1988-01-01

    Nine commercially available monoclonal antibodies and two monoclonal antibodies from The American Type Culture Collection, raised against various human leucocyte surface antigens, were tested on lymphocytes from cow, sheep, goat, swine, horse, cat, dog, mink, and rabbit as well as man. Four...... antibodies bound to lymphocytes from some of the animals. These were the antibodies against CD8 and CD4 antigen, the antibody to C3b-receptor, and the antibody to the HLA-DR antigen. The CD8 antigen-reactive antibody reacted with lymphocytes from mink, cat, dog, and sheep, while the CD4 antigen......-reactive antibody reacted with lymphocytes from mink. The anti-C3b-R antibody reacted with lymphocytes from horse, swine, dog, and cat, and the anti-HLA-DR reacted with lymphocytes from cow, goat, sheep, horse, dog, cat, and mink....

  4. A novel recombinant Leishmania donovani p45, a partial coding region of methionine aminopeptidase, generates protective immunity by inducing a Th1 stimulatory response against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Reema; Kushawaha, Pramod K; Tripathi, Chandra Dev Pati; Sundar, Shyam; Dube, Anuradha

    2012-05-01

    The development of a vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) conferring long-lasting immunity remains a challenge. Identification and proteomic characterization of parasite proteins led to the detection of p45, a member of the methionine aminopeptidase family. To our knowledge the present study is the first known report that describes the molecular and immunological characterization of p45. Recombinant Leishmania donovani p45 (rLdp45) induced cellular responses in cured hamsters and generated Th1-type cytokines from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of cured/endemic VL patients. Immunization with rLdp45 exerted considerable prophylactic efficacy (∼85%) supported by an increase in mRNA expression of iNOS, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-12 and decrease in TGF-β and IL-4, indicating its potential as a vaccine candidate against VL. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Complement receptors type 1 (CR1, CD35) and 2 (CR2, CD21) cooperate in the binding of hydrolyzed complement factor 3 (C3i) to human B lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leslie, Robert Graham Quinton; Prodinger, Wolfgang Maria; Nielsen, Claus Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The C3b-binding receptor, CR1/CD35, supports CR2/CD21-mediated activation of complement by human B lymphocytes, possibly by associating with CR2 to promote or stabilize the binding of hydrolyzed C3 (C3i), the primary component of the AP convertase, C3i-Bb. To evaluate this hypothesis, we examined...... the uptake kinetics and binding equilibria for C3i dimer interaction with human blood cells in the absence and presence of CR1- and CR2-blocking mAb. C3i displayed dual uptake kinetics to B lymphocytes, comprising of rapid binding to CR1 and slower binding to CR2. The forward rate constants (k(1)) for CR1...... and CR2, operating independently, differed ca. 9-fold (k(1)=193+/-9.4 and 22.2+/-6.0 x 10(3) M(-1)s(-1), respectively). Equilibrium binding of C3i to B lymphocytes was also complex, varying in strength by ca. 13-fold over the C3i concentration range examined. The maximum association constant (K(a, max...

  6. Lymphocyte subsets, dendritic cells and cytokine profiles in mice with melanoma treated with Uncaria tomentosa

    OpenAIRE

    Lozada-Requena, Iván; Laboratorio de Inmunología. Departamento de Ciencias Celulares y Moleculares. Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. EMINDES SAC (empresa de investigación y desarrollo en cáncer). Lima, Perú.; Núñez, César; Laboratorio de Inmunología. Departamento de Ciencias Celulares y Moleculares. Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. EMINDES SAC (empresa de investigación y desarrollo en cáncer). Lima, Perú.; Alvárez, Yubell; Laboratorio de Inmunología. Departamento de Ciencias Celulares y Moleculares. Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.; Kahn, Laura; Laboratorio de Inmunología. Departamento de Ciencias Celulares y Moleculares. Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.; Aguilar, José; Laboratorio de Inmunología. Departamento de Ciencias Celulares y Moleculares. Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the immunomodulatory effect on lymphocyte subsets, dendritic cells (DC), Th1 / Th2 / Th17 and inflammatory cytokines on systemic level and/or in the tumor microenvironment of mice with or without melanoma. Materials and methods: Peripheral blood and/or primary tumors samples were obtained of mice with B16 melanoma treated or not with a hydroalcoholic extract of Uncaria tomentosa (UT) with 5.03% of pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids (UT-POA) obtained from the bark of the pl...

  7. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... al. Clinical manifestations and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children. In: Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 6th ed. ... National Cancer Institute. http://www.cancer.gov/types/leukemia/patient/child-all-treatment-pdq#section/all. Accessed June 5, ...

  8. Long-Lasting Effects of BCG Vaccination on Both Heterologous Th1/Th17 Responses and Innate Trained Immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinnijenhuis, Johanneke; Quintin, Jessica; Preijers, Frank

    2013-01-01

    We have recently shown that BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccination in healthy volunteers induces epigenetic reprogramming of monocytes, leading to increased cytokine production in response to nonrelated pathogens for up to 3 months after vaccination. This phenomenon was named 'trained immunity......'. In the present study we assessed whether BCG was able to induce long-lasting effects on both trained immunity and heterologous T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 immune responses 1 year after vaccination. The production of TNFα and IL-1β to mycobacteria or unrelated pathogens was higher after 2 weeks and 3 months...... in proinflammatory cytokine production after stimulation with the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide. The heterologous production of Th1 (IFN-γ) and Th17 (IL-17 and IL-22) immune responses to nonmycobacterial stimulation remained strongly elevated even 1 year after BCG vaccination. In conclusion, BCG induces sustained...

  9. Correlation of body mass index with Th1/Th2 balance, adhesion molecules and insulin signal transduction in infertile patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Juan Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of body mass index with Th1/Th2 balance, adhesion molecules and insulin signal transduction in infertile patients. Methods: A total of 132 patients who received diagnostic curettage due to infertility in Tangshan Maternal and Child Health Hospital between June 2015 and March 2016 were selected as the research subjects and divided into the normal group with BMI 30 kg/m 2 according to BMI, and the levels of Th1/ Th2 cytokines in serum as well as the expression of Th1/Th2 transcription factors, adhesion molecules and insulin signal pathway molecules in endometrial tissue were detected. Results: IFN-γ and TNF-α levels in serum of obesity group and overweight group were significantly higher than those of control group while IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 levels in serum as well as CD44V6, N-cadherin, FAK, ICAM-1, GLUT-4, IRS-1, PI3K and AKT mRNA expression in endometrial tissue were significantly lower than those of control group; IFN-γ and TNF-α levels in serum of obesity group were significantly higher than those of overweight group while IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 levels in serum as well as CD44V6, N-cadherin, FAK, ICAM-1, GLUT-4, IRS-1, PI3K and AKT mRNA expression in endometrial tissue were significantly lower than those of overweight group. Conclusion: Weight gain can aggravate the Th1/Th2 disorder, reduce the adhesion molecule expression and hinder the insulin signal transduction in infertile patients.

  10. Host Th1/Th2 immune response to Taenia solium cyst antigens in relation to cyst burden of neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharmalingam, J; Prabhakar, A T; Gangadaran, P; Dorny, P; Vercruysse, J; Geldhof, P; Rajshekhar, V; Alexander, M; Oommen, A

    2016-10-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), Taenia solium larval infection of the brain, is an important cause of acquired seizures in endemic countries, which relate to number, location and degenerating cysts in the brain. Multicyst infections are common in endemic countries although single-cyst infection prevails in India. Single-cyst infections in an endemic country suggest a role for host immunity limiting the infection. This study examined ex vivo CD4(+) T cells and in vitro Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses to T. solium cyst antigens of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy subjects from endemic and nonendemic regions and of single- and multicyst-infected patients for association with cyst burden of NCC. T. solium cyst antigens elicited a Th1 cytokine response in healthy subjects of T. solium-endemic and T. solium-non-endemic regions and those with single-cyst infections and a Th2 cytokine response from subjects with multicyst neurocysticercosis. Multicyst neurocysticercosis subjects also exhibited low levels of effector memory CD4(+) T cells. Th1 cytokine response of T. solium exposure and low infectious loads may aid in limiting cyst number. Th2 cytokines and low effector T cells may enable multiple-cyst infections to establish and persist. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Serum levels of Th1/Th2 cytokines in aged patients and their correlation with eczema development and clinical manifestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Gang Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate variations of Th1/Th2 cytokine levels, as well as their correlation with eczema development and clinical manifestation in aged patients. Methods: A total of 92 patients (above 60 years old with eczema diagnosed by the outpatient department of dermatology and venerology of our hospital were included as the eczema group, while 60 aged patients without eczema as the healthy group. Patients' serum levels of Th1/Th2 cytokines were examined for inter-group comparison and stratified analysis as per clinical manifestation. Results: Serum levels of interleukin (IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF- α and interferon (IFN- γ were all significantly higher in patients of the eczema group than the healthy group. Acute stage levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ were significantly higher in patients of the eczema group than the healthy group. There was no significant difference in the levels of IL-12 and TNF-α between patients of the acute stage and those of the chronic stage. And no significant difference existed in the levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α and IFN-γ between generalized and localized eczema patients. Conclusion: Compared with the healthy population, Th1/Th2 cytokine levels are significantly different in eczema patients, especially those in the acute stage.

  12. Long-lasting effects of BCG vaccination on both heterologous Th1/Th17 responses and innate trained immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinnijenhuis, Johanneke; Quintin, Jessica; Preijers, Frank; Benn, Christine Stabell; Joosten, Leo A B; Jacobs, Cor; van Loenhout, Joke; Xavier, Ramnik J; Aaby, Peter; van der Meer, Jos W M; van Crevel, Reinout; Netea, Mihai G

    2014-01-01

    We have recently shown that BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccination in healthy volunteers induces epigenetic reprogramming of monocytes, leading to increased cytokine production in response to nonrelated pathogens for up to 3 months after vaccination. This phenomenon was named 'trained immunity'. In the present study we assessed whether BCG was able to induce long-lasting effects on both trained immunity and heterologous T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 immune responses 1 year after vaccination. The production of TNFα and IL-1β to mycobacteria or unrelated pathogens was higher after 2 weeks and 3 months postvaccination, but these effects were less pronounced 1 year after vaccination. However, monocytes recovered 1 year after vaccination had an increased expression of pattern recognition receptors such as CD14, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and mannose receptor, and this correlated with an increase in proinflammatory cytokine production after stimulation with the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide. The heterologous production of Th1 (IFN-γ) and Th17 (IL-17 and IL-22) immune responses to nonmycobacterial stimulation remained strongly elevated even 1 year after BCG vaccination. In conclusion, BCG induces sustained changes in the immune system associated with a nonspecific response to infections both at the level of innate trained immunity and at the level of heterologous Th1/Th17 responses. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Effects of Pristane Alone or Combined with Chloroquine on Macrophage Activation, Oxidative Stress, and Th1/Th2 Skewness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiufang Ouyang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective role of chloroquine against pristane-induced macrophage activation, oxidative stress, and Th1/Th2 skewness in C57BL/6J mice. Those mice were treated with pristane alone or combined with chloroquine. Hematological and biochemical parameters, macrophage phagocytic function, the oxidant/antioxidant index, cytokine for IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-6, and the isotypes of IgG2a and IgG1 were determined. And the expression of T-bet/GATA-3 and IL-12/IL-10 mRNA in spleen were analyzed by real-time PCR. We found that pristane treatment for a period of 12 or 24 weeks triggered macrophage activation syndrome, characterized by hemophagocytosis in spleen and peripheral blood, enhanced lipid phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages in vitro, erythropenia and leucopenia, increased anti-Smith, lactic dehydrogenase, triglyceride, and ferritin, as well as hypercytokinemia of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-6. In parallel, a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and a decrease in superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and catalase activity, as well as a skewed Th1/Th2 balance in spleen, were observed. However, chloroquine supplementation showed a remarkable amelioration of these abnormalities. Our data indicate that pristane administration induces macrophage activation, oxidative stress, and Th1/Th2 skewness, which can be attenuated by chloroquine.

  14. Inorganic arsenic represses interleukin-17A expression in human activated Th17 lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morzadec, Claudie; Macoch, Mélinda; Robineau, Marc; Sparfel, Lydie [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Fardel, Olivier [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Pôle Biologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Rennes, 2 rue Henri Le Guilloux, 35033 Rennes (France); Vernhet, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.vernhet@univ-rennes1.fr [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France)

    2012-08-01

    Trivalent inorganic arsenic [As(III)] is an efficient anticancer agent used to treat patients suffering from acute promyelocytic leukemia. Recently, experimental studies have clearly demonstrated that this metalloid can also cure lymphoproliferative and/or pro-inflammatory syndromes in different murine models of chronic immune-mediated diseases. T helper (Th) 1 and Th17 lymphocytes play a central role in development of these diseases, in mice and humans, especially by secreting the potent pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ and IL-17A, respectively. As(III) impairs basic functions of human T cells but its ability to modulate secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by differentiated Th lymphocytes is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that As(III), used at concentrations clinically achievable in plasma of patients, has no effect on the secretion of interferon-γ from Th1 cells but almost totally blocks the expression and the release of IL-17A from human Th17 lymphocytes co-stimulated for five days with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies, in the presence of differentiating cytokines. In addition, As(III) specifically reduces mRNA levels of the retinoic-related orphan receptor (ROR)C gene which encodes RORγt, a key transcription factor controlling optimal IL-17 expression in fully differentiated Th17 cells. The metalloid also blocks initial expression of IL-17 gene induced by the co-stimulation, probably in part by impairing activation of the JNK/c-Jun pathway. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that As(III) represses expression of the major pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17A produced by human Th17 lymphocytes, thus strengthening the idea that As(III) may be useful to treat inflammatory immune-mediated diseases in humans. -- Highlights: ► Arsenic inhibits secretion of IL-17A from human naïve and memory Th17 lymphocytes. ► Arsenic represses early expression of IL-17A gene in human activated T lymphocytes. ► Arsenic interferes with activation of

  15. Maternal allergen immunisation to prevent sensitisation in offspring: Th2-polarising adjuvants are more efficient than a Th1-polarising adjuvant in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melkild Ingrid

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergy has been an increasing problem in several parts of the world. Prenatal exposure to allergen and microbial components may affect the development of allergies in childhood, as indicated by epidemiological and experimental studies. We investigated the capacity for allergic sensitisation in offspring after induction of a Th1- or a Th2-polarised immune response to the same allergen in mothers during pregnancy. Results During pregnancy, mice were immunised with ovalbumin (OVA given with either one of the Th2-adjuvants pertussis toxin (PT or Al(OH3 (aluminium hydroxide, or with the Th1 adjuvant CpG. Offspring were immunised with OVA in Al(OH3 as young adults. Serum and supernatants from ex vivo stimulated or non-stimulated spleen cells from mothers and offspring were analysed for OVA-specific antibodies and cytokines, respectively. Mothers immunised with OVA together with either Al(OH3 or PT had increased levels of OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 compared to naive mothers, whereas mothers immunised with OVA together with CpG had increased levels of OVA-specific IgG2a compared to naive mothers. In general the highest levels of IL-5, IL-10, and IFNγ were observed in spleen cells from mothers immunised with PT and OVA. Upon immunisation, offspring from mothers immunised with OVA and either PT or Al(OH3 showed reduced levels of OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 and increased levels of OVA-specific IgG2a antibodies compared to offspring from naive mothers. Maternal immunisation with CpG and OVA did not affect antibody responses in offspring. Conclusion Allergic sensitisation in the offspring was affected by the type of adjuvant used for immunisation of the mothers with the same allergen. Th2 polarisation of the immune response in the mothers was found to give reduced IgE levels upon sensitisation of the offspring, whereas no reduction was achieved with Th1 polarisation in the mothers.

  16. Evaluation of Th1 and Th17 cells cytokines in cell culture stimulated in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Varghaiyan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Various immunological abnormalities have been reported in women with RSA of unknown aetiologies including autoimmune abnormalities and increased cellular immunity such as elevated natural killer (NK , Th1 and Th17 cell levels. Th17 and Th1 cells play a central role during inflammation. Th1 cells product cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2 and Th17 cells mainly cytokines IL-17A, F, IL-22. The aim of this study is evaluation of Th1 and Th17 activity in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion. Methods: In this case-control study, 30 women with history of two or more abortion who at least 3 months past after last abortion considered as case group and 30 normal fertile healthy women with at least one delivery as control group. We determined the levels of IL-17A, F and IFN-γ in cell culture supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC stimulated with the mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method and compared in the two groups. The results obtained using the one-sample kolmogorov-smirnov Test, Kruskal-wallis Test and Spearman were analyzed using SPSS 16 software. Results: The level of IFN- γ in case group was significantly higher than control group (186/53±30/41 versus 88/06±21/44 pg/ml, P < 0.005. Also the level of IL-17 A, F in case group was significantly higher than control group (84/74±21/26 versus 28/41±8 pg/ml, P < 0.01. IFN-γ concentration showed positive correlation with IL-17 A, F in case group (P=0.015, r= 0.455. Conclusion: In this study the increased levels of cytokines IFN- γ and IL-17 A, F in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion shows a propensity of pro inflammation via Th17 and Th1 immunity and may be these cells play a pivotal role in rejecting fetus antigens.

  17. Treatment Option Overview (Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Chronic ...

  18. Treatment Options by Stage (Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Chronic ...

  19. General Information about Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Chronic ...

  20. Changes in the adhesive phenotype of regional lymphocytes in rats with adjuvant arthritis: alteration by cyclophosphamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altankov, G; Marinova-Mutafchieva, L; Nikolaeva, N; Penkova, R

    1991-05-01

    A quantitative spectrophotometrical method was used to study the adhesive phenotype of lymphocytes from regional lymph nodes of rats with early stage adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA), pretreated or not with cyclophosphamide (CY). The results showed that adhesion of lymphocytes from AA-sensitized lymph nodes to gelatin and collagens (type I, II, III and IV) was enhanced, especially to collagen type II. However, adhesion to fibronectin and to fibrinogen did not differ from adhesion in nontreated rats. Application of CY was found to aggravate AA development and influence the lymphocytes' adhesiveness. Adhesion was inhibited in all cases except to fibrinogen, where it was augmented, compared to the adhesion in both AA and control groups. Relationships between the lymphocyte adhesive phenotype and the expression of histological changes suggest that lymphocyte-matrix interactions could play an important role in the pathogenesis of AA development and the mechanism of CY action.

  1. Treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrajoli, Alessandra; O'Brien, Susan M

    2004-04-01

    Treatment options for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia have changed over the past two decades. This article reviews the experience accumulated with the use of alkylating agents alone and in combination; purine analogues alone and in combination and monoclonal antibodies such as rituximab, and alemtuzumab alone and in combination. The results obtained with different treatment strategies are summarized, compared, and reviewed.

  2. Absence of Notch1 in murine myeloid cells attenuates the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by affecting Th1 and Th17 priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Miriam; Monsalve, Eva M; López-López, Susana; Ruiz-García, Almudena; Mellado, Susana; Caminos, Elena; García-Ramírez, José Javier; Laborda, Jorge; Tranque, Pedro; Díaz-Guerra, María José M

    2017-12-01

    Inhibition of Notch signalling in T cells attenuates the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Growing evidence indicates that myeloid cells are also key players in autoimmune processes. Thus, the present study evaluates the role of the Notch1 receptor in myeloid cells on the progression of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) 35-55 -induced EAE, using mice with a myeloid-specific deletion of the Notch1 gene (MyeNotch1KO). We found that EAE progression was less severe in the absence of Notch1 in myeloid cells. Thus, histopathological analysis revealed reduced pathology in the spinal cord of MyeNotch1KO mice, with decreased microglia/astrocyte activation, demyelination and infiltration of CD4 + T cells. Moreover, these mice showed lower Th1 and Th17 cell infiltration and expression of IFN-γ and IL-17 mRNA in the spinal cord. Accordingly, splenocytes from MyeNotch1KO mice reactivated in vitro presented reduced Th1 and Th17 activation, and lower expression of IL-12, IL-23, TNF-α, IL-6, and CD86. Moreover, reactivated wild-type splenocytes showed increased Notch1 expression, arguing for a specific involvement of this receptor in autoimmune T cell activation in secondary lymphoid tissues. In summary, our results reveal a key role of the Notch1 receptor in myeloid cells for the initiation and progression of EAE. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Effectors of Th1 and Th17 cells act on astrocytes and augment their neuroinflammatory properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prajeeth, Chittappen K; Kronisch, Julius; Khorooshi, Reza M. H.

    2017-01-01

    , cytokines and chemokines using real-time PCR. Data obtained was analysed using Kruskal- Wallis test. Results: We observed in α4-deficient mice weak microglial activation but comparable astrogliosis to that of wild-type mice in the regions of the brain populated with Th17 infiltrates suggesting that Th17...

  4. The Role of Th1/Th2 Cytokine Balance in Gulf War-Related Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-01

    helper 2 type immune activation in Gulf War veterans with multi-symptom illness Anna Skowera, Matthew Hotopf, EI2bieta Sawicka, Ruben Varela- Calvino ...Ruben Varela- Calvino 1, PhD, Post-doctoral Fellow Catherine Unwin2 , MSc, Study co-ordinator Vasilis Nikolaou 3, MSc, Bio-statistician Lisa Hlull 2

  5. [Immune regulatory effect of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on T lymphocyte].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Xi; Liu, Ting; Meng, Wen-Tong; Zhu, Huan-Ling; Xi, Ya-Ming; Liu, Yong-Mei

    2005-08-01

    To investigate the immune regulatory effects of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on alloantigen T lymphocyte in vitro, human MSCs were isolated and expanded from bone marrow cells, and identified with cell morphology, and the phenotypes were assessed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. As the stimulation factor of T lymphocytes proliferation, either PHA or dendritic cells isolated from cord blood were cocultured with CD2(+) T lymphocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by magnetic beads with or without MSC in 96-well plats for seven days. T cell proliferation was assessed by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation using a liquid scintillation counter. T cell subsets, Th1, Th2, Tc1 and Tc2 were analyzed by flow cytometry after co-culture of CD2(+) T cells with MSCs for 10 days. The results showed that a significant decrease of CD2(+) T cell proliferation was evident when MSC were added back to T cells stimulated by DC or PHA, and an increase of Th2 and Tc2 subsets were observed after co-culture of MSC with T lymphocytes. It is suggested that allogeneic MSC can suppress T cell proliferation in vitro and the cause of that was partly depend on interaction of cells and the alteration of T cell subsets.

  6. B lymphocytes as direct antigen-presenting cells for anti-tumor DNA vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colluru, Viswa Teja; McNeel, Douglas G.

    2016-01-01

    In spite of remarkable preclinical efficacy, DNA vaccination has demonstrated low immunogenicity in humans. While efforts have focused on increasing cross-presentation of DNA-encoded antigens, efforts to increase DNA vaccine immunogenicity by targeting direct presentation have remained mostly unexplored. In these studies, we compared the ability of different APCs to present antigen to T cells after simple co-culture with plasmid DNA. We found that human primary peripheral B lymphocytes, and not monocytes or in vitro derived dendritic cells (DCs), were able to efficiently encode antigen mRNA and expand cognate tumor antigen-specific CD8 T cells ex vivo. Similarly, murine B lymphocytes co-cultured with plasmid DNA, and not DCs, were able to prime antigen-specific T cells in vivo. Moreover, B lymphocyte-mediated presentation of plasmid antigen led to greater Th1-biased immunity and was sufficient to elicit an anti-tumor effect in vivo. Surprisingly, increasing plasmid presentation by B cells, and not cross presentation of peptides by DCs, further augmented traditional plasmid vaccination. Together, these data suggest that targeting plasmid DNA to B lymphocytes, for example through transfer of ex vivo plasmidloaded B cells, may be novel means to achieve greater T cell immunity from DNA vaccines. PMID:27661128

  7. TH1 and TH2 cytokine data in insulin secretagogues users newly diagnosed with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary A.P. Wintrob

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Stimulation of insulin production by insulin secretagogue use may impact T helper cells’ cytokine production. This dataset presents the relationship between baseline insulin secretagogues use in women diagnosed with breast cancer and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the T-helper 1 and 2 produced cytokine profiles at the time of breast cancer diagnosis, and subsequent cancer outcomes. A Pearson correlation analysis evaluating the relationship between T-helper cytokines stratified by of insulin secretagogues use and controls is also provided.

  8. Competition for antigen between Th1 and Th2 responses determines the timing of the immune response switch during Mycobaterium avium subspecies paratuberulosis infection in ruminants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesham Magombedze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Johne's disease (JD, a persistent and slow progressing infection of ruminants such as cows and sheep, is caused by slow replicating bacilli Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP infecting macrophages in the gut. Infected animals initially mount a cell-mediated CD4 T cell response against MAP which is characterized by the production of interferon gamma (Th1 response. Over time, Th1 response diminishes in most animals and antibody response to MAP antigens becomes dominant (Th2 response. The switch from Th1 to Th2 response occurs concomitantly with disease progression and shedding of the bacteria in feces. Mechanisms controlling this Th1/Th2 switch remain poorly understood. Because Th1 and Th2 responses are known to cross-inhibit each other, it is unclear why initially strong Th1 response is lost over time. Using a novel mathematical model of the immune response to MAP infection we show that the ability of extracellular bacteria to persist outside of macrophages naturally leads to switch of the cellular response to antibody production. Several additional mechanisms may also contribute to the timing of the Th1/Th2 switch including the rate of proliferation of Th1/Th2 responses at the site of infection, efficiency at which immune responses cross-inhibit each other, and the rate at which Th1 response becomes exhausted over time. Our basic model reasonably well explains four different kinetic patterns of the Th1/Th2 responses in MAP-infected sheep by variability in the initial bacterial dose and the efficiency of the MAP-specific T cell responses. Taken together, our novel mathematical model identifies factors of bacterial and host origin that drive kinetics of the immune response to MAP and provides the basis for testing the impact of vaccination or early treatment on the duration of infection.

  9. Antigen processing influences HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte immunodominance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tenzer, Stefan; Wee, Edmund; Burgevin, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Although cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in people infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 can potentially target multiple virus epitopes, the same few are recognized repeatedly. We show here that CTL immunodominance in regions of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group-associated ......Although cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in people infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 can potentially target multiple virus epitopes, the same few are recognized repeatedly. We show here that CTL immunodominance in regions of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group...... and functional analyses demonstrated that proteasomal cleavage 'preferences' modulated the number and length of epitope-containing peptides, thereby affecting the response avidity and clonality of T cells. Cleavage patterns were affected by both flanking and intraepitope CTL-escape mutations. Our analyses show...

  10. The impact of the preoperative peripheral lymphocyte count and lymphocyte percentage in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseki, Yasuhito; Shibutani, Masatsune; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Nagahara, Hisashi; Tamura, Tatsuro; Ohira, Go; Yamazoe, Sadaaki; Kimura, Kenjiro; Toyokawa, Takahiro; Amano, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Muguruma, Kazuya; Hirakawa, Kosei; Ohira, Masaichi

    2017-06-01

    We evaluated the prognostic significance of the peripheral lymphocyte count and lymphocyte percentage, which reflect the preoperative immune status, in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and then compared their accuracy as predictors of the survival. We retrospectively reviewed a database of 362 patients. We classified the patients into high lymphocyte count and low lymphocyte count groups. We also classified the patients into high lymphocyte percentage and low lymphocyte percentage groups. The 5-year relapse-free survival (RFS) rate in the high lymphocyte count group tended to be higher than that in the low lymphocyte count group. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate in the high lymphocyte count group was significantly higher than that in the low lymphocyte count group. In contrast, the 5-year RFS and OS rates in the high lymphocyte percentage group were both significantly higher than those in the low lymphocyte percentage group. A multivariate analysis showed that the lymphocyte percentage was independently associated with the OS. These findings suggest that the lymphocyte percentage is a good predictor of the OS and may be a stronger predictor of survival than the lymphocyte count in CRC patients.

  11. CD40 signaling instructs chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to attract monocytes via the CCR2 axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Attekum, Martijn H. A.; van Bruggen, Jaco A. C.; Slinger, Erik; Lebre, M. Cristina; Reinen, Emilie; Kersting, Sabina; Eldering, Eric; Kater, Arnon P.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells are provided with essential survival and proliferative signals in the lymph node microenvironment. Here, CLL cells engage in various interactions with bystander cells such as T cells and macrophages. Phenotypically distinct types of tumor infiltrating

  12. Interferon-Alpha Promotes Th1 Response and Epithelial Apoptosis via Inflammasome Activation in Human Intestinal MucosaSummary

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    Anne Jarry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgound & Aims: Several lines of investigation suggest that interferon (IFN alpha can alter human intestinal mucosa homeostasis. These include the endogenous production of IFN alpha in celiac disease or inflammatory bowel diseases, as well as the occurrence of intestinal side effects of exogenous IFN alpha used as a therapeutic tool. Here, we present an ex vivo translational approach to investigate the effects of IFN alpha on the human normal intestinal mucosa, as well as its underlying mechanisms. Methods: Human normal colonic mucosa explants were cultured in the presence or absence of IFN alpha 2a. Epithelial homeostasis was assessed using the immunohistochemical marker of apoptosis M30. The Wnt inhibitor Dickkopf-Homolog-1 (DKK1 was assayed in the supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Activation of the inflammasome (caspase-1/interleukin [IL]18 and of a Th1 response was determined by in situ detection of active caspase-1, as well as by measurement of mature IL18 production and the prototype Th1 cytokine IFN gamma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, mechanistic studies were performed using the specific caspase-1 inhibitor Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe-fluoromethylketone (YVAD-FMK, IL18-binding protein, neutralizing anti–IFN gamma, and anti-DKK1 antibodies. Results: IFN alpha 2a elicited a rapid (24 hours disruption of surface and crypt colonic epithelial cells via apoptosis that was variable in intensity among the 20 individuals studied. This apoptotic effect was dependent on the initiation of an IFN gamma response elicited by resident T box expressed in T cells–positive lamina propria cells. Both apoptosis and Th1 response were subordinated to active caspase-1 and IL18 production. Finally, neutralization of IFN gamma–induced DKK1 partially protected against IFN alpha–induced epithelial apoptosis. Conclusions: By using an ex vivo model, we show an interindividual heterogeneity of IFN alpha effects

  13. Selective Enhancement of Systemic Th1 Immunity in Immunologically Immature Rats with an Orally Administered Bacterial Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, L. M.; Holt, P. G.

    2001-01-01

    Infant rats primed during the first week of life with soluble antigen displayed adult-equivalent levels of T-helper 2 (Th2)-dependent immunological memory development as revealed by production of secondary immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibody responses to subsequent challenge, but in contrast to adults failed to prime for Th1-dependent IgG2b responses. We demonstrate that this Th2 bias in immune function can be redressed by oral administration to neonates of a bacterial extract (Broncho-Vaxom OM...

  14. Differential effects of Th1 versus Th2 cytokines in combination with hypoxia on HIFs and angiogenesis in RA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Hypoxia and T-helper cell 1 (Th1) cytokine-driven inflammation are key features of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and contribute to disease pathogenesis by promoting angiogenesis. The objective of our study was to characterise the angiogenic gene signature of RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) in response to hypoxia, as well as Th1 and T-helper cell 2 (Th2) cytokines, and in particular to dissect out effects of combined hypoxia and cytokines on hypoxia inducible transcription factors (HIFs) and angiogenesis. Methods Human angiogenesis PCR arrays were used to screen cDNA from RA FLS exposed to hypoxia (1% oxygen) or dimethyloxalylglycine, which stabilises HIFs. The involvement of HIF isoforms in generating the angiogenic signature of RA FLS stimulated with hypoxia and/or cytokines was investigated using a DNA-binding assay and RNA interference. The angiogenic potential of conditioned media from hypoxia-treated and/or cytokine-treated RA FLS was measured using an in vitro endothelial-based assay. Results Expression of 12 angiogenic genes was significantly altered in RA FLS exposed to hypoxia, and seven of these were changed by dimethyloxalylglycine, including ephrin A3 (EFNA3), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), adipokines angiopoietin-like (ANGPTL)-4 and leptin. These four proangiogenic genes were dependent on HIF-1 in hypoxia to various degrees: EFNA3 >ANGPTL-4 >VEGF >leptin. The Th1 cytokines TNFα and IL-1β induced HIF-1 but not HIF-2 transcription as well as activity, and this effect was additive with hypoxia. In contrast, Th2 cytokines had no effect on HIFs. IL-1β synergised with hypoxia to upregulate EFNA3 and VEGF in a HIF-1-dependent fashion but, despite strongly inducing HIF-1, TNFα suppressed adipokine expression and had minimal effect on EFNA3. Supernatants from RA FLS subjected to hypoxia and TNFα induced fewer endothelial tubules than those from FLS subjected to TNFα or hypoxia alone, despite high VEGF protein levels. The Th2

  15. Differential effects of Th1, monocyte/macrophage and Th2 cytokine mixtures on early gene expression for molecules associated with metabolism, signaling and regulation in central nervous system mixed glial cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studzinski Diane

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytokines secreted by immune cells and activated glia play central roles in both the pathogenesis of and protection from damage to the central nervous system (CNS in multiple sclerosis (MS. Methods We have used gene array analysis to identify the initial direct effects of cytokines on CNS glia by comparing changes in early gene expression in CNS glial cultures treated for 6 hours with cytokines typical of those secreted by Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages (M/M. Results In two previous papers, we summarized effects of these cytokines on immune-related molecules, and on neural and glial related proteins, including neurotrophins, growth factors and structural proteins. In this paper, we present the effects of the cytokines on molecules involved in metabolism, signaling and regulatory mechanisms in CNS glia. Many of the changes in gene expression were similar to those seen in ischemic preconditioning and in early inflammatory lesions in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, related to ion homeostasis, mitochondrial function, neurotransmission, vitamin D metabolism and a variety of transcription factors and signaling pathways. Among the most prominent changes, all three cytokine mixtures markedly downregulated the dopamine D3 receptor, while Th1 and Th2 cytokines downregulated neuropeptide Y receptor 5. An unexpected finding was the large number of changes related to lipid metabolism, including several suggesting a switch from diacylglycerol to phosphatidyl inositol mediated signaling pathways. Using QRT-PCR we validated the results for regulation of genes for iNOS, arginase and P glycoprotein/multi-drug resistance protein 1 (MDR1 seen at 6 hours with microarray. Conclusion Each of the three cytokine mixtures differentially regulated gene expression related to metabolism and signaling that may play roles in the pathogenesis of MS, most notably with regard to mitochondrial function and neurotransmitter

  16. Anaerobic glycolysis and lymphocytes blastization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzuca, A

    1980-01-30

    The role of enhanced anaerobic glycolysis in the transformation of human peripheral lymphocytes induced by mitogens has been investigated. The DNA syntesis, lactate production and increment of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 5 (LDH5) have been studied. In this paper we present detailed kinetic studies, which indicate that LDH5 increment correlates closely with rapid synthetic activity and is not morely part of an overall increase in enzymatic activities.

  17. A structural basis for antigen recognition by the T cell-like lymphocytes of sea lamprey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Lu; Velikovsky, C. Alejandro; Xu, Gang; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M.; Tasumi, Satoshi; Kerzic, Melissa C.; Flajnik, Martin F.; Aravind, L.; Pancer, Zeev; Mariuzza, Roy A. (NIH); (Maryland); (Maryland-MED)

    2010-10-28

    Adaptive immunity in jawless vertebrates is mediated by leucine-rich repeat proteins called 'variable lymphocyte receptors' (VLRs). Two types of VLR (A and B) are expressed by mutually exclusive lymphocyte populations in lamprey. VLRB lymphocytes resemble the B cells of jawed vertebrates; VLRA lymphocytes are similar to T cells. We determined the structure of a high-affinity VLRA isolated from lamprey immunized with hen egg white lysozyme (HEL) in unbound and antigen-bound forms. The VLRA-HEL complex demonstrates that certain VLRAs, like {gamma}{delta} T-cell receptors (TCRs) but unlike {alpha}{beta} TCRs, can recognize antigens directly, without a requirement for processing or antigen-presenting molecules. Thus, these VLRAs feature the nanomolar affinities of antibodies, the direct recognition of unprocessed antigens of both antibodies and {gamma}{delta} TCRs, and the exclusive expression on the lymphocyte surface that is unique to {alpha}{beta} and {gamma}{delta} TCRs.

  18. Complement receptors type 1 (CR1, CD35) and 2 (CR2, CD21) cooperate in the binding of hydrolyzed complement factor 3 (C3i) to human B lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leslie, Robert Graham Quinton; Prodinger, Wolfgang Maria; Nielsen, Claus Henrik

    2003-01-01

    and CR2, operating independently, differed ca. 9-fold (k(1)=193+/-9.4 and 22.2+/-6.0 x 10(3) M(-1)s(-1), respectively). Equilibrium binding of C3i to B lymphocytes was also complex, varying in strength by ca. 13-fold over the C3i concentration range examined. The maximum association constant (K(a, max......)=109+/-27.2 x 10(7) l/mole) was ca. 9- and 6-fold greater, respectively, than those for CR1 or CR2 acting alone (K(a)=13.2+/-5.3 and 18.5+/-3.5 x 10(7) l/mole). The high avidity of the CR1-CR2 complex for C3i is consistent with its rates of C3i uptake and release being determined by CR1 and CR2...

  19. Serum Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokine profiles and alpha-enolase levels in recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurt, Kemal; Celik, Ahmet; Sayarlıoglu, Mehmet; Colgecen, Emine; Incı, Rahime; Karakas, Tuba; Kelles, Mehmet; Cetin, Gozde Y

    2014-10-01

    All aspects of aetiopathogenesis of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) have not been elucidated. RAS and Behçet's disease (BD) have clinical and immunological characteristics in common. Although T17 cytokines and alpha-enolase have been shown to play effective roles in BD and many other autoinflammatory diseases recently, their roles in RAS have not been studied extensively. In the present study, we investigated levels of several Th1, Th2 and Th17 pathways related cytokines and alpha-enolase to elucidate pathogenesis of RAS and to obtain data about possible treatment alternatives for the condition. Serum interleukin-1, interleukin-13, interleukin-17, interleukin-18, interferon gamma and alpha-enolase levels in 24 patients with RAS, 30 patients with BD and 20 healthy controls were measured. Serum interleukin-1, interleukin-13, interleukin-17, interleukin-18, interferon gamma and alpha-enolase levels were higher in patients with RAS and patients with BD than in healthy controls (P < 0.005). Like Th1 and Th2 cells, Th17 cells were found to be effective in pathogenesis of RAS. In addition, alpha-enolase, the levels of which were high, may play an important role in etio-pathogenesis of RAS. Further studies to be designed in the light of these findings are required to shed light on pathogenesis and treatment of the condition. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Oriental Medicine Samhwangsasim-tang Alleviates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Suppressing Th1 Cell Responses and Upregulating Treg Cell Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min J; Choi, Jong H; Lee, Sung J; Cho, Ik-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Oriental medicine Samhwangsasim-tang (SHSST) has traditionally been used in East Asia to treat hypertension and its complications. However, little is known about its potential value regarding the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we investigated whether SHSST has a beneficial effect in treating myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Onset-treatment with SHSST was found to alleviate neurological symptoms as well as demyelination and glial activation in the spinal cords from the EAE mice. The SHSST also attenuated the mRNA or protein expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1beta and tumor necrotic factor-alpha); chemokines (RANTES, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha); inducible nitric oxide synthase; and cyclooxygenase-2 in correspondence with the down-regulation of the nuclear factor-kappa B and mitogen-activated protein kinases signal pathways in the spinal cords from EAE mice. Interestingly, the protective effect of the SHSST was related to a decreased number of Th1 cells and an increased number of Treg cells in spinal cords from EAE mice. Taken together, our finding firstly suggested that SHSST could delay or mitigate EAE with a wide therapeutic time-window by suppressing Th1 cell responses and upregulating Treg cell responses. Also, our findings are strong enough to warrant further investigation of SHSST as a treatment for chronic autoimmune diseases including MS.

  1. The Mycobacterium bovis BCG prime-Rv0577 DNA boost vaccination induces a durable Th1 immune response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dongqing; Chen, Wei; Mi, Youjun; Gong, Xueli; Luo, Tao; Bao, Lang

    2016-04-01

    Tuberculosis remains a major global health problem and effective vaccines are urgently needed. In this study, we used the combined DNA- and protein-based vaccines of immunodominant antigen Rv0577 to boost BCG and evaluated their immunogenicity in BALB/c mice. Our data suggest that the booster vaccine may substantially enhance the immunogenicity of BCG and strengthen both CD4+ T cell-mediated Th1 and CD8+ T cell-mediated cytolytic responses. Compared with the protein-based vaccine, the DNA-based vaccine can induce more durable Th1 immune response, characterized by high levels of antibody response, proliferation response, percentages of CD4+/CD8+ and cytokine secretion in antigen-stimulated splenocyte cultures. In conclusion, we for the first time, developed a protein- and plasmid DNA-based booster vaccine based on Rv0577. Our findings suggest that antigen Rv0577-based DNA vaccine is immunogenic and can efficiently boost BCG, which could be helpful in the design of an efficient vaccination strategy against TB. © The Author 2016. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Interleukin-10 deficiency impairs regulatory T cell-derived neuropilin-1 functions and promotes Th1 and Th17 immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shimin; Gao, Xiang; Shen, Guobo; Wang, Wei; Li, Jingyu; Zhao, Jingyi; Wei, Yu-Quan; Edwards, Carl K

    2016-04-14

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) expand in peripheral lymphoid organs and can produce immunosuppressive cytokines to support tumor growth. IL-10 abrogation efficiently induces Treg formation but dampens tumoral neuropilin-1 (Nrp-1) Treg signaling, which simultaneously augments Th1 and Th17 immunity. These effects are associated with the plasticity and stability of Tregs and effector T cell functions that can limit tumorigenesis. Within the tumor microenvironment, there appears to be a "mutual antagonism" between immunoenhancement and immunosuppression mechanisms, eventually leading to decreased metastasis. In contrast, tumor progression is paralleled by a reduction in Nrp-1-producing Tregs controlled by the IL-10 and TGF-β1 levels. However, Th1, Th17 and Treg immunity is primarily regulated by IL-10 or Nrp-1 and not TGF-β1 except when combined with IL-10. These results emphasize the important implications for the therapeutic use of Tregs. The number of Treg cells must be maintained in a healthy and dynamic homeostatic range to prevent malignant diseases. Moreover, Treg-mediated immunosuppression can be limited by reducing tumor-derived Treg Nrp-1 levels.

  3. Levamisole promotes murine bone marrow derived dendritic cell activation and drives Th1 immune response in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yubing; Wang, Ting; Xiu, Lei; Shi, Xiaojie; Bian, Ziyao; Zhang, Yongli; Ruhan, A; Wang, Xiao

    2016-02-01

    Our lab previously found that levamisole (LMS) as an adjuvant enhanced the efficacy of vaccine against infectious pathogens. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms remain to be defined. In this study, we showed that BALB/c bone marrow-derived DC stimulated with LMS resulted in enhanced cell-surface expression of CD80, CD86, CD40 and MHC class II, as well as enhanced production of IL-12p70, TNF-α and IL-1β. Interestingly, the LMS activated DCs were able to stimulate CD4(+) T cell proliferation and facilitated Th1 differentiation by increasing the secretion of IFN-γ in an allogeneic mixed leukocyte reaction. Furthermore, to confirm the in vitro data, we investigated the effect of LMS on antigen-specific antibody and cytokine production in BALB/c mice. Immunization with LMS plus OVA showed that anti-OVA IgG2a and IFN-γ were increased significantly compared with OVA alone in BALB/c mice. In conclusion, our results suggested that murine bone marrow-derived DC, played a crucial role in the effect of LMS on the induction of Th1 responses, which probably was due to its ability to promote DC maturation and secrete proinflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. In vivo Th1 and Th2 cytokine modulation effects of Rhodiola rosea standardised solution and its major constituent, salidroside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Shen Chou; Chin, Lengsu William; Chao, Pei-Chun; Lai, Ya-Yun; Lin, Long-Yau; Chou, Ming-Yung; Chou, Ming-Chih; Wei, James Cheng-Chung; Yang, Chi-Chiang

    2011-11-01

    Although Rhodiola rosea (L.) is used widely and disseminated in Oriental medicine, its in vivo effects on cytokine modulation remain unclear. Among the biologically active components of Rhodiola rosea, salidroside was suggested to be the most active compound. The objectives of this study were to assess the toxicity and cytokine modulation effects of Rhodiola rosea standardised solution (RRSS) and salidroside. Quantitative high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis determined the content of salidroside in RRSS to be 4.39% (w/v). Groups of Balb/c mice were fed daily with different doses of RRSS or salidroside, with CAPE or distilled water used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The acute and subacute toxicity tests did not reveal weight differences, pathological changes, or abnormalities in liver or kidney function indices among the treated groups. Ovalbumin-primed mouse cytokine assays demonstrated that both T helper (Th1) (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10) cytokines were significantly increased by feeding with RRSS in a dose- and time-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Moreover, the cytokine modulation effects of salidroside were less prominent than that of RRSS treatment and not dose-dependent. These findings suggest that increased secretion of both Th1- and Th2-pattern cytokines can be achieved with RRSS and salidroside treatment. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Vitamin E-rich Nanoemulsion Enhances the Antitumor Efficacy of Low-Dose Paclitaxel by Driving Th1 Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jun; Dong, Wujun; Yang, Yanfang; Hao, Huazhen; Liao, Hengfeng; Wang, Bangyuan; Han, Xue; Jin, Yiqun; Xia, Xuejun; Liu, Yuling

    2017-06-01

    To overcome the drawbacks of high dose regimen and improve the outcomes of chemotherapy at a low dose, an immunotherapeutic nanoemulsion based combination of chemotherapeutic agent (paclitaxel) with immunomodulatory agent (vitamin E) was developed and evaluated for their antitumor effect against breast cancer. A total of five nanoemulsions loaded with various content of vitamin E were prepared and characterized. The immunoregulatory effects of vitamin E along with the overall antitumor efficacy of vitamin E-rich nanoemulsion with a low dose of paclitaxel were investigated through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Vitamin E-rich nanoemulsion exhibited relatively narrow size distribution, high entrapment efficiency and controlled in vitro release profile. In RAW264.7 cells, vitamin E-rich nanoemulsion significantly enhanced the secretion of Th1 cytokines and down-regulated the secretion of Th2 cytokine. In a co-culture system, vitamin E-rich nanoemulsion induced a high apoptosis rate in MDA-MB-231 cells as compared with vitamin E-low nanoemulsion. Furthermore, vitamin E-rich nanoemulsion exhibited superior in vivo antitumor efficacy in comparison with Taxol and vitamin E-low nanoemulsion at a paclitaxel dose of 4 mg/kg. Vitamin E-rich nanoemulsion has great potential for the treatment of breast cancers with a low dose of paclitaxel via driving Th1 immune response.

  6. Protective Live Oral Brucellosis Vaccines Stimulate Th1 and Th17 Cell Responses ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Beata; Skyberg, Jerod A.; Yang, Xinghong; Thornburg, Theresa; Walters, Nancy; Pascual, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Zoonotic transmission of brucellosis often results from exposure to Brucella-infected livestock, feral animals, or wildlife or frequently via consumption of unpasteurized milk products or raw meat. Since natural infection of humans often occurs by the oral route, mucosal vaccination may offer a means to confer protection for both mucosal and systemic tissues. Significant efforts have focused on developing a live brucellosis vaccine, and deletion of the znuA gene involved in zinc transport has been found to attenuate Brucella abortus. A similar mutation has been adapted for Brucella melitensis and tested to determine whether oral administration of ΔznuA B. melitensis can confer protection against nasal B. melitensis challenge. A single oral vaccination with ΔznuA B. melitensis rapidly cleared from mice within 2 weeks and effectively protected mice upon nasal challenge with wild-type B. melitensis 16M. In 83% of the vaccinated mice, no detectable brucellae were found in their spleens, unlike with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-dosed mice, and vaccination also enhanced the clearance of brucellae from the lungs. Moreover, vaccinated gamma interferon-deficient (IFN-γ−/−) mice also showed protection in both spleens and lungs, albeit protection that was not as effective as in immunocompetent mice. Although IFN-γ, interleukin 17 (IL-17), and IL-22 were stimulated by these live vaccines, only RB51-mediated protection was codependent upon IL-17 in BALB/c mice. These data suggest that oral immunization with the live, attenuated ΔznuA B. melitensis vaccine provides an attractive strategy to protect against inhalational infection with virulent B. melitensis. PMID:21768283

  7. Rola subpopulacji limfocytów pomocniczych Th1, Th17 i Treg w patogenezie reumatoidalnego zapalenia stawów z uwzględnieniem przeciwzapalnego działania cytokin Th1

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    Agata Kosmaczewska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available W patogenezie reumatoidalnego zapalenia stawów (RZS szczególną rolę przypisuje się zaburzeniom w funkcjonowaniu układu odpornościowego. Przewlekły charakter zapalenia w stawach sugeruje, że regulacja ze strony układu odpornościowego jest zaburzona, co wiąże się z nadmiernie rozwiniętą odpowiedzią zapalną, której towarzyszą nieprawidłowe mechanizmy kontroli zapalenia. Zaburzenia immunologiczne nie ograniczają się jedynie do miejsc zapalenia, ale mają również charakter systemowy i obejmują głównie komórki jednojądrzaste krwi obwodowej (PBMC, wydzielające w nieprawidłowych ilościach cytokiny pro- i przeciwzapalne. Limfocyty T pomocnicze (Th mogą się różnicować w zależności od środowiska cytokinowego w komórki Th1, Th2, Th17 lub Treg. Aktywna postać RZS może być wynikiem przesunięcia równowagi układu odpornościowego w kierunku subpopulacji limfocytów T prozapalnych (głównie Th17 na niekorzyść regulatorowych komórek działających przeciwzapalnie (Treg. Wykazano, że zaburzenia wytwarzania cytokin Th1 (IL-2 i IFN-gamma, stwierdzane w przebiegu RZS, sprzyjają zwiększonemu wytwarzaniu IL-17 i infiltracji tkanek w miejscu zapalenia komórkami Th17. Najnowsze badania dowodzą, że cytokiny Th1 o udowodnionym działaniu prozapalnym mogą odgrywać ważną rolę w utrzymaniu równowagi między limfocytami Treg a Th17 poprzez promowanie różnicowania limfocytów Th w kierunku Treg. W pracy przedstawiono także wpływ TNF-alfa i jego blokady na populacje limfocytów Th u chorych na RZS.

  8. Relationship of thyroid ultrasound elasticity contrast index with serum autoantibody and Th1/Th2 cytokine levels in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Guo Sheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the relationship of thyroid ultrasound elasticity contrast index (ECI with serum autoantibody and Th1/Th2 cytokine levels in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Methods: A total of 68 patients diagnosed with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT in our hospitalas were selected as HT group, 60 healthy volunteers were selected as control group, ultrasound examination was performed to determine ECL, serum was collected to determine TPO-Ab, TG-Ab, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 levels, and peripheral blood was collected to determine the positive expression rate of CD30 and CD195. Results: ECI of HT group was significantly higher than that of control group and the ECI of patients with small nodule type HT was significantly lower than that of patients with grid type HT; TPO-Ab, TG-Ab, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 levels in serum and positive expression rate of CD195 in peripheral blood of HT group were significantly higher than those of control group while IL-4 and IL-10 levels and positive expression rate of CD30 in peripheral blood were significantly lower than those of control group; TPO-Ab, TG-Ab, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 levels in serum and positive expression rate of CD195 in peripheral blood of patients with small nodule type HT were significantly lower than those of patients with grid type HT while IL-4 and IL-10 levels and positive expression rate of CD30 in peripheral blood were significantly higher than those of patients with grid type HT; ECI was positively correlated with TPO-Ab, TG-Ab, IFN-γ, TNF- α, IL-2b and CD195, and negatively correlated with IL-4, IL-10 and CD30. Conclusions: ECL significantly increases in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and it can be used to evaluate the degree of immune dysfunction.

  9. The intravenous injection of oxidized LDL- or Apolipoprotein B100 – Coupled splenocytes promotes Th1 polarization in wildtype and Apolipoprotein E – Deficient mice

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    Steinmetz, Martin, E-mail: martin.steinmetz@ukb.uni-bonn.de [INSERM, Unit 970, Paris Cardiovascular Research Center, 75015 Paris (France); Internal Medicine II, University Hospital Bonn, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Ponnuswamy, Padmapriya; Laurans, Ludivine; Esposito, Bruno; Tedgui, Alain [INSERM, Unit 970, Paris Cardiovascular Research Center, 75015 Paris (France); Mallat, Ziad [INSERM, Unit 970, Paris Cardiovascular Research Center, 75015 Paris (France); Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge, CB2 2QQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-14

    Background: Th1 responses in atherosclerosis are mainly associated with the aggravation of atherosclerotic plaques, whereas Th2 responses lead to a less pronounced disease in mouse models. The fixation of antigens on cells by means of ethylene carbodiimide (ECDI), and subsequent injection of these antigen-coupled splenocytes (Ag-SP) to induce tolerance against the attached antigens, has been successfully used to treat murine type 1 diabetes or encephalomyelitis in. We analyzed this approach in a mouse model for atherosclerosis. Methods and results: OTII-transgenic mice that were treated with a single dose of 5 × 10{sup 7} OVA-coupled splenocytes (OVA-SP), had decreased splenocyte proliferation, and lower IFNγ production in vitro upon antigen recall. However, in vivo CD4 cell activation was increased. To try lipoprotein-derived, “atherosclerosis-associated” antigens, we first tested human oxidized LDL. In wild type mice, an increase of IFNγ production upon in vitro recall was detected in the oxLDL-SP group. In Apolipoprotein E − deficient (ApoE−/−) mice that received oxLDL-SP every 5 weeks for 20 weeks, we did not find any difference of atherosclerotic plaque burden, but again increased IFNγ production. To overcome xenogenous limitations, we then examined the effects of mouse Apolipoprotein B100 peptides P3 and P6. ApoB100-SP treatment again promoted a more IFNγ pronounced response upon in vitro recall. Flow cytometry analysis of cytokine secreting spleen cells revealed CD4 positive T cells to be mainly the source for IFNγ. In ApoE−/− mice that were administered ApoB100-SP during 20 weeks, the atherosclerotic plaque burden in aortic roots as well as total aorta was unchanged compared to PBS treated controls. Splenocyte proliferation upon antigen recall was not significantly altered in ApoB100-SP treated ApoE−/− mice. Conclusion: Although we did not observe a relevant anti-atherosclerotic benefit, the treatment with antigen

  10. Comparative study of lymphocytes from individuals that were vaccinated and unvaccinated against the pandemic 2009-2011 H1N1 influenza virus in Southern Brazil

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    Deise Nascimento de Freitas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION:While no single factor is sufficient to guarantee the success of influenza vaccine programs, knowledge of the levels of immunity in local populations is critical. Here, we analyzed influenza immunity in a population from Southern Brazil, a region with weather conditions that are distinct from those in the rest of country, where influenza infections are endemic, and where greater than 50% of the population is vaccinated annually.METHODS:Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 40 individuals. Of these, 20 had received the H1N1 vaccine, while the remaining 20 were unvaccinated against the disease. Cells were stimulated in vitro with the trivalent post-pandemic influenza vaccine or with conserved major histocompatibility complex I (MHC I peptides derived from hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. Cell viability was then analyzed by [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide]-based colorimetric assay (MTT, and culture supernatants were assayed for helper T type 1 (Th1 and Th2-specific cytokine levels.RESULTS:Peripheral blood lymphocytes from vaccinated, but not unvaccinated, individuals exhibited significant proliferation in vitro in the presence of a cognate influenza antigen. After culturing with vaccine antigens, cells from vaccinated individuals produced similar levels of interleukin (IL-10 and interferon (IFN-γ, while those from unvaccinated individuals produced higher levels of IFN-γ than of IL-10.CONCLUSIONS:Our data indicate that peripheral blood lymphocytes from vaccinated individuals are stimulated upon encountering a cognate antigen, but did not support the hypothesis that cross-reactive responses related to previous infections can ameliorate the immune response. Moreover, monitoring IL-10 production in vaccinated individuals could comprise a valuable tool for predicting disease evolution.

  11. Interactions between the microbiota and innate and innate-like lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinides, Michael G

    2018-03-01

    The microbiota, which consists of commensal bacteria, fungi, and viruses, limits the colonization of pathogens at barrier tissues and promotes immune homeostasis. The latter is accomplished through the induction and regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Innate lymphocytes, which include the type-1 innate lymphoid cell (ILC1), NK cell, type-2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2), type-3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC3), and lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cell populations, and innate-like lymphocytes, such as NKT cells, mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, and γδ T cells, are uniquely capable of responding to the microbiota due to their tissue localization and rapid primary responses. In turn, through their effector functions, these lymphocyte populations modulate the composition of the microbiota and maintain the segregation of commensals. This review will focus on how innate and innate-like lymphocytes mediate the crosstalk with the microbiome. ©2017 Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  12. Influence of DC-CIK in advanced colorectal cancer patients on T lymphocyte subsets and cytokines

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    Rong Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effects of dendritic cells (DC-cytokine induced killer cells (CIK treatment on T lymphocyte subsets and cytokines in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Methods: A total of 84 cases patients with advanced colorectal cancer were divided into two groups according to random number table method, each 42 cases, both two groups were given FOLFOX scheme chemotherapy, on the basis, the observation group were given supplementary DC-CIK treatment, compared the T lymphocy te subgroup: CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, Th1 cytokines, interleukin-2 (IL-2 and interferon gamma-γ (FN-γ, Th2 cytokines: interleukin 6 (IL-6, interleukin 4 (IL-4 of the two groups before and after treatment. Results: Compared with before treatment, the CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, Th1 cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ in observation group were significantly higher than after treatment , the CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, Th1 cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ in control group were significantly lower than after treatment, and the differences were all statistically significant; The CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, Th1 cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ in observation group after treatment were significantly higher than those in control group after treatment with statistical difference; CD8+, Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-6 in two groups had no statistical significance before and after treatment. Conclusion: Chemotherapy can cause the immune function restrained in patients with advanced colorectal cancer, and DC-CIK supplementary therapy can significantly improve the immune function, enhance the anti tumor immune responses.

  13. Opinion: Interactions of innate and adaptive lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiger, Georg; Rudensky, Alexander Y.

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphocytes, including natural killer (NK) cells and the recently discovered innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have crucial roles during infection, tissue injury and inflammation. Innate signals regulate the activation and homeostasis of innate lymphocytes. Less well understood is the contribution of the adaptive immune system to the orchestration of innate lymphocyte responses. We review our current understanding of the interactions between adaptive and innate lymphocytes, and propose a model in which adaptive T cells function as antigen-specific sensors for the activation of innate lymphocytes to amplify and instruct local immune responses. We highlight the potential role of regulatory and helper T cells in these processes and discuss major questions in the emerging area of crosstalk between adaptive and innate lymphocytes. PMID:25132095

  14. A simple method for freezing lymphocytes in microtest plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, A S; Hubbard, M C; Barry, J M

    1981-02-01

    Freezing lymphocytes in microtest plates instead of vials for the purpose of screening sera for HLA or other cytotoxic antibodies offers the same technical advantages as freezing sera in microtest plates for tissue typing. Plate-loading errors and cell wastage are minimized, and time required for serum screening is greatly reduced. A method for freezing lymphocytes in large numbers of microtest plates for use in serum screening that is simple, reproducible, and inexpensive is described. Cryoprotected lymphocytes dispensed into microtest plates are placed on a metal table that is lowered onto a tray containing 1 cm of liquid nitrogen in a Styrofoam box. The amount of liquid nitrogen in the tray and the height of the metal table above the tray determine the freezing rate of the lymphocytes. Over 100 microtest plates can be frozen per cycle with total cooling uniformity. The materials required for this freezing device can be assembled for less than $400. Commercial freezing units typically cost over $4,000.

  15. Th1-stimulatory polyproteins of soluble Leishmania donovani promastigotes ranging from 89.9 to 97.1 kDa offers long-lasting protection against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Shraddha; Samant, Mukesh; Misra, Pragya; Khare, Prashant; Sisodia, Brijesh; Shasany, Ajit K; Dube, Anuradha

    2008-10-23

    Our earlier studies identified a fraction (F2) of Leishmania donovani soluble promastigote antigen belonging to 97.4-68 kDa for its ability to stimulate Th1-type cellular responses in cured visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients as well as in cured hamsters. A further fractionation of F2-fraction into seven subfractions (F2.1-F2.7) and re-assessment for their immunostimulatory responses revealed that out of these, only four (F2.4-F2.7) belonging to 89.9-97.1 kDa, stimulated remarkable Th1-type cellular responses either individually or in a pooled form (P4-7). In this study these potential subfractions were further assessed for their prophylactic potential in combination with BCG against L. donovani challenge in hamsters. Optimum parasite inhibition ( approximately 99%) was obtained in hamsters vaccinated with pooled subfractions and they survived for 1 year. The protection was further supported by remarkable lymphoproliferative, IFN-gamma and IL-12 responses along with profound delayed type hypersensitivity and increased levels of Leishmania-specific IgG2 antibody as observed on days 45, 90 and 120 post-challenge suggesting that a successful subunit vaccine against VL may require multiple Th1-immunostimulatory proteins. MALDI-TOF-MS/MS analysis of these subfractions further revealed that of the 19 identified immunostimulatory proteins, Elongation factor-2, p45, Heat shock protein-70/83, Aldolase, Enolase, Triosephosphate isomerase, Disulfideisomerase and Calreticulin were the major ones in these subfractions.

  16. Cell-extrinsic defective lymphocyte development in Lmna(-/- mice.

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    J Scott Hale

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes all A-type lamins, result in a variety of human diseases termed laminopathies. Lmna(-/- mice appear normal at birth but become runted as early as 2 weeks of age and develop multiple tissue defects that mimic some aspects of human laminopathies. Lmna(-/- mice also display smaller spleens and thymuses. In this study, we investigated whether altered lymphoid organ sizes are correlated with specific defects in lymphocyte development.Lmna(-/- mice displayed severe age-dependent defects in T and B cell development which coincided with runting. Lmna(-/- bone marrow reconstituted normal T and B cell development in irradiated wild-type recipients, driving generation of functional and self-MHC restricted CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells. Transplantation of Lmna(-/- neonatal thymus lobes into syngeneic wild-type recipients resulted in good engraftment of thymic tissue and normal thymocyte development.Collectively, these data demonstrate that the severe defects in lymphocyte development that characterize Lmna(-/- mice do not result directly from the loss of A-type lamin function in lymphocytes or thymic stroma. Instead, the immune defects in Lmna(-/- mice likely reflect indirect damage, perhaps resulting from prolonged stress due to the striated muscle dystrophies that occur in these mice.

  17. Immunization with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells induces Th1 immune response in Balb/C mice

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    Martins, Estefania M.N.; Andrade, Antero S.R. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: estefaniabio@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: antero@cdtn.br; Resende, Maria Aparecida de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: maresend@mono.icb.ufmg.br; Reis, Bernardo S.; Goes, Alfredo M. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia], e-mail: goes@mono.icb.ufmg.br, e-mail: brsgarbi@mono.icb.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America. To date, there is no effective vaccine. In our laboratory yeast cells of P. brasiliensis were attenuated by gamma irradiation. We defined an absorbed dose in which the pathogen loses the reproductive ability, while retaining the morphology, the synthesis and secretion of proteins and the oxidative metabolism. The immunization with these cells was able to confer protection in BALB/c mice. The aim of the present work was evaluate the immune response pathway activated in mice immunized with P. brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells. The protector effect was evaluated in BALB/c mice groups immunized once or twice, respectively. Each group was divided in three sub groups that were challenge 30, 45 or 60 days after the immunization. These groups were called G1A, G1B and G1C in the group immunized once and G2A, G2B and G2C in the group immunized twice. Recovery of CFUs and cytokines determination (IFN - {gamma}, IL - 10 and IL IV 4) were performed three months post challenge. Quantitative RT-PCR was the method of choice used to quantify the expression of cytokines. The sera were collected weekly to evaluate the IgG antibody titers and the IgG1 and IgG2a pattern in the course of infection. A significant reduction in CFUs recovery was verified 90 days post challenge in mice submitted to one immunization: 73.0%, 96.0% and 76.3% for sub-groups G1A, G1B and G1C, respectively. In the group submitted to two immunizations, a remarkable increase in the protection was obtained. No CFUs was recovered from sub-groups G2B and G2C and very few CFUs (reduction of 98.6%) were recovered from the lungs of sub group G2A. In mice submitted to one immunization, Th1 and Th2 cytokines were simultaneously produced. In the group submitted to two immunizations, levels of IL-10 and IL-4 were very low, while IFN-{gamma} production was maintained indicating that a Th1 pattern was

  18. Autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Edmond M

    2012-02-03

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a rare, chronic inflammatory disorder which has been associated with a number of other auto-immune conditions. However, there are no reports in the medical literature of an association with microscopic (lymphocytic) colitis. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman with several autoimmune conditions, including lymphocytic colitis, who presented with an acute hepatitis. On the basis of the clinical features, serology, and histopathology, we diagnosed autoimmune hepatitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis, and lends support to the theory of an autoimmune etiology for lymphocytic colitis.

  19. Modulation of Th1/Th2 balance by Lactobacillus strains isolated from Kimchi via stimulation of macrophage cell line J774A.1 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Tae Joon; Kim, Bongjoon; Song, Dong Sup; Lim, Young Tae; Oh, Eun Seul; Lee, Do Ik; Park, Eon Sub; Min, Hyeyoung; Park, So-Young; Hwang, Kwang Woo

    2011-03-01

    Lactobacilli isolated from Kimchi, a Korean traditional food, were tested for their capacity to modulate the T helper (Th) 1/Th2 balance. Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mouse splenocytes were cultured with 26 strains of lactobacilli; the highest IL-12 induction and lowest IL-4 production were then observed in 4 strains, including Lactobacillus plantarum CJLP55, CJLP56, CJLP133, and CJLP136. These strains produced a larger amount of IL-12, which enhances differentiation and activation of Th1 cells, in macrophage cell-lines more than positive control strains L. casei KCTC 3109(T) and L. rhamnosus GG, although they also induced production of IL-10, which is a suppressor of IL-12. Indeed, CJLP133-stimulated macrophages induced production of more Th1 cytokine IFN-γ and less Th2 cytokine IL-4 than KCTC 3109(T) and GG in co-cultivation with T cells. These findings suggest that lactobacilli from Kimchi may modulate the Th1/Th2 balance via macrophage activation in the hypersensitive reaction caused by Th2 cells. Allergic reactions including asthma and atopy are caused by predominance of Th2 response over Th1 response. Lactobacilli isolated from fermented foods such as yogurt, cheese, and Kimchi showed health-promoting activities. The present study indicated that several lactobacilli strains from Kimchi may reduce allergic reactions through macrophage-mediated induction of Th1 response.

  20. Overcoming CD4 Th1 Cell Fate Restrictions to Sustain Antiviral CD8 T Cells and Control Persistent Virus Infection

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    Laura M. Snell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Viral persistence specifically inhibits CD4 Th1 responses and promotes Tfh immunity, but the mechanisms that suppress Th1 cells and the disease consequences of their loss are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the loss of CD4 Th1 cells specifically leads to progressive CD8 T cell decline and dysfunction during viral persistence. Therapeutically reconstituting CD4 Th1 cells restored CD4 T cell polyfunctionality, enhanced antiviral CD8 T cell numbers and function, and enabled viral control. Mechanistically, combined interaction of PD-L1 and IL-10 by suppressive dendritic cell subsets inhibited new CD4 Th1 cells in both acute and persistent virus infection, demonstrating an unrecognized suppressive function for PD-L1 in virus infection. Thus, the loss of CD4 Th1 cells is a key event leading to progressive CD8 T cell demise during viral persistence with important implications for restoring antiviral CD8 T cell immunity to control persistent viral infection.

  1. A novel epitope from CD22 regulates Th1 and Th17 cell function in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Yu, Miao; Cao, Ai-Lin; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Li-Hua; Song, You; Cheng, Xiang; Zhou, Zi-Hua; Wang, Min; Guo, He-Ping; Du, Rong; Liao, Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The published antibodies (Abs) against CD22 on B cells including Epratuzumab could inhibit B cell activation mainly through binding to C2-set Ig domain of CD22, but they are rarely reported to modulate the pathogenic CD4(+) T cell function in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Recently, it was proved that the extracellular amino-terminal V-set Ig domain of CD22 might mediate the interaction of B and T cells, but for now the exact effect of this domain on CD4(+) T cell biology have not been identified. Thus, in this study, we screened out a peptide termed B2285 from this V-set Ig domain, developed the novel specific anti-B2285 Abs in rabbits, and investigated their effects in MRL/lpr mice with spontaneous SLE. The results showed that anti-B2285 Abs could ameliorate the disease severity obviously in spontaneous SLE mice with the decreased differentiations of Th1 and Th17 cells and no changes of Th2 and Treg cells. In co-cultured B cells and CD4(+) T cells, this specific anti-CD22 Abs was observed to inhibit the anti-dsDNA Abs production, CD4(+) T cells proliferation, the protein levels of T-bet and RORγt, and the mRNA levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-17 in CD4(+) T cells. Moreover, the expression of CD45RO on CD4(+) T cells could be also apparently diminished by this novel Abs. The data suggested that anti-B2285 Abs could slow SLE progression significantly by regulating Th1 and Th17 cells function via B-T cell interaction and the cytokine network regulation. The treatment against V-set Ig domain of CD22 would be a valuable therapeutic method for SLE and other autoimmune diseases.

  2. A novel epitope from CD22 regulates Th1 and Th17 cell function in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yuan

    Full Text Available The published antibodies (Abs against CD22 on B cells including Epratuzumab could inhibit B cell activation mainly through binding to C2-set Ig domain of CD22, but they are rarely reported to modulate the pathogenic CD4(+ T cell function in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Recently, it was proved that the extracellular amino-terminal V-set Ig domain of CD22 might mediate the interaction of B and T cells, but for now the exact effect of this domain on CD4(+ T cell biology have not been identified. Thus, in this study, we screened out a peptide termed B2285 from this V-set Ig domain, developed the novel specific anti-B2285 Abs in rabbits, and investigated their effects in MRL/lpr mice with spontaneous SLE. The results showed that anti-B2285 Abs could ameliorate the disease severity obviously in spontaneous SLE mice with the decreased differentiations of Th1 and Th17 cells and no changes of Th2 and Treg cells. In co-cultured B cells and CD4(+ T cells, this specific anti-CD22 Abs was observed to inhibit the anti-dsDNA Abs production, CD4(+ T cells proliferation, the protein levels of T-bet and RORγt, and the mRNA levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-17 in CD4(+ T cells. Moreover, the expression of CD45RO on CD4(+ T cells could be also apparently diminished by this novel Abs. The data suggested that anti-B2285 Abs could slow SLE progression significantly by regulating Th1 and Th17 cells function via B-T cell interaction and the cytokine network regulation. The treatment against V-set Ig domain of CD22 would be a valuable therapeutic method for SLE and other autoimmune diseases.

  3. IFN Regulatory Factor 3 Balances Th1 and T Follicular Helper Immunity during Nonlethal Blood-Stage Plasmodium Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Kylie R; Soon, Megan S F; Sebina, Ismail; Fernandez-Ruiz, Daniel; Davey, Gayle; Liligeto, Urijah N; Nair, Arya Sheela; Fogg, Lily G; Edwards, Chelsea L; Best, Shannon E; Lansink, Lianne I M; Schroder, Kate; Wilson, Jane A C; Austin, Rebecca; Suhrbier, Andreas; Lane, Steven W; Hill, Geoffrey R; Engwerda, Christian R; Heath, William R; Haque, Ashraful

    2018-01-10

    Differentiation of CD4+ Th cells is critical for immunity to malaria. Several innate immune signaling pathways have been implicated in the detection of blood-stage Plasmodium parasites, yet their influence over Th cell immunity remains unclear. In this study, we used Plasmodium-reactive TCR transgenic CD4+ T cells, termed PbTII cells, during nonlethal P. chabaudi chabaudi AS and P. yoelii 17XNL infection in mice, to examine Th cell development in vivo. We found no role for caspase1/11, stimulator of IFN genes, or mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein, and only modest roles for MyD88 and TRIF-dependent signaling in controlling PbTII cell expansion. In contrast, IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) was important for supporting PbTII expansion, promoting Th1 over T follicular helper (Tfh) differentiation, and controlling parasites during the first week of infection. IRF3 was not required for early priming by conventional dendritic cells, but was essential for promoting CXCL9 and MHC class II expression by inflammatory monocytes that supported PbTII responses in the spleen. Thereafter, IRF3-deficiency boosted Tfh responses, germinal center B cell and memory B cell development, parasite-specific Ab production, and resolution of infection. We also noted a B cell-intrinsic role for IRF3 in regulating humoral immune responses. Thus, we revealed roles for IRF3 in balancing Th1- and Tfh-dependent immunity during nonlethal infection with blood-stage Plasmodium parasites. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  4. Non-Esterified Fatty Acids Profiling in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Associations with Clinical Features and Th1 Response.

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    Javier Rodríguez-Carrio

    Full Text Available Since lipid compounds are known to modulate the function of CD4+ T-cells and macrophages, we hypothesize that altered levels of serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA may underlie rheumatoid arthritis (RA pathogenesis.Serum levels of NEFA (palmitic, stearic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, γ-linoleic, arachidonic -AA-, linolenic, eicosapentaenoic -EPA- and docosahexaenoic -DHA- were quantified by LC-MS/MS after methyl-tert-butylether (MTBE-extraction in 124 RA patients and 56 healthy controls (HC. CD4+ phenotype was studied by flow cytometry. TNFα, IL-8, VEGF, GM-CSF, IFNγ, IL-17, CCL2, CXCL10, leptin and resistin serum levels were quantified by immunoassays. The effect of FA on IFNγ production by PBMC was evaluated in vitro.Lower levels of palmitic (p<0.0001, palmitoleic (p = 0.002, oleic (p = 0.010, arachidonic (p = 0.027, EPA (p<0.0001 and DHA (p<0.0001 were found in RA patients, some NEFA being altered at onset. Cluster analysis identified a NEFA profile (hallmarked by increased stearic and decreased EPA and DHA overrepresented in RA patients compared to HC (p = 0.002, being associated with clinical features (RF, shared epitope and erosions, increased IFNγ expression in CD4+ T-cells (p = 0.002 and a Th1-enriched serum milieu (IFNγ, CCL2 and CXCL10, all p<0.005. In vitro assays demonstrated that imbalanced FA could underlie IFNγ production by CD4+ T-cells. Finally, changes on NEFA levels were associated with clinical response upon TNFα-blockade.An altered NEFA profile can be found in RA patients associated with clinical characteristics of aggressive disease and enhanced Th1 response. These results support the relevance of lipidomic studies in RA and provide a rationale for new therapeutic targets.

  5. The on-orbit calibration of geometric parameters of the Tian-Hui 1 (TH-1) satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianrong; Wang, Renxiang; Hu, Xin; Su, Zhongbo

    2017-02-01

    The on-orbit calibration of geometric parameters is a key step in improving the location accuracy of satellite images without using Ground Control Points (GCPs). Most methods of on-orbit calibration are based on the self-calibration using additional parameters. When using additional parameters, different number of additional parameters may lead to different results. The triangulation bundle adjustment is another way to calibrate the geometric parameters of camera, which can describe the changes in each geometric parameter. When triangulation bundle adjustment method is applied to calibrate geometric parameters, a prerequisite is that the strip model can avoid systematic deformation caused by the rate of attitude changes. Concerning the stereo camera, the influence of the intersection angle should be considered during calibration. The Equivalent Frame Photo (EFP) bundle adjustment based on the Line-Matrix CCD (LMCCD) image can solve the systematic distortion of the strip model, and obtain high accuracy location without using GCPs. In this paper, the triangulation bundle adjustment is used to calibrate the geometric parameters of TH-1 satellite cameras based on LMCCD image. During the bundle adjustment, the three-line array cameras are reconstructed by adopting the principle of inverse triangulation. Finally, the geometric accuracy is validated before and after on-orbit calibration using 5 testing fields. After on-orbit calibration, the 3D geometric accuracy is improved to 11.8 m from 170 m. The results show that the location accuracy of TH-1 without using GCPs is significantly improved using the on-orbit calibration of the geometric parameters.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus-derived extracellular vesicles induce neutrophilic pulmonary inflammation via both Th1 and Th17 cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M-R; Hong, S-W; Choi, E-B; Lee, W-H; Kim, Y-S; Jeon, S G; Jang, M H; Gho, Y S; Kim, Y-K

    2012-10-01

    Recent evidence indicates that Staphylococcus aureus, one of the most important human pathogens, secretes vesicles into the extracellular milieu. To evaluate whether inhalation of S. aureus-derived extracellular vesicles (EV) is causally related to the pathogenesis of inflammatory pulmonary diseases. Staphylococcus aureus EV were prepared by sequential ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation. The innate immune response was evaluated in vitro after the application of EV to airway epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. In vivo innate and adaptive immune responses were evaluated after airway exposure to EV. Adjuvant effects of EV on the development of hypersensitivity to inhaled allergens were also evaluated after airway sensitization with S. aureus EV and ovalbumin (OVA). Staphylococcus aureus and S. aureus EV were detected in house dust. Alveolar macrophages produced both tumor necrosis α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) after in vitro stimulation with S. aureus EV, whereas airway epithelial cells produced only IL-6. Repeated airway exposure to S. aureus EV induced both Th1 and Th17 cell responses and neutrophilic pulmonary inflammation, mainly via a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-dependent mechanism. In terms of adjuvant effects, airway sensitization with S. aureus EV and OVA resulted in neutrophilic pulmonary inflammation after OVA challenge alone. This phenotype was partly reversed by the absence of interferon γ (IFN-γ) or IL-17. Staphylococcus aureus EV can induce Th1 and Th17 neutrophilic pulmonary inflammation, mainly in a TLR2-dependent manner. Additionally, S. aureus EV enhance the development of airway hypersensitivity to inhaled allergens. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Preferential accumulation of activated Th1 cells not only in rheumatoid arthritis but also in osteoarthritis joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hisakata; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Okazaki, Ken; Mawatari, Taro; Fukushi, Jun-ichi; Oyamada, Akiko; Fujimura, Kenjiro; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Yoshikai, Yasunobu

    2011-08-01

    It was previously found that Th1 but not Th17 cells were predominant in the joints of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To verify whether this is a unique feature of CD4 T cells in RA joints, we performed comparative flow cytometric analysis of CD4 T cells in RA and osteoarthritis (OA) joints. Mononuclear cells were isolated from peripheral blood (PB), synovial membrane (SM), and synovial fluid (SF) from a total of 18 RA and 12 OA patients. The expression of surface molecules and cytokine production of CD4 T cells was examined by a flow cytometer. Most CD4 T cells in RA joints expressed memory/activation markers, such as CD45RO, HLA-DR, and CD69. CCR5 was highly expressed on CD4 T cells in SF but not in PB or SM. With regard to Th17-related molecules, CD4 T cells expressing CCR6 were not enriched in either SF or SM. In contrast, CD161-positive cells were abundant in the joint, many of which, however, produced interferon-γ but not interleukin 17A. Virtually all T cells in OA joints, although much less numerous than in RA joints, expressed activation markers. Th1 cells were predominant in both OA and RA joints, while there were a few Th17 cells. The frequency of Th17 cells in the joint tended to be lower in OA than RA. There was a quantitative but not qualitative difference in CD4 T cells, including the expression of activation markers and cytokine profiles, between RA and OA joints.

  8. Polymorphisms in Th1/Th2 cytokine Genes, hormone replacement therapy, and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongjian eZhu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWe conducted a population-based case-control study in Connecticut women to test the hypothesis that genetic variations in Th1 and Th2 cytokine genes modify the relationship between hormone replacement therapy (HRT and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL. Compared to women without a history of HRT use, women with a history of HRT use had a significantly decreased risk of NHL if they carried IFNGR2 (rs1059293 CT/TT genotypes (OR=0.5, 95%CI: 0.3-0.9, IL13 (rs20541 GG genotype (OR=0.6, 95%CI: 0.4-0.9 and IL13 (rs1295686 CC genotype (OR=0.6, 95%CI: 0.4-0.8, but not among women who carried IFNGR2 CC, IL13 AG /AA and IL13 CT/TT genotypes. A similar pattern was also observed for B-cell lymphoma but not for T-cell lymphoma. A statistically significant interaction was observed for IFNGR2 (rs1059293 Pforinteraction=0.024, IL13 (rs20541 Pforinteraction=0.005, IL13 (rs1295686 Pforinteraction=0.008 and IL15RA (rs2296135 Pforinteraction=0.049 for NHL overall; IL13 (rs20541 Pforinteraction=0.0009, IL13 (rs1295686 Pforinteraction=0.0002, and IL15RA (rs2296135 Pforinteraction=0.041 for B-cell lymphoma. The results suggest that common genetic variation in Th1/Th2 pathway genes may modify the association between HRT and NHL risk.

  9. Genetically Modified Live Attenuated Leishmania donovani Parasites Induce Innate Immunity through Classical Activation of Macrophages That Direct the Th1 Response in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Parna; Dey, Ranadhir; Dagur, Pradeep K.; Kruhlak, Michael; Ismail, Nevien; Debrabant, Alain; Joshi, Amritanshu B.; Akue, Adovi; Kukuruga, Mark; Takeda, Kazuyo; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; McCoy, John Philip

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) causes significant mortality and there is no effective vaccine. Previously, we have shown that genetically modified Leishmania donovani parasites, here described as live attenuated parasites, induce a host protective adaptive immune response in various animal models. In this study, we demonstrate an innate immune response upon infection with live attenuated parasites in macrophages from BALB/c mice both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro infection of macrophages with live attenuated parasites (compared to that with wild-type [WT] L. donovani parasites) induced significantly higher production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-12 [IL-12], gamma interferon [IFN-γ], and IL-6), chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1/CCL-2, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α/CCL-3, and IP-10), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nitric oxide, while concomitantly reducing anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and arginase-1 activities, suggesting a dominant classically activated/M1 macrophage response. The classically activated response in turn helps in presenting antigen to T cells, as observed with robust CD4+ T cell activation in vitro. Similarly, parasitized splenic macrophages from live attenuated parasite-infected mice also demonstrated induction of an M1 macrophage phenotype, indicated by upregulation of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-12, and inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 and downregulation of genes associated with the M2 phenotype, i.e., the IL-10, YM1, Arg-1, and MRC-1 genes, compared to WT L. donovani-infected mice. Furthermore, an ex vivo antigen presentation assay showed macrophages from live attenuated parasite-infected mice induced higher IFN-γ and IL-2 but significantly less IL-10 production by ovalbumin-specific CD4+ T cells, resulting in proliferation of Th1 cells. These data suggest that infection with live attenuated parasites promotes a state of classical activation (M1 dominant) in macrophages that

  10. Genetically Modified Live Attenuated Leishmania donovani Parasites Induce Innate Immunity through Classical Activation of Macrophages That Direct the Th1 Response in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Parna; Dey, Ranadhir; Dagur, Pradeep K; Kruhlak, Michael; Ismail, Nevien; Debrabant, Alain; Joshi, Amritanshu B; Akue, Adovi; Kukuruga, Mark; Takeda, Kazuyo; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; McCoy, John Philip; Nakhasi, Hira L

    2015-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) causes significant mortality and there is no effective vaccine. Previously, we have shown that genetically modified Leishmania donovani parasites, here described as live attenuated parasites, induce a host protective adaptive immune response in various animal models. In this study, we demonstrate an innate immune response upon infection with live attenuated parasites in macrophages from BALB/c mice both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro infection of macrophages with live attenuated parasites (compared to that with wild-type [WT] L. donovani parasites) induced significantly higher production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-12 [IL-12], gamma interferon [IFN-γ], and IL-6), chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1/CCL-2, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α/CCL-3, and IP-10), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nitric oxide, while concomitantly reducing anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and arginase-1 activities, suggesting a dominant classically activated/M1 macrophage response. The classically activated response in turn helps in presenting antigen to T cells, as observed with robust CD4(+) T cell activation in vitro. Similarly, parasitized splenic macrophages from live attenuated parasite-infected mice also demonstrated induction of an M1 macrophage phenotype, indicated by upregulation of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-12, and inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 and downregulation of genes associated with the M2 phenotype, i.e., the IL-10, YM1, Arg-1, and MRC-1 genes, compared to WT L. donovani-infected mice. Furthermore, an ex vivo antigen presentation assay showed macrophages from live attenuated parasite-infected mice induced higher IFN-γ and IL-2 but significantly less IL-10 production by ovalbumin-specific CD4(+) T cells, resulting in proliferation of Th1 cells. These data suggest that infection with live attenuated parasites promotes a state of classical activation (M1 dominant) in macrophages that

  11. A Novel Prime and Boost Regimen of HIV Virus-Like Particles with TLR4 Adjuvant MPLA Induces Th1 Oriented Immune Responses against HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan Poteet

    Full Text Available HIV virus-like particles (VLPs present the HIV envelope protein in its native conformation, providing an ideal vaccine antigen. To enhance the immunogenicity of the VLP vaccine, we sought to improve upon two components; the route of administration and the additional adjuvant. Using HIV VLPs, we evaluated sub-cheek as a novel route of vaccine administration when combined with other conventional routes of immunization. Of five combinations of distinct prime and boost sequences, which included sub-cheek, intranasal, and intradermal routes of administration, intranasal prime and sub-cheek boost (IN+SC resulted in the highest HIV-specific IgG titers among the groups tested. Using the IN+SC regimen we tested the adjuvant VesiVax Conjugatable Adjuvant Lipid Vesicles (CALV + monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA at MPLA concentrations of 0, 7.5, 12.5, and 25 μg/dose in combination with our VLPs. Mice that received 12.5 or 25 μg/dose MPLA had the highest concentrations of Env-specific IgG2c (20.7 and 18.4 μg/ml respectively, which represents a Th1 type of immune response in C57BL/6 mice. This was in sharp contrast to mice which received 0 or 7.5 μg MPLA adjuvant (6.05 and 5.68 μg/ml of IgG2c respectively. In contrast to IgG2c, MPLA had minor effects on Env-specific IgG1; therefore, 12.5 and 25 μg/dose of MPLA induced the optimal IgG1/IgG2c ratio of 1.3. Additionally, the percentage of germinal center B cells increased significantly from 15.4% in the control group to 31.9% in the CALV + 25 μg MPLA group. These mice also had significantly more IL-2 and less IL-4 Env-specific CD8+ T cells than controls, correlating with an increased percentage of Env-specific central memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Our study shows the strong potential of IN+SC as an efficacious route of administration and the effectiveness of VLPs combined with MPLA adjuvant to induce Env specific Th1-oriented HIV-specific immune responses.

  12. Pre-existing adenovirus immunity modifies a complex mixed Th1 and Th2 cytokine response to an Ad5/HIV-1 vaccine candidate in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel O Pine

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of the recent Step Study highlight a need to clarify the effects of pre-existing natural immunity to a vaccine vector on vaccine-induced T-cell responses. To investigate this interaction, we examined the relationship between pre-existing Ad5 immunity and T-cell cytokine response profiles in healthy, HIV-uninfected recipients of MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag vaccine (HVTN 050, ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00849732. Participants were grouped by baseline Ad5 neutralizing antibody titer as either Ad5-seronegative (titer ≤18; n = 36 or Ad5-seropositive (titer >200; n = 34. Samples from vaccine recipients were analyzed for immune responses to either HIV-1 Gag peptide pools or Ad5 empty vector using an ex vivo assay that measures thirty cytokines in the absence of long-term culture. The overall profiles of cytokine responses to Gag and Ad5 had similar combinations of induced Th1- and Th2-type cytokines, including IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α, IP-10, IL-13, and IL-10, although the Ad5-specific responses were uniformly higher than the Gag-specific responses (p<0.0001 for 9 out of 11 significantly expressed analytes. At the peak response time point, PBMC from Ad5-seronegative vaccinees secreted significantly more IP-10 in response to Gag (p = 0.008, and significantly more IP-10 (p = 0.0009, IL-2 (p = 0.006 and IL-10 (p = 0.05 in response to Ad5 empty vector than PBMC from Ad5-seropositive vaccinees. Additionally, similar responses to the Ad5 vector prior to vaccination were observed in almost all subjects, regardless of Ad5 neutralizing antibody status, and the levels of secreted IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-1Ra and GM-CSF were blunted following vaccination. The cytokine response profile of Gag-specific T cells mirrored the Ad5-specific response present in all subjects before vaccination, and included a number of Th1- and Th2-associated cytokines not routinely assessed in current vaccine trials, such as IP-10, IL-10, IL-13, and GM-CSF. Together, these

  13. Elongation factor-2, a Th1 stimulatory protein of Leishmania donovani, generates strong IFN-γ and IL-12 response in cured Leishmania-infected patients/hamsters and protects hamsters against Leishmania challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushawaha, Pramod K; Gupta, Reema; Sundar, Shyam; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh A; Dube, Anuradha

    2011-12-15

    In visceral leishmaniasis, Th1 types of immune responses correlate with recovery from and resistance to disease, and resolution of infection results in lifelong immunity against the disease. Leishmanial Ags that elicit proliferative and cytokine responses in PBMCs from cured/exposed/Leishmania patients have been characterized through proteomic approaches, and elongation factor-2 is identified as one of the potent immunostimulatory proteins. In this study, we report the cloning and expression of Leishmania donovani elongation factor-2 protein (LelF-2) and its immunogenicity in PBMCs of cured/exposed Leishmania-infected patients and hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Leishmania-infected cured/exposed patients and hamsters exhibited significantly higher proliferative responses to recombinant Lelf-2 (rLelF-2) than those with L. donovani-infected hosts. The soluble L. donovani Ag stimulated PBMCs of cured/exposed and Leishmania patients to produce a mixed Thl/Th2-type cytokine profile, whereas rLelF-2 stimulated the production of IFN-γ, IL-12, and TNF-α but not IL-4 or IL-10. Further, rLelF-2 downregulated LPS-induced IL-10 as well as soluble L. donovani Ag-induced IL-4 production by Leishmania patient PBMCs. The immunogenicity of rLelF-2 was also checked in hamsters in which rLelF-2 generates strong IL-12- and IFN-γ-mediated Th1 immune response. This was further supported by a remarkable increase in IgG2 Ab level. We further demonstrated that rLelF-2 was able to provide considerable protection (∼65%) to hamsters against L. donovani challenge. The efficacy was supported by the increased inducible NO synthase mRNA transcript and Th1-type cytokines IFN-γ, IL-12, and TNF-α and downregulation of IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β. Hence, it is inferred that rLelF-2 elicits a Th1 type of immune response exclusively and confers considerable protection against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

  14. Immunization of Mice with a Live Transconjugant Shigella Hybrid Strain Induced Th1 and Th17 Cell-Mediated Immune Responses and Confirmed Passive Protection Against Heterologous Shigellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, D; Koley, H; Sinha, R; Mukherjee, P; Sarkar, C; Withey, J H; Gachhui, R

    2016-02-01

    An avirulent, live transconjugant Shigella hybrid (LTSHΔstx) strain was constructed in our earlier study by introducing a plasmid vector, pPR1347, into a Shiga toxin gene deleted Shigella dysenteriae 1. Three successive oral administrations of LTSHΔstx to female adult mice produced comprehensive passive heterologous protection in their offspring against challenge with wild-type shigellae. Production of NO and different cytokines such asIL-12p70, IL-1β and IL-23 in peritoneal mice macrophages indicated that LTSHΔstx induced innate and adaptive immunity in mice. Furthermore, production of IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-17 in LTSH-primed splenic CD4+ T cell suggested that LTSHΔstx may induce Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated immune responses. Exponential increase of the serum IgG and IgA titre against whole shigellae was observed in immunized adult mice during and after the immunization with the highest peak on day 35. Antigen-specific sIgA was also determined from intestinal lavage of immunized mice. The stomach extracts of neonates from immunized mice, mainly containing mother's milk, contained significant levels of anti-LTSHΔstx immunoglobulin. These studies suggest that the LTSHΔstx could be a new live oral vaccine candidate against shigellosis in the near future. © 2015 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  15. Discrimination of human cytotoxic lymphocytes from regulatory and B-lymphocytes by orthogonal light scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; de Grooth, B.G.; ten Napel, C.H.H.; van Berkel, W.; Greve, Jan

    1986-01-01

    Light scattering properties of human lymphocyte subpopulations selected by immunofluorescence were studied with a flow cytometer. Regulatory and B-lymphocytes showed a low orthogonal light scatter signal, whereas cytotoxic lymphocytes identified with leu-7, leu-11 and leu-15 revealed a large

  16. Serum microRNAs as biomarkers of human lymphocyte activation in health and disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola ede Candia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Induction of the adaptive immune system is evaluated mostly by assessment of serum antibody titers and T lymphocyte responses in peripheral blood, although T and B cell activation occurs in lymphoid tissues. In recent years, the release of microRNAs (miRNAs in the extra-cellular environment has been exploited to assess cell functions at distance via measurement of serum miRNAs. Also activated lymphocytes release a large amount of nano-sized vesicles (exosomes, containing miRNA, but there are still few data on whether this phenomenon is reflected in modulation of serum miRNAs. Interestingly, miRNA signatures of CD4+ T cell-derived exosomes are substantially different from intracellular miRNA signatures of the same cells. We have recently identified serum circulating miR-150 as a sensor of general lymphocyte activation and we strongly believe that the identification of miRNAs differentially released by specific CD4+ effector T cell subsets (Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg may work as serum biomarkers of their elicitation in lymphoid tissues but also in damaged tissues, thus providing pivotal information about the nature of immune responses occurring in health and disease.

  17. beta1 integrins are not required for the maintenance of lymphocytes within intestinal epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsal, Jan; Brakebusch, Cord; Bungartz, Gerd

    2005-01-01

    TCRalphabeta) and type b (CD8alphaalphaTCRgammadelta and CD8alphaalphaTCRalphabeta) intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) subsets within the mouse small intestine were found to express functional beta(1) integrin and the beta(1) integrin alpha chain partners alpha(1), alpha(2), and alpha(4). Using inducible beta(1) integrin...... IEL express functional beta(1) integrins, these are not required to maintain lymphocytes within intestinal epithelia. This result is discussed in the light of conventional views of intestinal lymphocyte homing and localization.......beta(1) integrins are thought to play a central role in maintaining lymphocytes within mucosal epithelia via their interactions with extracellular matrix proteins and subepithelial cellular components within and underlying the basement membrane. In the current study type a (CD8alphabeta...

  18. [Laboratory diagnosis of lymphocytic meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marí, José María Navarro; Ruiz, Mercedes Pérez; Anza, Diego Vicente

    2010-01-01

    Lymphocytic meningitis, mainly those with an acute and benign course, are caused by viruses. In our area, the most commonly involved agents are enteroviruses, herpes simplex, varicella zoster and Toscana viruses. Nucleic acids amplification techniques (NAAT) are the methods of choice to diagnose viral meningitis from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. They are more rapid and sensitive, and indeed, they are not influenced by the viability of the virus in the clinical specimen as traditional methods are. The development of commercial equipments, the degree of automation, and the use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems are the most important premises to choose the molecular method in each laboratory. Recently, commercial kits of real-time PCR are available for the detection of enteroviruses and herpesviruses, which are the most frequently viruses involved in meningitis. Although NAAT from the clinical sample have replaced cell culture for diagnostic purposes, the combination of both methods remain useful. When the detection of the causal agent from the CSF sample is not possible, other specimens (pharyngeal exudates, stools) or serological methods can be used. Serology is the reference method for meningitis caused by West Nile virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, which are less frequently detected in our area. 2010 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. B-lymphocytes as key players in chemical-induced asthma.

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    Vanessa De Vooght

    Full Text Available T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes are key players in allergic asthma, with B-lymphocytes producing antigen-specific immunoglobulins E (IgE. We used a mouse model of chemical-induced asthma and transferred B-lymphocytes from sensitized animals into naïve wild type mice, B-lymphocyte knock-out (B-KO mice or severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice. On days 1 and 8, BALB/c mice were dermally sensitized with 0.3% toluene diisocyanate (TDI (20 µl/ear. On day 15, mice were euthanized and the auricular lymph nodes isolated. B-lymphocytes (CD19(+ were separated from the whole cell suspension and 175,000 cells were injected in the tail vein of naïve wild type, B-KO or SCID mice. Three days later, the mice received a single oropharyngeal challenge with 0.01% TDI (20 µl or vehicle (acetone/olive oil (AOO (controls. Airway reactivity to methacholine and total and differential cell counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid were measured 24 hours after challenge. B-lymphocytes of AOO or TDI-sensitized mice were characterized for the expression of surface markers and production of cytokines. We found that transfer of B-cells obtained from mice dermally sensitized to toluene diisocyanate (TDI into naïve wild type mice, B-KO mice or SCID mice led, within three days, to an acute asthma-like phenotype after an airway challenge with TDI. This response was specific and independent of IgE. These B-lymphocytes showed antigen presenting capacities (CD80/CD86 and CD40 and consisted of B effector (Be2- (IL-4 and Be1-lymphocytes (IFN-γ. The transferred B-lymphocytes were visualized near large airways, 24 hours after TDI challenge. Thus, B-lymphocytes can provoke an asthmatic response without the action of T-lymphocytes and without major involvement of IgE.

  20. Automated Scoring and Analysis of Micronucleated Human Lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callisen, Hannes Heinrich

    originate not only from chromosome fragments or from whole chromosomes, but also from dicentrics, (c) distributions of DNA content may serve as a means to identify the type of chromosome damage that had been incurred (i.e. ionizing radiation or chemicals), and (d) texture analysis coupled with feature analysis may allow us to estimate the number of proliferating lymphocytes and in turn compute the extent of chromosome damage more accurately.

  1. Growing B Lymphocytes in a Three-Dimensional Culture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J. H. David; Bottaro, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) culture system for growing long-lived B lymphocytes has been invented. The capabilities afforded by the system can be expected to expand the range of options for immunological research and related activities, including testing of immunogenicity of vaccine candidates in vitro, generation of human monoclonal antibodies, and immunotherapy. Mature lymphocytes, which are the effectors of adaptive immune responses in vertebrates, are extremely susceptible to apoptotic death, and depend on continuous reception of survival-inducing stimulation (in the forms of cytokines, cell-to-cell contacts, and antigen receptor signaling) from the microenvironment. For this reason, efforts to develop systems for long-term culture of functional, non-transformed and non-activated mature lymphocytes have been unsuccessful until now. The bone-marrow microenvironment supports the growth and differentiation of many hematopoietic lineages, in addition to B-lymphocytes. Primary bone-marrow cell cultures designed to promote the development of specific cell types in vitro are highly desirable experimental systems, amenable to manipulation under controlled conditions. However, the dynamic and complex network of stromal cells and insoluble matrix proteins is disrupted in prior plate- and flask-based culture systems, wherein the microenvironments have a predominantly two-dimensional (2D) character. In 2D bone-marrow cultures, normal B-lymphoid cells become progressively skewed toward precursor B-cell populations that do not retain a normal immunophenotype, and such mature B-lymphocytes as those harvested from the spleen or lymph nodes do not survive beyond several days ex vivo in the absence of mitogenic stimulation. The present 3D culture system is a bioreactor that contains highly porous artificial scaffolding that supports the long-term culture of bone marrow, spleen, and lymph-node samples. In this system, unlike in 2D culture systems, B-cell subpopulations developing

  2. Human Blood CD1c+ Dendritic Cells Promote Th1 and Th17 Effector Function in Memory CD4+ T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid M. Leal Rojas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC initiate the differentiation of CD4+ helper T cells into effector cells including Th1 and Th17 responses that play an important role in inflammation and autoimmune disease pathogenesis. In mice, Th1 and Th17 responses are regulated by different conventional (c DC subsets, with cDC1 being the main producers of IL-12p70 and inducers of Th1 responses, while cDC2 produce IL-23 to promote Th17 responses. The role that human DC subsets play in memory CD4+ T cell activation is not known. This study investigated production of Th1 promoting cytokine IL-12p70, and Th17 promoting cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-23, by human blood monocytes, CD1c+ DC, CD141+ DC, and plasmacytoid DC and examined their ability to induce Th1 and Th17 responses in memory CD4+ T cells. Human CD1c+ DC produced IL-12p70, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-23 in response to R848 combined with LPS or poly I:C. CD141+ DC were also capable of producing IL-12p70 and IL-23 but were not as proficient as CD1c+ DC. Activated CD1c+ DC were endowed with the capacity to promote both Th1 and Th17 effector function in memory CD4+ T cells, characterized by high production of interferon-γ, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, and IL-22. These findings support a role for CD1c+ DC in autoimmune inflammation where Th1/Th17 responses play an important role in disease pathogenesis.

  3. The Danish National Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Caspar; Geisler, Christian Hartmann; Enggaard, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    AIM: In 2008, the Danish National Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Registry was founded within the Danish National Hematology Database. The primary aim of the registry is to assure quality of diagnosis and care of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in Denmark. Secondarily, to evaluate...

  4. Hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase isozymes in lymphocyte subpopulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijksen, G.; Kraaijenhagen, R.J.; Heijden, M.C.M. van der; Streefkerk, M.; Gast, G.C. de; Staal, Gerard E.J.

    1984-01-01

    In order to study the three regulator enzymes of glycolysis, hexokinase (HK). phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvate kinase (PK), in relation to lymphocyte maturation, lymphocytes of different origin were investigated. Lymphocytes from bone marrow, thymus, cord blood, adult peripheral blood and

  5. Targeting the Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated-null phenotype in chronic lymphocytic leukemia with pro-oxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agathanggelou, Angelo; Weston, Victoria J.; Perry, Tracey; Davies, Nicholas J.; Skowronska, Anna; Payne, Daniel T.; Fossey, John S.; Oldreive, Ceri E.; Wei, Wenbin; Pratt, Guy; Parry, Helen; Oscier, David; Coles, Steve J.; Hole, Paul S.; Darley, Richard L.; McMahon, Michael; Hayes, John D.; Moss, Paul; Stewart, Grant S.; Taylor, A. Malcolm R.; Stankovic, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Inactivation of the Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated gene in chronic lymphocytic leukemia results in resistance to p53-dependent apoptosis and inferior responses to treatment with DNA damaging agents. Hence, p53-independent strategies are required to target Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated-deficient chronic lymphocytic leukemia. As Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated has been implicated in redox homeostasis, we investigated the effect of the Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated-null chronic lymphocytic leukemia genotype on cellular responses to oxidative stress with a view to therapeutic targeting. We found that in comparison to Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated-wild type chronic lymphocytic leukemia, pro-oxidant treatment of Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated-null cells led to reduced binding of NF-E2 p45-related factor-2 to antioxidant response elements and thus decreased expression of target genes. Furthermore, Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated-null chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells contained lower levels of antioxidants and elevated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Consequently, Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated-null chronic lymphocytic leukemia, but not tumors with 11q deletion or TP53 mutations, exhibited differentially increased sensitivity to pro-oxidants both in vitro and in vivo. We found that cell death was mediated by a p53- and caspase-independent mechanism associated with apoptosis inducing factor activity. Together, these data suggest that defective redox-homeostasis represents an attractive therapeutic target for Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated-null chronic lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:25840602

  6. Perinuclear Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies in Collagenous or Lymphocytic Colitis with or without Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh James Freeman

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic forms of colitis, including lymphocytic and collagenous colitis, have been observed in both those with and without celiac disease. Although perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (p-ANCA occur in most patients with ulcerative colitis, investigations in microscopic, particularly lymphocytic, colitis are still needed. In this study atypical p-ANCA was evaluated in 55 patients, including 27 with celiac disease alone, 13 with celiac disease and concomitant lymphocytic colitis, and 15 with microscopic forms of colitis, including lymphocytic and collagenous colitis. Nine patients (16.3% had atypical p-ANCA, including six with celiac disease and three with a microscopic form of colitis alone. Although five of the six positive celiac disease patients had lymphocytic colitis, all three celiac disease patients with associated primary sclerosing cholangitis - a separate risk factor for a positive assay result - were serologically positive for atypical p-ANCA. These results indicate for the first time that this serological marker may occur in histologically defined celiac disease with or without concomitant lymphocytic colitis. Furthermore, these results suggest that the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis differs from that of lymphocytic colitis and further emphasizes the heterogeneous nature of these newly recognized types of colonic inflammatory mucosal disorders.

  7. DNA immunization against amyloid beta 42 has high potential as safe therapy for Alzheimer's disease as it diminishes antigen-specific Th1 and Th17 cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambracht-Washington, Doris; Qu, Bao-Xi; Fu, Min; Anderson, Larry D; Stüve, Olaf; Eagar, Todd N; Rosenberg, Roger N

    2011-08-01

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been strongly associated with the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides in brain, and immunotherapy targeting Aβ provides potential for AD prevention. A clinical trial in which AD patients were immunized with Aβ42 peptide was stopped when 6% of participants showed meningoencephalitis, apparently due to an inflammatory Th