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Sample records for th1 cytokine production

  1. Th1/Th2 cytokine production and reception features in Graves' disease

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    T V Saprina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines and their receptors belong to a significant role in the initiation and the subsequent course and outcome of autoimmune thyroid disease. Interleukin-2 (IL-2, interleukin-4 (IL-4 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α-cytokines, which have a multifaceted impact on the various stages of the immune response: the development of inflammatory response, cell proliferation, antibody and acute phase proteins synthesis. Pre-existing pattern of development of autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease (GD as a state with two opposite positions of the predominant profile of Th1/Th2-lymphocyte activation. The study evaluated the cytokine production by Th1- and Th2-lymphocytes in patients with GD, assessment of lymphocyte receptor system and identified lymphocytes subpopulation in patients with BG, and the impact on the functional state of thyroid gland. It was shown that the immunoregulatory cytokines as Th1(IL2- and Th2(IL-4-helper lymphocytes are involved in the immune mechanism of BG. The level of IL-2, IL4, and TNF-α, and the number complementary lymphocyte receptors were not significantly changed in euthyroid or hyperthyroid GD patient. Nevertheless, there are strong correla! tions between production of immunoregulatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-4 with the functional state of the thyroid gland and increase of its volume in GD patient, what confirms the “functional synergies” of these cytokines in autoimmune inflammation in the GD.

  2. Lactobacillus Acidophilus Strain L-92 Regulates the Production of Th1 Cytokine as well as Th2 Cytokines

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    Akiko Torii

    2007-01-01

    Conclusions: Oral L-92 administration regulated both Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses, suppressed serum OVA-specific IgE, and induced TGF-β production in PPs. TGF-β is known to be associated with activation of regulatory T (Treg cells. These data suggest that LAB may have immunomodulative effect by Treg cells via TGF-β activity.

  3. Enhancement of Th1 type cytokine production and primary T cell activation by PBI-1393.

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    Allam, Mustapha; Julien, Nathalie; Zacharie, Boulos; Penney, Christopher; Gagnon, Lyne

    2007-12-01

    In previous reports, we have shown that PBI-1393 (formerly BCH-1393), N,N-Dimethylaminopurine pentoxycarbonyl D-arginine, stimulates cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses both in vitro and in vivo in normal immune status and immunosuppressed mice. Additionally, PBI-1393 was tested for anticancer activity in syngeneic mouse experimental tumor models and it displayed significant inhibition of tumor outgrowths when given in combination with sub-therapeutic doses of cytotoxic drugs (cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin and cis-platinum). However, the mechanism of action of PBI-1393 was still unknown. Here, we report that PBI-1393 enhances IL-2 and IFN-gamma production in human activated T cells by 51% and 46% respectively. PBI-1393 increases also IL-2 and IFN-gamma mRNA expression as shown by RT-PCR. The physiological relevance of IL-2 and IFN-gamma gene modulation by PBI-1393 is illustrated by the advantageous increase of T cell proliferation (39+/-0.3% above control) and human CTL response against prostate (PC-3) cancer cells (42+/-0.03%). The enhancement of human T cell proliferation and CTL activation by PBI-1393 demonstrates that this compound potentiates the immune response and in this regard, it could be used as an alternative approach to IL-2 and/or IFN-gamma therapy against cancer.

  4. Oral Administration of p-Hydroxycinnamic Acid Attenuates Atopic Dermatitis by Downregulating Th1 and Th2 Cytokine Production and Keratinocyte Activation.

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    Hyun-Su Lee

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a complex disease that is caused by various factors, including environmental change, genetic defects, and immune imbalance. We previously showed that p-hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA isolated from the roots of Curcuma longa inhibits T-cell activation without inducing cell death. Here, we demonstrated that oral administration of HCA in a mouse model of ear AD attenuates the following local and systemic AD manifestations: ear thickening, immune-cell infiltration, production of AD-promoting immunoregulatory cytokines in ear tissues, increased spleen and draining lymph node size and weight, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production by draining lymph nodes, and elevated serum immunoglobulin production. HCA treatment of CD4+ T cells in vitro suppressed their proliferation and differentiation into Th1 or Th2 and their Th1 and Th2 cytokine production. HCA treatment of keratinocytes lowered their production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines that drive either Th1 or Th2 responses in AD. Thus, HCA may be of therapeutic potential for AD as it acts by suppressing keratinocyte activation and downregulating T-cell differentiation and cytokine production.

  5. Nickel elicits concomitant and correlated in vitro production of Th1-, Th2-type and regulatory cytokines in subjects with contact allergy to nickel.

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    Minang, J T; Troye-Blomberg, M; Lundeberg, L; Ahlborg, N

    2005-09-01

    Nickel (Ni2+) elicits production of functionally distinct cytokines in vitro, but the relation between the cytokine profile and the degree of the allergic reaction in vivo needs to be better defined in order to improve the understanding of the immunological mechanisms involved in contact allergy and to facilitate development of in vitro diagnostics. The aim of the study was to define Th1-type [interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)], Th2-type [interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5 and IL-13] and regulatory (IL-10) cytokine responses to Ni2+ in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from subjects with varying patch test reactivity to Ni2+. The study included subjects with strong (+3), moderate (+2), weak (+1) or negative (controls) patch test reactivity to Ni2+ (n = 10 per group). All +3 and +2 subjects but only three +1 subjects had a clinical history of contact allergy to Ni(2+). Cytokine production of PBMC stimulated with Ni(2+) was determined by enzyme-linked immunospot and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ni2+ elicited significant production of all cytokines in PBMC from patch-test-positive subjects versus controls with a positive correlation between each cytokine and the patch test reactivity as well as with other cytokines. More subjects responded to Ni2+ above cut-off values with Th2-type cytokines as compared with IFN-gamma or IL-10; 100% of +3, 80% of +2, 50% of +1 and 0% of control subjects displayed reactivity to Ni2+ based on IL-4 and IL-13 assays. Despite the prevailing view of Ni2+ allergy as a type-1-mediated condition, the in vivo reactivity to Ni2+ correlated with a mixed Th1-type, Th2-type and regulatory cytokine response to Ni2+in vitro. The results accentuate the importance of type 2 responses in contact allergy and also demonstrate that IL-4 and IL-13 are reliable markers for Ni2+ allergy.

  6. Variation of transaminases, HCV-RNA levels and Th1/Th2 cytokine production during the post-partum period in pregnant women with chronic hepatitis C.

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    Angeles Ruiz-Extremera

    Full Text Available This study analyses the evolution of liver disease in women with chronic hepatitis C during the third trimester of pregnancy and the post-partum period, as a natural model of immune modulation and reconstitution. Of the 122 mothers recruited to this study, 89 were HCV-RNA+ve/HIV-ve and 33 were HCV-RNA-ve/HIV-ve/HCVantibody+ve and all were tested during the third trimester of pregnancy, at delivery and post-delivery. The HCV-RNA+ve mothers were categorized as either Type-A (66%, with an increase in ALT levels in the post-partum period (>40 U/L; P<0.001 or as Type-B (34%, with no variation in ALT values. The Type-A mothers also presented a significant decrease in serum HCV-RNA levels in the post-delivery period (P<0.001 and this event was concomitant with an increase in Th1 cytokine levels (INFγ, P = 0.04; IL12, P = 0.01 and IL2, P = 0.01. On the other hand, the Type-B mothers and the HCV-RNA-ve women presented no variations in either of these parameters. However, they did present higher Th1 cytokine levels in the partum period (INFγ and IL2, P<0.05 than both the Type-A and the HCV-RNA-ve women. Cytokine levels at the moment of delivery do not constitute a risk factor associated with HCV vertical transmission. It is concluded that differences in the ALT and HCV-RNA values observed in HCV-RNA+ve women in the postpartum period might be due to different ratios of Th1 cytokine production. In the Type-B women, the high partum levels of Th1 cytokines and the absence of post-partum variation in ALT and HCV-RNA levels may be related to permanent Th1 cytokine stimulation.

  7. TLR2 and TLR4 co-activation utilizes distinct signaling pathways for the production of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in neonatal immune cells.

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    Sugitharini, V; Shahana, P; Prema, A; Berla Thangam, E

    2016-09-01

    Co-activation of TLR2 and TLR4 by gram negative and gram positive bacterial ligands induces a robust pro-inflammatory response in inflammatory cells. In order to understand the signaling mechanism, we aimed to delineate the signaling molecules involved in TLR2 and TLR4 co-activation in neonatal immune cells for the production of Th1/Th2/Th17 inflammatory cytokines. For this, we pretreated cord blood and peripheral blood mononuclear and human mast cells with specific signaling molecule inhibitors such as BAY117082, PD98059 and LY294002 and then stimulated with LPS and PGN and assayed for cytokines IL-6, IL-12/IL-23p40 (Th1), IL-13 (Th2), IL-23 (Th17) and RANTES secretion. We found that upon co-stimulation the phosphorylation of NFκBp65, ERK1/2 and Akt was found to be higher than when stimulated with individual ligands in CBMCs. Also, when compared to adult cells, neonatal cells were more potent in the activation of ERK and Akt through TLR2 and TLR4 co-activation. In addition, neonatal cells possess similar capacity to activate NFκB as that of adult cells for IL-6 secretion. Furthermore, all three signaling molecules were found to be involved in the production of Th17 cytokines which is detrimental during inflammation induced by infection in neonates whereas NFκB is mainly involved in the induction of pro-inflammatory response and Th2 cytokines production. In conclusion, different signaling molecules were utilized for the production of different cytokines in immune cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Two-step activation of T cells, clonal expansion and subsequent Th1 cytokine production, is essential for the development of clinical autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    Jee, Y; Matsumoto, Y

    2001-06-01

    Lewis rats immunized with guinea pig myelin basic protein (GPBP) emulsified with incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) do not develop experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, we found that GPBP/IFA with pertussis toxin (PT) administration induced full-blown EAE. By comparing the immunological status of rats immunized with GPBP/IFA plus PT [PT (+) rats] with that of rats immunized with GPBP/IFA alone [PT (-) rats], we tried to elucidate the pathomechanisms of EAE. Analysis of the TCR clonality by CDR3 spectratyping revealed that Vbeta8.2 and Vbeta10 expansion of T cells occurred in both PT (-) and PT (+) rats, indicating that activation of T cells at this level is not sufficient for the development of clinical EAE. Quantitation of cytokine mRNA and protein revealed that PT (-) rats showed a Th2-dominant, while PT (+) rats showed a Th1-dominant, cytokine profile. Furthermore, administration of IL-12, but not of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, induced clinical EAE in GPBP/IFA-immunized animals. Taken together, two-step activation, activation of T cells bearing a particular type of TCR by antigen immunization and subsequent overproduction of Th1 cytokines, mainly IL-12 production, induced by appropriate adjuvants is essential for the development of clinical EAE.

  9. Cytokines in systemic lupus erythematosus: far beyond Th1/Th2 dualism lupus: cytokine profiles.

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    Guimarães, Poliana Macedo; Scavuzzi, Bruna Miglioranza; Stadtlober, Nicole Perugini; Franchi Santos, Lorena Flor da Rosa; Lozovoy, Marcell Alysson Batisti; Iriyoda, Tatiana Mayumi Veiga; Costa, Neide Tomimura; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Maes, Michael; Dichi, Isaias; Simão, Andréa Name Colado

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this study were to delineate cytokine profiles of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), construct prediction models for diagnosis and disease activity using those profiles, and to examine the associations between TNFB Ncol polymorphism, body mass index (BMI) and vitamin D levels with cytokine levels. Two hundred SLE patients and 196 healthy controls participated in this case-control study. Plasma cytokines levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL- 4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-17 were measured and cytokines profiles were computed. IL-6, IL-12, IL-17, IFN-γ and IL-10 levels were significantly higher in SLE, while IL-4 was lower in SLE. The Th1/Th2 and Th1+Th17/Th2 profiles were significantly higher in SLE than in healthy controls, whereas there were no significant differences in the proinflammatory cytokine profile (TNFα+IL-6+IL-1β). In total, 90.4% of all subjects were correctly classified using Th1+Th17 profile and IL-10 (positively associated) and IL-4 (negatively associated) as predictor variables (sensitivity=66.7% and specificity=96.9%). In all, 20.9% of the variance in the SLE Disease Activity Index was predicted by the Th1+Th17/Th2 ratio, IL-10 and BMI (all positively) and proinflammatory profile (inversely associated). B1/B1 genotype is accompanied by increased IL-17 and Th17/Th2 ratio, while B1/B2 genotype is accompanied by higher IL-4 and IFNγ values. 25-OH vitamin D was inversely associated with IFN-γ levels. SLE is accompanied by Th1, Th17 and Treg profile and lowered IL-4 production. Lowered vitamin D levels and B1/B1 genotype, but not BMI, contribute to changes in cytokines profiles. Future treatments should target Th1, Th2 and Th17 profiles rather than inflammatory cytokines.

  10. Th1/Th2 cytokine expression in diabetic retinopathy.

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    Cao, Y L; Zhang, F Q; Hao, F Q

    2016-07-15

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR), an important complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), is not well understood. T helper cell balance (Th1/Th2) is involved in various autoimmune diseases; however, its role in DR is not understood. This study explores changes in Th1 and Th2 cytokine expression during DR. Blood samples were collected from 25 healthy volunteers (normal control group), 35 patients with type 2 DM (T2DM group) without DR, and 30 cases of T2DM patients with DR (DR group). Real-time PCR was used to measure mRNA expression of IL-2 and TNF-α, secreted from Th1 cells, and of IL-4 and IL-10, secreted from Th2 cells. We used ELISA to detect cytokine expression in serum to analyze the correlation between Th1 and Th2 cytokines. IL-2 and TNF-αmRNA and protein expression levels in the T2DM and DR groups were significantly higher than in the normal control group (P 0.05). IL-2 and TNF-αwere negatively correlated with IL-4 and IL-10 in the DR group, respectively. We found that Th1 cytokine secretion was higher and Th2 cytokines secretion was lower during DR, leading to a Th1/ Th2 imbalance, suggesting that Th1/Th2 imbalance is a side effect for DR occurrence and development.

  11. Aberrant Production of Th1/Th2/Th17-Related Cytokines in Serum of C57BL/6 Mice after Short-Term Formaldehyde Exposure

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    Haiyan Wei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that formaldehyde (FA could cause immunotoxicity by changing the number of T lymphocytes and that cytokines play a pivotal role in the regulation of T lymphocytes. However, the previously used cytokine detection methods are difficult to use in the measurement of several cytokines in a small amount of sample for one test. Therefore, the cytometric bead array (CBA technique was used. CBA showed better analytical efficiency and sensitivity than the previous methods. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to the control (normal saline, low FA concentration (0.5 mg/kg, and high FA concentration (2 mg/kg for 1 week or 1 month. The contents of cytokines, including Th1-related cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ, and tumor necrosis factor, Th2-related cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10, and Th17-related cytokines (IL-17A, were measured by using the BD FACS Canto II Flow Cytometer and analyzed by FCAP ArrayTM Software. Th1/Th2/Th17-related cytokines showed a slightly decreasing trend after low FA exposure. Conversely, a significantly increasing trend was found after high FA exposure. Th1/Th2/Th17-related cytokines all serve important functions in the immune reactions in mice after FA exposure.

  12. TH1 and TH2 Cytokines Production and NK Cell Level Assessment in Peripheral Blood of Patients with DDH.

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    Akyol, Sibel; Hancı, Murat

    2013-08-01

    In this study, our aim is; if the studies will quide us in peripheral blood, for the changes in inflammatory cytokine levels we defined before DDH tissue. Twenty-six patients were suggestive of lumbar DDH were included in this study. Control subjects included 14 autopsy cases. From each patient, disc tissues and peripheral blood samples for plasma were collected during the surgery. For the controls, disc samples and blood for plasma by intracardiac puncture were obtained during autopsy. The Flow Cytometry was used to obtain the lymphocyte CD56 (NK). The Luminex was used to obtain IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-gamma, in both plasma and disc tissues. The results were compared between the two groups. Comparing the two groups regarding plasma demonstrated that IL-2, IL-4, IL-12, IFN-gamma were significantly higher than in patients than those of the controls. Likewise, tissue levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha, CD56 were found to be significantly higher in the patients. With respect to the comparison between the plasma disc samples in the patients, plasma showed significant higher levels of IL-2, IL-12 on the other hand IL-4 was found to be significantly higher in the disc samples. Findings suggest that only tissue samples responses in occurring but not blood samples. We don't think our results in peripheral blood will guide us specifically in DDH.

  13. Epithelium derived interleukin 15 regulates intraepithelial lymphocyte Th1 cytokine production, cytotoxicity, and survival in coeliac disease

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    Sabatino, A Di; Ciccocioppo, R; Cupelli, F; Cinque, B; Millimaggi, D; Clarkson, M M; Paulli, M; Cifone, M G; Corazza, G R

    2006-01-01

    Background and aims Epithelium derived interleukin (IL)‐15 signalling via IL‐15Rα is critical for the development, activation, and survival of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL). We aimed to better understand the IL‐15 driven effects on IEL underlying mucosal damage and lymphomagenesis in coeliac disease (CD). Methods Enterocytes, IEL, and lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) were isolated from 46 patients with uncomplicated CD (25 untreated and 21 treated) and 22 controls. IL‐15 and IL‐15Rα expression were determined by immunoblotting. Secretion of IL‐15, interferon γ (IFN‐γ), tumour necrosis factor α (TNF‐α), and granzyme B into cell culture supernatants was assessed by ELISA. The ability of IL‐15 to regulate IEL proliferation, perforin/granzyme dependent cytotoxicity, and apoptosis was tested by adding different combinations of IL‐15, IL‐15 blocking antibody, or chloroquine to IEL cultured alone or with Caco‐2 cells as target. IL‐15 mucosal levels were also determined by ELISA in five patients with complicated CD (two ulcerative jejunoileites, one refractory sprue, and two enteropathy associated T cell lymphomas) tested for T cell receptor γ chain clonality. Results IL‐15 was overexpressed in untreated CD enterocytes and LPMC, and in the mucosa of complicated CD patients and uncomplicated untreated CD patients, where its levels correlated with the degree of mucosal damage. Enterocytes from untreated, but not treated, CD patients and controls secreted IL‐15. Untreated CD IEL, characterised by higher IL‐15Rα expression, showed increased proliferation, production of IFN‐γ and TNF‐α, and perforin/granzyme dependent cytotoxicity, and a decreased propensity to apoptosis in response to IL‐15. Conclusions Our findings suggest that IL‐15 plays a crucial role in the generation of epithelial damage in active CD. Its promotion of IEL survival in CD may predispose to the emergence of T cell clonal proliferations. Blocking

  14. Academic stress-induced changes in Th1- and Th2-cytokine response

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    Areej M. Assaf

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress stimulates physiological responses releasing catecholamines and corticoids, which act via corresponding receptors on immune cells, producing a shift in the cytokine balance. These responses are variable depending on the nature of stressors. The effect of the academic stress on the production of the Th1-cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8 and Th2-cytokines (IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 on 35 medical/health sciences students after completing their questionnaires was investigated. Blood samples were taken at three stages; baseline stage at the beginning, midterm and final academic examination stages. Plasma cortisol and cytokines were measured during the three stages. The last two stages were compared with the baseline non-stress period. Results of the stress induced during the final examination stage were the highest with a significant increase in cortisol release, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-1ra release with a shift in Th1:Th2 cytokines balance towards Th2. Whereby, the midterm stage did not show significant reduction in Th1-cytokines except for TNF-α, with an increase in IFN-γ level that was reduced in the third stage. Th2 cytokine, IL-1ra, had positive correlations with Th1 cytokines; IL-2 and IFN-γ in the second stage and IL-6 cytokine in the third stage. Cortisol was positively correlated with IL-8 in the last stage and heart rates had negative correlation with IL-10 in the first and last stages. Findings of this study indicate that exam stress down-regulates Th1 with a selective up-regulation of Th2-cytokines. In conclusion, Cortisol might have a role in suppressing the release of Th1- mediated cellular immune response which could increase the vulnerability among the students to infectious diseases.

  15. Academic stress-induced changes in Th1- and Th2-cytokine response.

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    Assaf, Areej M; Al-Abbassi, Reem; Al-Binni, Maysaa

    2017-12-01

    Psychological stress stimulates physiological responses releasing catecholamines and corticoids, which act via corresponding receptors on immune cells, producing a shift in the cytokine balance. These responses are variable depending on the nature of stressors. The effect of the academic stress on the production of the Th1-cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8) and Th2-cytokines (IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10) on 35 medical/health sciences students after completing their questionnaires was investigated. Blood samples were taken at three stages; baseline stage at the beginning, midterm and final academic examination stages. Plasma cortisol and cytokines were measured during the three stages. The last two stages were compared with the baseline non-stress period. Results of the stress induced during the final examination stage were the highest with a significant increase in cortisol release, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-1ra release with a shift in Th1:Th2 cytokines balance towards Th2. Whereby, the midterm stage did not show significant reduction in Th1-cytokines except for TNF-α, with an increase in IFN-γ level that was reduced in the third stage. Th2 cytokine, IL-1ra, had positive correlations with Th1 cytokines; IL-2 and IFN-γ in the second stage and IL-6 cytokine in the third stage. Cortisol was positively correlated with IL-8 in the last stage and heart rates had negative correlation with IL-10 in the first and last stages. Findings of this study indicate that exam stress down-regulates Th1 with a selective up-regulation of Th2-cytokines. In conclusion, Cortisol might have a role in suppressing the release of Th1- mediated cellular immune response which could increase the vulnerability among the students to infectious diseases.

  16. Effect of Malnutrition on the Expression of Cytokines Involved in Th1 Cell Differentiation

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    Leonor Rodríguez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is a common cause of secondary immune deficiency and has been linked to an increased susceptibility to infection in humans. Malnutrition specifically affects T-cell-mediated immune responses. The aim of this study was to assess in lymphocytes from malnourished children the expression levels of IL-12, IL-18 and IL-21, molecules that induce the differentiation of T cells related to the immunological cellular response (Th1 response and the production of cytokines related to the immunological cellular response (Th1 cytokines. We found that the expression levels of IL-12, IL-18 and IL-21 were significantly diminished in malnourished children compared to well-nourished children and were coincident with lower plasmatic levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ (Th1 cytokines. In this study, we show for the first time that the gene expression and intracellular production of cytokines responsible for Th1 cell differentiation (IL-12, IL-18 and IL-21 are diminished in malnourished children. As expected, this finding was related to lower plasmatic levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ. The decreased expression of Th1 cytokines observed in this study may contribute to the deterioration of the immunological Type 1 (cellular response. We hypothesize that the decreased production of IL-12, IL-18 and IL-21 in malnourished children contributes to their inability to eradicate infections.

  17. Production of interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-10 accompanies T helper cell type 1 (Th1) cytokine responses to a major thyroid self-antigen, thyroglobulin, in health and autoimmune thyroid disease

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    Nielsen, Claus H; Hegedüs, L; Rieneck, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon (IFN)-gamma exert detrimental effects in organ-specific autoimmune disease, while both destructive and protective roles have been demonstrated for interleukin (IL)-10, IL-4 and IL-5. We examined the production of these cytokines by peripheral bloo......-gamma, IL-5 and IL-10 responses were markedly inhibited by partial denaturation of Tg by boiling. We hypothesize that autoantibodies and complement may promote mixed Th1/Th2 cell cytokine responses by enhancing the uptake of autoantigens by antigen-presenting cells...

  18. Production of interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-10 accompanies T helper cell type 1 (Th1) cytokine responses to a major thyroid self-antigen, thyroglobulin, in health and autoimmune thyroid disease

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    Nielsen, C H; Hegedüs, L; Rieneck, K

    2007-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon (IFN)-gamma exert detrimental effects in organ-specific autoimmune disease, while both destructive and protective roles have been demonstrated for interleukin (IL)-10, IL-4 and IL-5. We examined the production of these cytokines by peripheral bloo......-gamma, IL-5 and IL-10 responses were markedly inhibited by partial denaturation of Tg by boiling. We hypothesize that autoantibodies and complement may promote mixed Th1/Th2 cell cytokine responses by enhancing the uptake of autoantigens by antigen-presenting cells....

  19. IL-4 enhances IL-10 production in Th1 cells: implications for Th1 and Th2 regulation.

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    Mitchell, Ruth E; Hassan, Masriana; Burton, Bronwen R; Britton, Graham; Hill, Elaine V; Verhagen, Johan; Wraith, David C

    2017-09-12

    IL-10 is an immunomodulatory cytokine with a critical role in limiting inflammation in immune-mediated pathologies. The mechanisms leading to IL-10 expression by CD4 + T cells are being elucidated, with several cytokines implicated. We explored the effect of IL-4 on the natural phenomenon of IL-10 production by a chronically stimulated antigen-specific population of differentiated Th1 cells. In vitro, IL-4 blockade inhibited while addition of exogenous IL-4 to Th1 cultures enhanced IL-10 production. In the in vivo setting of peptide immunotherapy leading to a chronically stimulated Th1 phenotype, lack of IL-4Rα inhibited the induction of IL-10. Exploring the interplay of Th1 and Th2 cells through co-culture, Th2-derived IL-4 promoted IL-10 expression by Th1 cultures, reducing their pathogenicity in vivo. Co-culture led to upregulated c-Maf expression with no decrease in the proportion of T-bet + cells in these cultures. Addition of IL-4 also reduced the encephalitogenic capacity of Th1 cultures. These data demonstrate that IL-4 contributes to IL-10 production and that Th2 cells modulate Th1 cultures towards a self-regulatory phenotype, contributing to the cross-regulation of Th1 and Th2 cells. These findings are important in the context of Th1 driven diseases since they reveal how the Th1 phenotype and function can be modulated by IL-4.

  20. Evaluation of Th1 and Th17 cells cytokines in cell culture stimulated in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Y Varghaiyan; H Hadi neduoshan; A Aflatoonian; A Mirghanizadeh; S Najafi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Various immunological abnormalities have been reported in women with RSA of unknown aetiologies including autoimmune abnormalities and increased cellular immunity such as elevated natural killer (NK) , Th1 and Th17 cell levels. Th17 and Th1 cells play a central role during inflammation. Th1 cells product cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2 and Th17 cells mainly cytokines IL-17A, F, IL-22. The aim of this study is evaluation of Th1 and Th17 activity in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion...

  1. Oxidative stress modulates the cytokine response of differentiated Th17 and Th1 cells.

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    Abimannan, Thiruvaimozhi; Peroumal, Doureradjou; Parida, Jyoti R; Barik, Prakash K; Padhan, Prasanta; Devadas, Satish

    2016-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling is critical in T helper (Th) cell differentiation; however its role in differentiated Th cell functions is unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of oxidative stress on the effector functions of in vitro differentiated mouse Th17 and Th1 cells or CD4 + T cells from patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis using pro-oxidants plumbagin (PB) and hydrogen peroxide. We found that in mouse Th cells, non-toxic concentration of pro-oxidants inhibited reactivation induced expression of IL-17A in Th17 and IFN-γ in Th1 cells by reducing the expression of their respective TFs, RORγt and T-bet. Interestingly, in both the subsets, PB increased the expression of IL-4 by enhancing reactivation induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. We further investigated the cytokine modulatory effect of PB on CD4 + T cells isolated from PBMCs of patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis, a well-known Th17 and or Th1 mediated disease. In human CD4 + T cells from Rheumatoid Arthritis patients, PB reduced the frequencies of IL-17A + (Th17), IFN - γ + (Th1) and IL-17A + /IFN - γ + (Th17/1) cells and also inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6. N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) an antioxidant completely reversed PB mediated cytokine modulatory effects in both mouse and human cells indicating a direct role for ROS. Together our data suggest that oxidative microenvironment can alter cytokine response of terminally differentiated cells and thus altering intracellular ROS could be a potential way to target Th17 and Th1 cells in autoimmune disorders. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Modulation of chicken macrophage effector function by Th1/Th2 cytokines

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    Regulation of macrophage activity by TH1/2 cytokines is important to maintain the balance of immunity to provide adequate protective immunity while avoiding excessive inflammation. IFN-gamma and IL-4 are the hallmark TH1 and TH2 cytokines, respectively. In avian species, information concerning reg...

  3. Dual effects of vitamin D-induced alteration of TH1/TH2 cytokine expression: enhancing IgE production and decreasing airway eosinophilia in murine allergic airway disease

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    Matheu, Victor; Bäck, Ove; Mondoc, Emma

    2003-01-01

    allergen-induced T-cell proliferation along with T(H)2 cytokine (IL-4 and IL-13) and IgE production. Surprisingly, the local inflammatory response in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue was significantly ameliorated with impaired recruitment of eosinophils and inferior levels of IL-5......BACKGROUND: Vitamin D, a common food additive, has been shown to prevent the induction of experimental autoimmune diseases in mice. A possible immune deviation from T(H)1 to T(H)2 responses has been postulated. Although there is no doubt about the beneficial effects of vitamin D, its role...... in allergy has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To define the role of vitamin D in modulating the development of a T(H)2-mediated disease, we used a murine model of pulmonary eosinophilic inflammation. METHODS: Five-week-old mice were primed on day 0 with ovalbumin intraperitoneally. Then they were nasally...

  4. T-cell clones from Th1, Th17 or Th1/17 lineages and their signature cytokines have different capacity to activate endothelial cells or synoviocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavocat, Fabien; Maggi, Laura; Annunziato, Francesco; Miossec, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    To compare the direct effect of cytokines on synoviocytes and endothelial cells to the effects of supernatants from Th1, Th17 and Th1/17 clones and the direct cell-cell interactions with the same clones. Th17 and Th1/17 clones were obtained from the CD161+CCR6+ fraction and Th1 clones from the CD161-CCR6- fraction of human CD4+ T-cells. Endothelial cells or synoviocytes were cultured in the presence of either isolated pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-17 and/or TNF-α) or supernatants from the T-cell clones or co-cultured with T-cell clones themselves. IL-6 and IL-8 expression and production were analyzed. IL-17 and TNF-α induced IL-6 and IL-8 expression, although IL-17 alone had a limited effect on endothelial cells compared to synoviocytes. Supernatants from activated T-helper clones also induced IL-6 and IL-8 expression but with discrepancies between endothelial cells and synoviocytes. Endothelial cells were mostly activated by Th1 clone supernatants whereas synoviocytes were activated by all T-cell subtypes. Finally, cell-cell contact experiments showed a great heterogeneity among cell clones, even from the same lineage. IL-6 expression was mostly induced by contact with Th1 clones both in endothelial and mesenchymal cells whereas IL-8 expression was induced by all T-cell clones whatever their phenotype. We showed that endothelial cells were much more sensitive to Th1 activation whereas synoviocytes were activated by all T-helper lineages. This work highlights the heterogeneity of interactions between T-cells and stromal cells through soluble factors or direct cell contact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. CYTOKINE PROFILE OF TH1- AND TH2-DEPENDENT VARIANTS OF CHRONIC GVHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. T. Kudaeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Induction of chronic GVHD in the DBA/2→(C57Bl/6xDBA/2 F1 semi-allogeneic murine model results into development of Th1- and Th2-dependent immunopathological conditions that are characterized by different cytokine profiles. Chronic GVHD is accompanied by a sharp increase in IgE levels, thus presuming considerable IL-4 production. In recipients with Th2-dependent GvHD variant, elevated contents of serum IL-6, IL-7 and TNFα were also observed, which, along with other effects, may support polyclonal activation of B cells, thus leading to development of autoimmune pathology.

  6. Detection of intracytoplasmic Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles in patients with sepsis and severe sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadinejad Z

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sepsis is the leading cause of death in critically ill patients throughout the world. The incidence is increasing despite the major advances in the development of antimicrobial agents and other supportive treatments. Based on multiple studies, it has been shown that patient outcome depends on Th1 and Th2 cytokine response. Moreover, whenever the Th2 response is predominant, the sepsis is more severe. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between cytokine levels and the severity of sepsis in patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study on the cellular levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines was carried out in patients with sepsis and severe sepsis. The study included 37 patients (24 men and 13 women, 26 of them had sepsis and 11 had the severe form of sepsis Thirty-seven healthy volunteers served as controls. The average age of the patients was 57 years (±23.3 years, with a range of 21 to 92 years. From the whole blood of the subjects, we separated the monocytes and leukocytes, which were then cultured. Using an ELISA method, we measured levels of IFN- and IL-12 (associated with Th1, and IL-4 and IL-10 (associated with Th2 in the cultured cells with and without cell stimulation. Results: No correlation was found for IFN- production in the cells of patients with sepsis and severe sepsis, regardless of whether the patients had died or survived. However, IL-12 levels were significantly decreased in severe sepsis compared with those of sepsis patients (P=0.048. Furthermore, the cells of expired patients also had significantly decreased IL-12 levels compared with those of surviving patients (P=0.028. We also found that the levels of IFN-, IL-4, and IL-10 were decreased in patients compared with those of controls, which correlated to their production. However, there was no correlation for IL-12 production between the cells of the patients compared with those of the controls. There was also no correlation for

  7. A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines and antiplasmodial antibodies in uncomplicated Malaria in a Village Population Chronically Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.

  8. Increased Calpain Correlates with Th1 Cytokine Profile in PBMCs from MS Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Sarah A.; Guyton, Mary K.; Haque, Azizul; Vandenbark, Arthur; Tyor, William R.; Ray, Swapan K.; Banik, Naren L.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a devastating autoimmune demyelinating disease of the CNS. This study investigated whether expression and activity of the calcium-activated protease calpain correlated with Th1/Th2 dysregulation in MS patients during states of relapse and remission. Calpain expression and activity were significantly increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from MS patients, compared to controls, with the highest expression and activity noted during relapse. Th1 cytokines were highest and Th2 cytokines were lowest in MS patients during relapse. Treatment with calpain inhibitor, calpeptin, decreased Th1 cytokines in PBMCs from MS patients. Calpain inhibitor also reduced degradation of myelin basic protein (MBP) by inhibiting the calpain secreted from MBP-specific T cells. Taken together, these results suggested calpain involvement in Th1/Th2 dysregulation in MS patients. PMID:17765980

  9. Th1-, Th2-, and Th17-associated cytokine expression in hypopharyngeal carcinoma and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuemei; Wang, Junfu; Wang, Rui; Su, Qinghong; Luan, Junwen; Huang, Haiyan; Zhou, Peng; Liu, Jinsheng; Xu, Xiaoqun

    2016-02-01

    Th0 cells differentiate into Th1 or Th2 depending on multiple transcription factors acting on specific time points to regulate gene expression. Th17 cells, a subset of IL-17-producing T cells distinct from Th1 or Th2 cells, have been described as key players in inflammation and autoimmune diseases as well as cancer development. In the present study, 53 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer were included. The expression levels of Th1-, Th2- and Th17-associated cytokines in hypopharyngeal cancer tissues and pericarcinoma tissues were detected. The relationship between Th1, Th2, or Th17 infiltration and metastasis was studied. Our results showed that the mRNA and protein expressions of Th1 cytokines were lower, while the expressions of Th2 and Th17 cytokines were higher in tumor tissues, and the intensity of expression was strengthened with clinical stage increasing. Cancer tissues had higher level expressions of Th2 and Th17 cytokines than that of pericarcinoma tissues. From the above data, we speculated that high expressions of Th2- and Th17-associated cytokines in hypopharyngeal carcinoma may contribute to cancer development and metastasis.

  10. TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathways are required for recombinant Brucella abortus BCSP31-induced cytokine production, functional upregulation of mouse macrophages, and the Th1 immune response in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Yun; Liu, Yuan; Gao, Xiao-Xue; Gao, Xiang; Cai, Hong

    2014-09-01

    Brucella abortus is a zoonotic Gram-negative pathogen that causes brucelosis in ruminants and humans. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize Brucella abortus and initiate antigen-presenting cell activities that affect both innate and adaptive immunity. In this study, we focused on recombinant Brucella cell-surface protein 31 (rBCSP31) to determine its effects on mouse macrophages. Our results demonstrated that rBCSP31 induced TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-12p40 production, which depended on the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) by stimulating the rapid phosphorylation of p38 and JNK and the activation of transcription factor NF-κB in macrophages. In addition, continuous exposure (>24 h) of RAW264.7 cells to rBCSP31 significantly enhanced IFN-γ-induced expression of MHC-II and the ability to present rBCSP31 peptide to CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, we found that rBCSP31 could interact with both TLR2 and TLR4. The rBCSP31-induced cytokine production by macrophages from TLR2(-/-) and TLR4(-/-) mice was lower than that from C57BL/6 macrophages, and the activation of NF-κB and MAPKs was attenuated in macrophages from TLR2(-/-) and TLR4(-/-) mice. In addition, CD4(+) T cells from C57BL/6 mice immunized with rBCSP31 produced higher levels of IFN-γ and IL-2 compared with CD4(+) T cells from TLR2(-/-) and TLR4(-/-) mice. Macrophages from immunized C57BL/6 mice produced higher levels of IL-12p40 than those from TLR2(-/-) and TLR4(-/-) mice. Furthermore, immunization with rBCSP31 provided better protection in C57BL/6 mice than in TLR2(-/-) and TLR4(-/-) mice after B. abortus 2308 challenge. These results indicate that rBCSP31 is a TLR2 and TLR4 agonist that induces cytokine production, upregulates macrophage function and induces the Th1 immune response.

  11. Role of Th1/Th2 cytokines in the diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, J T; Zhang, D H; Fang, P F; Li, M H; Wang, R J; Li, S H

    2017-03-16

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS), a progressive disease of the spine, manifests as peripheral arthritis with tendon and ligament inflammation that restricts activity. AS is a rheumatoid autoimmune disease although the rheumatoid factor is absent in patients with AS. It is characterized by inflammatory changes such as elevated levels of serum inflammatory factors. The roles of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in autoimmune diseases are well known. However, the roles of these cytokines in the diagnosis and prognosis of AS is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of Th1/Th2 cytokines in the diagnosis and prognosis of AS. The BASDAI activity, BASFI functional index, BASMI measurement score, and the levels of CRP and ESR were measured during the treatment of patients with active AS. The levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α (Th1 cytokines) and IL-4 and IL-10 (Th2 cytokines) were quantified. The levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were significantly low in the serum of patients with active AS, who also had high IFN-γ and TNF-α levels compared to those in the control individuals (P cytokines in patients with AS may reflect disease activity and prognosis.

  12. T cell clones from Schistosoma haematobium infected and exposed individuals lacking distinct cytokine profiles for Th1/Th2 polarisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mduluza T

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available T cell clones were derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Schistosoma haematobium infected and uninfected individuals living in an endemic area. The clones were stimulated with S. haematobium worm and egg antigens and purified protein derivative. Attempts were made to classify the T cell clones according to production of the cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-gamma. All the T cell clones derived were observed to produce cytokines used as markers for the classification of Th1/Th2 subsets. However, the 'signature' cytokines marking each subset were produced at different levels. The classification depended on the dominating cytokine type, which was having either Th0/1 or Th0/2 subsets. The results indicated that no distinct cytokine profiles for polarisation of Th1/Th2 subsets were detected in these S. haematobium infected humans. The balance in the profiles of cytokines marking each subset were related to infection and re-infection status after treatment with praziquantel. In the present study, as judged by the changes in infection status with time, the T cell responses appeared to be less stable and more dynamic, suggesting that small quantitative changes in the balance of the cytokines response could result in either susceptibility or resistant to S. haematobium infection.

  13. Modulation of immune cells and Th1/Th2 cytokines in insulin-treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modulation of immune cells and Th1/Th2 cytokines in insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus. Magloire Pandoua Nekoua1, Rufine Fachinan1, Amidou K Atchamou1, Odilon Nouatin2,. Daniel Amoussou-Guenou3, Marcellin K Amoussou-Guenou4, Kabirou Moutairou1, Akadiri Yessoufou1. 1. Laboratory of Cell Biology and ...

  14. Restoring Lost Anti-HER-2 Th1 Immunity in Breast Cancer: A Crucial Role for Th1 Cytokines in Therapy and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, Nadia F; Lee, M Catherine; De La Cruz, Lucy M; Rosemblit, Cinthia; Czerniecki, Brian J

    2016-01-01

    The ErbB/B2 (HER-2/neu) oncogene family plays a critical role in the development and metastatic spread of several tumor types including breast, ovarian and gastric cancer. In breast cancer, HER-2/neu is expressed in early disease development in a large percentage of DCIS lesions and its expression is associated with an increased risk of invasion and recurrence. Targeting HER-2 with antibodies such as trastuzumab or pertuzumab has improved survival, but patients with more extensive disease may develop resistance to therapy. Interestingly, response to HER-2 targeted therapies correlates with presence of immune response genes in the breast. Th1 cell production of the cytokines interferon gamma (IFNγ) and TNFα can enhance MHC class I expression, PD-L1 expression, augment apoptosis and tumor senescence, and enhances growth inhibition of many anti-breast cancer agents, including anti-estrogens and HER-2 targeted therapies. Recently, we have identified that a loss of anti-HER-2 CD4 Th1 in peripheral blood occurs during breast tumorigenesis and is dramatically diminished, even in Stage I breast cancers. The loss of anti-HER-2 Th1 response is specific and not readily reversed by standard therapies. In fact, this loss of anti-HER-2 Th1 response in peripheral blood correlates with lack of complete response to neoadjuvant therapy and diminished disease-free survival. This defect can be restored with HER-2 vaccinations in both DCIS and IBC. Correcting the anti-HER-2 Th1 response may have significant impact in improving response to HER-2 targeted therapies. Development of immune monitoring systems for anti-HER-2 Th1 to identify patients at risk for recurrence could be critical to improving outcomes, since the anti-HER-2 Th1 response can be restored by vaccination. Correction of the cellular immune response against HER-2 may prevent recurrence in high-risk patients with DCIS and IBC at risk of developing new or recurrent breast cancer.

  15. Restoring Lost Anti-HER-2 Th1 Immunity in Breast Cancer: A Crucial Role for Th1 Cytokines in Therapy and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia F Nocera

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The ErbB/B2 (HER-2/neu oncogene family plays a critical role in the development and metastatic spread of several tumor types including breast, ovarian and gastric cancer. In breast cancer, HER-2/neu is expressed in early disease development in a large percentage of DCIS lesions and its expression is associated with an increased risk of invasion and recurrence. Targeting HER-2 with antibodies such as trastuzumab or pertuzumab has improved survival, but patients with more extensive disease may develop resistance to therapy. Interestingly, response to HER-2 targeted therapies correlates with presence of immune response genes in the breast. Th1 cell production of the cytokines interferon gamma (IFNγ and TNFα can enhance MHC class I expression, PD1L expression, augment apoptosis and tumor senescence, and enhances growth inhibition of many anti-breast cancer agents, including anti-estrogens and HER-2 targeted therapies. Recently, we have identified that a loss of anti-HER-2 CD4 Th1 in peripheral blood occurs during breast tumorigenesis and is dramatically diminished, even in Stage I breast cancers. The loss of anti-HER-2 Th1 response is specific and not readily reversed by standard therapies. In fact, this loss of anti-HER-2 Th1 response in peripheral blood correlates with lack of complete response to neoadjuvant therapy and diminished disease-free survival. This defect can be restored with HER-2 vaccinations in both DCIS and IBC. Correcting the anti-HER-2 Th1 response may have significant impact in improving response to HER-2 targeted therapies. Development of immune monitoring systems for anti-HER-2 Th1 to identify patients at risk for recurrence could be critical to improving outcomes, since the anti-HER-2 Th1 response can be restored by vaccination. Correction of the cellular immune response against HER-2 may prevent recurrence in high-risk patients with DCIS and IBC at risk of developing new or recurrent breast cancer.

  16. Preferential Th1 cytokine profile of phosphoantigen-stimulated human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dunne, Margaret R

    2010-01-01

    Human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells recognise pyrophosphate-based antigens (phosphoantigens) and have multiple functions in innate and adaptive immunity, including a unique ability to activate other cells of the immune system. We used flow cytometry and ELISA to define the early cytokine profiles of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells stimulated in vitro with isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2 enyl pyrophosphate (HMB-PP) in the absence and presence of IL-2 and IL-15. We show that fresh Vγ9Vδ2 T cells produce interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) within 4 hours of stimulation with phosphoantigen, but neither IL-10, IL-13, nor IL-17 was detectable up to 72 hours under these conditions. Cytokine production was not influenced by expression or lack, thereof, of CD4 or CD8. Addition of IL-2 or IL-15 caused expansion of IFN-γ-producing Vγ9Vδ2 T cells, but did not enhance IFN-γ secretion after 24-72 hours. Thus, phosphoantigen-stimulated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells have potential as Th1-biasing adjuvants for immunotherapy.

  17. Differential effects of Th1 versus Th2 cytokines in combination with hypoxia on HIFs and angiogenesis in RA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    cytokine IL-4 strongly induced ANGPTL-4 and angiogenesis by normoxic FLS and synergised with hypoxia to induce further proangiogenic activity. Conclusion The present work demonstrates that Th1 cytokines in combination with hypoxia are not sufficient to induce angiogenic activity by RA FLS despite HIF-1 activation and VEGF production. In contrast, Th2 cytokines induce angiogenic activity in normoxia and hypoxia, despite their inability to activate HIFs, highlighting the complex relationships between hypoxia, angiogenesis and inflammation in RA. PMID:22866899

  18. Dysregulated cytokine expression by CD4+ T cells from post-septic mice modulates both Th1 and Th2-mediated granulomatous lung inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F Carson

    Full Text Available Previous epidemiological studies in humans and experimental studies in animals indicate that survivors of severe sepsis exhibit deficiencies in the activation and effector function of immune cells. In particular, CD4+ T lymphocytes can exhibit reduced proliferative capacity and improper cytokine responses following sepsis. To further investigate the cell-intrinsic defects of CD4+ T cells following sepsis, splenic CD4+ T cells from sham surgery and post-septic mice were transferred into lymphopenic mice. These recipient mice were then subjected to both TH1-(purified protein derivative and TH2-(Schistosoma mansoni egg antigen driven models of granulomatous lung inflammation. Post-septic CD4+ T cells mediated smaller TH1 and larger TH2 lung granulomas as compared to mice receiving CD4+ T cells from sham surgery donors. However, cytokine production by lymph node cells in antigen restimulation assays indicated increased pan-specific cytokine expression by post-septic CD4+ T cell recipient mice in both TH1 and TH2 granuloma models. These include increased production of T(H2 cytokines in TH1 inflammation, and increased production of T(H1 cytokines in TH2 inflammation. These results suggest that cell-intrinsic defects in CD4+ T cell effector function can have deleterious effects on inflammatory processes post-sepsis, due to a defect in the proper regulation of TH-specific cytokine expression.

  19. Analysis of serum th1/th2 cytokine levels in patients with acute mumps infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevan Malaiyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mumps virus is frequently the causative agent of parotitis. There has been no study on serum cytokine levels of acute mumps parotitis except for a few which document cytokine levels in cerebrospinal fluid of mumps meningitis. It is with this notion, our study aimed to find Th1/Th2 cytokine levels from patients with acute mumps parotitis. Materials and Methods: Concentrations of mumps-specific IgM, mumps, measles, rubella-specific IgG antibody, and Th1/Th2 cytokines, namely interferon-g (IFN-g, interleukin-2 (IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 were measured simultaneously in serum from 74 patients (42 pediatric and 32 adult cases, 40 healthy subjects (20 pediatric and 20 adults and in the supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with mumps virus genotype C which served as the positive control. Statistical significance was analyzed between each group by means of Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Spearman′s rank correlation coefficient test. Results: IgM positivity confirmed acute infection in all 74 patients and of these 67 were vaccinated cases; however, very few of them (10/67 were positive for mumps IgG. We found that IFN-g, IL-2, and IL-10 showed a statistically significant increase in both pediatric and adult patients with acute mumps infection when compared to healthy controls and values were comparable to the positive control. Conclusion: The Th1 cells play important roles during the acute phase of mumps parotitis.

  20. Production of interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-10 accompanies T helper cell type 1 (Th1) cytokine responses to a major thyroid self-antigen, thyroglobulin, in health and autoimmune thyroid disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C H; Hegedüs, L; Rieneck, K

    2007-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon (IFN)-gamma exert detrimental effects in organ-specific autoimmune disease, while both destructive and protective roles have been demonstrated for interleukin (IL)-10, IL-4 and IL-5. We examined the production of these cytokines by peripheral blood...

  1. TH1 and TH2 cytokine data in insulin secretagogues users newly diagnosed with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary A.P. Wintrob

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Stimulation of insulin production by insulin secretagogue use may impact T helper cells’ cytokine production. This dataset presents the relationship between baseline insulin secretagogues use in women diagnosed with breast cancer and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the T-helper 1 and 2 produced cytokine profiles at the time of breast cancer diagnosis, and subsequent cancer outcomes. A Pearson correlation analysis evaluating the relationship between T-helper cytokines stratified by of insulin secretagogues use and controls is also provided.

  2. Aeromonas caviae strain induces Th1 cytokine response in mouse intestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, S L; Lye, D J; McKinstry, Craig A.; Vesper, Sephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Aeromonas caviae has been associated with human gastrointestinal disease. Strains of this species typically lack virulence factors (VFs) such as enterotoxins and hemolysins that are produced by other human pathogens of the Aeromonas genus. Microarray profiling of murine small intestinal extracts, 24 hours after oral infection with an A. caviae strain, provides evidence of a Th1 type immune response. A large number of gamma-interferon (γ-IFN) induced genes are up-regulated as well as several tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) transcripts. A. caviae has always been considered as opportunistic pathogen because it lacks obvious virulence factors. This current effort suggests that an A. caviae strain can colonize the murine intestinal tract and cause what has been described by others as a dysregulatory cytokine response. This response could explain why a number of diarrheal waterborne disease cases have been attributed to A. caviae even though it lacks obvious enteropathogenic properties.

  3. Effect of Th1/Th2 cytokine administration on proinflammatory SKOV-3 cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielczarek-Palacz, Aleksandra; Sikora, Justyna; Kondera-Anasz, Zdzisława; Mickiewicz, Patrycja; Mickiewicz, Adam

    2016-12-01

    Interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 might associate with inflammatory processes in a tumor progression and create a specific microenvironment for tumor growth. The aim of the study was to assess whether the Th1 and Th2 type cytokines, such as IL-2 and IL-10, affect ovarian carcinoma continuous cell line (SKOV-3) pro-inflammatory activation. SKOV-3 ovarian cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated by IL-2 and IL-10. Additionally, SKOV-3 ovarian cells and PBMCs were co-cultured together. Proinflammatory activation of cancer cells was evaluated by measurement of IL-1β and IL-6 levels in culture fluid after 72 h of incubation. SKOV-3 cells and PBMCs secreted IL-1β and IL-6. After stimulation by IL-2 and IL-10, secretion of studied parameters was changed in a dose-dependent manner. The addition of a higher IL-2 level gave rise to an increase of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 secretion in SKOV-3 cells. Stimulation by IL-10 increased only IL-1β secretion in SKOV-3 cells. However, IL-6 secretion decreased after stimulation with 25 ng/ml IL-10. Activatory effects of IL-2 and inhibitory effects of IL-10 in co-culture of SKOV-3 and PBMCs were observed. Our results suggested that Th1/Th2 type of cytokines might influence pro-inflammatory activation of SKOV-3 ovarian cells. Co-cultures of SKOV-3 and PBMCs showed significant changes in cross-talk between cancer and immune cells.

  4. Th1/Th2 cytokines in Type 1 diabetes: Relation to duration of disease and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Vaseghi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: T-cells are important in the pathogenesis of Type 1 diabetes (T1D. However, the exact role of T-cell subpopulations in this pathway remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the expression pattern of T helper 1 (Th1 interferon-gamma (IFN-γ and Th2 interleukin-4 (IL-4 cytokines and their relationship with sex and disease duration in T1D patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 21 T1D patients and 22 healthy subjects. Gene expression analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs was performed using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results: IFN-γ gene expression was significantly lower in T1D patients compared with controls (P 0.05 while IL-4 mRNA expression in male patients was about 1.9 folds higher than female patients. Moreover, IFN-γ mRNA expression in female patients was about 1.8 folds lower than male patients. Patients were divided into two groups regarding their disease duration: 10 years. A significant increase in the IL-4 expression was observed between two groups of patients compared to controls (P < 0.0001. Conversely, there was a significant difference in the expression of IFN-γ only between patients with more than 10 years of disease duration (P = 0.02. Conclusion: These data propose supplementary implications for the role of Th1/Th2 imbalance in T1D immunopathogenesis. Moreover, factors such as sex and disease duration may have some influence on cytokine mRNA expression.

  5. The vaccine adjuvant alum promotes IL-10 production that suppresses Th1 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszycka, Ewa; McCluskey, Sean; Sharp, Fiona A; Muñoz-Wolf, Natalia; Hams, Emily; Gorman, Aoife L; Fallon, Padraic G; Lavelle, Ed C

    2018-04-01

    The effectiveness of many vaccines licensed for clinical use relates to the induction of neutralising antibodies, facilitated by the inclusion of vaccine adjuvants, particularly alum. However, the ability of alum to preferentially promote humoral rather than cellular, particularly Th1-type responses, is not well understood. We demonstrate that alum activates immunosuppressive mechanisms following vaccination, which limit its capacity to induce Th1 responses. One of the key cytokines limiting excessive immune responses is IL-10. Injection of alum primed draining lymph node cells for enhanced IL-10 secretion ex vivo. Moreover, at the site of injection, macrophages and dendritic cells were key sources of IL-10 expression. Alum strongly enhanced the transcription and secretion of IL-10 by macrophages and dendritic cells. The absence of IL-10 signalling did not compromise alum-induced cell infiltration into the site of injection, but resulted in enhanced antigen-specific Th1 responses after vaccination. In contrast to its decisive regulatory role in regulating Th1 responses, there was no significant change in antigen-specific IgG1 antibody production following vaccination with alum in IL-10-deficient mice. Overall, these findings indicate that injection of alum promotes IL-10, which can block Th1 responses and may explain the poor efficacy of alum as an adjuvant for inducing protective Th1 immunity. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Heavy metal mediated innate immune responses of the Indian green frog, Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Anura: Ranidae): Cellular profiles and associated Th1 skewed cytokine response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayawardena, Uthpala A.; Ratnasooriya, Wanigasekara D.; Wickramasinghe, Deepthi D.; Udagama, Preethi V., E-mail: dappvr@yahoo.com

    2016-10-01

    Immune cell and cytokine profiles in relation to metal exposure though much studied in mammals has not been adequately investigated in amphibians, due mainly to lack of suitable reagents for cytokine profiling in non-model species. However, interspecies cross reactivity of cytokines permitted us to assay levels of IFNγ, TNFα, IL6 and IL10in a common anuran, the Indian green frog (Euphlyctis hexadactylus), exposed to heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb, at ~ 5 ppm each) under field and laboratory settings in Sri Lanka. Enumeration of immune cells in blood and melanomacrophages in the liver, assay of serum and hepatic cytokines, and Th1/Th2 cytokine polarisation were investigated. Immune cell counts indicated overall immunosuppression with decreasing total WBC and splenocyte counts while neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio increased with metal exposure, indicating metal mediated stress. Serum IL6 levels of metal exposed frogs reported the highest (~ 9360 pg/mL) of all cytokines tested. Significantly elevated IFNγ production (P < 0.05) was evident in heavy metal exposed frogs. Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio in both serum and liver tissue homogenates was Th1 skewed due to significantly higher production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IFNγ in serum and TNFα in the liver (P < 0.01).Metal mediated aggregations of melanomacrophages in the liver were positively and significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with the hepatic expression of TNFα, IL6 and IL10 activity. Overall, Th1 skewed response may well be due to oxidative stress mediated nuclear factor κ-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) which enhances the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Xenobiotic stress has recently imposed an unprecedented level of threat to wildlife, particularly to sensitive species such as amphibians. Therefore, understanding the interactions between physiological stress and related immune responses is fundamental to conserve these environmental sentinels in the face of emerging eco

  7. Heavy metal mediated innate immune responses of the Indian green frog, Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Anura: Ranidae): Cellular profiles and associated Th1 skewed cytokine response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayawardena, Uthpala A.; Ratnasooriya, Wanigasekara D.; Wickramasinghe, Deepthi D.; Udagama, Preethi V.

    2016-01-01

    Immune cell and cytokine profiles in relation to metal exposure though much studied in mammals has not been adequately investigated in amphibians, due mainly to lack of suitable reagents for cytokine profiling in non-model species. However, interspecies cross reactivity of cytokines permitted us to assay levels of IFNγ, TNFα, IL6 and IL10in a common anuran, the Indian green frog (Euphlyctis hexadactylus), exposed to heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb, at ~ 5 ppm each) under field and laboratory settings in Sri Lanka. Enumeration of immune cells in blood and melanomacrophages in the liver, assay of serum and hepatic cytokines, and Th1/Th2 cytokine polarisation were investigated. Immune cell counts indicated overall immunosuppression with decreasing total WBC and splenocyte counts while neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio increased with metal exposure, indicating metal mediated stress. Serum IL6 levels of metal exposed frogs reported the highest (~ 9360 pg/mL) of all cytokines tested. Significantly elevated IFNγ production (P < 0.05) was evident in heavy metal exposed frogs. Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio in both serum and liver tissue homogenates was Th1 skewed due to significantly higher production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IFNγ in serum and TNFα in the liver (P < 0.01).Metal mediated aggregations of melanomacrophages in the liver were positively and significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with the hepatic expression of TNFα, IL6 and IL10 activity. Overall, Th1 skewed response may well be due to oxidative stress mediated nuclear factor κ-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) which enhances the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Xenobiotic stress has recently imposed an unprecedented level of threat to wildlife, particularly to sensitive species such as amphibians. Therefore, understanding the interactions between physiological stress and related immune responses is fundamental to conserve these environmental sentinels in the face of emerging eco

  8. Cerebrospinal fluid Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles in children with enterovirus 71-associated meningoencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huajun; Li, Shuxian; Zheng, Jianfeng; Cai, Chunyan; Ye, Bin; Yang, Jun; Chen, Zhimin

    2015-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection can cause severe neurological complications including meningoencephalitis (ME) in some patients with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). However, to date no studies have reported changes in cytokine concentrations and their correlations with clinical variables in patients with ME following EV71 infection. In this study, responses of Th1/Th2 cytokine, including IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with EV71-related HFMD with ME and patients with febrile convulsions (FC) were analyzed using cytometric bead array technology. It was found that CSF IL-6 and IFN-γ concentrations were significantly higher in patients with EV71-related ME than in those with FC. Additionally, both CSF IL-6 and IFN-γ concentrations were correlated with CSF cytology, fever duration and duration of hospital stay. More interestingly, a positive correlation between CSF IL-6 and IFN-γ concentrations was observed. Finally, receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that when a cutoff value of 9.40 pg/mL was set for IL-6, the sensitivity and specificity were 84.5% and 85.5%, respectively, for discriminating EV71-related ME from FC. In conclusion, IL-6 and IFN-γ may be associated with EV71-induced neuropathology. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Dual effects of vitamin D-induced alteration of TH1/TH2 cytokine expression: enhancing IgE production and decreasing airway eosinophilia in murine allergic airway disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matheu, Victor; Bäck, Ove; Mondoc, Emma

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D, a common food additive, has been shown to prevent the induction of experimental autoimmune diseases in mice. A possible immune deviation from T(H)1 to T(H)2 responses has been postulated. Although there is no doubt about the beneficial effects of vitamin D, its role in alle...

  10. Anti-inflammatory effects of 27 selected terpenoid compounds tested through modulating Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion profiles using murine primary splenocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Chi-Mei; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

    2013-11-15

    This study investigated 27 selected terpenoid compounds, including 8 monoterpenoids, 7 sesqui-terpenoids, 3 di-terpenoids, 8 tri-terpenoids, and 1 tetra-terpenoid, for their Th1/Th2 immunomodulatory potential using mouse primary splenocytes. Changes in Th1 cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ, and Th2 cytokines, including IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10, secreted by terpenoid-treated splenocytes were measured using the ELISA method. The results showed that triptolide, a diterpenoid, was most cytotoxic, reflecting an IC50 value of 46nM. Eucalyptol, limonene, linalool, thymol, parthenolide, andrographolide, 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, lupeol, ursolic acid and β-sitosterol showed a strong Th2-inclination and anti-inflammation potential in vitro. In addition, (-)-trans-caryophyllene, oridonin, triptolide, diosgenin, betulinic acid, escin, and β-sitosterol treatments significantly inhibited both IL-2 (Th1) and IL-10 (Th2) cytokine production at the same time, suggesting that these terpenoid compounds have an anti-inflammation potential through the inhibition of T-cell immune responses. Diosgenin treatments significantly increased IFN-γ secretion levels using mouse splenocytes, suggesting that diosgenin may be useful in treating a viral infection through the stimulation of IFN-γ production. Menthone, farnesol and oridonin treatments did not markedly increase IL-10/IL-2 (Th2/Th1) cytokine secretion ratios, suggesting that menthone, farnesol and oridonin may have a relative Th1-inclination property, compared to the other selected terpenoid compounds. The relative Th1-inclination property of menthone, farnesol and oridonin may be applied to improve Th2-skewed allergic diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nickel, cobalt, chromium, palladium and gold induce a mixed Th1- and Th2-type cytokine response in vitro in subjects with contact allergy to the respective metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minang, J T; Areström, I; Troye-Blomberg, M; Lundeberg, L; Ahlborg, N

    2006-12-01

    Nickel (Ni), the main cause of contact allergy to metals, induces in vitro production of both Th1- and Th2-type cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from allergic subjects. Because the knowledge of the cellular immune response to other metals involved in contact allergy has been limited, we investigated the cytokine profile induced by Ni, cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), palladium (Pd) and gold (Au) in PBMC from patients with patch test reactivity to the respective metals. PBMC from patients with patch test reactivity to Ni, Co, Cr, Au and/or Pd (n = 31) and non-allergic controls (n = 5) were stimulated in vitro with corresponding metal salts. Th1- [interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-gamma] and Th2- (IL-4 and IL-13) type cytokine responses were measured by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All metals induced a mixed Th1- and Th2-type cytokine production in PBMC from individual patients with patch test reactivity to the corresponding metal, but not in control PBMC. Significantly higher responses in the patient versus controls were found for Cr (IL-2 and IL-13), Pd (IL-2 and IL-4), Au (IL-13 and IFN-gamma) (all P < 0.05) and Ni (all four cytokines; P < 0.01) but not Co. Overall, 71% (37/52) and 89% (81/91) of the positive and negative patch test reactivities to metals, respectively, were matched by the in vitro reactivity. In conclusion, our data suggest that sensitization to Co, Cr, Pd and Au results in a cellular immune response of a character similar to the mixed Th1- and Th2-type cytokine profile shown previously to be induced by Ni.

  12. The cytokine polymorphisms affecting Th1/Th2 increase the susceptibility to, and severity of, chronic ITP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Noriyuki; Saitoh, Takayuki; Gotoh, Nanami; Nitta, Yasuhiro; Alkebsi, Lobna; Kasamatsu, Tetsuhiro; Minato, Yusuke; Yokohama, Akihiko; Tsukamoto, Norifumi; Handa, Hiroshi; Murakami, Hirokazu

    2017-05-16

    T-helper cell type 1 (Th1) polarization in chronic immune thrombocytopenia (cITP) has been reported at the protein and mRNA levels. We evaluated the impact of Th1/Th2 cytokine and cytokine receptor functional polymorphisms on both susceptibility to, and severity of, cITP. We analysed IFN-γ + 874 T/A, IFN-γR -611G/A, IL-4 -590C/T, and IL-4Rα Q576R polymorphisms in 126 cITP patients (male/female: 34/92; median age: 47.7 years) and 202 healthy control donors. Genotyping was determined by PCR and direct sequencing. The Th1/Th2 ratio was detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells via flow cytometry. cITP patients had a higher frequency of the IL-4Rα 576 non-QQ genotype compared to healthy subjects (P = 0.04). cITP patients with the IFN-γ +874 non-AA genotype (high expression type) showed more severe thrombocytopenia than those with the AA genotype (P Th1/Th2 ratio than control patients (P Th1/Th2 ratio (P Th1/Th2 increase the susceptibility to, and severity of, chronic ITP.

  13. Th1/Th17-Related Cytokines and Chemokines and Their Implications in the Pathogenesis of Pemphigus Vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoteo, Rodolfo Pessato; Silva, Djalma Alexandre Alves; Catarino, Jonatas Da Silva; Rodrigues Junior, Virmondes

    2017-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of IgG autoantibodies against desmoglein-3. Despite the variety of findings, the chemokine and cytokine profiles that characterize the immune response in the disease are still poorly explored. Thus, 20 PV patients and 20 controls were grouped according to gender, ethnicity, place of residence, and clinical parameters of the disease. Then, the levels of chemokines and of Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg/Th9/Th22-related cytokines were assessed in the serum. PV patients had higher levels of inflammatory Th1/Th17 cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-23), as well as higher levels of CXCL8 and reduced levels of Th1/Th2-related chemokines (IP-10 and CCL11). However, no differences in the levels of IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-9, IL-12, TGF-β, IL-33, MCP-1, RANTES, and MIP-1α were found between PV patients and their control counterparts. Furthermore, PV patients with skin lesions had higher serum levels of IL-6 and CXCL8 when compared to PV patients without lesions. Taken together, our findings describe the role of cytokines and chemokines associated with Th1/Th17 immune response in PV patients. Finally, these data are important for better understanding of the immune aspects that control disease outcome, and they may also provide important information about why patients develop autoantibodies against desmogleins. PMID:28321152

  14. Effects of magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate on AST, ALT, and serum levels of Th1 cytokines in patients with allo-HSCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jinglong; Xiao, Qing; Chen, Yongping; Fan, Xuegong; Liu, Xin; Liu, Fen; Luo, Guoping; Zhang, Bangshuo; Wang, Sheng

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate (MGL) on aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and serum levels of T helper 1 (Th1) cytokines in patients with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The study included 42 patients prepared for allo-HSCT, who were divided equally into MGL and reduced glutathione groups. The ALT and AST levels were detected 1day before pretreatment and transplantation, and 7, 14, and 21days after transplantation. The total days and times of fever, treatment time of patients in the laminar flow room, white blood cell (WBC) count, platelet (PTL) implantation time, and success rate of transplantation were recorded. The serum levels of Th1/Th2 cytokines were detected. MGL had a significant protective effect on AST 1day before transplantation and 7, 14, and 21days after transplantation, while ALT had a statistical difference only 7days after transplantation. MGL could shorten the duration of fever during transplantation and advance the WBC and PTL implantation time. Significant differences in Th1-like cytokines (P0.05) were found in the MGL group compared with the control group. MGL had significant protective effects on AST after transplantation. MGL could reduce the duration of fever during transplantation, help the reconstruction and recovery of WBCs and PTLs, and regulate Th1 cytokines, revealing its protective effects on hepatic transaminases and graft versus host disease in allo-HSCT patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Increased intracellular Th1 cytokines in scid mice with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregenholt, S; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1998-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice engrafted with small pieces of full thickness gut wall from immunocompetent syngenic donors develop a chronic and lethal colitis. Lymphocytes from the lamina propria of engrafted mice were analyzed for phorbol ester/ionomycin-induced cytokine production...... by intracellular staining. A 4-5-fold increase in the fraction of IFN-gamma-producing CD4+ lamina propria T cells was found in moderately and severely diseased mice when compared to healthy congenic C.B-17 control mice. The number of IL-2-producing T cells was increased by approximately 2-fold when comparing mice...... suffering from severe disease to healthy control mice. The fraction of TNF-alpha positive CD4+ T cells was increased by a factor of two in both moderately and severely diseased mice. When analyzing Th2 cytokines, it was found that the levels of IL-4-producing CD4+ T cells was not altered in diseased animals...

  16. Improved outcome of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is associated with induction of a Th1-dominated cytokine response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, C; Jensen, P O; Kobayashi, O

    2002-01-01

    , resistance to re-infection was paralleled by a shift towards a Th1-dominated response and increased IL-12 production. No significant increase in serum IgG was observed in the re-infected mice. In conclusion, these results indicate a protective role for a Th1-dominated response, independent of antibody...

  17. High indoor microbial levels are associated with reduced Th1 cytokine secretion capacity in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, Mikko Harri Juhani; Hyvärinen, Anne; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Rintala, Helena; Roivainen, Jarkko; Renz, Harald; Pfefferle, Petra Ina; Nevalainen, Aino; Roponen, Marjut; Pekkanen, Juha

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to microbes and their components may affect the maturation of the immune system. We examined the association of house dust microbial content with cytokine-producing capacity at birth and at the age of 1 year. Production of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-5, IL-8 and IL-10 at birth (n = 228) and at the age of 1 year (n = 200) following 24- and 48-hour whole-blood stimulation with staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), lipopolysaccharide and the combination of phorbol ester and ionomycin was measured. Concentrations of ergosterol (marker for fungal biomass), muramic acid (marker for Gram-positive bacteria) and 3-hydroxy fatty acids with a carbon chain length from 10 to 14 (marker for Gram-negative bacteria) in living room floor dust were analyzed using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Five single microbial species or groups were determined using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction method. A high total level of the studied Gram-positive bacteria in general or Mycobacterium spp. in house dust was associated with decreased SEB-stimulated IFN-γ production, especially at the age of 1 year. The total level of indoor fungi analyzed (Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Paecilomyces variotii group, Trichoderma viride/atroviride/koningii,Wallemia sebi) was also inversely associated with IFN-γ production at the age of 1 year, but this association did not remain significant after adjustment for potential confounders. A few associations were found between microbial exposures and other measured cytokines. High indoor microbial exposures may affect immune development in early life by reducing T helper type 1 cytokine secretion capacity. The observed hyporesponsiveness may reflect the adaptation of the immune system to environmental antigens. In future, more attention should be paid especially to the immunomodulatory role of exposures to Gram-positive bacteria. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. The diagnostic value of Th1/Th2 cell cytokine and thyroid autoantibody on autoimmune thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xuemin; Qin Mingxiu; Zhao Yan

    2008-01-01

    To study the diagnostic value of Th1/Th2 cell cytokine and thyroid autoantibody in autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD), 28 patients with Graves' disease (GD), 15 patients with hyperthyroidism and thyroiditis (GDIII), 13 patients with Hashimoto's hyperthyroidism (HTL), 21 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis(HT)and 20 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. The serum concentrations of Th1 cytokine (IFN-γ) and Th2 cytokine (IL-4) were determined by ELISA. The serum levels of thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAb), thyroglobulin antibodies (TGAb) and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) were measured by RIA. The relationship between the serum levels of IFN-γ, IL-4 and TRAb, TGAb and TPOAb were analyzed. The results showed that IFN-γ levels from higher to lower in different groups were in the order of HT, HTL, GDIII, GD and the IL-4 were GD, GDIII, HTL, HT, respectively. There was significant difference in the IFN-γ (P<0.05) and IL-4 levels (P<0.01) between GDIII and HTL groups. There was no significant difference in TGAb and TPOAb between GDIII and HTL groups. In HT group, IFN-γ levels was positively correlated with TGAb and TPOAb (r=0.67,0.54,P<0.01). In GD group, IL-4 was positively correlated with TRAb (r =0.71,P<0.01). The imbalance of Th1/Th2 cell cytokine reflects pathologic change and abnormality of immune function in AITD patients. The detection of Th1/Th2 cell cytokine combined with thyroid autoantibody may be regarded as an indicator in the diagnosis of autoimmune thyroid diseases. (authors)

  19. Effects of Malassezia yeasts on serum Th1 and Th2 cytokines in patients with guttate psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Kenan; Tore, Okan; Akcaglar, Sevim; Oral, Barbaros; Ener, Beyza; Tunalı, Sukran; Saricaoglu, Hayriye

    2013-01-01

    Systemic and focal infections caused by microorganisms have been known to induce or exacerbate psoriasis. Although the role of yeast species of the genus Malassezia in the pathogenesis of psoriasis is not fully understood, it is thought that these lipophilic yeasts may represent a triggering factor in the exacerbation of psoriatic lesions. This study investigated the effects of Malassezia yeasts on serum Th1 and Th2 cytokines in patients with guttate psoriasis (GP) in order to define their role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Fifty patients with GP and 29 clinically healthy individuals were included in the study. All samples consisted of scales and scrapings taken from the scalps, trunks, and upper limbs of both psoriasis patients and healthy subjects. Psoriasis patients and healthy subjects were grouped according to their positivity or negativity for Malassezia yeasts as ascertained by direct microscopy and/or culture. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure serum levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in these groups. No significant differences in positivity for Malassezia yeasts were found between psoriatic skin and healthy skin in samples taken from different body sites. Serum interleukin-13 (IL-13) levels were significantly lower in the psoriasis group compared with the control group (P = 0.04). Levels of other cytokines did not differ significantly between the psoriasis and control groups. Mean levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IL-13), but not of Th1 cytokines (IL-2 and IFN-γ), were significantly lower in psoriasis patients positive for Malassezia yeasts compared with those negative for Malassezia yeasts and control subjects (P = 0.04, P Malassezia yeasts from GP lesions does not necessarily mean that these species are pathogenic, but their downregulating effects on anti-inflammatory Th2 cytokines may contribute to the occurrence of GP. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  20. Th1 and Th17 Cells and Associated Cytokines Discriminate among Clinically Isolated Syndrome and Multiple Sclerosis Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Gabriel; Acuña, Eric; Reyes, Lilian I; Ottum, Payton A; De Sarno, Patrizia; Villarroel, Luis; Ciampi, Ethel; Uribe-San Martín, Reinaldo; Cárcamo, Claudia; Naves, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. It is a heterogeneous pathology that can follow different clinical courses, and the mechanisms that underlie the progression of the immune response across MS subtypes remain incompletely understood. Here, we aimed to determine differences in the immunological status among different MS clinical subtypes. Blood samples from untreated patients diagnosed with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) ( n  = 21), different clinical forms of MS ( n  = 62) [relapsing-remitting (RRMS), secondary progressive, and primary progressive], and healthy controls (HCs) ( n  = 17) were tested for plasma levels of interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-10, TGF-β, IL-17A, and IL-17F by immunoanalysis. Th1 and Th17 lymphocyte frequencies were determined by flow cytometry. Our results showed that IFN-γ levels and the IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio were higher in CIS patients than in RRMS patients and HC. Th1 cell frequencies were higher in CIS and RRMS than in progressive MS, and RRMS had a higher Th17 frequency than CIS. The Th1/Th17 cell ratio was skewed toward Th1 in CIS compared to MS phenotypes and HC. Receiver operating characteristic statistical analysis determined that IFN-γ, the IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio, Th1 cell frequency, and the Th1/Th17 cell ratio discriminated among CIS and MS subtypes. A subanalysis among patients expressing high IL-17F levels showed that IL-17F and the IFN-γ/IL-17F ratio discriminated between disease subtypes. Overall, our data showed that CIS and MS phenotypes displayed distinct Th1- and Th17-related cytokines and cell profiles and that these immune parameters discriminated between clinical forms. Upon validation, these parameters might be useful as biomarkers to predict disease progression.

  1. Nigella sativa modulates splenocyte proliferation, Th1/Th2 cytokine profile, macrophage function and NK anti-tumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdalawieh, Amin F; Hmaidan, Reem; Carr, Ronald I

    2010-09-15

    Nigella sativa, also known as blackseed, has long been used in traditional medicine for treating various conditions related to the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems as well as different types of cancers. In this study, the potential immunomodulatory effects of Nigella sativa are investigated in light of splenocyte proliferation, macrophage function, and NK anti-tumor activity using BLAB/c and C57/BL6 primary cells. Splenocyte proliferation was assessed by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation. Griess assay was performed to evaluate NO production by macrophages. ELISA was performed to measure the level of cytokines secreted by splenocytes and macrophages. NK cytotoxic activity against YAC-1 tumor cells was examined by JAM assay. We demonstrate that the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa significantly enhances splenocyte proliferation in a dose-responsive manner. In addition, the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa favors the secretion of Th2, versus Th1, cytokines by splenocytes. The secretion of IL-6, TNFalpha, and NO; key pro-inflammatory mediators, by primary macrophages is significantly suppressed by the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa, indicating that Nigella sativa exerts anti-inflammatory effects in vitro. Finally, experimental evidence indicates that the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa significantly enhances NK cytotoxic activity against YAC-1 tumor cells, suggesting that the documented anti-tumor effects of Nigella sativa may be, at least in part, attributed to its ability to serve as a stimulant of NK anti-tumor activity. Our data present Nigella sativa as a traditionally used herb with potent immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor effects. We anticipate that Nigella sativa ingredients may be employed as effective therapeutic agents in the regulation of diverse immune reactions implicated in various conditions and diseases such as cancer. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Serum Th1 and Th17 related cytokines and autoantibodies in patients with Posner-Schlossman syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhao

    Full Text Available Posner-Schlossman syndrome (PSS shares some clinical features with uveitis and open angle glaucoma. Cytokines and autoantibodies have been associated with uveitis and open angle glaucoma. However, the role of serum cytokines and autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of PSS remains unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the associations of type 1 T helper (Th1 and Th17 related cytokines and autoantibodies with PSS. Peripheral blood serum samples were collected from 81 patients with PSS and 97 gender- and age-matched healthy blood donors. Th1 and Th17 related cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interferon- γ (IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-17, and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI were determined by double antibody sandwich ELISA. Anti-nuclear antibody (ANA, anti-keratin antibody (AKA and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Anti-cardiolipin antibody (ACA-IgG, ACA-IgM, ACA-IgA, anti-double stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP were detected by indirect ELISA. Serum levels of IL-1β, IL-12 and IL-6 in PSS patients were significantly lower than those in controls (P 0.12. Positive rate of serum anti-dsDNA in PSS patients was significantly higher than that in the control group (P = 0.002, Pc = 0.018, while positive rates of serum ANA, AKA, ANCA, ACA-IgG, ACA-IgM, ACA-IgA, GPI and anti-CCP in the PSS group were not significantly different from those in the control group (Pc > 0.09. These results suggest that anti-dsDNA may contribute to the pathogenesis of PSS, while Th1 and Th17 related cytokines and other autoantibodies may not be major contributors to PSS.

  3. CXCL13 and TH1/Th2 cytokines in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of neurosyphilis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yongxing; Wang, Jun; Qu, Bin; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Yingnan; Liu, Huili; Wu, Chunli

    2017-11-01

    Neurosyphilis is a chronic infectious disease with involvement of central nervous system infection by Treponema pallidum. This study was to investigate the contents of B lymphocyte chemokine 1 (BLC-1/chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 13), Th1 cytokines (Interleukin [IL]-2, IL-12, and Interferon [IFN]-γ), and Th2 cytokines (IL-6 and IL-10) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of HIV-negative patients with neurosyphilis before and after treatment, aiming to elucidate roles of CXCL13 and Th1/Th2 cytokines in immune response to and pathogenesis of neurosyphilis.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was employed to detect the contents of CXCL13, IL-2, IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-10 in serum and CSF of 47 HIV-negative patients with neurosyphilis, 36 syphilis patients without neurological involvement and 23 controls (noninfectious intracranial disease) before, 3 and 12 months after treatment with high dose penicillin.Results showed that there was no significant difference in blood CXCL13 content among 3 groups (P > .05); CSF CXCL13 content in neurosyphilis patients was significantly higher than in other 2 groups (P  .05). CSF CXCL13 content was positively related with IL-6 and IL-10 content, while negatively related to IL-12 content in neurosyphilis patients. CSF IL-6 content was negatively related with IL-12 content. In neurosyphilis patients, the CSF CXCL13 content reduced significantly at 3 and 12 months (P cytokines are involved in the immune response of neurosyphilis patients. CSF CXCL13 and Th1/Th2 cytokines contents may be used for the diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of neurosyphilis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Both Th1- and Th2-derived cytokines in serum are elevated in Graves' ophthalmopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakelkamp, I. M.; Gerding, M. N.; van der Meer, J. W.; Prummel, M. F.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    2000-01-01

    Increased serum cytokine levels have been reported in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease, but less is known about their levels in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). It is not known whether GO is a cell-mediated or humoral autoimmune disease. We investigated whether serum cytokines are

  5. Decreased Th1-type inflammatory cytokine expression in the skin is associated with persisting symptoms after treatment of erythema migrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöwall, Johanna; Fryland, Linda; Nordberg, Marika; Sjögren, Florence; Garpmo, Ulf; Jansson, Christian; Carlsson, Sten-Anders; Bergström, Sven; Ernerudh, Jan; Nyman, Dag; Forsberg, Pia; Ekerfelt, Christina

    2011-03-31

    Despite the good prognosis of erythema migrans (EM), some patients have persisting symptoms of various character and duration post-treatment. Several factors may affect the clinical outcome of EM, e.g. the early interaction between Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi and the host immune response, the B. burgdorferi genotype, antibiotic treatment as well as other clinical circumstances. Our study was designed to determine whether early cytokine expression in the skin and in peripheral blood in patients with EM is associated with the clinical outcome. A prospective follow-up study of 109 patients with EM was conducted at the Åland Islands, Finland. Symptoms were evaluated at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months post-treatment. Skin biopsies from the EM and healthy skin were immunohistochemically analysed for expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-12p70 and interferon (IFN)-γ, as well as for B. burgdorferi DNA. Blood samples were analysed for B. burgdorferi antibodies, allergic predisposition and levels of systemic cytokines. None of the patients developed late manifestations of Lyme borreliosis. However, at the 6-month follow-up, 7 of 88 patients reported persisting symptoms of diverse character. Compared to asymptomatic patients, these 7 patients showed decreased expression of the Th1-associated cytokine IFN-γ in the EM biopsies (p=0.003). B. afzelii DNA was found in 48%, B. garinii in 15% and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto in 1% of the EM biopsies, and species distribution was the same in patients with and without post-treatment symptoms. The two groups did not differ regarding baseline patient characteristics, B. burgdorferi antibodies, allergic predisposition or systemic cytokine levels. Patients with persisting symptoms following an EM show a decreased Th1-type inflammatory response in infected skin early during the infection, which might reflect a dysregulation of the early immune response. This finding supports the importance of an early, local Th1-type response for optimal

  6. The role of T Helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines in corneal graft rejection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holáň, Vladimír; Vítová, Andrea; Pindjáková, Jana; Krulová, Magdalena; Zajícová, Alena; Filipec, P.

    s. 1 ISSN 0030-3747. [European Association for Vision and Eye Research. 24.09.2004-27.09.2004, Vilamoura] R&D Projects: GA MZd NI7531 Keywords : cornea, rejection, cytokines Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  7. Inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis induces a transient increase in the expression of proinflammatory, Th1-related, and autoregulatory cytokines in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anziliero, D.; Weiblen, R. [Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Kreutz, L.C. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioexperimentação, Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Passo Fundo, Passo Fundo, RS, Brasil, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioexperimentação, Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Passo Fundo, Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil); Spilki, F. [Laboratório de Microbiologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Feevale, Novo Hamburgo, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Microbiologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Feevale, Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Flores, E.F. [Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2014-02-17

    The immunostimulatory properties of inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) have long been investigated in different animal species and experimental settings. In this study, we investigated the effects of iPPVO on cytokine expression in mice after intraperitoneal inoculation. Spleen and sera collected from iPPVO-treated mice at intervals after inoculation were submitted to cytokine mRNA determination by real-time PCR (qPCR), serum protein concentration by ELISA, and interferon (IFN)-α/β activity by bioassay. The spleen of iPPVO-treated animals showed a significant increase in mRNA expression of all cytokines assayed, with different kinetics and magnitude. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and IL-8 mRNA peaked at 24 hours postinoculation (hpi; 5.4-fold increase) and 48 hpi (3- and 10-fold increases), respectively. A 15-fold increase in IFN-γ and 6-fold IL-12 mRNA increase were detected at 48 and 24 hpi, respectively. Increased expression of autoregulatory cytokines (Th2), mainly IL-10 and IL-4, could be detected at later times (72 and 96 hpi) with peaks of 4.7- and 4.9-fold increases, respectively. IFN-I antiviral activity against encephalomyocarditis virus was demonstrated in sera of treated animals between 6 and 12 hpi, with a >90% reduction in the number of plaques. Measurement of serum proteins by ELISA revealed increased levels of IL-1, TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-γ, and IL-10, with kinetics similar to those observed by qPCR, especially for IL-12 and IFN-γ. These data demonstrate that iPPVO induced a transient and complex cytokine response, initially represented by Th1-related cytokines followed by autoregulatory and Th2 cytokines.

  8. Inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis induces a transient increase in the expression of proinflammatory, Th1-related, and autoregulatory cytokines in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anziliero, D.; Weiblen, R.; Kreutz, L.C.; Spilki, F.; Flores, E.F.

    2014-01-01

    The immunostimulatory properties of inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) have long been investigated in different animal species and experimental settings. In this study, we investigated the effects of iPPVO on cytokine expression in mice after intraperitoneal inoculation. Spleen and sera collected from iPPVO-treated mice at intervals after inoculation were submitted to cytokine mRNA determination by real-time PCR (qPCR), serum protein concentration by ELISA, and interferon (IFN)-α/β activity by bioassay. The spleen of iPPVO-treated animals showed a significant increase in mRNA expression of all cytokines assayed, with different kinetics and magnitude. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and IL-8 mRNA peaked at 24 hours postinoculation (hpi; 5.4-fold increase) and 48 hpi (3- and 10-fold increases), respectively. A 15-fold increase in IFN-γ and 6-fold IL-12 mRNA increase were detected at 48 and 24 hpi, respectively. Increased expression of autoregulatory cytokines (Th2), mainly IL-10 and IL-4, could be detected at later times (72 and 96 hpi) with peaks of 4.7- and 4.9-fold increases, respectively. IFN-I antiviral activity against encephalomyocarditis virus was demonstrated in sera of treated animals between 6 and 12 hpi, with a >90% reduction in the number of plaques. Measurement of serum proteins by ELISA revealed increased levels of IL-1, TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-γ, and IL-10, with kinetics similar to those observed by qPCR, especially for IL-12 and IFN-γ. These data demonstrate that iPPVO induced a transient and complex cytokine response, initially represented by Th1-related cytokines followed by autoregulatory and Th2 cytokines

  9. TH1 and TH2 cytokines dataset in insulin users with diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed breast cancer

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    Zachary A.P. Wintrob

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous insulin use may interfere with the T helper cells’ cytokine production. This dataset presents the relationship between pre-existing use of injectable insulin in women diagnosed with breast cancer and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the T-helper 1 and 2 produced cytokine profiles at the time of breast cancer diagnosis, and subsequent cancer outcomes. A Pearson correlation analysis evaluating the relationship between T-helper cytokines stratified by of insulin use and controls is also provided.

  10. [Study on the correlation of the effect of entecavir on Th1/Th2 cytokines level in the treatment of chronic hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Jing, Y B; Liu, J; Wang, C L; Liu, B

    2017-08-20

    Objective: To explore the expression level of peripheral blood Th1/Th2 type cytokines of chronic hepatitis b (CHB) patients in the entecavir (ETV) antiviral treatment, analyze the relationship between various cytokines, and the correlation among of cytokines and HBV DNA loads. Methods: Luminex Liquid Chip Technology was applied to detect the peripheral blood Th1/Th2 type cytokines expression level of CHB patients; At the same time, liver function was detected by Fully Automatic Biochemical Analyzer; HBV DNA loads were detected by PCR Method; Hepatitis b virology markers were detected by Chemiluminescence Method. F-test and Pearson correlation analysis were used for statistical analysis. Results: Before ETV antiviral treatment, peripheral blood Th1 cytokines IFN gamma expression level in patients with CHB increased significantly ( P = 0.010) compared with the healthy control group while TNF alpha expression level having no statistically significant difference ( P = 0.095); Th2 type cytokines IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 levels decreased obviously ( P = 0.039, P = 0.014, P = 0.026) compared with those in the control group. After 48 weeks of treatment, Th1 cytokines IFN gamma and TNF alpha expression levels were reduced significantly (19.2±5.03 pg/ml vs 24.69±6.51 pg/ml, and 6.09±4.99 pg/ml vs 9.50±7.34 pg/ml, P Th1/Th2 type cytokines. And there was no correlation between the various cytokines and HBV DNA loads in patients with CHB. Conclusion: ETV can not only inhibit HBV DNA replication, reducing HBV DNA loads, but also contribute to regulate Th1/Th2 type cytokines expression level in patients with CHB, but there was no correlation between the levels of various cytokines, various cytokines and HBV DNA loads.

  11. Clinical characteristics and expression of Th1-Th2 cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with cryptococcal meningitis

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    Hui BU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Cryptococcal meningitis (CM is the most common fungal infection of central nervous system, caused by Cryptococcus neoformans infection of the meninges. The development and prognosis of CM depend on the patient's own immune function to some extent, and are relative to the imbalance of helper T lymphocyte (Th1/Th2. This study aims to explore the hidden role of the local Th1/ Th2 immune response in the pathophysiological process of CM.  Methods The levels of Th1 cytokines interferon-γ (IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and Th2 cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. CSF cytology changes were monitored dynamically to understand the outcome status of patients with CM.  Results The levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α in CM patients [(11.17 ± 1.50 and (18.74 ± 2.97 pg/ml, respectively] were significantly lower than that in control patients [(17.69 ± 2.34 and (28.83 ± 3.55 pg/ml; P = 0.000, for all]. However, the levels of IL-10 in CM patients [(43.65 ± 10.12 pg/ml] were significantly higher than that in control patients [(7.80 ± 1.30 pg/ml, P = 0.000]. The CSF IFN-γ and TNF-α levels in acute phase of CM patients [(11.17 ± 1.50 pg/ml and (18.74 ± 2.97 pg/ml, respectively] were significantly lower than that in stable phase of CM patients [(17.70 ± 2.34 and (22.93 ± 1.53 pg/ml; P = 0.000, for all]. On the other hand, the levels of IL-10 were significantly higher in the acute phase than that in stable phase [(43.65 ± 10.12 and (22.93 ± 7.39 pg/ml, respectively; P = 0.000]. The ratios of Th1/Th2 were used to assess the contribution of Th1/Th2 immunity in acute and stable phase of CM patients. The ratios of IFN-γ/IL-10 and TNF-α/IL-10 measured in acute phase of CM patients were significantly lower than that in control patients (P = 0.000, for all. These ratios in acute phase patients were also significantly lower than that in stable phase patients

  12. Decreased Th1-type inflammatory cytokine expression in the skin is associated with persisting symptoms after treatment of erythema migrans.

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    Johanna Sjöwall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the good prognosis of erythema migrans (EM, some patients have persisting symptoms of various character and duration post-treatment. Several factors may affect the clinical outcome of EM, e.g. the early interaction between Borrelia (B. burgdorferi and the host immune response, the B. burgdorferi genotype, antibiotic treatment as well as other clinical circumstances. Our study was designed to determine whether early cytokine expression in the skin and in peripheral blood in patients with EM is associated with the clinical outcome. METHODS: A prospective follow-up study of 109 patients with EM was conducted at the Åland Islands, Finland. Symptoms were evaluated at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months post-treatment. Skin biopsies from the EM and healthy skin were immunohistochemically analysed for expression of interleukin (IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p70 and interferon (IFN-γ, as well as for B. burgdorferi DNA. Blood samples were analysed for B. burgdorferi antibodies, allergic predisposition and levels of systemic cytokines. FINDINGS: None of the patients developed late manifestations of Lyme borreliosis. However, at the 6-month follow-up, 7 of 88 patients reported persisting symptoms of diverse character. Compared to asymptomatic patients, these 7 patients showed decreased expression of the Th1-associated cytokine IFN-γ in the EM biopsies (p=0.003. B. afzelii DNA was found in 48%, B. garinii in 15% and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto in 1% of the EM biopsies, and species distribution was the same in patients with and without post-treatment symptoms. The two groups did not differ regarding baseline patient characteristics, B. burgdorferi antibodies, allergic predisposition or systemic cytokine levels. CONCLUSION: Patients with persisting symptoms following an EM show a decreased Th1-type inflammatory response in infected skin early during the infection, which might reflect a dysregulation of the early immune response. This finding supports the

  13. Multiparameter fluorescence imaging for quantification of TH-1 and TH-2 cytokines at the single-cell level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekkar, Hakim; Benbernou, N.; Esnault, S.; Shin, H. C.; Guenounou, Moncef

    1998-04-01

    Immune responses are strongly influenced by the cytokines following antigenic stimulation. Distinct cytokine-producing T cell subsets are well known to play a major role in immune responses and to be differentially regulated during immunological disorders, although the characterization and quantification of the TH-1/TH-2 cytokine pattern in T cells remained not clearly defined. Expression of cytokines by T lymphocytes is a highly balanced process, involving stimulatory and inhibitory intracellular signaling pathways. The aim of this study was (1) to quantify the cytokine expression in T cells at the single cell level using optical imaging, (2) and to analyze the influence of cyclic AMP- dependent signal transduction pathway in the balance between the TH-1 and TH-2 cytokine profile. We attempted to study several cytokines (IL-2, IFN-(gamma) , IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Cells were prestimulated in vitro using phytohemagglutinin and phorbol ester for 36h, and then further cultured for 8h in the presence of monensin. Cells were permeabilized and then simple-, double- or triple-labeled with the corresponding specific fluorescent monoclonal antibodies. The cell phenotype was also determined by analyzing the expression of each of CD4, CD8, CD45RO and CD45RA with the cytokine expression. Conventional images of cells were recorded with a Peltier- cooled CCD camera (B/W C5985, Hamamatsu photonics) through an inverted microscope equipped with epi-fluorescence (Diaphot 300, Nikon). Images were digitalized using an acquisition video interface (Oculus TCX Coreco) in 762 by 570 pixels coded in 8 bits (256 gray levels), and analyzed thereafter in an IBM PC computer based on an intel pentium processor with an adequate software (Visilog 4, Noesis). The first image processing step is the extraction of cell areas using an edge detection and a binary thresholding method. In order to reduce the background noise of fluorescence, we performed an opening

  14. Th1 cytokine-induced syndecan-4 shedding by airway smooth muscle cells is dependent on mitogen-activated protein kinases.

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    Tan, Xiahui; Khalil, Najwa; Tesarik, Candice; Vanapalli, Karunasri; Yaputra, Viki; Alkhouri, Hatem; Oliver, Brian G G; Armour, Carol L; Hughes, J Margaret

    2012-04-01

    In asthma, airway smooth muscle (ASM) chemokine secretion can induce mast cell recruitment into the airways. The functions of the mast cell chemoattractant CXCL10, and other chemokines, are regulated by binding to heparan sulphates such as syndecan-4. This study is the first demonstration that airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) from people with and without asthma express and shed syndecan-4 under basal conditions. Syndecan-4 shedding was enhanced by stimulation for 24 h with the Th1 cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), but not interferon-γ (IFNγ), nor the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. ASMC stimulation with IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFNγ (cytomix) induced the highest level of syndecan-4 shedding. Nonasthmatic and asthmatic ASM cell-associated syndecan-4 protein expression was also increased by TNF-α or cytomix at 4-8 h, with the highest levels detected in cytomix-stimulated asthmatic cells. Cell-associated syndecan-4 levels were decreased by 24 h, whereas shedding remained elevated at 24 h, consistent with newly synthesized syndecan-4 being shed. Inhibition of ASMC matrix metalloproteinase-2 did not prevent syndecan-4 shedding, whereas inhibition of ERK MAPK activation reduced shedding from cytomix-stimulated ASMC. Although ERK inhibition had no effect on syndecan-4 mRNA levels stimulated by cytomix, it did cause an increase in cell-associated syndecan-4 levels, consistent with the shedding being inhibited. In conclusion, ASMC produce and shed syndecan-4 and although this is increased by the Th1 cytokines, the MAPK ERK only regulates shedding. ASMC syndecan-4 production during Th1 inflammatory conditions may regulate chemokine activity and mast cell recruitment to the ASM in asthma.

  15. Regulatory role of NKG2D+ NK cells in intestinal lamina propria by secreting double-edged Th1 cytokines in ulcerative colitis.

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    Wang, Fan; Peng, Pai-Lan; Lin, Xue; Chang, Ying; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Rui; Nie, Jia-Yan; Dong, Wei-Guo; Zhao, Qiu; Li, Jin

    2017-11-17

    The role of intestinal lamina propria (LP) NKG2D+ NK cells is unclear in regulating Th1/Th2 balance in ulcerative colitis (UC). In this study, we investigated the frequency of LP NKG2D+ NK cells in DSS-induced colitis model and intestinal mucosal samples of UC patients, as well as the secretion of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in NK cell lines after MICA stimulation. The role of Th1 cytokines in UC was validated by bioinformatics analysis. We found that DSS-induced colitis in mice was characterized by a Th2-mediated process. In acute phrase, the frequency of LP NKG2D+ lymphocytes increased significantly and decreased in remission, while the frequency of LP NKG2D+ NK cells decreased significantly in acute phase and increased in remission. No obvious change was found in the frequency of total LP NK cells. Similarly, severe UC patients had a higher expression of mucosal NKG2D and a lower number of NKG2D+ NK cells than mild to moderate UC. In NK cell lines, the MICA stimulation could induce a predominant secretion of Th1 cytokines (TNF, IFN-γ). Furthermore, in bioinformatics analysis, mucosal Th1 cytokine of TNF, showed a double-edged role in UC when compared to the Th1-mediated disease of Crohn's colitis. In conclusion, LP NKG2D+ NK cells partially played a regulatory role in UC through secreting Th1 cytokines to regulate the Th2-predominant Th1/Th2 imbalance, despite of the concomitant pro-inflammatory effects of Th1 cytokines.

  16. Primary murine CD4+ T cells fail to acquire the ability to produce effector cytokines when active Ras is present during Th1/Th2 differentiation.

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    Sujit V Janardhan

    Full Text Available Constitutive Ras signaling has been shown to augment IL-2 production, reverse anergy, and functionally replace many aspects of CD28 co-stimulation in CD4+ T cells. These data raise the possibility that introduction of active Ras into primary T cells might result in improved functionality in pathologic situations of T cell dysfunction, such as cancer or chronic viral infection. To test the biologic effects of active Ras in primary T cells, CD4+ T cells from Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor Transgenic mice were transduced with an adenovirus encoding active Ras. As expected, active Ras augmented IL-2 production in naive CD4+ T cells. However, when cells were cultured for 4 days under conditions to promote effector cell differentiation, active Ras inhibited the ability of CD4+ T cells to acquire a Th1 or Th2 effector cytokine profile. This differentiation defect was not due to deficient STAT4 or STAT6 activation by IL-12 or IL-4, respectively, nor was it associated with deficient induction of T-bet and GATA-3 expression. Impaired effector cytokine production in active Ras-transduced cells was associated with deficient demethylation of the IL-4 gene locus. Our results indicate that, despite augmenting acute activation of naïve T cells, constitutive Ras signaling inhibits the ability of CD4+ T cells to properly differentiate into Th1/Th2 effector cytokine-producing cells, in part by interfering with epigenetic modification of effector gene loci. Alternative strategies to potentiate Ras pathway signaling in T cells in a more regulated fashion should be considered as a therapeutic approach to improve immune responses in vivo.

  17. Effects of oral administration of probiotics from Mongolian dairy products on the Th1 immune response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shiro; Kawahara, Satoshi; Hidaka, Muneaki; Yoshida, Hiroki; Watanabe, Wataru; Takeshita, Masahiko; Kikuchi, Yukiharu; Bumbein, Dashnyam; Muguruma, Michio; Kurokawa, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    We investigated 10 lactic acid bacteria strains with probiotic potential prepared from Mongolian dairy products for their ability to induce T helper type-1 (Th1) cytokine production in mouse immune cells in vitro and in vivo. Among these strains, the Lactobacillus plantarum 06CC2 strain was effective in elevating the level of interleukin (IL)-12p40 in co-culture with J774.1 cells and the levels of IL-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ in co-culture with mouse spleen cells in vitro. Oral administration of this strain augmented the gene expression of IFN-γ and IL-12p40 and enlarged the population of CD4(+), CD25(+), and CD49b(+) cells in the spleens of normal mice. It also significantly elevated the gene expression of IL-12 receptor β2 as well as IL-12p40 and IFN-γ in Peyer's patches. Thus oral administration of strain 06CC2 was effective in inducing Th1 cytokine production activating the Th1 immune response associated with intestinal immunity in normal mice.

  18. Polymorphisms in Th1/Th2 Cytokine Genes, Hormone Replacement Therapy, and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Gongjian; Pan, Dongsheng; Zheng, Tongzhang; Lan, Qing; Chen, Xuezhong; Chen, Yingtai; Kim, Christopher; Bi, Xiaofeng; Holford, Theodore; Boyle, Peter; Leaderer, Brian; Chanock, Stephen J.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zhang, Yawei

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a population-based case–control study in Connecticut women to test the hypothesis that genetic variations in Th1 and Th2 cytokine genes modify the relationship between hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Compared to women without a history of HRT use, women with a history of HRT use had a significantly decreased risk of NHL if they carried IFNGR2 (rs1059293) CT/TT genotypes (OR = 0.5, 95%CI: 0.3–0.9), IL13 (rs20541) GG genotype (OR = 0.6, 95%CI: 0.4–0.9), and IL13 (rs1295686) CC genotype (OR = 0.6, 95%CI: 0.4–0.8), but not among women who carried IFNGR2 CC, IL13 AG/AA, and IL13CT/TT genotypes. A similar pattern was also observed for B-cell lymphoma but not for T-cell lymphoma. A statistically significant interaction was observed for IFNGR2 (rs1059293 P for interaction = 0.024), IL13(rs20541 P for interaction = 0.005), IL13 (rs1295686 P for interaction = 0.008), and IL15RA (rs2296135 P for interaction = 0.049) for NHL overall; IL13 (rs20541 P for interaction = 0.0009), IL13(rs1295686 P for interaction = 0.0002), and IL15RA (rs2296135 P for interaction = 0.041) for B-cell lymphoma. The results suggest that common genetic variation in Th1/Th pathway genes may modify the association between HRT and NHL risk.

  19. Th1 Cytokine-Secreting Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin and Prospective Use in Immunotherapy of Bladder Cancer

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    Yi Luo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravesical instillation of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG has been used for treating bladder cancer for 3 decades. However, BCG therapy is ineffective in approximately 30–40% of cases. Since evidence supports the T helper type 1 (Th1 response to be essential in BCG-induced tumor destruction, studies have focused on enhancing BCG induction of Th1 immune responses. Although BCG in combination with Th1 cytokines (e.g., interferon-α has demonstrated improved efficacy, combination therapy requires multiple applications and a large quantity of cytokines. On the other hand, genetic manipulation of BCG to secrete Th1 cytokines continues to be pursued with considerable interest. To date, a number of recombinant BCG (rBCG strains capable of secreting functional Th1 cytokines have been developed and demonstrated to be superior to BCG. This paper discusses current rBCG research, concerns, and future directions with an intention to inspire the development of this very promising immunotherapeutic modality for bladder cancer.

  20. [EFFECT OF 4-METHYLPYRAZOLE ON IMMUNE RESPONSE, FUNCTION OF Th1 AND Th2 LYMPHOCYTES, AND CYTOKINE CONCENTRATION IN RAT BLOOD AFTER ACUTE METHANOL POISONING].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabrodskii, P F; Maslyakov, V V; Gromov, M S

    2016-01-01

    It was established in experiments on noninbred albino rats that the acute intoxication with methanol (1.0 LD50) decreased cellular and humoral immune responses, Th2-lymphocyte activity (to a greater extent as compared to the function of Th1 cells), reduced the blood concentration of immunoregulatory (IFN-g, IL-2, IL-4) and proinflammatory (TNF, IL-1b, IL-6) cytokines on the average by 36.5% (p Methanol antidote 4-methylpyrazole (non-competitive inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase) administered upon acute intoxication with methanol at a dose of 1.0 DL50 partially reduces the intoxication-induced suppression of humoral and cellular immune response, activity of T-helper cells, and production of IL-4 and restores blood levels of TNF, IL-1b, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-2, IL-6 to the control values.

  1. Total glucosides of peony ameliorates Sjögren's syndrome by affecting Th1/Th2 cytokine balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guolin; Wu, Nayuan; Li, Tianyi; Lu, Wenwen; Yu, Guoyou

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of total glucosides of peony (TGP) in the treatment of Sjögren's syndrome (SS). A total of 40 mice with SS were evenly assigned into four groups, including: Control group; TGP group, receiving 1 mg TGP daily; hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) group, receiving 0.25 mg HCQ daily; and a combined group, receiving 1 mg TGP and 0.25 mg HCQ daily. After 8 weeks, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to detect the levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-4 (IL-4), Fas and FasL in each group of mice. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis was used to determine the expression levels of IFN-γ and IL-4. IFN-γ, IL-4, Fas and FasL levels were significantly increased in the control group compared with the other three groups (PTGP and combined groups compared with the control group (PTGP ameliorates SS by affecting the Th1/Th2 cytokine balance and decreasing the expression levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, Fas and FasL. Therefore, TGP may represent a potential novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of SS.

  2. The Anti-Allergic Rhinitis Effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Shenqi by Regulating Mast Cell Degranulation and Th1/Th2 Cytokine Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yang-Yang; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Hu, Min; Li, Jin-Ze; Chen, Cheng-Juan; Wang, Yong-Jiang; Shi, Xiao-Yun; Wang, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Tian-Tai

    2017-03-22

    Shenqi is a traditional Chinese polyherbal medicine has been widely used for the treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR). The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-allergic rhinitis activity of Shenqi and explore its underlying molecular mechanism. Ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis rat model was used to evaluate the anti-allergic rhinitis effect of Shenqi. The effect of Shenqi on IgE-mediated degranulation was measured using rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. Primary spleen lymphocytes were isolated to investigate the anti-allergic mechanism of Shenqi by detecting the expression of transcription factors via Western blot and the level of cytokines (IL-4 and IFN-γ) via ELISA. In OVA-induced AR rat models, Shenqi relieved the allergic rhinitis symptoms, inhibited the histopathological changes of nasal mucosa, and reduced the levels of IL-4 and IgE. The results from the in vitro study certified that Shenqi inhibited mast cell degranulation. Furthermore, the results of GATA3, T-bet, p-STAT6, and SOCS1 expression and production of IFN-γ and IL-4 demonstrated that Shenqi balanced the ratio of Th1/Th2 (IFN-γ/IL-4) in OVA-stimulated spleen lymphocytes. In conclusion, these results suggest that Shenqi exhibits an obvious anti-allergic effect by suppressing the mast cell-mediated allergic response and by improving the imbalance of Th1/Th2 ratio in allergic rhinitis.

  3. Memory and flexibility of cytokine gene expression as separable properties of human T(H)1 and T(H)2 lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messi, Mara; Giacchetto, Isabella; Nagata, Kinya; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Natoli, Gioacchino; Sallusto, Federica

    2003-01-01

    CD4+ T cell priming under T helper type I (T(H)1) or T(H)2 conditions gives rise to polarized cytokine gene expression. We found that in these conditions human naive T cells acquired stable histone hyperacetylation at either the Ifng or Il4 promoter. Effector memory T cells showed polarized cytokine gene acetylation patterns in vivo, whereas central memory T cells had hypoacetylated cytokine genes but acquired polarized acetylation and expression after appropriate stimulation. However, hypoacetylation of the nonexpressed cytokine gene did not lead to irreversible silencing because most T(H)1 and T(H)2 cells acetylated and expressed the alternative gene when stimulated under opposite T(H) conditions. Such cytokine flexibility was absent in a subset of T(H)2 cells that failed to up-regulate T-bet and to express interferon-gamma when stimulated under T(H)1 conditions. Thus, most human CD4+ T cells retain both memory and flexibility of cytokine gene expression.

  4. Changes of serum cytokines-related Th1/Th2/Th17 concentration in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Fu, Qin; Ren, Zhaozhou; Wang, Yanjun; Wang, Chenchen; Shen, Tao; Wang, Guangbin; Wu, Lina

    2015-03-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is now hypothetically considered to be an autoimmune and inflammatory process in which many pro-inflammatory and T cell-derived cytokines play important roles in the loss of bone mass. For instance, interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secreted by Th1 and IL-6, IL-4, and IL-10 secreted by Th2 have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a characteristic cytokine secreted by Th17 cells of the CD4 + subgroup. Although IL-17 has been shown to enhance bone resorption in ovariectomized mouse model, bone cells and genetic research, human-related studies of IL-17 are few. According to WHO classification of osteoporosis by the T scores of BMD, the subjects were divided into the postmenopausal osteoporosis group (T scores≤-2.5), the postmenopausal osteopenia group (-2.5 osteoporosis group than in the postmenopausal osteopenia group and the postmenopausal normal BMD group, but the difference between the postmenopausal osteopenia group and the postmenopausal normal BMD group had no statistical significance. IL-17A was negatively correlated with BMD. To our knowledge, we discovered for the first time that serum concentrations of IFN-γ and IL-4 were significantly lower in the postmenopausal osteoporosis group than in the postmenopausal normal BMD group; IFN-γ and IL-4 were positively correlated with BMD. In addition, we also determined that BMI was negatively correlated with BMD; IL-17A was positively correlated with serum calcium. However, no significant differences in IL-6, TNF-α, IL-2, and IL-10 were observed among the three groups; these three factors were not correlated with BMD. Our experiments have confirmed the roles of IL-17 in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis and in the promotion of bone resorption. Targeted therapy of IL-17, IFN-γ, and IL-4 may be beneficial in the treatment of patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis

  5. Mixed and inhomogeneous expression profile of Th1/Th2 related cytokines detected by cytometric bead array in the saliva of patients with oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Sun, Qianqian; Deng, Yiwen; Wang, Yufeng; Du, Guanhuan; Song, Chencheng; Li, Chenxi; Zhu, Mengxue; Chen, Guangjie; Tang, Guoyao

    2018-03-06

    The aim of this study was to measure T helper (Th) 1/Th2-related cytokine expression in saliva from patients with oral lichen planus (OLP), compared with healthy controls (HC group) and controls with recurrent aphthous ulcers (RAU group). Saliva was collected from 41 patients with OLP, 14 HCs, and 14 controls with RAU for Th1/Th2-related cytokines analysis with cytometric bead array. Disease activity in OLP was recorded by reticulation/keratosis, erythema, and ulceration scores. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and IFN-γ/IL-4 in saliva were significantly higher in the OLP group than in the HC group. A positive and significant correlation among IL-6, IL-10, and reticulation/keratosis, erythema, and ulceration scores in the OLP group was revealed. Significantly increased IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α and IFN-γ/IL-4 were found in the RAU group. Salivary cytokine profiles analyzed by cytometric bead array may provide a convenient research approach to OLP. Data indicated complicated Th1/Th2-related cytokine profile changes, rather than simple dominance model, in OLP. IL-10 and especially IL-6 may provide a surrogate endpoint for monitoring OLP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Oral administration of bovine milk from cows hyperimmunized with intestinal bacterin stimulates lamina propria T lymphocytes to produce Th1-biased cytokines in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Lin, Lianjie; Yin, Chunming; Othtani, Satoru; Aoyama, Katsuhiko; Lu, Changlong; Sun, Xun; Yoshikai, Yasunobu

    2014-03-28

    The goal of this study was to examine the effects of oral administration of bovine milk from cows hyperimmunized with a proprietary bacterin (immune milk "Sustaina") on mucosal immunity in the intestine of adult mice. C57BL/6 mice were orally given immune or control milk for two weeks, and then lymphocyte population and the cytokine production in lamina propria of colon in normal mice and mice induced colitis by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) were detected. We found that the levels of IFN-γ and IL-10 increased, but the levels of IL-17A and IL-4, decreased in lamina propria of colon in immune milk-fed mice as compared with those in control milk-fed mice. Interestingly, oral administration of immune milk partially improved the acute colitis induced by DSS. The levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ increased, but IL-6, IL-17A and IL-4 decreased in lamina propria (LP) of colon in immune milk-fed mice with DSS-induced colitis. Our results suggest that immune milk may stimulate CD4+ T cells to polarize towards a Th1 type response, but contrarily suppress Th17 and Th2 cells responses in large intestinal LP of mice. The results indicate that this kind of immune milk has is able to promote the maintainance of intestinal homeostasis and enhance protection against infection, and could alleviate the symptoms of acute colitis in mice.

  7. Oral Administration of Bovine Milk from Cows Hyperimmunized with Intestinal Bacterin Stimulates Lamina Propria T Lymphocytes to Produce Th1-Biased Cytokines in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to examine the effects of oral administration of bovine milk from cows hyperimmunized with a proprietary bacterin (immune milk “Sustaina” on mucosal immunity in the intestine of adult mice. C57BL/6 mice were orally given immune or control milk for two weeks, and then lymphocyte population and the cytokine production in lamina propria of colon in normal mice and mice induced colitis by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS were detected. We found that the levels of IFN-γ and IL-10 increased, but the levels of IL-17A and IL-4, decreased in lamina propria of colon in immune milk-fed mice as compared with those in control milk-fed mice. Interestingly, oral administration of immune milk partially improved the acute colitis induced by DSS. The levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ increased, but IL-6, IL-17A and IL-4 decreased in lamina propria (LP of colon in immune milk-fed mice with DSS-induced colitis. Our results suggest that immune milk may stimulate CD4+ T cells to polarize towards a Th1 type response, but contrarily suppress Th17 and Th2 cells responses in large intestinal LP of mice. The results indicate that this kind of immune milk has is able to promote the maintainance of intestinal homeostasis and enhance protection against infection, and could alleviate the symptoms of acute colitis in mice.

  8. Increased T-cell activation and Th1 cytokine concentrations prior to the diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma in HIV infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, David Eric; Makinson, Alain; Kuster, Nils; Nagot, Nicolas; Rubbo, Pierre-Alain; Bollore, Karine; Foulongne, Vincent; Cartron, Guillaume; Olive, Daniel; Reynes, Jacques; Vendrell, Jean-Pierre; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2013-01-01

    Despite the use of combined antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected individuals have a higher risk of developing B-cell lymphoma compared to the general population. We aim to explore whether lymphocyte activation, increase in Th1 response as well as markers of EBV reactivation, may precede lymphoma diagnosis. Thirteen cases and 26 controls matched on CD4(+) T-cell count and HIV plasma viral load were identified. Samples were collected 0 to 5 years prior to B-cell lymphoma diagnosis. Seven out of 13 (54 %) and 16/26 (61.5 %) of cases and controls were receiving antiretroviral therapy at the time of sampling, respectively. CD8(+) T-cell activation and Th1 cytokine concentrations were measured before lymphoma onset, together with IgG antibodies directed against viral capsid antigen (VCA) and serum levels of EBV DNA. A higher level of CD8(+) T-cell activation was observed in patients developing lymphoma. Four out of seven Th1 cytokine serum concentrations were significantly higher in patients with lymphoma than in the control group: IL-2R, IL-12p40/70, IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) and monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG). Anti-VCA IgG level were significantly higher in cases than in controls. Four cases (30 %) but no controls had detectable EBV DNA in serum. A higher level of T-cell activation, Th1 cytokine serum concentration and markers of EBV replication, preceded B-cell lymphoma diagnosis. This may suggest that viral antigen stimulation is associated with the genesis of lymphoma in HIV-infected patients.

  9. Mycophenolate Mofetil Modulates Differentiation of Th1/Th2 and the Secretion of Cytokines in an Active Crohn's Disease Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qing-Kang; Liu, Ju-Xiong; Li, Su-Nan; Gao, Ying-Jie; Lv, Yan; Xu, Zi-Peng; Huang, Bing-Xu; Xu, Shi-Yao; Yang, Dong-Xue; Zeng, Ya-Long; Liu, Dian-Feng; Wang, Wei

    2015-11-06

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is an alternative immunosuppressive agent that has been reported to be effective and well tolerated for the treatment of refractory inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of MMF on intestinal injury and tissue inflammation, which were caused by Crohn's disease (CD). Here, trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-relapsing (TNBS) colitis was induced in mice; then, we measured the differentiation of Th1/Th2 cells in mouse splenocytes by flow cytometry and the secretion of cytokines in mice with TNBS-induced colitis by real-time polymerase chain reaction and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (RT-PCR/ELISA). The results show that MMF significantly inhibited mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12, IL-6, and IL-1β in mice with TNBS-induced colitis; however, MMF did not inhibit the expression of IL-10 mRNA. Additionally, ELISA showed that the serum levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12, IL-6, and IL-1β were down-regulated in a TNBS model of colitis. Flow cytometric analysis showed MMF markedly reduced the percentages of Th1 and Th2 splenocytes in the CD mouse model. Mycophenolic acid (MPA) also significantly decreased the percentages of splenic Th1 and Th2 cells in vitro. Furthermore, MMF treatment not only significantly ameliorated diarrhea, and loss of body weight but also abrogated the histopathologic severity and inflammatory response of inflammatory colitis, and increased the survival rate of TNBS-induced colitic mice. These results suggest that treatment with MMF may improve experimental colitis and induce inflammatory response remission of CD by down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines via modulation of the differentiation of Th1/Th2 cells.

  10. Characterization of the subsets of human NKT-like cells and the expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines in patients with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Li, Jian; Huang, Shi-Yun; Sun, Xin

    2015-08-01

    The objective was to investigate the subsets of natural killer T (NKT)-like cells and the expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines in the peripheral blood (PB) and/or decidual tissue of patients with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA). The percentages of NKT-like cells in the PB and deciduas of URSA patients in early pregnancy and in the PB of nonpregnant women were analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of interferon (IFN)-γ (Th1 cytokine) and Th2 cytokines, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10, in the PB and decidual tissue was measured by quantitative RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Most percentages of subsets of NKT-like cells (CD3(+)CD56(+), CD3(+)CD56(+)CD16(+)) in the PB and deciduas were significantly greater in URSA patients than in normal pregnant and nonpregnant women. A cut-off value of 3.75% for the increased percentage of CD3(+)CD56(+)CD16(+) NKT-like cells in the PB appeared to be predictive of pregnancy failure. Moreover, we found that in the decidua, IFN-γ expression was significantly higher, while IL-4 and IL-10 expression was significantly lower in URSA patients compared with those with a normal pregnancy. The ratio of decidual Th1/Th2 cytokines in URSA patients was significantly increased compared with that in normal pregnant women. Decidual IL-4 expression correlated negatively with the percentages of blood CD3(+)CD56(+)CD16(+) NKT-like cells and the decidual CD3(+)CD56(+) and CD3(+)CD56(+)CD16(+) NKT-like cells. NKT-like cells may play an important role in maintaining normal pregnancy. Measurement of CD3(+)CD56(+)CD16(+) NKT-like cells in the PB may provide a potential tool for assessing patients' risk of spontaneous abortion. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Heat shock proteins 70 and 90 from Clonorchis sinensis induce Th1 response and stimulate antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eun Joo; Jeong, Young-Il; Lee, Myoung-Ro; Kim, Yu Jung; Lee, Sang-Eun; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Park, Mi-Yeoun; Ju, Jung-Won

    2017-03-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are found in all prokaryotes and most compartments of eukaryotic cells. Members of the HSP family mediate immune responses to tissue damage or cellular stress. However, little is known about the immune response induced by the oriental liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis, even though this organism is carcinogenic to humans. We address this issue in the present study in mouse bone marrow dendritic cells (mBMDCs), using recombinant HSP70 and 90 from C. sinensis (rCsHSP70 and rCsHSP90). rCsHSP70 and rCsHSP90 were produced in an E. coli system. Purified recombinant proteins were treated in BMDCs isolated from C57BL/6 mice. T cells were isolated from Balb/c mice and co-cultured with activated mBMDCs. Expression of surface molecules was measured by flow cytometry and cytokine secretion was quantified using ELISA. C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups, including peptide alone, peptide/Freund's adjuvant, peptide/CsHSP70, peptide/CsHSP90, and were immunized intraperitoneally three times. Two weeks after final immunization, antibodies against peptide were measured using ELISA. Both proteins induced a dose-dependent upregulation in major histocompatibility complex and co-stimulatory molecule expression and increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, -6, and -12p70 and tumor necrosis factor-α in mBMDCs. Furthermore, when allogenic T cells were incubated with mBMDCs activated by rCsHSP70 and rCsHSP90, the helper T cell (Th)1 cytokine interferon-γ was up-regulated whereas the level of the Th2 cytokine IL-4 was unchanged. These results indicate that rCsHSPs predominantly induce a Th1 response. Over and above these results, we also demonstrated that the production of peptide-specific antibodies can be activated after immunization via in vitro peptide binding with rCsHSP70 or rCsHSP90. This study showed for the first time that the HSP or HSP/peptide complexes of C. sinensis could be considered as a more effective

  12. Myocardial Gene Expression of T-bet, GATA-3, Ror-γt, FoxP3, and Hallmark Cytokines in Chronic Chagas Disease Cardiomyopathy: An Essentially Unopposed TH1-Type Response

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    Luciana Gabriel Nogueira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC, a late consequence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is an inflammatory cardiomyopathy with prognosis worse than those of noninflammatory etiology (NIC. Although the T cell-rich myocarditis is known to play a pathogenetic role, the relative contribution of each of the functional T cell subsets has never been thoroughly investigated. We therefore assessed gene expression of cytokines and transcription factors involved in differentiation and effector function of each functional T cell subset (TH1/TH2/TH17/Treg in CCC, NIC, and heart donor myocardial samples. Methods and Results. Quantitative PCR showed markedly upregulated expression of IFN-γ and transcription factor T-bet, and minor increases of GATA-3; FoxP3 and CTLA-4; IL-17 and IL-18 in CCC as compared with NIC samples. Conversely, cytokines expressed by TH2 cells (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 or associated with Treg (TGF-β and IL-10 were not upregulated in CCC myocardium. Expression of TH1-related genes such as T-bet, IFN-γ, and IL-18 correlated with ventricular dilation, FoxP3, and CTLA-4. Conclusions. Results are consistent with a strong local TH1-mediated response in most samples, possibly associated with pathological myocardial remodeling, and a proportionally smaller FoxP3+CTLA4+ Treg cell population, which is unable to completely curb IFN-γ production in CCC myocardium, therefore fueling inflammation.

  13. Age, gender and litter-related variation in T-lymphocyte cytokine production in young pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de J.; Kruijt, L.; Scholten, J.W.; Boersma, W.J.A.; Buist, W.G.; Engel, B.; Reenen, van C.G.

    2005-01-01

    The capacity of farm animals to produce cytokines could be an important determinant of robustness and health. From research in rodents and humans it appears that the production and the balance of T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 2 (Th2)-type cytokines influences susceptibility to autoimmune and

  14. Th1 and Th2 cytokine profiles induced by hepatitis C virus F protein in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from chronic hepatitis C patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Ming; Deng, Xiaozhao; Zhai, Xiangjun; Xu, Ke; Kong, Jing; Zhang, Jinhai; Zhou, Zhenxian; Yu, Xiaojie; Xu, Xiaodong; Liu, Yunxi; Zhu, Danyan; Zhang, Yun

    2013-05-01

    Th1 and Th2 cytokine response has been confirmed to be correlated with the pathogenesis of HCV infection. The aim of the study is to investigate the Th1 and Th2 cytokine profiles induced by HCV alternate reading frame protein (F protein) in chronic hepatitis C patients. We assessed the immune responses specific to HCV F protein in 55 chronic HCV patients. IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5 secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) post F protein stimulation were compared among HCV patients and healthy donors. Finally, the associations between HCV F protein and HLA class II alleles were explored. We found that the seroprevalence of anti-F antibodies in HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients was significantly higher than that of patients without HCC, but such a significant difference in humoral immune responses to F protein was not observed in HCV 1b-infected- and non-HCV 1b-infected-patients. Additionally, the PBMC proliferation of HCC patients was significantly lower than that of patients without HCC. Furthermore, F protein stimulation of PBMCs from F-seropositive patients resulted in Th2 biased cytokine responses (significantly decreased IFN-γ and/or IL-2 and significantly increased IL-4 and/or IL-5 levels) that reportedly may contribute to HCC progression and pathogenesis. However, no significant difference in the association between HCV F protein and HLA-DRB1*0201, 0301, 0405, 1001 and HLA-DQB1*0201, 0401, 0502, 0602 was observed in this study. These findings suggest that F protein may contribute to the HCV-associated bias in Th1/Th2 responses of chronic hepatitis C patients including the progress of HCC pathogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Isolation of dengue virus serotype 4 genotype II from a patient with high viral load and a mixed Th1/Th17 inflammatory cytokine profile in South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczera, Diogo; Bavia, Lorena; Mosimann, Ana Luiza Pamplona; Koishi, Andrea Cristine; Mazzarotto, Giovanny Augusto Camacho Antevere; Aoki, Mateus Nóbrega; Mansano, Ana Maria Ferrari; Tomeleri, Ediléia Inês; Costa Junior, Wilson Liuti; Miranda, Milena Menegazzo; Lo Sarzi, Maria; Pavanelli, Wander Rogério; Conchon-Costa, Ivete; Duarte Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes; Bordignon, Juliano

    2016-06-06

    We report the isolation and characterization of dengue virus (DENV) serotype 4 from a resident of Santa Fé, state of Paraná, South Brazil, in March 2013. This patient presented with hemorrhagic manifestations, high viral load and, interestingly, a mixed Th1/Th17 cytokine profile. The patient presented with classical dengue symptoms, such as fever, rash, myalgia, arthralgia, and hemorrhagic manifestations including petechiae, gum bleeding and a positive tourniquet test result. A serum sample obtained 1 day after the initial appearance of clinical symptoms was positive for NS1 viral antigen, but this sample was negative for both IgM and IgG against DENV. Dengue virus infection was confirmed by isolation of the virus from C6/36 cells, and dengue virus serotyping was performed via one-step RT-PCR. The infection was confirmed to be caused by a serotype 4 dengue virus. Additionally, based on multiple alignment and phylogeny analyses of its complete genome sequence, the viral strain was classified as genotype II (termed LRV13/422). Moreover, a mixed Th1/Th17 cytokine profile was detected in the patient's serum, and this result demonstrated significant inflammation. Biological characterization of the virus via in vitro assays comparing LRV13/422 with a laboratory-adapted reference strain of dengue virus serotype 4 (TVP/360) showed that LRV13/422 infects both vertebrate and invertebrate cell lines more efficiently than TVP/360. However, LRV13/422 was unable to inhibit type I interferon responses, as suggested by the results obtained for other dengue virus strains. Furthermore, LRV13/422 is the first completely sequenced serotype 4 dengue virus isolated in South Brazil. The high viral load and mixed Th1/Th17 cytokine profile observed in the patient's serum could have implications for the development of the hemorrhagic signs observed, and these potential relationships can now be further studied using suitable animal models and/or in vitro systems.

  16. Testosterone-Mediated Endocrine Function and TH1/TH2 Cytokine Balance after Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorooctane Sulfonate: By Sex Status

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    Shou-Qiang Zhong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Little information exists about the evaluation of potential developmental immunotoxicity induced by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, a synthetic persistent and increasingly ubiquitous environmental contaminant. To assess potential sex-specific impacts of PFOS on immunological health in the offspring, using male and female C57BL/6 mice, pups were evaluated for developmental immunotoxic effects after maternal oral exposure to PFOS (0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 mg PFOS/kg/day during Gestational Days 1–17. Spontaneous TH1/TH2-type cytokines, serum levels of testosterone and estradiol were evaluated in F1 pups at four and eight weeks of age. The study showed that male pups were more sensitive to the effects of PFOS than female pups. At eight weeks of age, an imbalance in TH1/TH2-type cytokines with excess TH2 cytokines (IL-4 was found only in male pups. As for hormone levels, PFOS treatment in utero significantly decreased serum testosterone levels and increased estradiol levels only in male pups, and a significant interaction between sex and PFOS was observed for serum testosterone at both four weeks of age (pinteraction = 0.0049 and eight weeks of age (pinteraction = 0.0227 and for estradiol alternation at four weeks of age (pinteraction = 0.0351. In conclusion, testosterone-mediated endocrine function may be partially involved in the TH1/TH2 imbalance induced by PFOS, and these deficits are detectable among both young and adult mice and may affect males more than females.

  17. Study on the correlationship between serum levels of sex hormones and Th1/Th2 cytokines in male patients with graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Li; Su Shengou; Zhang Xuekun; Wang Hongfen

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of sex hormones on the balance of Th1/Th2 in male patients with GD through investigation of changes of serum levels of sex hormones and cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-4) after treatment. Methods: Serum levels of E 2 , testosterone, FSH, LH (with RIA) and IFN-γ, IL-4 (with ELISA) were determined in 42 male patients with Graves' disease (both before and after 12 weeks of successful antithyroid therapy) and 40 controls. Results: The levels of E 2 , T, LH, FSH in the patients before treatment were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 2 was an independent fator affecting the levels of IL-4, and showed positive correlationship. The level of T was an independent factor affecting the levels of IFN-γ, also showed positive correlationship. The levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ were independent factors to each other, and there was negative correlationship between them. Conclusion: There were changes in levels of sex hormones and imbalance of Th1/Th2 in male patients with Graves' disease. The sex hormones might have some effect on Th1/Th2 balance in male patients with GD. (authors)

  18. Modulation of Th1 cytokines and inflammatory mediators by Euphorbia hirta in animal model of adjuvant-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayaz Ahmad, Sheikh; Sultan, Phalisteen; Ashour, Abdelkader E; Khan, Tajdar Husain; Attia, Sabry M; Bakheet, Saleh A; Abd-Allah, Adel R A

    2013-10-01

    Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae) (E. hirta) is a tree locally used as a traditional medicine in Africa and Australia to treat numerous diseases such as hypertension, respiratory ailments, tumors, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we investigated the anti-arthritic activity of fresh leaves of E. hirta ethanol extract that was found to inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators and cytokines of adjuvant arthritis in rats. Adjuvant arthritis was induced in rats (Wistar) by the subplantar injection of 0.05 ml freshly prepared suspension (5.0 mg/ml) of steam killed Mycobacterium tuberculli in liquid paraffin. Animals were treated with graded doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of E. hirta ethanol extract, p.o. E. hirta significantly inhibited the swelling of the adjuvant-induced arthritis. Moreover, E. hirta at higher dose (200 mg/kg) showed 40.54 ± 1.09 % of CD3+, 15.1 ± 0.76 % of CD4+, 12.2 ± 1.18 % of CD8+ T cell receptor and 17.6 ± 1.11 % gated of CD19+ B cell receptor revealing a down regulation of adjuvant-induced arthritis as compared to the corresponding valves of the arthritic control rats. According to the results shown in Tables 1, 2, the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-2 and IFN-γ were increased in splenocytes of arthritic rats and this increased level was reduced by E. hirta. Also, E. hirta significantly down regulated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide production in peritoneal macrophages. These results suggest that E. hirta exhibits an improvement in adjuvant-induced arthritis through down regulation of activated macrophages and T lymphocytes functions. Such unique effects of E. hirta shown on adjuvant arthritis rat model may be advantageous to the long-term treatment of clinical rheumatoid arthritis. Table 1 Effect of E. hirta and prednisolone (Pred) on LPS-induced IL-1β and TNF-α productions from splenocytes in Mycobacterium tuberculli-induced inflammatory arthritic rats Treatment

  19. Pre-existing adenovirus immunity modifies a complex mixed Th1 and Th2 cytokine response to an Ad5/HIV-1 vaccine candidate in humans.

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    Samuel O Pine

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of the recent Step Study highlight a need to clarify the effects of pre-existing natural immunity to a vaccine vector on vaccine-induced T-cell responses. To investigate this interaction, we examined the relationship between pre-existing Ad5 immunity and T-cell cytokine response profiles in healthy, HIV-uninfected recipients of MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag vaccine (HVTN 050, ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00849732. Participants were grouped by baseline Ad5 neutralizing antibody titer as either Ad5-seronegative (titer ≤18; n = 36 or Ad5-seropositive (titer >200; n = 34. Samples from vaccine recipients were analyzed for immune responses to either HIV-1 Gag peptide pools or Ad5 empty vector using an ex vivo assay that measures thirty cytokines in the absence of long-term culture. The overall profiles of cytokine responses to Gag and Ad5 had similar combinations of induced Th1- and Th2-type cytokines, including IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α, IP-10, IL-13, and IL-10, although the Ad5-specific responses were uniformly higher than the Gag-specific responses (p<0.0001 for 9 out of 11 significantly expressed analytes. At the peak response time point, PBMC from Ad5-seronegative vaccinees secreted significantly more IP-10 in response to Gag (p = 0.008, and significantly more IP-10 (p = 0.0009, IL-2 (p = 0.006 and IL-10 (p = 0.05 in response to Ad5 empty vector than PBMC from Ad5-seropositive vaccinees. Additionally, similar responses to the Ad5 vector prior to vaccination were observed in almost all subjects, regardless of Ad5 neutralizing antibody status, and the levels of secreted IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-1Ra and GM-CSF were blunted following vaccination. The cytokine response profile of Gag-specific T cells mirrored the Ad5-specific response present in all subjects before vaccination, and included a number of Th1- and Th2-associated cytokines not routinely assessed in current vaccine trials, such as IP-10, IL-10, IL-13, and GM-CSF. Together, these

  20. CD45-mediated signaling pathway is involved in Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL)-induced proliferation and Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion in human PBMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujari, Radha; Eligar, Sachin M.; Kumar, Natesh; Nagre, Nagaraja N.; Inamdar, Shashikala R.; Swamy, Bale M.; Shastry, Padma

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► RBL, a potent mitogenic and complex N-glycan specific lectin binds to CD45 on PBMC. ► RBL triggers CD45-mediated signaling involved in activation of p38MAPK and STAT-5. ► Inhibition of CD45 PTPase signaling blocks RBL-induced ZAP70 phosphorylation. ► RBL-CD45 mediated signaling is crucial for RBL-induced immunodulatory activities. -- Abstract: We earlier reported the mitogenic and immunostimulatory activities of Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL), purified from phytopathogenic fungus R. bataticola in human PBMC. The lectin demonstrates specificity towards glycoproteins containing complex N-glycans. Since CD45-protein tyrosine phosphatase that abundantly expresses N-glycans is important in T-cell signaling, the study aimed to investigate the involvement of CD45 in the immunomodulatory activities of RBL. Flowcytometry and confocal microscopy studies revealed that RBL exhibited binding to PBMC and colocalized with CD45. The binding was comparable in cells expressing different CD45 isoforms-RA, -RB and -RO. CD45 blocking antibody reduced the binding and proliferation of PBMC induced by RBL. CD45-PTPase inhibitor dephostatin inhibited RBL–induced proliferation, expression of CD25 and pZAP-70. RBL-induced secretion of Th1/Th2 cytokines were significantly inhibited in presence of dephostatin. Also, dephostatin blocked phosphorylation of p38MAPK and STAT-5 that was crucial for the biological functions of RBL. The study demonstrates the involvement of CD45-mediated signaling in RBL-induced PBMC proliferation and Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion through activation of p38MAPK and STAT-5.

  1. CD45-mediated signaling pathway is involved in Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL)-induced proliferation and Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion in human PBMC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujari, Radha [National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Eligar, Sachin M. [Department of Biochemistry, Karnatak University, Dharwad, 580003 Karnataka (India); Kumar, Natesh [National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Nagre, Nagaraja N.; Inamdar, Shashikala R.; Swamy, Bale M. [Department of Biochemistry, Karnatak University, Dharwad, 580003 Karnataka (India); Shastry, Padma, E-mail: padma@nccs.res.in [National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBL, a potent mitogenic and complex N-glycan specific lectin binds to CD45 on PBMC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBL triggers CD45-mediated signaling involved in activation of p38MAPK and STAT-5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of CD45 PTPase signaling blocks RBL-induced ZAP70 phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBL-CD45 mediated signaling is crucial for RBL-induced immunodulatory activities. -- Abstract: We earlier reported the mitogenic and immunostimulatory activities of Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL), purified from phytopathogenic fungus R. bataticola in human PBMC. The lectin demonstrates specificity towards glycoproteins containing complex N-glycans. Since CD45-protein tyrosine phosphatase that abundantly expresses N-glycans is important in T-cell signaling, the study aimed to investigate the involvement of CD45 in the immunomodulatory activities of RBL. Flowcytometry and confocal microscopy studies revealed that RBL exhibited binding to PBMC and colocalized with CD45. The binding was comparable in cells expressing different CD45 isoforms-RA, -RB and -RO. CD45 blocking antibody reduced the binding and proliferation of PBMC induced by RBL. CD45-PTPase inhibitor dephostatin inhibited RBL-induced proliferation, expression of CD25 and pZAP-70. RBL-induced secretion of Th1/Th2 cytokines were significantly inhibited in presence of dephostatin. Also, dephostatin blocked phosphorylation of p38MAPK and STAT-5 that was crucial for the biological functions of RBL. The study demonstrates the involvement of CD45-mediated signaling in RBL-induced PBMC proliferation and Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion through activation of p38MAPK and STAT-5.

  2. Quantificação das citocinas séricas Th1/Th2 por citometria de fluxo no linfoma de Hodgkin clássico Measurement of Th1/Th2 serum cytokines by flow cytometry in classical Hodgkin lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana K. Mitelman

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O linfoma de Hodgkin clássico (LHC é uma neoplasia com distúrbio na produção de citocinas. Estudos demonstram que o padrão anormal das citocinas no linfonodo acometido pela lesão contribui não somente com a proliferação das células malignas H-RS, como também com o característico infiltrado hiper-reativo que compõe o tecido no LHC. Esta disfunção pode ser observada tanto no quadro clínico dos pacientes, como nas características histopatológicas: sintomas B, deficiência na resposta imune celular, bandas de colágeno e eosinofilia. As concentrações séricas das citocinas Th1 (IL-2, TNF, INF-γ e Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 foram estudadas em 45 pacientes com LHC, ao diagnóstico, e em 34 doadores saudáveis, por citometria de fluxo (CBA - cytometric beads array. Houve aumento das concentrações das citocinas TNF (pClassical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL is a malignancy with an abnormal or unbalanced secretion/production of cytokines, which might support the growth of H-RS cells, their surrounding reactive bystander cells and may be responsible for the typical clinical and histopathologic features of CHL: systemic B symptoms, an apparent defect in cell-mediated immune response, tumor fibrosis and eosinophilic infiltrate. Serum concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, IL5, IL-10, TNF and IFN-γ (Th1/Th2 were measured in 45 patients at diagnosis of classical Hodgkin lymphoma and in 34 healthy controls by cytometric beads array (CBA. Levels of TNF (p<0.01, INF-γ(p<0.01, IL-4 (p=0.01, IL-5 (p<0.01 e IL-10 (p<0.01 were significantly higher in patients compared to the control group. No difference was observed for IL-2 between the two groups. On correlating Th1/Th2 cytokine concentrations with clinical risk factors, elevated IL-10 (Th2 levels are associated with variables that suggest worse prognoses including III/IV stage (p=0.01, B-symptoms (p=0.04, hemoglobin < 10.5g/dL (p=0.01, lymphocytes < 600/mm³ (p=0.01 and according to the seven

  3. Formaldehyde-Induced Aggravation of Pruritus and Dermatitis Is Associated with the Elevated Expression of Th1 Cytokines in a Rat Model of Atopic Dermatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Taeho Han

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis is a complex disease of heterogeneous pathogenesis, in particular, genetic predisposition, environmental triggers, and their interactions. Indoor air pollution, increasing with urbanization, plays a role as environmental risk factor in the development of AD. However, we still lack a detailed picture of the role of air pollution in the development of the disease. Here, we examined the effect of formaldehyde (FA exposure on the manifestation of atopic dermatitis and the underlying molecular mechanism in naive rats and in a rat model of atopic dermatitis (AD produced by neonatal capsaicin treatment. The AD and naive rats were exposed to 0.8 ppm FA, 1.2 ppm FA, or fresh air (Air for 6 weeks (2 hours/day and 5 days/week. So, six groups, namely the 1.2 FA-AD, 0.8 FA-AD, Air-AD, 1.2 FA-naive, 0.8 FA-naive and Air-naive groups, were established. Pruritus and dermatitis, two major symptoms of atopic dermatitis, were evaluated every week for 6 weeks. After that, samples of the blood, the skin and the thymus were collected from the 1.2 FA-AD, the Air-AD, the 1.2 FA-naive and the Air-naive groups. Serum IgE levels were quantified with ELISA, and mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines from extracts of the skin and the thymus were calculated with qRT-PCR. The dermatitis and pruritus significantly worsened in 1.2 FA-AD group, but not in 0.8 FA-AD, compared to the Air-AD animals, whereas FA didn't induce any symptoms in naive rats. Consistently, the levels of serum IgE were significantly higher in 1.2 FA-AD than in air-AD, however, there was no significant difference following FA exposure in naive animals. In the skin, mRNA expression levels of Th1 cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly higher in the 1.2 FA-AD rats compared to the air-AD rats, whereas mRNA expression levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-17A and TSLP were significantly higher in 1.2 FA-naive group than in the Air-naive group. These results

  4. Formaldehyde-Induced Aggravation of Pruritus and Dermatitis Is Associated with the Elevated Expression of Th1 Cytokines in a Rat Model of Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rafael Taeho; Back, Seung Keun; Lee, Hyunkyoung; Lee, JaeHee; Kim, Hye Young; Kim, Hee Jin; Na, Heung Sik

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a complex disease of heterogeneous pathogenesis, in particular, genetic predisposition, environmental triggers, and their interactions. Indoor air pollution, increasing with urbanization, plays a role as environmental risk factor in the development of AD. However, we still lack a detailed picture of the role of air pollution in the development of the disease. Here, we examined the effect of formaldehyde (FA) exposure on the manifestation of atopic dermatitis and the underlying molecular mechanism in naive rats and in a rat model of atopic dermatitis (AD) produced by neonatal capsaicin treatment. The AD and naive rats were exposed to 0.8 ppm FA, 1.2 ppm FA, or fresh air (Air) for 6 weeks (2 hours/day and 5 days/week). So, six groups, namely the 1.2 FA-AD, 0.8 FA-AD, Air-AD, 1.2 FA-naive, 0.8 FA-naive and Air-naive groups, were established. Pruritus and dermatitis, two major symptoms of atopic dermatitis, were evaluated every week for 6 weeks. After that, samples of the blood, the skin and the thymus were collected from the 1.2 FA-AD, the Air-AD, the 1.2 FA-naive and the Air-naive groups. Serum IgE levels were quantified with ELISA, and mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines from extracts of the skin and the thymus were calculated with qRT-PCR. The dermatitis and pruritus significantly worsened in 1.2 FA-AD group, but not in 0.8 FA-AD, compared to the Air-AD animals, whereas FA didn't induce any symptoms in naive rats. Consistently, the levels of serum IgE were significantly higher in 1.2 FA-AD than in air-AD, however, there was no significant difference following FA exposure in naive animals. In the skin, mRNA expression levels of Th1 cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly higher in the 1.2 FA-AD rats compared to the air-AD rats, whereas mRNA expression levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), IL-17A and TSLP were significantly higher in 1.2 FA-naive group than in the Air-naive group. These results suggested that 1

  5. Targeting beta- and alpha-adrenergic receptors differentially shifts Th1, Th2, and inflammatory cytokine profiles in immune organs to attenuate adjuvant arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne eLorton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The sympathetic nervous system (SNS regulates host defense responses and restores homeostasis. SNS-immune regulation is altered in rheumatoid arthritis (RA and rodent models of RA, characterized by nerve remodeling in immune organs and defective adrenergic receptor (AR signaling to immune cell targets that typically promotes or suppresses inflammation via α- and β2-AR activation, respectively, and indirectly drives humoral immunity by blocking Th1 cytokine secretion. Here, we investigate how β2-AR stimulation and/or α-AR blockade at disease onset affects disease pathology and cytokine profiles in relevant immune organs from male Lewis rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA. Rats challenged to induce AA were treated with terbutaline (TERB, a β2-AR agonist (600 μg/kg/day and/or phentolamine (PHEN, an α-AR antagonist (5.0 mg/kg/day or vehicle from disease onset through severe disease. We report that in spleen, mesenteric (MLN and draining lymph node (DLN cells, TERB reduces proliferation, an effect independent of IL-2. TERB also fails to shift Th cytokines from a Th1 to Th2 profile in spleen and MLN (no effect on IFN-γ and DLN (greater IFN-γ cells. In splenocytes, TERB, PHEN and co-treatment (PT promotes an anti-inflammatory profile (greater IL-10 and lowers TNF-α (PT only. In DLN cells, drug treatments do not affect inflammatory profiles, except PT, which raised IL-10. In MLN cells, TERB or PHEN lowers MLN cell secretion of TNF-α or IL-10, respectively. Collectively, our findings indicate disrupted β2-AR, but not α-AR signaling in AA. Aberrant β2-AR signaling consequently derails the sympathetic regulation of lymphocyte expansion, Th cell differentiation, and inflammation in the spleen, DLNs and MLNs that is required for immune system homeostasis. Importantly, this study provides potential mechanisms through which reestablished balance between α- and β2-AR function in the immune system ameliorates inflammation and joint

  6. Total glucosides of peony attenuates 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid/ethanol-induced colitis in rats through adjustment of TH1/TH2 cytokines polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yabing; Zhou, Rui; Zhou, Feng; Cheng, Hong; Xia, Bing

    2014-01-01

    The present study is to investigate effects of total glucosides of peony (TGP) on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)/ethanol-induced colitis in rats and to explore potential clinical use of TGP for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly grouped into normal controls, model controls, sulfasalazine (SASP) controls (100 mg/kg/day), and low, medium, and high-dose TGP groups (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day, respectively). 24 h following colonic instillation of TNBS, TGP, and SASP were given by gastric gavage three times a day for 7 days. Disease activity index (DAI), colon macroscopic damage index (CMDI), histopathological score (HPS), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were evaluated. Levels of serum TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10 were measured by ELISA, and expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10 mRNA and protein in colonic tissues was detected by RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. Compared with rats in the model controls, TGP (50 or 100 mg/kg/day)-treated rats with TNBS/ethanol-induced colitis showed significant improvements of DAI, CMDI, HPS, and MPO activity. Moreover, administration of TGP (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) decreased the up-regulated levels of serum TNF-α and IL-1β, and expression of TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA and protein in colonic tissues, and increased the serum IL-10 and colonic IL-10 mRNA and protein level. And there was no significant difference compared with administration of SASP (P > 0.05). TGP attenuates TNBS/ethanol-induced colitis in rats and its efficacy is similar to SASP, the potential mechanism might be related to the adjustment of Th1/Th2 cytokines polarization by decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and IL-1β, and increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10.

  7. Recipient gene polymorphisms in the Th-1 cytokines IL-2 and IFN-gamma in relation to acute rejection and graft vascular disease after clinical heart transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holweg, C T J; Peeters, A M A; Balk, A H M M; Uitterlinden, A G; Niesters, H G M; Maat, A P W M; Weimar, W; Baan, C C

    2003-01-01

    IL-2 and IFN-gamma are associated with acute rejection (AR) and graft vascular disease (GVD) after clinical heart transplantation. Polymorphisms in the genes of IL-2 (T-330G in the promoter) and IFN-gamma (CA repeat in the first intron) influence the production levels of these cytokines. Therefore,

  8. Modulation of cytokine production by carnitine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola M. Kouttab

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of carnitine congeners to modulate cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC was investigated. Modulation of cytokine production by PBMC of young (30 years of age or younger and old (70 years of age or older normal donors was first compared. The PBMC were collected over Ficoll–Hypaque and incubated in the presence of various concentrations of acetyl L-carnitine for 24 h. Subsequently the supernatants were collected and examined for cytokine production. The presence of cytokines in tissue culture supernatants was examined by ELISA. The cytokines measured included IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, TNFα, GM–CSF, and IFNγ. The results showed that at 50 μg/ml of acetyl L-carnitine the most significant response was obtained for TNFα. In this regard four of five young donors responded, but only one of five old donors responded. More recently these studies were expanded to examine the ability of L-carnitine to modulate cytokine production at higher doses, 200 and 400 μg/ml, in young donors. The results of these studies showed that in addition to TNFα, significant production of IL-1β and IL-6 was observed. These preliminary studies provide evidence that carnitine may modulate immune functions through the production of selected cytokines.

  9. CD4+ Th1 HER2-Specific T Cells as a Novel Treatment for HER2-Overexpressing Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lai, Vy P

    2007-01-01

    .... Second, we have thoroughly characterized the cytokine production by our ex vivo expanded T cells and observed high levels of secreted Th1 cytokines, primarily IFN and GM-CSF, but also, interestingly...

  10. Correlation between the induction of Th1 cytokines by an attenuated equine infectious anemia virus vaccine and protection against disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Ying; Liang, Hua; Wei, Li; Xiang, Wenhua; Shen, Rongxian; Shao, Yiming

    2007-03-01

    The equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) donkey-leukocyte attenuated vaccine (DLV) has been used to protect against equine infectious anaemia (EIA) disease for several decades in China. The attenuated mechanism and immunological protective mechanisms remain to be elucidated. To identify responses that correlate with the protection against disease, we immunized horses with DLV, followed by challenge with an EIAV wild-type strain LN. All vaccinated horses were asymptomatic and had a low level of virus replication (10(7) copies ml-1) and intermittent febrile episodes. Cytokine production in the DLV-vaccinated horses increased and attained a plateau level at approximately 50 days post-vaccination, and exceeded 10(7) copies per 10(7) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) 1-3 months post-challenge. However, non-vaccinated control horses died after several fever episodes (>or=39 degrees C), which coincided with higher viral load (10(6)-10(7) copies ml-1) and lower cytokine production (<10(4) copies per 10(7) PBMCs). The results indicate that high levels of EIAV-specific cytokines induced by the attenuated EIAV vaccine may contribute to the protective immune response against EIA disease.

  11. Relationship of thyroid ultrasound elasticity contrast index with serum autoantibody and Th1/Th2 cytokine levels in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Guo Sheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the relationship of thyroid ultrasound elasticity contrast index (ECI with serum autoantibody and Th1/Th2 cytokine levels in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Methods: A total of 68 patients diagnosed with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT in our hospitalas were selected as HT group, 60 healthy volunteers were selected as control group, ultrasound examination was performed to determine ECL, serum was collected to determine TPO-Ab, TG-Ab, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 levels, and peripheral blood was collected to determine the positive expression rate of CD30 and CD195. Results: ECI of HT group was significantly higher than that of control group and the ECI of patients with small nodule type HT was significantly lower than that of patients with grid type HT; TPO-Ab, TG-Ab, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 levels in serum and positive expression rate of CD195 in peripheral blood of HT group were significantly higher than those of control group while IL-4 and IL-10 levels and positive expression rate of CD30 in peripheral blood were significantly lower than those of control group; TPO-Ab, TG-Ab, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 levels in serum and positive expression rate of CD195 in peripheral blood of patients with small nodule type HT were significantly lower than those of patients with grid type HT while IL-4 and IL-10 levels and positive expression rate of CD30 in peripheral blood were significantly higher than those of patients with grid type HT; ECI was positively correlated with TPO-Ab, TG-Ab, IFN-γ, TNF- α, IL-2b and CD195, and negatively correlated with IL-4, IL-10 and CD30. Conclusions: ECL significantly increases in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and it can be used to evaluate the degree of immune dysfunction.

  12. Differential effects of Th1, monocyte/macrophage and Th2 cytokine mixtures on early gene expression for molecules associated with metabolism, signaling and regulation in central nervous system mixed glial cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studzinski Diane

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytokines secreted by immune cells and activated glia play central roles in both the pathogenesis of and protection from damage to the central nervous system (CNS in multiple sclerosis (MS. Methods We have used gene array analysis to identify the initial direct effects of cytokines on CNS glia by comparing changes in early gene expression in CNS glial cultures treated for 6 hours with cytokines typical of those secreted by Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages (M/M. Results In two previous papers, we summarized effects of these cytokines on immune-related molecules, and on neural and glial related proteins, including neurotrophins, growth factors and structural proteins. In this paper, we present the effects of the cytokines on molecules involved in metabolism, signaling and regulatory mechanisms in CNS glia. Many of the changes in gene expression were similar to those seen in ischemic preconditioning and in early inflammatory lesions in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, related to ion homeostasis, mitochondrial function, neurotransmission, vitamin D metabolism and a variety of transcription factors and signaling pathways. Among the most prominent changes, all three cytokine mixtures markedly downregulated the dopamine D3 receptor, while Th1 and Th2 cytokines downregulated neuropeptide Y receptor 5. An unexpected finding was the large number of changes related to lipid metabolism, including several suggesting a switch from diacylglycerol to phosphatidyl inositol mediated signaling pathways. Using QRT-PCR we validated the results for regulation of genes for iNOS, arginase and P glycoprotein/multi-drug resistance protein 1 (MDR1 seen at 6 hours with microarray. Conclusion Each of the three cytokine mixtures differentially regulated gene expression related to metabolism and signaling that may play roles in the pathogenesis of MS, most notably with regard to mitochondrial function and neurotransmitter

  13. Dietary perilla oil inhibits proinflammatory cytokine production in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of ovalbumin-challenged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hui-Hsiang; Chen, Chin-Shun; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of different dietary oils on ovalbumin-sensitized and -challenged mice. Experimental BALB/c mice were fed with different diets containing 5% corn oil [rich in linoleic acid, 18:2n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), as a control diet], 5% perilla oil (rich in alpha-linolenic acid, 18:3n-3 PUFA) or 5% compound oil containing 50% corn oil and 50% perilla oil, for 5 consecutive weeks. The leukocyte count, inflammatory mediators, and cytokine levels, including proinflammatory and Th1/Th2 cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from the mice were determined. The results showed that 5% compound oil administration significantly (P 0.05) decrease the eosinophil accumulation or the secretions of inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), histamine, nitric oxide and eotaxin. However, dietary perilla oil significantly (P < 0.05) reduced proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6) and Th1 cytokine (IFN-gamma and IL-2) production. The production of Th2 cytokine IL-10, but not IL-4 and IL-5, was also significantly inhibited by perilla oil administration. The results suggest that dietary perilla oil might alleviate inflammation via decreasing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in BALF, but failed to regulate the Th1/Th2 balance toward Th1 pole during the Th2-skewed allergic airway inflammation.

  14. Recombinant ESAT-6-CFP10 Fusion Protein Induction of Th1/Th2 Cytokines and FoxP3 Expressing Treg Cells in Pulmonary TB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly Jackson-Sillah

    Full Text Available Early secretory antigenic target 6 (ESAT-6 and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10 are Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb-specific antigens that are secreted by actively metabolising bacteria and contribute to the virulence of the bacteria. Their ability to induce Treg and Th2 responses, particularly during the first two weeks of treatment, has not been comprehensively examined to date. The purpose of this work was to characterise Th1, Th2 and Treg responses to rESAT-6-CFP10 fusion protein in TB patients before and during the intensive phase of treatment and in healthy M.bovis BCG vaccinated donors.Forty-six newly diagnosed, HIV-negative, smear-positive pulmonary TB patients and 20 healthy donors were recruited in the UK and Ghana. Their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were used in ex vivo ELISPOT and in vitro cultures to identify immunological parameters of interest.The study confirmed that protective immune responses to rESAT-6-CFP10 are impaired in active TB but improved during treatment: circulating antigen-specific IL-4-producing T-cells were increased in untreated TB but declined by two weeks of treatment while the circulating antigen-specific IFN-γ producing T cells which showed a transient rise at one week of treatment, persisted at baseline levels at two months of treatment. In vitro T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production were reduced, while IL-4 and CD4(+FoxP3(+CD25(hi cell expression were increased in response to rESAT-6-CFP10 fusion protein in untreated TB. These responses were reversed during early treatment of TB.These observations support further investigations into the possible utility of these parameters as markers of active disease and favourable treatment outcomes.

  15. Cytokine-producing T cell subsets in human leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, Kåre

    2000-01-01

    Leishmania specific Th1/Th2 cells have been identified in humans as well as in mice. There is a correlation between the clinical outcome of the infection and the cytokine response profile. Generally, the production of Th2 cytokines leads to severe infection, whereas the production of Th1 cytokine...

  16. Lactobacillus casei ssp.casei induced Th1 cytokine profile and natural killer cells activity in invasive ductal carcinoma bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi; Yazdi, Mohammad Hossein; Holakuyee, Marzieh; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Abolhassani, Mohsen; Mahdavi, Mehdi

    2012-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria which are used as probiotics have ability to modulate immune responses and modify immune mechanisms. It has also been indicated that some strains of this family can affect the immune responses against solid tumors. In the present work, we proposed to study the effects of oral administration of L.cacesi ssp casei on the NK cells cytotoxicity and also production of cytokines in spleen cells culture of BALB/c mice bearing invasive ductal carcinoma. 30 female In-bred BALB/c mice, were used and divided in two groups of test and control each containing 15 mice. Every day from 2 weeks before tumor transplantation 0.5 ml of PBS containing 2.7×108 CFU/ml of L.casei spp casei was orally administered to the test mice and it was followed 3 weeks after transplantation as well with 3 days interval between each week. Control mice received an equal volume of PBS in a same manner. Results showed that oral administration of L. casei significantly increased the production of IL-12 and IFN-γ (Psurvival was significantly prolonged in comparison to the controls. Our findings suggest that daily intake of L.casei can improve immune responses in mice bearing invasive ductal carcinoma, but further studies are needed to investigate the other involving mechanisms in this case.

  17. Effect of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, and Curcuma longa L. on Th1- and Th2-cytokine responses and human leukocyte antigen-DR expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of septic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huang-Pin; Lin, Yin-Ku

    2018-05-10

    Many traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), such as Eucommia ulmoides Oliv., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, and Curcuma longa L., have been reported to have various immune-modulatory effects. To determine the effects of extracts from these three TCM on type 1 T help (Th1)- and Th2-cytokine responses and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from septic patients. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated PBMCs of healthy controls and septic patients were cultured for 48 hs with or without 0.05/0.1 mg/ml of TCM extract. HLA-DR expression in monocytes was detected using flow cytofluorimetry. The interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin (IL)- 2, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13 levels in supernatants were measured with a human enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Treatment with either 0.05 or 0.1 mg/ml of C. longa L. extract significantly restored the percentage of HLA-DR-positive monocytes, which was decreased by LPS in control and patient groups. Treatment with 0.05 or 0.1 mg/ml E. ulmoides Oliv. and C.longa L. extract decreased IL-10 production from LPS-stimulated PBMCs of controls and patients. In patients with sepsis, C. longa L. extract decreased IL-10 production to a greater degree than did E. ulmoides Oliv extract. Although IFN-γ, TNF-α, or IL-13 productions from LPS-stimulated PBMCs were influenced by E. ulmoides Oliv., G. pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, or C. longa L. in control or sepsis groups in this study, only the influence of IL-10 was consistent in both control and sepsis groups. By enhancing monocyte HLA-DR expression and decreasing IL-10 production, C. longa L. might help restore inflammatory responses in septic patients to eradicate pathogens. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. BCG dose reduction by decreasing the instillation frequency: Effects on local Th1/Th2 cytokine responses in a mouse model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Elizabeth C.; Rooyakkers, Sietske J.; Schamhart, Denis H. J.; de Reijke, Theo M.; Kurth, Karl-Heinz

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Based on the requirement of a Th1 immune response for clinical efficacy, and incited by the arbitrary induction scheme, frequent side effects and the empirical approach in improving BCG immunotherapy for superficial bladder cancer, an alternative intravesical BCG treatment schedule for

  19. Cytokine gene expression in a mouse model: The first instillations with viable bacillus Calmette-Guerin determine the succeeding Th1 response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Elizabeth C.; Rooijakkers, Sietske J.; Schamhart, Denis H.; Kurth, Karl-Heinz

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy for superficial bladder cancer is immune dependent and activation of a Th1 immune response is probably required for clinical efficacy. Given the empirical approach to improving BCG therapy we investigated in a mouse model the consequences of

  20. High dose vitamin C supplementation increases the Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion ratio, but decreases eosinophilic infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of ovalbumin-sensitized and challenged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hui-Hsiang; Chen, Chin-Shuh; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

    2009-11-11

    Vitamin C is traditionally regarded to be beneficial for asthma, however the benefit is still controversial. In the present study, high dose vitamin C was supplemented to ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized and challenged mice to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin C on allergic asthma. In this study, the experimental mice were divided into four groups, including nonsensitized control, dietary control, positive control (cured ip with dexamethasone), and high dose vitamin C supplementation (130 mg of vitamin C/kg bw/day by gavage for 5 weeks). Differential leukocyte counts, levels of inflammatory mediators, as well as type 1 T-helper lymphocytes (Th1)-type and type 2 T-helper lymphocytes (Th2)-type cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were determined. The results showed that both high dose vitamin C supplementation and dexamethasone treatments significantly (P < 0.05) decreased eosinophilic infiltration into BALF. High dose vitamin C supplementation significantly increased the secretion ratio of interferon (IFN)-gamma/interleukin (IL)-5 cytokines. This study suggests that high dose vitamin C supplementation might attenuate allergic inflammation in vivo via modulating the Th1/Th2 balance toward the Th1 pole during the Th2-skewed allergic airway inflammation and decreasing eosinophilic infiltration into BALF.

  1. Combined Effects of Circulating Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Th1 and Th2 Cytokines on Breast Cancer Estrogen Receptor Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Song, E-mail: song.yao@roswellpark.org; Hong, Chi-Chen; McCann, Susan E.; Zirpoli, Gary; Quan, Lei; Gong, Zhihong [Department of Cancer Prevention and Control, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Johnson, Candace S. [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Trump, Donald L. [Department of Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Ambrosone, Christine B. [Department of Cancer Prevention and Control, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States)

    2014-01-27

    Vitamin D has been recognized for its immune-modulating properties. We have previously found that levels of 25OHD, and cytokines including IL5, IFNα2, and TNFα, are also associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer in younger women. Thus, we hypothesized that there may be interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in influencing breast cancer ER status, which was tested in 490 women with incident breast cancer. There was no correlation of the levels of 25OHD with any cytokine, and their associations with tumor ER negative status were independent of each other. However, premenopausal women with low 25OHD and high TNFα levels had the highest likelihood of having ER negative cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 7.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.44−21.98), with evidence of synergy between the two (relative excess risk due to interaction [RERI] = 5.46, p for additive interaction = 0.14, and p for multiplicative interaction = 0.09). There were similar synergistic associations between 25OHD and IL5, and several IFNα2 to Th2 cytokine ratios. This is the first study to provide evidence of interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in relation to breast cancer ER status, which may inform combinational use of vitamin D and anti-inflammatory drugs for cancer prevention and therapy.

  2. Combined effects of circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin d and Th1 and th2 cytokines on breast cancer estrogen receptor status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Song; Hong, Chi-Chen; McCann, Susan E; Zirpoli, Gary; Quan, Lei; Gong, Zhihong; Johnson, Candace S; Trump, Donald L; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2014-01-27

    Vitamin D has been recognized for its immune-modulating properties. We have previously found that levels of 25OHD, and cytokines including IL5, IFNα2, and TNFα, are also associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer in younger women. Thus, we hypothesized that there may be interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in influencing breast cancer ER status, which was tested in 490 women with incident breast cancer. There was no correlation of the levels of 25OHD with any cytokine, and their associations with tumor ER negative status were independent of each other. However, premenopausal women with low 25OHD and high TNFα levels had the highest likelihood of having ER negative cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 7.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.44-21.98), with evidence of synergy between the two (relative excess risk due to interaction [RERI] = 5.46, p for additive interaction = 0.14, and p for multiplicative interaction = 0.09). There were similar synergistic associations between 25OHD and IL5, and several IFNα2 to Th2 cytokine ratios. This is the first study to provide evidence of interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in relation to breast cancer ER status, which may inform combinational use of vitamin D and anti-inflammatory drugs for cancer prevention and therapy.

  3. Combined Effects of Circulating Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Th1 and Th2 Cytokines on Breast Cancer Estrogen Receptor Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D has been recognized for its immune-modulating properties. We have previously found that levels of 25OHD, and cytokines including IL5, IFNα2, and TNFα, are also associated with estrogen receptor (ER negative breast cancer in younger women. Thus, we hypothesized that there may be interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in influencing breast cancer ER status, which was tested in 490 women with incident breast cancer. There was no correlation of the levels of 25OHD with any cytokine, and their associations with tumor ER negative status were independent of each other. However, premenopausal women with low 25OHD and high TNFα levels had the highest likelihood of having ER negative cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 7.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.44−21.98, with evidence of synergy between the two (relative excess risk due to interaction [RERI] = 5.46, p for additive interaction = 0.14, and p for multiplicative interaction = 0.09. There were similar synergistic associations between 25OHD and IL5, and several IFNα2 to Th2 cytokine ratios. This is the first study to provide evidence of interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in relation to breast cancer ER status, which may inform combinational use of vitamin D and anti-inflammatory drugs for cancer prevention and therapy.

  4. Acrolein inhalation suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production but does not affect acute airways neutrophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, David Itiro; Poynter, Matthew E; Othman, Ziryan; Hemenway, David; van der Vliet, Albert

    2008-07-01

    Acrolein is a reactive unsaturated aldehyde that is produced during endogenous oxidative processes and is a major bioactive component of environmental pollutants such as cigarette smoke. Because in vitro studies demonstrate that acrolein can inhibit neutrophil apoptosis, we evaluated the effects of in vivo acrolein exposure on acute lung inflammation induced by LPS. Male C57BL/6J mice received 300 microg/kg intratracheal LPS and were exposed to acrolein (5 parts per million, 6 h/day), either before or after LPS challenge. Exposure to acrolein either before or after LPS challenge did not significantly affect the overall extent of LPS-induced lung inflammation, or the duration of the inflammatory response, as observed from recovered lung lavage leukocytes and histology. However, exposure to acrolein after LPS instillation markedly diminished the LPS-induced production of several inflammatory cytokines, specifically TNF-alpha, IL-12, and the Th1 cytokine IFN-gamma, which was associated with reduction in NF-kappaB activation. Our data demonstrate that acrolein exposure suppresses LPS-induced Th1 cytokine responses without affecting acute neutrophilia. Disruption of cytokine signaling by acrolein may represent a mechanism by which smoking contributes to chronic disease in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma.

  5. Calcineurin inhibitors suppress cytokine production from memory T cells and differentiation of naïve T cells into cytokine-producing mature T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenshiro Tsuda

    Full Text Available T cells have been classified as belonging to the Th1 or Th2 subsets according to the production of defining cytokines such as IFN-γ and IL-4. The discovery of the Th17 lineage and regulatory T cells shifted the simple concept of the Th1/Th2 balance into a 4-way mechanistic pathway of local and systemic immunological activity. Clinically, the blockage of cytokine signals or non-specific suppression of cytokine predominance by immunosuppressants is the first-line treatment for inflammatory T cell-mediated disorders. Cyclosporine A (CsA and Tacrolimus (Tac are commonly used immunosuppressants for the treatment of autoimmune disease, psoriasis, and atopic disorders. Many studies have shown that these compounds suppress the activation of the calcium-dependent phosphatase calcineurin, thereby inhibiting T-cell activation. Although CsA and Tac are frequently utilized, their pharmacological mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated.In the present study, we focused on the effects of CsA and Tac on cytokine secretion from purified human memory CD4(+T cells and the differentiation of naïve T cells into cytokine-producing memory T cells. CsA or Tac significantly inhibited IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17 production from memory T cells. These compounds also inhibited T cell differentiation into the Th1, Th2, and Th17 subsets, even when used at a low concentration. This study provided critical information regarding the clinical efficacies of CsA and Tac as immunosuppressants.

  6. Interleukin-33 promoting Th1 lymphocyte differentiation dependents on IL-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komai-Koma, Mousa; Wang, Eryi; Kurowska-Stolarska, Mariola; Li, Dong; McSharry, Charles; Xu, Damo

    2016-03-01

    The pro-Th2 cytokine IL-33 is now emerging as an important Th1 cytokine-IFN-γ inducer in murine CD4(+) T cells that is essential for protective cell-mediated immunity against viral infection in mice. However, whether IL-33 can promote human Th1 cell differentiation and how IL-33 polarizes Th1 cells is less understood. We assessed the ability of IL-33 to induce Th1 cell differentiation and IFN-γ production in vitro and in vivo. We report here that IL-33 alone had no ability in Th1 cell polarization. However it potentiated IL-12-mediated Th1 cell differentiation and IFN-γ production in TCR-stimulated murine and human CD4(+) T cells in vitro and in vivo. IL-33 promoted Th1 cell development via MyD88 and synergized with IL-12 to enhance St2 and IL-12R expression in CD4(+) T cells. These data therefore provide a novel mechanism for Th1 cell differentiation and optimal induction of a Type 1 response. Thus, IL-33 is capable of inducing IL-12-dependent Th1 cell differentiation in human and mouse CD4(+) T cells. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  7. Simultaneous analysis of T helper subsets (Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Tfh, Tr1 and Tregs markers expression in periapical lesions reveals multiple cytokine clusters accountable for lesions activity and inactivity status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia ARAUJO-PIRES

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies demonstrate that the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators determines the stable or progressive nature of periapical granulomas by modulating the balance of the osteoclastogenic factor RANKL and its antagonist OPG. However, the cytokine networks operating in the development of periapical lesions are quite more complex than what the simple pro- versus anti-inflammatory mediators' paradigm suggests. Here we simultaneously investigated the patterns of Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Thf, Tr1 and Tregs cytokines/markers expression in human periapical granulomas. Methods: The expression of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17A, IL23, IL21, IL-33, IL-10, IL-4, IL-9, IL-22, FOXp3 markers (via RealTimePCR array was accessed in active/progressive (N=40 versus inactive/stable (N=70 periapical granulomas (as determined by RANKL/OPG expression ratio, and also to compare these samples with a panel of control specimens (N=26. A cluster analysis of 13 cytokine levels was performed to examine possible clustering between the cytokines in a total of 110 granulomas. Results: The expression of all target cytokines was higher in the granulomas than in control samples. TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17A and IL-21 mRNA levels were significantly higher in active granulomas, while in inactive lesions the expression levels of IL-4, IL-9, IL-10, IL-22 and FOXp3 were higher than in active granulomas. Five clusters were identified in inactive lesion groups, being the variance in the expression levels of IL-17, IL-10, FOXp3, IFN-γ, IL-9, IL-33 and IL-4 statistically significant (KW p<0.05. Three clusters were identified in active lesions, being the variance in the expression levels of IL-22, IL-10, IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-33, FOXp3, IL-21 and RANKL statistically significant (KW p<0.05. Conclusion: There is a clear dichotomy in the profile of cytokine expression in inactive and active periapical lesions. While the widespread cytokine expression seems to be a feature of chronic

  8. Oral hyposensitization to nickel induces clinical improvement and a decrease in TH1 and TH2 cytokines in patients with systemic nickel allergy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, M; Schiavino, D; Musca, F; Bruno, M E; Falagiani, P; Mistrello, G; Riva, G; Braga, M; Turi, M C; Di Rienzo, V; Petrarca, C; Schiavone, C; Di Gioacchino, M

    2010-01-01

    Some patients with nickel (Ni) allergic contact dermatitis suffer from systemic (intestinal or cutaneous) symptoms after ingestion of Ni-rich foods and experience symptoms reduction with low-Ni diet, a condition termed Systemic Ni Allergy Syndrome (SNAS). We aimed at evaluating whether oral administration of low nickel doses improved clinical conditions and modulated immunological aspects of SNAS, without significant side effects. Thirty-six SNAS patients were enrolled. Treatment started after 1-month of low-Ni diet and consisted in an incremental oral NiOH dose phase (0.3ng to 1.5 microg/week) followed by a 12-months maintenance phase (1.5 microg/week). Randomly, twenty-four patients added Ni therapy to low-Ni diet and 12 remained with diet alone. All patients were allowed rescue medications (antihistamines and topical steroids). After 4 months, Ni-rich foods were gradually reintroduced. In vitro allergen-driven IL13, IL5 and IFN-gamma release by peripheral blood mononuclear cells was evaluated before and after treatment. Twenty-three patients receiving NiOH and the 12 control patients completed the study. Evaluation of SNAS clinical severity (by VAS and drug consumption) showed a significant difference in favor of NiOH-treated patients compared to controls. Twenty of 23 patients in the NiOH group and none in the control group tolerated Ni-rich food reintroduction. Release of all studied cytokines in culture supernatants was significantly lower after NiOH treatment. In conclusion NiOH is effective in reducing symptoms and drug consumption in SNAS and is able to modulate inflammatory parameters.

  9. Delayed Activation Kinetics of Th2- and Th17 Cells Compared to Th1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duechting, Andrea; Przybyla, Anna; Kuerten, Stefanie; Lehmann, Paul V

    2017-09-12

    During immune responses, different classes of T cells arise: Th1, Th2, and Th17. Mobilizing the right class plays a critical role in successful host defense and therefore defining the ratios of Th1/Th2/Th17 cells within the antigen-specific T cell repertoire is critical for immune monitoring purposes. Antigen-specific Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells can be detected by challenging peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with antigen, and establishing the numbers of T cells producing the respective lead cytokine, IFN-γ and IL-2 for Th1 cells, IL-4 and IL-5 for Th2, and IL-17 for Th-17 cells, respectively. Traditionally, these cytokines are measured within 6 h in flow cytometry. We show here that 6 h of stimulation is sufficient to detect peptide-induced production of IFN-γ, but 24 h are required to reveal the full frequency of protein antigen-specific Th1 cells. Also the detection of IL-2 producing Th1 cells requires 24 h stimulation cultures. Measurements of IL-4 producing Th2 cells requires 48-h cultures and 96 h are required for frequency measurements of IL-5 and IL-17 secreting T cells. Therefore, accounting for the differential secretion kinetics of these cytokines is critical for the accurate determination of the frequencies and ratios of antigen-specific Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells.

  10. Regulation of the Th1 immune response : the role of IL-23 and the influence of genetic variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetering, Diederik van de

    2010-01-01

    Part 1: The role of IL-23 in inducing IFN-g production and in the initiation of a Th1 response. Part 2: Genetic variations in the type-1 cytokine pathway. Part 3: Treatment options for a genetic deficiency in the type-1 cytokine pathway

  11. Serum concentrations of GM-CSF and G-CSF correlate with the Th1/Th2 cytokine response in cystic fibrosis patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, Claus; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Pressler, Tacjana

    2005-01-01

    The inflammation in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is dominated by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). There seems to be a relationship between the PMN-dominated inflammation, pronounced antibody production and a Th2-dominated response. Apart fr...... lung function. In addition, an inverse correlation between IL-3 and IFN-gamma was observed. The results indicate involvement of endogenous GM-CSF, G-CSF and IL-3 in the skewed Th response in CF, and change to a Th1-dominated response might be achieved with GM-CSF treatment....

  12. Effect of the Premalignant and Tumor Microenvironment on Immune Cell Cytokine Production in Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Sara D. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); De Costa, Anna-Maria A. [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Rutledge Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas Street, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Young, M. Rita I., E-mail: rita.young@va.gov [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Rutledge Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas Street, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Medical Research Service (151), Ralph H. Johnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 109 Bee Street, Charleston, SC 29401 (United States)

    2014-04-02

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is marked by immunosuppression, a state in which the established tumor escapes immune attack. However, the impact of the premalignant and tumor microenvironments on immune reactivity has yet to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to determine how soluble mediators from cells established from carcinogen-induced oral premalignant lesions and HNSCC modulate immune cell cytokine production. It was found that premalignant cells secrete significantly increased levels of G-CSF, RANTES, MCP-1, and PGE{sub 2} compared to HNSCC cells. Splenocytes incubated with premalignant supernatant secreted significantly increased levels of Th1-, Th2-, and Th17-associated cytokines compared to splenocytes incubated with HNSCC supernatant. These studies demonstrate that whereas the premalignant microenvironment elicits proinflammatory cytokine production, the tumor microenvironment is significantly less immune stimulatory and may contribute to immunosuppression in established HNSCC.

  13. FEATURES OF CYTOKINE PRODUCTION IN PATIENTS WITH RECURRENT HERPETIC INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Novikovа

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Cytokines play an important role in resistance to herpesvirus infections. Therefore, studies of cytokine profile are necessary in recurrent herpetic infection. However, functional studies of cytokine network upon remission of the disease yielded controversial results. In this paper, we provide some results concerning comprehensive evaluation of ex vivo cytokine production by whole blood leukocytes drawn from 15 patients observed during clinical remission of recurrent Herpes Simplex virus infection. We have found a decrease of IL-1β, IL-8 and IL-10 production, as well as imbalance of cytokine profile, with predominance of IFNγ and IL-8 synthesis over IL-10 production, along with increased IL-4 and IL-13 levels to IL-1β contents. Differently directed correlations between the content of activated lymphocytes (CD3+HLA-DR+ and CD3+CD4+CD25+, natural killers (СD3-СD16/56+, NKT-cells and cytokine production levels were found in the groups of patients and healthy individuals. These differences may be due to shifts in major cytokineproducing populations in herpesvirus infections.

  14. Antibody Production and Th1-biased Response Induced by an Epitope Vaccine Composed of Cholera Toxin B Unit and Helicobacter pylori Lpp20 Epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Chen, Zhongbiao; Ye, Jianbin; Ning, Lijun; Luo, Jun; Zhang, Lili; Jiang, Yin; Xi, Yue; Ning, Yunshan

    2016-06-01

    The epitope vaccine is an attractive potential for prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Lpp20 is one of major protective antigens which trigger immune response after H. pylori invades host and has been considered as an excellent vaccine candidate for the control of H. pylori infection. In our previous study, one B-cell epitope and two CD4(+) T-cell epitopes of Lpp20 were identified. In this study, an epitope vaccine composed of mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and these three identified Lpp20 epitopes were constructed to investigate the efficacy of this epitope vaccine in mice. The epitope vaccine including CTB, one B-cell, and two CD4(+) T-cell epitopes of Lpp20 was constructed and named CTB-Lpp20, which was then expressed in Escherichia coli and used for intraperitoneal immunization in BALB/c mice. The immunogenicity, specificity, and ability to induce antibodies against Lpp20 and cytokine secretion were evaluated. After that, CTB-Lpp20 was intragastrically immunized to investigate the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy in infected mice. The results indicated that the epitope vaccine CTB-Lpp20 possessed good immunogenicity and immunoreactivity and could elicit specific high level of antibodies against Lpp20 and the cytokine of IFN-γ and IL-17. Additionally, CTB-Lpp20 significantly decreased H. pylori colonization in H. pylori challenging mice, and the protection was correlated with IgG, IgA, and sIgA antibody and Th1-type cytokines. This study will be better for understanding the protective immunity of epitope vaccine, and CTB-Lpp20 may be an alternative strategy for combating H. pylori invasion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Influence of phthalates on cytokine production in monocytes and macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Juliana Frohnert; Bendtzen, Klaus; Boas, Malene

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phthalates are a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals suspected to influence the immune system. The aim of this systematic review is to summarise the present knowledge on the influence of phthalates on monocyte and macrophage production and secretion of cytokines, an influence which......://www.crd.york.ac.uk/NIHR_PROSPERO, registration number CRD42013004236). In vivo, ex vivo and in vitro studies investigating the influence of phthalates on cytokine mRNA expression and cytokine secretion in animals and humans were included. A total of 11 reports, containing 12 studies, were found eligible for inclusion. In these, a total of four...... different phthalate diesters, six primary metabolites (phthalate monoesters) and seven different cytokines were investigated. Though all studies varied greatly in study design and species sources, four out of five studies that investigated di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate found an increased tumour necrosis factor...

  16. Cytokine-producing T cell subsets in human leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, Kåre

    2000-01-01

    Leishmania specific Th1/Th2 cells have been identified in humans as well as in mice. There is a correlation between the clinical outcome of the infection and the cytokine response profile. Generally, the production of Th2 cytokines leads to severe infection, whereas the production of Th1 cytokines...... leads to subclinical or mild infections. In mice, an infection leads to a polarisation of either Th1 or Th2 Leishmania antigen specific cells. In contrast, both Th1 and Th2 Leishmania antigen specific cells can be identified in humans cured from L. donovani infections. Theoretically, Th1 cells and Th2...... cells mutually down-regulate each other. However, the presence of antigen specific regulatory T cell subsets may provide an environment that allows the presence of both Th1 and Th2 cells....

  17. Ex-Th17 (Nonclassical Th1) Cells Are Functionally Distinct from Classical Th1 and Th17 Cells and Are Not Constrained by Regulatory T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basdeo, Sharee A; Cluxton, Deborah; Sulaimani, Jamal; Moran, Barry; Canavan, Mary; Orr, Carl; Veale, Douglas J; Fearon, Ursula; Fletcher, Jean M

    2017-03-15

    Th17 cells are an important therapeutic target in autoimmunity. However, it is known that Th17 cells exhibit considerable plasticity, particularly at sites of autoimmune inflammation. Th17 cells can switch to become ex-Th17 cells that no longer produce IL-17 but produce IFN-γ. These ex-Th17 cells are also called nonclassical Th1 cells because of their ability to produce IFN-γ, similar to Th1 cells; however, it is unclear whether they resemble Th1 or Th17 cells in terms of their function and regulation, and whether they have a pathogenic role in autoimmunity. We compared the phenotypic and functional features of human Th17, Th1, and ex-Th17 cell populations. Our data showed that despite their loss of IL-17 expression, ex-Th17 cells were more polyfunctional in terms of cytokine production than either Th1 or bona fide Th17 cells, and produced increased amounts of proinflammatory cytokines. The proliferative brake on Th17 cells appeared to be lifted because ex-Th17 cells proliferated more than Th17 cells after stimulation. In contrast with Th1 and Th17 cells, ex-Th17 cells were highly resistant to suppression of proliferation and cytokines by regulatory T cells. Finally, we showed that ex-Th17 cells accumulated in the joints of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Taken together, these data indicate that human ex-Th17 cells are functionally distinct from Th1 and Th17 cells, and suggest that they may play a pathogenic role at sites of autoimmunity, such as the rheumatoid arthritis joint where they accumulate. These findings have implications for therapeutic strategies that target IL-17, because these may not inhibit pathogenic ex-Th17 cells. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. Cytotoxic effector functions of T cells are not required for protective immunity against fatal Rickettsia typhi infection in a murine model of infection: Role of TH1 and TH17 cytokines in protection and pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Moderzynski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Endemic typhus caused by Rickettsia (R. typhi is an emerging febrile disease that can be fatal due to multiple organ pathology. Here we analyzed the requirements for protection against R. typhi by T cells in the CB17 SCID model of infection. BALB/c wild-type mice generate CD4+ TH1 and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells both of which are sporadically reactivated in persistent infection. Either adoptively transferred CD8+ or CD4+ T cells protected R. typhi-infected CB17 SCID mice from death and provided long-term control. CD8+ T cells lacking either IFNγ or Perforin were still protective, demonstrating that the cytotoxic function of CD8+ T cells is not essential for protection. Immune wild-type CD4+ T cells produced high amounts of IFNγ, induced the release of nitric oxide in R. typhi-infected macrophages and inhibited bacterial growth in vitro via IFNγ and TNFα. However, adoptive transfer of CD4+IFNγ-/- T cells still protected 30-90% of R. typhi-infected CB17 SCID mice. These cells acquired a TH17 phenotype, producing high amounts of IL-17A and IL-22 in addition to TNFα, and inhibited bacterial growth in vitro. Surprisingly, the neutralization of either TNFα or IL-17A in CD4+IFNγ-/- T cell recipient mice did not alter bacterial elimination by these cells in vivo, led to faster recovery and enhanced survival compared to isotype-treated animals. Thus, collectively these data show that although CD4+ TH1 cells are clearly efficient in protection against R. typhi, CD4+ TH17 cells are similarly protective if the harmful effects of combined production of TNFα and IL-17A can be inhibited.

  19. Effects of tributyltin on placental cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Yuko; Kirk, Michael; Gupta, Neha; Menon, Ramkumar; Getahun, Darios; Peltier, Morgan R

    2018-03-15

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a persistent pollutant but its effects on placental function are poorly understood as are its possible interactions with infection. We hypothesized that TBT alters the production of sex hormones and biomarkers for inflammation and neurodevelopment in an infection-dependent manner. Placental explant cultures were treated with 0-5000 nM TBT in the presence and absence of Escherichia coli. A conditioned medium was harvested and concentrations of steroids (progesterone, P4; testosterone, T and estradiol, E2) as well as biomarkers of inflammation [interleukin (IL)-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), IL-10, IL-6, soluble glycoprotein 130 (sgp-130) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)], oxidative stress [8-iso-prostaglandin (8-IsoP)] and neurodevelopment [brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)] were quantified. TBT increased P4 slightly but had little or no effect on T or E2 production. IL-1β, IL-6, sgp-130, IL-10 and 8-IsoP production was enhanced by TBT. P4 and IL-6 production was also enhanced by TBT for bacteria-stimulated cultures but TBT significantly inhibited bacteria-induced IL-1β and sgp-130 production. High doses of TBT also inhibited BDNF production. TBT increases P4 but has minimal effect on downstream steroids. It enhances the production of inflammatory biomarkers such as IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-6. Inhibition of sgp-130 by TBT suggests that TBT may increase bioactive IL-6 production which has been associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Reduced expression of BDNF also supports this possibility.

  20. Linking the Human Gut Microbiome to Inflammatory Cytokine Production Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirmer, M.; Smeekens, S.P.; Vlamakis, H.; Jaeger, M.; Oosting, M.; Franzosa, E.A.; Jansen, T.; Jacobs, L.; Bonder, M.J.; Kurilshikov, A.; Fu, J.; Joosten, L.A.; Zhernakova, A.; Huttenhower, C.; Wijmenga, C.; Netea, M.G.; Xavier, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbial dysbioses are linked to aberrant immune responses, which are often accompanied by abnormal production of inflammatory cytokines. As part of the Human Functional Genomics Project (HFGP), we investigate how differences in composition and function of gut microbial communities may

  1. Th1-Inducing Agents in Prophylaxis and Therapy for Paracoccidioidomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Thiago Aparecido; Fernandes, Fabrício Freitas; Landgraf, Taise Natali; Panunto-Castelo, Ademílson; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Adjuvants and immunomodulatory molecules could be included in the treatment of P. brasiliensis infection. In this context, we reported that the therapeutic and/or prophylactic administration of Th1-inducing agents, such as immunomodulatory lectins and adjuvants, was able to provide protection against experimental paracoccidioidomycosis. Then, we described the protocols to investigate the effect of immunomodulatory agents on the course of P. brasiliensis infection. In this sense, we detailed the measurement of fungal burden and cytokine production, and the histopathological analysis used to evaluate the most effective administration regime.

  2. LIGHT Is critical for IL-12 production by dendritic cells, optimal CD4+ Th1 cell response, and resistance to Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guilian; Liu, Dong; Okwor, Ifeoma; Wang, Yang; Korner, Heinrich; Kung, Sam K P; Fu, Yang-Xin; Uzonna, Jude E

    2007-11-15

    Although studies indicate LIGHT (lymphotoxin (LT)-like, exhibits inducible expression and competes with HSV glycoprotein D for herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM), a receptor expressed by T lymphocytes) enhances inflammation and T cell-mediated immunity, the mechanisms involved in this process remain obscure. In this study, we assessed the role of LIGHT in IL-12 production and development of CD4(+) Th cells type one (Th1) in vivo. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells from LIGHT(-/-) mice were severely impaired in IL-12p40 production following IFN-gamma and LPS stimulation in vitro. Furthermore, blockade of LIGHT in vitro and in vivo with HVEM-Ig and LT beta receptor (LTbetaR)-Ig leads to impaired IL-12 production and defective polyclonal and Ag-specific IFN-gamma production in vivo. In an infection model, injection of HVEM-Ig or LTbetaR-Ig into the usually resistant C57BL/6 mice results in defective IL-12 and IFN-gamma production and severe susceptibility to Leishmania major that was reversed by rIL-12 treatment. This striking susceptibility to L. major in mice injected with HVEM-Ig or LTbetaR-Ig was also reproduced in LIGHT(-/-) --> RAG1(-/-) chimeric mice. In contrast, L. major-infected LTbeta(-/-) mice do not develop acute disease, suggesting that the effect of LTbetaR-Ig is not due to blockade of membrane LT (LTalpha1beta2) signaling. Collectively, our data show that LIGHT plays a critical role for optimal IL-12 production by DC and the development of IFN-gamma-producing CD4(+) Th1 cells and its blockade results in severe susceptibility to Leishmania major.

  3. Immunomodulation Mechanism of Antidepressants: Interactions between Serotonin/Norepinephrine Balance and Th1/Th2 Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Matteo; Rocchi, Giulio; Escelsior, Andrea; Fornaro, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Neurotransmitters and hormones regulate major immune functions, including the selection of T helper (Th)1 or Th2 cytokine responses, related to cell-mediated and humoral immunity, respectively. A role of imbalance and dynamic switching of Th1/Th2 system has been proposed, with relative displacement of the immune reserve in relation to complex interaction between Th1/Th2 and neuro-hormonal balance fluctuations, in the pathogenesis of various chronic human diseases, probably also including psychiatric disorders. Components of the stress system such as norepinephrine (NE) and glucocorticoids appear to mediate a Th2 shift, while serotonin (5-HT) and melatonin might mediate a Th1 shift. Some antidepressants would occur affecting these systems, acting on neurotransmitter balance (especially the 5-HT/NE balance) and expression levels of receptor subtypes, which in turn affect cytokine production and relative Th1/Th2 balance. It could be therefore hypothesized that the antidepressant-related increase in NE tone enhances the Th2 response, while the decrease in NE tone or the increase in 5-HT tone enhances the Th1 response. However, the neurotransmitter and Th1/Th2 balance modulation could be relative, aiming to restore physiological levels a previous imbalance in receptor sensitivity and cytokine production. The considerations on neuro-immunomodulation could represent an additional aid in the study of pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and in the choice of specific antidepressants in specific clusters of symptoms, especially in comorbidity with internal pathologies. Furthermore limited data, reviewed here, have shown the effectiveness of some antidepressants as pure immunomodulators. However, these considerations are tentative and require experimental confirmation or refutation by future studies. PMID:23204981

  4. Role of Th1 and Th2 cells in autoimmune demyelinating disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagelkerken L.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is accumulating that Th1 cells play an important role in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE, whereas Th2 cells contribute to recovery from disease. A major determinant in the development of Th1 and Th2 cells is the type of antigen-presenting cell (APC involved and its functional characteristics, e.g., the production of interleukin-12. Therefore, modulation of APC might interfere with the development of Th1 type responses and as such be beneficial for MS and EAE. The potential of cytokines, in particular interleukin-10, and glucocorticoids to exert a selective effect on APC, and as a consequence to affect the Th1-Th2 balance in EAE, is discussed

  5. Dissecting innate immune signaling in viral evasion of cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junjie; Zhu, Lining; Feng, Pinghui

    2014-03-02

    In response to a viral infection, the host innate immune response is activated to up-regulate gene expression and production of antiviral cytokines. Conversely, viruses have evolved intricate strategies to evade and exploit host immune signaling for survival and propagation. Viral immune evasion, entailing host defense and viral evasion, provides one of the most fascinating and dynamic interfaces to discern the host-virus interaction. These studies advance our understanding in innate immune regulation and pave our way to develop novel antiviral therapies. Murine γHV68 is a natural pathogen of murine rodents. γHV68 infection of mice provides a tractable small animal model to examine the antiviral response to human KSHV and EBV of which perturbation of in vivo virus-host interactions is not applicable. Here we describe a protocol to determine the antiviral cytokine production. This protocol can be adapted to other viruses and signaling pathways. Recently, we have discovered that γHV68 hijacks MAVS and IKKβ, key innate immune signaling components downstream of the cytosolic RIG-I and MDA5, to abrogate NFΚB activation and antiviral cytokine production. Specifically, γHV68 infection activates IKKβ and that activated IKKβ phosphorylates RelA to accelerate RelA degradation. As such, γHV68 efficiently uncouples NFΚB activation from its upstream activated IKKβ, negating antiviral cytokine gene expression. This study elucidates an intricate strategy whereby the upstream innate immune activation is intercepted by a viral pathogen to nullify the immediate downstream transcriptional activation and evade antiviral cytokine production.

  6. Effects of smoking on the ex vivo cytokine production in periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heens, G. L. Torres; Kikkert, R.; Aarden, L. A.; van der Velden, U.; Loos, B. G.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Smoking is associated with increased severity of periodontitis. The underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon are not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to compare the monocyte-derived T cell directing (Th1/Th2) response and pro-inflammatory cytokine

  7. Effects of smoking on the ex vivo cytokine production in periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres de Heens, G.L.; Kikkert, R.; Aarden, L.A.; van der Velden, U.; Loos, B.G.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objective:  Smoking is associated with increased severity of periodontitis. The underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon are not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to compare the monocyte-derived T cell directing (Th1/Th2) response and pro-inflammatory cytokine

  8. The effect of Sambucol, a black elderberry-based, natural product, on the production of human cytokines: I. Inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, V; Halperin, T; Kalickman, I

    2001-01-01

    Sambucus nigra L. products - Sambucol - are based on a standardized black elderberry extract. They are natural remedies with antiviral properties, especially against different strains of influenza virus. Sambucol was shown to be effective in vitro against 10 strains of influenza virus. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study, Sambucol reduced the duration of flu symptoms to 3-4 days. Convalescent phase serum showed a higher antibody level to influenza virus in the Sambucol group, than in the control group. The present study aimed to assess the effect of Sambucol products on the healthy immune system - namely, its effect on cytokine production. The production of inflammatory cytokines was tested using blood - derived monocytes from 12 healthy human donors. Adherent monocytes were separated from PBL and incubated with different Sambucol preparations i.e., Sambucol Elderberry Extract, Sambucol Black Elderberry Syrup, Sambucol Immune System and Sambucol for Kids. Production of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8) was significantly increased, mostly by the Sambucol Black Elderberry Extract (2-45 fold), as compared to LPS, a known monocyte activator (3.6-10.7 fold). The most striking increase was noted in TNF-alpha production (44.9 fold). We conclude from this study that, in addition to its antiviral properties, Sambucol Elderberry Extract and its formulations activate the healthy immune system by increasing inflammatory cytokine production. Sambucol might therefore be beneficial to the immune system activation and in the inflammatory process in healthy individuals or in patients with various diseases. Sambucol could also have an immunoprotective or immunostimulatory effect when administered to cancer or AIDS patients, in conjunction with chemotherapeutic or other treatments. In view of the increasing popularity of botanical supplements, such studies and investigations in vitro, in vivo and in clinical trials need to be developed.

  9. Dissecting Innate Immune Signaling in Viral Evasion of Cytokine Production

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Junjie; Zhu, Lining; Feng, Pinghui

    2014-01-01

    In response to a viral infection, the host innate immune response is activated to up-regulate gene expression and production of antiviral cytokines. Conversely, viruses have evolved intricate strategies to evade and exploit host immune signaling for survival and propagation. Viral immune evasion, entailing host defense and viral evasion, provides one of the most fascinating and dynamic interfaces to discern the host-virus interaction. These studies advance our understanding in innate immune r...

  10. Distinct DC subsets regulate adaptive Th1 and 2 responses during Trichuris muris infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demiri, M.; Müller-Luda, K.; Agace, William Winston

    2017-01-01

    Low- and high-dose infections with the murine large intestinal nematode Trichuris muris are associated with induction of adaptive Th1 and Th2 responses, respectively, in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). Classical dendritic cells (cDC) accumulate in the large intestinal mucosa and MLN upon T. muris...... a high-dose infection and displayed impaired Th2 responses. Conversely, mice lacking IRF8-dependent cDC cleared a low-dose infection and displayed an impaired Th1 response while increased production of Th2 cytokines. Finally, mice lacking both IRF4- and IRF8-dependent cDC were able to generate a Th2...

  11. Cytokine production and visualized effects in the feto-maternal unit. Quantitative and topographic data on cytokines during intrauterine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallmach, T; Hebisch, G; Joller-Jemelka, H I; Orban, P; Schwaller, J; Engelmann, M

    1995-09-01

    A large array of cytokines show high activity in amniotic fluid. Attempts have been made to quantify the concentrations or to track rising levels for diagnostic purposes when examining disturbances of the feto-maternal unit. However, the kinetics of cytokine production in the amniotic fluid are not well understood, and there is lack of knowledge about concomitant levels in fetal and maternal blood. The presence of cytokines in fetal and placental cells was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry using mAb. Cytokines were quantified by enzymimmunoassay in amniotic fluid and fetal and maternal blood. This was done with regard to two disease states that quite frequently complicate the course of pregnancy, namely chorioamnionitis and intrauterine growth retardation. The cytokines examined were G-CSF, GM-CSF, TNF-alpha, IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8. In chorioamnionitis, all cytokines, except GM-CSF, were elevated about 100 times in the amniotic fluid. An accompanying increase in maternal and fetal blood was only found for IL-6 and G-CSF; IL-8 was elevated in fetal blood only. Intrauterine growth retardation was characterized by elevated levels of TNF-alpha in the amniotic fluid, whereas G-CSF, GM-CSF, and IL-1 beta were significantly reduced. Immunohistochemistry showed that under normal conditions the cytokines are to be found in a characteristic distribution in certain cell types in the fetus, the placenta, and the placental bed. With rising concentrations, more cells seemed to be recruited for cytokine production, especially macrophages and decidual cells. In chorioamnionitis, fetal extramedullary granulopoiesis was augmented, and in intrauterine growth retardation, erythropoiesis as well as granulopoiesis were depressed. Not only inflammatory disease but also intrauterine growth retardation is characterized by a changing cytokine pattern. Alterations in fetal hematopoiesis observed at postmortem examination of perinatal deaths can be correlated to changes in cytokine

  12. Chocolate consumption modulates cytokine production in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netea, Stejara A; Janssen, Sam A; Jaeger, Martin; Jansen, Trees; Jacobs, Liesbeth; Miller-Tomaszewska, Gosia; Plantinga, Theo S; Netea, Mihai G; Joosten, Leo A B

    2013-04-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that chocolate increases the incidence and severity of acne. Here we demonstrate that chocolate consumption primes human blood mononuclear cells from volunteers to release more interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-10 upon stimulation with Propionibacterium acne or Staphylcoccus aureus, the two microorganisms involved in the pathogenesis of acne. In contrast, production of the Th17-derived cytokine IL-22 was inhibited by chocolate. Modulation of inflammation could represent an important mechanism through which chocolate consumption influences acne. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Synergistic immune responses induced by endogenous retrovirus and herpesvirus antigens result in increased production of inflammatory cytokines in multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudek, Tomasz; Christensen, Tove; Hansen, Hans Jacob

    2008-01-01

    , this production correlated with the synergistic cell proliferations whereas we did not find such a correlation in healthy controls. Our findings suggest that the increased production of IFN-gamma and the induced imbalance in Th1/Th2 responses favouring the inflammatory reactions in MS patients may lead...... effect on cell-mediated immune responses, which tend to be higher in MS patients in comparison with healthy individuals. Here, we investigate whether these synergistic immune responses are reflected in changes in the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays...... (ELISAs), we have performed a comparative study between MS patients and healthy controls to investigate the production of interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL) 2, or IL-10 as well as the balance between Th1 and Th2 responses in supernatants from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated...

  14. Triterpene Acids from Rose Hip Powder Inhibit Self-antigen- and LPS-induced Cytokine Production and CD4(+) T-cell Proliferation in Human Mononuclear Cell Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saaby, Lasse; Nielsen, Claus Henrik

    2012-01-01

    on the cytokine production and proliferation of CD4(+) T cells and CD19(+) B cells induced by a self-antigen, human thyroglobulin and by lipopolysaccharide in cultures of normal mononuclear cells. The triterpene acid mixture inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-a and IL-6 with estimated IC(50) values...... in the range 35-56¿µg/mL, the Th1 cytokines interferon-¿ and IL-2 (IC(50) values 10-20¿µg/mL) and the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 (IC(50) values 18-21¿µg/mL). Moreover, the mixture also inhibited CD4(+) T-cell and CD19(+) B-cell proliferation (IC(50) value 22 and 12¿µg/mL, respectively). Together...

  15. Forced expression of stabilized c-Fos in dendritic cells reduces cytokine production and immune responses in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Ryoko; Suzuki, Mayu; Sakaguchi, Ryota; Hasegawa, Eiichi; Kimura, Akihiro; Shichita, Takashi; Sekiya, Takashi [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, Chiyoda-ku 102-0075 (Japan); Shiraishi, Hiroshi [Division of Medical Biochemistry, Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Saga Medical School, Saga (Japan); Shimoda, Kouji [Department of Laboratory Animal Center, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshimura, Akihiko, E-mail: yoshimura@a6.keio.jp [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, Chiyoda-ku 102-0075 (Japan)

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dendritic cells expressing stabilized c-Fos produced less inflammatory cytokines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dendritic cells expressing stabilized c-Fos activated T cells less efficiently. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transgenic mice expressing stabilized c-Fos were resistant to EAE model. -- Abstract: Intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) suppresses innate immunity by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine production by monocytic cells. We have shown that the transcription factor c-Fos is responsible for cAMP-mediated suppression of inflammatory cytokine production, and that c-Fos protein is stabilized by IKK{beta}-mediated phosphorylation. We found that S308 is one of the major phosphorylation sites, and that the S308D mutation prolongs c-Fos halflife. To investigate the role of stabilized c-Fos protein in dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo, we generated CD11c-promoter-deriven c-FosS308D transgenic mice. As expected, bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) from these Tg mice produced smaller amounts of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-{alpha}, IL-12, and IL-23, but higher levels of IL-10, in response to LPS, than those from wild-type (Wt) mice. When T cells were co-cultured with BMDCs from Tg mice, production of Th1 and Th17 cytokines was reduced, although T cell proliferation was not affected. Tg mice demonstrated more resistance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) than did Wt mice. These data suggest that c-Fos in DCs plays a suppressive role in certain innate and adaptive immune responses.

  16. Th17 cytokines differentiate obesity from obesity-associated type 2 diabetes and promote TNFα production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Blanche; Cilfone, Nicholas A; Belkina, Anna C; DeFuria, Jason; Jagannathan-Bogdan, Madhumita; Zhu, Min; Kuchibhatla, Ramya; McDonnell, Marie E; Xiao, Qiang; Kepler, Thomas B; Apovian, Caroline M; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Nikolajczyk, Barbara S

    2016-01-01

    T cell inflammation plays pivotal roles in obesity-associated type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The identification of dominant sources of T cell inflammation in humans remains a significant gap in understanding disease pathogenesis. It was hypothesized that cytokine profiles from circulating T cells identify T cell subsets and T cell cytokines that define T2DM-associated inflammation. Multiplex analyses were used to quantify T cell-associated cytokines in αCD3/αCD28-stimulated PBMCs, or B cell-depleted PBMCs, from subjects with T2DM or BMI-matched controls. Cytokine measurements were subjected to multivariate (principal component and partial least squares) analyses. Flow cytometry detected intracellular TNFα in multiple immune cell subsets in the presence/absence of antibodies that neutralize T cell cytokines. T cell cytokines were generally higher in T2DM samples, but Th17 cytokines are specifically important for classifying individuals correctly as T2DM. Multivariate analyses indicated that B cells support Th17 inflammation in T2DM but not control samples, while monocytes supported Th17 inflammation regardless of T2DM status. Partial least squares regression analysis indicated that both Th17 and Th1 cytokines impact %HbA1c. Among various T cell subsets, Th17 cells are major contributors to inflammation and hyperglycemia and are uniquely supported by B cells in obesity-associated T2DM. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  17. Serum concentrations of GM-CSF and G-CSF correlate with the Th1/Th2 cytokine response in cystic fibrosis patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, Claus; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Pressler, Tacjana

    2005-01-01

    mobilizing monocytes and PMNs from the bone marrow, GM-CSF, G-CSF and IL-3 select subsets of dendritic cells, which subsequently induce distinct Th responses. Therefore, the present study examines the correlation between the mobilizing cytokines in serum and the Th responses. The IFN-gamma and IL-4...

  18. Secondary immunity to Legionella pneumophila and Th1 activity are suppressed by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, C A; Klein, T W; Friedman, H

    1994-01-01

    Resistance to infection with Legionella pneumophila is primarily dependent upon cell-mediated immunity rather than humoral immunity. Recent evidence suggests that activation of cell-mediated immunity depends on Th1 cells and activation of humoral immunity depends on Th2 cells. In this report, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive cannabinoid of marijuana and an immunomodulator, suppressed development of secondary immunity to L. pneumophila, which correlated with a reduction in Th1 activity. BALB/c mice, infected with a primary sublethal dose of L. pneumophila, developed resistance to a larger challenge infection 3 to 4 weeks later. However, intravenous injection of THC (4 mg/kg of body weight) 1 day prior to primary infection resulted in increased mortality after the challenge infection. The level of anti-L. pneumophila antibodies in serum increased in both THC-treated and control mice; however, in the THC group IgG1 antibodies which are stimulated by Th2 cells were elevated while Th1-regulated, IgG2a antibodies were depressed. Furthermore, cultured splenocytes from THC-treated mice had less L. pneumophila-specific lymphoproliferation, indicating a deficiency in cell-mediated immunity. Normal mouse splenocytes treated in vitro with THC and pokeweed mitogen showed suppressed production of gamma interferon, a cytokine associated with Th1 cells, but increased production of interleukin 4, a cytokine produced by Th2 cells. Splenocytes from THC-treated mice, stimulated in vitro with either pokeweed mitogen or anti-CD3 antibodies, also produced less gamma interferon, indicating less Th1 activity in these mice. These results suggest that THC decreases the development of anti-L. pneumophila immunity by causing a change in the balance of Th1 and Th2 activities. PMID:8063421

  19. Effect of polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners on placental cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Yuko; Yeh, Corinne; Thoma, Theodosia; Getahun, Darios; Menon, Ramkumar; Peltier, Morgan R

    2018-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are pollutants that may increase the risk of preterm birth. In previous studies, we found that a mixture of PBDEs altered the expression of biomarkers for preterm birth by the placenta. However, there are 209 different PBDE congeners with different tissue distributions. How these different congeners may alter the production of immunomodulators by the placenta that help to maintain the survival of the fetal allograft is unclear. Therefore, we compared the effects 5 common congeners on basal and bacteria-stimulated cytokine production by the placenta. Placental explant cultures were incubated with 20 μM of PBDE congeners 47, 99, 100, 153, 209 or vehicle in the presence and absence of Escherichia coli for 20 h. Conditioned medium was harvested and concentrations of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, sgp130, HO-1, IL-10, BDNF, and 8-IsoP quantified. For unstimulated cultures, all congeners, except for PBDE-47, reduced the production of IL-1β and IL-6 production was enhanced by PBDE-153. BDNF concentrations tended to be reduced by most PBDE congeners and IL-10 production was enhanced by PBDE-99, -153, and -209. 8-IsoP production was enhanced by PBDE-153, but not the other congeners. For bacteria-stimulated cultures, PBDE-47 increased IL-1β production and PBDE-47, -153, and -209 tended to reduce TNF-α production. IL-6 production was enhanced by all PBDEs except 153. IL-10 production was enhanced by all congeners except for PBDE-47. All congeners significantly enhanced BDNF and 8-IsoP. These results suggest that PBDEs can alter the expression of placental biomarkers in a congener and infection-dependent manner. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Alternaria inhibits double-stranded RNA-induced cytokine production through Toll-like receptor 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kota; Kobayashi, Takao; Matsuwaki, Yoshinori; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Kita, Hirohito

    2013-01-01

    Fungi may be involved in asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from CRS patients produce interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13 and interferon (IFN)-γ in the presence of Alternaria. In addition, Alternaria produces potent Th2-like adjuvant effects in the airway. Therefore, we hypothesized that Alternaria may inhibit Th1-type defense mechanisms against virus infection. Dendritic cells (DCs) were generated from mouse bone marrow. The functional responses were assessed by expression of cell surface molecules by FACS (MHC class II, CD40, CD80, CD86 and OX40L). Production of IL-6, chemokine CXCL10 (IP-10), chemokine CXCL11 (I-TAC) and IFN-β was measured by ELISA. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) mRNA and protein expression was detected by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Alternaria and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) enhanced cell surface expression of MHC class II, CD40, CD80, CD86 and OX40L, and IL-6 production in a concentration-dependent manner. However, Alternaria significantly inhibited production of IP-10, I-TAC and IFN-β, induced by viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mimic poly I:C. TLR3 mRNA expression and protein production by poly I:C were significantly inhibited by Alternaria. These reactions are likely caused by heat-stable factor(s) in Alternaria extract with >100 kDa molecular mass. These findings suggest that the fungus Alternaria may inhibit production of IFN-β and other cytokines by DCs by suppressing TLR3 expression. These results indicate that Alternaria may inhibit host innate immunity against virus infection. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Alternaria Inhibits Double-stranded RNA-Induced Cytokines Productions through TLR3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kota; Kobayashi, Takao; Matsuwaki, Yoshinori; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Kita, Hirohito

    2014-01-01

    Background Fungi may be involved in asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). PBMCs from CRS patients produce IL-5, IL-13 and INF-γ by Alternaria. In addition, Alternaria produces potent Th2-like adjuvant effects in the airway. Therefore, we hypothesized that Alternaria may inhibit Th1-type defense mechanisms against virus infection. Methods Dendritic cells (DCs) were generated from mouse bone marrow. The functional responses were assessed by expression of cell surface molecules by FACS (MHC Class II, CD40, CD80, CD86 and OX40L. Production of IL-6, IP-10, I-TAC and IFN -β were measured by ELISA. TLR3 mRNA and protein expression were detected by quantitative Real time-PCR and Western blot. Results Alternaria and poly I:C enhanced cell surface expression of MHC Class II, CD40, CD80, CD86 and OX40L, and IL-6 production in a concentration-dependent manner. However, Alternaria significantly inhibited IP-10, I-TAC and IFN-β production induced by viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mimic poly I:C. TLR3 mRNA expression and protein production by poly I:C were significantly inhibited by Alternaria. These reactions are likely caused by heat-stable factor(s) in Alternaria extract with >100 kDa molecular mass. Conclusion These findings suggest that fungus, Alternaria may inhibit production of IFN-β and other cytokines by DCs by suppressing TLR3 expression. These results indicate that Alternaria may inhibit host innate immunity against virus infection. PMID:23711857

  2. Resiniferatoxin modulates the Th1 immune response and protects the host during intestinal nematode infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Carrillo, J L; Contreras-Cordero, J F; Muñoz-López, J L; Maldonado-Tapia, C H; Muñoz-Escobedo, J J; Moreno-García, M A

    2017-09-01

    In the early stage of the intestinal phase of Trichinella spiralis infection, the host triggers a Th1-type immune response with the aim of eliminating the parasite. However, this response damages the host which favours the survival of the parasite. In the search for novel pharmacological strategies that inhibit the Th1 immune response and assist the host against T. spiralis infection, a recent study showed that resiniferatoxin had anti-inflammatory activity contributed to the host in T. spiralis infection. In this study, we evaluated whether RTX modulates the host immune response through the inhibition of Th1 cytokines in the intestinal phase. In addition, it was determined whether the treatment with RTX affects the infectivity of T. spiralis-L1 and the development of the T. spiralis life cycle. Our results show that RTX decreased serum levels of IL-12, INF-γ, IL-1β, TNF-α and parasite burden on muscle tissue. It was observed that T. spiralis-L1 treated with RTX decreased their infectivity affecting the development of the T. spiralis life cycle in mouse. These results demonstrate that RTX is able to inhibit the production of Th1 cytokines, contributing to the defence against T. spiralis, which places it as a potential drug modulator of the immune response. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Endothelin Regulates Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Production of Inflammatory Cytokines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga-Yeon Son

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is a very common oral inflammatory disease that results in the destruction of supporting connective and osseous tissues of the teeth. Although the exact etiology is still unclear, Gram-negative bacteria, especially Porphyromonas gingivalis in subgingival pockets are thought to be one of the major etiologic agents of periodontitis. Endothelin (ET is a family of three 21-amino acid peptides, ET-1, -2, and -3, that activate G protein-coupled receptors, ETA and ETB. Endothelin is involved in the occurrence and progression of various inflammatory diseases. Previous reports have shown that ET-1 and its receptors, ETA and ETB are expressed in the periodontal tissues and, that ET-1 levels in gingival crevicular fluid are increased in periodontitis patients. Moreover, P. gingivalis infection has been shown to induce the production of ET-1 along with other inflammatory cytokines. Despite these studies, however, the functional significance of endothelin in periodontitis is still largely unknown. In this study, we explored the cellular and molecular mechanisms of ET-1 action in periodontitis using human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs. ET-1 and ETA, but not ETB, were abundantly expressed in HGECs. Stimulation of HGECs with P. gingivalis or P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide increased the expression of ET-1 and ETA suggesting the activation of the endothelin signaling pathway. Production of inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, TNFα, and IL-6, was significantly enhanced by exogenous ET-1 treatment, and this effect depended on the mitogen-activated protein kinases via intracellular Ca2+ increase, which resulted from the activation of the phospholipase C/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate pathway. The inhibition of the endothelin receptor-mediated signaling pathway with the dual receptor inhibitor, bosentan, partially ameliorated alveolar bone loss and immune cell infiltration. These results suggest that endothelin plays an important role in P. gingivalis

  4. Fetuin-A induces cytokine expression and suppresses adiponectin production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita M Hennige

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The secreted liver protein fetuin-A (AHSG is up-regulated in hepatic steatosis and the metabolic syndrome. These states are strongly associated with low-grade inflammation and hypoadiponectinemia. We, therefore, hypothesized that fetuin-A may play a role in the regulation of cytokine expression, the modulation of adipose tissue expression and plasma concentration of the insulin-sensitizing and atheroprotective adipokine adiponectin. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human monocytic THP1 cells and human in vitro differenttiated adipocytes as well as C57BL/6 mice were treated with fetuin-A. mRNA expression of the genes encoding inflammatory cytokines and the adipokine adiponectin (ADIPOQ was assessed by real-time RT-PCR. In 122 subjects, plasma levels of fetuin-A, adiponectin and, in a subgroup, the multimeric forms of adiponectin were determined. Fetuin-A treatment induced TNF and IL1B mRNA expression in THP1 cells (p<0.05. Treatment of mice with fetuin-A, analogously, resulted in a marked increase in adipose tissue Tnf mRNA as well as Il6 expression (27- and 174-fold, respectively. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in adipose tissue Adipoq mRNA expression and lower circulating adiponectin levels (p<0.05, both. Furthermore, fetuin-A repressed ADIPOQ mRNA expression of human in vitro differentiated adipocytes (p<0.02 and induced inflammatory cytokine expression. In humans in plasma, fetuin-A correlated positively with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, a marker of subclinical inflammation (r = 0.26, p = 0.01, and negatively with total- (r = -0.28, p = 0.02 and, particularly, high molecular weight adiponectin (r = -0.36, p = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: We provide novel evidence that the secreted liver protein fetuin-A induces low-grade inflammation and represses adiponectin production in animals and in humans. These data suggest an important role of fatty liver in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and

  5. T-bet- and STAT4-dependent IL-33 receptor expression directly promotes antiviral Th1 cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Claudia; Bonilla, Weldy V; Fröhlich, Anja; Helmstetter, Caroline; Peine, Michael; Hegazy, Ahmed N; Pinschewer, Daniel D; Löhning, Max

    2015-03-31

    During infection, the release of damage-associated molecular patterns, so-called "alarmins," orchestrates the immune response. The alarmin IL-33 plays a role in a wide range of pathologies. Upon release, IL-33 signals through its receptor ST2, which reportedly is expressed only on CD4(+) T cells of the Th2 and regulatory subsets. Here we show that Th1 effector cells also express ST2 upon differentiation in vitro and in vivo during lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection. The expression of ST2 on Th1 cells was transient, in contrast to constitutive ST2 expression on Th2 cells, and marked highly activated effector cells. ST2 expression on virus-specific Th1 cells depended on the Th1-associated transcription factors T-bet and STAT4. ST2 deficiency resulted in a T-cell-intrinsic impairment of LCMV-specific Th1 effector responses in both mixed bone marrow-chimeric mice and adoptive cell transfer experiments. ST2-deficient virus-specific CD4(+) T cells showed impaired expansion, Th1 effector differentiation, and antiviral cytokine production. Consequently, these cells mediated little virus-induced immunopathology. Thus, IL-33 acts as a critical and direct cofactor to drive antiviral Th1 effector cell activation, with implications for vaccination strategies and immunotherapeutic approaches.

  6. Decreased B and T lymphocyte attenuator in Behcet's disease may trigger abnormal Th17 and Th1 immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zi; Deng, Bolin; Wang, Chaokui; Zhang, Dike; Kijlstra, Aize; Yang, Peizeng

    2016-02-04

    Behcet's disease (BD) is a chronic, systemic and recurrent inflammatory disease associated with hyperactive Th17 and Th1 immune responses. Recent studies have shown that B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) negatively regulates the immune response. In this study, we investigated whether BTLA activation could be exploited to inhibit the development of abnormal immune responses in BD patients. BTLA expression in PBMCs and CD4(+) T cells was significantly decreased in active BD patients. Decreased BTLA level was associated with increased Th17 and Th1 responses. Activation of BTLA inhibited the abnormal Th17 and Th1 responses and IL-22 expression in both patients and controls. Addition of an agonistic anti-BTLA antibody remarkably inhibited DC-induced Th17 and Th1 cell responses, resulted in decreased production of the Th17 and Th1-related cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-23 and IL-12p70 and reduced CD40 expression in DCs. In conclusion, decreased BTLA expression in ocular BD may lead to inappropriate control of the Th17 and Th1 immune responses and DC functions. Therefore, BTLA may be involved in the development and recurrence of this disease. Agonistic agents of BTLA may represent a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of BD and other inflammatory diseases mediated by abnormal Th17 and Th1 immune responses.

  7. Modulation of cytokine production profiles in splenic dendritic cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We examined the role of splenic dendritic cells in immune response to Toxoplasma gondii infection in SAG1 (P30+) transgenic mice by investigating the kinetics of intracellular cytokines expression of IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 and IFN-γ by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) using flow cytometry, and compared the results to those of ...

  8. Spironolactone inhibits production of proinflammatory cytokines by human mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Riis; Rieneck, Klaus; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone (SPIR) reduces the mortality and morbidity in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines contribute to the development and progression of CHF.......The mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone (SPIR) reduces the mortality and morbidity in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines contribute to the development and progression of CHF....

  9. Long-Lasting Effects of BCG Vaccination on Both Heterologous Th1/Th17 Responses and Innate Trained Immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinnijenhuis, Johanneke; Quintin, Jessica; Preijers, Frank

    2013-01-01

    '. In the present study we assessed whether BCG was able to induce long-lasting effects on both trained immunity and heterologous T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 immune responses 1 year after vaccination. The production of TNFα and IL-1β to mycobacteria or unrelated pathogens was higher after 2 weeks and 3 months...... in proinflammatory cytokine production after stimulation with the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide. The heterologous production of Th1 (IFN-γ) and Th17 (IL-17 and IL-22) immune responses to nonmycobacterial stimulation remained strongly elevated even 1 year after BCG vaccination. In conclusion, BCG induces sustained...... changes in the immune system associated with a nonspecific response to infections both at the level of innate trained immunity and at the level of heterologous Th1/Th17 responses. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel....

  10. Distinct PKC-mediated posttranscriptional events set cytokine production kinetics in CD8(+) T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salerno, Fiamma; Paolini, Nahuel A.; Stark, Regina; von Lindern, Marieke; Wolkers, Monika C.

    2017-01-01

    Effective T cell responses against invading pathogens require the concerted production of three key cytokines: TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and IL-2. The cytokines functionally synergize, but their production kinetics widely differ. How the differential timing of expression is regulated remains, however,

  11. Impaired production of cytokines is an independent predictor of mortality in HIV-1-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Gerstoft, Jan; Pedersen, Bente K

    2003-01-01

    With regard to the natural history of HIV-1 infection this study investigated whether whole-blood culture cytokine production was associated with mortality in HIV-1-infected patients.......With regard to the natural history of HIV-1 infection this study investigated whether whole-blood culture cytokine production was associated with mortality in HIV-1-infected patients....

  12. Production of cytokine and chemokines by human mononuclear cells and whole blood cells after infection with Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Rezende-Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The innate immune response is the first mechanism of protection against Trypanosoma cruzi, and the interaction of inflammatory cells with parasite molecules may activate this response and modulate the adaptive immune system. This study aimed to analyze the levels of cytokines and chemokines synthesized by the whole blood cells (WBC and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of individuals seronegative for Chagas disease after interaction with live T. cruzi trypomastigotes. METHODS: IL-12, IL-10, TNF-α, TGF-β, CCL-5, CCL-2, CCL-3, and CXCL-9 were measured by ELISA. Nitrite was determined by the Griess method. RESULTS: IL-10 was produced at high levels by WBC compared with PBMC, even after incubation with live trypomastigotes. Production of TNF-α by both PBMC and WBC was significantly higher after stimulation with trypomastigotes. Only PBMC produced significantly higher levels of IL-12 after parasite stimulation. Stimulation of cultures with trypomastigotes induced an increase of CXCL-9 levels produced by WBC. Nitrite levels produced by PBMC increased after the addition of parasites to the culture. CONCLUSIONS: Surface molecules of T. cruzi may induce the production of cytokines and chemokines by cells of the innate immune system through the activation of specific receptors not evaluated in this experiment. The ability to induce IL-12 and TNF-α contributes to shift the adaptive response towards a Th1 profile.

  13. Effects of Inula Britannica on the production of antibodies and cytokines and on T cell differentiation in C57BL/6 mice immunized by ovalbumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qing-Hua; Kobayashi, Takao; Hong, Tie; Cyong, Jong-Chol

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of Inula Britannica on the production of antibodies against ovalbumin, and the differentiation of T cells, in C57BL/6 mice. The oral administration of Inula Britannica suppressed IL-4 and IL-6 production in lymphocytes collected from an inguinal lymph node in the immunized leg. On the other hand, the intraperitoneal administration of Inula Britannica suppressed IgG1 production, the ratio of IFN-gamma+IL-4-/IFN-gamma-IL-4+ cells and cytokine production of IL-6. It was presumed that the effects of Inula Britannica on the production of antibodies were induced by regulation of the balance of Th1 and Th2. Further, IL-4 and IL-6 production by lymphocytes collected from an inguinal lymph node in the immunized leg were suppressed, and therefore production of antibodies was suppressed.

  14. The effects of vitamin A supplementation with measles vaccine on leucocyte counts and in vitro cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Andersen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    on cytokine responses differed by previous VAS: in previous VAS recipients, VAS increased the pro-inflammatory and T helper cell type 1 (Th1) cytokine responses, whereas VAS decreased these responses in previously unsupplemented children. In previous VAS recipients, VAS was associated with increased IFN...... on sex and previous VAS. VAS may increase the number of leucocytes, but also repress both the innate and lymphocyte-derived cytokine responses in females, whereas this repression may be opposite if the females have previously received VAS....

  15. Lithocholic acid controls adaptive immune responses by inhibition of Th1 activation through the Vitamin D receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pols, Thijs W H; Puchner, Teresa; Korkmaz, H Inci; Vos, Mariska; Soeters, Maarten R; de Vries, Carlie J M

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids are established signaling molecules next to their role in the intestinal emulsification and uptake of lipids. We here aimed to identify a potential interaction between bile acids and CD4+ Th cells, which are central in adaptive immune responses. We screened distinct bile acid species for their potency to affect T cell function. Primary human and mouse CD4+ Th cells as well as Jurkat T cells were used to gain insight into the mechanism underlying these effects. We found that unconjugated lithocholic acid (LCA) impedes Th1 activation as measured by i) decreased production of the Th1 cytokines IFNγ and TNFαα, ii) decreased expression of the Th1 genes T-box protein expressed in T cells (T-bet), Stat-1 and Stat4, and iii) decreased STAT1α/β phosphorylation. Importantly, we observed that LCA impairs Th1 activation at physiological relevant concentrations. Profiling of MAPK signaling pathways in Jurkat T cells uncovered an inhibition of ERK-1/2 phosphorylation upon LCA exposure, which could provide an explanation for the impaired Th1 activation. LCA induces these effects via Vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling since VDR RNA silencing abrogated these effects. These data reveal for the first time that LCA controls adaptive immunity via inhibition of Th1 activation. Many factors influence LCA levels, including bile acid-based drugs and gut microbiota. Our data may suggest that these factors also impact on adaptive immunity via a yet unrecognized LCA-Th cell axis.

  16. Chalcones from Chinese liquorice inhibit proliferation of T cells and production of cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Lea; Kemp, Kåre; Hansen, Majbritt

    2002-01-01

    of cytokines revealed that the chalcones inhibited the production rather than the release of the cytokines. Taken together, these results indicate that LicA and some analogues may have immunomodulatory effects, and may thus be candidates not only as anti-microbial agents, but also for the treatment of other...

  17. Cytokine production by porcine mononuclear leukocytes stimulated by mitogens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rašková, G.; Kovářů, František; Bártová, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 74, - (2005), s. 521-525 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/05/0267 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : cytokine * ELISpot * mitogen Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.353, year: 2005

  18. Th17 cytokines induce pro-fibrotic cytokines release from human eosinophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Subepithelial fibrosis is one of the most critical structural changes affecting bronchial airway function during asthma. Eosinophils have been shown to contribute to the production of pro-fibrotic cytokines, TGF-β and IL-11, however, the mechanism regulating this process is not fully understood. Objective In this report, we investigated whether cytokines associated with inflammation during asthma may induce eosinophils to produce pro-fibrotic cytokines. Methods Eosinophils were isolated from peripheral blood of 10 asthmatics and 10 normal control subjects. Eosinophils were stimulated with Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokines and the production of TGF-β and IL-11 was determined using real time PCR and ELISA assays. Results The basal expression levels of eosinophil derived TGF-β and IL-11 cytokines were comparable between asthmatic and healthy individuals. Stimulating eosinophils with Th1 and Th2 cytokines did not induce expression of pro-fibrotic cytokines. However, stimulating eosinophils with Th17 cytokines resulted in the enhancement of TGF-β and IL-11 expression in asthmatic but not healthy individuals. This effect of IL-17 on eosinophils was dependent on p38 MAPK activation as inhibiting the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, but not other kinases, inhibited IL-17 induced pro-fibrotic cytokine release. Conclusions Th17 cytokines might contribute to airway fibrosis during asthma by enhancing production of eosinophil derived pro-fibrotic cytokines. Preventing the release of pro-fibrotic cytokines by blocking the effect of Th17 cytokines on eosinophils may prove to be beneficial in controlling fibrosis for disorders with IL-17 driven inflammation such as allergic and autoimmune diseases. PMID:23496774

  19. Impaired cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells and monocytes/macrophages in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Y; Inagaki, T; Sawada, M; Suzumura, A

    2000-03-01

    Although the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is still unknown, several reports suggest the presence of immunological abnormalities in the patients with PD such as impaired T cell responses or cytokine production by the peripheral immune system. In this study, we examined cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and monocyte/macrophages (PBM) in the patients with idiopathic PD, using age-related healthy donors as a normal control and cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) as a disease control. Production of TNF-alpha, IL-1alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 by PBMC and TNF-alpha by PBM were significantly lower in the patients with PD as compared to the control groups. IFN-gamma production by LPS-stimulated PBMC in the patients with PD was also significantly lower than that in control groups. Cytokine production by PBMC from the patients with CVD who had a similar disability as the patient group was not significantly different from those in normal controls. Thus, impaired production of inflammatory cytokines may not be due to the mental and physical stress caused by their disability. In the patients with PD, a significant negative correlation was noted in 1alpha-1beta, IL-1beta and IL-6 levels produced by LPS-stimulated PBMC and Hoehn Yahr disability score of the patients, suggesting that the impaired cytokine production may progress with disease progression. These abnormalities in cytokine production may not be primary but may affect the prognosis of PD.

  20. Porphyromonas Gingivalis and E-coli induce different cytokine production patterns in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke M Faas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Pregnant individuals of many species, including humans, are more sensitive to various bacteria or their products as compared with non-pregnant individuals. Pregnant individuals also respond differently to different bacteria or their products. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated whether the increased sensitivity of pregnant women to bacterial products and their heterogeneous response to different bacteria was associated with differences in whole blood cytokine production upon stimulation with bacteria or their products. METHODS: Blood samples were taken from healthy pregnant and age-matched non-pregnant women and ex vivo stimulated with bacteria or LPS from Porphyromonas Gingivalis (Pg or E-coli for 24 hrs. TNFα, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-10 were measured using a multiplex Luminex system. RESULTS: We observed a generally lower cytokine production after stimulation with Pg bacteria or it's LPS as compared with E-coli bacteria. However, there was also an effect of pregnancy upon cytokine production: in pregnant women the production of IL-6 upon Pg stimulation was decreased as compared with non-pregnant women. After stimulation with E-coli, the production of IL-12 and TNFα was decreased in pregnant women as compared with non-pregnant women. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that cytokine production upon bacterial stimulation of whole blood differed between pregnant and non-pregnant women, showing that the increased sensitivity of pregnant women may be due to differences in cytokine production. Moreover, pregnancy also affected whole blood cytokine production upon Pg or E-coli stimulation differently. Thus, the different responses of pregnant women to different bacteria or their products may result from variations in cytokine production.

  1. T-Bet Enhances Regulatory T Cell Fitness and Directs Control of Th1 Responses in Crescentic GN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosko, Anna; Kluger, Malte A; Diefenhardt, Paul; Melderis, Simon; Wegscheid, Claudia; Tiegs, Gisa; Stahl, Rolf A K; Panzer, Ulf; Steinmetz, Oliver M

    2017-01-01

    Th1 cells are central pathogenic mediators of crescentic GN (cGN). Mechanisms responsible for Th1 cell downregulation, however, remain widely unknown. Recently, it was proposed that activation of the Th1-characteristic transcription factor T-bet optimizes Foxp3 + regulatory T (Treg) cells to counteract Th1-type inflammation. Because very little is known about the role of T-bet + Treg1 cells in inflammatory diseases, we studied the function of these cells in the nephrotoxic nephritis (NTN) model of cGN. The percentage of Treg1 cells progressively increased in kidneys of nephritic wild-type mice during the course of NTN, indicating their functional importance. Notably, naïve Foxp3 Cre xT-bet fl/fl mice, lacking Treg1 cells, showed spontaneous skewing toward Th1 immunity. Furthermore, absence of Treg1 cells resulted in aggravated NTN with selectively dysregulated renal and systemic Th1 responses. Detailed analyses of Treg cells from Foxp3 Cre xT-bet fl/fl mice revealed unaltered cytokine production and suppressive capacity. However, in competitive cotransfer experiments, wild-type Treg cells outcompeted T-bet-deficient Treg cells in terms of population expansion and expression levels of Foxp3, indicating that T-bet expression is crucial for general Treg fitness. Additionally, T-bet-deficient Treg cells lacked expression of the Th1-characteristic trafficking receptor CXCR3, which correlated with significant impairment of renal Treg infiltration. In summary, our data indicate a new subtype of Treg cells in cGN. These Treg1 cells are characterized by activation of the transcription factor T-bet, which enhances the overall fitness of these cells and optimizes their capacity to downregulate Th1 responses by inducing chemokine receptor CXCR3 expression. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  2. A RIPK2 inhibitor delays NOD signalling events yet prevents inflammatory cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nachbur, Ueli; Stafford, Che A; Bankovacki, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD) receptors recognize antigens including bacterial peptidoglycans and initiate immune responses by triggering the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines through activating NF-κB and MAP kinases. Receptor interacting protein kinase 2...

  3. IL-1 family members IL-18 and IL-33 upregulate the inflammatory potential of differentiated human Th1 and Th2 cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Lars; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2012-01-01

    The IL-1 family members IL-1ß, IL-18, and IL-33 are potent cytokines in relationship to amplifying the CD4(+) T cell cytokine production. To evaluate their impact on in vitro-differentiated human Th1 and Th2 cultures, such cultures were established from naive T cells, purified from healthy blood...... donors, and reactivated in the presence of IL-1ß, IL-18, or IL-33. Interestingly, we observe modifying responses in Th1 and Th2 cultures induced by IL-18 or IL-33 but not by IL-1ß, both contributing to amplify production of IL-5, IL-13, and IFN-¿. IL-18 or IL-33 stimulation of Th1 cultures resulted...... in increased IFN-¿ and IL-13 production concurrent with reduced IL-10 gene transcription and secretion even though Th1 cultures, in contrast to IL-18Ra, had low ST2L expression. Furthermore, adding IL-18 to Th1 cultures promoted Tbet mRNA expression and production. Th2 cultures stimulated with IL-18 or IL-33...

  4. Intestinal Irradiation and Fibrosis in a Th1-Deficient Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Christine, E-mail: christine.linard@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Billiard, Fabienne; Benderitter, Marc [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Changes in the Th1/Th2 immune balance may play a role in increasing the incidence of radiation-induced toxicity. This study evaluates the consequences of Th1 deficiency on intestinal response (fibrosis and T cell trafficking) to abdominal irradiation and examines in mucosa and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) the differential involvement of the two Th1 pathways, T-bet/STAT1 and IL-12/STAT4, in controlling this balance in mice. Methods and Materials: Using T-bet-deficient mice (T-bet{sup -/-}), we evaluated the mRNA and protein expression of the Th1 pathways (IFN-{gamma}, T-bet/STAT1, and IL-12/STAT4) and the CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} populations in ileal mucosa and MLN during the first 3 months after 10 Gy abdominal irradiation. Results: The T-bet-deficient mice showed an increased fibrotic response to radiation, characterized by higher TGF-{beta}1, col3a1 expression, and collagen deposition in mucosa compared with wild-type mice. This response was associated with drastically lower expression of IFN-{gamma}, the hallmark Th1 cytokine. Analysis of the Th1 expression pathways, T-bet/STAT1 and IL-12/STAT4, showed their equal involvement in the failure of Th1 polarization. A minimal IFN-{gamma} level depended on the IL-23-p19/STAT4 level. In addition, the radiation-induced deficiency in the priming of Th1 by IFN-{gamma} was related to the defective homing capacity of CD8{sup +} cells in the mucosa. Conclusion: Irradiation induces Th2 polarization, and the Th2 immune response may play a role in potentiating irradiation-induced intestinal collagen deposition.

  5. Intestinal Irradiation and Fibrosis in a Th1-Deficient Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linard, Christine; Billiard, Fabienne; Benderitter, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Changes in the Th1/Th2 immune balance may play a role in increasing the incidence of radiation-induced toxicity. This study evaluates the consequences of Th1 deficiency on intestinal response (fibrosis and T cell trafficking) to abdominal irradiation and examines in mucosa and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) the differential involvement of the two Th1 pathways, T-bet/STAT1 and IL-12/STAT4, in controlling this balance in mice. Methods and Materials: Using T-bet-deficient mice (T-bet −/− ), we evaluated the mRNA and protein expression of the Th1 pathways (IFN-γ, T-bet/STAT1, and IL-12/STAT4) and the CD4 + and CD8 + populations in ileal mucosa and MLN during the first 3 months after 10 Gy abdominal irradiation. Results: The T-bet-deficient mice showed an increased fibrotic response to radiation, characterized by higher TGF-β1, col3a1 expression, and collagen deposition in mucosa compared with wild-type mice. This response was associated with drastically lower expression of IFN-γ, the hallmark Th1 cytokine. Analysis of the Th1 expression pathways, T-bet/STAT1 and IL-12/STAT4, showed their equal involvement in the failure of Th1 polarization. A minimal IFN-γ level depended on the IL-23-p19/STAT4 level. In addition, the radiation-induced deficiency in the priming of Th1 by IFN-γ was related to the defective homing capacity of CD8 + cells in the mucosa. Conclusion: Irradiation induces Th2 polarization, and the Th2 immune response may play a role in potentiating irradiation-induced intestinal collagen deposition.

  6. Diverse Toll-like receptors mediate cytokine production by Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se-Ra; Kim, Dong-Jae; Han, Seung-Hyun; Kang, Min-Jung; Lee, Jun-Young; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Lee, Sang-Jin; Kim, Tae-Hyoun; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Park, Jong-Hwan

    2014-05-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) orchestrate a repertoire of immune responses in macrophages against various pathogens. Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans are two important periodontal pathogens. In the present study, we investigated TLR signaling regulating cytokine production of macrophages in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans. TLR2 and TLR4 are redundant in the production of cytokines (interleukin-6 [IL-6] and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]) in F. nucleatum- and A. actinomycetemcomitans-infected macrophages. The production of cytokines by macrophages in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection was impaired in MyD88-deficient macrophages. Moreover, cytokine concentrations were lower in MyD88-deficient macrophages than in TLR2/TLR4 (TLR2/4) double-deficient cells. An endosomal TLR inhibitor, chloroquine, reduced cytokine production in TLR2/4-deficient macrophages in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans, and DNA from F. nucleatum or A. actinomycetemcomitans induced IL-6 production in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), which was abolished by chloroquine. Western blot analysis revealed that TLR2/4 and MyD88 were required for optimal activation of NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in macrophages in response to F. nucleatum and A. actinomycetemcomitans, with different kinetics. An inhibitor assay showed that NF-κB and all MAPKs (p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK], and Jun N-terminal protein kinase [JNK]) mediate F. nucleatum-induced production of cytokines in macrophages, whereas NF-κB and p38, but not ERK and JNK, are involved in A. actinomycetemcomitans-mediated cytokine production. These findings suggest that multiple TLRs may participate in the cytokine production of macrophages against periodontal bacteria.

  7. Comparison of Epstein Barr Virus Antibodies And Tcell Cytokines Production in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hassan Zarnani

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:Multiple sclerosis(MS is the most common autoimmune disease of central nervous system with destruction of myelin sheath mediated by auto reactive CD4+ T Lymphocytes. Because of the possible role of Epstein-Barr virus in etiology of MS and T cells immune response, the aim of this study was to evaluate anti-Epstein Barr virus antibodies as a marker of reactivity and production of TH1 and TH2 cytokines in MS patients and healthy individuals.   Methods: Blood samples were taken from 68 MS patients at different stages of diseases and 20 apparently healthy individuals and plasma levels of anti- EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1 and viral capsid antigen (VCA antibodies determined and concentrations of IFN- [1] , IL-12 and IL-4 in culture supernatants of PHA-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were measured by ELISA.   Results: The mean levels of anti EBNA-1 and VCAantibodies were significantly higher in patients compared to controls (p=0.04, p=0.001 respectively. Concentrations of IFN- [1] , IL-4 & IL-12 were also significantly higher in MS patients than healthy individuals (p=0.001, p=0.005, p=0.002, respectively. Significant correlation was found between anti EBNA-1 and VCAantibodies and IL-12 production (p =0.02, r=0.27& p=0.04, r=0.25, respectively; whereas no significant correlation was found between these antibodies and production of IFN- [1] or IL-4.   Conclusions: Due to elevated level of anti-EBV antibodies and T cell Cytokines in MS patients Rather than healthy individuals, Epstein Barr virus may play role in etiology of MS disease through activation of T cells immune response.

  8. Effect of xanthohumol on Th1/Th2 balance in a breast cancer mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenchao; Pan, Yanlong; Gou, Panhong; Zhou, Cheng; Ma, Lianqing; Liu, Qiming; Du, Yuping; Yang, Jinbo; Wang, Qin

    2018-01-01

    Xanthohumol (XN), a prenylflavonoid found in the hop plant, Humulus lupulus, exhibits a variety of biological activities. Numerous studies have reported that XN inhibits the growth of many types of cancer cells, but the effects of XN on tumor immunity have not yet been studied. We explored the effect of XN on Th1/Th2 balance and the underlying mechanism based on a BALB/c-4T1 breast cancer mouse model. The results showed that XN significantly slowed down tumor growth and inhibited expression of antitumor proliferation protein Ki-67 as well as breast cancer-specific marker cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3). Flow cytometric analysis revealed that XN enhanced the secretion of perforin, granzyme B and increased the ratio of CD8+/CD25+. ELISA analysis of cytokine results demonstrated that XN obviously upregulated Th1 cytokines, while downregulated Th2 cytokines. Th1/Th2 ratio analysis by flow cytometry illustrated that XN regulated the balance drift to Th1 polarization. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) results manifested that XN induced expression of T-bet, a Th1-specific transcription factor. Furthermore, we found that XN significantly promoted the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)4. Our results demonstrated that XN promoted Th1/Th2 balance towards Th1 polarization, and STAT4 may play a positive role in the regulation of Th1/Th2 cytokines by XN.

  9. Chalcones from Chinese liquorice inhibit proliferation of T cells and production of cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Lea; Kemp, Kåre; Hansen, Majbritt

    2002-01-01

    Licochalcone A (LicA), an oxygenated chalcone, has been shown to inhibit the growth of both parasites and bacteria. In this study, we investigated the effect of LicA and four synthetic analogues on the activity of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and cytokine production. Four...... out of five chalcones tested inhibited the proliferation of lymphocytes measured by thymidine incorporation and by flow cytometry. The production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines from monocytes and T cells was also inhibited by four of five chalcones. Furthermore, intracellular detection...... of cytokines revealed that the chalcones inhibited the production rather than the release of the cytokines. Taken together, these results indicate that LicA and some analogues may have immunomodulatory effects, and may thus be candidates not only as anti-microbial agents, but also for the treatment of other...

  10. INDUCTION OF CYTOKINE PRODUCTION IN CHEETAH (ACINONYX JUBATUS) PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEAR CELLS AND VALIDATION OF FELINE-SPECIFIC CYTOKINE ASSAYS FOR ANALYSIS OF CHEETAH SERUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Ashley D; Crosier, Adrienne E; Vansandt, Lindsey M; Mattson, Elliot; Xiao, Zhengguo

    2015-06-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from the whole blood of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus ; n=3) and stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 for establishment of cross-reactivity between these cheetah cytokines and feline-specific cytokine antibodies provided in commercially available Feline DuoSet® ELISA kits (R&D Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota 55413, USA). This study found that feline-specific cytokine antibodies bind specifically to cheetah proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 from cell culture supernatants. The assays also revealed that cheetah PBMCs produce a measurable, cell concentration-dependent increase in proinflammatory cytokine production after LPS stimulation. To enable the use of these kits, which are designed for cell culture supernatants for analyzing cytokine concentrations in cheetah serum, percent recovery and parallelism of feline cytokine standards in cheetah serum were also evaluated. Cytokine concentrations in cheetah serum were approximated based on the use of domestic cat standards in the absence of cheetah standard material. In all cases (for cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6), percent recovery increased as the serum sample dilution increased, though percent recovery varied between cytokines at a given dilution factor. A 1:2 dilution of serum resulted in approximately 45, 82, and 7% recovery of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 standards, respectively. Adequate parallelism was observed across a large range of cytokine concentrations for TNF-α and IL-1β; however, a significant departure from parallelism was observed between the IL-6 standard and the serum samples (P=0.004). Therefore, based on our results, the Feline DuoSet ELISA (R&D Systems, Inc.) kits are valid assays for the measurement of TNF-α and IL-1β in cheetah serum but should not be used for accurate measurement of IL-6.

  11. Cathepsin B in antigen-presenting cells controls mediators of the Th1 immune response during Leishmania major infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris J Gonzalez-Leal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Resistance and susceptibility to Leishmania major infection in the murine model is determined by the capacity of the host to mount either a protective Th1 response or a Th2 response associated with disease progression. Previous reports involving the use of cysteine cathepsin inhibitors indicated that cathepsins B (Ctsb and L (Ctsl play important roles in Th1/Th2 polarization during L. major infection in both susceptible and resistant mouse strains. Although it was hypothesized that these effects are a consequence of differential patterns of antigen processing, the mechanisms underlying these differences were not further investigated. Given the pivotal roles that dendritic cells and macrophages play during Leishmania infection, we generated bone-marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC and macrophages (BMM from Ctsb-/- and Ctsl-/- mice, and studied the effects of Ctsb and Ctsl deficiency on the survival of L. major in infected cells. Furthermore, the signals used by dendritic cells to instruct Th cell polarization were addressed: the expression of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules, and cytokine production. We found that Ctsb-/- BMDC express higher levels of MHC class II molecules than wild-type (WT and Ctsl-/- BMDC, while there were no significant differences in the expression of co-stimulatory molecules between cathepsin-deficient and WT cells. Moreover, both BMDC and BMM from Ctsb-/- mice significantly up-regulated the levels of interleukin 12 (IL-12 expression, a key Th1-inducing cytokine. These findings indicate that Ctsb-/- BMDC display more pro-Th1 properties than their WT and Ctsl-/- counterparts, and therefore suggest that Ctsb down-regulates the Th1 response to L. major. Moreover, they propose a novel role for Ctsb as a regulator of cytokine expression.

  12. Inhibition of dengue virus production and cytokine/chemokine expression by ribavirin and compound A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaburee, Thidarath; Junking, Mutita; Panya, Aussara; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Songprakhon, Pucharee; Suttitheptumrong, Aroonroong; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Haegeman, Guy; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2015-12-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection is a worldwide public health problem with an increasing magnitude. The severity of disease in the patients with DENV infection correlates with high viral load and massive cytokine production - the condition referred to as "cytokine storm". Thus, concurrent inhibition of DENV and cytokine production should be more effective for treatment of DENV infection. In this study, we investigated the effects of the antiviral agent - ribavirin (RV), and the anti-inflammatory compound - compound A (CpdA), individually or in combination, on DENV production and cytokine/chemokine transcription in human lung epithelial carcinoma (A549) cells infected with DENV. Initially, the cells infected with DENV serotype 2 (DENV2) was studied. The results showed that treatment of DENV-infected cells with RV could significantly reduce both DENV production and cytokine (IL-6 and TNF-α) and chemokine (IP-10 and RANTES) transcription while treatment of DENV-infected cells with CpdA could significantly reduce cytokine (IL-6 and TNF-α) and chemokine (RANTES) transcription. Combined RV and CpdA treatment of the infected cells showed greater reduction of DENV production and cytokine/chemokine transcription. Similar results of this combined treatment were observed for infection with any one of the four DENV (DENV1, 2, 3, and 4) serotypes. These results indicate that combination of the antiviral agent and the anti-inflammatory compound offers a greater efficiency in reduction of DENV and cytokine/chemokine production, providing a new therapeutic approach for DENV infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of cytokines in cervical ripening: correlations between the concentrations of cytokines and hyaluronic acid in cervical mucus and the induction of hyaluronic acid production by inflammatory cytokines by human cervical fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, M; Hirano, H; Tsubaki, H; Kodama, H; Tanaka, T

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of our study was (1) to explain the relationship between levels of inflammatory cytokines and levels of hyaluronic acid in cervical mucus of pregnant women and (2) to investigate whether cytokines promote hyaluronic acid production by human cervical fibroblasts in vitro. The concentration of hyaluronic acid, interleukin-1beta, and interleukin-8 were measured in cervical mucus of pregnant women, and hyaluronic acid production by cytokine-treated (interleukin-1beta and interleukin-8) cultured fibroblasts was measured. Hyaluronic acid concentrations in the mucus of pregnant women with threatened premature labor were higher than in mucus of normal pregnant women (P hyaluronic acid concentrations and interleukin-1beta (P = .018) and interleukin-8 (P = .003) concentrations in cervical mucus. Cytokines (especially interleukin-8) stimulated hyaluronic acid production by cultured cervical fibroblasts. Cytokines induce hyaluronic acid production by human cervical fibroblasts, which may promote cervical ripening.

  14. Absence of the Adaptor Protein PEA-15 Is Associated with Altered Pattern of Th Cytokines Production by Activated CD4+ T Lymphocytes In Vitro, and Defective Red Blood Cell Alloimmune Response In Vivo.

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    Stéphane Kerbrat

    Full Text Available TCR-dependent and costimulation signaling, cell division, and cytokine environment are major factors driving cytokines expression induced by CD4(+ T cell activation. PEA-15 15 (Protein Enriched in Astrocyte / 15 kDa is an adaptor protein that regulates death receptor-induced apoptosis and proliferation signaling by binding to FADD and relocating ERK1/2 to the cytosol, respectively. By using PEA-15-deficient mice, we examined the role of PEA-15 in TCR-dependent cytokine production in CD4(+ T cells. TCR-stimulated PEA-15-deficient CD4(+ T cells exhibited defective progression through the cell cycle associated with impaired expression of cyclin E and phosphoRb, two ERK1/2-dependent proteins of the cell cycle. Accordingly, expression of the division cycle-dependent cytokines IL-2 and IFNγ, a Th1 cytokine, was reduced in stimulated PEA-15-deficient CD4(+ T cells. This was associated with abnormal subcellular compartmentalization of activated ERK1/2 in PEA-15-deficient T cells. Furthermore, in vitro TCR-dependent differentiation of naive CD4(+ CD62L(+ PEA-15-deficient T cells was associated with a lower production of the Th2 cytokine, IL-4, whereas expression of the Th17-associated molecule IL4I1 was enhanced. Finally, a defective humoral response was shown in PEA-15-deficient mice in a model of red blood cell alloimmunization performed with Poly IC, a classical adjuvant of Th1 response in vivo. Collectively, our data suggest that PEA-15 contributes to the specification of the cytokine pattern of activated Th cells, thus highlighting a potential new target to interfere with T cell functional polarization and subsequent immune response.

  15. Absence of the Adaptor Protein PEA-15 Is Associated with Altered Pattern of Th Cytokines Production by Activated CD4+ T Lymphocytes In Vitro, and Defective Red Blood Cell Alloimmune Response In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbrat, Stéphane; Vingert, Benoit; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Castellano, Flavia; Renault-Mihara, François; Dos Reis Tavares, Silvina; Surenaud, Mathieu; Noizat-Pirenne, France; Boczkowski, Jorge; Guellaën, Georges; Chneiweiss, Hervé; Le Gouvello, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    TCR-dependent and costimulation signaling, cell division, and cytokine environment are major factors driving cytokines expression induced by CD4(+) T cell activation. PEA-15 15 (Protein Enriched in Astrocyte / 15 kDa) is an adaptor protein that regulates death receptor-induced apoptosis and proliferation signaling by binding to FADD and relocating ERK1/2 to the cytosol, respectively. By using PEA-15-deficient mice, we examined the role of PEA-15 in TCR-dependent cytokine production in CD4(+) T cells. TCR-stimulated PEA-15-deficient CD4(+) T cells exhibited defective progression through the cell cycle associated with impaired expression of cyclin E and phosphoRb, two ERK1/2-dependent proteins of the cell cycle. Accordingly, expression of the division cycle-dependent cytokines IL-2 and IFNγ, a Th1 cytokine, was reduced in stimulated PEA-15-deficient CD4(+) T cells. This was associated with abnormal subcellular compartmentalization of activated ERK1/2 in PEA-15-deficient T cells. Furthermore, in vitro TCR-dependent differentiation of naive CD4(+) CD62L(+) PEA-15-deficient T cells was associated with a lower production of the Th2 cytokine, IL-4, whereas expression of the Th17-associated molecule IL4I1 was enhanced. Finally, a defective humoral response was shown in PEA-15-deficient mice in a model of red blood cell alloimmunization performed with Poly IC, a classical adjuvant of Th1 response in vivo. Collectively, our data suggest that PEA-15 contributes to the specification of the cytokine pattern of activated Th cells, thus highlighting a potential new target to interfere with T cell functional polarization and subsequent immune response.

  16. Adjuvant effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd. derived saponins in antibody production, allergic response and pro-inflammatory cytokine modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Nimisha; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Pandey, Pallavi; Patel, Dinesh Kumar; Banerjee, Suchitra; Darokar, Mahendra Pandurang; Pal, Anirban

    2017-02-01

    The study manifests the immunoadjuvant potential of saponin rich fraction from Asparagus racemosus in terms of cellular and humoral immune response that can be exploited against microbial infections. Asparagus racemosus (AR) has been attributed as an adaptogen and rasayana in traditional medication systems for enhancing the host defence mechanism. Spectrophotometric and HPTLC analysis ensured the presence of saponins. The saponin rich fractions were tested for immunoadjuvant property in ovalbumin immunised mice for the humoral response, quantified in terms of prolonged antibody production upto a duration of 56days. Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF) were estimated for the cellular immune response in LPS stimulated primary murine macrophages. The safety evaluation in terms of cytotoxicity and allergic response has also been evaluated through in-vitro (MTT) and in-vivo (IgE) respectively. ARS significantly inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokines, in LPS stimulated murine macrophages with no intrinsic cytotoxicity. The significant increase in IgG production infers the utility of ARS for prolonged humoral response. Further, the antigen specific response of IL-12 at early stage and IgE titres also suggests the generation of cellular immune response and low allergic reaction respectively, as compared to conventional adjuvants. IL-6 and TNF fluctuations in LPS stimulated and non-stimulated macrophages along with IgG and IL-12 also confirmed the Th1/Th2 modulating effect of ARS. The study indicates potential effect of ARS as an adjuvant for the stimulation of cellular immune response in addition to generating a sustained adaptive response without any adverse effects paving way for further validation with pathogenic organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells induce immunosuppressive IL-10-producing Th1 cells via the Notch pathway.

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    Neumann, Katrin; Rudolph, Christine; Neumann, Christian; Janke, Marko; Amsen, Derk; Scheffold, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Under homeostasis, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) shift intrahepatic T-cell responses towards tolerance. However, the role of LSECs in the regulation of T-cell-induced liver inflammation is less clear. Here, we studied the capacity of LSECs to modulate pro-inflammatory Th1-cell differentiation in mice. Using in vitro co-culture systems and subsequent cytokine analysis, we showed that LSECs induced high amounts of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in developing Th1 cells. These LSEC-stimulated Th1 cells had no pro-inflammatory capacity in vivo but instead actively suppressed an inflammatory Th1-cell-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. Blockage of IL-10 signaling in vivo inhibited immunosuppressive activity of LSEC-stimulated Th1 cells. We identified the Notch pathway as a mechanism how LSECs trigger IL-10 expression in Th1 cells. LSECs expressed high levels of the Delta-like and Jagged family of Notch ligands and induced expression of the Notch target genes hes-1 and deltex-1 in Th1 cells. Blockade of Notch signaling selectively inhibited IL-10 induction in Th1 cells by LSECs. Our findings suggest that LSEC-induced IL-10 expression in Th1 cells via the Notch pathway may contribute to the control of hepatic inflammatory immune responses by induction of a self-regulatory mechanism in pro-inflammatory Th1 cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Impairment of the Intrinsic Capability of Th1 Polarization in Irradiated Mice: A Close Look at the Imbalanced Th1/Th2 Response after Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Renxiang; Wang, Yi-Wen; Fornace, Albert J; Li, Heng-Hong

    2016-12-01

    Two major CD4 + T-helper (Th) lineages are Th1 and Th2, and well balanced Th1/Th2 responses are essential for immune function. In previously published studies, it was reported that radiation induces a Th1/Th2 immune imbalance toward a Th2-dominant direction, and this imbalance may contribute to postirradiation immune dysfunction. The polarization of Th cells is driven by the cytokine milieu and controlled by intracellular regulatory pathways that respond to cytokine signaling. It is widely accepted that radiation induces cytokine aberration, however, the precise alterations of cytokines in various tissue environments have been difficult to evaluate. In addition, the effects of radiation on the intrinsic functions of Th cells remain uncharacterized. Therefore, how radiation affects Th1/Th2 balance remains somewhat unclear. To address this, we investigated the changes in the polarization capability of Th cells by isolating them from mice previously exposed to radiation and assessing the cells in an established in vitro Th polarization system. Our novel results demonstrate that prior exposure to radiation led to the persistent aberration of the inherent capability of Th cells to differentiate into Th1 and Th2 lineages. The parallel changes in expression of Th1-specific master transcription factors and the key genes in metabolic reprograming indicated that radiation affects the core components in Th1 polarization. While Th1 differentiation was impaired after irradiation, little adverse effect was observed in Th2 differentiation; both of these findings contribute to the known phenotypes of Th1/Th2 imbalance caused by radiation.

  19. Activation of mixed glia by Abeta-specific Th1 and Th17 cells and its regulation by Th2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, K; Lynch, Marina A; Mills, Kingston H G

    2010-05-01

    Microglia are innate immune cells of the CNS, that act as antigen-presenting cells (APC) for antigen-specific T cells and respond to inflammatory stimuli, such as amyloid-beta (Abeta), resulting in the release of neurotoxic factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Astrocytes can also act as APC and modulate the function of microglia. However, the role of distinct T cell subtypes, in particular Th17 cells, in glial activation and subsequent modulatory effects of Th2 cells are poorly understood. Here, we generated Abeta-specific Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells and examined their role in modulating Abeta-induced activation of microglia in a mixed glial culture, a preparation which mimics the complex APC types in the brain. We demonstrated that mixed glia acted as an effective APC for Abeta-specific Th1 and Th17 cells. Addition of Abeta-specific Th2 cells suppressed the Abeta-induced IFN-gamma production by Th1 cells and IL-17 production by Th17 cells with glia as the APC. Co-culture of Abeta-specific Th1 or Th17 cells with glia markedly enhanced Abeta-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production and expression of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules on the microglia. Addition of Abeta-specific Th2 cells inhibited Th17 cell-induced IL-1beta and IL-6 production by mixed glia and attenuated Th1 cell-induced CD86 and CD40 expression on microglia. The modest enhancement of MHC class II and CD86 expression on astrocytes by Abeta-specific Th1 and Th17 was not attenuated by Th2 cells. These data indicate that Abeta-specific Th1 and Th17 cells induce inflammatory activation of glia, and that this is in part regulated by Th2 cells. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Upregulation of Tim-3 on CD4(+) T cells is associated with Th1/Th2 imbalance in patients with allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fei; Wang, Fukun; An, Liyun; Wang, Xianling

    2015-01-01

    T cell Ig and mucin domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) is a negative regulator preferentially expressed on Th1 cells. Allergic asthma is a clinical syndrome well characterized by Th1/Th2 imbalance. To investigate the role of Tim-3 in the pathogenesis of asthma and its relationship with Th1/Th2 imbalance, a total of 40 patients with allergic asthma and 40 healthy controls were enrolled. Expression of Tim-3 and Th1/Th2 imbalance as well as the relationship between them was analyzed by flow cytometry and real-time PCR. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured in vitro and anti-Tim-3 was used to block Tim-3 signaling; Th1/Th2 cytokines in the culture supernatant were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CD4(+) T cells and B cells were sorted and co-cultured in vitro, and anti-Tim-3 was used to block Tim-3 signaling; Total IgG/IgE in the culture supernatant was detected by ELISA. The mRNA level of T-bet and IFN-γ were significantly decreased in allergic asthma patients, while GATA-3 and IL-4 were significantly increased. Expression of Tim-3 on CD4(+) T cells was much higher in allergic asthma patients and it was negatively correlated with T-bet/GATA-3 ratio or IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio. Blocking of Tim-3 significantly increased Th1 cytokines (TNF-α and IFN-γ) and decreased Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) in the culture supernatant of PBMCs. Blocking of Tim-3 dramatically reduced the production of IgG and IgE in the co-culture supernatant of CD4(+) T cells and B cells. In conclusion, Tim-3 was up-regulated in allergic asthma patients and related with the Th1/Th2 imbalance. Blocking of Tim-3 may be of therapeutic benefit by enhancing the Th1 cytokines response, down-regulating the Th2 cytokines response, and reducing IgG/IgE production.

  1. Optimal Method to Stimulate Cytokine Production and Its Use in Immunotoxicity Assessment

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    Huiming Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Activation of lymphocytes can effectively produce a large amount of cytokines. The types of cytokines produced may depend on stimulating reagents and treatments. To find an optimal method to stimulate cytokine production and evaluate its effect on immunotoxicity assessments, the authors analyzed production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-γ, TNF-α, GM-CSF, RANTES and TGF-β in undiluted rat whole blood culture (incubation for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 h with different concentrations of PMA/ionomycin, PHA, Con A, LPS and PWM. We also evaluated the effects of cyclosporin A and azathioprine on cytokine production. The results revealed a rapid increase of IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, RANTES and TGF-β secretion within 6 h after stimulation with 25 ng/mL PMA and 1 μg/mL ionomycin. The inhibition of these cytokine profiles reflected the effects of immunosuppressants on the immune system. Therefore, the results of this is study recommend the detection of cytokine profiles in undiluted whole blood stimulated 6 h with 25 ng/mL PMA and 1 μg/mL ionomycin as a powerful immunotoxicity assessment method.

  2. Misoprostol Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Production by Equine Leukocytes

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    Emily Medlin Martin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 are potent immune mediators that exacerbate multiple equine diseases such as sepsis and laminitis. Unfortunately, safe and effective cytokine-targeting therapies are lacking in horses; therefore, novel mechanisms of inhibiting cytokine production are critically needed. One potential mechanism for inhibiting cytokine synthesis is elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP. In human leukocytes, intracellular cAMP production is induced by activation of E-prostanoid (EP receptors 2 and 4. These receptors can be targeted by the EP2/4 agonist and prostaglandin E1 analog, misoprostol. Misoprostol is currently used as a gastroprotectant in horses but has not been evaluated as a cytokine-targeting therapeutic. Thus, we hypothesized that misoprostol treatment would inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated equine leukocytes in an in vitro inflammation model. To test this hypothesis, equine leukocyte-rich plasma (LRP was collected from 12 healthy adult horses and used to model LPS-mediated inflammatory signaling. LRP was treated with varying concentrations of misoprostol either before (pretreated or following (posttreated LPS stimulation. LRP supernatants were assayed for 23 cytokines using an equine-specific multiplex bead immunoassay. Leukocytes were isolated from LRP, and leukocyte mRNA levels of four important cytokines were evaluated via RT-PCR. Statistical differences between treatments were determined using one-way RM ANOVA (Holm–Sidak post hoc testing or Friedman’s RM ANOVA on Ranks (SNK post hoc testing, where appropriate (p < 0.05, n = 3–6 horses. These studies revealed that misoprostol pre- and posttreatment inhibited LPS-induced TNFα and IL-6 protein production in equine leukocytes but had no effect on IL-8 protein. Interestingly, misoprostol pretreatment enhanced IL-1β protein synthesis

  3. Exposure to Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS during macrophage polarisation leads to diminished inflammatory cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfield, Louise A; Bennett, Jon H; Abate, Wondwossen; Jackson, Simon K

    2017-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of concurrent LPS and cytokine priming, reflective of the in vivo milieu, on macrophage production of key periodontitis associated cytokines TNF, IL-1β and IL-6. THP-1 cells were pre-treated with combinations of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), concurrently with polarising cytokines IFNγ and IL-4, or PMA as a non-polarised control. Production of key periodontitis associated cytokines in response to subsequent LPS challenge were measured by enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay. Compared with cells incubated with IFNγ or IL-4 alone in the "polarisation" phase, macrophages that were incubated with LPS during the first 24h displayed a down-regulation of TNF and IL-1β production upon secondary LPS treatment in the "activation" phase. In all three macrophage populations (M0, M1 and M2), pre-treatment with P. gingivalis LPS during the polarisation process led to a significant decrease in TNF production in response to subsequent activation by LPS (p=0.007, p=0.002 and p=0.004, respectively). Pre-treatment with E. coli LPS also led to a significant down-regulation in TNF production in all three macrophage populations (pLPS during polarisation also led to the down-regulation of IL-1β in the M1 population (pLPS challenge, whereby production of key periodontitis associated cytokines TNF and IL-1β is reduced after exposure to LPS during the polarisation phase, even in the presence of inflammatory polarising cytokines. This diminished cytokine response may lead to the reduced ability to clear infection and transition to chronic inflammation seen in periodontitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ferulic Acid Induces Th1 Responses by Modulating the Function of Dendritic Cells and Ameliorates Th2-Mediated Allergic Airway Inflammation in Mice

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    Chen-Chen Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the immunomodulatory effects of ferulic acid (FA on antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs in vitro and its antiallergic effects against ovalbumin- (OVA- induced Th2-mediated allergic asthma in mice. The activation of FA-treated bone marrow-derived DCs by lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation induced a high level of interleukin- (IL- 12 but reduced the expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α. Compared to control-treated DCs, FA significantly enhanced the expressions of Notch ligand Delta-like 4 (Dll4, MHC class II, and CD40 molecules by these DCs. Furthermore, these FA-treated DCs enhanced T-cell proliferation and Th1 cell polarization. In animal experiments, oral administration of FA reduced the levels of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE and IgG1 and enhanced IgG2a antibody production in serum. It also ameliorated airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated eosinophilic pulmonary infiltration in dose-dependent manners. In addition, FA treatment inhibited the production of eotaxin, Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, and proinflammatory cytokines but promoted the Th1 cytokine interferon- (IFN- γ production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and the culture supernatant of spleen cells. These findings suggest that FA exhibits an antiallergic effect via restoring Th1/Th2 imbalance by modulating DCs function in an asthmatic mouse model.

  5. Intensive Cytokine induction in Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus Infection Accompanied by Robust Production of IL-10 and IL-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuelian; Zhang, Xi; Zhao, Baihui; Wang, Jiayu; Zhu, Zhaokui; Teng, Zheng; Shao, Junjie; Shen, Jiaren; Gao, Ye; Yuan, Zhengan; Wu, Fan

    2011-01-01

    Background The innate immune system is the first line of defense against viruses by inducing expression of cytokines and chemokines. Many pandemic influenza H1N1 virus [P(H1N1)] infected severe cases occur in young adults under 18 years old who were rarely seriously affected by seasonal influenza. Results regarding host cytokine profiles of P(H1N1) are ambivalent. In the present study we investigated host cytokine profiles in P(H1N1) patients and identified cytokines related to disease severity. Methods and Principal Findings We retrieved 77, 59, 26 and 26 sera samples from P(H1N1) and non-flu influenza like illness (non-ILIs) cases with mild symptoms (mild patients), P(H1N1) vaccinees and healthy individuals, respectively. Nine and 16 sera were from hospitalized P(H1N1) and non-ILIs patients with severe symptoms (severe patients). Cytokines of IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ and TNF-α were assayed by cytokine bead array, IL-17 and IL-23 measured with ELISA. Mild P(H1N1) patients produced significantly elevated IL-2, IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-5, IL-10, IL-17 and IL-23 versus to healthy controls. While an overwhelming IL-6 and IL-10 production were observed in severe P(H1N1) patients. Higher IL-10 secretion in P(H1N1) vaccinees confirmed our observation that highly increased level of sera IL-6 and IL-10 in P(H1N1) patients may lead to disease progression. Conclusion and Significance A comprehensive innate immune response was activated at the early stage of P(H1N1) infection with a combine Th1/Th2/Th3 cytokines production. As disease progression, a systemic production of IL-6 and IL-10 were observed in severe P(H1N1) patients. Further analysis found a strong correlation between IL-6 and IL-10 production in the severe P(H1N1) patients. IL-6 may be served as a mediator to induce IL-10 production. Highly elevated level of sera IL-6 and IL-10 in P(H1N1) patients may lead to disease progression, but the underlying mechanism awaits further

  6. Misoprostol Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Production by Equine Leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Emily Medlin; Messenger, Kristen M.; Sheats, Mary Katherine; Jones, Samuel L.

    2017-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 are potent immune mediators that exacerbate multiple equine diseases such as sepsis and laminitis. Unfortunately, safe and effective cytokine-targeting therapies are lacking in horses; therefore, novel mechanisms of inhibiting cytokine production are critically needed. One potential mechanism for inhibiting cytokine synthesis is elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP). In human leukocytes, intracellular cAMP production is induced by activation of E-prostanoid (EP) receptors 2 and 4. These receptors can be targeted by the EP2/4 agonist and prostaglandin E1 analog, misoprostol. Misoprostol is currently used as a gastroprotectant in horses but has not been evaluated as a cytokine-targeting therapeutic. Thus, we hypothesized that misoprostol treatment would inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated equine leukocytes in an in vitro inflammation model. To test this hypothesis, equine leukocyte-rich plasma (LRP) was collected from 12 healthy adult horses and used to model LPS-mediated inflammatory signaling. LRP was treated with varying concentrations of misoprostol either before (pretreated) or following (posttreated) LPS stimulation. LRP supernatants were assayed for 23 cytokines using an equine-specific multiplex bead immunoassay. Leukocytes were isolated from LRP, and leukocyte mRNA levels of four important cytokines were evaluated via RT-PCR. Statistical differences between treatments were determined using one-way RM ANOVA (Holm–Sidak post hoc testing) or Friedman’s RM ANOVA on Ranks (SNK post hoc testing), where appropriate (p equine leukocytes but had no effect on IL-8 protein. Interestingly, misoprostol pretreatment enhanced IL-1β protein synthesis following 6 h of LPS stimulation, while misoprostol posttreatment inhibited IL-1β protein production after 24 h of LPS stimulation. At the mRNA level, misoprostol pre

  7. The Role of Cytokine in the Lupus Nephritis

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    Yasunori Iwata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lupus nephritis (LN is a major clinical manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Although numerous abnormalities of immune system have been proposed, cytokine overexpression plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of LN. In the initial phase of the disease, the immune deposits and/or autoantibodies induce cytokine production in renal resident cells, leading to further inflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression and leukocyte infiltration and activation. Then, infiltrate leukocytes, such as macrophages (Mφ and dendritic cells (DCs, secrete a variety of cytokines and activate naïve T cells, leading the cytokine profile towards T helper (Th1, Th2, and/or Th17. Recent studies revealed these inflammatory processes in experimental animal models as well as human LN. The cytokine targeted intervention may have the therapeutic potentials for LN. This paper focuses on the expression of cytokine and its functional role in the pathogenesis of LN.

  8. Alpha-mangostin inhibits both dengue virus production and cytokine/chemokine expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasuk, Mayuri; Songprakhon, Pucharee; Chimma, Pattamawan; Sratongno, Panudda; Na-Bangchang, Kesara; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-Thai

    2017-08-15

    Since severe dengue virus (DENV) infection in humans associates with both high viral load and massive cytokine production - referred to as "cytokine storm", an ideal drug for treatment of DENV infection should efficiently inhibit both virus production and cytokine expression. In searching for such an ideal drug, we discovered that α-mangostin (α-MG), a major bioactive compound purified from the pericarp of the mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana Linn), which has been used in traditional medicine for several conditions including trauma, diarrhea, wound infection, pain, fever, and convulsion, inhibits both DENV production in cultured hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 and Huh-7 cells, and cytokine/chemokine expression in HepG2 cells. α-MG could also efficiently inhibit all four serotypes of DENV. Treatment of DENV-infected cells with α-MG (20μM) significantly reduced the infection rates of four DENV serotypes by 47-55%. α-MG completely inhibited production of DENV-1 and DENV-3, and markedly reduced production of DENV-2 and DENV-4 by 100 folds. Furthermore, it could markedly reduce cytokine (IL-6 and TNF-α) and chemokine (RANTES, MIP-1β, and IP-10) transcription. These actions of α-MG are more potent than those of antiviral agent (ribavirin) and anti-inflammatory drug (dexamethasone). Thus, α-MG is potential to be further developed as therapeutic agent for DENV infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Alpha-1-antitrypsin is an endogenous inhibitor of proinflammatory cytokine production in whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Gregory B; Chan, Edward D; Dinarello, Charles A; Shapiro, Leland

    2009-05-01

    Several observations suggest endogenous suppressors of inflammatory mediators are present in human blood. alpha-1-Antitrypsin (AAT) is the most abundant serine protease inhibitor in blood, and AAT possesses anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo. Here, we show that in vitro stimulation of whole blood from persons with a genetic AAT deficiency resulted in enhanced cytokine production compared with blood from healthy subjects. Using whole blood from healthy subjects, dilution of blood with RPMI tissue-culture medium, followed by incubation for 18 h, increased spontaneous production of IL-8, TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-1R antagonist (IL-1Ra) significantly, compared with undiluted blood. Dilution-induced cytokine production suggested the presence of one or more circulating inhibitors of cytokine synthesis present in blood. Serially diluting blood with tissue-culture medium in the presence of cytokine stimulation with heat-killed Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epi) resulted in 1.2- to 55-fold increases in cytokine production compared with S. epi stimulation alone. Diluting blood with autologous plasma did not increase the production of IL-8, TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, or IL-1Ra, suggesting that the endogenous, inhibitory activity of blood resided in plasma. In whole blood, diluted and stimulated with S. epi, exogenous AAT inhibited IL-8, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta significantly but did not suppress induction of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-1Ra and IL-10. These ex vivo and in vitro observations suggest that endogenous AAT in blood contributes to the suppression of proinflammatory cytokine synthesis.

  10. α-1-Antitrypsin is an endogenous inhibitor of proinflammatory cytokine production in whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Gregory B.; Chan, Edward D.; Dinarello, Charles A.; Shapiro, Leland

    2009-01-01

    Several observations suggest endogenous suppressors of inflammatory mediators are present in human blood. α-1-Antitrypsin (AAT) is the most abundant serine protease inhibitor in blood, and AAT possesses anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo. Here, we show that in vitro stimulation of whole blood from persons with a genetic AAT deficiency resulted in enhanced cytokine production compared with blood from healthy subjects. Using whole blood from healthy subjects, dilution of blood with RPMI tissue-culture medium, followed by incubation for 18 h, increased spontaneous production of IL-8, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-1R antagonist (IL-1Ra) significantly, compared with undiluted blood. Dilution-induced cytokine production suggested the presence of one or more circulating inhibitors of cytokine synthesis present in blood. Serially diluting blood with tissue-culture medium in the presence of cytokine stimulation with heat-killed Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epi) resulted in 1.2- to 55-fold increases in cytokine production compared with S. epi stimulation alone. Diluting blood with autologous plasma did not increase the production of IL-8, TNF-α, IL-1β, or IL-1Ra, suggesting that the endogenous, inhibitory activity of blood resided in plasma. In whole blood, diluted and stimulated with S. epi, exogenous AAT inhibited IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β significantly but did not suppress induction of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-1Ra and IL-10. These ex vivo and in vitro observations suggest that endogenous AAT in blood contributes to the suppression of proinflammatory cytokine synthesis. PMID:19197072

  11. Allergen-induced cytokine production, atopic disease, IgE, and wheeze in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Contreras, JP; Ly, NR; Gold, DR; He, HZ; Wand, M; Weiss, ST; Perkins, DL; Platts-Mills, TAE; Finn, PW

    2003-01-01

    Background: The early childhood allergen-induced immune responses associated with atopic disease and IgE production in early life are not well understood. Objective: We assessed the relationship of allergen-induced cytokine production by PBMCs to both atopic disease and to IgE increase in a cohort

  12. The low efficiency of dendritic cells and macrophages from mice susceptible to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in inducing a Th1 response

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    S.R. Almeida

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we evaluated T cell proliferation and Th lymphokine patterns in response to gp43 from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis presented by isolated dendritic cells from susceptible and resistant mice. T cell proliferation assays showed that dendritic cells from susceptible mice were less efficient than those from resistant mice. The pattern of T cell lymphokines stimulated by dendritic cells was always Th1, although the levels of IL-2 and IFN-gamma were lower in T cell cultures from susceptible mice. To determie whether different antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells stimulated different concentrations of Th1 lymphokines, the production of IFN-gamma and IL-2 was measured. It was observed that dendritic cells were more efficient than macrophages in stimulating lymphoproliferation in resistant mice. However, no significant difference was observed for IFN-gamma or IL-2 production. When cells from susceptible mice were used, macrophages were more efficient in stimulating lymphoproliferation than dendritic cells, but no difference was observed in the production of Th1 cytokine. Taken together, these results suggest the lower efficiency of dendritic cells and macrophages from B10.A mice in stimulating T cells that secrete Th1 lymphokines in vitro, an effect that may be involved in the progression of the disease in vivo.

  13. Impact of Antidepressants on Cytokine Production of Depressed Patients in Vitro

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    Alexander Munzer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between immune and nervous systems plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of depression. In depressive episodes, patients show increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. There is limited information on the effect of antidepressant drugs on cytokines, most studies report on a limited sample of cytokines and none have reported effects on IL-22. We systematically investigated the effect of three antidepressant drugs, citalopram, escitalopram and mirtazapine, on secretion of cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22 and TNF-α in a whole blood assay in vitro, using murine anti-human CD3 monoclonal antibody OKT3, and 5C3 monoclonal antibody against CD40, to stimulate T and B cells respectively. Citalopram increased production of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-22. Mirtazapine increased IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-22. Escitalopram decreased IL-17 levels. The influence of antidepressants on IL-2 and IL-4 levels was not significant for all three drugs. Compared to escitalopram, citalopram led to higher levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 and IL-22; and mirtazapine to higher levels of IL-1β, IL-17, IL-22 and TNF-α. Mirtazapine and citalopram increased IL-22 production. The differing profile of cytokine production may relate to differences in therapeutic effects, risk of relapse and side effects.

  14. Production of fibrogenic cytokines by interleukin-2-treated peripheral blood leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, E J; Brock, B; Silber, I E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the production of fibrogenic cytokines by interleukin-2 (IL-2)-stimulated peripheral blood leukocytes and to examine their ability to stimulate the production of connective tissue. METHODS: Culture medium from human peripheral blood leukocytes incubated with or without IL-2...... was tested for induction of fibroblast proliferation, collagen synthesis, and expression of cytokine genes. RESULTS: Supernatants from IL-2-treated peripheral blood leukocytes induced six times more fibroblast proliferation than medium from leukocytes cultured without IL-2. The expression of type I....... CONCLUSION: Mediators that induce connective tissue production are secreted by IL-2-treated peripheral blood leukocytes. These cytokines may be responsible, in part, for the stimulation of abdominal adhesions in patients receiving intraperitoneal immunotherapy....

  15. THE ROLE OF Th1 AND Th2 CELLS IN ATOPIC AND AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Cekić

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available –helper cells can be divided into two distinct subtypes of effector cells based on the profile of cytokines they produce. Th1 cells produce interferon– γ (IFN– γ and tumor necrosis factor β (TNF– β, and are associated with cell– mediated responses, particularly with resistance to intracellular pathogens (bacteria, parasites, yeasts and viruses. In contrast, Th2 . cells produce IL– 4, IL– 5, IL– 9 and IL– 13. Th2 cells are involved in antibody responses and IgE production, as well as tissue fibrosis, and eosinophilia. Th2 responses are important in the resistance to infection with helminth parasites. Although both Th responses are protective against certain infectious pathogens, they can themselves be pathogenic: Th1 cell responses can mediate autoimmune diseases, whereas dysregulation of Th2 responses is implicated inatopic diseases (allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic eczema, food allergy and anaphylaxis. The recent progress in our understanding of the mechanism of initiation and control of Th1 and Th2 cell responses will eventually lead to new therapeutic strategies.

  16. Human Blood CD1c+ Dendritic Cells Promote Th1 and Th17 Effector Function in Memory CD4+ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Rojas, Ingrid M; Mok, Wai-Hong; Pearson, Frances E; Minoda, Yoshihito; Kenna, Tony J; Barnard, Ross T; Radford, Kristen J

    2017-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) initiate the differentiation of CD4 + helper T cells into effector cells including Th1 and Th17 responses that play an important role in inflammation and autoimmune disease pathogenesis. In mice, Th1 and Th17 responses are regulated by different conventional (c) DC subsets, with cDC1 being the main producers of IL-12p70 and inducers of Th1 responses, while cDC2 produce IL-23 to promote Th17 responses. The role that human DC subsets play in memory CD4 + T cell activation is not known. This study investigated production of Th1 promoting cytokine IL-12p70, and Th17 promoting cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-23, by human blood monocytes, CD1c + DC, CD141 + DC, and plasmacytoid DC and examined their ability to induce Th1 and Th17 responses in memory CD4 + T cells. Human CD1c + DC produced IL-12p70, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-23 in response to R848 combined with LPS or poly I:C. CD141 + DC were also capable of producing IL-12p70 and IL-23 but were not as proficient as CD1c + DC. Activated CD1c + DC were endowed with the capacity to promote both Th1 and Th17 effector function in memory CD4 + T cells, characterized by high production of interferon-γ, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, and IL-22. These findings support a role for CD1c + DC in autoimmune inflammation where Th1/Th17 responses play an important role in disease pathogenesis.

  17. Neonatal Plasma Polarizes TLR4-Mediated Cytokine Responses towards Low IL-12p70 and High IL-10 Production via Distinct Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belderbos, Mirjam E.; Levy, Ofer; Stalpers, Femke; Kimpen, Jan L.; Meyaard, Linde; Bont, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Human neonates are highly susceptible to infection, which may be due in part to impaired innate immune function. Neonatal Toll-like receptor (TLR) responses are biased against the generation of pro-inflammatory/Th1-polarizing cytokines, yet the underlying mechanisms are incompletely defined. Here, we demonstrate that neonatal plasma polarizes TLR4-mediated cytokine production. When exposed to cord blood plasma, mononuclear cells (MCs) produced significantly lower TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 and higher IL-10 compared to MC exposed to adult plasma. Suppression by neonatal plasma of TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 production, but not induction of TLR4-mediated IL-10 production, was maintained up to the age of 1 month. Cord blood plasma conferred a similar pattern of MC cytokine responses to TLR3 and TLR8 agonists, demonstrating activity towards both MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent agonists. The factor causing increased TLR4-mediated IL-10 production by cord blood plasma was heat-labile, lost after protein depletion and independent of lipoprotein binding protein (LBP) or soluble CD14 (sCD14). The factor causing inhibition of TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 production by cord blood plasma was resistant to heat inactivation or protein depletion and was independent of IL-10, vitamin D and prostaglandin E2. In conclusion, human neonatal plasma contains at least two distinct factors that suppress TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 production or induce IL-10 or production. Further identification of these factors will provide insight into the ontogeny of innate immune development and might identify novel targets for the prevention and treatment of neonatal infection. PMID:22442690

  18. Neonatal plasma polarizes TLR4-mediated cytokine responses towards low IL-12p70 and high IL-10 production via distinct factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam E Belderbos

    Full Text Available Human neonates are highly susceptible to infection, which may be due in part to impaired innate immune function. Neonatal Toll-like receptor (TLR responses are biased against the generation of pro-inflammatory/Th1-polarizing cytokines, yet the underlying mechanisms are incompletely defined. Here, we demonstrate that neonatal plasma polarizes TLR4-mediated cytokine production. When exposed to cord blood plasma, mononuclear cells (MCs produced significantly lower TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 and higher IL-10 compared to MC exposed to adult plasma. Suppression by neonatal plasma of TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 production, but not induction of TLR4-mediated IL-10 production, was maintained up to the age of 1 month. Cord blood plasma conferred a similar pattern of MC cytokine responses to TLR3 and TLR8 agonists, demonstrating activity towards both MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent agonists. The factor causing increased TLR4-mediated IL-10 production by cord blood plasma was heat-labile, lost after protein depletion and independent of lipoprotein binding protein (LBP or soluble CD14 (sCD14. The factor causing inhibition of TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 production by cord blood plasma was resistant to heat inactivation or protein depletion and was independent of IL-10, vitamin D and prostaglandin E2. In conclusion, human neonatal plasma contains at least two distinct factors that suppress TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 production or induce IL-10 or production. Further identification of these factors will provide insight into the ontogeny of innate immune development and might identify novel targets for the prevention and treatment of neonatal infection.

  19. Proteomic analysis of Fasciola hepatica excretory and secretory products (FhESPs) involved in interacting with host PBMCs and cytokines by shotgun LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Huang, Si-Yang; Yue, Dong-Mei; Wang, Jin-Lei; Wang, Yujian; Li, Xiangrui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2017-02-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a helminth parasite with a worldwide distribution, which can cause chronic liver disease, fasciolosis, leading to economic losses in the livestock and public health in many countries. Control is mostly reliant on the use of drugs, and as a result, drug resistance has now emerged. The identification of F. hepatica genes involved in interaction between the parasite and host immune system is utmost important to elucidate the evasion mechanisms of the parasite and develop more effective strategies against fasciolosis. In this study, we aimed to identify molecules in F. hepatica excretory and secretory products (FhESPs) interacting with the host peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), Th1-like cytokines (IL2 and IFN-γ), and Th17-like cytokines (IL17) by Co-IP combined with tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that 14, 16, and 9 proteins in FhESPs could bind with IL2, IL17, and IFN-γ, respectively, which indicated that adult F. hepatica may evade the host immune responses through directly interplaying with cytokines. In addition, nine proteins in FhESPs could adhere to PBMCs. Our findings provided potential targets as immuno-regulators, and will be helpful to elucidate the molecular basis of host-parasite interactions and search for new potential proteins as vaccine and drug target candidates.

  20. Skullcap (Scutellaria Baicalensis) Hexane Fraction Inhibits the Permeation of Ovalbumin and Regulates Th1/2 Immune Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sun Young; Lee, So-Young; Choi, Dae Woon; See, Hye-Jeong; Kwon, Da-Ae; Do, Jeong-Ryong; Shon, Dong-Hwa; Shin, Hee Soon

    2017-10-28

    Skullcap ( Scutellaria baicalensis ) is well known for its anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. In our previous study, we found that skullcap could inhibit allergen permeation and regulate Th1/2 immune balance. To reveal the key fractions and components of skullcap, we fractionated skullcap extract into five fractions: hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water fraction. Among these fractions, the hexane fraction significantly suppressed the production of Th2-mediated cytokines (Interleukin (IL)-4, 5, 10 and 13) and increased Th1-mediated cytokines (Interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-12). Furthermore, the hexane fraction inhibited the permeation of ovalbumin (OVA), used as an allergen, across the intestinal epithelial cell monolayer. To confirm the active compounds in the hexane fraction, fatty acids were analyzed. Linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 (>59.7%)) was identified as the most important fatty acid in the skullcap hexane fraction. LA significantly suppressed IL-4 production and increased IFN-γ secretion, as well as inhibiting OVA permeation. Thus, LA significantly diminished the permeation of allergen by enhancing intestinal barrier function and regulated allergic responses to maintain Th1/Th2 immune balance.

  1. Skullcap (Scutellaria Baicalensis Hexane Fraction Inhibits the Permeation of Ovalbumin and Regulates Th1/2 Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Young Jung

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis is well known for its anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. In our previous study, we found that skullcap could inhibit allergen permeation and regulate Th1/2 immune balance. To reveal the key fractions and components of skullcap, we fractionated skullcap extract into five fractions: hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water fraction. Among these fractions, the hexane fraction significantly suppressed the production of Th2-mediated cytokines (Interleukin (IL-4, 5, 10 and 13 and increased Th1-mediated cytokines (Interferon (IFN-γ and IL-12. Furthermore, the hexane fraction inhibited the permeation of ovalbumin (OVA, used as an allergen, across the intestinal epithelial cell monolayer. To confirm the active compounds in the hexane fraction, fatty acids were analyzed. Linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 (>59.7% was identified as the most important fatty acid in the skullcap hexane fraction. LA significantly suppressed IL-4 production and increased IFN-γ secretion, as well as inhibiting OVA permeation. Thus, LA significantly diminished the permeation of allergen by enhancing intestinal barrier function and regulated allergic responses to maintain Th1/Th2 immune balance.

  2. Diclofenac enhances proinflammatory cytokine-induced phagocytosis of cultured microglia via nitric oxide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakita, Hiroki [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Aoyama, Mineyoshi, E-mail: ao.mine@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Nagaya, Yoshiaki; Asai, Hayato [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Hussein, Mohamed Hamed [Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Pediatric Hospital, Cairo University, Cairo 11559 (Egypt); Maternal and Child Health Department, VACSERA, 51 Wizaret El-Zeraa-Agouza, Giza 22311 (Egypt); Suzuki, Mieko [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Kato, Shin [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Saitoh, Shinji [Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Asai, Kiyofumi [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan)

    2013-04-15

    Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is a central nervous system complication with a high mortality rate, which is increased significantly by the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (DCF). In the present study, we investigated the effects of DCF on brain immune cells (i.e. microglia) stimulated with three proinflammatory cytokines, namely tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interferon-γ. Similar to previous findings in astrocytes, all three cytokines induced the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), as well as NO production, in microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system augmented iNOS expression and NO production. Immunocytochemical analysis and the phagocytosis assay revealed that cytokine treatment induced morphological changes to and phagocytosis by the microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system enhanced microglial activation, as well as the phagocytic activity of cytokine-stimulated microglia. Inhibitors of nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibited iNOS gene expression in cytokine-stimulated microglia with or without DCF, suggesting that the NF-κB pathway is one of the main signaling pathways involved. The iNOS inhibitor N{sup G}-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) reduced both cytokine-induced phagocytosis and phagocytosis induced by the combination of cytokines plus DCF. Furthermore, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside induced phagocytosis, indicating that NO production is a key regulator of microglial phagocytosis. In conclusion, DCF acts synergistically with proinflammatory cytokines to increase the production of NO in microglia, leading to phagocytic activity of the activated microglia. These findings, together with previous observations regarding astrocytes, may explain the significant increase in mortality of IAE patients treated with DCF. - Highlights: ► Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is associated with a high mortality rate. ► Hyperimmunization in the brain is believed to be responsible for

  3. Diclofenac enhances proinflammatory cytokine-induced phagocytosis of cultured microglia via nitric oxide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakita, Hiroki; Aoyama, Mineyoshi; Nagaya, Yoshiaki; Asai, Hayato; Hussein, Mohamed Hamed; Suzuki, Mieko; Kato, Shin; Saitoh, Shinji; Asai, Kiyofumi

    2013-01-01

    Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is a central nervous system complication with a high mortality rate, which is increased significantly by the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (DCF). In the present study, we investigated the effects of DCF on brain immune cells (i.e. microglia) stimulated with three proinflammatory cytokines, namely tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interferon-γ. Similar to previous findings in astrocytes, all three cytokines induced the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), as well as NO production, in microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system augmented iNOS expression and NO production. Immunocytochemical analysis and the phagocytosis assay revealed that cytokine treatment induced morphological changes to and phagocytosis by the microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system enhanced microglial activation, as well as the phagocytic activity of cytokine-stimulated microglia. Inhibitors of nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibited iNOS gene expression in cytokine-stimulated microglia with or without DCF, suggesting that the NF-κB pathway is one of the main signaling pathways involved. The iNOS inhibitor N G -monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) reduced both cytokine-induced phagocytosis and phagocytosis induced by the combination of cytokines plus DCF. Furthermore, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside induced phagocytosis, indicating that NO production is a key regulator of microglial phagocytosis. In conclusion, DCF acts synergistically with proinflammatory cytokines to increase the production of NO in microglia, leading to phagocytic activity of the activated microglia. These findings, together with previous observations regarding astrocytes, may explain the significant increase in mortality of IAE patients treated with DCF. - Highlights: ► Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is associated with a high mortality rate. ► Hyperimmunization in the brain is believed to be responsible for IAE

  4. Skin rejuvenation using cosmetic products containing growth factors, cytokines, and matrikines: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldag C

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Aldag,1,* Diana Nogueira Teixeira,1,* Phillip S Leventhal2 1Merz Pharmaceuticals GmbH, Frankfurt am Main, Germany; 24Clinics, Paris, France *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Skin aging is primarily due to alterations in the dermal extracellular matrix, especially a decrease in collagen I content, fragmentation of collagen fibrils, and accumulation of amorphous elastin material, also known as elastosis. Growth factors and cytokines are included in several cosmetic products intended for skin rejuvenation because of their ability to promote collagen synthesis. Matrikines and matrikine-like peptides offer the advantage of growth factor-like activities but better skin penetration due to their much smaller molecular size. In this review, we summarize the commercially available products containing growth factors, cytokines, and matrikines for which there is evidence that they promote skin rejuvenation. Keywords: cosmetics, skin, aging, growth factor, cytokine, matrikine

  5. Regulation of Cytokine Production by the Unfolded Protein Response; Implications for Infection and Autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Judith A

    2018-01-01

    Protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an essential cell function. To safeguard this process in the face of environmental threats and internal stressors, cells mount an evolutionarily conserved response known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). Invading pathogens induce cellular stress that impacts protein folding, thus the UPR is well situated to sense danger and contribute to immune responses. Cytokines (inflammatory cytokines and interferons) critically mediate host defense against pathogens, but when aberrantly produced, may also drive pathologic inflammation. The UPR influences cytokine production on multiple levels, from stimulation of pattern recognition receptors, to modulation of inflammatory signaling pathways, and the regulation of cytokine transcription factors. This review will focus on the mechanisms underlying cytokine regulation by the UPR, and the repercussions of this relationship for infection and autoimmune/autoinflammatory diseases. Interrogation of viral and bacterial infections has revealed increasing numbers of examples where pathogens induce or modulate the UPR and implicated UPR-modulated cytokines in host response. The flip side of this coin, the UPR/ER stress responses have been increasingly recognized in a variety of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Examples include monogenic disorders of ER function, diseases linked to misfolding protein (HLA-B27 and spondyloarthritis), diseases directly implicating UPR and autophagy genes (inflammatory bowel disease), and autoimmune diseases targeting highly secretory cells (e.g., diabetes). Given the burgeoning interest in pharmacologically targeting the UPR, greater discernment is needed regarding how the UPR regulates cytokine production during specific infections and autoimmune processes, and the relative place of this interaction in pathogenesis.

  6. Phenotype and influx kinetics of leukocytes and inflammatory cytokine production in kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Timothy M; Wise, Andrea F; Layton, Daniel S; Ricardo, Sharon D

    2018-01-01

    Kidney ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury is characterized by tubular epithelial cell (TEC) death and an inflammatory response involving cytokine production and immune cell infiltration. In various kidney diseases, increased macrophage numbers correlate with injury severity and poor prognosis. However, macrophage plasticity enables a diverse range of functions, including wound healing, making them a key target for novel therapies. This study aimed to comprehensively characterize the changes in myeloid and epithelial cells and the production of cytokines throughout the experimental IR model of acute kidney injury to aid in the identification of targets to promote and enhance kidney regeneration and repair. Flow cytometric analysis of murine unilateral IR injury was used to assess TEC and myeloid cell subpopulations in conjunction with histological analysis and cytokine production at 6 h, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days post IR injury, spanning the initial inflammatory phase and the following reparative phase. IR injury resulted in a rapid infiltration of Ly6C high monocytes and neutrophils with a steady rise in F4/80 high MHCII high macrophages over the injury time. The production of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6, MCP-1 and TNF coincided with an increase in IL-10 production. This characterization will provide a reference point for future studies designed to manipulate immune cell phenotype and function in order to promote endogenous repair of damaged kidneys. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  7. Colchicine Acutely Suppresses Local Cardiac Production of Inflammatory Cytokines in Patients With an Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Gonzalo J; Robertson, Stacy; Barraclough, Jennifer; Xia, Qiong; Mallat, Ziad; Bursill, Christina; Celermajer, David S; Patel, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, and downstream IL-6 are key inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. Colchicine is believed to block the NLRP3 inflammasome, a cytosolic complex responsible for the production of IL-1β and IL-18. In vivo effects of colchicine on cardiac cytokine release have not been previously studied. This study aimed to (1) assess the local cardiac production of inflammatory cytokines in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), stable coronary artery disease and in controls; and (2) determine whether acute administration of colchicine inhibits their production. Methods and Results Forty ACS patients, 33 with stable coronary artery disease, and 10 controls, were included. ACS and stable coronary artery disease patients were randomized to oral colchicine treatment (1 mg followed by 0.5 mg 1 hour later) or no colchicine, 6 to 24 hours prior to cardiac catheterization. Blood samples from the coronary sinus, aortic root (arterial), and lower right atrium (venous) were collected and tested for IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-6 using ELISA. In ACS patients, coronary sinus levels of IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-6 were significantly higher than arterial and venous levels (P=0.017, Colchicine administration significantly reduced transcoronary gradients of all 3 cytokines in ACS patients by 40% to 88% (P=0.028, 0.032, and 0.032, for IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-6, respectively). Conclusions ACS patients exhibit increased local cardiac production of inflammatory cytokines. Short-term colchicine administration rapidly and significantly reduces levels of these cytokines. PMID:26304941

  8. Production of the effector cytokine interleukin-17, rather than interferon-γ, is more strongly associated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Andrew M.; Zamzami, Omar M.; Whibley, Natasha; Hampsey, Daniel P.; Haggart, Anne M.; Vickers, Mark A.; Barker, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Interleukin-17A is the signature cytokine of the Th17 subset and drives inflammatory pathology, but its relevance to autoantibody-mediated diseases is unclear. Th1 cells secreting interferon-γ have been implicated in autoimmune hemolytic anemia, so the aim was to determine which cytokine is more closely associated with disease severity. Design and Methods Interferon-γ and interleukin-17A were measured in the sera of patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia and healthy donors, and in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures stimulated with autologous red blood cells, or a panel of peptides spanning red blood cell autoantigen. Results Serum interleukin-17A, but not interferon-γ, was significantly raised in patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (P anemia. Interleukin-17A was also more prominent in the responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia to red blood cells, and, again unlike interferon-γ, significantly associated with more severe anemia (P hemolytic anemia, challenging the model that the disease is driven primarily by Th1 cells. This raises the possibility that Th17, rather than Th1, cells should be the target for therapy. PMID:22419580

  9. Immunomodulatory capacity of fungal proteins on the cytokine production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurink, P.V.; Lull Noguera, C.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Wichers, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Immunomodulation by fungal compounds can be determined by the capacity of the compounds to influence the cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC). These activities include mitogenicity, stimulation and activation of immune effector cells. Eight mushroom strains

  10. Cytokine production induced by non-encapsulated and encapsulated Porphyromonas gingivalis strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, A.; Dekker, D.C.; van Pampus, M.G.; Harmsen, H.J.; Aarnoudse, J.G.; Abbas, F.; Faas, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although the exact reason is not known, encapsulated gram-negative Porphyromonas gingivalis strains are more virulent than non-encapsulated strains. Since difference in virulence properties may be due to difference in cytokine production following recognition of the bacteria or their

  11. Investigation of Macrophage Differentiation and Cytokine Production in an Undergraduate Immunology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkes, Charlotte; Chan, Leo Li-Ying

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a semester-long laboratory project for an undergraduate immunology course in which students study multiple aspects of macrophage biology including differentiation from progenitors in the bone marrow, activation upon stimulation with microbial ligands, expression of cell surface markers, and modulation of cytokine production. In…

  12. The effects of propolis on cytokine production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Özbilge

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Propolis, a bee-product, has attracted researchers’ interest in recent years because of several biological and pharmacological properties. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and has an important role in the pathogenesis of septic shock and several inflammatory diseases by causing excessive release of inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanol extract of propolis collected in Kayseri and its surroundings on production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated macrophages.Materials and methods: In vitro, U937 human macrophage cells were grown in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum (10% and penicillin-streptomycin (2% and divided into: control, LPS treated, and propolis+LPS treated cell groups. After incubation in an atmosphere of 5% CO2 and at 37°C of cells, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α levels were measured in cell-free supernatants by ELISA.Results: IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels increased in LPS treated cell group according to control, statistically significant. Each cytokine levels significantly decreased in LPS and propolis treated cell group according to only LPS treated cell group (p<0.05.Conclusion: Propolis is a natural product to be examined for usage when needed the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (4: 366-370

  13. DMPD: Induction of proliferation and cytokine production in human T lymphocytes bylipopolysaccharide (LPS). [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 11090938 Induction of proliferation and cytokine production in human T lymphocytes ... (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Induction of proliferation and cytokine production in human T lymphocyte...s bylipopolysaccharide (LPS). PubmedID 11090938 Title Induction of proliferation

  14. Alpha-tocopherol ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis through the regulation of Th1 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haikuo Xue

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a serious neurological autoimmune disease, it commonly affects young adults. Vitamin E (Vit E is an important component of human diet with antioxidant activity, which protects the body’s biological systems. In order to assess the effect of Vit E treatment on this autoimmune disease, we established experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, the animal model of MS, and treated EAE with α-tocopherol (AT which is the main content of Vit E. Materials and Methods:Twenty C57BL/6 adult female mice were used and divided into two groups randomly. EAE was induced with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG, and one group was treated with AT, at a dose of 100 mg/kg on the 3th day post-immunization with MOG, the other group was treated with 1% alcohol. Mice were euthanized on day 14, post-immunization, spleens were removed for assessing splenocytes proliferation and cytokine profile, and spinal cords were dissected to assess the infiltration of inflammatory cells in spinal cord. Results:AT was able to attenuate the severity of EAE and delay the disease progression. H&E staining and fast blue staining indicated that AT reduced the inflammation and the demyelination reaction in the spinal cord. Treatment with AT significantly decreased the proliferation of splenocytes. AT also inhibited the production of IFN-γ (Th1 cytokine, though the other cytokines were only affected slightly. Conclusion:According to the results, AT ameliorated EAE, through suppressing the proliferation of T cells and the Th1 response. AT may be used as a potential treatment for MS.

  15. The effects of dietary phenolic compounds on cytokine and antioxidant production by A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauliard, Benoit; Grieve, Douglas; Wilson, Rhoda; Crozier, Alan; Jenkins, Carol; Mullen, William D; Lean, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Levels of inflammatory cytokines are raised in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A diet rich in antioxidant vitamins may protect against the development of COPD. This study examined the effects of phenolic compounds and food sources on cytokine and antioxidant production by A549 cells. The effects of the following phenolic compounds on basal and interleukin (IL)-1-stimulated release of IL-8, IL-6, and reduced glutathione (GSH) were examined: resveratrol; Bouvrage, a commercially available raspberry juice (Ella Drinks Ltd., Alloa, Clacksmannanshire, UK); and quercetin 3'-sulfate. Purification of the raspberry juice by high-performance liquid chromatography gave three fractions: Fraction 1 contained phenolic acid and vitamin C, Fraction 2 contained flavonoids and ellagic acid, and Fraction 3 contained anthocyanins and ellagitannins. IL-8 production was increased in the presence of IL-1 (165 vs. 6,011 pg/mL, P or =50 micromol/mL significantly inhibited IL-8 and IL-6 production. Similar findings were made with raspberry juice at concentrations > or =25 microL/mL, and Fractions 1 and 3 were best able to inhibit IL-8 production. Quercetin 3'-sulfate, at 25 micromol/mL, inhibited IL-8 and IL-6 production. The changes observed in IL-8 were paralleled by changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Thus, phenolic compounds can significantly alter cytokine and antioxidant production.

  16. Decreased proinflammatory cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from vitiligo patients following aspirin treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zailaie, Mohammad Z.

    2005-01-01

    Limited studies have shown that treatment of cells with aspirin modulates their cytokine production. Consequently, the aim of the present study is to investigate the pattern of important proinflammatory cytokines production by stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with active vitiligo following long-term treatment with low-dose oral aspirin. The study was conducted at the Vitiligo Unit, King Abdul-Aziz University Medical Center, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between March and October 2003. Thirty-two patients (18 females and 14 males) with non-segmental vitiligo were divided into 2 equal groups, one group received a daily single dose of oral aspirin (300 mg) and the other group received placebo for a period of 12 weeks. The concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were determined in the supernatant of isolated cultured PMBC after being stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), before the start of aspirin treatment and at end of treatment period. Cytokine levels were measured using the quantitative sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique, utilizing commercially available kits. The proinflammatory cytokine production by the PBMC of patients with active vitiligo was significantly increased compared to normal controls. Thus, the relative percentage increase in the production of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha was: 39.4%, 110.5% (p<0.05), 91.5% (p<0.01), and 37% (p<0.05). At the end of treatment, proinflammatory cytokine production in the aspirin-treated group of active vitiligo patients was significantly decreased compared to the placebo group. Thus, the relative percentage decrease in the production of IL-1beta IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha was: 42.5%, 45.2% (p<0.05), 30.8% (p<0.01), and 50.6% (p<0.05). The vitiligo activity was arrested in all aspirin-treated patients, while 2 patients demonstrated significant repigmentation.Chronic administration of

  17. Effects of Acute Low-Dose Exposure to the Chlorinated Flame Retardant Dechlorane 602 and Th1 and Th2 Immune Responses in Adult Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu; Tian, Jijing; Xie, Heidi Qunhui; She, Jianwen; Xu, Sherry Li; Xu, Tuan; Tian, Wenjing; Fu, Hualing; Li, Shuaizhang; Tao, Wuqun; Wang, Lingyun; Chen, Yangsheng; Zhang, Songyan; Zhang, Wanglong; Guo, Tai L; Zhao, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Although the chlorinated flame retardant Dechlorane (Dec) 602 has been detected in food, human blood, and breast milk, there is limited information on potential health effects, including possible immunotoxicity. We determined the immunotoxic potential of Dec 602 in mice by examining the expression of phenotypic markers on thymocyte and splenic lymphocyte subsets, Th1/Th2 transcription factors, and the production of cytokines and antibodies. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were orally exposed to environmentally relevant doses of Dec 602 (1 and 10 μg/kg body weight per day) for 7 consecutive days. Thymocyte and splenic CD4 and CD8 subsets and splenocyte apoptosis were examined by flow cytometric analysis. Cytokine expression was measured at both the mRNA and the protein levels. Levels of the transcription factors Th1 (T-bet and STAT1) and Th2 (GATA3) were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Serum levels of immunoglobulins IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgE were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets were decreased compared with vehicle controls, and apoptosis was significantly increased in splenic CD4+ T cells. Expression (mRNA and protein) of Th2 cytokines [interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, and IL-13] increased, and that of Th1 cytokines [IL-2, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] decreased. The Th2 transcriptional factor GATA3 increased, whereas the Th1 transcriptional factors T-bet and STAT1 decreased. As additional indicators of the Th2-Th1 imbalance, production of IgG1 was significantly increased, whereas IgG2a was reduced. To our knowledge, we are the first to report evidence of the effects of Dec 602 on immune function in mice, with findings indicating that Dec 602 exposure favored Th2 responses and reduced Th1 function. Feng Y, Tian J, Xie HQ, She J, Xu SL, Xu T, Tian W, Fu H, Li S, Tao W, Wang L, Chen Y, Zhang S, Zhang W, Guo TL, Zhao B. 2016. Effects of acute low

  18. Lactobacillus helveticus SBT2171, a cheese starter, regulates proliferation and cytokine production of immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M; Ukibe, K; Uenishi, H; Hosoya, T; Sakai, F; Kadooka, Y

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of a Lactobacillus helveticus SBT2171 (LH2171)-containing cheese has been reported to exhibit immunoregulatory actions, including an increase in regulatory T cell population and reduction in proinflammatory cytokine production in mice. We examined the in vitro effects of LH2171 cells per se on immune cell function, specifically proliferation and cytokine production, which are primary reactions of the immune response. Immune cell fractions were prepared by mechanical disruption of mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), Peyer's patches (PP), and spleens (SP) of mice. The cell fractions were dispensed into a culture plate and stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28 antibody beads in place of antigen-presenting cells or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence or absence of heat-treated LH2171 cells and other bacterial strains for comparison. After incubation, proliferation, cytokine production, and cell viability of the immune cells were determined. The LH2171 significantly inhibited the proliferation of MLN immune cells stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28 compared with other bacterial strains. The antiproliferative potency of LH2171 was effective not only on MLN but also on PP and SP stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28 or LPS. The LH2171 also decreased LPS-stimulated IL-6 production from MLN, PP, and SP, and IL-1β production from SP, but LH2171 did not affect the viability of immune cells. The LH2171 inhibited immune cell proliferation and proinflammatory cytokine (IL-6 and IL-1β) production. The inhibitory actions were not due to cytotoxicity to immune cells, suggesting that LH2171 is a dairy Lactobacillus strain with beneficial immunoregulatory properties. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Divergent effects of T cell costimulation and inflammatory cytokine production on autoimmune peripheral neuropathy provoked by Aire deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaopei L; Nagavalli, Anil; Smith, Colin-Jamal; Howard, James F; Su, Maureen A

    2013-04-15

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy results from autoimmune destruction of the peripheral nervous system and is a component of the multiorgan autoimmunity syndrome that results from Aire gene mutations in humans. In parallel, peripheral nervous system autoimmunity resembling chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy develops spontaneously in NOD mice with a partial loss of Aire function (NOD.Aire(GW/+) mice) and is a T cell-mediated disease. In this study, we analyze how key aspects of T cell activation and function modulate disease development in Aire-deficient mice. We show that genetic ablation of the Th1 cytokine IFN-γ completely prevents clinical and electrophysiological evidence of neuropathy in NOD.Aire(GW/+) mice. IFN-γ deficiency is associated with absence of immune infiltration and decreased expression of the T cell chemoattractant IP-10 in sciatic nerves. Thus, IFN-γ is absolutely required for the development of autoimmune peripheral neuropathy in NOD.Aire(GW/+) mice. Because IFN-γ secretion is enhanced by B7-CD28 costimulation of T cells, we sought to determine the effects of these costimulatory molecules on neuropathy development. Surprisingly, B7-2 deficiency accelerated neuropathy development in NOD.Aire(GW/+) mice, and Ab blockade of both B7-1 and B7-2 resulted in fulminant, early-onset neuropathy. Thus, in contrast to IFN-γ, B7-2 alone and B7-1/B7-2 in combination function to ameliorate neuropathy development in NOD.Aire(GW/+) mice. Together, these findings reveal distinct and opposing effects of the T cell costimulatory pathway and IFN-γ production on the pathogenesis of autoimmune peripheral neuropathy.

  20. Increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production after lipopolysaccharide stimulation in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Serrano, María Edith; Estrada-García, Iris; Mogica-Martínez, Dolores; González-Garay, Alejandro; López-Herrera, Gabriela; Berrón-Ruiz, Laura; Espinosa-Padilla, Sara Elva; Yamazaki-Nakashimada, Marco Antonio; Vargas-Hernández, Alexander; Santos-Argumedo, Leopoldo; Estrada-Parra, Sergio Antonio; Espinosa-Rosales, Francisco J

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine response by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from XLA patients. Thirteen patients with XLA were included in the study. LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 production was determined in PBMCs from patients and matched healthy controls by ELISA. Cytokine production was correlated with the severity of mutation, affected domain and clinical characteristics. In response to LPS, PBMCs from XLA patients produced significantly higher amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines and IL-10 compared to controls, and this production was influenced neither by the severity of the mutation nor the affected domain. PBMCs from patients with a history of more hospital admissions before their diagnosis produced higher levels of TNF-α. PBMCs from patients with lower serum IgA levels showed a higher production of TNF-α and IL-1β. Less severe (punctual) mutations in the Btk gene were associated with higher serum IgG levels at diagnosis. Our results demonstrate a predominantly inflammatory response in XLA patients after LPS stimulation and suggest a deregulation of TLR signaling in the absence of Btk. This response may be influenced by environmental factors.

  1. Excreted/secreted Trichuris suis products reduce barrier function and suppress inflammatory cytokine production of intestinal epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiemstra, I. H.; Klaver, E. J.; Vrijland, K.

    2014-01-01

    . The intestinal epithelium forms an efficient barrier between the intestinal lumen containing the microbial flora and helminths, and dendritic cells (DCs) present in the lamina propria that determine the TH response. Here, we investigated how excreted/secreted (E/S) products of T. suis affect the barrier function...... of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in order to reach the DCs and modulate the immune response. We show that T. suis E/S products reduce the barrier function and the expression of the tight junction proteins EMP-1 and claudin-4 in IEC CMT93/69 monolayers in a glycan-dependent manner. This resulted...... in an increased passage of soluble compounds to the basolateral side that affected DC function. In addition, T. suis E/S suppressed LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production by CMT93/69 cells, whereas the production of the TH2 response-inducing cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) was induced. Our...

  2. The effect of enzymatically polymerised polyphenols on CD4 binding and cytokine production in murine splenocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Yamanaka

    Full Text Available High-molecular weight polymerised polyphenols have been shown to exhibit anti-influenza virus, anti-HIV, and anti-cancer activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulating activities of enzymatically polymerised polyphenols, and to clarify the underlying mechanisms of their effects. The cytokine-inducing activity of the enzymatically polymerised polyphenols derived from caffeic acid (CA, ferulic acid (FA, and p-coumaric acid (CoA was investigated using murine splenocytes. Polymerised polyphenols, but not non-polymerised polyphenols, induced cytokine synthesis in murine splenocytes. Polymerised polyphenols induced several cytokines in murine splenocytes, with interferon-γ (IFN-γ and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF being the most prominent. The underlying mechanisms of the effects of the polymerised polyphenols were then studied using neutralising antibodies and fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS analysis. Our results show that polymerised polyphenols increased IFN-γ and GM-CSF production in splenocytes. In addition, the anti-CD4 neutralised monoclonal antibody (mAb inhibited polymerised polyphenol-induced IFN-γ and GM-CSF secretion. Moreover, polymerised polyphenols bound directly to a recombinant CD4 protein, and FACS analysis confirmed that interaction occurs between polymerised polyphenols and CD4 molecules expressed on the cell surface. In this study, we clearly demonstrated that enzymatic polymerisation confers immunoactivating potential to phenylpropanoic acids, and CD4 plays a key role in their cytokine-inducing activity.

  3. The Effect of Enzymatically Polymerised Polyphenols on CD4 Binding and Cytokine Production in Murine Splenocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Daisuke; Tamiya, Yumi; Motoi, Masuro; Ishibashi, Ken-ichi; Miura, Noriko N.; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Naohito

    2012-01-01

    High-molecular weight polymerised polyphenols have been shown to exhibit anti-influenza virus, anti-HIV, and anti-cancer activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulating activities of enzymatically polymerised polyphenols, and to clarify the underlying mechanisms of their effects. The cytokine-inducing activity of the enzymatically polymerised polyphenols derived from caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid (FA), and p-coumaric acid (CoA) was investigated using murine splenocytes. Polymerised polyphenols, but not non-polymerised polyphenols, induced cytokine synthesis in murine splenocytes. Polymerised polyphenols induced several cytokines in murine splenocytes, with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) being the most prominent. The underlying mechanisms of the effects of the polymerised polyphenols were then studied using neutralising antibodies and fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. Our results show that polymerised polyphenols increased IFN-γ and GM-CSF production in splenocytes. In addition, the anti-CD4 neutralised monoclonal antibody (mAb) inhibited polymerised polyphenol-induced IFN-γ and GM-CSF secretion. Moreover, polymerised polyphenols bound directly to a recombinant CD4 protein, and FACS analysis confirmed that interaction occurs between polymerised polyphenols and CD4 molecules expressed on the cell surface. In this study, we clearly demonstrated that enzymatic polymerisation confers immunoactivating potential to phenylpropanoic acids, and CD4 plays a key role in their cytokine-inducing activity. PMID:22540016

  4. Complement plays a central role in Candida albicans-induced cytokine production by human PBMCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Shih-Chin; Sprong, Tom; Joosten, Leo A B

    2012-01-01

    In experimental studies, the role of complement in antifungal host defense has been attributed to its opsonizing capability. In this study, we report that in humans an activated complement system mainly augments Candida albicans-induced host proinflammatory cytokine production via C5a-C5a......R signaling, while phagocytosis and intracellular killing of Candida are not influenced. By blocking the C5a-C5aR signaling pathway, either with anti-C5a antagonist antibodies or with the C5aR antagonist W-54001, C. albicans-induced IL-6 and IL-1β levels were significantly reduced. Recombinant C5a augmented...... in augmenting host proinflammatory cytokine production upon contact with C. albicans, and define the role of the complement system in anti-Candida host defense in humans....

  5. Inflammation-Induced Changes in Circulating T-Cell Subsets and Cytokine Production During Human Endotoxemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Plovsing, Ronni R; Gaardbo, Julie C

    2017-01-01

    Observational clinical studies suggest the initial phase of sepsis may involve impaired cellular immunity. In the present study, we investigated temporal changes in T-cell subsets and T-cell cytokine production during human endotoxemia. Endotoxin (Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide 4 ng....../kg) was administered intravenously in 15 healthy volunteers. Peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected at baseline and after 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours for flow cytometry. CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127lowFoxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), CD4(+)CD161(+) cells, and activated Human leukocyte antigen......, HLA-DR(+)CD38(+) T cells were determined. Ex vivo whole-blood cytokine production and Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 expression on Tregs were measured. Absolute number of CD3(+)CD4(+) (P = .026), CD3(+)CD8(+) (P = .046), Tregs (P = .023), and CD4(+)CD161(+) cells (P = .042) decreased after endotoxin...

  6. Th1 Th2, Tc1 Tc2 cells of patients with otolaryngological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuo Ohta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are important regulatory mediators secreted by T cells and other immunoactive cells. Based on the cytokine synthesis patterns, CD4 T cells can often be classified into at least two populations with different immune regulatory functions. The Th1 cells, producing interleukin (IL-2 and interferon (IFN-γ, are often associated with cell-mediated immune responses such as delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH, whereas Th2 cells, secreting IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, usually provide B cell help and enhance allergic reactions. Naïve CD8 T cells, similar to CD4 T cells, can differentiate into at least two subsets of cytolytic effector cells with distinct cytokine patterns. The Tc1 cells secrete a Th 1 - like cytokine pattern, including IL-2 and IFN-γ. The Tc2 cells produce Th2 cytokines, including IL-4, IL-5 and 11—10. There is increasing evidence that Th1/Th2 and Tc1/Tc2 cytokine imbalance has been of patho- genetic importance in various diseases, such as allergic and autoimmune diseases. The present review article focuses on the evidence that the imbalance of Th1/Th2 and Tc1/Tc2 cytokines plays an important role in various otolaryngological diseases, such as Kimura's disease, Wegener's granulomatosism, acute perceptive hearing loss and Meniere's disease. It is concluded that the predominance of Th 1 or Th2 and Tc1 or Tc2 cells may contribute to the mechanism in the pathogenesis of these otolaryngological diseases.

  7. α-1-Antitrypsin is an endogenous inhibitor of proinflammatory cytokine production in whole blood

    OpenAIRE

    Pott, Gregory B.; Chan, Edward D.; Dinarello, Charles A.; Shapiro, Leland

    2009-01-01

    Several observations suggest endogenous suppressors of inflammatory mediators are present in human blood. α-1-Antitrypsin (AAT) is the most abundant serine protease inhibitor in blood, and AAT possesses anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo. Here, we show that in vitro stimulation of whole blood from persons with a genetic AAT deficiency resulted in enhanced cytokine production compared with blood from healthy subjects. Using whole blood from healthy subjects, dilution of blood with...

  8. Toll-like receptor-4 mediates cigarette smoke-induced cytokine production by human macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Kimpe Sjef J

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major risk factor for the development of COPD is cigarette smoking. Smoking causes activation of resident cells and the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the lungs, which leads to release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemotactic factors, oxygen radicals and proteases. In the present study evidence is found for a new cellular mechanism that refers to a link between smoking and inflammation in lungs. Methods Employing human monocyte-derived macrophages, different techniques including FACS analysis, Cytometric Bead Array Assay and ELISA were achieved to evaluate the effects of CS on pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion including IL-8. Then, Toll-like receptor neutralization was performed to study the involvement of Toll-like receptor-4 in IL-8 production. Finally, signaling pathways in macrophages after exposure to CS medium were investigated performing ELISA and Western analysis. Results We demonstrate that especially human monocytes are sensitive to produce IL-8 upon cigarette smoke stimulation compared to lymphocytes or neutrophils. Moreover, monocyte-derived macrophages produce high amounts of the cytokine. The IL-8 production is dependent on Toll-like receptor 4 stimulation and LPS is not involved. Further research resolved the cellular mechanism by which cigarette smoke induces cytokine production in monocyte-derived macrophages. Cigarette smoke causes subsequently a concentration-dependent phosphorylation of IRAK and degradation of TRAF6. Moreover, IκBα was phosphorylated which suggests involvement of NF-κB. In addition, NFκB -inhibitor blocked cigarette smoke-induced IL-8 production. Conclusion These findings link cigarette smoke to inflammation and lead to new insights/therapeutic strategies in the pathogenesis of lung emphysema.

  9. Photodynamic therapy induced production of cytokines by latent Epstein Barr virus infected epithelial tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, H. K.; Lo, K. W.; Lung, M. L.; Chang, C. K. C.; Wong, R. N. S.; Mak, N. K.

    2007-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a method to treat cancer or non-cancer diseases by activation of the light-sensitive photosensitizers. Epstein Barr virus (EBV) has been implicated in the development of certain cancers such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma and B cell lymphoma. This study aims to examine the effects of EBV infection on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in cells after the photosensitizer Zn-BC-AM PDT treatment. Epithelial tumor cell lines HONE-1 and latent EBV-infected HONE-1 (EBV-HONE-1) cells were used in this study. Cells were treated with the photosensitizer Zn-BC-AM for 24 hours before light irradiation. RT-PCR and quantitative ELISA methods were used for the evaluation of mRNA expression and production of cytokines, respectively. Results show that Zn-BC-AM PDT increases the production of IL-1a and IL-1b in EBV-HONE-1. Over a 10-fold increase in the production of IL-6 was observed in the culture supernatant of Zn-BC-AM PDT-treated HONE-1 cells. PDT-induced IL-6 production was observed in HONE-1 cells. EBV-HONE-1 has a higher background level of IL-8 production than the HONE-1. The production of IL-8 was suppressed in EBV-HONE-1cells after Zn-BC-AM PDT. Our results indicate that the response of HONE-1 cells to Zn-BC-AM PDT depends on the presence of latent EBV infection. Since IL-8 is a cytokine with angiogenic activity, Zn-BC-AM PDT may exert an anti-angiogenic effect through the suppression of IL-8 production by the EBV-infected cells.

  10. Sirtuin inhibition attenuates the production of inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Claudia A. [Universite catholique de Louvain, Louvain Drug Research Institute (LDRI), Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery Research Group, Brussels B-1200 (Belgium); Fievez, Laurence [University of Liege, GIGA-Research, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Liege B-4000 (Belgium); Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Delzenne, Nathalie M. [Universite catholique de Louvain, LDRI, Metabolism and Nutrition Research Group, Brussels B-1200 (Belgium); Bureau, Fabrice [University of Liege, GIGA-Research, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Liege B-4000 (Belgium); Vanbever, Rita, E-mail: rita.vanbever@uclouvain.be [Universite catholique de Louvain, Louvain Drug Research Institute (LDRI), Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery Research Group, Brussels B-1200 (Belgium)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages were treated with cambinol and sirtinol. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cambinol and sirtinol decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cambinol decreased NF-{kappa}B activity but had no impact on p38 MAPK activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sirtuins are an interesting target for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. -- Abstract: In several inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis or sepsis, the regulatory mechanisms of inflammation are inefficient and the excessive inflammatory response leads to damage to the host. Sirtuins are class III histone deacetylases that modulate the activity of several transcription factors that are implicated in immune responses. In this study, we evaluated the impact of sirtuin inhibition on the activation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated J774 macrophages by assessing the production of inflammatory cytokines. The pharmacologic inhibition of sirtuins decreased the production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) interleukin 6 (IL-6) and Rantes. The reduction of cytokine production was associated with decreased nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activity and inhibitor kappa B alpha (I{kappa}B{alpha}) phosphorylation while no impact was observed on the phosphorylation status of p38 mitogen-activated kinase (p38 MAPK). This work shows that sirtuin pharmacologic inhibitors are a promising tool for the treatment of inflammatory conditions.

  11. T-cell immunity and cytokine production in cosmonauts after long-duration space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morukov, B.; Rykova, M.; Antropova, E.; Berendeeva, T.; Ponomaryov, S.; Larina, I.

    2011-04-01

    Long-duration spaceflight effects on T-cell immunity and cytokine production were studied in 12 Russian cosmonauts flown onto the International Space Station. Specific assays were performed before launch and after landing and included analysis of peripheral leukocyte distribution, analysis of T-cell phenotype, expression of activation markers, apoptosis, proliferation of T cells in response to a mitogen, concentrations of cytokines in supernatants of cell cultures. Statistically significant increase was observed in leukocytes', lymphocytes', monocytes' and granulocytes' total number, increase in percentage and absolutely number of CD3 +CD4 +-cells, CD4 +CD45RA +-cells and CD4 +CD45RA +/CD4 +CD45RО + ratio, CD4 +CD25 +Bright regulatory cells ( pcytokine production and T-cell activation (CD25+, CD38+) and negative correlation ( pcytokine production and number of bulk memory CD4+T-cells (CD45RO+). Thus, these results suggest that T-cell dysfunction can be conditioned by cytokine dysbalance and could lead to development of disease after long-duration space flights.

  12. Crohn's disease: Th1, Th17 or both? The change of a paradigm: new immunological and genetic insights implicate Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, S

    2009-08-01

    Traditionally, Crohn's disease has been associated with a Th1 cytokine profile, while Th2 cytokines are modulators of ulcerative colitis. This concept has been challenged by the description of tolerising regulatory T cells (Treg) and by proinflammatory Th17 cells, a novel T cell population characterised by the master transcription factor RORgammat, the surface markers IL23R and CCR6, and by production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL17A, IL17F, IL21, IL22 and IL26, and the chemokine CCL20. Th17 cells differentiate under the influence of IL1beta, IL6, IL21 and IL23. Recent studies indicate that TGFbeta is essential not only for the development of murine Th17 cells but also for differentiation of human Th17 cells. TGFbeta reciprocally regulates the differentiation of inflammatory Th17 cells and suppressive Treg subsets, with the concomitant presence of proinflammatory cytokines favouring Th17 cell differentiation. Several studies demonstrated an important role of Th17 cells in intestinal inflammation, particularly in Crohn's disease. Genome-wide association studies indicate that IL23R and five additional genes involved in Th17 differentiation (IL12B, JAK2, STAT3, CCR6 and TNFSF15) are associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease and partly also to ulcerative colitis. Taken together, both Th1 and Th17 cells are important mediators of inflammation in Crohn's disease, although activities previously ascribed to IL12 may be mediated by IL23. Anti-IL12/IL23p40 antibody therapy, which targets both Th1 and Th17 cells, is effective in Crohn's disease. However, the complex relationship between Th1 and Th17 cells has not been completely analysed. This will be of great importance to delineate the specific contributions of these cells to Crohn's disease and other autoimmune diseases.

  13. [Immunomodulation of Uncaria tomentosa over dendritic cells, il-12 and profile TH1/TH2/TH17 in breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, César; Lozada-Requena, Iván; Ysmodes, Tíndara; Zegarra, Daniel; Saldaña, Fatima; Aguilar, José

    2015-10-01

    Objetives. This study aimed to research the in vitro immunomodulatory effects of an Uncaria tomentosa hydroalcoholic extract standardized (5.03%, pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids) (UT-POA) on the immunophenotype of dendritic cells (DC) subsets, Th1, Th2, Th17 and IL-12 cytokines from patients with stage II breast cancer (BCII) and healthy women (H). Blood of 11 H and 7 BCII was obtained, PBMC were isolated and cultured for 2h with/without various concentrations of UT-POA and stimulated or not with LPS for 24h. PBMC were labeled with specific antibodies for DC and in the supernatant we measured Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines, both by flow cytometry. Furthermore IL-12 was measured by ELISA. UT-POA did not alter DC or accessory molecules expression in BCII. However, H exhibited a decrease in the percentage of mDC (myeloid DC) and an increase in HLA-DR and CD86 expression at 1000 μg/mL. IL-12 secretion was modified only in the H group, increasing p70 subunit and decreasing p40 subunit. UT-POA increased Th1 (IFN-γ and IL-2), Th2 (IL-4) and Th17 (IL-17) secretion in both groups. UT-POA increased the production of cytokines related with anti-tumoral response at concentrations of 500-1000 μg/mL. This positive effect should be evaluated not only systemically but also in the tumor microenvironment in further studies. UT-POA may be a useful phytochemical in chemoprevention and in the alternative use in cancer therapies.

  14. Changes in cytokine production in healthy subjects practicing Guolin Qigong : a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Brian M

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guolin Qigong is a combination of meditation, controlled breathing and physical movement designed to control the vital energy (qi of the body and consequently to improve spiritual, physical and mental health. Practice of Qigong has been reported to alter immunological function, but there have been few studies of its effects on cytokines, the key regulators of immunity. Methods Numbers of peripheral blood cytokine-secreting cells were determined by ELISPOT in 19 healthy volunteers aged 27 – 55, before they were taught the practice of Qigong and after 3, 7 and 14 weeks of daily practice. The effect of Qigong on blood cortisol was also examined. Results Numbers of IL4 and IL12-secreting cells remained stable. IL6 increased at 7 weeks and TNFα increased in unstimulated cultures at 3 and 7 weeks but decreased at these times in LPS and SAC-stimulated cultures. Of particular interest, IFNγ-secreting cells increased and IL10-secreting cells decreased in PHA-stimulated cultures, resulting in significant increases in the IFNγ:IL10 ratio. Cortisol, a known inhibitor of type 1 cytokine production, was reduced by practicing Qigong. Conclusion These preliminary studies in healthy subjects, although not necessarily representative of a randomized healthy population and not including a separate control group, have indicated that blood levels of the stress-related hormone cortisol may be lowered by short-term practice of Qigong and that there are concomitant changes in numbers of cytokine-secreting cells. Further studies of the effect of Qigong in patients with clinical diseases known to be associated with type 2 cytokine predominance are merited.

  15. Construction, purification, and characterization of a chimeric TH1 antagonist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier-González Luís

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TH1 immune response antagonism is a desirable approach to mitigate some autoimmune and inflammatory reactions during the course of several diseases where IL-2 and IFN-γ are two central players. Therefore, the neutralization of both cytokines could provide beneficial effects in patients suffering from autoimmune or inflammatory illnesses. Results A chimeric antagonist that can antagonize the action of TH1 immunity mediators, IFN-γ and IL-2, was designed, engineered, expressed in E. coli, purified and evaluated for its in vitro biological activities. The TH1 antagonist molecule consists of the extracellular region for the human IFNγ receptor chain 1 fused by a four-aminoacid linker peptide to human 60 N-terminal aminoacid residues of IL-2. The corresponding gene fragments were isolated by RT-PCR and cloned in the pTPV-1 vector. E. coli (W3110 strain was transformed with this vector. The chimeric protein was expressed at high level as inclusion bodies. The protein was partially purified by pelleting and washing. It was then solubilized with strong denaturant and finally refolded by gel filtration. In vitro biological activity of chimera was demonstrated by inhibition of IFN-γ-dependent HLA-DR expression in Colo 205 cells, inhibition of IFN-γ antiproliferative effect on HEp-2 cells, and by a bidirectional effect in assays for IL-2 T-cell dependent proliferation: agonism in the absence versus inhibition in the presence of IL-2. Conclusion TH1 antagonist is a chimeric protein that inhibits the in vitro biological activities of human IFN-γ, and is a partial agonist/antagonist of human IL-2. With these attributes, the chimera has the potential to offer a new opportunity for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.

  16. Th1-Th17 Ratio as a New Insight in Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzazi, Hadi; Aghaei, Mehrdad; Memarian, Ali; Asgarian-Omran, Hossein; Behnampour, Nasser; Yazdani, Yaghoub

    2018-02-01

    The Th17, Th1 and dual Th17/Th1 cells are important players in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease. To assess their roles, the frequency and impact of these cells were investigated in patients with different disease activity. In 14 new cases and 41 established RA patients in comparison with 22 healthy controls, the percentages of Th17, Th1 and dual Th17/Th1 cells were determined by flow-cytometry and their correlations were investigated with disease activity score (DAS28). Moreover, serum levels of IL-6 and IL-17 as inducer and functional cytokines for Th17 were investigated. Finally, serum levels of anti citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) and rheumatoid factor (RF) were assessed. Percentage of Th17 cells in RA patients were increased in comparison with healthy controls (pTh1 cells in RA patients were less than healthy group (pTh17/Th1 cell only in new cases of RA were more than healthy control groups (pTh1/Th17 ratio in RA patients is statistically different with healthy control group (pTh1/Th17 ratio in RA patient suggested a new paradigm in the field of autoimmune disease and indicated that imbalance or plasticity between these subsets can be important in progress, diagnosis and therapy of RA disease.

  17. Impaired production of proinflammatory cytokines in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in elderly humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruunsgaard, H.; Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Schroll, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ageing is associated with decreased resistance to bacterial infections and concomitant increased circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines. The purpose of the present study was to research age-related changes in levels of early mediators of the acute-phase response in whole blood supernatants...... following LPS stimulation, representing an ex vivo model of sepsis. Levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1 beta and IL-6 in whole blood supernatants were measured after in vitro LPS stimulation for 24 h in 168 elderly humans aged 81 years from the 1914 cohort in Glostrup, Denmark and in 91...... of proinflammatory cytokines compared with young men, but this difference was blurred by ageing. No relation was found between circulating plasma levels of TNF-alpha and levels after in vitro LPS stimulation. In conclusion, decreased production of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta after exposure to LPS may reflect impaired...

  18. Sodium chloride-enriched Diet Enhanced Inflammatory Cytokine Production and Exacerbated Experimental Colitis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Ivan; Marafini, Irene; Dinallo, Vincenzo; Di Fusco, Davide; Troncone, Edoardo; Zorzi, Francesca; Laudisi, Federica; Monteleone, Giovanni

    2017-02-01

    Environmental factors are supposed to play a decisive role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases [IBDs]. Increased dietary salt intake has been linked with the development of autoimmune diseases, but the impact of a salt-enriched diet on the course of IBD remains unknown. In this study, we examined whether high salt intake alters mucosal cytokine production and exacerbates colitis. Normal intestinal lamina propria mononuclear cells [LPMCs] were activated with anti-CD3/CD28 in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of sodium chloride [NaCl] and/or SB202190, a specific inhibitor of p38/MAP Kinase. For in vivo experiments, a high dose of NaCl was administered to mice 15 days before induction of trinitrobenzene-sulfonic acid [TNBS]-colitis or dextran sulfate sodium [DSS]-colitis. In parallel, mice were given SB202190 before induction of TNBS-colitis. Transcription factors and effector cytokines were evaluated by flow-cytometry and real-time PCR. IL-17A, IL-23R, TNF-α, and Ror-γT were significantly increased in human LPMCs following NaCl exposure, while there was no significant change in IFN-γ, T-bet or Foxp3. Pharmacologic inhibition of p38/MAPK abrogated the NaCl-inducing effect on LPMC-derived cytokines. Mice receiving the high-salt diet developed a more severe colitis than control mice, and this effect was preventable by SB202190. Our data indicated that exposure of intestinal mononuclear cells to a high-NaCl diet enhanced effector cytokine production and contributed to the exacerbation of experimental colitis in mice. Copyright © 2016 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Controlled meal frequency without caloric restriction alters peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Dan L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent fasting (IF improves healthy lifespan in animals by a mechanism involving reduced oxidative damage and increased resistance to stress. However, no studies have evaluated the impact of controlled meal frequency on immune responses in human subjects. Objective A study was conducted to establish the effects of controlled diets with different meal frequencies, but similar daily energy intakes, on cytokine production in healthy male and female subjects. Design In a crossover study design with an intervening washout period, healthy normal weight middle-age male and female subjects (n = 15 were maintained for 2 months on controlled on-site one meal per day (OMD or three meals per day (TMD isocaloric diets. Serum samples and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs culture supernatants from subjects were analyzed for the presence of inflammatory markers using a multiplex assay. Results There were no significant differences in the inflammatory markers in the serum of subjects on the OMD or TMD diets. There was an increase in the capacity of PBMCs to produce cytokines in subjects during the first month on the OMD or TMD diets. Lower levels of TNF-α, IL-17, MCP-1 and MIP-1β were produced by PBMCs from subjects on the OMD versus TMD diet. Conclusions PBMCs of subjects on controlled diets exhibit hypersensitivities to cellular stimulation suggesting that stress associated with altered eating behavior might affect cytokine production by immune cells upon stimulation. Moreover, stimulated PBMCs derived from healthy individuals on a reduced meal frequency diet respond with a reduced capability to produce cytokines.

  20. Anti-inflammatory cytokines in asthma and allergy: interleukin-10, interleukin-12, interferon-γ

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    Fan Chung

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-10 (IL-10 is a cytokine derived from CD4+ T-helper type 2 (TH2 cells identified as a suppressor of cytokines from T-helper type 1(TH1 cells. Interleukin-12 (IL-12 is produced by B cells, macrophages and dendritic cells, and primarily regulates TH1 cell differentiation, while suppressing the expansion of TH2 cell clones. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ is a product of TH1 cells and exerts inhibitory effects on TH2 cell differentiation. These cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and allergies. In this context, IL-12 and IFN-γ production in asthma have been found to be decreased, and this may reduce their capacity to inhibit IgE synthesis and allergic inflammation. IL-10 is a potent inhibitor of monocyte/macrophage function, suppressing the production of many pro-inflammatory cytokines. A relative underproduction of IL-10 from alveolar macrophages of atopic asthmatics has been reported. Therapeutic modulation of TH1/TH2 imbalance in asthma and allergy by mycobacterial vaccine, specific immunotherapy and cytoline-guanosine dinucleotide motif may lead to increases in IL-12 and IFN-γ production. Stimulation of IL-10 production by antigen-specific T-cells during immunotherapy may lead to anergy through inhibition of CD28-costimulatory molecule signalling by IL-10s anti-inflammatory effect on basophils, mast cells and eosinophils.

  1. Diclofenac enhances proinflammatory cytokine-induced nitric oxide production through NF-κB signaling in cultured astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakita, Hiroki; Aoyama, Mineyoshi; Hussein, Mohamed Hamed; Kato, Shin; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ito, Tetsuya; Togari, Hajime; Asai, Kiyofumi

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the number of reports of encephalitis/encephalopathy associated with influenza virus has increased. In addition, the use of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac sodium (DCF), is associated with a significant increase in the mortality rate of influenza-associated encephalopathy. Activated astrocytes are a source of nitric oxide (NO), which is largely produced by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in response to proinflammatory cytokines. Therefore, we investigated whether DCF enhances nitric oxide production in astrocytes stimulated with proinflammatory cytokines. We stimulated cultured rat astrocytes with three cytokines, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, and then treated the astrocytes with DCF or acetaminophen (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol: APAP). iNOS and NO production in astrocyte cultures were induced by proinflammatory cytokines. The addition of DCF augmented NO production, but the addition of APAP did not. NF-κB inhibitors SN50 and MG132 inhibited iNOS gene expression in cytokine-stimulated astrocytes with or without DCF. Similarly, NF-κB p65 Stealth small interfering RNA suppressed iNOS gene expression in cytokine-stimulated astrocytes with or without DCF. LDH activity and DAPI staining showed that DCF induces cell damage in cytokine-stimulated astrocytes. An iNOS inhibitor, L-NMMA, inhibited the cytokine- and DCF-induced cell damage. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that iNOS and NO are induced in astrocyte cultures by proinflammatory cytokines. Addition of DCF further augments NO production. This effect is mediated via NF-κB signaling and leads to cell damage. The enhancement of DCF on NO production may explain the significant increase in the mortality rate of influenza-associated encephalopathy in patients treated with DCF.

  2. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1/LFA-1 ligation favors human Th1 development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Hermelijn H.; de Jong, Esther C.; Schuitemaker, Joost H. N.; Geijtenbeek, Theo B. H.; van Kooyk, Yvette; Kapsenberg, Martien L.; Wierenga, Eddy A.

    2002-01-01

    Th cell polarization toward Th1 or Th2 cells is strongly driven by exogenous cytokines, in particular IL-12 or IL-4, if present during activation by Ag-presenting dendritic cells (DC). However, additional Th cell polarizing mechanisms are induced by the ligation of cell surface molecules on DC and

  3. Nicotine inhibits LPS-induced cytokine production and leukocyte infiltration in rat placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Junjie; Liu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Jinying; Gao, Qiu; Shi, Shao-Qing; Garfield, Robert E; Liu, Huishu

    2016-03-01

    Previous work conducted by our group has shown that nicotine reduces lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammatory responses and protects fetuses in pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. In the present study, we aim to evaluate the influence of nicotine on rat placenta, including cytokine release, leukocyte infiltration, and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) expression. Placental tissues of SD rats on gestation day 14 (GD14) were obtained and cultured in the presence or absence of LPS and/or nicotine. Culture media after 24 h were analyzed for cytokines release using Luminex. Other pregnant SD rats were first pretreated with nicotine on GD14 and GD15, followed by LPS injection on GD16. Placentas were collected on GD18 for H&E staining to evaluate leukocyte density and for real-time PCR and western blotting to identify the α7-nAChR expression in different groups. Nicotine suppresses LPS-stimulated placental proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ) production except IL-17 in vitro, and reduces leucocytes infiltration in the placental chorionic plate caused by LPS in vivo. Moreover, LPS increases the α7-nAChR protein expression in placentas while pretreatment of nicotine inhibits it. These data show that nicotine suppresses LPS-induced placental inflammation by inhibition of cytokine release and infiltration of leukocytes into the placenta, and regulates the increased expression of α7-nAChR in placenta after LPS treatment. Nicotine and other nicotinic agonists may be an alternative therapeutic strategy for placental inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Methyl Protodioscin from the Roots of Asparagus cochinchinensis Attenuates Airway Inflammation by Inhibiting Cytokine Production

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    Ju Hee Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to find pharmacologically active compound against airway inflammation from the roots of Asparagus cochinchinensis. The 70% ethanol extract of the roots of A. cochinchinensis (ACE was found to inhibit IL-6 production from IL-1β-treated lung epithelial cells (A549 and the major constituent, methyl protodioscin (MP, also strongly inhibited the production of IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α from A549 cells at 10–100 μM. This downregulating effect of proinflammatory cytokine production was found to be mediated, at least in part, via inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and c-Jun activation pathway. When examined on an in vivo model of airway inflammation in mice, lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced acute lung injury, ACE, and MP significantly inhibited cell infiltration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by the oral treatment at doses of 100–400 mg/kg and 30–60 mg/kg, respectively. MP also inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β in lung tissue. All of these findings provide scientific evidence supporting the role of A. cochinchinensis as a herbal remedy in treating airway inflammation and also suggest a therapeutic value of MP on airway inflammatory disorders.

  5. Social role conflict predicts stimulated cytokine production among men, not women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Hannah M C; Hoffer, Lauren C; Chen, Edith

    2016-11-01

    To assess whether perceived role conflict is associated with stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokine production and glucocorticoid sensitivity, and whether these associations are moderated by sex. 153 healthy adults (aged 45.8±5.5years, 78% female) listed their 3 main social roles and indicated the amount of role conflict they perceived between each pair of social roles. Subsequently, participants underwent blood draws and leukocyte response to microbial challenge and glucocorticoid sensitivity were assessed by incubating whole blood with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence or absence of hydrocortisone. Stimulated levels of Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) were measured. Multiple regression analyses controlling for sociodemographics revealed significant sex×role conflict interactions for LPS-stimulated production of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα (all interaction psrole conflict was associated with greater pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to microbial stimulation only among men, not women. There also were significant sex×role conflict interactions with respect to glucocorticoid sensitivity for IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα production (all interaction psrole conflict was unrelated to glucocorticoid sensitivity among women, but associated with less sensitivity to glucocorticoid signaling among men. Perceived social role conflict, indicating greater perceived demand across multiple social roles, may take a greater toll on the regulation of inflammatory processes among men compared to women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis parasporal toxin on stimulating of IL-2 and IL-5 cytokines production

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    Marzieh Soleimany

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Bacillus thuringiensis, is a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium that produces crystalline parasporal protein (Cry during sporulation. Some of these Cry toxins do not show cytotoxicity against insects but they are capable to kill some human and animal cancer cells. The aim of this study was to verify whether cytocidal parasporal of B thuringiensis strains have immunostimulatory activity on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC and to evaluate the ability of IL-2 and IL-5 production. Materials and methods: B. thuringiensis toxin with cytocidal activity was isolated and treated with proteinase K. PBMNC was cultured and treated with activated crystal proteins. We evaluated the ability of different cytokines production with Flow Cytometry. Results: In this study, immune stimulatory toxins Cry1 were distinguished. This toxin can stimulate production of cytokines IL-2 and stop production of IL-5. Discussion and conclusion: According to anti-cancer effect of B. thuringiensis toxins and also immune stimulatory effect, with more research these toxins can be introduced as immunotherapy drug in cancer treatment.

  7. Collectin-11 Is an Important Modulator of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Phagocytosis and Cytokine Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xia; Wu, Weiju; Ma, Liang; Liu, Chengfei; Bhuckory, Mohajeet B; Wang, Liping; Nandrot, Emeline F; Xu, Heping; Li, Ke; Liu, Yizhi; Zhou, Wuding

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we report previously unknown roles for collectin-11 (CL-11, a soluble C-type lectin) in modulating the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell functions of phagocytosis and cytokine production. We found that CL-11 and its carbohydrate ligand are expressed in both the murine and human neural retina; these resemble each other in terms of RPE and photoreceptor cells. Functional analysis of murine RPE cells showed that CL-11 facilitates the opsonophagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments and apoptotic cells, and also upregulates IL-10 production. Mechanistic analysis revealed that calreticulin on the RPE cells is required for CL-11-mediated opsonophagocytosis whereas signal-regulatory protein α and mannosyl residues on the cells are involved in the CL-11-mediated upregulation of IL-10 production. This study is the first to demonstrate the role of CL-11 and the molecular mechanisms involved in modulating RPE cell phagocytosis and cytokine production. It provides a new insight into retinal health and disease and has implications for other phagocytic cells. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Aquatic exercise improves the monocyte pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production balance in fibromyalgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, E; Bote, M E; Giraldo, E; García, J J

    2012-02-01

    Current hypotheses of the etiology of fibromyalgia (FM) include inflammatory disorders. We evaluated the effect of a pool-aquatic exercise program (8 months, two weekly 60-min sessions) on the inflammatory cytokine production by isolated monocytes, and on the serum concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP), in a group of female FM patients. Monocytes from FM patients released more IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6, and IL-10 than those from an age-matched control group of healthy women (HW). This inflammatory disorder in FM women was also manifested by high circulating concentrations of CRP. Increased IL-6 with a concomitant decreased TNFα spontaneous release was found after 4 months (midway through) of the exercise program. At the end of the program (8 months), monocytes from FM patients showed diminished spontaneous production of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines, with a similar spontaneous release of IL-1β and IL-6 to that of HW, but a lower production of TNFα and higher of IL-10. Lipopolysaccharide-induced production of IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6, and IL-10 also decreased at the end of the exercise program, although IL-10 remained higher than HW. The anti-inflammatory effect of the exercise program was also corroborated by a decrease in the circulating CRP concentration. Exercise also improved the health-related quality of life of FM patients. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Melanocortin peptides inhibit production of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide by activated microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, R; Carlin, A; Airaghi, L; Demitri, M T; Meda, L; Galimberti, D; Baron, P; Lipton, J M; Catania, A

    1998-06-01

    Inflammatory processes contribute to neurodegenerative disease, stroke, encephalitis, and other central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Activated microglia are a source of cytokines and other inflammatory agents within the CNS and it is therefore important to control glial function in order to preserve neural cells. Melanocortin peptides are pro-opiomelanocortin-derived amino acid sequences that include alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). These peptides have potent and broad anti-inflammatory effects. We tested effects of alpha-MSH (1-13), alpha-MSH (11-13), and ACTH (1-24) on production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and nitric oxide (NO) in a cultured murine microglial cell line (N9) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon gamma (IFN-gamma). Melanocortin peptides inhibited production of these cytokines and NO in a concentration-related fashion, probably by increasing intracellular cAMP. When stimulated with LPS + IFN-gamma, microglia increased release of alpha-MSH. Production of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and NO was greater in activated microglia after innmunoneutralization of endogenous alpha-MSH. The results suggest that alpha-MSH is an autocrine factor in microglia. Because melanocortin peptides inhibit production of pro-inflammatory mediators by activated microglia they might be useful in treatment of inflammatory/degenerative brain disorders.

  10. Fusobacterium nucleatum induces cytokine production through Toll-like-receptor-independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quah, S Y; Bergenholtz, G; Tan, K S

    2014-06-01

    To determine whether Fusobacterium nucleatum's ability to invade cells allows the bacteria to activate pro-inflammatory response through cytosolic pattern recognition receptors, independent of surface Toll-like receptors (TLRs). HEK293T cells, which lack endogenous TLRs, and overexpressing dominant negative myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88DN) protein, were infected with F. nucleatum and the production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) was determined. The necessity for intracellular invasion of the bacteria for cytokine production was also investigated by blocking bacterial invasion with cytochalasin D. The roles of NFĸB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-1 (NOD-1) signalling pathways in F. nucleatum-induced IL-8 secretion were determined. Fusobacterium nucleatum-infected HEK293T cells produced IL-8 independent of the MYD88 signalling. This response was inhibited by preventing F. nucleatum invasion into HEK293T cells. p38 MAPK but not the NFĸB signalling pathway was required for F. nucleatum-mediated IL-8 production. HEK293T cells expressed NOD-1 but not NOD-2. Yet, inhibition of NOD-1 signalling did not affect F. nucleatum-induced IL-8 secretion. Fusobacterium nucleatum invasion led to cytokine production, which is mediated by the p38 MAPK signalling but independent of TLRs, NOD-1, NOD-2 and NFĸB signalling. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Interleukin-1 is required for cancer eradication mediated by tumor-specific Th1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haabeth, Ole Audun Werner; Lorvik, Kristina Berg; Yagita, Hideo; Bogen, Bjarne; Corthay, Alexandre

    The role of inflammation in cancer is controversial as both tumor-promoting and tumor-suppressive aspects of inflammation have been reported. In particular, it has been shown that pro-inflammatory cytokines, like interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), may either promote or suppress cancer. However, the cellular and molecular basis underlying these opposing outcomes remains enigmatic. Using mouse models for myeloma and lymphoma, we have recently reported that inflammation driven by tumor-specific T helper 1 (Th1) cells conferred protection against B-cell cancer and that interferon-γ (IFN-γ) was essential for this process. Here, we have investigated the contribution of several inflammatory mediators. Myeloma eradication by Th1 cells was not affected by inhibition of TNF-α, TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). In contrast, cancer elimination by tumor-specific Th1 cells was severely impaired by the in vivo neutralization of both IL-1α and IL-1β (collectively named IL-1) with IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). The antitumor functions of tumor-specific Th1 cells and tumor-infiltrating macrophages were both affected by IL-1 neutralization. Secretion of the Th1-derived cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ at the incipient tumor site was severely reduced by IL-1 blockade. Moreover, IL-1 was shown to synergize with IFN-γ for induction of tumoricidal activity in tumor-infiltrating macrophages. This synergy between IL-1 and IFN-γ may explain how inflammation, when driven by tumor-specific Th1 cells, represses rather than promotes cancer. Collectively, the data reveal a central role of inflammation, and more specifically of the canonical pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1, in enhancing Th1-mediated immunity against cancer.

  12. Signals involved in the early TH1/TH2 polarization of an immune response depending on the type of antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinghausen, I; Brand, U; Enk, A H; Knop, J; Saloga, J

    1999-02-01

    The early production of distinct cytokines by epidermal cells (ECs) in response to antigen exposure may govern the development of TH1 -like immune responses, such as contact sensitivity, or TH2 -like immune responses, such as IgE-dependent allergies of the immediate type, depending on the type of antigen. The aim of this study was to compare the signals induced by protein allergens with those induced by haptens in ECs and subsequently in local draining lymph node cells (LNCs) or splenocytes. BALB/c mice were primed in vivo with the protein allergens ovalbumin or birch pollen or the haptens 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene or trinitrochlorbenzene, respectively, and cytokine and immunoglobulin secretions of responding splenocytes were measured by ELISA after in vitro coculture with ECs. Induction of cytokine mRNA expression in ECs and LNCs was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-PCR. In the presence of protein allergens, ECs enhance the induction of a TH2 immune response (IL-4 and IgE production of splenocytes), whereas a TH1 immune response (IFN-gamma and IgG2a production) was only induced in the context of haptens. Heat inactivation of ovalbumin did not diminish the development of a TH2 immune response. One direct effect of antigen on ECs was the earlier expression of IL-10 mRNA after stimulation with protein allergens (30 minutes) than with haptens (2 hours) in vitro. By using an in vivo approach, sensitization of the skin with trinitrochlorbenzene, but not with ovalbumin, resulted in an early induction of IL-1beta, IL-12p40, and IFN-gamma mRNA in LNCs, whereas IL-18 was induced by both. These data indicate that the type of antigen strongly influences the type of immune response by eliciting distinct signals already in the epithelium.

  13. Effect of perceived stress on cytokine production in healthy college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sribanditmongkol, Vorachai; Neal, Jeremy L; Patrick, Thelma E; Szalacha, Laura A; McCarthy, Donna O

    2015-04-01

    Chronic psychological stress impairs antibody synthesis following influenza vaccination. Chronic stress also increases circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines and glucocorticoids in elders and caregivers, which can impair antibody synthesis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether psychological stress increases ex vivo cytokine production or decreases glucocorticoid sensitivity (GCS) of peripheral blood leukocytes from healthy college students. A convenience sample of Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) students completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Whole blood was incubated in the presence of influenza vaccine and dexamethasone to evaluate production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Multiple regression models controlling for age, gender, and grade point average revealed a negative relationship between PSS and GCS for vaccine-stimulated production of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. These data increase our understanding of the complex relationship between chronic stress and immune function. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Gαq Regulates the Development of Rheumatoid Arthritis by Modulating Th1 Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dashan; Liu, Yuan; Li, Yan; He, Yan; Zhang, Jiyun; Shi, Guixiu

    2017-01-01

    The G α q-containing G protein, an important member of G q/11 class, is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian cells. G α q has been found to play an important role in immune regulation and development of autoimmune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, how G α q participates in the pathogenesis of RA is still not fully understood. In the present study, we aimed to find out whether G α q controls RA via regulation of Th1 differentiation. We observed that the expression of G α q was negatively correlated with the expression of signature Th1 cytokine (IFN- γ ) in RA patients, which suggests a negative role of G α q in differentiation of Th1 cells. By using G α q knockout ( Gnaq-/- ) mice, we demonstrated that loss of G α q led to enhanced Th1 cell differentiation. G α q negative regulated the differentiation of Th1 cell by modulating the expression of T-bet and the activity of STAT4. Furthermore, we detected the increased ratio of Th1 cells in Gnaq-/- bone marrow (BM) chimeras spontaneously developing inflammatory arthritis. In conclusion, results presented in the study demonstrate that loss of G α q promotes the differentiation of Th1 cells and contributes to the pathogenesis of RA.

  15. Berberine Attenuates Inflammation Associated with Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity via Suppressing Th1 Response and Inhibiting Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhigang; Chen, Zhe; Chen, Tao; Yi, Tao; Zheng, Zhou; Fan, Hong; Chen, Zebin

    2017-02-01

    Berberine, one of the active alkaloids from Rhizoma Coptidis, has been indicated to have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. The aim of this study was to determine the role of berberine on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and its potential mechanisms. Berberine treatment significantly reduced footpad swelling, inflammatory cells infiltration, anti-OVA IgG levels, IgE concentration in serum, and the tetramer + CD8 + cells. In homogenized footpad tissue, the production of Th1-mediated cytokines including IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 were suppressed following the administration of berberine. Detailed studies revealed that berberine prevented differentiation into Th1 cells in the OVA-primed lymphocytes, resulting from suppressing the expression of T-bet and secretion of IFN-γ but not IL-4. Concanavalin A stimulation assay and MTT assay also indicated inhibiting effect of berberine treatment on IFN-γ production and decreased cytotoxicity in lymphocytes proliferation, respectively. Additionally, berberine obviously decreased the cell apoptosis and enzymatic activity of caspase-3, which was further confirmed by the facts that berberine clearly lowered Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and expression of cleaved caspase-3 protein. On correlation analysis, the percentage of apoptotic cells showed a significant positive relationship with IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio of supernatant from footpad tissue in berberine-treated DTH mice. These results demonstrated that berberine attenuated Th1-mediated inflammation in OVA-induced DTH by curbing Th1 response and inhibiting cell apoptosis, suggesting a therapeutic potential for berberine for the treatment of type IV hypersensitivity.

  16. Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm and Planktonic cultures differentially impact gene expression, mapk phosphorylation, and cytokine production in human keratinocytes

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    Olerud John E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many chronic diseases, such as non-healing wounds are characterized by prolonged inflammation and respond poorly to conventional treatment. Bacterial biofilms are a major impediment to wound healing. Persistent infection of the skin allows the formation of complex bacterial communities termed biofilm. Bacteria living in biofilms are phenotypically distinct from their planktonic counterparts and are orders of magnitude more resistant to antibiotics, host immune response, and environmental stress. Staphylococcus aureus is prevalent in cutaneous infections such as chronic wounds and is an important human pathogen. Results The impact of S. aureus soluble products in biofilm-conditioned medium (BCM or in planktonic-conditioned medium (PCM on human keratinocytes was investigated. Proteomic analysis of BCM and PCM revealed differential protein compositions with PCM containing several enzymes involved in glycolysis. Global gene expression of keratinocytes exposed to biofilm and planktonic S. aureus was analyzed after four hours of exposure. Gene ontology terms associated with responses to bacteria, inflammation, apoptosis, chemotaxis, and signal transduction were enriched in BCM treated keratinocytes. Several transcripts encoding cytokines were also upregulated by BCM after four hours. ELISA analysis of cytokines confirmed microarray results at four hours and revealed that after 24 hours of exposure, S. aureus biofilm induced sustained low level cytokine production compared to near exponential increases of cytokines in planktonic treated keratinocytes. The reduction in cytokines produced by keratinocytes exposed to biofilm was accompanied by suppressed phosphorylation of MAPKs. Chemical inhibition of MAPKs did not drastically reduce cytokine production in BCM-treated keratinocytes suggesting that the majority of cytokine production is mediated through MAPK-independent mechanisms. Conclusions Collectively the results indicate that S

  17. INVESTIGATION OF CYTOKINE PROFILE IN PATIENTS WITH REACTIVE ARTHRITIS

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    T. V. Gaponova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Pathogenesis of reactive arthritis (ReA is not clear yet. Several trials suggest that increased production of proinflammatory cytokines is responsible for development of arthritis in ReA, while other studies report that Th1 cytokine response in ReA is impaired in favor of Th2 response. The aim of our study was to investigate serum levels of cytokines IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, TNFα, IFNγ and IL-1Ra in the patients with ReA of different etiology, as compared with infection-related arthritis. The results of our study had demonstrated that serum levels of IL-1β and TNFα in the patients with ReA were significantly higher, whereas IL-1Ra, IL-4, IL-6 proved to be significantly lower than in healthy controls. Serum levels of IL-6 were significantly higher in patients with chronic ReA, as compared to the cases of acute and recurrent ReA. No significant differences in cytokine profiles were found between the patients with ReA, and the persons with infection-related arthritis. The data obtained are, generally, suggestive for proinflammatory Th1 cytokine profile in ReA patients studied, this confirming the mostly assumed pathogenetic hypothesis for reactive arthritis where an underlying cytokine imbalance is suggested. (Med. Immunol., 2008, vol. 10, N 2-3, pp 167-172.

  18. Consumption of selenium-enriched broccoli increases cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated ex vivo, a preliminary human intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley-Hewitt, Kerry L; Chen, Ronan K-Y; Lill, Ross E; Hedderley, Duncan I; Herath, Thanuja D; Matich, Adam J; McKenzie, Marian J

    2014-12-01

    Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient essential for human health, including immune function. Previous research indicates that Se supplementation may cause a shift from T helper (Th)1- to Th2-type immune responses. We aim to test the potential health promoting effects of Se-enriched broccoli. In a human trial, 18 participants consumed control broccoli daily for 3 days. After a 3-day wash-out period, the participants were provided with Se-enriched broccoli containing 200 μg of Se per serving for 3 days. Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were collected at the start and end of each broccoli feeding period for analysis of total Se and measurement of cytokine production from PBMC stimulated with antigens ex vivo. Plasma Se content remained consistent throughout the control broccoli feeding period and the baseline of the Se-enriched broccoli period (1.22 μmol/L) and then significantly increased following 3 days of Se-enriched broccoli feeding. Interleukin (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-22) production from PBMC significantly increased after 3 days of Se-enriched broccoli feeding compared with baseline. This study indicates that consumption of Se-enriched broccoli may increase immune responses toward a range of immune challenges. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Multiple effects of TRAIL in human carcinoma cells: Induction of apoptosis, senescence, proliferation, and cytokine production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levina, Vera; Marrangoni, Adele M.; DeMarco, Richard; Gorelik, Elieser; Lokshin, Anna E.

    2008-01-01

    TRAIL is a death ligand that induces apoptosis in malignant but not normal cells. Recently the ability of TRAIL to induce proliferation in apoptosis-resistant normal and malignant cells was reported. In this study, we analyzed TRAIL effects in apoptosis sensitive MCF7, OVCAR3 and H460 human tumor cell lines. TRAIL at low concentrations preferentially induced cell proliferation. At 100 ng/ml, apoptotic death was readily observed, however surviving cells acquired higher proliferative capacity. TRAIL-stimulated production of several cytokines, IL-8, RANTES, MCP-1 and bFGF, and activation of caspases 1 and 8 was essential for this effect. Antibodies to IL-8, RANTES, and bFGF blocked TRAIL-induced cell proliferation and further stimulated apoptosis. For the first time, we report that high TRAIL concentrations induced cell senescence as determined by the altered morphology and expression of several senescence markers: SA-β-gal, p21 Waf1/Cip1 , p16 INK4a , and HMGA. Caspase 9 inhibition protected TRAIL-treated cells from senescence, whereas inhibition of caspases 1 and 8 increased the yield of SLP cells. In conclusion, in cultured human carcinoma cells, TRAIL therapy results in three functional outcomes, apoptosis, proliferation and senescence. TRAIL-induced proapoptotic and prosurvival responses correlate with the strength of signaling. TRAIL-induced cytokine production is responsible for its proliferative and prosurvival effects

  20. Potassium humate inhibits complement activation and the production of inflammatory cytokines in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Rensburg, C.E.J.; Naude, P.J. [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2009-08-15

    The effects of brown coal derived potassium humate on lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production and complement activation were investigated in vitro. Potassium humate increased lymphocyte proliferation of phytohaemaglutinin A (PHA) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) stimulated mononuclear lymphocytes (MNL) in vitro from concentrations of 20 to 80 {mu} g/ml, in a dose dependant manner. On the other hand potassium humate, at 40 {mu} g/ml, significantly inhibited the release of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-10 by PHA stimulated MNL. Regarding complement activation it was found that potassium humate inhibits the activation of both the alternative and classical pathways without affecting the stability of the red blood cell membranes. These results indicate that the anti-inflammatory potential of potassium humate could be partially due to the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines responsible for the initiation of these reactions as well as inhibition of complement activation. The increased lymphocyte proliferation observed, might be due to increased IL-2 production as previously been documented.

  1. Analgesic activity of piracetam: effect on cytokine production and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Suelen A; Serafim, Karla G G; Mizokami, Sandra S; Hohmann, Miriam S N; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2013-04-01

    Piracetam is a prototype of nootropic drugs used to improve cognitive impairment. However, recent studies suggest that piracetam can have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Inflammatory pain is the result of a process that depends on neutrophil migration, cytokines and prostanoids release and oxidative stress. We analyze whether piracetam has anti-nociceptive effects and its mechanisms. Per oral pretreatment with piracetam reduced in a dose-dependent manner the overt pain-like behavior induced by acetic acid, phenyl-p-benzoquinone, formalin and complete Freund's adjuvant. Piracetam also diminished carrageenin-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, myeloperoxidase activity, and TNF-α-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Piracetam presented analgesic effects as post-treatment and local paw treatment. The analgesic mechanisms of piracetam were related to inhibition of carrageenin- and TNF-α-induced production of IL-1β as well as prevention of carrageenin-induced decrease of reduced glutathione, ferric reducing ability and free radical scavenging ability in the paw. These results demonstrate that piracetam presents analgesic activity upon a variety of inflammatory stimuli by a mechanism dependent on inhibition of cytokine production and oxidative stress. Considering its safety and clinical use for cognitive function, it is possible that piracetam represents a novel perspective of analgesic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Tityus serrulatus venom on cytokine production and the activity of murine macrophages

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    Vera L. Petricevich

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Tityus serrulatus venom (TSV on murine peritoneal macrophages evaluated in terms of activation. The effects of crude TSV were analysed by detection of cytokines, oxygen intermediate metabolites (H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO in supernatants of peritoneal macrophages. Several functional bioassays were employed including an in vitro model for envenomating: cytotoxicity of TSV was assessed using the lyses percentage. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF activity was assayed by measuring its cytotoxic activity on L-929 cells, and interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas NO levels were detected by Griess colorimetric reactions in culture supernatant of macrophages incubated with TSV and subsequently exposed to either lipopolysaccharide or IFN-γ. Incubation of macrophages with TSV increased production of IL-6 and IFN-γ in a dose-dependent manner. TNF production was not detected in supernatants treated with TSV at any concentration. The increase in IL-6 secretion was not associated with concentration-dependent cytoxicity of TSV on these cells. These data suggest that the cytotoxicity does not appear to be the main cause of an increased cytokine production by these cells. Although NO is an important effector molecule in macrophage microbicidal activity, the inducing potential of the test compounds for its release was found to be very moderate, ranging from 125 to 800 mM. Interestingly, NO levels of peritoneal macrophages were increased after IFN-γ. Moreover, NO production had an apparent effect on macrophage activity. The results obtained here also shown that the TSV induces an important elevation in H2O2 release. These results combined with NO production suggest that TSV possesses significant immunomodulatory activities capable of stimulating immune functions in vitro.

  3. Helicobacter pylori infection associates with a mucosal downregulation of ghrelin, negative regulator of Th1-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoluzi, Omero Alessandro; Del Vecchio Blanco, Giovanna; Caruso, Roberta; Monteleone, Ivan; Caprioli, Flavio; Tesauro, Manfredi; Turriziani, Mario; Monteleone, Giovanni; Pallone, Francesco

    2013-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp)-related gastritis is characterized by a predominant T helper (Th)1/Th17 cell immunity. Ghrelin (GR) has immunoregulatory properties and inhibits experimental Th cell-dependent pathology. To evaluate whether Hp infection associates with changes in GR expression and whether GR negatively regulates Th1/Th17 cytokines during Hp infection. GR expression was evaluated by real-time PCR in gastric biopsies taken from Hp-infected and Hp-uninfected patients and in gastric biopsies of Hp-negative subjects cultured with or without H. pylori culture supernatant. To examine whether GR regulates Hp-induced cytokine production, H. pylori-infected gastric biopsies were stimulated with GR, and interleukin (IL)-12, interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-4 transcripts were evaluated by real-time PCR. IL-12 and IFN-γ were also analyzed in lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) extracted from Hp-infected gastric biopsies and cultured with GR. GR RNA transcripts were reduced in biopsies from Hp-infected patients. Treatment of Hp-negative gastric biopsies with Hp culture supernatant reduced GR RNA expression. GR dose-dependently inhibited RNA expression of IL-12 and IFN-γ but not IL-4 in ex vivo cultures of mucosal explants and in cultures of gastric LPMCs from Hp-positive patients. GR is downregulated in the gastric mucosa of H. pylori-infected patients. Such a defect could contribute to sustain the ongoing Th1-cell response. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Association between Th1/Th2 immune imbalance and obesity in women with or without polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ping; Shi, Bingwei; Wang, Juan; Cao, Peixia; Diao, Zhenyu; Wang, Yuji; Hu, Yali; Li, Shuping

    2018-02-15

    This study aimed to investigate the Th1/Th2 cells in peripheral blood of PCOS patients, and assess the potential correlation between Th1/Th2 imbalance and obesity. Thirty-nine PCOS patients and 23 age-matched controls were enrolled. The PBMCs were obtained before pharmacological intervention in women with or without PCOS. The profiles of Th1 (IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines of CD3 + CD - T lymphocyte subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. Plasma sex hormones including E 2 , T, FSH, LH, and FINS, FPG were measured, together with BMI, WC, LH/FSH, E 2 /T and HOMA-IR index being calculated. Association between Th1/Th2 imbalance and BMI, WC were evaluated. The proportion of Th1 cells and Th1/Th2 ratio were significantly higher in PCOS patients than those in controls, accompanied by elevated T, LH, LH/FSH, FINS, HOMA-IR index and reduced E 2 /T. The Th1/Th2 ratio was increased when BMI and WC were enhanced in PCOS. Moreover, the significant difference of Th1/Th2 ratio was observed between WC subgroups of PCOS. It is concluded that Th1 type immunity is predominant in systemic immunization of PCOS patients. Th1/Th2 immune imbalance is connected with obesity, especially abdominal obesity, and may be one of the underlying mechanism for the pathogenesis of PCOS.

  5. Activation of monocytes and cytokine production in patients with peripheral atherosclerosis obliterans

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    Lastória Sidney

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arterial peripheral disease is a condition caused by the blocked blood flow resulting from arterial cholesterol deposits within the arms, legs and aorta. Studies have shown that macrophages in atherosclerotic plaque are highly activated, which makes these cells important antigen-presenting cells that develop a specific immune response, in which LDLox is the inducing antigen. As functional changes of cells which participate in the atherogenesis process may occur in the peripheral blood, the objectives of the present study were to evaluate plasma levels of anti-inflammatory and inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IFN-γ, interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-β in patients with peripheral arteriosclerosis obliterans, to assess the monocyte activation level in peripheral blood through the ability of these cells to release hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and to develop fungicidal activity against Candida albicans (C. albicans in vitro. Methods TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-β from plasma of patients were detected by ELISA. Monocyte cultures activated in vitro with TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma were evaluated by fungicidal activity against C. albicans by culture plating and Colony Forming Unit (CFU recovery, and by H2O2 production. Results Plasma levels of all cytokines were significantly higher in patients compared to those detected in control subjects. Control group monocytes did not release substantial levels of H2O2 in vitro, but these levels were significantly increased after activation with IFN-γ and TNF-α. Monocytes of patients, before and after activation, responded less than those of control subjects. Similar results were found when fungicidal activity was evaluated. The results seen in patients were always significantly smaller than among control subjects. Conclusions: The results revealed an unresponsiveness of patient monocytes in vitro probably due to the high activation process occurring in vivo as corroborated by high

  6. Diminazene aceturate (Berenil) modulates LPS induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production by inhibiting phosphorylation of MAPKs and STAT proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriakose, Shiby; Muleme, Helen; Onyilagha, Chukwunonso; Okeke, Emeka; Uzonna, Jude E

    2014-10-01

    Although diminazene aceturate (Berenil) is widely used as a trypanolytic agent in livestock, its mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. We previously showed that Berenil treatment suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokine production by splenic and liver macrophages leading to a concomitant reduction in serum cytokine levels in mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense or challenged with LPS. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms through which Berenil alters pro-inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages. We show that pre-treatment of macrophages with Berenil dramatically suppressed IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α production following LPS, CpG and Poly I:C stimulation without altering the expression of TLRs. Instead, it significantly down-regulated phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinases), signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins (STAT1 and STAT3) and NF-кB p65 activity both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, Berenil treatment up-regulated the phosphorylation of STAT5 and the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and SOCS3, which are negative regulators of innate immune responses, including MAPKs and STATs. Collectively, these results show that Berenil down-regulates macrophage pro-inflammatory cytokine production by inhibiting key signaling pathways associated with cytokine production and suggest that this drug may be used to treat conditions caused by excessive production of inflammatory cytokines. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Langerhans cell-like dendritic cells stimulated with an adjuvant direct the development of Th1 and Th2 cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, K; Mori, A; Ikeda, R

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that Langerhans cells (LCs) work as the primary orchestrators in the polarization of immune responses towards a T helper type 1 (Th1) or Th2 milieu. In this study, we attempted to generate LCs from murine bone marrow cells and elicit a Th1- or Th2-prone immune response through the LCs after stimulation with Th1 or Th2 adjuvant. LCs were generated from murine bone marrow cells using granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin (IL)-4 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and were obtained as I-A(d) positive cells. Mice were primed with Th1/Th2 adjuvant- and ovalbumin (OVA)-pulsed LCs and then given a booster injection of OVA 2 days later via the hind footpad. Five days after the OVA injection, the cytokine response in the draining popliteal lymph nodes was investigated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The generated LCs expressed typical LC surface markers, E-cadherin and Langerin, and were classified accordingly as LC-like dendritic cells (LDCs). Administration of Th1 adjuvant, cytosine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG)-DNA- and OVA-pulsed LDCs into the hind footpads of mice induced a Th1-prone immune response, as represented by up-regulation of IFN-γ production and down-regulation of IL-4 production in the lymph node cells. Conversely, Th2 adjuvant, histamine-pulsed LDCs induced a Th2-prone immune response, as represented by up-regulation of IL-4 production and down-regulation of IFN-γ production. These results suggest that LDCs may be used as a substitute for LCs and have the ability to induce the development of Th1 and Th2 cells in vivo. Our experimental system would therefore be useful for screening of inhibitors of Th1/Th2 differentiation in order to control allergic disease. © 2015 British Society for Immunology.

  8. Increased Blood Levels of Growth Factors, Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Th17 Cytokines in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnek, Kristi; Kisand, Kalle; Heilman, Kaire; Peet, Aleksandr; Varik, Karin; Uibo, Raivo

    2015-01-01

    The production of several cytokines could be dysregulated in type 1 diabetes (T1D). In particular, the activation of T helper (Th) type 1 (Th1) cells has been proposed to underlie the autoimmune pathogenesis of the disease, although roles for inflammatory processes and the Th17 pathway have also been shown. Nevertheless, despite evidence for the role of cytokines before and at the onset of T1D, the corresponding findings are inconsistent across studies. Moreover, conflicting data exist regarding the blood cytokine levels in T1D patients. The current study was performed to investigate genetic and autoantibody markers in association with the peripheral blood cytokine profiles by xMap multiplex technology in newly diagnosed young T1D patients and age-matched healthy controls. The onset of young-age T1D was characterized by the upregulation of growth factors, including granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-7, the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β (but not IL-6 or tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α), Th17 cytokines, and the regulatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-27. Ketoacidosis and autoantibodies (anti-IA-2 and -ZnT8), but not human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype, influenced the blood cytokine levels. These findings broaden the current understanding of the dysregulation of systemic levels of several key cytokines at the young-age onset of T1D and provide a further basis for the development of novel immunoregulatory treatments in this disease.

  9. The role of stress mediators in modulation of cytokine production by ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, Mitzi; Cheng Bing; Fan Ruping; Pruett, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Acute ethanol exposure in humans and in animal models activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS); the resultant increases in concentration of neuroendocrine mediators contribute to some of the immunosuppressive effects of ethanol. However, the role of these mediators in the ethanol-induced inhibition of inflammatory responses is not clear. This is complicated by the fact that most inflammatory stimuli also activate the HPA axis and SNS, and it has not been determined if ethanol plus an inflammatory stimulus increases these stress responses. Addressing this issue is the major focus of the study described herein. Complementary approaches were used, including quantitative assessment of the stress response in mice treated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C, as an inflammatory stimulus) and inhibition of the production or action of key HPA axis and SNS mediators. Treatment of mice with ethanol shortly before treatment with poly I:C yielded a significant increase in the corticosterone response as compared to the response to poly I:C alone, but the increase was small and not likely sufficient to account for the anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol. Inhibition of catecholamine and glucocorticoid production by adrenalectomy, and inhibition of catecholamine action with a sustained release antagonist (nadalol) supported this conclusion and revealed that 'excess' stress responses associated with ethanol treatment is not the mechanism of suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine production, but stress-induced corticosterone does regulate production of several of these cytokines, which has not previously been reported.

  10. Radiation-induced decrease of CD8+ dendritic cells contributes to Th1/Th2 shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hu; Li, Bailong; Jia, Xiaojing; Ma, Yan; Gu, Yifeng; Zhang, Pei; Wei, Qun; Cai, Jianming; Cui, Jianguo; Gao, Fu; Yang, Yanyong

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) often reduce the helper T (Th) 1 like function, resulting in a Th1/Th2 imbalance, which could affect the efficacy of cancer radiotherapy. As the most potent antigen presenting cells, dendritic cells (DC) can be divided into several subsets with specialized function. However, there is no literature covering the changes of DC subsets and their roles in immune regulation in response to IR. In the present study, we were aimed to investigate the changes of DC subsets after IR and its relationship with Th1/Th2 immunity. We found a significant decrease of BDCA3+DC in the blood of patients treated with radiotherapy. CD8+DC, a mouse equivalent of human BDCA3+DC, was also found decreased in mice spleen, peripheral blood and lymph node tissues after irradiation. As CD8+DC mainly induce Th1 immunity, we tested the changes of Th1/Th2 response and found that IR caused a repression of Th1 immunity, indicating a possible role of CD8+DC in radiation-induced Th1/Th2 imbalance. We also found that a CD8+DC-inducing cytokine, Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FLT3 ligand), restored CD8+DC and reversed Th1/Th2 shift. And then we found that bone marrow cells from irradiated mice differentiated into less CD8+DC, which was also protected by FLT3 ligand. In conclusion, our data showed that IR induced a decrease of CD8+DC and Th1/Th2 shift, which was reversed by Flt3 ligand treatment, suggesting a novel mechanism for radiation-induced immunosuppression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Th1 type lymphocyte reactivity to metals in patients with total hip arthroplasty

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    Finnegan Alison

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All prostheses with metallic components release metal debris that can potentially activate the immune system. However, implant-related metal hyper-reactivity has not been well characterized. In this study, we hypothesized that adaptive immunity reaction(s, particularly T-helper type 1 (Th1 responses, will be dominant in any metal-reactivity responses of patients with total joint replacements (TJAs. We tested this hypothesis by evaluating lymphocyte reactivity to metal "ions" in subjects with and without total hip replacements, using proliferation assays and cytokine analysis. Methods Lymphocytes from young healthy individuals without an implant or a history of metal allergy (Group 1: n = 8 were used to assess lymphocyte responses to metal challenge agents. In addition, individuals (Group 2: n = 15 with well functioning total hip arthroplasties (average Harris Hip Score = 91, average time in-situ 158 months were studied. Age matched controls with no implants were also used for comparison (Group 3, n = 8, 4 male, 4 female average age 70, range 49–80. Group 1 subjects' lymphocyte proliferation response to Aluminum+3, Cobalt+2, Chromium+3, Copper+2, Iron+3, Molybdenum+5, Manganeese+2, Nickel+2, Vanadium+3 and Sodium+2 chloride solutions at a variety of concentrations (0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 10.0 mM was studied to establish toxicity thresholds. Mononuclear cells from Group 2 and 3 subjects were challenged with 0.1 mM CrCl3, 0.1 mM NiCl2, 0.1 mM CoCl2 and approx. 0.001 mM titanium and the reactions measured with proliferation assays and cytokine analysis to determine T-cell subtype prominence. Results Primary lymphocytes from patients with well functioning total hip replacements demonstrated a higher incidence and greater magnitude of reactivity to chromium than young healthy controls (p 2 fold stimulation index response, p 10 mM. The differential secretion of signature T-cell subsets' cytokines (Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes

  12. Morphine Suppresses T helper Lymphocyte Differentiation to Th1 Type Through PI3K/AKT Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Mao; Qian, Yanning; Sun, Jie

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the effect of morphine on T helper lymphocyte differentiation and PI3K/AKT pathway mechanism, CD4+ lymphocytes were treated by phorbol-myristate-acetate (25 ng/ml) (PMA) plus ionomycin (1 μg/ml) in the presence of various concentrations of morphine (25, 50, 100, 200 ng/ml) for 4 h. Th1 and Th2 subsets, supernatant cytokines, and PI3K, AKT, and protein kinase C-theta (PKC-θ) levels were detected. The Th1 cell percentage, Th1-derived cytokines, and ratio of Th1/Th2 decreased in the presence of morphine in a concentration-dependent manner. However, Th2 cell percentage kept stable after morphine treatment. The phosphorylation of PI3K and AKT decreased, but the phosphorylation of PKC-θ did not change in the presence of morphine. The decreased percentage of Th1 cells and ratio of Th1/Th2 was recovered by naloxone concentration-dependently. Morphine can inhibit the differentiation of Th1 lymphocytes and decrease the ratio of Th1/Th2 via the pathway of PI3K/AKT. The effect can be inhibited by naloxone.

  13. High glucose alters retinal astrocytes phenotype through increased production of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Seok Shin

    Full Text Available Astrocytes are macroglial cells that have a crucial role in development of the retinal vasculature and maintenance of the blood-retina-barrier (BRB. Diabetes affects the physiology and function of retinal vascular cells including astrocytes (AC leading to breakdown of BRB. However, the detailed cellular mechanisms leading to retinal AC dysfunction under high glucose conditions remain unclear. Here we show that high glucose conditions did not induce the apoptosis of retinal AC, but instead increased their rate of DNA synthesis and adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins. These alterations were associated with changes in intracellular signaling pathways involved in cell survival, migration and proliferation. High glucose conditions also affected the expression of inflammatory cytokines in retinal AC, activated NF-κB, and prevented their network formation on Matrigel. In addition, we showed that the attenuation of retinal AC migration under high glucose conditions, and capillary morphogenesis of retinal endothelial cells on Matrigel, was mediated through increased oxidative stress. Antioxidant proteins including heme oxygenase-1 and peroxiredoxin-2 levels were also increased in retinal AC under high glucose conditions through nuclear localization of transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2. Together our results demonstrated that high glucose conditions alter the function of retinal AC by increased production of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress with significant impact on their proliferation, adhesion, and migration.

  14. Effectors of Th1 and Th17 cells act on astrocytes and augment their neuroinflammatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajeeth, Chittappen K; Kronisch, Julius; Khorooshi, Reza; Knier, Benjamin; Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Gudi, Viktoria; Floess, Stefan; Huehn, Jochen; Owens, Trevor; Korn, Thomas; Stangel, Martin

    2017-10-16

    Autoreactive Th1 and Th17 cells are believed to mediate the pathology of multiple sclerosis in the central nervous system (CNS). Their interaction with microglia and astrocytes in the CNS is crucial for the regulation of the neuroinflammation. Previously, we have shown that only Th1 but not Th17 effectors activate microglia. However, it is not clear which cells are targets of Th17 effectors in the CNS. To understand the effects driven by Th17 cells in the CNS, we induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in wild-type mice and CD4 + T cell-specific integrin α4-deficient mice where trafficking of Th1 cells into the CNS was affected. We compared microglial and astrocyte response in the brain and spinal cord of these mice. We further treated astrocytes with supernatants from highly pure Th1 and Th17 cultures and assessed the messenger RNA expression of neurotrophic factors, cytokines and chemokines, using real-time PCR. Data obtained was analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. We observed in α4-deficient mice weak microglial activation but comparable astrogliosis to that of wild-type mice in the regions of the brain populated with Th17 infiltrates, suggesting that Th17 cells target astrocytes and not microglia. In vitro, in response to supernatants from Th1 and Th17 cultures, astrocytes showed altered expression of neurotrophic factors, pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Furthermore, increased expression of chemokines in Th1- and Th17-treated astrocytes enhanced recruitment of microglia and transendothelial migration of Th17 cells in vitro. Our results demonstrate the delicate interaction between T cell subsets and glial cells and how they communicate to mediate their effects. Effectors of Th1 act on both microglia and astrocytes whereas Th17 effectors preferentially target astrocytes to promote neuroinflammation.

  15. Donor lung derived myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells differentially regulate T cell proliferation and cytokine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Heather L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Direct allorecognition, i.e., donor lung-derived dendritic cells (DCs stimulating recipient-derived T lymphocytes, is believed to be the key mechanism of lung allograft rejection. Myeloid (cDCs and plasmacytoid (pDCs are believed to have differential effects on T cell activation. However, the roles of each DC type on T cell activation and rejection pathology post lung transplantation are unknown. Methods Using transgenic mice and antibody depletion techniques, either or both cell types were depleted in lungs of donor BALB/c mice (H-2d prior to transplanting into C57BL/6 mice (H-2b, followed by an assessment of rejection pathology, and pDC or cDC-induced proliferation and cytokine production in C57BL/6-derived mediastinal lymph node T cells (CD3+. Results Depleting either DC type had modest effect on rejection pathology and T cell proliferation. In contrast, T cells from mice that received grafts depleted of both DCs did not proliferate and this was associated with significantly reduced acute rejection scores compared to all other groups. cDCs were potent inducers of IFNγ, whereas both cDCs and pDCs induced IL-10. Both cell types had variable effects on IL-17A production. Conclusion Collectively, the data show that direct allorecognition by donor lung pDCs and cDCs have differential effects on T cell proliferation and cytokine production. Depletion of both donor lung cDC and pDC could prevent the severity of acute rejection episodes.

  16. Th1, Th17, CXCL16 and homocysteine elevated after intracranial and cervical stent implantation.

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    Tang, Yanyan; Wei, Yunfei; Ye, Ziming; Qin, Chao

    2017-08-01

    The presence of Th1 and Th17 cells has been observed as major inducers in inflammation and immune responses associated stenting. However, there is rare data on the impact of Th1, Th17, CXCL16 and homocysteine after cerebral stent implantation. Here, we performed the statistical analysis to first evaluate the variation of the Th17and Th1 cells and their related cytokines, CXCL16 and homocysteine in the peripheral blood of patients with cerebral stenting. The flow cytometry was used to detect the proportion of Th1 and Th17 cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the serum concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-17 and CXCL16. Plasma homocysteine was examined by immunoturbidimetry. The level of Th1, CXCL16 and homocysteine showed an increase at 3 d, followed by the continuous decrease at 7 d and 3 months. The frequency of Th17 cells increased to a peak at three days, and subsequently decreased with a higher level than baseline. Our data revealed that the variation in Th1, Th17, CXCL16 and homocysteine in peripheral blood of patients with stenting may be implicated in inflammation after intracranial and cervical stent implantation. A better understanding of these factors will provide help for further drug design and clinical therapy.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus Infection of Human Gestational Membranes Induces Bacterial Biofilm Formation and Host Production of Cytokines.

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    Doster, Ryan S; Kirk, Leslie A; Tetz, Lauren M; Rogers, Lisa M; Aronoff, David M; Gaddy, Jennifer A

    2017-02-15

    Staphylococcus aureus, a metabolically flexible gram-positive pathogen, causes infections in a variety of tissues. Recent evidence implicates S. aureus as an emerging cause of chorioamnionitis and premature rupture of membranes, which are associated with preterm birth and neonatal disease. We demonstrate here that S. aureus infects and forms biofilms on the choriodecidual surface of explanted human gestational membranes. Concomitantly, S. aureus elicits the production of proinflammatory cytokines, which could ultimately perturb maternal-fetal tolerance during pregnancy. Therefore, targeting the immunological response to S. aureus infection during pregnancy could attenuate disease among infected individuals, especially in the context of antibiotic resistance. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. The influence of hydro-ethanolic extract of Portulaca oleracea L. on Th1/Th2 balance in isolated human lymphocytes.

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    Askari, Vahid Reza; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim; Abnous, Khalil; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-12-24

    The anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidants activity of Portulaca oleracea L. (P. oleracea) were mentioned in traditional texts. In previous studies, different anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of P. oleracea were demonstrated. However, the mechanism of action and immunomodulatory property of this plant are greatly unknown. In the present study, the effect of the extract of this plant on IL-4, IL10, IFN-γ and T helper (h)1/Th2 balance in non-stimulated and stimulated human lymphocytes was examined. The effect of three concentrations (160, 40 and 10µg/ml) of P. oleracea or dexamethasone were evaluated on percentage of cell proliferation and nitric oxide (NO) production as well as secretion of cytokines (IL-4, IL10 and IFN-γ) in PHA-stimulated and non-stimulated lymphocytes, and compared to control and dexamethasone as positive control (n=15 for each group). In stimulated cells, dexamethasone significantly inhibited the percentage of cell proliferation, NO production, and secretion of cytokines in comparison to control group (P<0.001 for all cases). The percentage of cell proliferation, NO production, and secretion of cytokines were significantly decreased while Th1/Th2 (IFN-γ/IL-4) and Treg/Th2 (IL-10/IL-4) balances significantly enhanced in treated groups with all three concentrations of extract compared to control group (P<0.001 for all cases). The effect of all concentrations of the extract on cell proliferation, NO production and secretion of cytokines as well as Treg/Th2 balance were significantly lower than dexamethasone (P<0.001 for all cases), but Th1/Th2 ratio obtained in the presence of only low extract concentration was lower than dexamethasone (P<0.01). Different concentrations of extract promoted Th1/Th2 and Treg/Th2 balances which may suggest the therapeutic value of the plant in inflammatory disease associated with decreased Th1/Th2 balance such as asthma or cancers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Differential Effects of Tea Extracts on Growth and Cytokine Production by Normal and Leukemic Human Leukocytes

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    Diana Bayer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tea is one of the world’s most highly consumed beverages, second only to water. It is affordable and abundant and thus has great potential for improving health of those in both developed and developing areas. Green, oolong, and black teas differ in the extent of fermentation and types of bioactive polyphenols produced. Green tea and its major polyphenol decrease growth of some cancer cells and effect production of immune system cytokines. This study compares the effects of different types of tea extracts on viability and cytokine production by normal and leukemic human T lymphocytes. Generation of the toxic reactive oxygen species H2O2 by extracts was also examined.Methods: The Jurkat T lymphoblastic leukemia cells and mitogen-stimulated normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used in this study. Cell viability was determined by (3-4,5-dimethylthiamizol-2-yl-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and production of interleukin-2 by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay. Levels of H2O2 generated by tea extracts were determined using the xylenol-orange method.Results: We found that green, oolong, and black tea extracts differentially effect the growth and viability of T lymphoblastic leukemia cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, substantially decreasing both growth and viability of leukemic T lymphocytes and having much lesser effects on their normal counterparts. Tea extracts also had differential effects on the production of the T lymphocyte growth factor interleukin-2, significantly decreasing production by leukemic cells while having only minor effects on normal cells. All three extracts induced H2O2 generation, with green and oolong tea extracts having the greatest effect. Leukemic cells were much more susceptible to growth inhibition and killing by H2O2 than normal lymphocytes.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(4:72-85 Conclusions: The three tea extracts studied altered leukemic T lymphocyte

  20. TGF-β2 suppresses macrophage cytokine production and mucosal inflammatory responses in the developing intestine.

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    Maheshwari, Akhil; Kelly, David R; Nicola, Teodora; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Jain, Sunil K; Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne; Athar, Mohammad; Shimamura, Masako; Bhandari, Vineet; Aprahamian, Charles; Dimmitt, Reed A; Serra, Rosa; Ohls, Robin K

    2011-01-01

    Premature neonates are predisposed to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), an idiopathic, inflammatory bowel necrosis. We investigated whether NEC occurs in the preterm intestine due to incomplete noninflammatory differentiation of intestinal macrophages, which increases the risk of a severe mucosal inflammatory response to bacterial products. We compared inflammatory properties of human/murine fetal, neonatal, and adult intestinal macrophages. To investigate gut-specific macrophage differentiation, we next treated monocyte-derived macrophages with conditioned media from explanted human fetal and adult intestinal tissues. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) expression and bioactivity were measured in fetal/adult intestine and in NEC. Finally, we used wild-type and transgenic mice to investigate the effects of deficient TGF-β signaling on NEC-like inflammatory mucosal injury. Intestinal macrophages in the human preterm intestine (fetus/premature neonate), but not in full-term neonates and adults, expressed inflammatory cytokines. Macrophage cytokine production was suppressed in the developing intestine by TGF-β, particularly the TGF-β(2) isoform. NEC was associated with decreased tissue expression of TGF-β(2) and decreased TGF-β bioactivity. In mice, disruption of TGF-β signaling worsened NEC-like inflammatory mucosal injury, whereas enteral supplementation with recombinant TGF-β(2) was protective. Intestinal macrophages progressively acquire a noninflammatory profile during gestational development. TGF-β, particularly the TGF-β(2) isoform, suppresses macrophage inflammatory responses in the developing intestine and protects against inflammatory mucosal injury. Enterally administered TGF-β(2) protected mice from experimental NEC-like injury. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibitory activity of 1,8-cineol (eucalyptol) on cytokine production in cultured human lymphocytes and monocytes.

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    Juergens, Uwe R; Engelen, Tanja; Racké, Kurt; Stöber, Meinolf; Gillissen, Adrian; Vetter, Hans

    2004-01-01

    The therapeutic value of secretolytic agents in COPD and asthma is still disputed. For this reason, in a preclinical study we aimed to test the potential anti-inflammatory efficacy of 1,8-cineol (eucalyptol) in inhibiting polyclonal stimulated cytokine production by human unselected lymphocytes and LPS-stimulated monocytes. Cytokine production was determined following 20 h of incubation cells with 1,8-cineol simultaneously with the stimuli in culture supernatants by enzyme immunoassay. Therapeutic concentrations of 1,8-cineol (1.5 microg/ml=10(-5)M) inhibited significantly (n=13-19, p=0.0001) cytokine production in lymphocytes of TNF-alpha > IL-1beta> IL-4> IL-5 by 92, 84, 70, and 65%, respectively. Cytokine production in monocytes of TNF-alpha > IL-1beta> IL-6> IL-8 was also significantly (n=7-16, p1,8-cineol (0.15 microg/ml=10(-6)M) production of TNF-alpha>IL-1beta by monocytes and of IL-1beta> TNF-alpha by lymph-ocytes was significantly inhibited by 77, 61 and by 36, 16%, respectively. 1,8-cineol (10(-6)M) had a larger impact on TNF-alpha and IL-1beta-production in monocytes compared to lymphocytes (p0.59) at therapeutically relevant concentrations of 1,8-Cineol (10(-5)M). These results characterize 1,8-cineol as strong inhibitor of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta and suggest smaller effects on chemotactic cytokines. This is increasing evidence for the role of 1,8-cineol to control airway mucus hypersecretion by cytokine inhibition, suggesting long-term treatment to reduce exacerbations in asthma, sinusitis and COPD.

  2. Expanding Diversity in Molecular Structures and Functions of the IL-6/IL-12 Heterodimeric Cytokine Family

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    Hideaki Hasegawa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The interleukin (IL-6/IL-12 family cytokines have pleiotropic functions and play critical roles in multiple immune responses. This cytokine family has very unique characteristics in that they are composed of two distinct subunits forming a heterodimer and each cytokine and receptor subunit shares with each other. The members of this cytokine family are increasing; currently, there are more than 6 cytokines, including the tentatively named cytokines IL-Y (p28/p40, IL-12 (p35/p40, IL-23 (p19/p40, IL-27 p28/Epstein-Barr virus-induced protein 3 (EBI3, IL-35 (p35/EBI3, and IL-39 (p19/EBI3. This family of cytokines covers a very broad range of immune responses, including pro-inflammatory responses such as helper T (Th1, Th2, and Th17 to anti-inflammatory responses such as regulatory T (Treg cells and IL-10-producing Treg cells. IL-12 is the first member of this family, and IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27 are mainly produced by activated antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells and macrophages. IL-12 plays a critical role in the promotion of Th1 immune responses by inducing interferon-γ production to combat pathogens and malignant tumors. IL-23 induces IL-17 production and is necessary to maintain pathogenic Th17 cells that cause inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. IL-27 was initially reported to play a critical role in promotion of Th1 differentiation; however, subsequent studies revealed that IL-27 has broader stimulatory and inhibitory roles by inducing IL-10-producing Treg cells. IL-35 is produced by forkhead box P3+ Treg cells and activated B cells and has immunosuppressive functions to maintain immune tolerance. The most recently identified cytokine, IL-39, is produced by activated B cells and has pro-inflammatory functions. The cytokine tentatively named IL-Y seems to have anti-inflammatory functions by inhibiting Th1 and Th17 differentiation. In addition, individual cytokine subunits were also shown to have self-standing activities. Thus

  3. Nocardia brasiliensis Modulates IFN-gamma, IL-10, and IL-12 cytokine production by macrophages from BALB/c Mice.

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    Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Zúñiga, Juan M; Pérez-Rivera, Luz I; Segoviano-Ramírez, Juan C; Vázquez-Marmolejo, Anna V

    2009-05-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is a critical cytokine involved in control of different infections. Actinomycetoma is a chronic infectious disease mainly caused by the bacterium Nocardia brasiliensis, which destroys subcutaneous tissue, including bone. Currently, the mechanism of pathogenesis in N. brasiliensis infection is not known. Here, we demonstrate that N. brasiliensis induced an IFN-gamma response in serum after 24 h of infection, while, in infected tissue, positive cells to IFN-gamma appeared in 2 early peaks: the first was present only 3 h after infection, then transiently decreased; and the second peak appeared 12 h after infection and was independent of interleukin-10. Resident macrophages produced an immediate IFN-gamma response 1 h after in vitro infection, and spleen-positive cells began later. The phase of growth of N. brasiliensis affected cytokine production, and exposure of macrophages to Nocardia opsonized with either polyclonal anti-Nocardia antibodies or anti-P61 monoclonal antibody led to a suppression of cytokine production. Our report provides evidence that N. brasiliensis as an intracellular bacterium modulates macrophage cytokine production, which helps survival of the pathogen. Modulation of these cytokines may contribute to pathogenesis once this bacterium is inside the macrophage.

  4. Filarial lymphedema is characterized by antigen-specific Th1 and th17 proinflammatory responses and a lack of regulatory T cells.

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    Subash Babu

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis can be associated with development of serious pathology in the form of lymphedema, hydrocele, and elephantiasis in a subset of infected patients.To elucidate the role of CD4(+ T cell subsets in the development of lymphatic pathology, we examined specific sets of cytokines in individuals with filarial lymphedema in response to parasite antigen (BmA and compared them with responses from asymptomatic infected individuals. We also examined expression patterns of Toll-like receptors (TLR1-10 and Nod-like receptors (Nod1, Nod2, and NALP3 in response to BmA. BmA induced significantly higher production of Th1-type cytokines-IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha-in patients with lymphedema compared with asymptomatic individuals. Notably, expression of the Th17 family of cytokines-IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, and IL-23-was also significantly upregulated by BmA stimulation in lymphedema patients. In contrast, expression of Foxp3, GITR, TGFbeta, and CTLA-4, known to be expressed by regulatory T cells, was significantly impaired in patients with lymphedema. BmA also induced significantly higher expression of TLR2, 4, 7, and 9 as well Nod1 and 2 mRNA in patients with lymphedema compared with asymptomatic controls.Our findings implicate increased Th1/Th17 responses and decreased regulatory T cells as well as regulation of Toll- and Nod-like receptors in pathogenesis of filarial lymphedema.

  5. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Suppress Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis in Association with Inhibition of Th1 and Th17 Cell Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoda, Hiromi; Yanai, Ryoji; Yoshimura, Takeru; Nagai, Tomohiko; Kimura, Kazuhiro; Sobrin, Lucia; Connor, Kip M.; Sakoda, Yukimi; Tamada, Koji; Ikeda, Tsunehiko; Sonoda, Koh-Hei

    2015-01-01

    Omega (ω)–3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators and thereby contribute to the regulation of inflammation. Experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) is a well-established animal model of autoimmune retinal inflammation. To investigate the potential effects of dietary intake of ω-3 LCPUFAs on uveitis, we examined the anti-inflammatory properties of these molecules in comparison with ω-6 LCPUFAs in a mouse EAU model. C57BL/6 mice were fed a diet containing ω-3 LCPUFAs or ω-6 LCPUFAs for 2 weeks before as well as after the induction of EAU by subcutaneous injection of a fragment of human interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein emulsified with complete Freund’s adjuvant. Both clinical and histological scores for uveitis were smaller for mice fed ω-3 LCPUFAs than for those fed ω-6 LCPUFAs. The concentrations of the T helper 1 (Th1) cytokine interferon-γ and the Th17 cytokine interleukin-17 in intraocular fluid as well as the production of these cytokines by lymph node cells were reduced for mice fed ω-3 LCPUFAs. Furthermore, the amounts of mRNAs for the Th1- and Th17-related transcription factors T-bet and RORγt, respectively, were reduced both in the retina and in lymph node cells of mice fed ω-3 LCPUFAs. Our results thus show that a diet enriched in ω-3 LCPUFAs suppressed uveitis in mice in association with inhibition of Th1 and Th17 cell function. PMID:26393358

  6. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Suppress Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis in Association with Inhibition of Th1 and Th17 Cell Function.

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    Hiromi Shoda

    Full Text Available Omega (ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators and thereby contribute to the regulation of inflammation. Experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU is a well-established animal model of autoimmune retinal inflammation. To investigate the potential effects of dietary intake of ω-3 LCPUFAs on uveitis, we examined the anti-inflammatory properties of these molecules in comparison with ω-6 LCPUFAs in a mouse EAU model. C57BL/6 mice were fed a diet containing ω-3 LCPUFAs or ω-6 LCPUFAs for 2 weeks before as well as after the induction of EAU by subcutaneous injection of a fragment of human interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein emulsified with complete Freund's adjuvant. Both clinical and histological scores for uveitis were smaller for mice fed ω-3 LCPUFAs than for those fed ω-6 LCPUFAs. The concentrations of the T helper 1 (Th1 cytokine interferon-γ and the Th17 cytokine interleukin-17 in intraocular fluid as well as the production of these cytokines by lymph node cells were reduced for mice fed ω-3 LCPUFAs. Furthermore, the amounts of mRNAs for the Th1- and Th17-related transcription factors T-bet and RORγt, respectively, were reduced both in the retina and in lymph node cells of mice fed ω-3 LCPUFAs. Our results thus show that a diet enriched in ω-3 LCPUFAs suppressed uveitis in mice in association with inhibition of Th1 and Th17 cell function.

  7. Ingested (oral) SIRS peptide 1-21 inhibits acute EAE by inducing Th2-like cytokines.

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    Brod, Staley A; Hood, Zachary

    2007-02-01

    Ingested type I IFN inhibits clinical attacks, relapses and inflammation in murine chronic relapsing EAE by inhibiting Th1-like cytokines. Type I IFN activates human suppressor T cells that produce SIRS. We examined whether oral (ingested) SIRS peptide inhibits EAE by decreasing Th1-like cytokines. Parenteral SIRS peptide 1-21 showed a significant inhibition of disease severity in murine EAE. Ingested SIRS peptide at 10 and 100 microg SIRS peptide showed a significant inhibition of disease severity but also a prolonged delay in the onset of disease compared to placebo. There were significantly less inflammatory foci in the SIRS peptide fed group compared to the control mock fed group. Splenocytes from SIRS peptide 1-21 fed mice showed increased production of Th2-like CD30L, IL-13, TCA-3 cytokines/chemokines and decreased production of Th1-like cytokine lymphotactin. Ingested (oral) SIRS peptide significantly inhibits both clinical EAE and inflammation predominately via counter-regulatory type 2-like cytokines/chemokines IL-13, CD30L and TCA-3.

  8. Ascophyllan Purified from Ascophyllum nodosum Induces Th1 and Tc1 Immune Responses by Promoting Dendritic Cell Maturation

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    Wei Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine-derived sulfated polysaccharides have been shown to possess certain anti-virus, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities. However, the in vivo immunomodulatory effects of marine-derived pure compounds have been less well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of ascophyllan, a sulfated polysaccharide purified from Ascophyllum nodosum, on the maturation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs in vitro and in vivo. Ascophyllan induced up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs. Moreover, in vivo administration of ascophyllan promotes up-regulation of CD40, CD80, CD86, MHC class I and MHC class II and production of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α in spleen cDCs. Interestingly, ascophyllan induced a higher degree of co-stimulatory molecule up-regulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production than fucoidan, a marine-derived polysaccharide with well-defined effect for promoting DC maturation. Ascophyllan also promoted the generation of IFN-γ-producing Th1 and Tc1 cells in the presence of DCs in an IL-12-dependent manner. Finally, myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88 signaling pathway was essential for DC maturation induced by ascophyllan. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ascophyllan induces DC maturation, and consequently enhances Th1 and Tc1 responses in vivo. This knowledge could facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat infectious diseases and cancer.

  9. INFLUENCE OF ALPHA-1-ACID GLYCOPROTEIN UPON PRODUCTION OF CYTOKINES BY PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEARS

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    М. V. Osikov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid is a multifunctional acute phase reactant belonging to the family of lipocalines from plasma alpha-2 globulin fraction. In present study, we investigated dosedependent effects of orosomucoid upon secretion of IL-1â, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4 by mononuclear cells from venous blood of healthy volunteers. Mononuclear cells were separated by means of gradient centrifugation, followed by incubation for 24 hours with 250, 500, or 1000 mcg of orosomucoid per ml RPMI-1640 medium (resp., low, medium and high dose. The levels of cytokine production were assayed by ELISA technique. Orosomucoid-induced secretion of IL-1â and IL-4 was increased, whereas IL-3 secretion was inhibited. IL-2 production was suppressed at low doses of orosomucoid, and stimulated at medium and high doses. The effect of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein upon production of IL-2, IL-3 and IL-4 was dose-dependent. Hence, these data indicate that orosomucoid is capable of modifying IL-1â, IL-2, IL-3, and IL-4 secretion by blood mononuclear cells.

  10. Invasion of human aortic endothelial cells by oral viridans group streptococci and induction of inflammatory cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, E; de Toledo, A; Oho, T

    2011-02-01

    Oral viridans group streptococci are the major commensal bacteria of the supragingival oral biofilm and have been detected in human atheromatous plaque. Atherosclerosis involves an ongoing inflammatory response, reportedly involving chronic infection caused by multiple pathogens. The aim of this study was to examine the invasion of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) by oral viridans group streptococci and the subsequent cytokine production by viable invaded HAECs. The invasion of HAECs by bacteria was examined using antibiotic protection assays and was visualized by confocal scanning laser microscopy. The inhibitory effects of catalase and cytochalasin D on the invasion of HAECs were also examined. The production of cytokines by invaded or infected HAECs was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and a real-time polymerase chain reaction method was used to evaluate the expression of cytokine messenger RNA. The oral streptococci tested were capable of invading HAECs. The number of invasive bacteria increased with the length of the co-culture period. After a certain co-culture period, some organisms were cytotoxic to the HAECs. Catalase and cytochalasin D inhibited the invasion of HAECs by the organism. HAECs invaded by Streptococcus mutans Xc, Streptococcus gordonii DL1 (Challis), Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558 and Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419 produced more cytokine(s) (interleukin-6, interleukin-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) than non-invaded HAECs. The HAECs invaded by S. mutans Xc produced the largest amounts of cytokines, and the messenger RNA expression of cytokines by invaded HAECs increased markedly compared with that by non-invaded HAECs. These results suggest that oral streptococci may participate in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Glutathione peroxidase-1 primes pro-inflammatory cytokine production after LPS challenge in vivo.

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    Steven Bozinovski

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species produced during the innate immune response to LPS are important agents of anti-pathogen defence but may also cause oxidative lung damage. Glutathione peroxidase-1 (gpx-1 is an anti-oxidant enzyme that may protect lungs from such damage. We assessed the in vivo importance of gpx-1 in LPS-induced lung inflammation. Male wild-type (WT or gpx-1 deficient (gpx-1(-/- mice were treated intranasally with PBS or 10 µg LPS and killed 3 and 24 h post LPS. Lungs were lavaged with PBS and then harvested for inflammatory marker expression. LPS caused an intense neutrophilia in WT BALF evident 3 and 24 h post challenge that was reduced in gpx-1(-/- mice. In addition, LPS-treated gpx-1(-/- mice had significantly fewer macrophages than LPS-treated WT mice. To understand the basis for this paradoxical reduction we assessed inflammatory cytokines and proteases at protein and transcript levels. MMP-9 expression and net gelatinase activity in BALF of gpx-1(-/- mice treated with LPS for 3 and 24 h was no different to that found in LPS-treated WT mice. BALF from LPS-treated gpx-1(-/- mice (3 h had less TNF-α, MIP-2 and GM-CSF protein than LPS-treated WT mice. In contrast, LPS-induced increases in TNF-α, MIP-2 and GM-CSF mRNA expression in WT mice were similar to those observed in gpx-1(-/- mice. These attenuated protein levels were unexpectedly not mirrored by reduced mRNA transcripts but were associated with increased 20S proteasome expression. Thus, these data suggest that gpx-1 primes pro-inflammatory cytokine production after LPS challenge in vivo.

  12. Cytokine production but lack of proliferation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from chronic Chagas' disease cardiomyopathy patients in response to T. cruzi ribosomal P proteins.

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    Silvia A Longhi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi ribosomal P proteins, P2β and P0, induce high levels of antibodies in patients with chronic Chagas' disease Cardiomyopathy (CCC. It is well known that these antibodies alter the beating rate of cardiomyocytes and provoke apoptosis by their interaction with β1-adrenergic and M2-muscarinic cardiac receptors. Based on these findings, we decided to study the cellular immune response to these proteins in CCC patients compared to non-infected individuals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated proliferation, presence of surface activation markers and cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC stimulated with P2β, the C-terminal portion of P0 (CP0 proteins and T. cruzi lysate from CCC patients predominantly infected with TcVI lineage. PBMC from CCC patients cultured with P2β or CP0 proteins, failed to proliferate and express CD25 and HLA-DR on T cell populations. However, multiplex cytokine assays showed that these antigens triggered higher secretion of IL-10, TNF-α and GM-CSF by PBMC as well as both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells subsets of CCC subjects. Upon T. cruzi lysate stimulation, PBMC from CCC patients not only proliferated but also became activated within the context of Th1 response. Interestingly, T. cruzi lysate was also able to induce the secretion of GM-CSF by CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that although the lack of PBMC proliferation in CCC patients in response to ribosomal P proteins, the detection of IL-10, TNF-α and GM-CSF suggests that specific T cells could have both immunoregulatory and pro-inflammatory potential, which might modulate the immune response in Chagas' disease. Furthermore, it was possible to demonstrate for the first time that GM-CSF was produced by PBMC of CCC patients in response not only to recombinant ribosomal P proteins but also to parasite lysate, suggesting the value of this cytokine to evaluate T cells responses in T

  13. Tacrolimus does not alter the production of several cytokines and antimicrobial peptide in Malassezia furfur-infected-keratinocytes.

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    Balato, Anna; Paoletti, Iole; De Gregorio, Vincenza; Cantelli, Mariateresa; Ayala, Fabio; Donnarumma, Giovanna

    2014-03-01

    Topical immunosuppressant therapy is widely used in the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Besides its beneficial therapeutic effects, application of topical anti-inflammatory drugs may render the epidermis more vulnerable to invading pathogens by suppressing innate immune responses in keratinocytes (KCs). Cytokines, chemokines and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by epithelial cells enable them to participate in innate and acquired immune responses. The aim of the present work was to study the influence of tacrolimus (FK506) on KCs infected with Malassezia furfur (M. furfur), evaluating the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α and IL-6, chemokine IL-8, anti-inflammatory cytokines transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1) and IL-10 and AMP β-defensin-2. Human KCs were obtained from surgical specimens of normal adult skin. The expression of mRNAs in KCs: FK506-treated, FK506-treated and M. furfur-infected as well as only M. furfur-infected was quantified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Next, the production of the AMP β-defensin-2 and of the above-mentioned pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines was evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In this study, FK506 did not alter cytokine and AMP production by KCs; this led us to hypothesise that it may not enhance the risk of mycotic skin infections. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Soluble immune complexes shift the TLR-induced cytokine production of distinct polarized human macrophage subsets towards IL-10.

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    Carmen A Ambarus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Costimulation of murine macrophages with immune complexes (ICs and TLR ligands leads to alternative activation. Studies on human myeloid cells, however, indicate that ICs induce an increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production. This study aimed to clarify the effect of ICs on the pro- versus anti-inflammatory profile of human polarized macrophages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Monocytes isolated from peripheral blood of healthy donors were polarized for four days with IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, GM-CSF, M-CSF, or LPS, in the presence or absence of heat aggregated gamma-globulins (HAGGs. Phenotypic polarization markers were measured by flow cytometry. Polarized macrophages were stimulated with HAGGs or immobilized IgG alone or in combination with TLR ligands. TNF, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-23 were measured by Luminex and/or RT-qPCR. RESULTS: HAGGs did not modulate the phenotypic polarization and the cytokine production of macrophages. However, HAGGs significantly altered the TLR-induced cytokine production of all polarized macrophage subsets, with the exception of MΦ(IL-4. In particular, HAGGs consistently enhanced the TLR-induced IL-10 production in both classically and alternatively polarized macrophages (M1 and M2. The effect of HAGGs on TNF and IL-6 production was less pronounced and depended on the polarization status, while IL-23p19 and IL-12p35 expression was not affected. In contrast with HAGGs, immobilized IgG induced a strong upregulation of not only IL-10, but also TNF and IL-6. CONCLUSION: HAGGs alone do not alter the phenotype and cytokine production of in vitro polarized human macrophages. In combination with TLR-ligands, however, HAGGs but not immobilized IgG shift the cytokine production of distinct macrophage subsets toward IL-10.

  15. Role of opioid peptides in the regulation of cytokine production by murine CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, P; Dobber, R; Ramlal, S; Rozing, J; Nagelkerken, L

    1994-03-01

    The presence of the opioid peptides alpha- and beta-endorphin (-End) but not methionine enkephalin (Met-enk) in in vitro cultures of purified CD4+ T cells, stimulated with concanavalin A in the presence of irradiated spleen cells, resulted in a threefold stimulation of IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-gamma production. The stimulating effect was dependent on the concentration of the peptides and reached optimal values in the dose range from 10(-12) to 10(-10) M. Similar results were obtained when purified CD4+ T cells were stimulated with immobilized anti-CD3, indicating a direct effect of opioid peptides on CD4+ T cells. Moreover, in this system a twofold enhancement of IL-6, but not IL-1, secretion was observed. These stimulatory effects were not mediated through opioid receptors since the peptide fragment beta-End6-31 that lacks the N-terminal opioid receptor binding part was still stimulatory. This is in agreement with our finding that beta-End did not affect cAMP, as described for the triggering of classical opioid receptors. Experiments undertaken to reveal the mechanism of action of opioid peptides suggest an overall enhancement of lymphokine production: (1) enhancement of IL-4 production occurred also in the presence of excess IL-2; and (2) neither IL-1 receptor-antagonizing protein nor anti-IL-6 were capable to abrogate the stimulatory effect on IL-2 and IL-4 production. Finally, the presence and activity of opioid receptors in cultures of CD4+ T cells were substantiated by the fact that the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone by itself enhanced cytokine synthesis, which points to the endogenous production by lymphocytes of down-regulating opioid peptides.

  16. Cytokine production profile of heart-infiltrating T cells in Chagas' disease cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunha-Neto E.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The hallmark of chronic Chagas' disease cardiomyopathy (CCC is the finding of a T cell-rich inflammatory mononuclear cell infiltrate in the presence of extremely few parasites in the heart lesions. The scarcity of parasites in affected heart tissue casts doubt on the direct participation of Trypanosoma cruzi in CCC heart tissue lesions, and suggests the possible involvement of autoimmunity. The cells in the infiltrate are presumably the ultimate effectors of tissue damage, and there is evidence that such cells recognize cardiac myosin in molecular mimicry with T. cruzi proteins rather than primary reactivity to T. cruzi antigens (Cunha-Neto et al. (1996 Journal of Clinical Investigation, 98: 1709-1712. Recently, we have studied heart-infiltrating T cells at the functional level. In this short review we summarize the studies about the role of cytokines in human and experimental T. cruzi infection, along with our data on heart-infiltrating T cells in human Chagas' cardiomyopathy. The bulk of evidence points to a significant production of IFN-g and TNF-a which may be linked to T. cruzi-induced IL-12 production

  17. Titanium surfaces with nanotopography modulate cytokine production in cultured human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz-Filho, Humberto Osvaldo; Morandini, Ana Carolina Faria; Ramos-Junior, Erivan Schnaider; Jimbo, Ryo; Santos, Carlos Ferreira; Marcantonio, Elcio; Wennerberg, Ann; Marcantonio, Rosemary Adriana Chiérici

    2012-10-01

    Implant topography is an important factor that influences many cell types. To understand the role of topography in the inflammatory events, we evaluated the response of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) by the release pattern of cytokines. HGFs were cultured on Ti discs for 24 and 48 h. Four different surface treatments were used: machining method (turned), blasting followed by an acid-etching method (BAE), oxidative nanopatterning (ON) method, and an association of blasting followed by an acid-etching plus oxidative nanopatterning (BAE+ON) method. Extracellular levels of IL-6, IL-8, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), IL-4, and IL-10 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Increased levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were observed in all surfaces after 24 h which decreased after 48 h. BAE, ON, and BAE+ON surfaces showed a reduction in IL-6 levels compared with the turned after 48 h (p < 0.05). On one hand, IL-8 production was lower in BAE+ON in comparison to the turned surface (p < 0.05). On the other hand, IL-4 showed increased levels with 48 h, which were significantly different between turned, BAE, and ON surfaces, but not with BAE+ON. Additionally, TGF-β and IL-10 production were not detected. This study indicates that nanotopography might be important in the modulation of the inflammatory response in cultured HGFs. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Evaluation of tissue reaction, cell viability and cytokine production induced by Sealapex Plus

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    João Eduardo Gomes-Filho

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA, Sealapex, and a combination of Sealapex and MTA (Sealapex Plus on the reaction of subcutaneous connective tissue of rats, and on cell viability and cytokine production in mouse fibroblasts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The tissue reaction was carried out with dentin tubes containing the materials implanted in the dorsal connective tissue of rats. The histological analysis was performed after 7 and 30 days. Millipore culture plate inserts with polyethylene tubes filled with materials were placed into 24-well cell culture plates with mouse fibroblasts to evaluate the cell viability by MTT assay. ELISA assays were also performed after 24 h of exposure of the mouse fibroblasts to set material disks. RESULTS: Histopathologic examination showed Von Kossa-positive granules that were birefringent to polarized light for all the studied materials at the tube openings. No material inhibited the cell viability in the in vitro test. It was detected IL-6 production in all root-end filling materials. MTA and Sealapex Plus induced a slight raise of mean levels of IL-1β. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that Sealapex Plus is biocompatible and stimulates the mineralization of the tissue.

  19. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits cytokine production by human blood monocytes at the post-transcriptional level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, K; Haahr, P M; Diamant, M

    1992-01-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] inhibits lymphocyte proliferation and production of antibodies and lymphokines such as interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon gamma. These lymphocyte functions are dependent upon cytokines, including IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (...

  20. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 modulates cytokine production induced by Candida albicans: impact of seasonal variation of immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoo, A.L.; Chai, L.; Koenen, H.J.P.M.; Kullberg, B.J.; Joosten, I.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Netea, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our interest in immunological effects produced by vitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) and its therapeutic potential prompted us to examine the role of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on cytokine production by Candida albicans. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with stimulated C. albicans and

  1. Modulation of murine cellular immune response and cytokine production by salivary gland lysate of three sand fly species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohoušová, Iva; Volf, P.; Lipoldová, Marie

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 27 (2005), s. 469-473 ISSN 0141-9838 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA310/03/1381 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : cytokine production * Lutzomyia * Phlebotomus Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.445, year: 2005

  2. Citrus tachibana Leaves Ethanol Extract Alleviates Airway Inflammation by the Modulation of Th1/Th2 Imbalance via Inhibiting NF-κB Signaling and Histamine Secretion in a Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thi Tho; Piao, Chun Hua; Kim, Soo Mi; Song, Chang Ho; Shin, Hee Soon; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Chai, Ok Hee

    2017-07-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of bronchial airway, which is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, airway edema, goblet cell hyperplasia, the aberrant production of the Th2 cytokines, and eosinophil infiltration in the lungs. In this study, the therapeutic effect and the underlying mechanism of Citrus tachibana leaves ethanol extract (CTLE) in the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma and compound 48/80-induced anaphylaxis were investigated. Oral administration of CTLE inhibited OVA-induced asthmatic response by reducing airway inflammation, OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 levels, and increasing OVA-specific IgG2a levels. CTLE restored Th1/Th2 balance through an increase in Th2 cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-6 and decreases in Th1 cytokines interferon-γ and IL-12. Furthermore, CTLE inhibited the total level of NF-κB and the phosphorylation of IκB-α and NF-κB by OVA. In addition, CTLE dose-dependently inhibited compound 48/80-induced anaphylaxis via blocking histamine secretion from mast cells. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of CTLE may involve the modulation of Th1/Th2 imbalance via inhibiting the NF-κB signaling and histamine secretion. Taken together, we suggest that CTLE could be used as a therapeutic agent for patients with Th2-mediated or histamine-mediated allergic asthma.

  3. Synergistic immune responses induced by endogenous retrovirus and herpesvirus antigens result in increased production of inflammatory cytokines in multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudek, T; Christensen, T; Hansen, H J

    2008-01-01

    (ELISAs), we have performed a comparative study between MS patients and healthy controls to investigate the production of interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL) 2, or IL-10 as well as the balance between Th1 and Th2 responses in supernatants from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated...... with HERV and herpes antigen combinations. We have found a significant disproportion in Th1/Th2 responses in PBMCs from MS patients caused by the joint presence of HERV and herpes antigens. The results also showed a significantly higher IFN-gamma production in cells from MS patients; additionally......, this production correlated with the synergistic cell proliferations whereas we did not find such a correlation in healthy controls. Our findings suggest that the increased production of IFN-gamma and the induced imbalance in Th1/Th2 responses favouring the inflammatory reactions in MS patients may lead...

  4. Gefitinib and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate decrease viral replication and cytokine production in dengue virus infected human monocyte cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Anyelo; Valero, Nereida; Mosquera, Jesús; Fuenmayor, Edgard; Alvarez-Mon, Melchor

    2017-12-15

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and nucleotide-binding and oligomerization-domain containing 2 (NOD2) are important in cancer and in microbial recognition, respectively. These molecules trigger intracellular signaling pathways inducing the expression of inflammatory genes by NF-kB translocation. Gefitinib (GBTC) and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) are capable of inhibiting EGFR/NOD2 and NF-kB, respectively. In earlier stages of dengue virus (DENV) infection, monocytes are capable of sustaining viral replication and increasing cytokine production, suggesting that monocyte/macrophages play an important role in early DENV replication. GBTC and PDTC have not been used to modify the pathogenesis of DENV in infected cells. This study was aimed to determine the effect of GBTC and PDTC on viral replication and cytokine production in DENV serotype 2 (DENV2)-infected human monocyte cultures. GBTC and PDTC were used to inhibit EGFR/NOD2 and NF-kB, respectively. Cytokine production was measured by ELISA and viral replication by plaque forming unit assay. Increased DENV2 replication and anti-viral cytokine production (IFN-α/β, TNF-α, IL-12 and IL-18) in infected cultures were found. These parameters were decreased after EGFR/NOD2 or NF-kB inhibitions. The inhibitory effects of GBTC and PDTC on viral replication and cytokine production can be beneficial in the treatment of patients infected by dengue and suggest a possible role of EGFR/NOD2 receptors and NF-kB in dengue pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-6 Cytokine Production and Their Correlation with Genotype Variants amongst Tuberculosis Patients and Their Household Contacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya Joshi

    Full Text Available Household contacts of diagnostically established tuberculosis (TB patients are highly susceptible to disease development. It is surmised that cytokines perhaps play a synergistic and a prognostic role in the activation of the otherwise latent infection in these house hold contacts. Evaluation of the cytokines and any of their inherent polymorphisms might provide a useful diagnostic tool in evaluating the immune regulation and the progression of the disease. The cytokines thus released in a paracrine manner in serum may also provide an indirect measure of the cytokine function.The present study was aimed to evaluate the levels of TNF-α, IL-10 & IL-6 cytokines and their correlation with genotype variants amongst tuberculosis patients and their household contacts.The cytokine levels were estimated in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and their polymorphisms were studied by amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMs PCR in active pulmonary tuberculosis patients (APTB = 150, household contacts (HHC = 190, and healthy controls (HC = 150.The median values of TNF-α cytokine were significantly high among APTB and HHC compared to HCs (P< 0.0001 and 0.0001. IL-6 levels also were elevated among APTB compared to HHC and HC, and a significant difference was observed between APTB and HHC at P<0.0001; APTB & HC at P< 0.04; HHC & HC at P< 0.01. The IL-10 levels were low in APTB compared to HHC and HCs and no significant difference was observed. TNF-α/IL-10 ratio was significant and indicated Th1 predominance in APTB and HHC. IL-6/IL-10 showed pronounced Th1 expression in APTB and Th2 in HHC and HC. The ROC analysis indicated that both IL-10 and IL-6 can be used to decide the risk of exposed individual to a disease. The results of multivariate analysis indicate that IL-10 (-1082 GA genotype was significantly associated with p<0.028 in APTB. No significant association was observed between genotypes, other serum

  6. Altered Cytokine Production By Specific Human Peripheral Blood Cell Subsets Immediately Following Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Cubbage, Michael L.; Sams, Clarence F.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we have attempted to combine standard immunological assays with the cellular resolving power of the flow cytometer to positively identify the specific cell types involved in spaceflight-induced immune alterations. We have obtained whole blood samples from 27 astronauts collected at three timepoints (L-10, R+0 and R+3) surrounding four recent space shuttle missions. The duration of these missions ranged from 10 to 18 days. Assays performed included serum/urine cortisol, comprehensive subset phenotyping, assessment of cellular activation markers and intracellular cytokine production following mitogenic stimulation. Absolute levels of peripheral granulocytes were significantly elevated following spaceflight, but the levels of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes were unchanged. Lymphocyte subset analysis demonstrated trends towards a decreased percentage of T cells and an increased percentage of B cells. Nearly all of the astronauts exhibited an increased CD4:CD8 ratio, which was dramatic in some individuals. Assessment of memory (CD45RA+) vs. naive (CD45RO+) CD4+ T cell subsets was more ambiguous, with subjects tending to group more as a flight crew. All subjects from one mission demonstrated an increased CD45RA:CD45RO ratio, while all subjects from another Mission demonstrated a decreased ratio. While no significant trend was seen in the monocyte population as defined by scatter, a decreased percentage of the CD14+ CD16+ monocyte subset was seen following spaceflight in all subjects tested. In general, most of the cellular changes described above which were assessed at R+O and compared to L-10 trended to pre-flight levels by R+3. Although no significant differences were seen in the expression of the cellular activation markers CD69 and CD25 following exposure to microgravity, significant alterations were seen in cytokine production in response to mitogenic activation for specific subsets. T cell (CD3+) production of IL-2 was significantly decreased

  7. The Effect of IL-4 Gene Polymorphisms on Cytokine Production in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis and in Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirina Bartova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic periodontitis (CP is an inflammatory disease of the teeth-supporting tissues in which genetic predisposition, dental plaque bacteria, and immune mechanisms all play important roles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of IL-4 gene polymorphisms in chronic periodontitis and to investigate the association between polymorphisms and cytokines production after bacterial stimulation. Sixty-two subjects (47 CP patients and 15 healthy controls with detected two polymorphisms in the IL-4 gene (-590C/T and intron 3 VNTR were examined. Production of cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, TNFα, INFγ, and VEGF was studied after in vitro stimulation of isolated peripheral blood by mitogens (Pokeweed mitogen, Concanavalin A, dental plaque bacteria (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia, and Heat Shock Protein (HSP 70 by the Luminex multiplex cytokine analysis system. The results were correlated with IL-4 genotypes in patients with CP and healthy controls. The mononuclear cells isolated from peripheral blood of CP patients with selected IL-4 polymorphisms significantly altered the production of IFNγ, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-1α, TNFα, and IL-6 after stimulation by HSP 70 or selected bacteria (from P<0.001 to P<0.05. IL-4 gene polymorphisms may influence the function of mononuclear cells to produce not only interleukin-4 but also other cytokines, especially in patients with CP.

  8. Effects of γ-rays on Th1 and Th2 immune function of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Wei; Cui Yufang; An Xiaoxia; Xu Han; Dong Bo; Liu Xiaolan; Luo Qingliang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of 6 Gy whole body γ-irradiation on immune function of Th1 and Th2 in mouse, and to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanism of immune system injury induced by irradiation. Methods: Surface marker and intracellular cytokines of lymphocytes were stained with fluorescence-labeled monoclonal antibodies, then the changes of lymphocyte subpopulations, especially the Th1 and Th2 in mouse peripheral blood and spleen were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: (1) 1 d after 6 Gy y- irradiation, lymphocytic subsets of CD 19 + and CD 8 + in spleen decreased apparently and the percentages of them were only 30% and 41% of control groups respectively (P 19 + and 14 d for CD 8 + respectively, however, up to 21 d post-irradiation they still did not return to control level. (2) Th1 subpopulations in mouse peripheral blood and spleen were significantly reduced at 1 d after irradiation and were only 2.6% and 7.6% of control groups (P 4 + / CD 8 + were significantly increased at 1 d post-irradiation in mouse spleen because of swift reduction of CD 8 + cells. Interestingly, either in peripheral blood or in spleen in irradiated mice, the ratio of Th1/Th2 were evidently raised because of the decrement of Th1 cells, exhibited obviously a phenomenon of predominant immune response of Th2 cells. Conclusions: It is suggested that the depression of mouse immune function induced by 6 Gy γ-irradiation might be caused by changes of CD 4 + /CD 8 + ratio, especially the imbalance of Th1/Th2 function subpopulations. It is shown that the imbalance of Th1/Th2 function subpopulations plays an important role in radiation-induced immune injury, thus providing a better insight into the molecular mechanism and new strategies for prevent and treatment measures of immune injury by irradiation. (authors)

  9. Activation of LXRs using the synthetic agonist GW3965 represses the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by murine mast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Nunomura

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: These findings demonstrate, for the first time, that the activation of LXRs by GW3965 attenuates the antigen- or LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1α and IL-1β, in murine MCs and that LXRβ plays an important role in the LXR-mediated repression of cytokine production.

  10. Cytokine production by cells in cerebrospinal fluid during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in SJL/J mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renno, T; Lin, J Y; Piccirillo, C

    1994-01-01

    progression with infiltration by memory/effector CD4+ T cells, the major source of these cytokines. This cytokine upregulation was specific to the CNS, since other organs from the same animals did not express significant levels of IL-2 and IFN-gamma. CSF was obtained from the cisterna magna of unperfused mice...... and verified as such by absence of red blood cells (RBCs) and by immunoglobulin concentration orders of magnitude lower than in serum. Cytokine message was measured in RNA isolated from cells in CSF. Levels of IL-2 and IFN-gamma mRNA in CSF cells were significantly elevated in mild EAE and strongly upregulated...

  11. Simvastatin modulates gingival cytokine and MMP production in a rat model of ligature-induced periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouchrek Júnior JCE

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available José Carlos Elias Mouchrek Júnior,1 Cristina Gomes Macedo,2 Henrique Ballassini Abdalla,2 Ana Karina Saba,1 Lucas Novaes Teixeira,1 Adriana Quinzeiro e Silva Mouchrek,3 Marcelo Henrique Napimoga,1 Juliana Trindade Clemente-Napimoga,1 Alvaro Henrique Borges,4 Mateus Rodrigues Tonetto,4 Shelon Cristina Souza Pinto,5 Matheus Coelho Bandeca,3 Elizabeth Ferreira Martinez1 1Laboratory of Cell and Molecular Biology, São Leopoldo Mandic Institute and Research Center, Campinas, 2Physiological Sciences, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, 3Department of Dentistry, CEUMA University, São Luis, Maranhão, 4Department of Integrated Dental Science, University of Cuiaba, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, 5Department of Dentistry, Ponta Grossa State University, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of simvastatin on the synthesis of cytokines TNF-α and IL-10 and metalloproteinase (MMPs 2 and 9 in a rat model of ligature-induced periodontitis.Materials and methods: Twenty Wistar rats were used, and a cotton ligature was place in a subgingival position encircling the entire cervix of the first molar of the left (ipsilateral side of the mandible. The right (contralateral side of the mandible had no ligature placed and was used as control. After the ligature placement, animals were randomly assigned to two experimental groups (n=10: 1 rats with ligature + vehicle (saline; 10 mL/kg; orally and 2 rats with ligature + simvastatin (25 mg/kg; orally. After 14 days of treatment, the animals were euthanized by anesthetic overdose and the gingival tissue was removed and homogenized in appropriate buffer. MMP-2 and -9 release as well as the IL-10 and TNF-α levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical comparison was performed by unpaired Student’s t-test, with p<0.05 representing significance.Results: No differences were observed for TNF-α production between the

  12. Cytokine production by leukocytes of military personnel with depressive symptoms after deployment to a combat-zone: a prospective, longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam van Zuiden

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is frequently diagnosed in military personnel returning from deployment. Literature suggests that MDD is associated with a pro-inflammatory state. To the best of our knowledge, no prospective, longitudinal studies on the association between development of depressive symptomatology and cytokine production by peripheral blood leukocytes have been published. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of depressive symptomatology six months after military deployment is associated with the capacity to produce cytokines, as assessed before and after deployment. 1023 military personnel were included before deployment. Depressive symptoms and LPS- and T-cell mitogen-induced production of 16 cytokines and chemokines in whole blood cultures were measured before (T0, 1 (T1, and 6 (T2 months after return from deployment. Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM was used for data reduction into cytokine patterns. Multiple group latent growth modeling was used to investigate differences in the longitudinal course of cytokine production between individuals with (n = 68 and without (n = 665 depressive symptoms at T2. Individuals with depressive symptoms after deployment showed higher T-cell cytokine production before deployment. Moreover, pre-deployment T-cell cytokine production significantly predicted the presence of depressive symptomatology 6 months after return. There was an increase in T-cell cytokine production over time, but this increase was significantly smaller in individuals developing depressive symptoms. T-cell chemokine and LPS-induced innate cytokine production decreased over time and were not associated with depressive symptoms. These results indicate that increased T-cell mitogen-induced cytokine production before deployment may be a vulnerability factor for development of depressive symptomatology in response to deployment to a combat-zone. In addition, deployment to a combat

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosislpdC, Rv0462, induces dendritic cell maturation and Th1 polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Deok Rim [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sung Jae; Kim, Woo Sik [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Munwha-Dong, Jung-Ku, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Kyung Tae; Park, Jin Wook; Son, Kwang Hee [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won Sun [Department of Physiology, Kangwon National University, School of Medicine, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Min-Goo [Department of Physiology, Korea University, College of Medicine, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Daejin [Department of Anatomy, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, 221 Heuksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Yong Kyoo [Department of Pharmacology, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, 221 Heuksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, In Duk, E-mail: jungid@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yeong-Min, E-mail: immunpym@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment with Rv0462 induces the expression of surface molecules and the production of cytokines in DCs. {yields} Rv0462 induces the activation of MAPKs. {yields} Rv0462-treated DCs enhances the proliferation of CD4{sup +} T cells. -- Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological factor of pulmonary tuberculosis, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Activation of host immune responses for containment of mycobacterial infections involves participation of innate immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we demonstrated that the gene encoding lipoamide dehydrogenase C (lpdC) from M. tuberculosis, Rv0462, induce maturation and activation of DCs involved in the MAPKs signaling pathway. Moreover, Rv0462-treated DCs activated naive T cells, polarized CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells to secrete IFN-{gamma} in syngeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions, which would be expected to contribute to Th1 polarization of the immune response. Our results suggest that Rv0462 can contribute to the innate and adaptive immune responses during tuberculosis infection, and thus modulate the clinical course of tuberculosis.

  14. Controlling neuropathic pain by adeno-associated virus driven production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flotte Terence R

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite many decades of drug development, effective therapies for neuropathic pain remain elusive. The recent recognition of spinal cord glia and glial pro-inflammatory cytokines as important contributors to neuropathic pain suggests an alternative therapeutic strategy; that is, targeting glial activation or its downstream consequences. While several glial-selective drugs have been successful in controlling neuropathic pain in animal models, none are optimal for human use. Thus the aim of the present studies was to explore a novel approach for controlling neuropathic pain. Here, an adeno-associated viral (serotype II; AAV2 vector was created that encodes the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10 (IL-10. This anti-inflammatory cytokine is known to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Upon intrathecal administration, this novel AAV2-IL-10 vector was successful in transiently preventing and reversing neuropathic pain. Intrathecal administration of an AAV2 vector encoding beta-galactosidase revealed that AAV2 preferentially infects meningeal cells surrounding the CSF space. Taken together, these data provide initial support that intrathecal gene therapy to drive the production of IL-10 may prove to be an efficacious treatment for neuropathic pain.

  15. An Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. Inhibits Human Macrophage Cytokine Production Induced by Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nateelak Kooltheat

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, despite these findings there has been little work done on the effects of MO on immune cellular function. Since macrophages, TNF and related cytokines play an important pathophysiologic role in lung damage induced by cigarette smoke, we examined the effects of MO on cigarette smoke extract (CSE—induced cytokine production by human macrophages. An ethyl acetate fraction of MO (MOEF was prepared from fresh leaves extract of Moringa and shown to consist of high levels of phenolic and antioxidant activities. Human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM pre-treated with varying concentrations of MOEF showed decreased production of TNF, IL-6 and IL-8 in response to both LPS and CSE. The decrease was evident at both cytokine protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, the extract inhibited the expression of RelA, a gene implicated in the NF-κB p65 signaling in inflammation. The findings highlight the ability of MOEF to inhibit cytokines (IL-8 which promote the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs and others (TNF, IL-6 which mediate tissue disease and damage.

  16. The beneficial effect of total glucosides of paeony on psoriatic arthritis links to circulating Tregs and Th1 cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi Na; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Ding Xian; Xu, Li Qin; Fang, Hong; Wu, Wei

    2014-03-01

    Total glycosides of peony (TGP) is a natural immuno-modulatory drug extracted from traditional Chinese herb peony. It has been approved by State Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. However, data of TGP effect on psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is still scarce. In this study, 19 patients with PsA received 12-week treatment of TGP, and clinical efficacy in joint manifestations was evaluated by DAS28 at weeks 0, 4, 8 and 12. Peripheral percentages of Tregs, Th1, Th2 and NK cells were analyzed, and serum Th1-type cytokines (IL-12, IFN-γ and TNF-α), Th2-type cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10) as well as pro-inflammatory factors (IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8) were concomitantly examined. Six patients (32%) exhibited ≥25% decrease of DAS28 (responders). Interestingly, all responders displayed a continuous decrease in Treg and Th1 numbers during TGP treatment, concomitant with significant decreases in Th1-type cytokine levels. Serum IL-6 also showed a significant decline in responders. Non-responders lacked these sequential alterations. Thus, TGP merits further consideration as a promising therapeutic option for PsA. The result indicated that recovery of Tregs and Th1 may serve as prognostic markers to assess responsiveness to TGP treatment in PsA. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Regulation of Cytokine Production by the Unfolded Protein Response; Implications for Infection and Autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Judith A. Smith; Judith A. Smith

    2018-01-01

    Protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an essential cell function. To safeguard this process in the face of environmental threats and internal stressors, cells mount an evolutionarily conserved response known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). Invading pathogens induce cellular stress that impacts protein folding, thus the UPR is well situated to sense danger and contribute to immune responses. Cytokines (inflammatory cytokines and interferons) critically mediate host defen...

  18. Differentiated THP-1 Cells Exposed to Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Borrelia Species Demonstrate Minimal Differences in Production of Four Inflammatory Cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, John V; Moraru, Gail M; McIntosh, Chelsea; Kummari, Evangel; Rausch, Keiko; Varela-Stokes, Andrea S

    2016-11-01

    Tick-borne borreliae include Lyme disease and relapsing fever agents, and they are transmitted primarily by ixodid (hard) and argasid (soft) tick vectors, respectively. Tick-host interactions during feeding are complex, with host immune responses influenced by biological differences in tick feeding and individual differences within and between host species. One of the first encounters for spirochetes entering vertebrate host skin is with local antigen-presenting cells, regardless of whether the tick-associated Borrelia sp. is pathogenic. In this study, we performed a basic comparison of cytokine responses in THP-1-derived macrophages after exposure to selected borreliae, including a nonpathogen. By using THP-1 cells, differentiated to macrophages, we eliminated variations in host response and reduced the system to an in vitro model to evaluate the extent to which the Borrelia spp. influence cytokine production. Differentiated THP-1 cells were exposed to four Borrelia spp., Borrelia hermsii (DAH), Borrelia burgdorferi (B31), B. burgdorferi (NC-2), or Borrelia lonestari (LS-1), or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) (activated) or media (no treatment) controls. Intracellular and secreted interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured using flow cytometric and Luminex-based assays, respectively, at 6, 24, and 48 h postexposure time points. Using a general linear model ANOVA for each cytokine, treatment (all Borrelia spp. and LPS compared to no treatment) had a significant effect on secreted TNF-α only. Time point had a significant effect on intracellular IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6. However, we did not see significant differences in selected cytokines among Borrelia spp. Thus, in this model, we were unable to distinguish pathogenic from nonpathogenic borreliae using the limited array of selected cytokines. While unique immune profiles may be detectable in an in vitro model and may reveal predictors for pathogenicity in borreliae

  19. The Leishmania promastigote surface antigen-2 (PSA-2) is specifically recognised by Th1 cells in humans with naturally acquired immunity to L. major

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Handman, E; Kemp, K

    1998-01-01

    The promastigote surface antigen-2 (PSA-2) is a Leishmania parasite antigen, which can induce Th1-mediated protection against murine leishmaniasis when used as a vaccine. To evaluate PSA-2 as a human vaccine candidate the specific T-cell response to PSA-2 was characterised in individuals immune......-beta, and little interleukin-4, thereby showing a Th1 cytokine pattern. Parallel cultures showed clear Th1 and Th2 response patterns to purified protein derivative of tuberculin or tetanus toxoid, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that PSA-2 induced blastogenesis in the CD3 positive population...... and that these cells were the major source of interferon-gamma. The results show that Th1-like cells recognising PSA-2 are expanded during infection by L. major and that they maintain their Th1-like cytokine profile upon reactivation in vitro. Since immunity to cutaneous leishmaniasis is mediated by antigen...

  20. Opposing roles of STAT4 and Dnmt3a in Th1 gene regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Duy; Yu, Qing; Walline, Crystal C.; Muthukrishnan, Rajarajeswari; Blum, Janice S.; Kaplan, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    The Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription factor STAT4 is a critical regulator of Th1 differentiation and inflammatory disease. Yet, how STAT4 regulates gene expression is still unclear. In this report, we define a STAT4-dependent sequence of events including H3K4 methylation, Jmjd3 association with STAT4 target loci, and a Jmjd3-dependent decrease in H3K27 trimethylation and DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) 3a association with STAT4 target loci. Dnmt3a has an obligate role in repressing Th1 gene expression, and in Th1 cultures deficient in both STAT4 and Dnmt3a, there is recovery in the expression of a subset of Th1 genes that is sufficient to increase IFNγ production. Moreover, although STAT4-deficient mice are protected from the development of EAE, mice deficient in STAT4 and conditionally-deficient in Dnmt3a in T cells develop paralysis. Th1 genes that are de-repressed in the absence of Dnmt3a have greater induction following the ectopic expression of the Th1-associated transcription factors T-bet and Hlx1. Together, these data demonstrate that STAT4 and Dnmt3a play opposing roles in regulating Th1 gene expression, and that one mechanism for STAT4-dependent gene programming is in establishing a de-repressed genetic state susceptible to transactivation by additional fate-determining transcription factors. PMID:23772023

  1. Nickel-induced cytokine production from mononuclear cells in nickel-sensitive individuals and controls. Cytokine profiles in nickel-sensitive individuals with nickel allergy-related hand eczema before and after nickel challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, L; Christensen, J M; Kristiansen, J

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to nickel is a major cause of allergic contact dermatitis which is considered to be an inflammatory response induced by antigen-specific T cells. Here we describe the in vitro analysis of the nickel-specific T-cell-derived cytokine response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 35...... was somewhat of a surprise, since previous studies have suggested a Th1 response in nickel-mediated allergic contact dermatitis. Subsequently, the nickel-allergic individuals were randomized to experimental exposure to nickel or vehicle in a double-blind design. A daily 10-min exposure of one finger to 10 ppm...... nickel solution for 1 week followed by 100 ppm for an additional week evoked a clinical response of hand eczema in the nickel-exposed group. Blood samples were drawn on days 7 and 14 after the start of this exposure to occupationally relevant concentrations of nickel. No statistically significant...

  2. Radiolabelled Interleukin-12, a new radiopharmaceutical for imaging chronic TH1-mediated inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annovazzi, A.; Cornelissen, B.; Slegers, G.; D'Alessandria, C.; Bonanno, E.; Signore, A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Cytokines have been extensively used to image inflammatory processes (IL1, IL2, IL6, IL8 and others). In particular, for chronic inflammation, labelled IL2 has been successfully used although it binds to both T helper-1 (Th1) and T helper-2 (Th2) cells. In order to increase the specificity for the detection of Th1-mediated inflammation (i.e. organ specific autoimmune diseases), we considered the possibility to label the interleukin-12 (IL12), an heterodimeric cytokine which play a key role in the development of Th1 cells. Objectives: Aim of the present study was to label the Interleukin-12 with 123I and to test its potential as radiopharmaceutical to image chronic inflammatory disorders. Methods: IL12 was labelled with 123I using the IODOGEN method and purified by gel-filtration chromatography on PD10 columns. 123I-IL12 biodistribution was studied in normal NMRI mice at 1,2 and 4h after injection. A mouse model of autoimmune chronic colitis induced by intrarectal instillation of Trinitrobenzen sulfonic acid (TNBS) has been used for imaging purposes and, as controls, mice receiving 50% ethanol in phosphate buffer saline. Results: 123I-IL12 labelling efficiency ranged between 52-65%. Results of biodistribution studies showed a rapid plasma clearance and a main renal excretion route. No significant 123I-IL12 accumulation in major organs and tissues was observed. 123I-IL12 accumulated in areas of chronic inflamed colon as assessed by histological examination. No significant 123I-IL12 uptake is detectable in mice with acute colitis, confirming the specificity of 123IIL12 binding on its receptors expressed on T-lymphocytes. Conclusions: We conclude that this cytokine could be used for the in vivo imaging of Th1 mediated inflammatory processes. (author)

  3. Circulating levels of Th1 and Th2 chemokines in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianing; Zhao, Qi; Wang, Gaoya; Yang, Chunshu; Xu, Yong; Li, Yujia; Yang, Pingting

    2016-05-01

    Although chemokines are critical elements for the selective attraction and activation of various leukocyte subsets in the inflammatory process, there are few findings concerning T helper (Th) 1 or Th2 chemokines in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). This study was designed to determine whether serum levels of chemokines that are preferentially chemotactic for Th1 (IFN-gamma-inducible protein-10, IP-10/CXCL10) and Th2 (thymus and activation regulated chemokine, TARC/CCL17) and (macrophage derived chemokine, MDC/CCL22) cells were elevated and whether they correlated with the clinical features in patients with AS. Forty-two patients with axial AS and 25 healthy controls were enrolled into the study. Serum levels of chemokines (IP-10, TARC and MDC) and cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-4) were examined using ELISA. The disease activity was evaluated by Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS). Serum levels of IgG, IgA, IgM, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Serum chemokine levels of IP-10, TARC and MDC were significantly higher in patients with AS than those in healthy controls. Serum cytokine levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α were also significantly increased, but the levels of IL-4 were not. Furthermore, IP-10 levels in AS patients correlated with ESP, CRP and ASDAS, while the levels of TARC and MDC did not correlate with these clinic indexes. Correlation analysis between the levels of chemokines and cytokines revealed a positive correlation between IP-10 and TNF-α. The levels of both Th1 and Th2 chemokines decreased under blockade of TNF-α. Our results suggest that both a Th1 chemoattractant IP-10 and Th2 chemoattractants, TARC and MDC, cooperatively play a role in the development of AS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunization with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells induces Th1 immune response in Balb/C mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Estefania M.N.; Andrade, Antero S.R. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: estefaniabio@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: antero@cdtn.br; Resende, Maria Aparecida de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: maresend@mono.icb.ufmg.br; Reis, Bernardo S.; Goes, Alfredo M. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia], e-mail: goes@mono.icb.ufmg.br, e-mail: brsgarbi@mono.icb.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America. To date, there is no effective vaccine. In our laboratory yeast cells of P. brasiliensis were attenuated by gamma irradiation. We defined an absorbed dose in which the pathogen loses the reproductive ability, while retaining the morphology, the synthesis and secretion of proteins and the oxidative metabolism. The immunization with these cells was able to confer protection in BALB/c mice. The aim of the present work was evaluate the immune response pathway activated in mice immunized with P. brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells. The protector effect was evaluated in BALB/c mice groups immunized once or twice, respectively. Each group was divided in three sub groups that were challenge 30, 45 or 60 days after the immunization. These groups were called G1A, G1B and G1C in the group immunized once and G2A, G2B and G2C in the group immunized twice. Recovery of CFUs and cytokines determination (IFN - {gamma}, IL - 10 and IL IV 4) were performed three months post challenge. Quantitative RT-PCR was the method of choice used to quantify the expression of cytokines. The sera were collected weekly to evaluate the IgG antibody titers and the IgG1 and IgG2a pattern in the course of infection. A significant reduction in CFUs recovery was verified 90 days post challenge in mice submitted to one immunization: 73.0%, 96.0% and 76.3% for sub-groups G1A, G1B and G1C, respectively. In the group submitted to two immunizations, a remarkable increase in the protection was obtained. No CFUs was recovered from sub-groups G2B and G2C and very few CFUs (reduction of 98.6%) were recovered from the lungs of sub group G2A. In mice submitted to one immunization, Th1 and Th2 cytokines were simultaneously produced. In the group submitted to two immunizations, levels of IL-10 and IL-4 were very low, while IFN-{gamma} production was maintained indicating that a Th1 pattern was

  5. Immunization with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells induces Th1 immune response in Balb/C mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Estefania M.N.; Andrade, Antero S.R.; Resende, Maria Aparecida de; Reis, Bernardo S.; Goes, Alfredo M.

    2009-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America. To date, there is no effective vaccine. In our laboratory yeast cells of P. brasiliensis were attenuated by gamma irradiation. We defined an absorbed dose in which the pathogen loses the reproductive ability, while retaining the morphology, the synthesis and secretion of proteins and the oxidative metabolism. The immunization with these cells was able to confer protection in BALB/c mice. The aim of the present work was evaluate the immune response pathway activated in mice immunized with P. brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells. The protector effect was evaluated in BALB/c mice groups immunized once or twice, respectively. Each group was divided in three sub groups that were challenge 30, 45 or 60 days after the immunization. These groups were called G1A, G1B and G1C in the group immunized once and G2A, G2B and G2C in the group immunized twice. Recovery of CFUs and cytokines determination (IFN - γ, IL - 10 and IL IV 4) were performed three months post challenge. Quantitative RT-PCR was the method of choice used to quantify the expression of cytokines. The sera were collected weekly to evaluate the IgG antibody titers and the IgG1 and IgG2a pattern in the course of infection. A significant reduction in CFUs recovery was verified 90 days post challenge in mice submitted to one immunization: 73.0%, 96.0% and 76.3% for sub-groups G1A, G1B and G1C, respectively. In the group submitted to two immunizations, a remarkable increase in the protection was obtained. No CFUs was recovered from sub-groups G2B and G2C and very few CFUs (reduction of 98.6%) were recovered from the lungs of sub group G2A. In mice submitted to one immunization, Th1 and Th2 cytokines were simultaneously produced. In the group submitted to two immunizations, levels of IL-10 and IL-4 were very low, while IFN-γ production was maintained indicating that a Th1 pattern was dominant. For

  6. Dysregulated cytokine production by dendritic cells modulates B cell responses in the NZM2410 mouse model of lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Sang

    Full Text Available The breakdown in tolerance of autoreactive B cells in the lupus-prone NZM2410-derived B6.Sle1.Sle2.Sle3 (TC mice results in the secretion of autoantibodies. TC dendritic cells (DCs enhance B cell proliferation and antibody secretion in a cytokine-dependent manner. However, the specific cytokine milieu by which TC DCs activate B cells was not known. In this study, we compared TC and C57BL/6 (B6 control for the distribution of DC subsets and for their production of cytokines affecting B cell responses. We show that TC DCs enhanced B cell proliferation through the production of IL-6 and IFN-γ, while antibody secretion was only dependent on IL-6. Pre-disease TC mice showed an expanded PDCA1(+ cells prior to disease onset that was localized to the marginal zone and further expanded with age. The presence of PDCA1(+ cells in the marginal zone correlated with a Type I Interferon (IFN signature in marginal zone B cells, and this response was higher in TC than B6 mice. In vivo administration of anti-chromatin immune complexes upregulated IL-6 and IFN-γ production by splenic DCs from TC but not B6 mice. The production of BAFF and APRIL was decreased upon TC DC stimulation both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that these B cell survival factors do not play a role in B cell modulation by TC DCs. Finally, TC B cells were defective at downregulating IL-6 expression in response to anti-inflammatory apoptotic cell exposure. Overall, these results show that the TC autoimmune genetic background induces the production of B cell-modulating inflammatory cytokines by DCs, which are regulated by the microenvironment as well as the interplay between DC.

  7. Dysregulated Cytokine Production by Dendritic Cells Modulates B Cell Responses in the NZM2410 Mouse Model of Lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Allison; Zheng, Ying-Yi; Yin, Yiming; Dozmorov, Igor; Li, Hao; Hsu, Hui-Chen; Mountz, John D.; Morel, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    The breakdown in tolerance of autoreactive B cells in the lupus-prone NZM2410-derived B6.Sle1.Sle2.Sle3 (TC) mice results in the secretion of autoantibodies. TC dendritic cells (DCs) enhance B cell proliferation and antibody secretion in a cytokine-dependent manner. However, the specific cytokine milieu by which TC DCs activate B cells was not known. In this study, we compared TC and C57BL/6 (B6) control for the distribution of DC subsets and for their production of cytokines affecting B cell responses. We show that TC DCs enhanced B cell proliferation through the production of IL-6 and IFN-γ, while antibody secretion was only dependent on IL-6. Pre-disease TC mice showed an expanded PDCA1+ cells prior to disease onset that was localized to the marginal zone and further expanded with age. The presence of PDCA1+ cells in the marginal zone correlated with a Type I Interferon (IFN) signature in marginal zone B cells, and this response was higher in TC than B6 mice. In vivo administration of anti-chromatin immune complexes upregulated IL-6 and IFN-γ production by splenic DCs from TC but not B6 mice. The production of BAFF and APRIL was decreased upon TC DC stimulation both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that these B cell survival factors do not play a role in B cell modulation by TC DCs. Finally, TC B cells were defective at downregulating IL-6 expression in response to anti-inflammatory apoptotic cell exposure. Overall, these results show that the TC autoimmune genetic background induces the production of B cell-modulating inflammatory cytokines by DCs, which are regulated by the microenvironment as well as the interplay between DC. PMID:25093822

  8. IFN-γ-producing Th1-like regulatory T cells may limit acute cellular renal allograft rejection: Paradoxical post-transplantation effects of IFN-γ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoguang; Huang, Haiyan; Wang, Qiang; Cai, Ming; Qian, Yeyong; Han, Yong; Wang, Xinying; Gao, Yu; Yuan, Ming; Xu, Liang; Yao, Chen; Xiao, Li; Shi, Bingyi

    2017-02-01

    IFN-γ is a protypical proinflammatory cytokine that plays a central role in inflammation and acute graft rejection. Accumulating evidence indicates that IFN-γ can exert previously unexpected immunoregulatory activities. However, little is known about the role of IFN-γ secreted by Th1-like regulatory T cells in human kidney transplantation. To determine the function of IFN-γ in acute T cell-mediated renal allograft rejection (ACR), we examined serum cytokine expression profiles in ACR patients by human cytokine multiplex immunoassay and analyzed the cellular origins of IFN-γ in peripheral blood and renal allograft biopsies from ACR cases and controls by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The results showed significant reduction in serum concentrations of Th1-inducing cytokines IL-12p70 and IFN-γ as well as Th2-related cytokine IL-4 in ACR patients compared with stable controls. However, levels of several Th1-, Th2- and Th17-related cytokines, such as IL-2, TNF-α, TNF-β, IL-12 (p40), IL-10, IL-15, IL-17, IL-21, and IL-23, as well as the frequencies of Th1 and Th17 cell, did not differ between ACR cases and stable controls. Moreover, we found the levels of IFN-γ were correlated with those of the anti-inflammatory factor, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in ACR. Notably, the Th1-like Treg cell-to-Foxp3 - Th1 cell ratio was significantly lower in ACR patients compared with that in stable controls. In graft biopsies from ACR patients, Treg cells and Th1-like Treg cells were less abundant than those without ACR. Our study indicates that IFN-γ secreted from Th1-like Treg cells negatively modulates ACR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Epigenetic changes in T-cell and monocyte signatures and production of neurotoxic cytokines in ALS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Larry; Chin, Lydia; Halder, Ramesh C; Sagong, Bien; Famenini, Sam; Sayre, James; Montoya, Dennis; Rubbi, Liudmilla; Pellegrini, Matteo; Fiala, Milan

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated transcriptional and epigenetic differences in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of monozygotic female twins discordant in the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Exploring DNA methylation differences by reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS), we determined that, over time, the ALS twin developed higher abundances of the CD14 macrophages and lower abundances of T cells compared to the non-ALS twin. Higher macrophage signature in the ALS twin was also shown by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Moreover, the twins differed in the methylome at loci near several genes, including EGFR and TNFRSF11A, and in the pathways related to the tretinoin and H3K27me3 markers. We also tested cytokine production by PBMCs. The ALS twin's PBMCs spontaneously produced IL-6 and TNF-α, whereas PBMCs of the healthy twin produced these cytokines only when stimulated by superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1. These results and flow cytometric detection of CD45 and CD127 suggest the presence of memory T cells in both twins, but effector T cells only in the ALS twin. The ALS twin's PBMC supernatants, but not the healthy twin's, were toxic to rat cortical neurons, and this toxicity was strongly inhibited by an IL-6 receptor antibody (tocilizumab) and less well by TNF-α and IL-1β antibodies. The putative neurotoxicity of IL-6 and TNF-α is in agreement with a high expression of these cytokines on infiltrating macrophages in the ALS spinal cord. We hypothesize that higher macrophage abundance and increased neurotoxic cytokines have a fundamental role in the phenotype and treatment of certain individuals with ALS.-Lam, L., Chin, L., Halder, R. C., Sagong, B., Famenini, S., Sayre, J., Montoya, D., Rubbi L., Pellegrini, M., Fiala, M. Epigenetic changes in T-cell and monocyte signatures and production of neurotoxic cytokines in ALS patients. © FASEB.

  10. CD163 and CD206 expression does not correlate with tolerance and cytokine production in LPS-tolerant human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Januzzi, Amanda Barba; Brunialti, Milena Karina Colo; Salomao, Reinaldo

    2017-05-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-tolerant monocytes produce small amounts of inflammatory cytokines, which is one of the characteristics of the alternative activated macrophages (AAM). These cells exhibited an increased expression of CD206 and CD163. Given the functional similarities of AAMs with the modulation of monocytes' functions observed during sepsis and LPS-tolerance, we evaluated whether the inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production by LPS-tolerant monocytes is associated with the phenotype of cells expressing CD206 and CD163. We investigated whether tolerant human monocytes would modulate their expression of CD206 and CD163, markers of alternative activation, and whether the level of their expression would be related to cytokines detection. Tolerance to LPS was induced in peripheral blood mononuclear cell by pre-incubating the cells with increasing concentrations of LPS. The expression of CD206 and CD163 and intracellular TNF-α and IL-6 was determined 24 h after LPS challenge by flow cytometry. No differences in CD163 expression were observed between tolerant and non-tolerant cells, while the expression of CD206, which was decreased following LPS stimulation in non-tolerized cells, was further reduced in tolerant cells. Decreased production of inflammatory cytokines was observed in the tolerized cells, regardless of the expression of CD163 and CD206, with the exception of IL-6 in CD206+ monocytes, which was similarly expressed in both tolerized and non-tolerized cells. The effect of LPS in the expression of CD163 and CD206 on monocytes is not reverted in LPS tolerant cells, and the inhibition of inflammatory cytokines in tolerant cells is not related with modulation of these receptors. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  11. Dysregulated CD46 shedding interferes with Th1-contraction in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinghaus, Ursula; Cortini, Andrea; Pinder, Christopher L; Le Friec, Gaelle; Kemper, Claudia; Vyse, Timothy J

    2017-07-01

    IFN-γ-producing T helper 1 (Th1) cell responses mediate protection against infections but uncontrolled Th1 activity also contributes to a broad range of autoimmune diseases. Autocrine complement activation has recently emerged as key in the induction and contraction of human Th1 immunity: activation of the complement regulator CD46 and the C3aR expressed by CD4 + T cells via autocrine generated ligands C3b and C3a, respectively, are critical to IFN-γ production. Further, CD46-mediated signals also induce co-expression of immunosuppressive IL-10 in Th1 cells and transition into a (self)-regulating and contracting phase. In consequence, C3 or CD46-deficient patients suffer from recurrent infections while dysregulation of CD46 signaling contributes to Th1 hyperactivity in rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Here, we report a defect in CD46-regulated Th1 contraction in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We observed that MMP-9-mediated increased shedding of soluble CD46 by Th1 cells was associated with this defect and that inhibition of MMP-9 activity normalized release of soluble CD46 and restored Th1 contraction in patients' T cells. These data may deliver the first mechanistic explanation for the increased serum CD46 levels observed in SLE patients and indicate that targeting CD46-cleaving proteases could be a novel avenue to modulate Th1 responses. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Butyrate suppresses murine mast cell proliferation and cytokine production through inhibiting histone deacetylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanying; Du, Min; Yang, Qiyuan; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Beyond their nutritional impact to colonic epithelial cells, the intestinal microbiota metabolite butyrate has pleotropic effects to host cells and is known for its beneficial effects on intestinal homeostasis and metabolism. However, it remains unclear how it modulates mast cell function. Here, we demonstrate that butyrate profoundly inhibited proliferation of mouse mastocytoma P815 cells through inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, as well as decreasing c-Kit activation. In addition, butyrate increased early- and late-stage apoptotic P815 cells. In murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC), butyrate-suppressed FcεRI-dependent tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) release without affecting β-Hexosaminidase, but that was associated with decreased mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinases activation. Butyrate treatment substantially enhanced histone 3 acetylation in both P815 and BMMC and decreased FcεRI-dependent mRNA expression of tnf-α and il-6 in BMMC, mimicking the effect of Trichostatin A, a known histone deacetylase inhibitor. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that butyrate enhanced acetylation of the tnf-α and il-6 promoter regions but blocked RNA polymerase II binding to the promoters of tnf-α and il-6 genes, indicating suppressed transcription initiation. These phenotypes mimicked those of Trichostatin A treatment. In conclusion, butyrate inhibits cell proliferation and increases cell apoptosis in mastocytoma P815 cells and suppresses FcεRI-dependent cytokine production in murine primary BMMC, which are likely mediated by HDAC inhibition. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Impact of shed blood products on stimulated cytokine release in an in vitro model of transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S O; Biedler, A E; Behmenburg, F; Volk, T; Rensing, H

    2012-07-01

    Blood transfusion is reported to suppress the recipient's immune system. To avoid allogenic transfusion, post-operative shed blood retransfusion is a commonly used method. The aim of this study was to investigate the dose-related impact of post-operatively collected shed blood products on the stimulated cytokine release in an in vitro model of transfusion. Venous blood samples obtained from 20 patients undergoing hip arthroplasty were mixed with post-operatively collected unprocessed, processed, and irradiated shed blood as well as normal saline as a control. Shed blood was processed by centrifugation and separating the cellular fraction from the soluble fraction and washing the cellular fraction with phosphate buffered saline to eliminate any cell fragments and other substances. Mixing ratios were 1:3, 1:1, and 3:1. Endotoxin-stimulated release of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) was measured after 24 h of culture by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Unprocessed, irradiated shed blood and the soluble fraction caused a significant suppression of stimulated TNF-α release compared to control. The addition of the cellular shed blood fraction had no significant influence on the TNF-α release compared to control. Shed blood and its components caused a dose-independent immunomodulation as indicated by a suppressed stimulated TNF-α release. Leukocytes seem to play a minor role, as we observed a sustained suppression after transfusion of γ-irradiated shed blood. Only the elimination of soluble factors by centrifugation and followed by an additional washing step prevented the observed suppression of TNF-α. Thus, we assume that washing of shed blood can prevent potential detrimental effects. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica © 2012 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  14. Impact of lithium alone and in combination with antidepressants on cytokine production in vitro.

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    Petersein, Charlotte; Sack, Ulrich; Mergl, Roland; Schönherr, Jeremias; Schmidt, Frank M; Lichtblau, Nicole; Kirkby, Kenneth C; Bauer, Katrin; Himmerich, Hubertus

    2015-01-01

    Lithium is an important psychopharmacological agent for the treatment of unipolar as well as bipolar affective disorders. Lithium has a number of side effects such as hypothyroidism and aggravation of psoriasis. On the other hand, lithium has pro-inflammatory effects, which appear beneficial in some disorders associated with immunological deficits, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Therefore, immunological characteristics of lithium may be an important consideration in individualized therapeutic decisions. We measured the levels of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-22, IL-17 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the stimulated blood of thirty healthy subjects supplemented with lithium alone, the antidepressants citalopram, escitalopram or mirtazapine alone, the combination of each antidepressant with lithium, and a no drug control. These drugs were tested under three blood stimulant conditions: murine anti-human CD3 monoclonal antibody OKT3 and the 5C3 monoclonal antibody (OKT3/5C3), phytohemagglutinin (PHA), and unstimulated blood. Lithium, alone and in combination with any of the tested antidepressants, led to a consistent increase of IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in the unstimulated as well as the stimulated blood. In the OKT3/5C3- and PHA-stimulated blood, IL-17 production was significantly enhanced by lithium. Lithium additionally increased IL-2 concentrations significantly in PHA-stimulated blood. The data support the view that lithium has pro-inflammatory properties. These immunological characteristics may contribute to side effects of lithium, but may also explain its beneficial effects in patients suffering from HIV infection or SLE.

  15. Carnosol and Related Substances Modulate Chemokine and Cytokine Production in Macrophages and Chondrocytes

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    Joseph Schwager

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic diterpenes present in Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis have anti-inflammatory and chemoprotective effects. We investigated the in vitro effects of carnosol (CL, carnosic acid (CA, carnosic acid-12-methylether (CAME, 20-deoxocarnosol and abieta-8,11,13-triene-11,12,20-triol (ABTT in murine macrophages (RAW264.7 cells and human chondrocytes. The substances concentration-dependently reduced nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production in LPS-stimulated macrophages (i.e., acute inflammation. They significantly blunted gene expression levels of iNOS, cytokines/interleukins (IL-1α, IL-6 and chemokines including CCL5/RANTES, CXCL10/IP-10. The substances modulated the expression of catabolic and anabolic genes in chondrosarcoma cell line SW1353 and in primary human chondrocytes that were stimulated by IL-1β (i.e., chronic inflammation In SW1353, catabolic genes like MMP-13 and ADAMTS-4 that contribute to cartilage erosion were down-regulated, while expression of anabolic genes including Col2A1 and aggrecan were shifted towards pre-pathophysiological homeostasis. CL had the strongest overall effect on inflammatory mediators, as well as on macrophage and chondrocyte gene expression. Conversely, CAME mainly affected catabolic gene expression, whereas ABTT had a more selectively altered interleukin and chemokine gene exprssion. CL inhibited the IL-1β induced nuclear translocation of NF-κBp65, suggesting that it primarily regulated via the NF-κB signalling pathway. Collectively, CL had the strongest effects on inflammatory mediators and chondrocyte gene expression. The data show that the phenolic diterpenes altered activity pattern of genes that regulate acute and chronic inflammatory processes. Since the substances affected catabolic and anabolic gene expression in cartilage cells in vitro, they may beneficially act on the aetiology of osteoarthritis.

  16. Modulation of cytokine production by interferential current in differentiated HL-60 cells.

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    Sontag, W

    2000-04-01

    The influence of interferential current (IFC) on the release of four cytokines was investigated. IFC is an amplitude-modulated 4 kHz current used in therapeutic applications. Human promyelocytes (HL-60) were differentiated to monocytes/macrophages by treatment with calcitriol. Release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukines 1beta, 6, and 8 (IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8) into the supernatant was measured after exposure to IFC at different modulation frequencies. TNFalpha release was stimulated about twofold by 4 kHz sine waves alone. The influences of exposure time (5-30 min) and current density (2.5-2500 microA/c m(2)) were tested. A maximum field effect was found at an exposure time of 15 min and a current density of 250 microA/cm(2). With these exposure conditions (15 min and 250 microA/cm(2) ), cells were treated at different modulation frequencies and reacted for TNFalpha, IL-1beta, and IL-8 release in a complex manner. Within the frequencies studied (0-125 Hz), we found stimulation as well as depression of the release. In a second run the cells were activated by pretreatment with 10 microg/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and exposed in the same way as the nonactivated cells. Again the modulation frequency influenced, in a complex way, the induction of TNFalpha, IL-1beta, and IL-8, resulting in a pattern of stimulation and depression of release different from that found in nonactivated cells. For IL-6 production no significant changes were detected in activated or non-activated cells. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. MicroRNA-145 influences the balance of Th1/Th2 via regulating RUNX3 in asthma patients.

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    Fan, Linxia; Wang, Xiaojun; Fan, Linlan; Chen, Qizhang; Zhang, Hong; Pan, Hui; Xu, Aixia; Wang, Hongjuan; Yu, Yang

    To delineate the underlying mechanism of microRNA-145 modulate the balance of Th1/Th2 via targeting RUNX3 in asthma patients. Peripheral blood samples were collected from asthma patients and healthy controls. CD4 + T cells were isolated and cultured. Using quantitative PCR detect, the level of microRNA-145 and RUNX3 mRNA level in the CD4 + T cells from asthma patients and healthy controls, meanwhile, western blot was used to detect the RUNX3 protein level. Th1 or Th2 related cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay was performed to confirm the correlation between microRNA-145 and RUNX3. MicroRNA-145 mimic or inhibitor was transfected in the CD4 + T cells and the changes of RUNX3 level, Th1 or Th2 related cytokines and the percentage of Th1 and Th2 were observed after transfection. MicroRNA-145 level of CD4 + T cells was higher with a lower RUNX3 expression in asthma patients. There is negative correlation between microRNA-145 and RUNX3. Th2 hyperactivity and Th1 deficiency was detected in the CD4 + T cells of asthma patients. Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay has shown that RUNX3 is a target of microRNA. Up-regulation or down-regulation of miR-145 level caused RUNX3 expression changes in CD4 + T cells and influence the related cytokines. Inhibition of microRNA-145 may reverse the imbalance of Th1/Th2 in asthma patients. MicroRNA-145 could regulate the balance of Th1/Th2 through targeting the RUNX3 in asthma patients. MicroRNA-145 and RUNX3 may be used as biomarkers or targets in the diagnosis or therapy of asthma.

  18. Curcumin attenuates the scurfy-induced immune disorder, a model of IPEX syndrome, with inhibiting Th1/Th2/Th17 responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gihyun; Chung, Hwan-Suck; Lee, Kyeseok; Lee, Hyeonhoon; Kim, Minhwan; Bae, Hyunsu

    2017-09-15

    Immunodysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy X-linked syndrome (IPEX) is a lethal autoimmune disease caused by mutations in the Foxp3 gene scurfin (scurfy). Immunosuppressive therapy for IPEX patients has been generally ineffective and has caused severe side effects, however curcumin has shown immune regulation properties for inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel diseases without side effects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether curcumin would attenuate symptoms of IPEX in mouse model and would prolong its survival period. C57BL/6 mice were separated into scurfy or wild-type litter mate groups by genotyping, and each group subsequently was separated into 2 subgroups that were fed a 1% curcumin containing or normal diet from the last day of breast-feeding. After weaning, pups were fed either a 1% curcumin containing or normal diet until all scurfy mice die for survival data. To elucidate immune cell proportions in spleen and lymph nodes, cells were analyzed by flowcytometry. Cellular cytokine production was accessed to investigate the effects of curcumin in T cell differentiation in vitro. Scurfy mice fed a 1% curcumin diet survived 4.0-fold longer compared to scurfy (92.5 days) mice fed a normal diet (23 days). A curcumin diet decreased all of the Th1/Th2/Th17 cell populations and attenuated diverse symptoms such as splenomegaly in scurfy mice. In vitro experiments showed that curcumin treatment directly decreased the Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine production of IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17A in CD4 + T cells. Curcumin diet attenuated the scurfy-induced immune disorder, a model of IPEX syndrome, by inhibiting Th1/Th2/Th17 responses in mice. These results have implications for improving clinical therapy for patients with IPEX and other T cell related autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Induction of Th1-Biased T Follicular Helper (Tfh) Cells in Lymphoid Tissues during Chronic Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Defines Functionally Distinct Germinal Center Tfh Cells.

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    Velu, Vijayakumar; Mylvaganam, Geetha Hanna; Gangadhara, Sailaja; Hong, Jung Joo; Iyer, Smita S; Gumber, Sanjeev; Ibegbu, Chris C; Villinger, Francois; Amara, Rama Rao

    2016-09-01

    Chronic HIV infection is associated with accumulation of germinal center (GC) T follicular helper (Tfh) cells in the lymphoid tissue. The GC Tfh cells can be heterogeneous based on the expression of chemokine receptors associated with T helper lineages, such as CXCR3 (Th1), CCR4 (Th2), and CCR6 (Th17). However, the heterogeneous nature of GC Tfh cells in the lymphoid tissue and its association with viral persistence and Ab production during chronic SIV/HIV infection are not known. To address this, we characterized the expression of CXCR3, CCR4, and CCR6 on GC Tfh cells in lymph nodes following SIVmac251 infection in rhesus macaques. In SIV-naive rhesus macaques, only a small fraction of GC Tfh cells expressed CXCR3, CCR4, and CCR6. However, during chronic SIV infection, the majority of GC Tfh cells expressed CXCR3, whereas the proportion of CCR4(+) cells did not change, and CCR6(+) cells decreased. CXCR3(+), but not CXCR3(-), GC Tfh cells produced IFN-γ (Th1 cytokine) and IL-21 (Tfh cytokine), whereas both subsets expressed CD40L following stimulation. Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated an accumulation of CD4(+)IFN-γ(+) T cells within the hyperplastic follicles during chronic SIV infection. CXCR3(+) GC Tfh cells also expressed higher levels of ICOS, CCR5, and α4β7 and contained more copies of SIV DNA compared with CXCR3(-) GC Tfh cells. However, CXCR3(+) and CXCR3(-) GC Tfh cells delivered help to B cells in vitro for production of IgG. These data demonstrate that chronic SIV infection promotes expansion of Th1-biased GC Tfh cells, which are phenotypically and functionally distinct from conventional GC Tfh cells and contribute to hypergammaglobulinemia and viral reservoirs. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. Bordetella pertussis commits human dendritic cells to promote a Th1/Th17 response through the activity of adenylate cyclase toxin and MAPK-pathways.

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    Giorgio Fedele

    Full Text Available The complex pathology of B. pertussis infection is due to multiple virulence factors having disparate effects on different cell types. We focused our investigation on the ability of B. pertussis to modulate host immunity, in particular on the role played by adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA, an important virulence factor of B. pertussis. As a tool, we used human monocyte derived dendritic cells (MDDC, an ex vivo model useful for the evaluation of the regulatory potential of DC on T cell immune responses. The work compared MDDC functions after encounter with wild-type B. pertussis (BpWT or a mutant lacking CyaA (BpCyaA-, or the BpCyaA- strain supplemented with either the fully functional CyaA or a derivative, CyaA*, lacking adenylate cyclase activity. As a first step, MDDC maturation, cytokine production, and modulation of T helper cell polarization were evaluated. As a second step, engagement of Toll-like receptors (TLR 2 and TLR4 by B. pertussis and the signaling events connected to this were analyzed. These approaches allowed us to demonstrate that CyaA expressed by B. pertussis strongly interferes with DC functions, by reducing the expression of phenotypic markers and immunomodulatory cytokines, and blocking IL-12p70 production. B. pertussis-treated MDDC promoted a mixed Th1/Th17 polarization, and the activity of CyaA altered the Th1/Th17 balance, enhancing Th17 and limiting Th1 expansion. We also demonstrated that Th1 effectors are induced by B. pertussis-MDDC in the absence of IL-12p70 through an ERK1/2 dependent mechanism, and that p38 MAPK is essential for MDDC-driven Th17 expansion. The data suggest that CyaA mediates an escape strategy for the bacterium, since it reduces Th1 immunity and increases Th17 responses thought to be responsible, when the response is exacerbated, for enhanced lung inflammation and injury.

  1. Myostatin expression, lymphocyte population, and potential cytokine production correlate with predisposition to high-fat diet induced obesity in mice.

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    Jeri-Anne Lyons

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A strong relationship exists between increased inflammatory cytokines and muscle insulin resistance in obesity. This study focused on identifying a relationship between metabolic propensity and myostatin expression in muscle and spleen cells in response to high-fat diet intake. Using a comparative approach, we analyzed the effects of high-fat diet intake on myostatin and follistatin expression, spleen cell composition, and potential cytokine expression in high-fat diet induced obesity (HFDIO resistant (SWR/J and susceptible (C57BL/6 mice models. Results demonstrated overall increased myostatin expression in muscle following high-fat diet intake in HFDIO-susceptible mice, while myostatin expression levels decreased initially in muscle from high-fat diet fed resistant mice. In HFDIO-resistant mice, myostatin expression decreased in spleen, while myostatin increased in spleen tissue from HFDIO-susceptible mice. Proinflammatory cytokine (IL-17, IL-1β, and IFNγ potential increased in splenocytes from HFDIO-susceptible mice. In comparison, C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited higher frequencies of CD4(+/CD44(hi and CD8(+/CD44(hi cells in the spleen compared to control fed mice. Together, these results suggest that susceptibility to high-fat diet induced obesity could be influenced by local myostatin activity in a tissue-specific manner and that splenocytes exhibit differential cytokine production in a strain-dependent manner. This study sets the stage for future investigations into the interactions between growth, inflammation, and metabolism.

  2. Cytokine network in psoriasis revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak-Stoma, Anna; Pietrzak, Aldona; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Zalewska-Janowska, Anna; Paszkowski, Tomasz; Chodorowska, Grażyna

    2011-12-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic genetically determined, erythemato-squamous disease associated with many comorbidities. Evidence from clinical studies and experimental models support the concept that psoriasis is a T cell-mediated inflammatory skin disease and T helper (Th) cells - Th1, Th17 and Th22 - play an important role in the pathogenesis. Th1 cytokines IFNγ, IL-2, as well as Th17 cytokines IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, IL-26, and TNFα (Th1 and Th17 cytokine) are increased in serum and lesional skin. IL-22 produced by Th17 and new subset of T helper cells, Th22, is also increased within psoriatic lesions and in the serum. Other recently recognized cytokines of significant importance in psoriasis are IL-23, IL-20 and IL-15. The IL-23/Th17 pathway plays a dominant role in psoriasis pathogenesis. Currently due to enormous methodological progress, more and more clinical and histopathological psoriatic features could be explained by particular cytokine imbalance, which still is one of the most fascinating dermatological research fields stimulating new and new generations of researchers.

  3. Babassu aqueous extract (BAE as an adjuvant for T helper (Th1-dependent immune responses in mice of a Th2 immune response-prone strain

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    Nascimento Flavia RF

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aqueous extract of a Brazilian palm-tree fruit - the babassu - (BAE exerts a clear immunostimulative activity in vivo. In the present work, the possibility that BAE can promote Th1 immune responses in mice of a Th2 immune response-prone strain - the BALB/c was investigated. BAE itself, and preparations consisting of Leishmania amazonensis promastigote extract (LE, adsorbed or not to Al(OH3, and in the presence or not of BAE, were used as immunogens. LE and Al(OH3 have been shown to preferentially elicit Th2 immune responses. Results The addition of BAE to LE-containing immunogenic preparations, adsorbed or not to Al(OH3, clearly promoted the in vitro production of interferon γ (IFN-γ, a major Th1-dependent cytokine, and not of interleukin (IL-4 (a Th2-dependent cytokine, by LE-stimulated splenocytes of immunized BALB/c mice. It also promoted the in vivo formation of IgG2a anti-LE antibodies. However, immunization with LE by itself led to an increased production of IL-4 by LE-stimulated splenocytes, and this production, albeit not enhanced, was not reduced by the addition of BAE to the immunogen. On the other hand, the IL-4 production by LE-stimulated splenocytes was significantly lower in mice immunized with a preparation containing Al(OH3-adsorbed LE and BAE than in mice immunized with the control preparation of Al(OH3-adsorbed LE without BAE. Moreover, an increased production of IFN-γ, and not of IL-4, was observed in the culture supernatants of splenocytes, from BAE-immunized mice, which were in vitro stimulated with BAE or which received no specific in vitro stimulus. No differences in IL-10 (an immunoregulatory cytokine levels in the supernatants of splenocytes from mice that were injected with BAE, in relation to splenocytes from control mice, were observed. The spontaneous ex vivo production of NO by splenocytes of mice that had been injected with BAE was significantly higher than the production of NO by

  4. Triterpene acids from rose hip powder inhibit self-antigen- and LPS-induced cytokine production and CD4⁺ T-cell proliferation in human mononuclear cell cultures.

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    Saaby, Lasse; Nielsen, Claus Henrik

    2012-08-01

    A triterpene acid mixture consisting of oleanolic, ursolic and betulinic acid isolated from a standardized rose hip powder (Rosa canina L.) has been shown to inhibit interleukin (IL)-6 release from Mono Mac 6 cells. The present study examined the effects of the triterpene acid mixture on the cytokine production and proliferation of CD4⁺ T cells and CD19⁺ B cells induced by a self-antigen, human thyroglobulin and by lipopolysaccharide in cultures of normal mononuclear cells. The triterpene acid mixture inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-6 with estimated IC₅₀ values in the range 35-56 µg/mL, the Th1 cytokines interferon-γ and IL-2 (IC₅₀ values 10-20 µg/mL) and the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 (IC₅₀ values 18-21 µg/mL). Moreover, the mixture also inhibited CD4⁺ T-cell and CD19⁺ B-cell proliferation (IC₅₀ value 22 and 12 µg/mL, respectively). Together, these data demonstrate that oleanolic, ursolic and betulinic acid are active immunomodulatory constituents of the standardized rose hip powder. However, since the estimated IC₅₀ values are in the µg/mL range, it is questionable whether the content of the triterpene acids in the standardized rose hip powder, alone, can explain the reported clinical effects. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Oral beta-glucan adjuvant therapy converts nonprotective Th2 response to protective Th1 cell-mediated immune response in mammary tumor-bearing mice.

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    Gordon D Ross

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Beta (1-3-D-glucans were identified almost 40 years ago as biological response modifiers that stimulated tumor rejection. In vitro studies have shown that beta-glucans bind to a lectin domain within complement receptor type 3 (CR3, or to, more recently described dectin-1 a beta-glucan specific receptor, acting mainly on phagocytic cells. In this study, we assessed the intracellular cytokine profiles of peripheral blood lymphocytes from mice bearing mammary tumors receiving i.v. anti-tumor mAbs combined or not with whole glucan particle suspension given orally (WGP, 400 microg every 24 hours. The proportions of T cells producing IL-4 and IFNgamma were determined by flow cytometry. The proportion of T cells producing IL-4 was significantly higher in tumor-bearing mice not receiving beta-glucan-enhanced therapy. Conversely, T cells from mice undergoing beta-glucan-enhanced therapy showed increased production of the Th1 cytokine IFNgamma. The switch from a Th2 to a Th1 response after WGP therapy was possibly mediated by intestinal mucosal macrophages releasing IL-12.

  6. spv locus aggravates Salmonella infection of zebrafish adult by inducing Th1/Th2 shift to Th2 polarization.

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    Wu, Shu-Yan; Wang, Li-Dan; Xu, Guang-Mei; Yang, Si-di; Deng, Qi-Feng; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Huang, Rui

    2017-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) are facultative intracellular enteric pathogens causing disease with a broad range of hosts. It was known that Th1-type cytokines such as IFN-γ, IL-12, and TNF-α etc. could induce protective immunity against intracellular pathogens, while Th2-type cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 etc. are proved to help pathogens survive inside hosts and cause severe infection. One of the critical virulence factor attributes to the pathogenesis of S. typhimurium is Salmonella plasmid virulence genes (spv). Until now, the interaction between spv locus and the predictable generation of Th1 or Th2 immune responses to Salmonella has not been identified. In this study, zebrafish adults were employed to explore the effect of spv locus on Salmonella pathogenesis as well as host adaptive immune responses especially shift of Th1/Th2 balance. The pathological changes of intestines and livers in zebrafish were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and electron microscopy. Levels of the transcription factors of Th1 (Tbx21) and Th2 (GATA3) were measured by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Expression of cytokines were determined by using RT-qPCR and ELISA, respectively. Results showed that spv operon aggravates damage of zebrafish. Furthermore, it demonstrated that spv locus could inhibit the transcription of tbx21 gene and suppress the expression of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-12 and TNF-α. On the contrary, the transcription of gata3 gene could be promoted and the expression of cytokines IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 were enhanced by spv locus. Taken together, our data revealed that spv locus could aggravate Salmonella infection of zebrafish adult by inducing an imbalance of Th1/Th2 immune response and resulting in a detrimental Th2 bias of host. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Valsartan Attenuates KIR2.1 by Downregulating the Th1 Immune Response in Rats Following Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinran; Hu, Hesheng; Wang, Ye; Xue, Mei; Li, Xiaolu; Cheng, Wenjuan; Xuan, Yongli; Yin, Jie; Yang, Na; Yan, Suhua

    2016-03-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) results in decreased inward-rectifier K⁺ current (IK1), which is mediated primarily by the Kir2.1 protein and is accompanied by upregulated T cells. Interferon γ (IFN-γ), secreted predominantly by Th1 cells, causes a decrease in IK1 in microglia. Whether Th1 cells can induce IK1/Kir2.1 remodeling following MI and whether valsartan can ameliorate this phenomenon remain unclear. Rats experiencing MI received either valsartan or saline for 7 days. Th1-enriched lymphocytes and myocytes were cocultured with or without valsartan treatment. Th1 cells were monitored by flow cytometry. The protein levels of Kir2.1 were detected by Western blot analyses. IK1 was recorded through whole-cell patch clamping. The plasma levels of IFN-γ, interleukin 2, and tumor necrosis factor α were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Th1 cell number and cytokine expression levels were higher following MI, and the Kir2.1 protein level was decreased. In MI rats, valsartan reduced Th1 cell number and cytokine expression levels and increased the Kir2.1 expression and the IK1 current compared with the rats that received saline treatment; these results are consistent with the effect of valsartan in cocultured lymphocytes and myocytes. In vitro, IFN-γ overexpression suppressed the IK1 current, whereas interleukin 2 and tumor necrosis factor α had no significant effect on the current, establishing that Th1 cell regulation of IK1/Kir2.1 expression is mainly dependent on IFN-γ. Valsartan ameliorates IK1/Kir2.1 remodeling by downregulating the Th1 immune response following MI.

  8. Interferon-β Suppresses Murine Th1 Cell Function in the Absence of Antigen-Presenting Cells

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    Boivin, Nicolas; Baillargeon, Joanie; Doss, Prenitha Mercy Ignatius Arokia; Roy, Andrée-Pascale; Rangachari, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-β is a front-line therapy for the treatment of the relapsing-remitting form of multiple sclerosis. However, its immunosuppressive mechanism of function remains incompletely understood. While it has been proposed that IFN-β suppresses the function of inflammatory myelin antigen-reactive T cells by promoting the release of immunomodulatory cytokines such as IL-27 from antigen-presenting cells (APCs), its direct effects on inflammatory CD4+ Th1 cells are less clear. Here, we establish that IFN-β inhibits mouse IFN-γ+ Th1 cell function in the absence of APCs. CD4+ T cells express the type I interferon receptor, and IFN-β can suppress Th1 cell proliferation under APC-free stimulation conditions. IFN-β-treated myelin antigen-specific Th1 cells are impaired in their ability to induce severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) upon transfer to lymphocyte-deficient Rag1-/- mice. Polarized Th1 cells downregulate IFN-γ and IL-2, and upregulate the negative regulatory receptor Tim-3, when treated with IFN-β in the absence of APCs. Further, IFN-β treatment of Th1 cells upregulates phosphorylation of Stat1, and downregulates phosphorylation of Stat4. Our data indicate that IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells are directly responsive to IFN-β and point to a novel mechanism of IFN-β-mediated T cell suppression that is independent of APC-derived signals. PMID:25885435

  9. A palindromic CpG-containing phosphodiester oligodeoxynucleotide as a mucosal adjuvant stimulates plasmacytoid dendritic cell-mediated T(H1 immunity.

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    Jun-ichi Maeyama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs, resembling bacterial DNA, are currently tested in clinical trials as vaccine adjuvants. They have the nuclease-resistant phosphorothioate bond; the immune responses elicited differ according to the CpG ODN sequence and vaccination method. To develop a CpG ODN that can induce plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC-mediated T(H1 immunity through the mucosa, we constructed phosphodiester G9.1 comprising one palindromic CpG motif with unique polyguanosine-runs that allows degradation similar to naturally occurring bacterial DNA. METHODS: T(H1 and T(H2 immunity activation was evaluated by cytokine production pattern and T-bet/GATA-3 ratio in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and mouse bone marrow cells. Adjuvanticity was evaluated in mice administered G9.1 with diphtheria toxoid (DT through nasal vaccination. RESULTS: G9.1 exhibited stronger IFN-α-inducing activity than A-class CpG ODN2216 and increased T-bet/GATA-3 ratio by enhancing T-bet expression. Nasally administered G9.1 plus DT induced DT-specific mucosal IgA and serum IgG, but not IgE, responses with antitoxin activity in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, possibly due to IFN/BAFF production. Induction of T(H1, but not T(H2-type Abs depended completely on pDCs, the first in vivo demonstration by CpG ODNs. CONCLUSIONS: G9.1 is a promising mucosal adjuvant for induction of pDC-mediated T(H1 immunity.

  10. Effects of intestinal bacteria-derived p-cresyl sulfate on Th1-type immune response in vivo and in vitro

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    Shiba, Takahiro; Kawakami, Koji; Sasaki, Takashi; Makino, Ikuyo; Kato, Ikuo; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Uchida, Kazumi; Kaneko, Kimiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Protein fermentation by intestinal bacteria generates various compounds that are not synthesized by their hosts. An example is p-cresol, which is produced from tyrosine. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) accumulate high concentrations of intestinal bacteria-derived p-cresyl sulfate (pCS), which is the major metabolite of p-cresol, in their blood, and this accumulation contributes to certain CKD-associated disorders. Immune dysfunction is a CKD-associated disorder that frequently contributes to infectious diseases among CKD patients. Although some studies imply pCS as an etiological factor, the relation between pCS and immune systems is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the immunological effects of pCS derived from intestinal bacteria in mice. For this purpose, we fed mice a tyrosine-rich diet that causes the accumulation of pCS in their blood. The mice were shown to exhibit decreased Th1-driven 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced contact hypersensitivity response. The concentration of pCS in blood was negatively correlated with the degree of the contact hypersensitivity response. In contrast, the T cell-dependent antibody response was not influenced by the accumulated pCS. We also examined the in vitro cytokine responses by T cells in the presence of pCS. The production of IFN-γ was suppressed by pCS. Further, pCS decreased the percentage of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells. Our results suggest that intestinal bacteria-derived pCS suppressesTh1-type cellular immune responses. - Highlights: • Mice fed a tyrosine-rich diet accumulated p-cresyl sulfate in their blood. • p-Cresyl sulfate negatively correlated with contact hypersensitivity response. • The in vitro production of IFN-γ was suppressed by p-cresyl sulfate. • p-Cresyl sulfate decreased the percentage of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells in vitro

  11. Effects of intestinal bacteria-derived p-cresyl sulfate on Th1-type immune response in vivo and in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, Takahiro, E-mail: takahiro-shiba@yakult.co.jp; Kawakami, Koji; Sasaki, Takashi; Makino, Ikuyo; Kato, Ikuo; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Uchida, Kazumi; Kaneko, Kimiyuki

    2014-01-15

    Protein fermentation by intestinal bacteria generates various compounds that are not synthesized by their hosts. An example is p-cresol, which is produced from tyrosine. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) accumulate high concentrations of intestinal bacteria-derived p-cresyl sulfate (pCS), which is the major metabolite of p-cresol, in their blood, and this accumulation contributes to certain CKD-associated disorders. Immune dysfunction is a CKD-associated disorder that frequently contributes to infectious diseases among CKD patients. Although some studies imply pCS as an etiological factor, the relation between pCS and immune systems is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the immunological effects of pCS derived from intestinal bacteria in mice. For this purpose, we fed mice a tyrosine-rich diet that causes the accumulation of pCS in their blood. The mice were shown to exhibit decreased Th1-driven 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced contact hypersensitivity response. The concentration of pCS in blood was negatively correlated with the degree of the contact hypersensitivity response. In contrast, the T cell-dependent antibody response was not influenced by the accumulated pCS. We also examined the in vitro cytokine responses by T cells in the presence of pCS. The production of IFN-γ was suppressed by pCS. Further, pCS decreased the percentage of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells. Our results suggest that intestinal bacteria-derived pCS suppressesTh1-type cellular immune responses. - Highlights: • Mice fed a tyrosine-rich diet accumulated p-cresyl sulfate in their blood. • p-Cresyl sulfate negatively correlated with contact hypersensitivity response. • The in vitro production of IFN-γ was suppressed by p-cresyl sulfate. • p-Cresyl sulfate decreased the percentage of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells in vitro.

  12. Ridostin inhibits HIV-1 replication in the T lymphoblastoid cell line C8166. Possible role of altered cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheglovitova, O; Ameglio, F; Trento, E; Ershov, F

    1995-09-01

    Altered cytokine production in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection is well documented and cytokine modulators are currently under investigation as possible therapeutic agents. We tested the ability of Ridostin (dsRNA preparation derived from S. cervisiae) to inhibit HIV-1 replication in acutely infected T lymphoblastoid C8166 cells. Ridostin inhibited HIV-1 replication in a concentration range that is 100-fold lower than the toxic concentration for these cells. C8166 cells spontaneously produced interferon (IFN) alpha and gamma, as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha. Ridostin activated IFN alpha and suppressed TNF alpha and IFN gamma production by these cells. Monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) to TNF alpha dose-dependently inhibited HIV-1 replication in these cells. Therefore it is possible that the observed anti-HIV activity of Ridostin in C8166 cells is partly mediated by altered cytokine production. Particularly, suppression of TNF alpha synthesis, that is known to activate HIV-1 replication in several model systems, can play a major role in the observed inhibition of HIV-1 replication.

  13. FcγRIIa cross-talk with TLRs, IL-1R, and IFNγR selectively modulates cytokine production in human myeloid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelpoel, Lisa T. C.; Hansen, Ivo S.; Visser, Marijke W.; Nagelkerke, Sietse Q.; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Kapsenberg, Martien L.; de Jong, Esther C.; den Dunnen, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid antigen-presenting cells (APCs) tailor immune responses to the pathogen involved through the production of specific pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. It is becoming increasingly clear that the ultimate cytokine profile produced by myeloid APCs crucially depends on interaction between

  14. Terameprocol, a methylated derivative of nordihydroguaiaretic acid, inhibits production of prostaglandins and several key inflammatory cytokines and chemokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholle F

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extracts of the creosote bush, Larrea tridentata, have been used for centuries by natives of western American and Mexican deserts to treat a variety of infectious diseases and inflammatory disorders. The beneficial activity of this plant has been linked to the compound nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA and its various substituted derivatives. Recently, tetra-O-methyl NDGA or terameprocol (TMP has been shown to inhibit the growth of certain tumor-derived cell lines and is now in clinical trials for the treatment of human cancer. In this report, we ask whether TMP also displays anti-inflammatory activity. TMP was tested for its ability to inhibit the LPS-induced production of inflammatory lipids and cytokines in vitro. We also examined the effects of TMP on production of TNF-α in C57BL6/J mice following a sublethal challenge with LPS. Finally, we examined the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects we observed. Methods RAW 264.7 cells and resident peritoneal macrophages from C57BL6/J mice, stimulated with 1 μg/ml LPS, were used in experiments designed to measure the effects of TMP on the production of prostaglandins, cytokines and chemokines. Prostaglandin production was determined by ELISA. Cytokine and chemokine production were determined by antibody array and ELISA. Western blots, q-RT-PCR, and enzyme assays were used to assess the effects of TMP on expression and activity of COX-2. q-RT-PCR was used to assess the effects of TMP on levels of cytokine and chemokine mRNA. C57BL6/J mice injected i.p. with LPS were used in experiments designed to measure the effects of TMP in vivo. Serum levels of TNF-α were determined by ELISA. Results TMP strongly inhibited the production of prostaglandins from RAW 264.7 cells and normal peritoneal macrophages. This effect correlated with a TMP-dependent reduction in levels of COX-2 mRNA and protein, and inhibition of the enzymatic activity of COX-2. TMP inhibited, to varying degrees, the

  15. Cytokines as Immunological Markers for Follow up of Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cytokines play a major role in protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and regulate the immune responses at a cellular level. Cytokine profile determines clinical outcome of the disease and responses to treatment as well. A T helper 1 (Th1) cytokine interferon gamma (IFN-U) is one of the most ...

  16. Glycine regulates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lean and monosodium glutamate-obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon-Aguilar, F J; Almanza-Perez, Julio; Blancas, Gerardo; Angeles, Selene; Garcia-Macedo, Rebeca; Roman, Ruben; Cruz, Miguel

    2008-12-03

    Fat tissue plays an important role in the regulation of inflammatory processes. Increased visceral fat has been associated with a higher production of cytokines that triggers a low-grade inflammatory response, which eventually may contribute to the development of insulin resistance. In the present study, we investigated whether glycine, an amino acid that represses the expression in vitro of pro-inflammatory cytokines in Kupffer and 3T3-L1 cells, can affect in vivo cytokine production in lean and monosodium glutamate-induced obese mice (MSG/Ob mice). Our data demonstrate that glycine treatment in lean mice suppressed TNF-alpha transcriptional expression in fat tissue, and serum protein levels of IL-6 were suppressed, while adiponectin levels were increased. In MSG/Ob mice, glycine suppressed TNF-alpha and IL-6 gene expression in fat tissue and significantly reduced protein levels of IL-6, resistin and leptin. To determine the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) in the modulation of this inflammatory response evoked by glycine, we examined its expression levels in fat tissue. Glycine clearly increased PPAR-gamma expression in lean mice but not in MSG/Ob mice. Finally, to identify alterations in glucose metabolism by glycine, we also examined insulin levels and other biochemical parameters during an oral glucose tolerance test. Glycine significantly reduced glucose tolerance and raised insulin levels in lean but not in obese mice. In conclusion, our findings suggest that glycine suppresses the pro-inflammatory cytokines production and increases adiponectin secretion in vivo through the activation of PPAR-gamma. Glycine might prevent insulin resistance and associated inflammatory diseases.

  17. The inflammasome drives protective Th1 and Th17 cellular responses in disseminated candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Veerdonk, Frank L.; Joosten, Leo A.B.; Shaw, Patrick J.; Smeekens, Sanne P.; Malireddi, Subbarao; van der Meer, Jos W.M.; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Netea, Mihai G.; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2014-01-01

    The Nlrp3 inflammasome has been proposed to play an important role in antifungal host defense. However, studies exploring the role of the inflammasome in antifungal host defense have been limited to the direct effects on IL-1β processing. Although IL-1β has important direct effects on the innate immune response, important effects of the caspase-1-dependent cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 are exerted on the initiation of adaptive cellular responses Th1 and Th17. No studies have been employed to assess the impact of the inflammasome on the Th1/Th17 defense mechanisms in-vivo during candidiasis. In the present study we demonstrate an essential role for caspase-1 and ASC in disseminated candidiasis through regulating antifungal Th1 and Th17 responses. Caspase-1−/− and ASC−/− mice display diminished Th1/Th17 responses, followed by increased fungal outgrowth and lower survival. These observations identify a critical role for the inflammasome in controlling protective adaptive immune responses during invasive fungal infection. PMID:21681738

  18. The effect of hyperglycaemia on in vitro cytokine production and macrophage infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lachmandas, E.; Vrieling, F.; Wilson, L.G.; Joosten, S.A.; Netea, M.G.; Ottenhoff, T.H.; Crevel, R. van

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an established risk factor for tuberculosis but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We examined the effects of hyperglycaemia, a hallmark of diabetes, on the cytokine response to and macrophage infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Increasing in vitro

  19. TLR-mediated NF-kB-dependent cytokine production is differently affected by HIV therapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchjorsen, Jesper; Paludan, Søren Riis; Mogensen, Trine

      Pathogen-recognizing Toll-like receptors 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 are known to recognize a number of pathogens, including E.Coli, S. Pneumonia and N. Meningococcus. We have studied whether a number of HIV therapeutics affect immediate proinflammatory cytokine responses in cell cultures. Preliminary...

  20. Divergent effects of Tenofovir and Retrovir (AZT) on TLR-mediated cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchjorsen, Jesper; Tolstrup, Martin; Paludan, Søren Riis

      Pathogen-recognizing Toll-like receptors 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 are known to recognize a number of pathogens, including E.Coli, S. Pneumoniae and N. Meningitidis. We have studied whether a number of HIV therapeutics affect immediate proinflammatory cytokine responses in cell cultures. Preliminary...

  1. Supplementation with Natural Forms of Vitamin E Augments Antigen-Specific TH1-Type Immune Response to Tetanus Toxoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ammu Kutty; Mahalingam, Dashayini; Selvaduray, Kanga Rani; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the ability of three forms of vitamin E [tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF), alpha-tocopherol (α-T), and delta-tocotrienol (δ-T3)] to enhance immune response to tetanus toxoid (TT) immunisation in a mouse model. Twenty BALB/c mice were divided into four groups of five mice each. The mice were fed with the different forms of vitamin E (1 mg) or vehicle daily for two weeks before they were given the TT vaccine [4 Lf] intramuscularly (i.m.). Booster vaccinations were given on days 28 and 42. Serum was collected (days 0, 28, and 56) to quantify anti-TT levels. At autopsy, splenocytes harvested were cultured with TT or mitogens. The production of anti-TT antibodies was augmented (P < 0.05) in mice that were fed with δ-T3 or TRF compared to controls. The production of IFN-γ and IL-4 by splenocytes from the vitamin E treated mice was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that from controls. The IFN-γ production was the highest in animals supplemented with δ-T3 followed by TRF and finally α-T. Production of TNF-α was suppressed in the vitamin E treated group compared to vehicle-supplemented controls. Supplementation with δ-T3 or TRF can enhance immune response to TT immunisation and production of cytokines that promote cell-mediated (TH1) immune response. PMID:23936847

  2. Supplementation with Natural Forms of Vitamin E Augments Antigen-Specific TH1-Type Immune Response to Tetanus Toxoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammu Kutty Radhakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the ability of three forms of vitamin E [tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF, alpha-tocopherol (α-T, and delta-tocotrienol (δ-T3] to enhance immune response to tetanus toxoid (TT immunisation in a mouse model. Twenty BALB/c mice were divided into four groups of five mice each. The mice were fed with the different forms of vitamin E (1 mg or vehicle daily for two weeks before they were given the TT vaccine [4 Lf] intramuscularly (i.m.. Booster vaccinations were given on days 28 and 42. Serum was collected (days 0, 28, and 56 to quantify anti-TT levels. At autopsy, splenocytes harvested were cultured with TT or mitogens. The production of anti-TT antibodies was augmented (P<0.05 in mice that were fed with δ-T3 or TRF compared to controls. The production of IFN-γ and IL-4 by splenocytes from the vitamin E treated mice was significantly (P<0.05 higher than that from controls. The IFN-γ production was the highest in animals supplemented with δ-T3 followed by TRF and finally α-T. Production of TNF-α was suppressed in the vitamin E treated group compared to vehicle-supplemented controls. Supplementation with δ-T3 or TRF can enhance immune response to TT immunisation and production of cytokines that promote cell-mediated (TH1 immune response.

  3. Changing of expression level of fas-antigen (CD95), cytokines synthesis and production after irradiation in low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinina, N.M.; Solntceva, O.S.; Bytchkova, N.V.; Nikiforov, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    It is known that bone marrow progenitor (CD34+), tymocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) are most radiosensitive than other cell types. Even low doses of radiation induce apoptosis. The investigators suggest that it is possible relationship between synthesis and production of cytokines and apoptotic process. With the purpose to determine correlation between expression of Fas-antigen and synthesis of cytokines after low doses irradiation the experiments by irradiation PBL of healthy persons in vitro were held. Cells were X-irradiated by 12,5, 25 and 50 cGy. In consequence of the experiments increasing of Fas-antigen was revealed. This increasing correlated with changing in synthesis and production of cytokines. Also the Chernobyl's accident liquidators (CAL) were investigated. After comparison data in the group CAL (I) with data in the control group (II) increasing of Fas-antigen expression was revealed. Also in I group was discovered increasing of the cell number sinthesied interleukine-4 (IL-4) and interleukine-6 (IL-6). Interleukine-lβ (IL-1 β) producing pell were decreased. These changes have been correlated with degree of immunodeficiency at CAL. These data allow to consider the apoptosis as cell mechanism included in pathogenesis of diseases, which can be showed later long time after irradiation. (author)

  4. In the absence of CD154, administration of interleukin-12 restores Th1 responses but not protective immunity to Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitson, James P; Hamblin, Paul A; Mountford, Adrian P

    2007-07-01

    The cytokine interplay during the development of protective immunity to the radiation-attenuated (RA) schistosome vaccine has been extensively characterized over recent years, yet the role of costimulatory molecules in the development of cell-mediated immunity is much less well understood. Here we demonstrate the importance of CD40/CD154 in vaccine-induced immunity, as CD154(-/-) mice exposed to RA schistosomes develop no protection to challenge infection. We showed that vaccinated CD154(-/-) mice have defective Th1-associated immune responses in the skin-draining lymph nodes and the lungs, with reduced or absent levels of interleukin-12p40 (IL-12p40), gamma interferon, and nitric oxide, but elevated levels of lung IL-4 and IL-5. The expression of major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II) on antigen-presenting cells recovered from the lungs of vaccinated CD154(-/-) mice was also severely compromised. The administration of anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody (MAb) to CD154(-/-) mice did not reconstitute sustained Th1 responses in the lymph nodes or the lungs, nor did the MAb restore anti-parasite immunoglobulin G production or protective immunity. On the other hand, the administration of recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12) to CD154(-/-) mice shortly after vaccination caused elevated and sustained levels of Th1-associated cytokines, rescued MHC-II expression by lung CD11c(+) cells, and restored the appearance of inflammatory effector foci in the lungs. However, the treatment of CD154(-/-) mice with rIL-12 did not restore protection. We conclude that protective immunity to the RA schistosome vaccine is CD154 dependent but is independent of IL-12-orchestrated cellular immune mechanisms in the lungs.

  5. In the Absence of CD154, Administration of Interleukin-12 Restores Th1 Responses but Not Protective Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitson, James P.; Hamblin, Paul A.; Mountford, Adrian P.

    2007-01-01

    The cytokine interplay during the development of protective immunity to the radiation-attenuated (RA) schistosome vaccine has been extensively characterized over recent years, yet the role of costimulatory molecules in the development of cell-mediated immunity is much less well understood. Here we demonstrate the importance of CD40/CD154 in vaccine-induced immunity, as CD154−/− mice exposed to RA schistosomes develop no protection to challenge infection. We showed that vaccinated CD154−/− mice have defective Th1-associated immune responses in the skin-draining lymph nodes and the lungs, with reduced or absent levels of interleukin-12p40 (IL-12p40), gamma interferon, and nitric oxide, but elevated levels of lung IL-4 and IL-5. The expression of major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II) on antigen-presenting cells recovered from the lungs of vaccinated CD154−/− mice was also severely compromised. The administration of anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody (MAb) to CD154−/− mice did not reconstitute sustained Th1 responses in the lymph nodes or the lungs, nor did the MAb restore anti-parasite immunoglobulin G production or protective immunity. On the other hand, the administration of recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12) to CD154−/− mice shortly after vaccination caused elevated and sustained levels of Th1-associated cytokines, rescued MHC-II expression by lung CD11c+ cells, and restored the appearance of inflammatory effector foci in the lungs. However, the treatment of CD154−/− mice with rIL-12 did not restore protection. We conclude that protective immunity to the RA schistosome vaccine is CD154 dependent but is independent of IL-12-orchestrated cellular immune mechanisms in the lungs. PMID:17485453

  6. The Th1:Th2 Dichotomy of Pregnancy and Preterm Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Sykes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a unique immunological state in which a balance of immune tolerance and suppression is needed to protect the fetus without compromising the mother. It has long been established that a bias from the T helper 1 cytokine profile towards the T helper 2 profile contributes towards successful pregnancy maintenance. The majority of publications that report on aberrant Th1:Th2 balance focus on early pregnancy loss and preeclampsia. Over the last few decades, there has been an increased awareness of the role of infection and inflammation in preterm labour, and the search for new biomarkers to predict preterm labour continues. In this paper, we explore the evidence for an aberrant Th1:Th2 profile associated with preterm labour. We also consider the potential for its use in screening women at high risk of preterm labour and for prophylactic therapeutic measures for the prevention of preterm labour and associated neonatal adverse outcomes.

  7. Nickel-induced cytokine production from mononuclear cells in nickel-sensitive individuals and controls. Cytokine profiles in nickel-sensitive individuals with nickel allergy-related hand eczema before and after nickel challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, L; Christensen, J M; Kristiansen, J; Nielsen, N H; Menné, T; Poulsen, L K

    2000-06-01

    Exposure to nickel is a major cause of allergic contact dermatitis which is considered to be an inflammatory response induced by antigen-specific T cells. Here we describe the in vitro analysis of the nickel-specific T-cell-derived cytokine response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 35 nickel-allergic and 30 non-nickel-allergic individuals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with 10(-4) and 10(-5) mol/l NiSO4 for 6 days and then additionally with ionomycin and phorbol myristate acetate for 24 h. Culture supernatants were analysed for interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) by quantitative ELISA. The analysis showed that the synthesis of IL-4 and IL-5 but not of IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha was significantly higher in the nickel-allergic individuals. The finding of preferential synthesis of Th2 cytokines was somewhat of a surprise, since previous studies have suggested a Th1 response in nickel-mediated allergic contact dermatitis. Subsequently, the nickel-allergic individuals were randomized to experimental exposure to nickel or vehicle in a double-blind design. A daily 10-min exposure of one finger to 10 ppm nickel solution for 1 week followed by 100 ppm for an additional week evoked a clinical response of hand eczema in the nickel-exposed group. Blood samples were drawn on days 7 and 14 after the start of this exposure to occupationally relevant concentrations of nickel. No statistically significant differences were observed in the nickel-induced in vitro cytokine response during the exposure period. Our results indicate the possibility that IL-4 and IL-5 are involved in the pathogenesis of nickel-mediated contact dermatitis.

  8. PD-L2 negatively regulates Th1-mediated immunopathology during Fasciola hepatica infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempin, Cinthia C; Motrán, Claudia C; Aoki, María P; Falcón, Cristian R; Cerbán, Fabio M; Cervi, Laura

    2016-11-22

    Macrophage plasticity is critical for controlling inflammation including those produced by helminth infections, where alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) are accumulated in tissues. AAM expressing the co-inhibitory molecule programmed death ligand 2 (PD-L2), which is capable of binding programmed death 1 (PD-1) expressed on activated T cells, have been demonstrated in different parasitic infections. However, the role of PD-L2 during F. hepatica infection has not yet been explored. We observed that F. hepatica infection or a F. hepatica total extract (TE) injection increased the expression of PD-L2 on peritoneal macrophages. In addition, the absence of PD-L2 expression correlated with an increase in susceptibility to F. hepatica infection, as evidenced by the shorter survival and increased liver damage observed in PD-L2 deficient (KO) mice. We assessed the contribution of the PD-L2 pathway to Th2 polarization during this infection, and found that the absence of PD-L2 caused a diminished Th2 type cytokine production by TE stimulated splenocytes from PD-L2 KO infected compared with WT mice. Besides, splenocytes and intrahepatic leukocytes from infected PD-L2 KO mice showed higher levels of IFN-γ than those from WT mice. Arginase expression and activity and IL-10 production were reduced in macrophages from PD-L2 KO mice compared to those from WT mice, revealing a strong correlation between PD-L2 expression and AAM polarization. Taken together, our data indicate that PD-L2 expression in macrophages is critical for AAM induction and the maintenance of an optimal balance between the Th1- and Th2-type immune responses to assure host survival during F. hepatica infection.

  9. Down-regulation of Notch signaling pathway reverses the Th1/Th2 imbalance in tuberculosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qifeng; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Liang; Wu, Chao; Luo, Xinhui; Sun, He; Ding, Jianbing

    2018-01-01

    Th1/Th2 imbalance to Th2 is of significance in the peripheral immune responses in Tuberculosis (TB) development. However, the mechanisms for Th1/Th2 imbalance are still not well determined. Notch signaling pathway is involved in the peripheral T cell activation and effector cell differentiation. However, whether it affects Th1/Th2 imbalance in TB patients is still not known. Here, we used γ-secretase inhibitor (DAPT) to treat the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy people or individuals with latent or active TB infection in vitro, respectively. Then, the Th1/Th2 ratios were determined by flow cytometry, and cytokines of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10 in the culture supernatant were measured by CBA method. The Notch signal pathway associated proteins Hes1, GATA3 and T-bet were quantitated by real-time PCR or immunoblotting. Our results showed that DAPT effectively inhibited the protein level of Hes1. In TB patients, the Th2 ratio increased in the PBMCs, alone with the high expression of GATA3 and IL-4, resulting in the high ratios of Th2/Th1 and GATA3/T-bet in TB patients. However, Th2 cells ratio decreased after blocking the Notch signaling pathway by DAPT and the Th2/Th1 ratio in TB patients were DAPT dose-dependent, accompanied by the decrease of IL-4 and GATA3. But, its influence on Th1 ratio and Th1 related T-bet and IFN-γ levels were not significant. In conclusion, our results suggest that blocking Notch signaling by DAPT could inhibit Th2 responses and restore Th1/Th2 imbalance in TB patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Behçet's disease heterogeneity: cytokine production and oxidative burst of phagocytes are altered in patients with severe manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzio, Sandro F; Soeiro-Pereira, Paulo Vitor; de Souza, Alexandre Wagner S; Condino-Neto, Antônio; Andrade, Luis Eduardo C

    2015-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that classical phagocytic functions are constitutively stimulated in patients with Behçet's disease (BD). Four study groups were analysed: active BD (aBD; n=30), inactive BD (iBD; n=31); septic patients (SP; n=25); healthy controls (HC; n=30). Microbicide activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus sanguinis and Candida albicans was determined by means of 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction and absorbance read by ELISA. Flow cytometry analysis evaluated phagocytosis (zymosan particles and microrganisms) and oxidative burst by dihidrorhodamine oxidation before and after stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The supernatant of PBMC cultures under TLR or microbial stimuli and of neutrophil cultures under PMA, LPS or microbial stimuli were used for determination of cytokine production by ELISA. We found no significant differences between the BD patient groups and control groups with regard to oxidative burst, phagocytic activity, microbicide activity or cytokine production. However, the cells from patients with severe BD (based on clinical manifestation) exhibit significantly higher oxidative burst activity, both before and after PMA stimulation, compared to cells from patients with mild BD. Furthermore, we found significant correlations between the BD patients' scores on the simplified Behçet's Disease Current Activity Form adapted for Portuguese (BR-BDCAFs) and Streptococcus sanguinis-stimulated production of IL23 by PBMC and IL8 by neutrophils, and between BR-BDCAFs score and constitutive production of TNF-α, IFNγ, IL6 and IL23 by PBMC. Patients with severe active BD do exhibit phagocytic dysfunction and some evidence of constitutive activation regarding oxidative burst and cytokine production.

  11. Distinct proteinase 3-induced cytokine patterns in Wegener´s granulomatosis, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagin, Ursula; Csernok, Elena; Müller, Antje; Pitann, Silke; Fazio, Juliane; Krause, Kristina; Bremer, Philip; Wipfler-Freissmuth, Edith; Moosig, Frank; Gross, Wolfgang L; Lamprecht, Peter

    2011-01-01

    To analyse whether a specific cytokine pattern is elicited in response to the autoantigen proteinase 3 (PR3) in active Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). Six-colour flow cytometry was used to analyse cytokine production and surface markers of the total CD4+ T-cell population ex vivo and in PR3-stimulated T-cell lines of patients with active PR3-ANCA-positive WG, PR3-ANCA-negative Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS), and healthy controls (HC). The cytokine response of the total PB CD4+ T cell population was skewed towards distinct pro-inflammatory cytokine patterns in WG (Th1-type) and CSS (Th17, Th1-/Th2-type). Th2-type as well as Th17 cell populations including Th17/Th1, Th17/Th2 and Th22 cells were elicited in response to PR3 stimulation in WG. In contrast, CSS patients displayed a Th2-type dominated response following PR3 stimulation. These data suggest that the cytokine response of the total CD4+ T-cell population and PR3-specific cells is influenced by the underlying disorder.

  12. Immunological consequences of stress-related proteins--cytosolic tryparedoxin peroxidase and chaperonin TCP20--identified in splenic amastigotes of Leishmania donovani as Th1 stimulatory, in experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Anil Kumar; Khare, Prashant; Joshi, Sumit; Rawat, Keerti; Yadav, Narendra; Sundar, Shyam; Dube, Anuradha

    2015-04-01

    In earlier studies, proteomic characterization of splenic amastigote fractions from clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani, exhibiting significant cellular responses in cured Leishmania subjects, led to the identification of cytosolic tryparedoxin peroxidase (LdcTryP) and chaperonin-TCP20 (LdTCP20) as Th1-stimulatory proteins. Both the proteins, particularly LdTCP20 for the first time, were successfully cloned, overexpressed, purified and were found to be localized in the cytosol of purified splenic amastigotes. When evaluated against lymphocytes of cured Leishmania-infected hamsters, the purified recombinant proteins (rLdcTryP and rLdTCP20) induced their proliferations as well as nitric oxide production. Similarly, these proteins also generated Th1-type cytokines (IFN-γ/IL-12) from stimulated PBMCs of cured/endemic Leishmania patients. Further, vaccination with rLdcTryP elicited noticeable delayed-type hypersensitivity response and offered considerably good prophylactic efficacy (~78% inhibition) against L. donovani challenge in hamsters, which was well supported by the increased mRNA expression of Th1 and Th2 cytokines. However, animals vaccinated with rLdTCP20 exhibited comparatively lesser prophylactic efficacy (~55%) with inferior immunological response. The results indicate the potentiality of rLdcTryP protein, between the two, as a suitable anti-leishmanial vaccine. Since, rLdTCP20 is also an important target, for optimization, further attempts towards determination of immunodominant regions for designing fusion peptides may be taken up.

  13. Biglycan, a novel trigger of Th1 and Th17 cell recruitment into the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastase, Madalina-Viviana; Zeng-Brouwers, Jinyang; Beckmann, Janet; Tredup, Claudia; Christen, Urs; Radeke, Heinfried H; Wygrecka, Malgorzata; Schaefer, Liliana

    2017-12-15

    Th1 and Th17 cells, T helper (Th) subtypes, are key inducers of renal fibrosis. The molecular mechanisms of their recruitment into the kidney, however, are not well understood. Here, we show that biglycan, a proteoglycan of the extracellular matrix, acting in its soluble form as a danger signal, stimulates autonomously the production of Th1 and Th17 chemoattractants CXCL10 and CCL20 in macrophages. In the presence of IFNγ, biglycan synergistically stimulates CXCL9. In macrophages deficient for TLR2, TLR4, and their adaptor molecules MyD88 or TRIF, we identified highly selective mechanisms of biglycan-dependent Th1/17 chemoattraction. Thus, the expression of CXCL9 and CXCL10, common chemoattractants for CXCR3-positive Th1 and Th17 cells, is triggered in a biglycan-TLR4/TRIF-dependent manner. By contrast, biglycan induces CCL20 chemokine production, responsible for CCR6-positive Th17 cell recruitment, in a TLR2/4/MyD88-dependent manner. Importantly, at the onset of diabetes mellitus and lupus nephritis we provide evidence for biglycan-dependent recruitment of Th1 and Th17 cells, IFNγ and IL-17 production, and development of albuminuria in mice lacking or overexpressing soluble biglycan. Furthermore, by genetic ablation of Cxcl10 we showed in vivo involvement of this chemokine in biglycan-dependent recruitment of Th1 and Th17 cells into the kidney. Finally, a positive correlation of biglycan and CXCL10/CXCL9 levels was detected in plasma from patients with diabetic nephropathy and lupus nephritis. Taken together, we identified biglycan as a novel trigger of Th1 and Th17 cell recruitment into the kidney and we postulate that interfering with biglycan/TLR/TRIF/MyD88-signaling might provide novel therapeutic avenues for renal fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Modulatory effects of propolis samples from Latin America (Brazil, Cuba and Mexico) on cytokine production by human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Bruno J; Santiago, Karina B; Búfalo, Michelle C; Herrera, Yahima F; Alday, Efrain; Velazquez, Carlos; Hernandez, Javier; Sforcin, José M

    2015-10-01

    Propolis has been used in folk medicine in different regions of the world including Latin America. Propolis is a resinous mixture of substances collected by honey bees from several botanical sources, and its composition contains a rich chemical variety, depending on the geographical area and plant sources. Our aim was to compare the modulatory effect of propolis samples from three different countries of Latin America (Brazil, Cuba and Mexico) on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-10, respectively) by human monocytes. Cells were incubated with propolis for 18 h at 37°C. Cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method, and cytokine production was determined by ELISA. All samples did not affect monocyte viability. Brazilian propolis stimulated both TNF-α and IL-10 production by monocytes. Cuban propolis stimulated TNF-α and inhibited IL-10 production, while Mexican sample exerted the opposite effect, inhibiting TNF-α and stimulating IL-10 production. The major compounds found in Brazilian, Cuban and Mexican propolis samples were artepillin C, isoflavonoids and pinocembrin, respectively. Brazilian, Cuban and Mexican propolis contained different components that may exert pro- and anti-inflammatory activity depending on concentration, what may provide a novel approach to the development of immunomodulatory drugs containing propolis. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  15. Increased Blood Levels of Growth Factors, Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Th17 Cytokines in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes.

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    Kristi Alnek

    Full Text Available The production of several cytokines could be dysregulated in type 1 diabetes (T1D. In particular, the activation of T helper (Th type 1 (Th1 cells has been proposed to underlie the autoimmune pathogenesis of the disease, although roles for inflammatory processes and the Th17 pathway have also been shown. Nevertheless, despite evidence for the role of cytokines before and at the onset of T1D, the corresponding findings are inconsistent across studies. Moreover, conflicting data exist regarding the blood cytokine levels in T1D patients. The current study was performed to investigate genetic and autoantibody markers in association with the peripheral blood cytokine profiles by xMap multiplex technology in newly diagnosed young T1D patients and age-matched healthy controls. The onset of young-age T1D was characterized by the upregulation of growth factors, including granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF and interleukin (IL-7, the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β (but not IL-6 or tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, Th17 cytokines, and the regulatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-27. Ketoacidosis and autoantibodies (anti-IA-2 and -ZnT8, but not human leukocyte antigen (HLA genotype, influenced the blood cytokine levels. These findings broaden the current understanding of the dysregulation of systemic levels of several key cytokines at the young-age onset of T1D and provide a further basis for the development of novel immunoregulatory treatments in this disease.

  16. The Effect of Long-Term Exercise on the Production of Osteoclastogenic and Antiosteoclastogenic Cytokines by Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and on Serum Markers of Bone Metabolism

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    J. Kelly Smith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is recognized that the mechanical stresses associated with physical activity augment bone mineral density and improve bone quality, our understanding of how exercise modulates bone homeostasis at the molecular level is lacking. In a before and after trial involving 43 healthy adults, we measured the effect of six months of supervised exercise training on the spontaneous and phytohemagglutinin-induced production of osteoclastogenic cytokines (interleukin-1α, tumor necrosis factor-α, antiosteoclastogenic cytokines (transforming growth factor-β1 and interleukins 4 and 10, pleiotropic cytokines with variable effects on osteoclastogenesis (interferon-γ, interleukin-6, and T cell growth and differentiation factors (interleukins 2 and 12 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We also measured lymphocyte phenotypes and serum markers of bone formation (osteocalcin, bone resorption (C-terminal telopeptides of Type I collagen, and bone homeostasis (25 (OH vitamin D, estradiol, testosterone, parathyroid hormone, and insulin-like growth factor 1. A combination of aerobic, resistance, and flexibility exercises done on average of 2.5 hours a week attenuated the production of osteoclastogenic cytokines and enhanced the production of antiosteoclastogenic cytokines. These changes were accompanied by a 16% reduction in collagen degradation products and a 9.8% increase in osteocalcin levels. We conclude that long-term moderate intensity exercise exerts a favorable effect on bone resorption by changing the balance between blood mononuclear cells producing osteoclastogenic cytokines and those producing antiosteoclastogenic cytokines. This trial is registered with Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT02765945.

  17. Graft survival and cytokine production profile after limbal transplantation in the experimental mouse model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lenčová, Anna; Pokorná, Kateřina; Zajícová, Alena; Krulová, Magdalena; Filipec, M.; Holáň, Vladimír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2011), s. 189-194 ISSN 0966-3274 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200520804; GA MŠk 1M0506; GA ČR GD310/08/H077 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : limbal transplantation * graft survival * cytokine response Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.459, year: 2011

  18. The Effect of Enzymatically Polymerised Polyphenols on CD4 Binding and Cytokine Production in Murine Splenocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Yamanaka, Daisuke; Tamiya, Yumi; Motoi, Masuro; Ishibashi, Ken-ichi; Miura, Noriko N.; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Naohito

    2012-01-01

    High-molecular weight polymerised polyphenols have been shown to exhibit anti-influenza virus, anti-HIV, and anti-cancer activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulating activities of enzymatically polymerised polyphenols, and to clarify the underlying mechanisms of their effects. The cytokine-inducing activity of the enzymatically polymerised polyphenols derived from caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid (FA), and p-coumaric acid (CoA) was investigated using murine spleno...

  19. INFLUENCE OF PROBIOTICS ON CYTOKINE PRODUCTION IN THE IN VITRO AND IN VIVO SYSTEMS

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    O. V. Averina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modulatory effects of three probiotic bacterial strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus K32 (L, Bifidobacterium longum GT15 (B, Enterococcus faecium L-3 (E on expression level and contents of key cytokines were studied using PCR techniques with reverse transcription, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Both cell cultures and an experimental model of intestinal dysbiosis were used in this study.The genes encoding bacteriocins, surface membrane component, pili and exopolysaccharides involved in host immune system modulation were previously identified in the B and Ebacterial strains.Investigation of probiotic strains and effects of their supernatants expression of cytokines in cell cultures of promonocyte origin (HTP-1 showed increased expression of TNFα, due to E and L supernatants. Moreover, the Bl culture induced IL-8 and IL-10 expression.In a model of Wistar rats with ampicillinand metronidazole-induced intestinal dysbiosis corrected with probiotics we have shown that the dysbiosis was accompanied by sufficient alterations in microbiota composition (Klebsiella spp. overgrowth and low contents of Faecalobacterium prausnitzii that were observed only in the animals untreated with probiotics (control, or after administration of L.In contrast to these results, the animals treated with E and B, the following changes were revealed: 1 low expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-8, TNFα, MCP-1 inmesenteric lymph nodes and appropriate changes of their serum contents, 2 increased serum content of the anti-inflammatory TGFβ cytokine. Hence, the present study, having used two complementary models, has detected some individual features of immune modulation produced by the probiotictic strains of L. rhamnosus K32, B. longum GT15 и E. faecium L-3 which exert differential effects upon the intestinal microbiota. 

  20. Do mechanical strain and TNF-α interact to amplify pro-inflammatory cytokine production in human annulus fibrosus cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhitpanichkul, Morakot; Torre, Olivia M; Gruen, Jadry; Walter, Benjamin A; Hecht, Andrew C; Iatridis, James C

    2016-05-03

    During intervertebral disc (IVD) injury and degeneration, annulus fibrosus (AF) cells experience large mechanical strains in a pro-inflammatory milieu. We hypothesized that TNF-α, an initiator of IVD inflammation, modifies AF cell mechanobiology via cytoskeletal changes, and interacts with mechanical strain to enhance pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Human AF cells (N=5, Thompson grades 2-4) were stretched uniaxially on collagen-I coated chambers to 0%, 5% (physiological) or 15% (pathologic) strains at 0.5Hz for 24h under hypoxic conditions with or without TNF-α (10ng/mL). AF cells were treated with anti-TNF-α and anti-IL-6. ELISA assessed IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 production and immunocytochemistry measured F-actin, vinculin and α-tubulin in AF cells. TNF-α significantly increased AF cell pro-inflammatory cytokine production compared to basal conditions (IL-1β:2.0±1.4-84.0±77.3, IL-6:10.6±9.9-280.9±214.1, IL-8:23.9±26.0-5125.1±4170.8pg/ml for basal and TNF-α treatment, respectively) as expected, but mechanical strain did not. Pathologic strain in combination with TNF-α increased IL-1β, and IL-8 but not IL-6 production of AF cells. TNF-α treatment altered F-actin and α-tubulin in AF cells, suggestive of altered cytoskeletal stiffness. Anti-TNF-α (infliximab) significantly inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine production while anti-IL-6 (atlizumab) did not. In conclusion, TNF-α altered AF cell mechanobiology with cytoskeletal remodeling that potentially sensitized AF cells to mechanical strain and increased TNF-α-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Results suggest an interaction between TNF-α and mechanical strain and future mechanistic studies are required to validate these observations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficient Maturation and Cytokine Production of Neonatal DCs Requires Combined Proinflammatory Signals

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    Doreen Krumbiegel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific functional properties of dendritic cells (DCs have been suspected as being responsible for the impaired specific immune responses observed in human neonates. To analyze stimulatory requirements for the critical transition from immature, antigen-processing DCs to mature, antigen-presenting DCs, we investigated the effect of different proinflammatory mediators and antigens on phenotype and cytokine secretion of human neonatal DCs derived from hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs. Whereas single proinflammatory mediators were unable to induce the maturation of neonatal DCs, various combinations of IFNγ, CD40L, TNFα, LPS and antigens, induced the maturation of neonatal DCs documented by up-regulation of HLA-DR, CD83 and CD86. Combinations of proinflammatory mediators also increased cytokine secretion by neonatal DCs. Especially combined stimulation with LPS and IFNγ proved to be very efficient in inducing maturation and cytokine synthesis of neonatal DCs. In conclusion, neonatal DCs can be stimulated to express maturation as well as costimulatory surface molecules. However, induction of maturation requires combined stimulation with multiple proinflammatory signals.

  2. Elevated Ratio of Th17 Cell-Derived Th1 Cells (CD161(+)Th1 Cells) to CD161(+)Th17 Cells in Peripheral Blood of Early-Onset Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotake, Shigeru; Nanke, Yuki; Yago, Toru; Kawamoto, Manabu; Kobashigawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamanaka, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the destruction of articular cartilage and bone with elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines. It has been reported that IL-17 and Th17 cells play important roles in the pathogenesis of RA. Recently, plasticity in helper T cells has been demonstrated; Th17 cells can convert to Th1 cells. It remains to be elucidated whether this conversion occurs in the early phase of RA. Here, we tried to identify Th17 cells, Th1 cells, and Th17 cell-derived Th1 cells (CD161(+)Th1 cells) in the peripheral blood of early-onset RA patients. We also evaluated the effect of methotrexate on the ratio of Th17 cells in early-onset RA patients. The ratio of Th17 cell-derived Th1 cells to CD161(+)Th17 cells was elevated in the peripheral blood of early-onset RA patients. In addition, MTX reduced the ratio of Th17 cells but not Th1 cells. These findings suggest that IL-17 and Th17 play important roles in the early phase of RA; thus, anti-IL-17 antibodies should be administered to patients with RA in the early phase.

  3. Th1 Differentiation Drives the Accumulation of Intravascular, Non-protective CD4 T Cells during Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallin, Michelle A; Sakai, Shunsuke; Kauffman, Keith D; Young, Howard A; Zhu, Jinfang; Barber, Daniel L

    2017-03-28

    Recent data indicate that the differentiation state of Th1 cells determines their protective capacity against tuberculosis. Therefore, we examined the role of Th1-polarizing factors in the generation of protective and non-protective subsets of Mtb-specific Th1 cells. We find that IL-12/23p40 promotes Th1 cell expansion and maturation beyond the CD73 + CXCR3 + T-bet dim stage, and T-bet prevents deviation of Th1 cells into Th17 cells. Nevertheless, IL- 12/23p40 and T-bet are also essential for the production of a prominent subset of intravascular CX3CR1 + KLRG1 + Th1 cells that persists poorly and can neither migrate into the lung parenchyma nor control Mtb growth. Furthermore, T-bet suppresses development of CD69 + CD103 + tissue resident phenotype effectors in lung. In contrast, Th1-cell-derived IFN-γ inhibits the accumulation of intravascular CX3CR1 + KLRG1 + Th1 cells. Thus, although IL-12 and T-bet are essential host survival factors, they simultaneously oppose lung CD4 T cell responses at several levels, demonstrating the dual nature of Th1 polarization in tuberculosis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Aloe vera downregulates LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine production and expression of NLRP3 inflammasome in human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budai, Marietta M; Varga, Aliz; Milesz, Sándor; Tőzsér, József; Benkő, Szilvia

    2013-12-01

    Aloe vera has been used in traditional herbal medicine as an immunomodulatory agent inducing anti-inflammatory effects. However, its role on the IL-1β inflammatory cytokine production has not been studied. IL-1β production is strictly regulated both at transcriptional and posttranslational levels through the activity of Nlrp3 inflammasome. In this study we aimed to determine the effect of Aloe vera on the molecular mechanisms of Nlrp3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β production in LPS-activated human THP-1 cells and monocyte-derived macrophages. Our results show that Aloe vera significantly reduced IL-8, TNFα, IL-6 and IL-1β cytokine production in a dose dependent manner. The inhibitory effect was substantially more pronounced in the primary cells. We found that Aloe vera inhibited the expression of pro-IL-1β, Nlrp3, caspase-1 as well as that of the P2X7 receptor in the LPS-induced primary macrophages. Furthermore, LPS-induced activation of signaling pathways like NF-κB, p38, JNK and ERK were inhibited by Aloe vera in these cells. Altogether, we show for the first time that Aloe vera-mediated strong reduction of IL-1β appears to be the consequence of the reduced expression of both pro-IL-1β as well as Nlrp3 inflammasome components via suppressing specific signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, we show that the expression of the ATP sensor P2X7 receptor is also downregulated by Aloe vera that could also contribute to the attenuated IL-1β cytokine secretion. These results may provide a new therapeutic approach to regulate inflammasome-mediated responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impaired dendritic cell maturation and cytokine production in patients with chronic mucocutanous candidiasis with or without APECED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, K R; Hong, M; Arkwright, P D; Gennery, A R; Costigan, C; Dominguez, M; Denning, D; McConnell, V; Cant, A J; Abinun, M; Spickett, G P; Lilic, D

    2008-12-01

    Patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) suffer persistent infections with the yeast Candida. CMC includes patients with autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene mutations who have autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), and patients without known mutations. CMC patients have dysregulated cytokine production, and dendritic cells (DCs), as central orchestrators, may underlie pathogenic disease mechanisms. In 29 patients with CMC (13 with APECED) and controls, we generated monocyte-derived DCs, stimulated them with Candida albicans, Toll-like receptor-2/6 ligand and lipopolysaccharide to assess cytokine production [interleukin (IL)-12p70, IL-23, interferon (IFN)-gamma, IL-2, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IL-6, transforming growth factor-beta, IL-10, IL-5, IL-13] and cell-surface maturation marker expression (CD83, CD86, human leucocyte antigen D-related). In both APECED and non-APECED CMC patients, we demonstrate impairment of DC function as evidenced by altered cytokine expression profiles and DC maturation/activation: (1) both groups over-produce IL-2, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-13 and demonstrate impaired DC maturation. (2) Only non-APECED patients showed markedly decreased Candida-stimulated production of IL-23 and markedly increased production of IL-6, suggesting impairment of the IL-6/IL-23/T helper type 17 axis. (3) In contrast, only APECED patients showed DC hyperactivation, which may underlie altered T cell responsiveness, autoimmunity and impaired response to Candida. We demonstrate different pathogenic mechanisms on the same immune response pathway underlying increased susceptibility to Candida infection in these patients.

  6. Analysis of Th Cell-related Cytokine Production in Behçet Disease Patients with Uveitis Before and After Infliximab Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Masaru; Karasawa, Yoko; Harimoto, Kohzou; Tanaka, Atsushi; Shibata, Masaki; Sato, Tomohito; Caspi, Rachel R; Ito, Masataka

    2017-02-01

    To examine antigen-stimulated cytokine production by Behçet disease patients (BD) before and after infliximab infusion. PBMCs were obtained before and after infliximab infusion in BD patients with or without recurrent uveitis during at least 1 year of infliximab therapy, and from healthy subjects. PBMCs were cultured with IRBP, and Th-related cytokines in cultures were measured. Levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-31, IFN-γ, and TNFα were higher in BD before infliximab infusion than in healthy subjects, and these levels were the highest in BD with recurrent uveitis. After infliximab infusion, these cytokine levels were reduced to a greater extent in BD without recurrent uveitis than in BD with recurrence. Th-related cytokines produced by IRBP-stimulated PBMCs were elevated in BD, and infliximab infusion suppressed these cytokines to a greater extent in BD without recurrent uveitis than in those with recurrence.

  7. Inhibition of Th1 and Th17 Cells by Medicinal Plants and Their Derivatives: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Samani, Majid; Bagheri, Nader; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Shirzad, Hedayatollah

    2017-08-01

    Searching for new natural drugs that are capable of targeting Th1 and Th17 may lead to development of more effective treatments for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Most of the natural drugs can be derived from plants that are used in traditional medicine and folk medicine. The aim of this systematic review is to identify and introduce plants or plant derivatives that are effective on inflammatory diseases by inhibiting Th1 and Th17 responses. To achieve this purpose, the search terms herb, herbal medicine, herbal drug, medicinal plant, phytochemical, traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurvedic medicine, natural compound, inflammation, inflammatory diseases, Th1, Th17, T helper 1 or T helper 17 were used separately in Title/Keywords/Abstract in Web of Science and PubMed databases. In articles investigating the effect of the medicinal plants and their derivatives in inhibiting Th1 and Th17 cells, the effects of eight extracts of the medicinal plants, 21 plant-based compounds and some of their derivatives, and eight drugs derived from the medicinal plants' compounds in inhibiting Th1 and Th17 cells were reviewed. The results showed that medicinal plants and their derivates are able to suppress Th17 and Th1 T cell functions as well as cytokine secretion and differentiation. The results can be used to produce herbal drugs that suppress Th, especially Th17, responses. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Regulation of nasal airway homeostasis and inflammation in mice by SHP-1 and Th2/Th1 signaling pathways.

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    Seok Hyun Cho

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis is a chronic inflammatory disease orchestrated by Th2 lymphocytes. Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP-1 is known to be a negative regulator in the IL-4α/STAT-6 signaling pathway of the lung. However, the role of SHP-1 enzyme and its functional relationship with Th2 and Th1 cytokines are not known in the nasal airway. In this study, we aimed to study the nasal inflammation as a result of SHP-1 deficiency in viable motheaten (mev mice and to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved. Cytology, histology, and expression of cytokines and chemokines were analyzed to define the nature of the nasal inflammation. Targeted gene depletion of Th1 (IFN-γ and Th2 (IL-4 and IL-13 cytokines was used to identify the critical pathways involved. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs were studied to demonstrate the clearance mechanism of recruited inflammatory cells into the nasal airway. We showed here that mev mice had a spontaneous allergic rhinitis-like inflammation with eosinophilia, mucus metaplasia, up-regulation of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13, chemokines (eotaxin, and MMPs. All of these inflammatory mediators were clearly counter-regulated by Th2 and Th1 cytokines. Deletion of IFN-γ gene induced a strong Th2-skewed inflammation with transepithelial migration of the inflammatory cells. These findings suggest that SHP-1 enzyme and Th2/Th1 paradigm may play a critical role in the maintenance of nasal immune homeostasis and in the regulation of allergic rhinitis.

  9. Mature IgM-expressing plasma cells sense antigen and develop competence for cytokine production upon antigenic challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Pascal; Moro-Sibilot, Ludovic; Barthly, Lucas; Jagot, Ferdinand; This, Sébastien; de Bernard, Simon; Buffat, Laurent; Dussurgey, Sébastien; Colisson, Renaud; Hobeika, Elias; Fest, Thierry; Taillardet, Morgan; Thaunat, Olivier; Sicard, Antoine; Mondière, Paul; Genestier, Laurent; Nutt, Stephen L.; Defrance, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Dogma holds that plasma cells, as opposed to B cells, cannot bind antigen because they have switched from expression of membrane-bound immunoglobulins (Ig) that constitute the B-cell receptor (BCR) to production of the secreted form of immunoglobulins. Here we compare the phenotypical and functional attributes of plasma cells generated by the T-cell-dependent and T-cell-independent forms of the hapten NP. We show that the nature of the secreted Ig isotype, rather than the chemical structure of the immunizing antigen, defines two functionally distinct populations of plasma cells. Fully mature IgM-expressing plasma cells resident in the bone marrow retain expression of a functional BCR, whereas their IgG+ counterparts do not. Antigen boost modifies the gene expression profile of IgM+ plasma cells and initiates a cytokine production program, characterized by upregulation of CCL5 and IL-10. Our results demonstrate that IgM-expressing plasma cells can sense antigen and acquire competence for cytokine production upon antigenic challenge. PMID:27924814

  10. DNAs from Brucella strains activate efficiently murine immune system with production of cytokines, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Zahra; Ardestani, Sussan K; Lashkarbolouki, Taghi; Kariminia, Amina; Zahraei Salehi, Taghi; Tavassoli, Nasser

    2009-09-01

    Brucellosis is an infectious disease with high impact on innate immune responses which is induced partly by its DNA. In the present study the potential differences of wild type and patients isolates versus attenuated vaccine strains in terms of cytokines, ROS and NO induction on murine splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages were investigated. This panel varied in base composition and included DNA from B. abortus, B. melitensis, B.abortus strain S19 and melitensis strain Rev1, as attenuated live vaccine. Also we included Escherichia coli DNA, calf thymus DNA (a mammalian DNA), as controls. These DNA were evaluated for their ability to stimulate IL-12, TNF-alpha, IL-10, IFN-gamma and ROS production from spleenocytes as well as NO production from peritoneal macrophages. Spleen cells were cultured in 24 well at a concentration of 106 cells/ ml with subsequent addition of 10 microg/ml of Brucella or Ecoli DNAs. These cultures were incubated at 37 degrees C with 5% CO2 for 5 days. Supernatants were harvested and cytokines, ROS and NOx were evaluated. It was observed that TNF-alpha was induced in days 1,3,5 by all Brucella strains DNAs and E. coli DNA, IL-10 only was induced in day 1, IFN- gamma was induced only in day 5 and IL-12 not induced. ROS and NOx were produced by all strains; however, we observed higher production of NOx which were stimulated by DNA of B. melitensis.

  11. Cytokine production from stimulated whole blood cultures in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with various TNF blocking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Calin; Barrera, Pilar; Joosten, Leo A B; van Riel, Piet L C M; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; van der Meer, Jos W M; Netea, Mihai G

    2009-06-01

    Infectious complications are not rare in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and the susceptibility to infections is increased during treatment with TNF blocking agents. As a possible mechanism contributing to that, we assessed the modulation of cytokine production induced by TNF neutralization. Whole blood cultures from six healthy volunteers and 13 RA patients starting therapy with either adalimumab (n = 7) or etanercept (n = 6) were stimulated with heat-killed Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus or with S. typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The production of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL10, IL-17, TNF, IL-8 and IFN-gamma was measured by specific immunoassays. Stimulation with Salmonella LPS resulted in a significantly lower production of IL-1beta, TNF and a trend towards lower IL-6 and IFN-gamma production in RA patients compared to healthy volunteers. Therapy with either of the agents did not significantly alter cytokine production capacity, with the exception of a lower IFN-gamma and IL-8 production in patients treated with adalimumab and stimulated with heat-killed S. aureus. The results of our study suggest that the detrimental effects of anti-TNF agents on the immune response can vary quite widely, from very serious to limited effects, as reported here for etanercept and adalimumab. Because anti-TNF therapy can affect the cellular integrity of tuberculous granuloma, recruitment of new cells at the granuloma site becomes crucial. In line with this, an impaired chemokine production induced by anti-TNF agents may ultimately result in the reactivation of tuberculosis, as previously reported. Therefore, caution should be constantly exercised in order to prevent the development of severe infections and reactivation of tuberculosis whenever therapy with anti-TNF is initiated.

  12. PRODUCTION OF PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES AND ALPHA-2-MACROGLOBULIN BY PERIPHERAL BLOOD CELLS IN THE PATIENTS WITH COLORECTAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Zorina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer worldwide, being quite complicated, with respect to diagnostics and postoperative prognosis. Proinflammatory cytokines are shown to be involved into CRC pathogenesis. However, the changes in alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2-MG, a known regulator of cytokine production, still remain unclear. The aim of this work was to compare contents and production of a2-MG and several pro-inflammatory cytokines in blood serum and supernates from short-term blood cell cultures. The samples were taken from the patients with CRC at initial terms and after surgical removal of the tumor.Studies of cytokines and a2-MG concentrations in serum and supernates of 24-h blood cell cultures from the patients with verified CRC (stages T2-3N0-1M0 and T4N0-1M0 have shown some sufficient differences from healthy volunteers (control group. Pre-surgery IL-6 and TNFα contents in blood of CRC patients was significantly increased agains healthy controls (respectively, 29.9±5.4 and 3.4±1.5 pg/mL versus control group (1.0±0.3 and 0 pg/mL, respectively. Following surgical treatment, the cytokine levels were decreased by 40- 60% after the operation, however, without significant differences from initial values.The supernates of blood cultures stimulated with polyclonal mitogens exhibited significant reduction of IFNγ levels prior to surgery (273±123 pg/ml versus 804±154 pg/mL, and elevated IL-6 levels (14412±2570 pg/mL versus 1970±457 pg/mL. The mean α2-MG concentrations before CRC surgery comprised 1.96±0.11 g/L for blood serum, 0.0304±0.0047 g/L, for non-stimulated blood cell cultures, and 0.0300±0.0052 g/L in mitogen-induced cultures. These parameters did not significantly differ from control values (2.21±0.17 g/L, 0.0328±0.0018 g/L, and 0.0314±0.0019 g/L, respectively. Similar results have been yielded with the samples obtained after surgical treatment of the CRC patients.The obtained data indicate that surgical

  13. Insulin-induced cytokine production in macrophages causes insulin resistance in hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manowsky, Julia; Camargo, Rodolfo Gonzalez; Kipp, Anna P; Henkel, Janin; Püschel, Gerhard P

    2016-06-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and a low-grade inflammation. Although hyperinsulinemia is generally thought to result from an attempt of the β-cell to compensate for insulin resistance, there is evidence that hyperinsulinaemia itself may contribute to the development of insulin resistance and possibly the low-grade inflammation. To test this hypothesis, U937 macrophages were exposed to insulin. In these cells, insulin induced expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-8, CCL2, and OSM. The insulin-elicited induction of IL-1β was independent of the presence of endotoxin and most likely mediated by an insulin-dependent activation of NF-κB. Supernatants of the insulin-treated U937 macrophages rendered primary cultures of rat hepatocytes insulin resistant; they attenuated the insulin-dependent induction of glucokinase by 50%. The cytokines contained in the supernatants of insulin-treated U937 macrophages activated ERK1/2 and IKKβ, resulting in an inhibitory serine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrate. In addition, STAT3 was activated and SOCS3 induced, further contributing to the interruption of the insulin receptor signal chain in hepatocytes. These results indicate that hyperinsulinemia per se might contribute to the low-grade inflammation prevailing in overweight and obese patients and thereby promote the development of insulin resistance particularly in the liver, because the insulin concentration in the portal circulation is much higher than in all other tissues. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Effect of cyclosporin A on inflammatory cytokine production by U937 monocyte-like cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E. Losa Garcia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosporin A (CsA is an immunosuppresor drug that has been used in the treatment of several types of inflammatory diseases. In some of them the inhibition of T-lymphocyte activation does not suitably account for the observed beneficial effect, suggesting that CsA could act on other types of cells. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of CsA on inflammatory cytokine secretion by U937 monocyte cells. Undifferentiated and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO differentiated U937 cells were incubated with different concentrations of CsA (200, 20 and 2 ng/mL in the presence or absence of phorbol-myristateacetate (PMA. Interleukin-1g (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 levels were measured in supernatants using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. At the highest concentration used (200 ng/mL CsA decreased the basal and stimulated secretion of all the inflammatory cytokines studied in both undifferentiated and differentiated cells, with the only exception of PMA-stim ulated IL-1 secretion by undifferentiated cells. However, only basal secretion of interleukin-8 in both undifferentiated and DMSO-differentiated U937 cells was significantly reduced by CsA at the highest concentration (200 ng/ mL. At therapeutic concentrations in vivo, CsA exerts a predominant effect on IL-8 secretion by human mononuclear phagocytes.

  15. Mouse cytokine profile skewed towards Th2 in pregnancy during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two classes of cytokines Th1 and Th2 determine the type of immune response elicited. The Th2 immune response is associated with successful pregnancy. Brucellosis is an intracellular bacterium that elicits the Th1 response and is known to cause spontaneous abortion in mammalian species. This study sought to ...

  16. Cytokines in the management of rotavirus infection: A systematic review of in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Gopalsamy Rajiv; Santos, Victor Santana; Denadai, Marina; da Silva Calisto, Valdete Kaliane; de Souza Siqueira Quintans, Jullyana; de Oliveira E Silva, Ana Mara; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes; Narain, Narendra; Cuevas, Luis Eduardo; Júnior, Lucindo José Quintans; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz

    2017-08-01

    Rotavirus is a leading cause of childhood diarrhoea. Rotavirus vaccines are effective against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis, but have lower efficacy in low income countries in Africa. Anti-rotavirus treatment is not available. This study reviews the literature of animal studies evaluating whether cytokine mediated pathways of immune activation could improve rotavirus therapy. We performed a systematic review of articles in English published from 2010 to 2016 reporting agents with in vivo antirotavirus activity for the management of rotavirus infection. The search was carried in PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Web of Science. Animal experiments where cytokines were investigated to assess the outcome of rotavirus therapy were included. A total of 869 publications were identified. Of these, 19 pertained the objectives of the review, and 11 articles described the effect of probiotics/commensals on rotavirus infection and immune responses in animals. Eight further in vivo studies evaluated the immunomodulating effects of herbs, secondary metabolites and food-derived products on cytokine responses of rotavirus-infected animals. Studies extensively reported the regulatory roles for T-helper (Th)1 (interferon gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-6, IL-10) cytokines responses to rotavirus pathogenesis and immunity, inhibiting rotavirus infection through suppression of inflammation by viral inhibition. Th1 and Th2 cytokines stimulate the immune system, inhibiting rotavirus binding and/or replication in animal models. Th1/Th2 cytokine responses have optimal immunomodulating effects to reduce rotavirus diarrhoea and enhance immune responses in experimental rotavirus infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Maturation of dendritic cells by recombinant human CD40L-trimer leads to a homogeneous cell population with enhanced surface marker expression and increased cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, P A; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Claesson, M H

    2001-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) have been shown to be potent inducers of specific cytotoxic T-cell responses both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, exposure to cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha or CD40 triggering changes DC phenotype and cytokine production and may enhance the T-cell act...... marker expression and high production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, the induction of responses to allo or recall antigens presented by huCD40LT maturated DC was comparable to the responses obtained with the DC maturated through TNF-alpha exposure.......Dendritic cells (DC) have been shown to be potent inducers of specific cytotoxic T-cell responses both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, exposure to cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha or CD40 triggering changes DC phenotype and cytokine production and may enhance the T......-cell activating capacity of the DC. We studied DC phenotype and cytokine production as well as the T-cell proliferation and cytotoxic T lympocyte (CTL) activation induced by DC generated in vitro. In addition, the effect of exposure to recombinant human CD40L-trimer (huCD40LT) on these parameters was investigated...

  18. Oral myeloid cells uptake allergoids coupled to mannan driving Th1/Treg responses upon sublingual delivery in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, I; López-Relaño, J; Viñuela, M; Tudela, J-I; Angelina, A; Benito-Villalvilla, C; Díez-Rivero, C M; Cases, B; Manzano, A I; Fernández-Caldas, E; Casanovas, M; Palomares, O; Subiza, J L

    2018-01-10

    Polymerized allergoids coupled to nonoxidized mannan (PM-allergoids) may represent novel vaccines targeting dendritic cells (DCs). PM-allergoids are better captured by DCs than native allergens and favor Th1/Treg cell responses upon subcutaneous injection. Herein we have studied in mice the in vivo immunogenicity of PM-allergoids administered sublingually in comparison with native allergens. Three immunization protocols (4-8 weeks long) were used in Balb/c mice. Serum antibody levels were tested by ELISA. Cell responses (proliferation, cytokines, and Tregs) were assayed by flow cytometry in spleen and lymph nodes (LNs). Allergen uptake was measured by flow cytometry in myeloid sublingual cells. A quick antibody response and higher IgG2a/IgE ratio were observed with PM-allergoids. Moreover, stronger specific proliferative responses were seen in both submandibular LNs and spleen cells assayed in vitro. This was accompanied by a higher IFNγ/IL-4 ratio with a quick IL-10 production by submandibular LN cells. An increase in CD4 + CD25 high FOXP3 + Treg cells was detected in LNs and spleen of mice treated with PM-allergoids. These allergoids were better captured than native allergens by antigen-presenting (CD45 + MHC-II + ) cells obtained from the sublingual mucosa, including DCs (CD11b + ) and macrophages (CD64 + ). Importantly, all the differential effects induced by PM-allergoids were abolished when using oxidized instead of nonoxidized PM-allergoids. Our results demonstrate for the first time that PM-allergoids administered through the sublingual route promote the generation of Th1 and FOXP3 + Treg cells in a greater extent than native allergens by mechanisms that might well involve their better uptake by oral antigen-presenting cells. © 2018 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Expression of Toll-Like Receptor 2 by Dendritic Cells Is Essential for the DnaJ-ΔA146Ply-Mediated Th1 Immune Response against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofang; Yuan, Taixian; Yuan, Jun; Su, Yufeng; Sun, Xiaoyu; Wu, Jingwen; Zhang, Hong; Min, Xun; Zhang, Xuemei; Yin, Yibing

    2018-03-01

    The fusion protein DnaJ-ΔA146Ply could induce cross-protective immunity against pneumococcal infection via mucosal and subcutaneous immunization in mice in the absence of additional adjuvants. DnaJ and Ply are both Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) but not TLR2 ligands. However, we found that TLR2 -/- mice immunized subcutaneously with DnaJ-ΔA146Ply showed significantly lower survival rates and higher bacterial loads in nasal washes than did wild-type (WT) mice after being challenged with pneumococcal strain D39 or 19F. The gamma interferon (IFN-γ) level in splenocytes decreased in TLR2 -/- mice, indicating that Th1 immunity elicited by DnaJ-ΔA146Ply was impaired in these mice. We explored the mechanism of protective immunity conferred by DnaJ-ΔA146Ply and the role of TLR2 in this process. DnaJ-ΔA146Ply effectively promoted dendritic cell (DC) maturation via TLR4 but not the TLR2 signaling pathway. In a DnaJ-ΔA146Ply-treated DC and naive CD4 + T cell coculture system, the deficiency of TLR2 in DCs resulted in a significant decline of IFN-γ production and Th1 subset differentiation. The same effect was observed in adoptive-transfer experiments. In addition, TLR2 -/- DCs showed remarkably lower levels of the Th1-polarizing cytokine IL-12p70 than did WT DCs, suggesting that TLR2 was indispensable for DnaJ-ΔA146Ply-induced IL-12 production and Th1 proliferation. Thus, our findings illustrate that dendritic cell expression of TLR2 is essential for optimal Th1 immune response against pneumococci in mice immunized subcutaneously with DnaJ-ΔA146Ply. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Upregulated LINE-1 Activity in the Fanconi Anemia Cancer Susceptibility Syndrome Leads to Spontaneous Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brégnard, Christelle; Guerra, Jessica; Déjardin, Stéphanie; Passalacqua, Frank; Benkirane, Monsef; Laguette, Nadine

    2016-06-01

    Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a genetic disorder characterized by elevated cancer susceptibility and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Using SLX4(FANCP) deficiency as a working model, we questioned the trigger for chronic inflammation in FA. We found that absence of SLX4 caused cytoplasmic DNA accumulation, including sequences deriving from active Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1), triggering the cGAS-STING pathway to elicit interferon (IFN) expression. In agreement, absence of SLX4 leads to upregulated LINE-1 retrotransposition. Importantly, similar results were obtained with the FANCD2 upstream activator of SLX4. Furthermore, treatment of FA cells with the Tenofovir reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTi), that prevents endogenous retrotransposition, decreased both accumulation of cytoplasmic DNA and pro-inflammatory signaling. Collectively, our data suggest a contribution of endogenous RT activities to the generation of immunogenic cytoplasmic nucleic acids responsible for inflammation in FA. The additional observation that RTi decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine production induced by DNA replication stress-inducing drugs further demonstrates the contribution of endogenous RTs to sustaining chronic inflammation. Altogether, our data open perspectives in the prevention of adverse effects of chronic inflammation in tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An in vitro model for dengue virus infection that exhibits human monocyte infection, multiple cytokine production and dexamethasone immunomodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Regina Nogueira Ignácio Reis

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available An important cytokine role in dengue fever pathogenesis has been described. These molecules can be associated with haemorrhagic manifestations, coagulation disorders, hypotension and shock, all symptoms implicated in vascular permeability and disease worsening conditions. Several immunological diseases have been treated by cytokine modulation and dexamethasone is utilized clinically to treat pathologies with inflammatory and autoimmune ethiologies. We established an in vitro model with human monocytes infected by dengue virus-2 for evaluating immunomodulatory and antiviral activities of potential pharmaceutical products. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated significant dengue antigen detection in target cells two days after infection. TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 are produced by in vitro infected monocytes and are significantly detected in cell culture supernatants by multiplex microbead immunoassay. Dexamethasone action was tested for the first time for its modulation in dengue infection, presenting optimistic results in both decreasing cell infection rates and inhibiting TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha and IL-10 production. This model is proposed for novel drug trials yet to be applyed for dengue fever.

  2. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced cytokine production and cytotoxicity of PAMAM dendrimers in J774A.1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naha, Pratap C.; Davoren, Maria; Lyng, Fiona M.; Byrne, Hugh J.

    2010-01-01

    The immunotoxicity of three generations of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers (G-4, G-5 and G-6) was evaluated in mouse macrophage cells in vitro. Using the Alamar blue and MTT assays, a generation dependent cytotoxicity of the PAMAM dendrimers was found whereby G-6 > G-5 > G-4. The toxic response of the PAMAM dendrimers correlated well with the number of surface primary amino groups, with increasing number resulting in an increase in toxic response. An assessment of intracellular ROS generation by the PAMAM dendrimers was performed by measuring the increased fluorescence as a result of intracellular oxidation of Carboxy H 2 DCFDA to DCF both quantitatively using plate reader and qualitatively by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The inflammatory mediators macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6, (IL-6) were measured by the enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) following exposure of mouse macrophage cells to PAMAM dendrimers. A generation dependent ROS and cytokine production was found, which correlated well with the cytotoxicological response and therefore number of surface amino groups. A clear time sequence of increased ROS generation (maximum at ∼ 4 h), TNF-α and IL-6 secretion (maximum at ∼ 24 h), MIP-2 levels and cell death (∼ 72 h) was observed. The intracellular ROS generation and cytokine production induced cytotoxicity point towards the mechanistic pathway of cell death upon exposure to PAMAM dendrimers.

  3. Characterization of onion lectin (Allium cepa agglutinin) as an immunomodulatory protein inducing Th1-type immune response in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, Vaddi K; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2015-06-01

    Onion (Allium cepa), a bulb crop of economic importance, is known to have many health benefits. The major objective of the present study is to address the immunomodulatory properties of onion lectin (A. cepa agglutinin; ACA). ACA was purified from onion extract by D-mannose-agarose chromatography (yield: ~1 mg/kg). ACA is non-glycosylated and showed a molecular mass of ~12 kDa under reducing/non-reducing SDS-PAGE; glutaraldehyde cross-linking indicated that ACA is a non-covalent tetramer of ~12 kDa subunits. Its N-terminal sequence (RNVLLNNEGL; UniProt KB Accn. C0HJM8) showed 70-90% homology to mannose-specific Allium agglutinins. ACA showed specific hemagglutination activity of 8200 units/mg and is stable in the pH range 6-10 and up to 45° C. The immunomodulatory activity of ACA was assessed using the macrophage cell line, RAW264.7 and rat peritoneal macrophages; at 0.1 μg/well, it showed a significant increase (6-8-fold vs. control) in the production of nitric oxide at 24h, and significantly stimulated (2-4-fold vs. control) the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-12) at 24h. ACA (0.1 μg/well) enhanced the proliferation of murine thymocytes by ~4 fold (vs. control) at 24h; however, ACA does not proliferate B cell-enriched rat splenocytes. Further, it significantly elevated the expression levels of cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2) over the control in murine thymocytes. Taken together, purified ACA induces a Th1-type immune response in vitro. Though present in low amounts, ACA may contribute to the immune-boosting potential of the popular spice onion since considerable amounts are cons