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Sample records for tg showed hints

  1. Increased anxiety-related behaviour in Hint1 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadarajulu, Jeeva; Lebar, Maria; Krishnamoorthy, Gurumoorthy; Habelt, Sonja; Lu, Jia; Bernard Weinstein, I; Li, Haiyang; Holsboer, Florian; Turck, Christoph W; Touma, Chadi

    2011-07-07

    Several reports have implicated a role for the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein-1 (Hint1) in psychiatric disorders. We have studied the emotional behaviour of male Hint1 knockout (Hint1 KO) mice in a battery of tests and performed biochemical analyses on brain tissue. The behavioural analysis revealed that Hint1 KO mice exhibit an increased emotionality phenotype compared to wildtype (WT) mice, while no significant differences in locomotion or general exploratory activity were noted. In the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test, the Hint1 KO animals entered the open arms of the apparatus less often than WT littermates. Similarly, in the dark-light box test, Hint1 KO mice spent less time in the lit compartment and the number of entries were reduced, which further confirmed an increased anxiety-related behaviour. Moreover, the Hint1 KO animals showed significantly more struggling and less floating behaviour in the forced swim test (FST), indicating an increased emotional arousal in aversive situations. Hint1 is known as a protein kinase C (PKC) interacting protein. Western blot analysis showed that PKCγ expression was elevated in Hint1 KO compared to WT mice. Interestingly, PKCγ mRNA levels of the two groups did not show a significant difference, implying a post-transcriptional PKCγ regulation. In addition, PKC enzymatic activity was increased in Hint1 KO compared to WT mice. In summary, our results indicate a role for Hint1 and PKCγ in modulating anxiety-related and stress-coping behaviour in mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Thyroglobulin (Tg) Testing Revisited: Tg Assays, TgAb Assays, and Correlation of Results With Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzel, Brian C; Grebe, Stefan K G; Carranza Leon, B Gisella; Castro, M Regina; Clark, Penelope M; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Spencer, Carole A; Turcu, Adina F; Algeciras-Schimnich, Alicia

    2015-08-01

    Measurement of thyroglobulin (Tg) by mass spectrometry (Tg-MS) is emerging as a tool for accurate Tg quantification in patients with anti-Tg autoantibodies (TgAbs). The objective of the study was to perform analytical and clinical evaluations of two Tg-MS assays in comparison with immunometric Tg assays (Tg-IAs) and Tg RIAs (Tg-RIAs) in a cohort of thyroid cancer patients. A total of 589 samples from 495 patients, 243 TgAb-/252 TgAb+, were tested by Beckman, Roche, Siemens-Immulite, and Thermo-Brahms Tg and TgAb assays, two Tg-RIAs, and two Tg-MS assays. The frequency of TgAb+ was 58%, 41%, 27%, and 39% for Roche, Beckman, Siemens-Immulite, and Thermo-Brahms, respectively. In TgAb- samples, clinical sensitivities and specificities of 100% and 74%-100%, respectively, were observed across all assays. In TgAb+ samples, all Tg-IAs demonstrated assay-dependent Tg underestimation, ranging from 41% to 86%. In TgAb+ samples, the use of a common cutoff (0.5 ng/mL) for the Tg-MS, three Tg-IAs, and the USC-RIA improved the sensitivity for the Tg-MSs and Tg-RIAs when compared with the Tg-IAs. In up to 20% of TgAb+ cases, Tg-IAs failed to detect Tg that was detectable by Tg-MS. In Tg-RIAs false-high biases were observed in TgAb+ samples containing low Tg concentrations. Tg-IAs remain the method of choice for Tg quantitation in TgAb- patients. In TgAb+ patients with undetectable Tg by immunometric assay, the Tg-MS will detect Tg in up to 20% additional cases. The Tg-RIA will detect Tg in approximately 35% cases, but a significant proportion of these will be clinical false-positive results. The undetectable Tg-MS seen in approximately 40% of TgAb+ cases in patients with disease need further evaluation.

  3. Active Learning Using Hint Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Liang; Ferng, Chun-Sung; Lin, Hsuan-Tien

    2015-08-01

    The abundance of real-world data and limited labeling budget calls for active learning, an important learning paradigm for reducing human labeling efforts. Many recently developed active learning algorithms consider both uncertainty and representativeness when making querying decisions. However, exploiting representativeness with uncertainty concurrently usually requires tackling sophisticated and challenging learning tasks, such as clustering. In this letter, we propose a new active learning framework, called hinted sampling, which takes both uncertainty and representativeness into account in a simpler way. We design a novel active learning algorithm within the hinted sampling framework with an extended support vector machine. Experimental results validate that the novel active learning algorithm can result in a better and more stable performance than that achieved by state-of-the-art algorithms. We also show that the hinted sampling framework allows improving another active learning algorithm designed from the transductive support vector machine.

  4. Astrophysical hints of axion-like particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncadelli, M.; Galanti, G.; Tavecchio, F.; Bonnoli, G.

    2015-01-01

    After reviewing three astrophysical hints of the existence of axion-like particles (ALPs), we describe in more detail a new similar hint involving flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). Detection of FSRQs above about 20GeV pose a challenge to very-high-energy (VHE) astrophysics, because at those energies the ultraviolet emission from their broad line region should prevent photons produced by the central engine to leave the source. Although a few astrophysical explanations have been put forward, they are totally ad hoc. We show that a natural explanation instead arises within the conventional models of FSRQs provided that photon-ALP oscillations occur inside the source. Our analysis takes the FSRQ PKR 1222+206 as an example, and it looks tantalizing that basically the same choice of the free model parameters adopted in this case is consistent with those that provide the other three hints of the existence of ALPs.

  5. Enhancing the Automatic Generation of Hints with Expert Seeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamper, John; Barnes, Tiffany; Croy, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    The Hint Factory is an implementation of our novel method to automatically generate hints using past student data for a logic tutor. One disadvantage of the Hint Factory is the time needed to gather enough data on new problems in order to provide hints. In this paper we describe the use of expert sample solutions to "seed" the hint generation…

  6. Comparison of TG-43 and TG-186 in breast irradiation using a low energy electronic brachytherapy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Shane A.; Landry, Guillaume; Reniers, Brigitte; Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva; Holt, Randy; Rusch, Thomas; Beaulieu, Luc; Verhaegen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The recently updated guidelines for dosimetry in brachytherapy in TG-186 have recommended the use of model-based dosimetry calculations as a replacement for TG-43. TG-186 highlights shortcomings in the water-based approach in TG-43, particularly for low energy brachytherapy sources. The Xoft Axxent is a low energy ( w,m ) and dose to medium (D m,m ), for the heterogeneous simulations. All results were compared against TG-43-based dose distributions and evaluated using dose ratio maps and DVH metrics. Changes in skin and PTV dose were highlighted. Results: All simulated heterogeneous models showed a reduced dose to the DVH metrics that is dependent on the method of dose reporting and patient geometry. Based on a prescription dose of 34 Gy, the average D 90 to PTV was reduced by between ∼4% and ∼40%, depending on the scoring method, compared to the TG-43 result. Peak skin dose is also reduced by 10%–15% due to the absence of backscatter not accounted for in TG-43. The balloon applicator also contributed to the reduced dose. Other ROIs showed a difference depending on the method of dose reporting. Conclusions: TG-186-based calculations produce results that are different from TG-43 for the Axxent source. The differences depend strongly on the method of dose reporting. This study highlights the importance of backscatter to peak skin dose. Tissue heterogeneities, applicator, and patient geometries demonstrate the need for a more robust dose calculation method for low energy brachytherapy sources

  7. Thyroglobulin (Tg) recovery testing with quantitative Tg antibody measurement for determining interference in serum Tg assays in differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persoon, ACM; Links, TP; Wilde, J; Sluiter, WJ; Wolffenbuttel, BHR; van den Ouweland, JMW

    Background: Thyroglobulin (Tg) measurements are complicated by interference from Tg autoantibodies (TgAbs) or heterophilic antibodies (HAMAs). We used a new automated immunochemiluminometric assay (ICMA) with Tg recovery (TgR) on the Nichols Advantage (R) platform to reassess the clinical utility of

  8. Financial model calibration using consistency hints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Mostafa, Y S

    2001-01-01

    We introduce a technique for forcing the calibration of a financial model to produce valid parameters. The technique is based on learning from hints. It converts simple curve fitting into genuine calibration, where broad conclusions can be inferred from parameter values. The technique augments the error function of curve fitting with consistency hint error functions based on the Kullback-Leibler distance. We introduce an efficient EM-type optimization algorithm tailored to this technique. We also introduce other consistency hints, and balance their weights using canonical errors. We calibrate the correlated multifactor Vasicek model of interest rates, and apply it successfully to Japanese Yen swaps market and US dollar yield market.

  9. Hants Hint - kõigi ihaldatud kaalukeel / Hants Hint ; interv. Erik Gamzejev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Hants

    2002-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje : Laupäev 26. okt. lk. 3. Res Publica Ida-Viru piirkonna juht Hants Hint: me oleme põhimõtteliselt valmis kõigi poliitiliste jõududega koostööd tegema. Autor: Res Publica

  10. Comparison of TG-43 and TG-186 in breast irradiation using a low energy electronic brachytherapy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Shane A; Landry, Guillaume; Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva; Holt, Randy; Rusch, Thomas; Beaulieu, Luc; Verhaegen, Frank; Reniers, Brigitte

    2014-06-01

    The recently updated guidelines for dosimetry in brachytherapy in TG-186 have recommended the use of model-based dosimetry calculations as a replacement for TG-43. TG-186 highlights shortcomings in the water-based approach in TG-43, particularly for low energy brachytherapy sources. The Xoft Axxent is a low energy (S700, was created and validated against experimental data. CT scans of the patients were used to create realistic multi-tissue/heterogeneous models with breast tissue segmented using a published technique. Alternative water models were used to isolate the influence of tissue heterogeneity and backscatter on the dose distribution. Dose calculations were performed using Geant4 according to the original treatment parameters. The effect of the Axxent balloon applicator used in APBI which could not be modeled in the CT-based model, was modeled using a novel technique that utilizes CAD-based geometries. These techniques were validated experimentally. Results were calculated using two dose reporting methods, dose to water (Dw,m) and dose to medium (Dm,m), for the heterogeneous simulations. All results were compared against TG-43-based dose distributions and evaluated using dose ratio maps and DVH metrics. Changes in skin and PTV dose were highlighted. All simulated heterogeneous models showed a reduced dose to the DVH metrics that is dependent on the method of dose reporting and patient geometry. Based on a prescription dose of 34 Gy, the average D90 to PTV was reduced by between ~4% and ~40%, depending on the scoring method, compared to the TG-43 result. Peak skin dose is also reduced by 10%-15% due to the absence of backscatter not accounted for in TG-43. The balloon applicator also contributed to the reduced dose. Other ROIs showed a difference depending on the method of dose reporting. TG-186-based calculations produce results that are different from TG-43 for the Axxent source. The differences depend strongly on the method of dose reporting. This study

  11. Eating Hints: Before, During, and After Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Reports Eating Hints: Before, during, and after Cancer Treatment Eating Hints is for people who are having or are about to have cancer treatment. Family and friends may also want to read ...

  12. Comparison of TG-43 and TG-186 in breast irradiation using a low energy electronic brachytherapy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Shane A.; Landry, Guillaume; Reniers, Brigitte, E-mail: brigitte.reniers@maastro.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC), Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC), Maastricht 6201 BN, The Netherlands and Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares – IPEN-CNEN/SP, São Paulo CP 11049, 05422-970 (Brazil); Holt, Randy; Rusch, Thomas [Xoft, A Subsidiary of iCAD, Sunnyvale, California 94085-4115 (United States); Beaulieu, Luc [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec Université Laval, Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de l’Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 Canada (Canada); Verhaegen, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC), Maastricht 6201 BN, The Netherlands and Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The recently updated guidelines for dosimetry in brachytherapy in TG-186 have recommended the use of model-based dosimetry calculations as a replacement for TG-43. TG-186 highlights shortcomings in the water-based approach in TG-43, particularly for low energy brachytherapy sources. The Xoft Axxent is a low energy (<50 kV) brachytherapy system used in accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Breast tissue is a heterogeneous tissue in terms of density and composition. Dosimetric calculations of seven APBI patients treated with Axxent were made using a model-based Monte Carlo platform for a number of tissue models and dose reporting methods and compared to TG-43 based plans. Methods: A model of the Axxent source, the S700, was created and validated against experimental data. CT scans of the patients were used to create realistic multi-tissue/heterogeneous models with breast tissue segmented using a published technique. Alternative water models were used to isolate the influence of tissue heterogeneity and backscatter on the dose distribution. Dose calculations were performed using Geant4 according to the original treatment parameters. The effect of the Axxent balloon applicator used in APBI which could not be modeled in the CT-based model, was modeled using a novel technique that utilizes CAD-based geometries. These techniques were validated experimentally. Results were calculated using two dose reporting methods, dose to water (D{sub w,m}) and dose to medium (D{sub m,m}), for the heterogeneous simulations. All results were compared against TG-43-based dose distributions and evaluated using dose ratio maps and DVH metrics. Changes in skin and PTV dose were highlighted. Results: All simulated heterogeneous models showed a reduced dose to the DVH metrics that is dependent on the method of dose reporting and patient geometry. Based on a prescription dose of 34 Gy, the average D{sub 90} to PTV was reduced by between ∼4% and ∼40%, depending on the

  13. A two-Higgs-doublet model facing experimental hints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crivellin Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physics beyond the Standard Model has so far eluded our experimental probes. Nevertheless, a number of interesting anomalies have accumulated that can be taken as hints towards new physics: BaBar, Belle, and LHCb have found deviations of approximately 3:8σ in B → Dτν and B → D*τν; the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon differs by about 3σ from the theoretic prediction; the branching ratio for τ → μνν is about 2σ above the Standard Model expectation; and CMS and ATLAS found hints for a non-zero decay rate of h → μτ at 2.6σ. Here we consider these processes within a lepton-specific two-Higgs doublet model with additional non-standard Yukawa couplings and show how (and which of these excesses can be accommodated.

  14. HINTS Puerto Rico: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final report describes HINTS implementation in Puerto Rico. The report addresses sampling; staffing, training and management of data collection; calling protocol; findings from the CATI Operations, and sample weights.

  15. Hint2, the mitochondrial nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidate hydrolase; properties of the homogeneous protein from sheep (Ovis aries) liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretes, Ewa; Wojdyła-Mamoń, Anna M; Kowalska, Joanna; Jemielity, Jacek; Kaczmarek, Renata; Baraniak, Janina; Guranowski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine 5'-phosphoramidate (NH2-pA) is a rare natural nucleotide and its biochemistry and biological functions are poorly recognized. All organisms have proteins that may be involved in the catabolism of NH2-pA. They are members of the HIT protein family and catalyze hydrolytic splitting of NH2-pA to 5'-AMP and ammonia. At least five HIT proteins have been identified in mammals; however, the enzymatic and molecular properties of only Fhit and Hint1 have been comprehensively studied. Our study focuses on the Hint2 protein purified by a simple procedure to homogeneity from sheep liver mitochondrial fraction (OaHint2). Hint1 protein was also prepared from sheep liver (OaHint1) and the molecular and kinetic properties of the two proteins compared. Both function as homodimers and behave as nucleoside 5'-phosphoramidate hydrolases. The molecular mass of the OaHint2 monomer is 16 kDa and that of the OaHint1 monomer 14.9 kDa. Among potential substrates studied, NH2-pA appeared to be the best; the Km and kcat values estimated for this compound are 6.6 μM and 68.3 s⁻¹, and 1.5 μM and 11.0 s⁻¹ per natively functioning dimer of OaHint2 and OaHint1, respectively. Studies of the rates of hydrolysis of different NH2-pA derivatives show that Hint2 is more specific towards compounds with a P-N bond than Hint1. The thermostability of these two proteins is also compared.

  16. Clinical electron beam dosimetry: transition from AAPM TG-25 to AAPM TG-70

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihailidis, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    The absolute calibration of clinical electron beams is increasingly based on TG-51 protocol. In addition, recently published dosimetry data on electrons beams bring up the question of how would one need to modify the widely used TG-25 that originally was based on TG-21 calibration protocol? The answer to the question is given by the recently published TG-70. This new protocol operates as supplement and update to TG-25 on issues that need to be modified because of TG-51 approach to electron dosimetry and because of newer data on clinical electron beams. It describes in detail the procedure of converting measured depth-ionization curves with ion chambers into depth-dose curves, making use of recently published stopping-power ratios and other conversion factors. It also describes the use of water equivalent phantoms to perform relative electron dosimetry based on recently published conversions factors. The report discusses small and irregularly shaped electron field dosimetry using the concept of lateral buildup ratio (LBR) as an avenue to evaluate electronic equilibrium and compute dose per MU for those fields. Finally, it gives some common clinical examples where electron beam dosimetry are applied

  17. IMRT Commissioning: application of the AAPM's TG-119; Comissionamento de IMRT: aplicacao do TG-119 da AAPM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeppellini, Caroline; Furnari, Laura, E-mail: laurafurnari@hotmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Inst. de Radiologia

    2013-08-15

    In order to verify the commissioning of the planning of intensity-modulated radiation therapy system (IMRT), the TG-119 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) was applied. Using pre defined targets and normal structures, plans were realized, absolute and relative dose were measured with an ionizing chamber and films, and the results were compared with planned values. The maximum deviation of the measurements with the ionization chamber was 3,6%, but, in the total eleven measurements, only two were bigger than the tolerance limit of 3%, recommended by TG-119. The number of points which passed criteria gamma 3% to 3 mm ranged between 96.36% and 99.92%, all measurements were within the recommended 95%. The confidence limits found for both film and for chamber were lower than those achieved in the TG-119. Our results showed a good concordance with TG-119, what means that the system is adequate for clinical applications. (author)

  18. Long term aging of selenide glasses: evidence of sub-Tg endotherms and pre-Tg exotherms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Boolchand, P.; Georgiev, D. G.

    2010-02-01

    Long term aging, extending from months to several years, is studied on several families of chalcogenide glasses including the Ge-Se, As-Se, and Ge-As-Se systems. Special attention is given to the As-Se binary, a system that displays a rich variety of aging behavior intimately tied to sample synthesis conditions and the ambient environment in which samples are aged. Calorimetric (modulated DSC) and Raman scattering experiments are undertaken. Our results show all samples display a sub-Tg endotherm typically 10-70 °C below Tg in glassy networks possessing a mean coordination number r in the 2.25 < r < 2.45 range. Two sets of AsxSe100-x samples aged for eight years were compared, set A consisted of slow cooled samples aged in the dark, and set B consisted of melt-quenched samples aged at laboratory environment. Samples of set B in the As concentration range, 35% < x < 60%, display a pre-Tg exotherm, but the feature is not observed in samples of set A. The aging behavior of set A presumably represents intrinsic aging in these glasses, while that of set B is extrinsic due to the presence of light. The reversibility window persists in both sets of samples, but is less well defined in set B. These findings contrast with a recent study by Golovchak et al (2008 Phys. Rev. B 78 014202), which finds the onset of the reversibility window moved up to the stoichiometric composition (x = 40%). Here we show that the up-shifted window is better understood as resulting due to demixing of As4Se4 and As4Se3 molecules from the backbone, i.e., nanoscale phase separation (NSPS). We attribute sub-Tg endotherms to compaction of the flexible part of the networks upon long term aging, while the pre-Tg exotherm is to NSPS. The narrowing and sharpening of the reversibility window upon aging is interpreted as the slow 'self-organizing' stress relaxation of the phases just outside the intermediate phase, which itself is stress free and displays little aging.

  19. Pigeons (Columba livia) know when they will need hints: prospective metacognition for reference memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Sumie; Watanabe, Sota; Fujita, Kazuo

    2018-03-01

    Despite their impressive cognitive abilities, avian species have shown less evidence for metacognition than mammals. We suspect that commonly used tasks such as matching to sample might be too demanding to allow metacognitive processing within birds' working memory. Here, we examined whether pigeons could control their behavior as a function of knowledge levels on a three-item sequence learning task, a reference memory task supposedly requiring fewer working memory resources. The experiment used two types of lists differing in familiarity. One was familiar to the pigeons through repeated exposure, whereas the other was novel in every new session. In test sessions, pigeons could choose between a trial with a hint specifying the next item to peck and one with no hint. However, successful responses in trials with a hint resulted in lowered rates of primary reinforcement: .60 in the first test and .75 in the second. Results showed that two of four pigeons chose the trial with a hint significantly more often before receiving a novel list than the familiar list in the four sessions of the first test, and three did so in the second test. Impressively, one bird showed robust evidence in the very first sessions in both tests. These results suggest that pigeons may monitor their long-term knowledge states and thereby control their environment before starting to solve a task.

  20. Diagnostic value of Tg and TgAb for metastasis following ablation in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma coexistent with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Hong; Zhu, Zhao-Jin; Chen, Ze-Quan; Yu, Yong-Li

    2016-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the clinical value of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and antithyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) measurements and the cutoff value after ablation in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) complicated by Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) with metastasis. We measured serum Tg and TgAb levels and evaluated the disease status in 164 cases of DTC coexistent with HT in pathologically confirmed patients after surgery and post-remnant ablation during a 3-year follow-up. All Tg and TgAb levels were assessed by chemiluminescent immunoassay (IMA). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the prognostic value of Tg and TgAb for disease metastasis. The relationship between Tg and TgAb was analyzed using the scatter diagram distribution method. We found that the cutoff values of Tg and TgAb were 1.48 µg/L and 45 kIU/L, respectively. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of Tg and TgAb was 0.907 and 0.650, respectively. In DTC coexistent with HT patients, the optimal cutoff value correlated with metastasis in Tg and TgAb was 1.48 µg/L and 45 kIU/L, respectively.

  1. An analytical model of the HINT performance metric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, Q.O.; Gustafson, J.L. [Scalable Computing Lab., Ames, IA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The HINT benchmark was developed to provide a broad-spectrum metric for computers and to measure performance over the full range of memory sizes and time scales. We have extended our understanding of why HINT performance curves look the way they do and can now predict the curves using an analytical model based on simple hardware specifications as input parameters. Conversely, by fitting the experimental curves with the analytical model, hardware specifications such as memory performance can be inferred to provide insight into the nature of a given computer system.

  2. Interaction Networks: Generating High Level Hints Based on Network Community Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Michael; Johnson, Matthew; Barnes, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel data structure, the Interaction Network, for representing interaction-data from open problem solving environment tutors. We show how using network community detecting techniques are used to identify sub-goals in problems in a logic tutor. We then use those community structures to generate high level hints between sub-goals.…

  3. HinT proteins and their putative interaction partners in Mollicutes and Chlamydiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegemann Johannes H

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background HinT proteins are found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and belong to the superfamily of HIT proteins, which are characterized by an histidine-triad sequence motif. While the eukaryotic variants hydrolyze AMP derivates and modulate transcription, the function of prokaryotic HinT proteins is less clearly defined. In Mycoplasma hominis, HinT is concomitantly expressed with the proteins P60 and P80, two domains of a surface exposed membrane complex, and in addition interacts with the P80 moiety. Results An cluster of hitABL genes, similar to that of M. hominis was found in M. pulmonis, M. mycoides subspecies mycoides SC, M. mobile and Mesoplasma florum. RT-PCR analyses provided evidence that the P80, P60 and HinT homologues of M. pulmonis were polycistronically organized, suggesting a genetic and physical interaction between the proteins encoded by these genes in these species. While the hit loci of M. pneumoniae and M. genitalium encoded, in addition to HinT, a protein with several transmembrane segments, the hit locus of Ureaplasma parvum encoded a pore-forming protein, UU270, a P60 homologue, UU271, HinT, UU272, and a membrane protein of unknown function, UU273. Although a full-length mRNA spanning the four genes was not detected, amplification of all intergenic regions from the center of UU270 to the end of UU273 by RT-PCR may be indicative of a common, but unstable mRNA. In Chlamydiaceae the hit gene is flanked upstream by a gene predicted to encode a metal dependent hydrolase and downstream by a gene putatively encoding a protein with ARM-repeats, which are known to be involved in protein-protein interactions. In RT-PCR analyses of C. pneumoniae, regions comprising only two genes, Cp265/Cp266 and Cp266/Cp267 were able to be amplified. In contrast to this in vivo interaction analysis using the yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro immune co-precipitation revealed an interaction between Cp267, which contains the ARM repeats, Cp265, the

  4. TU-B-304-00: The Aftermath of TG-142

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    Although published in 2009, the AAPM TG-142 report on accelerator quality assurance still proves a challenge for full clinical implementation. The choice of methodologies to satisfy TG-142 requirements is critical to a successful application. Understanding the philosophy of TG-142 can help in creating an institution-specific QA practice that is both efficient and effective. The concept of maintaining commissioned beam profiles is still found confusing. The physicist must also consider technologies not covered by TG-142 (i.e. arc therapy techniques). On the horizon is TG-198 report on implementing TG-142. Although the community still lacks a final TG-100 report, performing a failure-mode -and-effects analysis and statistical process control analysis to determine the institution-specific clinical impact of each TG-142 test may be useful for identifying trends for pro-active surveillance. Learning Objectives: To better understand the confusing and controversial aspects of TG-142. To understand what is still missing from TG-142 and how to account for these tests in clinical practice To describe which QA tests in TG-142 yield the largest potential clinical result if not discovered.

  5. TU-B-304-01: The Aftermath of TG-142

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, E. [Washington University (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Although published in 2009, the AAPM TG-142 report on accelerator quality assurance still proves a challenge for full clinical implementation. The choice of methodologies to satisfy TG-142 requirements is critical to a successful application. Understanding the philosophy of TG-142 can help in creating an institution-specific QA practice that is both efficient and effective. The concept of maintaining commissioned beam profiles is still found confusing. The physicist must also consider technologies not covered by TG-142 (i.e. arc therapy techniques). On the horizon is TG-198 report on implementing TG-142. Although the community still lacks a final TG-100 report, performing a failure-mode -and-effects analysis and statistical process control analysis to determine the institution-specific clinical impact of each TG-142 test may be useful for identifying trends for pro-active surveillance. Learning Objectives: To better understand the confusing and controversial aspects of TG-142. To understand what is still missing from TG-142 and how to account for these tests in clinical practice To describe which QA tests in TG-142 yield the largest potential clinical result if not discovered.

  6. TU-B-304-02: Quantitative FMEA of TG-142

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Daniel, J. [Duke University Medical Center (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Although published in 2009, the AAPM TG-142 report on accelerator quality assurance still proves a challenge for full clinical implementation. The choice of methodologies to satisfy TG-142 requirements is critical to a successful application. Understanding the philosophy of TG-142 can help in creating an institution-specific QA practice that is both efficient and effective. The concept of maintaining commissioned beam profiles is still found confusing. The physicist must also consider technologies not covered by TG-142 (i.e. arc therapy techniques). On the horizon is TG-198 report on implementing TG-142. Although the community still lacks a final TG-100 report, performing a failure-mode -and-effects analysis and statistical process control analysis to determine the institution-specific clinical impact of each TG-142 test may be useful for identifying trends for pro-active surveillance. Learning Objectives: To better understand the confusing and controversial aspects of TG-142. To understand what is still missing from TG-142 and how to account for these tests in clinical practice To describe which QA tests in TG-142 yield the largest potential clinical result if not discovered.

  7. Making the Tg-Confinement Effect Disappear in Thin Polystyrene Films: Good Physics vs. Inappropriate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkelson, John; Chen, Lawrence

    2013-03-01

    The Tg-confinement effect in polymers was first characterized in supported polystyrene (PS) films by Keddie et al. in 1994. Since then, many researchers have shown that (pseudo-)thermodynamic Tg measurements of supported PS films taken on cooling consistently yield the same qualitative results, with a decrease from bulk Tg beginning at 40-60 nm thickness and becoming very strong below 20 nm thickness. Some quantitative differences have been noted between studies, which may be ascribed to measurement method or the analysis employed. In 2004, we showed that the Tg-confinement effect in PS may be suppressed by adding several wt% of small-molecule diluents such as dioctyl phthalate. Recently, Kremer and co-workers (Macromolecules 2010, 43, 9937) reported that there was no Tg-confinement in supported PS films based on an analysis of the second derivative of ellipsometry data and use of a ninth order polynomial fit. Here, we demonstrate a new method for suppressing the Tg-confinement effect. In particular, PS made by emulsion polymerization yields no Tg-confinement effect as measured by ellipsometry or fluorescence, while PS made by anionic or conventional free radical polymerization yield strong Tg-confinement effects. The difference is hypothesized to result from surfactant in the emulsion polymerized PS. We also show that the absence of the Tg-confinement effect reported by Kremer is due to inappropriate analysis of ellipsometry data and that correct analysis yields Tg-confinement effects.

  8. Understanding Attention to Adaptive Hints in Educational Games: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conati, Cristina; Jaques, Natasha; Muir, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a user study that investigates the factors affecting student attention to user-adaptive hints during interaction with an educational computer game. The study focuses on Prime Climb, an educational game designed to provide individualized support for learning number factorization skills in the form of textual hints based on a…

  9. Aged Tg2576 mice are impaired on social memory and open field habituation tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, R M J; Koros, E; Bornemann, K D; Rawlins, J N P

    2009-02-11

    In a previous publication [Deacon RMJ, Cholerton LL, Talbot K, Nair-Roberts RG, Sanderson DJ, Romberg C, et al. Age-dependent and -independent behavioral deficits in Tg2576 mice. Behav Brain Res 2008;189:126-38] we found that very few cognitive tests were suitable for demonstrating deficits in Tg2576 mice, an amyloid over-expression model of Alzheimer's disease, even at 23 months of age. However, in a retrospective analysis of a separate project on these mice, tests of social memory and open field habituation revealed large cognitive impairments. Controls showed good open field habituation, but Tg2576 mice were hyperactive and failed to habituate. In the test of social memory for a juvenile mouse, controls showed considerably less social investigation on the second meeting, indicating memory of the juvenile, whereas Tg2576 mice did not show this decrement.As a control for olfactory sensitivity, on which social memory relies, the ability to find a food pellet hidden under wood chip bedding was assessed. Tg2576 mice found the pellet as quickly as controls. As this test requires digging ability, this was independently assessed in tests of burrowing and directly observed digging. In line with previous results and the hippocampal dysfunction characteristic of aged Tg2576 mice, they both burrowed and dug less than controls.

  10. Comparison of Thyroglobulin Measurements Using Three Different Immunoassay Kits: A BRAMHS Tg-Plus RIA Kit, a BRAMHS hTg Sensitive Kryptor Kit, and a Beckman Coulter ACCESS Immunoassay Kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijin Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSecond-generation thyroglobulin immunometric assays (Tg-IMAs have been developed with improved sensitivity. Our aim was to compare the diagnostic value of Tg-IMA measurements using a Kryptor (BRAHMS AG kit (Tg-K and an ACCESS (Beckman Coulter kit (Tg-A with that of the first-generation Tg measurement using a Tg-plus (BRAHMS AG kit (Tg+.MethodsWe enrolled 82 differentiated thyroid cancer patients who underwent total thyroidectomy with radioactive iodine remnant ablation and who underwent diagnostic whole body scan using recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH. The Tg+, Tg-K, and Tg-A were measured before rhTSH administration during levothyroxine treatment (suppressed Tg from the same sample. Serum Tg+ was measured after rhTSH stimulation (stimulated Tg.ResultsSuppressed Tg+ was more significantly correlated with suppressed Tg-K (R2=0.919, P<0.001 than with suppressed Tg-A (R2=0.536, P<0.001. The optimal cut-off values of suppressed Tg+, Tg-K, and Tg-A for predicting stimulated Tg+ of 1 ng/mL were 0.3, 0.2, and 0.2 ng/mL, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of suppressed Tg+ were 67%, 100%, and 90%, respectively; those of suppressed Tg-K were 83%, 90%, and 88%; those of suppressed Tg-A were 96%, 82%, and 87%, respectively. The positive predictive and negative predictive values of Tg+ were 100% and 87%, respectively; those of Tg-K were 79% and 92%; and those of Tg-A were 73% and 98%.ConclusionWe could not clearly demonstrate which kit had better diagnostic performance after comparison of first-generation Tg measurements with Tg-IMA measurements. Also, there were kit-to-kit variations between Tg-IMA kits. Suppressed Tg measured by Tg-IMA was insufficient to completely substitute for a stimulated Tg measurement.

  11. Observational Hints of a Pre--Inflationary Scale?

    CERN Document Server

    Gruppuso, A.

    2015-09-28

    We argue that the lack of power exhibited by cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies at large angular scales might be linked to the onset of inflation. We highlight observational features and theoretical hints that support this view, and present a preliminary estimate of the physical scale that would underlie the phenomenon.

  12. TG2 regulates the heat-shock response by the post-translational modification of HSF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin, Federica; Villella, Valeria Rachela; D'Eletto, Manuela; Farrace, Maria Grazia; Esposito, Speranza; Ferrari, Eleonora; Monzani, Romina; Occhigrossi, Luca; Pagliarini, Vittoria; Sette, Claudio; Cozza, Giorgio; Barlev, Nikolai A; Falasca, Laura; Fimia, Gian Maria; Kroemer, Guido; Raia, Valeria; Maiuri, Luigi; Piacentini, Mauro

    2018-05-11

    Heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1) is the master transcription factor that regulates the response to proteotoxic stress by controlling the transcription of many stress-responsive genes including the heat-shock proteins. Here, we show a novel molecular mechanism controlling the activation of HSF1. We demonstrate that transglutaminase type 2 (TG2), dependent on its protein disulphide isomerase activity, triggers the trimerization and activation of HSF1 regulating adaptation to stress and proteostasis impairment. In particular, we find that TG2 loss of function correlates with a defect in the nuclear translocation of HSF1 and in its DNA-binding ability to the HSP70 promoter. We show that the inhibition of TG2 restores the unbalance in HSF1-HSP70 pathway in cystic fibrosis (CF), a human disorder characterized by deregulation of proteostasis. The absence of TG2 leads to an increase of about 40% in CFTR function in a new experimental CF mouse model lacking TG2. Altogether, these results indicate that TG2 plays a key role in the regulation of cellular proteostasis under stressful cellular conditions through the modulation of the heat-shock response. © 2018 The Authors.

  13. Gaze-based hints during child-robot gameplay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangi, E.; Barakova, Emilia I.; Diaz, M.L.Z.; Mallofre, A.C.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Kheddar, A.; Yoshida, E.; Sam Ge, S.; Suzuki, K.; Cabibihan, J.J.; Eyssel, F.; He, H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study that examines whether gaze hints provided by a robot tutor influences the behavior of children in a card matching game. In this regard, we conducted a within-subjects experiment, in which children played a card game “Memory” in the presence of a robot tutor in two

  14. A Sensitive Tg Assay or rhTSH Stimulated Tg : What's the Best in the Long-Term Follow-Up of Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persoon, Adrienne C. M.; Jager, Pieter L.; Sluiter, Wim J.; Plukker, John T. M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Links, Thera P.

    2007-01-01

    Sensitivity of thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) can be optimized by using a sensitive Tg assay and rhTSH stimulation. We evaluated the diagnostic yield of a sensitive Tg assay and rhTSH stimulated Tg in the detection of recurrences in the

  15. The follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer and undetectable thyroglobulin (Tg) and Tg antibodies during ablation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, Ha T. T.; Jager, Pieter L.; van der Wal, Jacqueline E.; Sluiter, Wim J.; Plukker, John T. M.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Links, Thera P.

    Objective: This retrospective study describes the rote of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) in relation to tumor characteristics in the prediction of persistent/recurrent disease in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with negative Tg at the time of ablation. Design: Between 1989 and 2006, 94

  16. Altered Light Conditions Contribute to Abnormalities in Emotion and Cognition Through HINT1 Dysfunction in C57BL/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the environmental impact of artificial light at night has been a rapidly growing global problem, affecting 99% of the population in the US and Europe, and 62% of the world population. The present study utilized a mouse model exposed to long-term artificial light and light deprivation to explore the impact of these conditions on emotion and cognition. Based on the potential links between histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (HINT1 and mood disorders, we also examined the expression of HINT1 and related apoptosis factors in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, prefrontal cortex (PFC, nucleus accumbens (NAc and hippocampus (Hip. Mice exposed to constant light (CL exhibited depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, as well as impaired spatial memory, as demonstrated by an increased immobility time in the tail suspension and forced swimming tests, less entries and time spent in the open arms of elevated plus-maze, and less platform site crossings and time spent in the target quadrant in the Morris water maze (MWM. The effects of constant darkness (CD partially coincided with long-term illumination, except that mice in the CD group failed to show anxiety-like behaviors. Furthermore, HINT1 was upregulated in four encephalic regions, indicating that HINT1 may be involved in mood disorders and cognitive impairments due to altered light exposure. The apoptosis-related proteins, BAX and BCL-2, showed the opposite expression pattern, reflecting an activated apoptotic pathway. These findings suggest that exposure to CL and/or darkness can induce significant changes in affective and cognitive responses, possibly through HINT1-induced activation of apoptotic pathways.

  17. In vivo determination of triglyceride (TG) secretion in rats fed different dietary saturated fats using [2-3H]-glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, H.C.; Yang, H.; Lasekan, J.; Clayton, M.; Ney, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Male, Sprague-Dawley rats (154±1 g) were fed diets containing 2% corn oil (CO) + 14% butterfat (BF), beef tallow (BT), olive oil (OO) or coconut oil (CN) vs a 16% CO control diet for 5 weeks. Changes in plasma TG specific activity (dpm/mg TG) were determined in individual unanesthetized rats after injection of 100 μCi [2- 3 H]-glycerol via a carotid cannula. Fractional rate constants were obtained using a 2-compartment model and nonlinear regression analysis. Results demonstrated no difference in the fractional rate constants among dietary groups; but, differences in the rates of hepatic TG secretion were noted. Rats fed BT showed a higher rate of hepatic TG secretion than rats fed CO. Rats fed BF, OO or CN showed somewhat higher rates of hepatic TG secretion than CO. VLDL TG, phospholipid, and apolipoprotein B and E levels were higher with saturated fats vs CO. The data suggest that the higher plasma TG levels noted in response to feeding saturated fats vs corn oil can be explained, in part, by an increased flux of hepatic TG secretion

  18. Transglutaminase (TG) involvement in early embryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maccioni, R.B.; Arechaga, J.

    1986-01-01

    Transglutaminase (TG) has been examined in different stages of preimplantation mouse embryogenesis. The specific activity of this enzyme in the soluble cellular fraction increases 2-fold from 2-cell embryos to 8-cell morulae and 4-fold from 2-cell embryos to blastocyst. The same developmental profile was seen when either N,N-dimethylcasein or endogenous substrates were used in the TG assay. Using high-speed supernatants from different stage embryos as a source of enzyme and [ 3 H]putrescine as acyl acceptor, the major acyl donor components were tubulin and a high molecular weight (HMW) cross-linkage product, as assessed by electrophoresis and immunoblotting. When either assembled or monomeric cytoskeleton proteins were compared as subtrates, microtubules were the best acyl donors. These studies indicate that TG activity is modulated during the changing demands of blastomeres for microtubule cytoskeleton in early embryogenesis

  19. Anti-depressant and anxiolytic like behaviors in PKCI/HINT1 knockout mice associated with elevated plasma corticosterone level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein kinase C interacting protein (PKCI/HINT1 is a small protein belonging to the histidine triad (HIT family proteins. Its brain immunoreactivity is located in neurons and neuronal processes. PKCI/HINT1 gene knockout (KO mice display hyper-locomotion in response to D-amphetamine which is considered a positive symptom of schizophrenia in animal models. Postmortem studies identified PKCI/HINT1 as a candidate molecule for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We investigated the hypothesis that the PKCI/HINT1 gene may play an important role in regulating mood function in the CNS. We submitted PKCI/HINT1 KO mice and their wild type (WT littermates to behavioral tests used to study anti-depressant, anxiety like behaviors, and goal-oriented behavior. Additionally, as many mood disorders coincide with modifications of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis function, we assessed the HPA activity through measurement of plasma corticosterone levels. Results Compared to the WT controls, KO mice exhibited less immobility in the forced swim (FST and the tail suspension (TST tests. Activity in the TST tended to be attenuated by acute treatment with valproate at 300 mg/kg in KO mice. The PKCI/HINT1 KO mice presented less thigmotaxis in the Morris water maze and spent progressively more time in the lit compartment in the light/dark test. In a place navigation task, KO mice exhibited enhanced acquisition and retention. Furthermore, the afternoon basal plasma corticosterone level in PKCI/HINT1 KO mice was significantly higher than in the WT. Conclusion PKCI/HINT1 KO mice displayed a phenotype of behavioral and endocrine features which indicate changes of mood function, including anxiolytic-like and anti-depressant like behaviors, in conjunction with an elevated corticosterone level in plasma. These results suggest that the PKCI/HINT 1 gene could be important for the mood regulation function in the CNS.

  20. Sub-Tg enthalpy relaxation in an extremely unstable oxide glass and its implication for structural heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yanfei; Hu, L.N.; Liu, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    We study the sub-Tg relaxation in an extremely unstable glass former, i.e., 65SiO2-35Al2O3, and its relation to structural heterogeneity (e.g., structurally ordered domains in glass matrix). This is done by hyperquenching (~106 K/s) the liquid, then annealing the hyperquenched glass below Tg...... and subsequently scanning the annealed hyperquenched glass in a differential scanning calorimeter. The results show that structural ordering can take place even below Tg. An endothermic pre-peak is observed when the hyperquenched sample is annealed at 0.75Tg for sufficiently long time, which is, however, much...... weaker compared to that of stable glass formers subjected to same annealing conditions. We also investigate the effect of the sub-Tg annealing on crystallization above Tg. The results imply that some structurally ordered domains exist already in the liquid state. The ordered domains lower the activation...

  1. Detecting spatial memory deficits beyond blindness in tg2576 Alzheimer mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine, Nour; Lazaris, Anelise; Dorner-Ciossek, Cornelia; Després, Olivier; Meyer, Laurence; Maitre, Michel; Mensah-Nyagan, Ayikoe Guy; Cassel, Jean-Christophe; Mathis, Chantal

    2013-03-01

    The retinal degeneration Pde6b(rd1) (rd) mutation can be a major pitfall in behavioral studies using tg2576 mice bred on a B6:SJL genetic background, 1 of the most widely used models of Alzheimer's disease. After a pilot study in wild type mice, performance of 8- and 16-month-old tg2576 mice were assessed in several behavioral tasks with the challenge of selecting 1 or more task(s) showing robust memory deficits on this genetic background. Water maze acquisition was impossible in rd homozygotes, whereas Y-maze alternation, object recognition, and olfactory discrimination were unaffected by both the transgene and the rd mutation. Spatial memory retention of 8- and 16-month-old tg2576 mice, however, was dramatically affected independently of the rd mutation when mice had to recognize a spatial configuration of objects or to perform the Barnes maze. Thus, the latter tasks appear extremely useful to evaluate spatial memory deficits and to test cognitive therapies in tg2576 mice and other mouse models bred on a background susceptible to visual impairment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Non-shoring construction for T/G pedestal beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, T.

    1992-01-01

    The T/G pedestal construction work has been the critical path within the T/B construction work of BWR type nuclear power plant. In order to meet the requirement of shortening the construction period and improved in safety on a Turbine Building (T/B) construction work, Non-soring construction for T/G Pedestal Beams was developed. By applying this method to T/G pedestal construction work, we succeeded in shortening the T/B construction period and improvement in safety significantly. (author)

  3. Endogenous murine tau promotes neurofibrillary tangles in 3xTg-AD mice without affecting cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglietto-Vargas, David; Kitazawa, Masashi; Le, Elaine J; Estrada-Hernandez, Tatiana; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Green, Kim N; LaFerla, Frank M

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies on tauopathy animal models suggest that the concomitant expression of the endogenous murine tau delays the pathological accumulation of human tau, and interferes with the disease progression. To elucidate the role of endogenous murine tau in a model with both plaques and tangles, we developed a novel transgenic mouse model by crossing 3xTg-AD with mtauKO mice (referred to as 3xTg-AD/mtauKO mice). Therefore, this new model allows us to determine the pathological consequences of the murine tau. Here, we show that 3xTg-AD/mtauKO mice have lower tau loads in both soluble and insoluble fractions, and lower tau hyperphosphorylation level in the soluble fraction relative to 3xTg-AD mice. In the 3xTg-AD model endogenous mouse tau is hyperphosphorylated and significantly co-aggregates with human tau. Despite the deletion of the endogenous tau gene in 3xTg-AD/mtauKO mice, cognitive dysfunction was equivalent to 3xTg-AD mice, as there was no additional impairment on a spatial memory task, and thus despite increased tau phosphorylation, accumulation and NFTs in 3xTg-AD mice no further effects on cognition are seen. These findings provide better understanding about the role of endogenous tau to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology and for developing new AD models. © 2013.

  4. Fragility of chalcogenide glass in relation to characteristic temperature T0/Tg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, A. M.; Shanker Rao, T.; Lilly Shanker Rao, T.; Venkataraman, K.

    2018-03-01

    The present study reports the mutual relationship between the fragility index m and the characteristic temperature T0/Tg. The fragility of the chalcogenide amorphous glass of Ge10Se50Te40 is calculated by utilizing glass transition temperature (Tg) measured by DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) at different heating rates (β) in the range 5 to 20 K/min. Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation is fitted to the data of Tg. In addition to the VFT method, three other methods are also used to evaluate m. The fragility index m of the Ge10Se50Te40 system showed the trend of decrease with increasing heating rate but remained stable around 22 for the heating rate 10 K/min. The value of m for the glass is near the lower limit (m ≈ 16) this indicates the alloy is a strong glass forming material in accordance of Angell’s interpretation of fragility. The calculated values of characteristic temperature T0/Tg is very close to 1 which also indicates that clearly the system is most fragile.

  5. Ocular changes in TgF344-AD rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yuchun; Lu, Bin; Ljubimov, Alexander V; Girman, Sergey; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N; Sadun, Alfredo A; Svendsen, Clive N; Cohen, Robert M; Wang, Shaomei

    2014-01-29

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive decline in learning, memory, and executive functions. In addition to cognitive and behavioral deficits, vision disturbances have been reported in early stage of AD, well before the diagnosis is clearly established. To further investigate ocular abnormalities, a novel AD transgenic rat model was analyzed. Transgenic (Tg) rats (TgF344-AD) heterozygous for human mutant APPswe/PS1ΔE9 and age-matched wild type (WT) rats, as well as 20 human postmortem retinal samples from both AD and healthy donors were used. Visual function in the rodent was analyzed using the optokinetic response and luminance threshold recording from the superior colliculus. Immunohistochemistry on retinal and brain sections was used to detect various markers including amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques. As expected, Aβ plaques were detected in the hippocampus, cortex, and retina of Tg rats. Plaque-like structures were also found in two AD human whole-mount retinas. The choroidal thickness was significantly reduced in both Tg rat and in AD human eyes when compared with age-matched controls. Tg rat eyes also showed hypertrophic retinal pigment epithelial cells, inflammatory cells, and upregulation of complement factor C3. Although visual acuity was lower in Tg than in WT rats, there was no significant difference in the retinal ganglion cell number and retinal vasculature. In this study, we observed pathological changes in the choroid and in RPE cells in the TgF344-AD rat model; choroidal thinning was observed further in human AD retina. Along with Ab deposition, the inflammatory response was manifested by microglial recruitment and complement activation. Further studies are needed to elucidate the significance and mechanisms of these pathological changes [corrected].

  6. Increased hippocampal excitability in the 3xTgAD mouse model for Alzheimer's disease in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Davis

    Full Text Available Mouse Alzheimer's disease (AD models develop age- and region-specific pathology throughout the hippocampal formation. One recently established pathological correlate is an increase in hippocampal excitability in vivo. Hippocampal pathology also produces episodic memory decline in human AD and we have shown a similar episodic deficit in 3xTg AD model mice aged 3-6 months. Here, we tested whether hippocampal synaptic dysfunction accompanies this cognitive deficit by probing dorsal CA1 and DG synaptic responses in anaesthetized, 4-6 month-old 3xTgAD mice. As our previous reports highlighted a decline in episodic performance in aged control mice, we included aged cohorts for comparison. CA1 and DG responses to low-frequency perforant path stimulation were comparable between 3xTgAD and controls at both age ranges. As expected, DG recordings in controls showed paired-pulse depression; however, paired-pulse facilitation was observed in DG and CA1 of young and old 3xTgAD mice. During stimulus trains both short-latency (presumably monosynaptic: 'direct' and long-latency (presumably polysynaptic: 're-entrant' responses were observed. Facilitation of direct responses was modest in 3xTgAD animals. However, re-entrant responses in DG and CA1 of young 3xTgAD mice developed earlier in the stimulus train and with larger amplitude when compared to controls. Old mice showed less DG paired-pulse depression and no evidence for re-entrance. In summary, DG and CA1 responses to low-frequency stimulation in all groups were comparable, suggesting no loss of synaptic connectivity in 3xTgAD mice. However, higher-frequency activation revealed complex change in synaptic excitability in DG and CA1 of 3xTgAD mice. In particular, short-term plasticity in DG and CA1 was facilitated in 3xTgAD mice, most evidently in younger animals. In addition, re-entrance was facilitated in young 3xTgAD mice. Overall, these data suggest that the episodic-like memory deficit in 3xTgAD mice

  7. TG Grammar's Implications for the Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷彩

    2009-01-01

    Chomsky's Transformational-Generative (TG) grammar is another revolution to linguistics after Saussure's strueturalism, and it plays an important role in the modem linguistics. Introducing the research perspective and method of TG grammar, this paper analyses its implications for the foreign language teaching.

  8. Theory of mind in a first-episode psychosis population using the Hinting Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Maija; Torniainen-Holm, Minna; Heiskanen, Inkeri; Voutilainen, Greta; Pulkkinen, Ulla; Mehtälä, Tuukka; Jokela, Markus; Kieseppä, Tuula; Suvisaari, Jaana; Therman, Sebastian

    2018-05-01

    Deficiencies in theory of mind (ToM) are common in psychosis and may largely explain impaired social functioning. Currently, it is unclear whether impairments in ToM are explained by the more general cognitive deficits related to psychosis or whether ToM is impaired in psychosis independently of other cognitive deficits. This study examined ToM using the Hinting Task in young adults (n = 66) with first-episode psychosis and matched controls (n = 62). The participants were administered a broad neuropsychological assessment. Participants with psychosis performed worse than controls on the Hinting Task. However, 75% of the variance between the groups was explained by general cognitive deficits, especially impaired processing speed and episodic memory. Hinting Task performance of the best functioning patient group did not differ from that of the control group. When the psychosis group was divided according to diagnosis, the Hinting Task difference between individuals with schizophrenia and controls remained significant even when general cognitive performance was controlled for, suggesting specific verbal ToM deficits in schizophrenia. In contrast, those with other psychotic disorders did not differ from controls. Our results suggest that ToM deficits can be seen in early phases of psychotic disorders, schizophrenia in particular, and are partly independent of other cognitive functions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical reevaluation of radioimmunological thyroglobulin (hTg) determination in follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, I.; Kanitz, W.; Pabst, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    A reevaluation of the clinical value of radioimmunological thyroglobulin (hTg) determination during follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, in general, confirms our previous results already published in 1980 and 1981. A total of 163 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, 53 with papillary and 110 with follicular carcinoma, was studied up to January 1984. 586 sera are included in this study. The differentiation of suspicious from nonsuspicious findings was found to be based upon a cut-off concentration of 10 μg/l. Pathological findings were associated with hTg concentrations above 20 μg/l. Diagnostic accuracy was calculated to be between 95 and 97%, sensitivity of the method in comparison to be radioiodine whole-body scan was 98 versus 83%, respectively, and specificity 94%. At first 5 false negative and 6 false positive hTg findings have been obtained. 7.6% of the patients demonstrated endogeneous hTg antibodies by Boyden test. 7.7% of Boyden test negative sera showed an unacceptable hTg recovery of worse than +- 50%, which was possibly due to endogeneous antibodies. Again, endogenous TSH was able to stimulate hTg secretion in the form of elevated levels, yet did not affect the clinical diagnosis. Examples of the behaviour of hTg levels during follow-up are demonstrated. Specifically, the cases with false hTg findings are discussed. Basically, the conclusions are the same as in 1980 and 1981: hTg determination is able to replace the routinely performed radioiodine whole-body scan during follow-up, if once residual thyroid tissue and metastases have been excluded by means of radioiodine and an optimal follow-up program is used. (orig.) [de

  10. Tissue transglutaminase (TG2 activity regulates osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in the SAOS-2 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxue Yin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Tissue transglutaminase (type II, TG2 has long been postulated to directly promote skeletal matrix calcification and play an important role in ossification. However, limited information is available on the expression, function and modulating mechanism of TG2 during osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. To address these issues, we cultured the well-established human osteosarcoma cell line SAOS-2 with osteo-inductive conditioned medium and set up three time points (culture days 4, 7, and 14 to represent different stages of SAOS-2 differentiation. Osteoblast markers, mineralization, as well as TG2 expression and activity, were then assayed in each stage. Furthermore, we inhibited TG activity with cystamine and then checked SAOS-2 differentiation and mineralization in each stage. The results showed that during the progression of osteoblast differentiation SAOS-2 cells presented significantly high levels of osteocalcin (OC mRNA, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 and collagen I, significantly high alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, and the increased formation of calcified matrix. With the same tendency, TG2 expression and activity were up-regulated. Furthermore, inhibition of TG activity resulted in a significant decrease of OC, collagen I, and BMP-2 mRNA and of ALP activity and mineralization. This study demonstrated that TG2 is involved in osteoblast differentiation and may play a role in the initiation and regulation of the mineralization processes. Moreover, the modulating effects of TG2 on osteoblasts may be related to BMP-2.

  11. Thermal behaviors of mechanically activated pyrites by thermogravimetry (TG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Huiping; Chen Qiyuan; Yin Zhoulan; Zhang Pingmin

    2003-01-01

    The thermal decompositions of mechanically activated and non-activated pyrites were studied by thermogravimetry (TG) at the heating rate of 10 K min -1 in argon. Results indicate that the initial temperature of thermal decomposition (T di ) in TG curves for mechanically activated pyrites decreases gradually with increasing the grinding time. The specific granulometric surface area (S G ), the structural disorder of mechanically activated pyrites were analyzed by X-ray diffraction laser particle size analyzer, and X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. The results show that the S G of mechanically activated pyrites remains almost constant after a certain grinding time, and lattice distortions (ε) rise but the crystallite sizes (D) decrease with increasing the grinding time. All these results imply that the decrease of T di in TG curves of mechanically activated pyrites is mainly caused by the increase of lattice distortions ε and the decrease of the crystallite sizes D of mechanically activated pyrite with increasing the grinding time. The differences in the reactivity between non-activated and mechanically activated pyrites were observed using characterization of the products obtained from 1 h treatment of non-activated and mechanically activated pyrites at 713 K under inert atmosphere and characterization of non-activated and mechanically activated pyrites exposed to ambient air for a certain period

  12. HINTS outperforms ABCD2 to screen for stroke in acute continuous vertigo and dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman-Toker, David E; Kerber, Kevin A; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Pula, John H; Omron, Rodney; Saber Tehrani, Ali S; Mantokoudis, Georgios; Hanley, Daniel F; Zee, David S; Kattah, Jorge C

    2013-10-01

    Dizziness and vertigo account for about 4 million emergency department (ED) visits annually in the United States, and some 160,000 to 240,000 (4% to 6%) have cerebrovascular causes. Stroke diagnosis in ED patients with vertigo/dizziness is challenging because the majority have no obvious focal neurologic signs at initial presentation. The authors sought to compare the accuracy of two previously published approaches purported to be useful in bedside screening for possible stroke in dizziness: a clinical decision rule (head impulse, nystagmus type, test of skew [HINTS]) and a risk stratification rule (age, blood pressure, clinical features, duration of symptoms, diabetes [ABCD2]). This was a cross-sectional study of high-risk patients (more than one stroke risk factor) with acute vestibular syndrome (AVS; acute, persistent vertigo or dizziness with nystagmus, plus nausea or vomiting, head motion intolerance, and new gait unsteadiness) at a single academic center. All underwent neurootologic examination, neuroimaging (97.4% by magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]), and follow-up. ABCD2 risk scores (0-7 points), using the recommended cutoff of ≥4 for stroke, were compared to a three-component eye movement battery (HINTS). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+, LR-) were assessed for stroke and other central causes, and the results were stratified by age. False-negative initial neuroimaging was also assessed. A total of 190 adult AVS patients were assessed (1999-2012). Median age was 60.5 years (range = 18 to 92 years; interquartile range [IQR] = 52.0 to 70.0 years); 60.5% were men. Final diagnoses were vestibular neuritis (34.7%), posterior fossa stroke (59.5% [105 infarctions, eight hemorrhages]), and other central causes (5.8%). Median ABCD2 was 4.0 (range = 2 to 7; IQR = 3.0 to 4.0). ABCD2 ≥ 4 for stroke had sensitivity of 61.1%, specificity of 62.3%, LR+ of 1.62, and LR- of 0.62; sensitivity was lower for those

  13. A new VME timing module: TG8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beetham, C.G.; Daems, G.; Lewis, J.; Puccio, B.

    1992-01-01

    The two accelerator divisions of CERN, namely PS and SL, are defining a new common control system based on PC, VME and Workstations. This has provided an opportunity to review both central timing systems and to come up with common solutions. The result was, amongst others, the design of a unique timing module, called TG8. The TG8 is a multipurpose VME module, which receives messages distributed over a timing network. These messages include timing information, clock plus calendar and telegrams instructing the CERN accelerators on the characteristics of the next beam to be produced. The TG8 compares incoming messages with up to 256 programmed actions. An action consists of two parts, a trigger which matches an incoming message and what to do when the match occurs. The latter part may optionally create an output pulse on one of the eight output channels and/or a bus interrupt, both with programmable delay and telegram conditioning. (author)

  14. Stoic Behavior Hypothesis in Hint Seeking and Development of Reversi Learning Environment as Work Bench for Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Kazuhisa; Kojima, Kazuaki; Terai, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Tutoring systems provide students with various types of on-demand and context-sensitive hints. Students are required to consciously adapt their help-seeking behavior, proactively seek help in some situations, and solve problems independently without supports in other situations. We define the latter behavior as stoic behavior in hint seeking. In…

  15. Res Publicas käärib mäss / Hants Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Hants

    2002-01-01

    Res Publica eestseisuse liige ja Ida-Viru piirkonna esimees Hants Hint vastab küsimustele Res Publica ja Keskerakonna võimuliidu moodustamisega tekkinud skandaali, Res Publica esimehe Juhan Partsiga kohtumise kohta. Vt. samas: "Korbi toetajaid ootab hukkamõist"

  16. New physics hints in B decays and collider outlook

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There are currently two hints for new physics involving CP violation in → transitions: ≡ - / ≠ 0, and difference in direct CP asymmetry Δ A K π ≡ A K + π 0 − A K + π ≠ 0 . We explore the two scenarious with a large and unique new CP phase in ← tansitions. Motivated by ≠ 0, we update on the ...

  17. [Peripheral vertigo versus central vertigo. Application of the HINTS protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batuecas-Caletrío, Ángel; Yáñez-González, Raquel; Sánchez-Blanco, Carmen; González-Sánchez, Enrique; Benito, José; Gómez, José Carlos; Santa Cruz-Ruiz, Santiago

    2014-10-16

    One of the most important dilemmas concerning vertigo in emergency departments is its differential diagnosis. There are highly sensitive warning signs in the examination that can put us on the path towards finding ourselves before a case of central vertigo. To determine how effective the application of the HINTS protocol is in the diagnosis of cerebrovascular accidents that mimics peripheral vertigo. We conducted a descriptive observation-based study on patients admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of acute vestibular syndrome in the emergency department. All the patients were monitored on a day-to-day basis until their symptoms improved, with information about nystagmus, the oculocephalic manoeuvre and the skew test. The results from the magnetic resonance imaging study were compared with the alteration of any of those three signs during the time the patient was hospitalised. Altogether 91 patients were examined, with a mean age of 55.8 years. A cerebrovascular accident was observed in eight cases. Of these (mean age: 71 years), in seven of them there were alterations in some of the HINTS signs, and in one case the study was normal (sensitivity: 0.88; specificity: 0.96). All of them had some vascular risk factor. Faced with a patient who visits the emergency department with an acute vestibular syndrome, a suitably directed examination is essential to be able to establish the differential diagnosis between peripheral and central pathology, since some cerebrovascular accidents can present with the appearance of acute vertigo. Applying a protocol like HINTS makes it possible to suspect the central pathology with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity.

  18. Recombinant TgHSP70 Immunization Protects against Toxoplasma gondii Brain Cyst Formation by Enhancing Inducible Nitric Oxide Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide M. Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is known to cause congenital infection in humans and animals and severe disease in immunocompromised individuals; consequently development of vaccines against the parasite is highly necessary. Under stress conditions, T. gondii expresses the highly immunogenic heat shock protein 70 (TgHSP70. Here, we assessed the protective efficacy of rTgHSP70 immunization combined with Alum in oral ME-49 T. gondii infection and the mechanisms involved on it. It was observed that immunized mice with rTgHSP70 or rTgHSP70 adsorbed in Alum presented a significantly reduced number of cysts in the brain that was associated with increased iNOS+ cell numbers in the organ, irrespective the use of the adjuvant. Indeed, ex vivo experiments showed that peritoneal macrophages pre-stimulated with rTgHSP70 presented increased NO production and enhanced parasite killing, and the protein was able to directly stimulate B cells toward antibody producing profile. In addition, rTgHSP70 immunization leads to high specific antibody titters systemically and a mixed IgG1/IgG2a response, with predominance of IgG1 production. Nonetheless, it was observed that the pretreatment of the parasite with rTgHSP70 immune sera was not able to control T. gondii internalization and replication by NIH fibroblast neither peritoneal murine macrophages, nor anti-rTgHSP70 antibodies were able to kill T. gondii by complement-mediated lysis, suggesting that these mechanisms are not crucial to resistance. Interestingly, when in combination with Alum, rTgHSP70 immunization was able to reduce inflammation in the brain of infected mice and in parallel anti-rTgHSP70 immune complexes in the serum. In conclusion, immunization with rTgHSP70 induces massive amounts of iNOS expression and reduced brain parasitism, suggesting that iNOS expression and consequently NO production in the brain is a protective mechanism induced by TgHSP70 immunization, therefore rTgHSP70 can be a good candidate for

  19. Experimental hint for gravitational CP violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharibyan, Vahagn [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany). MDI Group

    2016-01-15

    An equality of particle and antiparticle gravitational interactions holds in general relativity and is supported by indirect observations. Gravity dependence on rotation or spin direction is experimentally constrained only at low energies. Here a method based on high energy Compton scattering is developed to measure the gravitational interaction of accelerated charged particles. Within that formalism the Compton spectra measured at HERA rule out the positron's anti-gravity and hint for a gravitational CP violation around 13 GeV energies, at a maximal level of 1.3±0.2% for the charge and 0.68±0.09% for the space parity. A stronger gravitational coupling to left helicity electrons relative to right helicity positrons is detected.

  20. Experimental hint for gravitational CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharibyan, Vahagn

    2016-01-01

    An equality of particle and antiparticle gravitational interactions holds in general relativity and is supported by indirect observations. Gravity dependence on rotation or spin direction is experimentally constrained only at low energies. Here a method based on high energy Compton scattering is developed to measure the gravitational interaction of accelerated charged particles. Within that formalism the Compton spectra measured at HERA rule out the positron's anti-gravity and hint for a gravitational CP violation around 13 GeV energies, at a maximal level of 1.3±0.2% for the charge and 0.68±0.09% for the space parity. A stronger gravitational coupling to left helicity electrons relative to right helicity positrons is detected.

  1. Development and Validation of a Novel Generic Health-related Quality of Life Instrument With 20 Items (HINT-20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Woo Jo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Few attempts have been made to develop a generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL instrument and to examine its validity and reliability in Korea. We aimed to do this in our present study. Methods After a literature review of existing generic HRQoL instruments, a focus group discussion, in-depth interviews, and expert consultations, we selected 30 tentative items for a new HRQoL measure. These items were evaluated by assessing their ceiling effects, difficulty, and redundancy in the first survey. To validate the HRQoL instrument that was developed, known-groups validity and convergent/discriminant validity were evaluated and its test-retest reliability was examined in the second survey. Results Of the 30 items originally assessed for the HRQoL instrument, four were excluded due to high ceiling effects and six were removed due to redundancy. We ultimately developed a HRQoL instrument with a reduced number of 20 items, known as the Health-related Quality of Life Instrument with 20 items (HINT-20, incorporating physical, mental, social, and positive health dimensions. The results of the HINT-20 for known-groups validity were poorer in women, the elderly, and those with a low income. For convergent/discriminant validity, the correlation coefficients of items (except vitality in the physical health dimension with the physical component summary of the Short Form 36 version 2 (SF-36v2 were generally higher than the correlations of those items with the mental component summary of the SF-36v2, and vice versa. Regarding test-retest reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficient of the total HINT-20 score was 0.813 (p<0.001. Conclusions A novel generic HRQoL instrument, the HINT-20, was developed for the Korean general population and showed acceptable validity and reliability.

  2. Employing UMLS for generating hints in a tutoring system for medical problem-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Hameedullah; Haddawy, Peter; Suebnukarn, Siriwan

    2012-06-01

    While problem-based learning has become widely popular for imparting clinical reasoning skills, the dynamics of medical PBL require close attention to a small group of students, placing a burden on medical faculty, whose time is over taxed. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) offer an attractive means to increase the amount of facilitated PBL training the students receive. But typical intelligent tutoring system architectures make use of a domain model that provides a limited set of approved solutions to problems presented to students. Student solutions that do not match the approved ones, but are otherwise partially correct, receive little acknowledgement as feedback, stifling broader reasoning. Allowing students to creatively explore the space of possible solutions is exactly one of the attractive features of PBL. This paper provides an alternative to the traditional ITS architecture by using a hint generation strategy that leverages a domain ontology to provide effective feedback. The concept hierarchy and co-occurrence between concepts in the domain ontology are drawn upon to ascertain partial correctness of a solution and guide student reasoning towards a correct solution. We describe the strategy incorporated in METEOR, a tutoring system for medical PBL, wherein the widely available UMLS is deployed and represented as the domain ontology. Evaluation of expert agreement with system generated hints on a 5-point likert scale resulted in an average score of 4.44 (Spearman's ρ=0.80, p<0.01). Hints containing partial correctness feedback scored significantly higher than those without it (Mann Whitney, p<0.001). Hints produced by a human expert received an average score of 4.2 (Spearman's ρ=0.80, p<0.01). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. High-temperature Brillouin scattering study of haplogranitic glasses and liquids: Effects of F, K, Na and Li on Tg and elastic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manghnani, M. H.; Hushur, A.; Williams, Q. C.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    The density, compressibility and viscosity of silicate melts are important in understanding the thermodynamic and fluid dynamic properties of magmatic systems. Knowledge of the compressibility of silicate melts at 1 bar is an important component in the construction of accurate pressure-volume-temperature equations of state. In light of this, the velocity (nVp, Vp, Vs) and refractive index n of four anhydrous haplogranitic glasses and liquids with similar alkali abundances, but different cations, are measured at high temperature by Brillouin scattering spectroscopy through the glass transition temperature (Tg) in both platelet and back scattering geometry. The compositions of four haplogranites are 5 wt% of the components Li2O, Na2O, K2O and F each added to a base of haplogranitic (HPG8) composition. The glass transition temperature Tg of different haplogranite samples at the GHz frequency of the Brillouin probe are determined from the change in slope of the temperature-dependent longitudinal or transverse sound velocity. HPG8-Li5 has the lowest glass transition temperature (466°C), while HPG8-K5 has the highest glass transition temperature (575°C). Our Brillouin results, when compared with DSC measurements, show lower Tg values. This raises the possibility of a role of either heating rates or a frequency dependence of the glass transition in explaining the discrepancies in Tg values derived from the two methods. The sound velocity (nVp, Vp, Vs) shows markedly different temperature dependences (including differences in sign) below Tg depending on their different alkali contents. The unrelaxed elastic moduli of three haplogranitic glasses with added Li2O, Na2O and F components have been obtained as a function of temperature. The unrelaxed bulk modulus, shear modulus and Poisson’s ratio show strong compositional dependences at ambient temperature. On heating, The K initially decreases with increasing temperature up to ~ 135°C, then increases up to Tg, and then

  4. TG/FT-IR characterization of additives typically employed in EPDM formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Beck Sanches

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThermogravimetric analysis coupled to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG/FT-IR is a very popular technique for rubbers characterization. It involves analyses of the base polymer and additives. Ethylene–propylene–diene (EPDM rubbers are frequently investigated by TG/FT-IR; however, the focus has been the degradation temperature range of the polymer. In this study, unvulcanized and vulcanized EPDM rubber and its additives were investigated by TG/FT-IR, without solvent extraction, and in a wide temperature range. Initially, the additives were individually characterized. TG/FT-IR identified the characteristic groups of all the additives analyzed and distinguished them from each other. Afterwards, unvulcanized and vulcanized EPDM rubbers were investigated without prior extraction.TG/FT-IR detected absorptions due to the additives tetramethylthiuram monosulfide and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole. Both of these sulfur-containing additives were present in the EPDM formulation at concentrations of 0.7 phr (0.63 wt %. The TG/FT-IR technique had some limitations, because not all the additives in EPDM rubber were detected. Paraffin oil, stearic acid and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline functional groups were not observed in either the unvulcanized or vulcanized EPDM. Nevertheless, in addition to the ability of this method to detect sulfur-containing groups, the lack of a pre-extraction reduces the time and effort required for additive analysis in rubbers.

  5. TG-FTIR analysis of biomass pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassilakis, R.; Carangelo, R.M.; Wojtowicz, M.A. [Advanced Fuel Research Inc., Hartford, CT (United States)

    2001-10-09

    A great need exists for comprehensive biomass-pyrolysis models that could predict yields and evolution patterns of selected volatile products as a function of feedstock characteristics and process conditions. A thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared analysis of evolving products (TG-FTIR) can provide useful input to such models in the form of kinetic information obtained under low heating rate conditions. In this work, robust TG-FTIR quantification routes were developed for infrared analysis of volatile products relevant to biomass pyrolysis. The analysis was applied to wheat straw, three types of tobacco (Burley, Oriental, and Bright) and three biomass model compounds (xylan, chlorogenic acid, and D-glucose). Product yields were compared with literature data, and species potentially quantifiable by FT-IR are reviewed. Product-evolution patterns are reported for all seven biomass samples. 41 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Complexity hints for economic policy

    CERN Document Server

    Salzano, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    This volume extends the complexity approach to economics. This complexity approach is not a completely new way of doing economics, and that it is a replacement for existing economics, but rather the integration of some new analytic and computational techniques into economists’ bag of tools. It provides some alternative pattern generators, which can supplement existing approaches by providing an alternative way of finding patterns than be obtained by the traditional scientific approach. On this new kind of policy hints can be obtained. The reason why the complexity approach is taking hold now in economics is because the computing technology has advanced. This advance allows consideration of analytical systems that could not previously be considered by economists. Consideration of these systems suggested that the results of the "control-based" models might not extend easily to more complicated systems, and that we now have a method—piggybacking computer assisted analysis onto analytic methods—to start gen...

  7. Local lymph node assay: how testing laboratories apply OECD TG 429 for REACH purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovida, Costanza

    2011-01-01

    The Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) is the official method for assessing the allergic contact dermatitis potential of chemicals for the purposes of REACH regulation. The LLNA went through a validation process that allowed the delineation of a robust protocol for performing new tests. The OECD accepted this method in 2002 and published OECD TG 429. The European Chemical Agency (ECHA) recently published data that were submitted in the registration dossiers of chemicals. This database was analysed to determine how testing laboratories apply OECD TG 429. This analysis comes after a detailed analysis of four full study reports that were also prepared for REACH purposes. Although the majority of the tests are fully compliant with OECD TG 429, some showed major deviations, and a number of others used more animals than necessary. This suggests that in vivo tests need to be planned more carefully and consciously to obtain meaningful results with the minimum animal number necessary.

  8. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Truncal Ataxia and HINTS as Cardinal Signs for Acute Vestibular Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Carmona

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The head impulse, nystagmus type, test of skew (HINTS protocol set a new paradigm to differentiate peripheral vestibular disease from stroke in patients with acute vestibular syndrome (AVS. The relationship between degree of truncal ataxia and stroke has not been systematically studied in patients with AVS. We studied a group of 114 patients who were admitted to a General Hospital due to AVS, 72 of them with vestibular neuritis (based on positive head impulse, abnormal caloric tests and negative MRI, and the rest with Stroke: 32 in the PICA territory (positive HINTS findings, positive MRI and 10 in the AICA territory (variable findings and grade 3 Ataxia, positive MRI. Truncal ataxia was measured by independent observers as grade 1, mild to moderate imbalance with walking independently; grade 2, severe imbalance with standing, but cannot walk without support; and grade 3, falling at upright posture.When we applied the HINTS protocol to our sample, we obtained 100% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity, similar to previously published findings. Only those patients with stroke presented with grade 3 ataxia. Of those with grade 2 ataxia (n = 38, 11 had cerebellar stroke and 28 had vestibular neuritis, not related to the patient's age. Grade 2-3 ataxia was 92.9% sensitive and 61.1% specific to detect AICA/PICA stroke in patients with AVS, with 100% sensitivity to detect AICA stroke. In turn, two signs (nystagmus of central origin and grade 2-3 Ataxia had 100% sensitivity and 61.1% specificity. Ataxia is less sensitive than HINTS but much easier to evaluate.

  9. Compositional characterization of carbon electrode material: A study using simultaneous TG-DTA-FTIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raje, Naina; Aacherekar, Darshana A.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2009-01-01

    Present work describes the application of thermal methods, especially the evolved gas analysis (EGA) for the compositional characterization of carbon electrode material with respect to its organic, amorphous and graphitic carbon content. Trace levels of organic carbon present in the amorphous carbon samples were determined qualitatively by using FTIR absorption spectroscopy. Amorphous and graphitic carbon content in synthetic mixture samples were determined quantitatively using simultaneous TG-DTA-FTIR measurements. FTIR system was calibrated using the measured absorption signal of the evolved carbon dioxide due to the decomposition of cadmium carbonate. Inter-comparison studies using TG-FTIR measurements show that simultaneous FTIR spectroscopy is an effective complementary quantitative measurement technique for thermogravimetric analysis involving the complex decomposition reaction processes.

  10. Can children take advantage of nao gaze-based hints during gameplay?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangi, E.N.; Diaz, M.; Barakova, E.I.; Catala, A.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study that analyzes the effects of robots' gaze hints on children's performance in a card-matching game. We conducted a within-subjects study, in which children played a card matching game "Memory" in the presence of a robot tutor in two sessions. In one session, the robot gave

  11. HINT computation of LHD equilibrium with zero rotational transform surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ryutaro; Toi, Kazuo; Watanabe, Kiyomasa; Hayashi, Takaya; Miura, Hideaki; Nakajima, Noriyoshi; Okamoto Masao

    2004-01-01

    A Large Helical Device equilibrium having a zero rotational transform surface is studied by using the three dimensional MHD equilibrium code, HINT. We find existence of the equilibrium but with formation of the two or three n=0 islands composing a homoclinic-type structure near the center, where n is a toroidal mode number. The LHD equilibrium maintains the structure, when the equilibrium beta increases. (author)

  12. Health Information National Trends Survey in American Sign Language (HINTS-ASL): Protocol for the Cultural Adaptation and Linguistic Validation of a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Harris, Raychelle; Paludneviciene, Raylene; Hoglind, TraciAnn

    2017-09-13

    The Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) collects nationally representative data about the American's public use of health-related information. This survey is available in English and Spanish, but not in American Sign Language (ASL). Thus, the exclusion of ASL users from these national health information survey studies has led to a significant gap in knowledge of Internet usage for health information access in this underserved and understudied population. The objectives of this study are (1) to culturally adapt and linguistically translate the HINTS items to ASL (HINTS-ASL); and (2) to gather information about deaf people's health information seeking behaviors across technology-mediated platforms. We modified the standard procedures developed at the US National Center for Health Statistics Cognitive Survey Laboratory to culturally adapt and translate HINTS items to ASL. Cognitive interviews were conducted to assess clarity and delivery of these HINTS-ASL items. Final ASL video items were uploaded to a protected online survey website. The HINTS-ASL online survey has been administered to over 1350 deaf adults (ages 18 to 90 and up) who use ASL. Data collection is ongoing and includes deaf adult signers across the United States. Some items from HINTS item bank required cultural adaptation for use with deaf people who use accessible services or technology. A separate item bank for deaf-related experiences was created, reflecting deaf-specific technology such as sharing health-related ASL videos through social network sites and using video remote interpreting services in health settings. After data collection is complete, we will conduct a series of analyses on deaf people's health information seeking behaviors across technology-mediated platforms. HINTS-ASL is an accessible health information national trends survey, which includes a culturally appropriate set of items that are relevant to the experiences of deaf people who use ASL. The final HINTS

  13. Cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light chain as a biomarker of neurodegeneration in the Tg4510 and MitoPark mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Amalie; Mitchelmore, Cathy; Andersson, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    examined whether changes in NF-L levels in brain, plasma, and CSF reflect the changing disease status of preclinical models of neurodegeneration. Using Western Blot and ELISA we characterized NF-L and disease-related proteins in brain, CSF and plasma samples from Tg4510 mice (tauopathy/AD), MitoPark mice...... (PD), and their age-matched control littermates. We found that CSF NF-L clearly discriminates Tg4510 from control littermates, which was not observed for the MitoPark model. However, both Tg4510 and MitoPark showed altered expression and solubilization of NFs compared to control littermates. We found...

  14. FPGA Implementation of Burst-Mode Synchronization for SOQSPK-TG

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    is normalized to π. The proposed burst-mode architecture is written in VHDL and verified using Modelsim. The VHDL design is implemented on a Xilinx...Document Number: SET 2014-0043 412TW-PA-14298 FPGA Implementation of Burst-Mode Synchronization for SOQSPK-TG June 2014 Final Report Test...To) 9/11 -- 8/14 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FPGA Implementation of Burst-Mode Synchronization for SOQSPK-TG 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER: W900KK-11-C-0032 5b

  15. Comparative study by TG and DSC Of membranes polyamide66/bentonite clay nanocomposite; Estudo comparativo por TG e DSC de membranas de nanocompositos poliamida66/argila bentonitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, K.M. de; Kojuch, L R; Araujo, E M; Lira, H.L., E-mail: keilamm@ig.com.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Lima, F [Universidade Estadual da Paraiba (UEPB), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    In this study, it was obtained membranes of nanocomposites polyamide66 with 3 and 5% bentonite clay consists of silicates in layers from the interior of Paraiba. The clay was treated with a quaternary ammonium salt in order to make it organophilic. The membranes were prepared by phase inversion technique from the nanocomposites in solution. The clays were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetry (TG). Also the membranes were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and TG. The XRD and TG confirmed the presence of salt in the clay and thermal stability of the treated clay. For DSC, it was observed that there was no change in melting temperature of the membranes of nanocomposites compared to membrane pure polyamide66. By TG, it was found that the decomposition of the membranes of polyamide66 with treated clay were higher compared with the untreated clay. (author)

  16. PsHint1, associated with the G-protein α subunit PsGPA1, is required for the chemotaxis and pathogenicity of Phytophthora sojae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Zhai, Chunhua; Hua, Chenlei; Qiu, Min; Hao, Yujuan; Nie, Pingping; Ye, Wenwu; Wang, Yuanchao

    2016-02-01

    Zoospore chemotaxis to soybean isoflavones is essential in the early stages of infection by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae. Previously, we have identified a G-protein α subunit encoded by PsGPA1 which regulates the chemotaxis and pathogenicity of P. sojae. In the present study, we used affinity purification to identify PsGPA1-interacting proteins, including PsHint1, a histidine triad (HIT) domain-containing protein orthologous to human HIT nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1). PsHint1 interacted with both the guanosine triphosphate (GTP)- and guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-bound forms of PsGPA1. An analysis of the gene-silenced transformants revealed that PsHint1 was involved in the chemotropic response of zoospores to the isoflavone daidzein. During interaction with a susceptible soybean cultivar, PsHint1-silenced transformants displayed significantly reduced infectious hyphal extension and caused a strong cell death in plants. In addition, the transformants displayed defective cyst germination, forming abnormal germ tubes that were highly branched and exhibited apical swelling. These results suggest that PsHint1 not only regulates chemotaxis by interacting with PsGPA1, but also participates in a Gα-independent pathway involved in the pathogenicity of P. sojae. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  17. Análises de protocolos de braquiterapia, por alta taxa de dose, do controle de qualidade de alguns serviços locais, baseados no TG40, TG56 e ARCAL XXX Analysis of the high dose rate brachytherapy protocols of quality assurance programs of some local services, based on TG40, TG56 and ARCAL XXX.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen S. Guzmán Calcina

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A braquiterapia por alta taxa de dose está recebendo atenção considerável na maioria dos países. Por isso, nos serviços que utilizam este equipamento exige-se que o desenvolvimento de um programa de controle de qualidade seja cada vez mais rigoroso, para garantir não apenas a segurança aos pacientes, mas também aos operadores e demais envolvidos. Este trabalho tem por objetivos fazer um levantamento dos tipos de testes para um equipamento de braquiterapia por alta taxa de dose, propostos pelos protocolos oficiais publicados (TG40, TG56 e ARCAL XXX e avaliar os tipos de testes que atualmente são realizados por alguns serviços de radioterapia, comparando-os com aqueles apresentados nos protocolos citados. Das análises feitas, observou-se que: a quanto aos protocolos oficiais, o TG56 é mais completo que o TG40 e o ARCAL XXX; b quanto às instituições analisadas, estas em geral se basearam no TG56 para elaborar seus próprios protocolos, os quais demonstraram ter também concordância com os outros já citados. Nestes protocolos, a inexistência dos testes anuais foi notada, o que pode ser explicado por sua aparição nas freqüências trimestral e semestral. Do produto deste estudo são apresentadas tabelas dos tipos de testes com suas respectivas freqüências de utilização, das quais um protocolo pode ser inferido para auxiliar na implementação, pelo menos, dos tipos de testes de controle de qualidade básicos e indispensáveis para o equipamento, garantindo, assim, um tratamento adequado aos pacientes e uma melhor segurança ao pessoal envolvido e, conseqüentemente, assegurando a garantia de qualidade na braquiterapia por alta taxa de dose.High dose rate brachytherapy has been increasingly recognized in most countries, and radiotherapy services using this equipment are encouraged to have a very efficient quality assurance program to ensure protection for patients, workers and other personnel involved. The objective of this

  18. Cotinine improves visual recognition memory and decreases cortical Tau phosphorylation in the Tg6799 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizzell, J Alex; Patel, Sagar; Barreto, George E; Echeverria, Valentina

    2017-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with the progressive aggregation of hyperphosphorylated forms of the microtubule associated protein Tau in the central nervous system. Cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, reduced working memory deficits, synaptic loss, and amyloid β peptide aggregation into oligomers and plaques as well as inhibited the cerebral Tau kinase, glycogen synthase 3β (GSK3β) in the transgenic (Tg)6799 (5XFAD) mice. In this study, the effect of cotinine on visual recognition memory and cortical Tau phosphorylation at the GSK3β sites Serine (Ser)-396/Ser-404 and phospho-CREB were investigated in the Tg6799 and non-transgenic (NT) littermate mice. Tg mice showed short-term visual recognition memory impairment in the novel object recognition test, and higher levels of Tau phosphorylation when compared to NT mice. Cotinine significantly improved visual recognition memory performance increased CREB phosphorylation and reduced cortical Tau phosphorylation. Potential mechanisms underlying theses beneficial effects are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Thermal behavior of biflorin by beans TG and a DSC photovisual system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. S. Aragão

    Full Text Available This work proposes thermal characterization, of the biflorine, orto-quinon of Capraria biflora L., through the TG and DSC photovisual data. The thermogravimetric results showed that the decomposition reaction biflorine occurs three steps under air atmosphere, The DSC of biflorin presented five peaks relating to phase transitions. The DSC photovisual system demonstrated changes in biflorin.

  20. Aging of Dielectric Properties below Tg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe; Christensen, Tage Emil

    The dielectric loss at 1Hz in TPP is studied during a temperature step from one equilibrium state to another. In the applied cryostate the temperature can be equilibrated on a timescale of 1 second. The aging time dependence of the dielectric loss is studied below Tg applying temperature steps...

  1. Hint of nonstandard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein dynamics in solar neutrino conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Motivated by the recent low-threshold measurements of the solar B8 neutrino spectrum performed by Borexino, Super-Kamiokande and the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory—all now monitoring the transition regime between low-energy (vacuumlike) and high-energy (matter-dominated) flavor conversions—we consider the role of subdominant dynamical terms induced by new flavor-changing interactions. We find that the presence of such perturbations with strength ˜10-1GF is now favored, offering a better description of the anomalous behavior suggested by the new results, whose spectrum shows no sign of the typical low-energy upturn predicted by the standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) mechanism. Our findings, if interpreted in a 2-flavor scheme, provide a hint of such new interactions at the ˜2σ level, which is rather robust with respect to 3-flavor effects possibly induced by nonzero θ13.

  2. Relationship TG/HDL-C and insulin resistance in adult women by nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Belén

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The ratio assessment TG/HDL-C is an indicator of LDL size, facilitating the detection of individuals with increased atherogenic risk. Estimating the size of the LDL becomes important, especially in patients with TG values near the upper limit of normal values of reference and HDL-C. The objective of the study is to estimate the association between TG/HDL-C and insulin resistance (IR by nutritional status in adult women attending the Foundation for Endocrine Metabolic Diseases Research and Applied Clinical Research (FIEEM.Material and methods: Design Cross-sectional, non-pregnant adult women, apparently healthy, older than 30 years old, attending FIEEM in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. Dependent variable: TG/HDL-C ≥ 3.0 considered high value. Independent variables: IR by homeostatic model index HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5 categorizing the sample into two groups: with and without IR, and controlled by nutritional status using body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (CC. SPSS Statistics 15.0, calculating X2 or Fisher exact test, OR with confidence intervals of 95% and establishing logistic regression p value < 0.05.Results: We evaluated a purposive sample of 104 women (31.4% and 26% IR with TG/HDL-C high. 84.6% were overweight or obese and 88.5% increased CC. Women with BMI had significantly increased 0.15-fold increased risk (95% CI = 0.01 to 1.26 for TG/HDL-C high (p = 0.04 than the control women. There was no significance with increased CC. The ratio TG/HDL-C high IR was significantly correlated (r = 0.30 p = 0.002.Conclusions: Body weight was significantly associated with IR and the ratio TG/HDL-C increased. This ratio correlated significantly with IR in apparently healthy women.

  3. TgICMAP1 is a novel microtubule binding protein in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife T Heaslip

    Full Text Available The microtubule cytoskeleton provides essential structural support for all eukaryotic cells and can be assembled into various higher order structures that perform drastically different functions. Understanding how microtubule-containing assemblies are built in a spatially and temporally controlled manner is therefore fundamental to understanding cell physiology. Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan parasite, contains at least five distinct tubulin-containing structures, the spindle pole, centrioles, cortical microtubules, the conoid, and the intra-conoid microtubules. How these five structurally and functionally distinct sets of tubulin containing structures are constructed and maintained in the same cell is an intriguing problem. Previously, we performed a proteomic analysis of the T. gondii apical complex, a cytoskeletal complex located at the apical end of the parasite that is composed of the conoid, three ring-like structures, and the two short intra-conoid microtubules. Here we report the characterization of one of the proteins identified in that analysis, TgICMAP1. We show that TgICMAP1 is a novel microtubule binding protein that can directly bind to microtubules in vitro and stabilizes microtubules when ectopically expressed in mammalian cells. Interestingly, in T. gondii, TgICMAP1 preferentially binds to the intra-conoid microtubules, providing us the first molecular tool to investigate the intra-conoid microtubule assembly process during daughter construction.

  4. Tissue transglutaminase (TG-2) modified amniotic membrane: a novel scaffold for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, David Y S; Brown, Sheridan V; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M; Mather, Melissa L; Hutter, Victoria; Tint, Naing L; Rose, Felicity R A J; Dua, Harminder S

    2012-01-01

    The amniotic membrane (AM) is considered as a natural cell culture substrate and has occasionally been exploited in regenerative medicine especially for ocular surface reconstruction and dermal wound healing applications. However, its use is limited by its relatively weak mechanical strength, difficulty during manual handling and susceptibility to proteolytic degradation in vivo. Therefore, in this study we aimed to enhance the mechanical and biological characteristics of the AM by enzymatically cross-linking it using tissue transglutaminase (TG)—a calcium-dependent enzyme capable of forming stable ε(γ-glutamyl)lysine cross-linkages. Using a biological catalyst such as TG does not only prevent denaturation during sample preparation but also minimizes the potential of residual chemical cross-linking agents compared to alternative methodologies. Human AM, sourced from elective caesarean sectioning, were treated with TG, bovine serum albumin and/or a no-treatment control. Samples were then compared in terms of their physical and (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transparency, mechanical strength, susceptibility to proteolytic degradation) biological characteristics (in vitro cell culture, activation of dendritic cells (DC)) and their in vivo biocompatibility/angiogenic capacity (chick chorioallantoic membrane assay). TG-treated AM exhibited enhanced mechanical strength and greater resistance to proteolytic/collagenase degradation compared to the control(s). SEM imaging of the TG-treated membrane summarized a significantly closer association and greater interconnectivity of individual collagen fibres yet it had no effect on the overall transparency of the AM. In vitro cell culture demonstrated no detrimental effect of TG-treatment on the AM in terms of cell attachment, spreading, proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, an ‘immune response’ was not elicited based on extended in vitro culture with human-monocyte-derived DC. Interestingly, the TG

  5. GLUT4 expression in human muscle fibres is not correlated with intracellular triglyceride (TG) content. Is TG a maker or a marker of insulin resistance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Ottosen, P D; Vach, W

    2003-01-01

    diabetic subjects, and young lean controls. TG density was significantly higher in slow compared to fast fibres in all studied subjects (pslow twitch fibres of obese diabetic subjects compared to obese (p...We have recently reported a progressive decline in the expression of glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4) from control subjects through obese non-diabetics to obese type 2 diabetic subjects, indicating that the reduced GLUT4 in slow twitch fibres could be secondary to obesity. In this study we...... densities in slow and fast fibres did not correlate with the corresponding GLUT4 density in the same fibres in our study groups (p>0.05). Plasma TG and FFA did not correlate with GLUT4 expression in slow or fast fibres (p>0.05). In conclusion, TG content was increased in diabetic slow fibres with a reduced...

  6. Pedagogical Agent Gestures to Improve Learner Comprehension of Abstract Concepts in Hints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Igor; de Morais, Felipe; Schaab, Bruno; Jaques, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In most Intelligent Tutoring Systems, the help messages (hints) are not very clear for students as they are only presented textually and have little connection with the task elements. This can lead to students' undesired behaviors, like gaming the system, associated with low performance. In this paper, the authors aim at evaluating if the gestures…

  7. Cytokine-producing microglia have an altered beta-amyloid load in aged APP/PS1 Tg mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babcock, Alicia A; Ilkjær, Laura; Clausen, Bettina H

    2015-01-01

    of CD11b, TNF, and IL-1Ra. Cytokine production and Aβ load were assessed in neocortical CD11b(+)(CD45(+)) microglia by flow cytometry. Whereas most microglia in aged mice produced IL-1Ra, relatively low proportions of microglia produced TNF, IL-1α, and IL-1β. However, microglial production......, however the inter-relationship between these processes is poorly understood. Here we show that % Aβ plaque load followed a sigmoidal trajectory with age in the neocortex of APPswe/PS1ΔE9 Tg mice, and correlated positively with soluble Aβ40 and Aβ42. Aβ measures were moderately correlated with mRNA levels...... of these latter cytokines was generally increased in APP/PS1 Tg mice. Microglia that phagocytosed endogenously-produced Aβ were only observed in APP/PS1 Tg mice. Differences in phagocytic index and total Aβ load were observed in microglia with specific cytokine profiles. Both phagocytic index and total Aβ load...

  8. A novel Toxoplasma gondii nuclear factor TgNF3 is a dynamic chromatin-associated component, modulator of nucleolar architecture and parasite virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Olguin-Lamas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Toxoplasma gondii, cis-acting elements present in promoter sequences of genes that are stage-specifically regulated have been described. However, the nuclear factors that bind to these cis-acting elements and regulate promoter activities have not been identified. In the present study, we performed affinity purification, followed by proteomic analysis, to identify nuclear factors that bind to a stage-specific promoter in T. gondii. This led to the identification of several nuclear factors in T. gondii including a novel factor, designated herein as TgNF3. The N-terminal domain of TgNF3 shares similarities with the N-terminus of yeast nuclear FK506-binding protein (FKBP, known as a histone chaperone regulating gene silencing. Using anti-TgNF3 antibodies, HA-FLAG and YFP-tagged TgNF3, we show that TgNF3 is predominantly a parasite nucleolar, chromatin-associated protein that binds specifically to T. gondii gene promoters in vivo. Genome-wide analysis using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq identified promoter occupancies by TgNF3. In addition, TgNF3 has a direct role in transcriptional control of genes involved in parasite metabolism, transcription and translation. The ectopic expression of TgNF3 in the tachyzoites revealed dynamic changes in the size of the nucleolus, leading to a severe attenuation of virulence in vivo. We demonstrate that TgNF3 physically interacts with H3, H4 and H2A/H2B assembled into bona fide core and nucleosome-associated histones. Furthermore, TgNF3 interacts specifically to histones in the context of stage-specific gene silencing of a promoter that lacks active epigenetic acetylated histone marks. In contrast to virulent tachyzoites, which express the majority of TgNF3 in the nucleolus, the protein is exclusively located in the cytoplasm of the avirulent bradyzoites. We propose a model where TgNF3 acts essentially to coordinate nucleolus and nuclear functions by modulating

  9. Investigation of hydropyrolysis behaviour of Shenmu macerals by TG-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Q.; Li, W.; Chen, H.; Li, B. [Analysis and Test Center, Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan (China)

    2004-12-01

    The hydropyrolysis characteristics of Shenmu coal and its macerals were investigated using TG-151 thermo balance, and the evolved gases were on-line analyzed by mass spectroscopy. The results show that vitrinite has higher volatile yield, maximum weight loss rate and lower peak temperature. Vitrinite produces more C{sub 1} - C{sub 4} lighter hydrocarbons and C{sub 5} - C{sub 8} aromatic hydrocarbons than inertinite. Vitrinite has a higher water yield, which is consistent with that the vitrinite has higher phenolic-OH content. The difference in the evolved gases and water between pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis shows the effect of hydrogenation and hydrocracking during hydropyolysis. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Hint of nonstandard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein dynamics in solar neutrino conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palazzo, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the recent low-threshold measurements of the solar 8 B neutrino spectrum performed by Borexino, Super-Kamiokande and the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory--all now monitoring the transition regime between low-energy (vacuumlike) and high-energy (matter-dominated) flavor conversions--we consider the role of subdominant dynamical terms induced by new flavor-changing interactions. We find that the presence of such perturbations with strength ∼10 -1 G F is now favored, offering a better description of the anomalous behavior suggested by the new results, whose spectrum shows no sign of the typical low-energy upturn predicted by the standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) mechanism. Our findings, if interpreted in a 2-flavor scheme, provide a hint of such new interactions at the ∼2σ level, which is rather robust with respect to 3-flavor effects possibly induced by nonzero θ 13 .

  11. Yeast three-hybrid screen identifies TgBRADIN/GRA24 as a negative regulator of Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoite differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahi V Odell

    Full Text Available Differentiation of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii into its latent bradyzoite stage is a key event in the parasite's life cycle. Compound 2 is an imidazopyridine that was previously shown to inhibit the parasite lytic cycle, in part through inhibition of parasite cGMP-dependent protein kinase. We show here that Compound 2 can also enhance parasite differentiation, and we use yeast three-hybrid analysis to identify TgBRADIN/GRA24 as a parasite protein that interacts directly or indirectly with the compound. Disruption of the TgBRADIN/GRA24 gene leads to enhanced differentiation of the parasite, and the TgBRADIN/GRA24 knockout parasites show decreased susceptibility to the differentiation-enhancing effects of Compound 2. This study represents the first use of yeast three-hybrid analysis to study small-molecule mechanism of action in any pathogenic microorganism, and it identifies a previously unrecognized inhibitor of differentiation in T. gondii. A better understanding of the proteins and mechanisms regulating T. gondii differentiation will enable new approaches to preventing the establishment of chronic infection in this important human pathogen.

  12. TG 220 MW hydraulic control system diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svabcik, A.

    1996-01-01

    The TG power output control system comprises a hydraulic and an electronic part. TG speed, power output or the main steam header pressure (HPK) depend on the steam flow at the turbine inlet. The steam admission into the turbine is controlled by four control valves and one by-pass valve in case of the HP part and by four capture flap valves in case of the LP part. The task of the SKODA K-220 MW turbine protection and control systems is to provide both the turbine speed and power output control to the setpoint value. Diagnostic measurements were aimed at getting an overview of both technical and functional states of all power output control elements. Principally, it can be stated that some deficiencies of a design nature originating from the manufacturer's factory were revealed and some other deficiencies related to hydraulic control elements functionality were identified more closely by the new method. 5 figs

  13. TG 220 MW hydraulic control system diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svabcik, A [Atomova Elektraren Bohunice, Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    The TG power output control system comprises a hydraulic and an electronic part. TG speed, power output or the main steam header pressure (HPK) depend on the steam flow at the turbine inlet. The steam admission into the turbine is controlled by four control valves and one by-pass valve in case of the HP part and by four capture flap valves in case of the LP part. The task of the SKODA K-220 MW turbine protection and control systems is to provide both the turbine speed and power output control to the setpoint value. Diagnostic measurements were aimed at getting an overview of both technical and functional states of all power output control elements. Principally, it can be stated that some deficiencies of a design nature originating from the manufacturer`s factory were revealed and some other deficiencies related to hydraulic control elements functionality were identified more closely by the new method. 5 figs.

  14. HINT-KB: The human interactome knowledge base

    KAUST Repository

    Theofilatos, Konstantinos A.

    2012-01-01

    Proteins and their interactions are considered to play a significant role in many cellular processes. The identification of Protein-Protein interactions (PPIs) in human is an open research area. Many Databases, which contain information about experimentally and computationally detected human PPIs as well as their corresponding annotation data, have been developed. However, these databases contain many false positive interactions, are partial and only a few of them incorporate data from various sources. To overcome these limitations, we have developed HINT-KB (http://150.140.142.24:84/Default.aspx) which is a knowledge base that integrates data from various sources, provides a user-friendly interface for their retrieval, estimates a set of features of interest and computes a confidence score for every candidate protein interaction using a modern computational hybrid methodology. © 2012 IFIP International Federation for Information Processing.

  15. High-Tg TOPAS mPOF strain sensing at 110 degrees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian; Markos, Christos; Stefani, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a mPOF made of high-Tg TOPAS grade 5013 with Tg = 135°C. We inscribe FBGs into the fiber and demonstrate strain sensing of 2.5% strain at 98°C, further we also demonstrate strain sensing at a record high temperature of 110°C. The Bragg wavelengths of the FBGs are around 860 nm, whe...... the propagation loss is 5.1dB/m, close to the fiber loss minimum of 3.67dB/m at 787nm....

  16. Tg.rasH2 Mice and not CByB6F1 Mice Should Be Used for 28-Day Dose Range Finding Studies Prior to 26-Week Tg.rasH2 Carcinogenicity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjpe, Madhav G; Belich, Jessica; Vidmar, Tom J; Elbekai, Reem H; McKeon, Marie; Brown, Caren

    Our recent retrospective analysis of data, collected from 29 Tg.rasH2 mouse carcinogenicity studies, determined how successful the strategy of choosing the high dose for the 26-week studies was based on the estimated maximum tolerated dose (EMTD) derived from earlier 28-day dose range finding (DRF) studies conducted in CByB6F1 mice. Our analysis demonstrated that the high doses applied at EMTD in the 26-week Tg.rasH2 studies failed to detect carcinogenic effects. To investigate why the dose selection process failed in the 26-week carcinogenicity studies, the initial body weights, terminal body weights, body weight gains, food consumption, and mortality from the first 4 weeks of 26-week studies with Tg.rasH2 mice were compared with 28-day DRF studies conducted with CByB6F1 mice. Both the 26-week and the earlier respective 28-day studies were conducted with the exact same vehicle, test article, and similar dose levels. The analysis of our results further emphasizes that the EMTD and subsequent lower doses, determined on the basis of the 28-day studies in CByB6F1 mice, may not be an accurate strategy for selecting appropriate dose levels for the 26-week carcinogenicity studies in Tg.rasH2 mice. Based on the analysis presented in this article, we propose that the Tg.rasH2 mice and not the CByB6F1 mice should be used in future DRF studies. The Tg.rasH2 mice demonstrate more toxicity than the CByB6F1 mice, possibly because of their smaller size compared to CByB6F1 mice. Also, the Tg.rasH2 males appear to be more sensitive than the female Tg.rasH2 mice.

  17. Assessment of display performance for medical imaging systems: Executive summary of AAPM TG18 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samei, Ehsan; Badano, Aldo; Chakraborty, Dev

    2005-01-01

    Digital imaging provides an effective means to electronically acquire, archive, distribute, and view medical images. Medical imaging display stations are an integral part of these operations. Therefore, it is vitally important to assure that electronic display devices do not compromise image quality and ultimately patient care. The AAPM Task Group 18 (TG18) recently published guidelines and acceptance criteria for acceptance testing and quality control of medical display devices. This paper is an executive summary of the TG18 report. TG18 guidelines include visual, quantitative, and advanced testing methodologies for primary and secondary class display devices. The characteristics, tested in conjunction with specially designed test patterns (i.e., TG18 patterns), include reflection, geometric distortion, luminance, the spatial and angular dependencies of luminance, resolution, noise, glare, chromaticity, and display artifacts. Geometric distortions are evaluated by linear measurements of the TG18-QC test pattern, which should render distortion coefficients less than 2%/5% for primary/secondary displays, respectively. Reflection measurements include specular and diffuse reflection coefficients from which the maximum allowable ambient lighting is determined such that contrast degradation due to display reflection remains below a 20% limit and the level of ambient luminance (L amb ) does not unduly compromise luminance ratio (LR) and contrast at low luminance levels. Luminance evaluation relies on visual assessment of low contrast features in the TG18-CT and TG18-MP test patterns, or quantitative measurements at 18 distinct luminance levels of the TG18-LN test patterns. The major acceptable criteria for primary/secondary displays are maximum luminance of greater than 170/100 cd/m 2 , LR of greater than 250/100, and contrast conformance to that of the grayscale standard display function (GSDF) of better than 10%/20%, respectively. The angular response is tested to

  18. TU-E-BRB-03: Overview of Proposed TG-132 Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, K. [University of Michigan (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Deformable image registration (DIR) is developing rapidly and is poised to substantially improve dose fusion accuracy for adaptive and retreatment planning and motion management and PET fusion to enhance contour delineation for treatment planning. However, DIR dose warping accuracy is difficult to quantify, in general, and particularly difficult to do so on a patient-specific basis. As clinical DIR options become more widely available, there is an increased need to understand the implications of incorporating DIR into clinical workflow. Several groups have assessed DIR accuracy in clinically relevant scenarios, but no comprehensive review material is yet available. This session will also discuss aspects of the AAPM Task Group 132 on the Use of Image Registration and Data Fusion Algorithms and Techniques in Radiotherapy Treatment Planning official report, which provides recommendations for DIR clinical use. We will summarize and compare various commercial DIR software options, outline successful clinical techniques, show specific examples with discussion of appropriate and inappropriate applications of DIR, discuss the clinical implications of DIR, provide an overview of current DIR error analysis research, review QA options and research phantom development and present TG-132 recommendations. Learning Objectives: Compare/contrast commercial DIR software and QA options Overview clinical DIR workflow for retreatment To understand uncertainties introduced by DIR Review TG-132 proposed recommendations.

  19. SU-F-T-22: Clinical Implications When Using TG-186 (ACE) Heterogeneity Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likhacheva, A; Grade, E; Sadeghi, A; Sokolowski, T [Arizona Cancer Specialists, Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare dosimetric calculations using traditional TG-43 formalism and Oncentra Brachy Advanced Collapsed cone Engine (ACE) TG-186 calculation algorithm in clinical setting. Methods: We analyzed dosimetry of four patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation using a multi-channel intracavitary device (SAVI). All patients were treated to 34 Gy in 10 fractions using a high-dose-rate (192) Ir source. The plans were designed and treated using the TG-43 model. ACE was used to assess the effect heterogeneity correction on various dosimetric parameters. Mass density was estimated using Hounsfield units. Results: Compared to TG-43 formalism, ACE estimated lower doses to targets and organs at risk. The mean difference was 19.8% (range 15.3–24.1%) for PTV-eval V200, 12.0% (range 9.7–17.7%) for PTV-eval V150, 4.3% (range 3.3–6.5%) for PTV-eval D95, 3.3% (range 1.4–5.4%) for PTV-eval D90, 5.4% (range 2.9–9.9%) for maximum rib dose, and 5.7% (2.4–7.4%) for maximum skin dose. There was no correlation between the magnitude of the difference and the PTV-eval volume, air volume, or tissue-applicator conformance. Conclusion: Based on our preliminary study, the TG-43 algorithm appears to overestimate the dose to targets and organs at risk when compared to the ACE TG-186 software. We hypothesize that air adjacent to the SAVI struts contributes to lack of scatter thereby contributing a significant difference in dose calculation when using ACE. We believe that ACE calculation provides a more realistic isodose distribution than TG-43. We plan to further investigate the impact of heterogeneity correction on brachytherapy planning for a wide variety of clinical scenarios, include skin, cervix/uterus, prostate, and lung.

  20. Data-Driven Hint Generation in Vast Solution Spaces: A Self-Improving Python Programming Tutor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Kelly; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2017-01-01

    To provide personalized help to students who are working on code-writing problems, we introduce a data-driven tutoring system, ITAP (Intelligent Teaching Assistant for Programming). ITAP uses state abstraction, path construction, and state reification to automatically generate personalized hints for students, even when given states that have not…

  1. Dosimetric and radiobiological comparison of TG-43 and Monte Carlo calculations in 192Ir breast brachytherapy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppa, V; Pappas, E P; Karaiskos, P; Major, T; Polgár, C; Papagiannis, P

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the clinical significance of introducing model based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs) as an alternative to TG-43 in 192 Ir interstitial breast brachytherapy. A 57 patient cohort was used in a retrospective comparison between TG-43 based dosimetry data exported from a treatment planning system and Monte Carlo (MC) dosimetry performed using MCNP v. 6.1 with plan and anatomy information in DICOM-RT format. Comparison was performed for the target, ipsilateral lung, heart, skin, breast and ribs, using dose distributions, dose-volume histograms (DVH) and plan quality indices clinically used for plan evaluation, as well as radiobiological parameters. TG-43 overestimation of target DVH parameters is statistically significant but small (less than 2% for the target coverage indices and 4% for homogeneity indices, on average). Significant dose differences (>5%) were observed close to the skin and at relatively large distances from the implant leading to a TG-43 dose overestimation for the organs at risk. These differences correspond to low dose regions (<50% of the prescribed dose), being less than 2% of the prescribed dose. Detected dosimetric differences did not induce clinically significant differences in calculated tumor control probabilities (mean absolute difference <0.2%) and normal tissue complication probabilities. While TG-43 shows a statistically significant overestimation of most indices used for plan evaluation, differences are small and therefore not clinically significant. Improved MBDCA dosimetry could be important for re-irradiation, technique inter-comparison and/or the assessment of secondary cancer induction risk, where accurate dosimetry in the whole patient anatomy is of the essence. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is involved in the resistance of cancer cells to the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Carmine; Di Gennaro, Elena; Piro, Geny; Milone, Maria Rita; Pucci, Biagio; Caraglia, Michele; Budillon, Alfredo

    2017-03-01

    Vorinostat demonstrated preclinical and clinical efficacy in human cancers and is the first histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) approved for cancer treatment. Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is a multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes a Ca 2+ dependent transamidating reaction resulting in covalent cross-links between proteins. TG2 acts also as G-protein in trans-membrane signaling and as a cell surface adhesion mediator. TG2 up-regulation has been demonstrated in several cancers and its expression levels correlate with resistance to chemotherapy and metastatic potential. We demonstrated that the anti-proliferative effect of the HDACi vorinostat is paralleled by the induction of TG2 mRNA and protein expression in cancer cells but not in ex vivo treated peripheral blood lymphocytes. This effect was also shared by other pan-HDACi and resulted in increased TG2 transamidating activity. Notably, high TG2 basal levels in a panel of cancer cell lines correlated with lower vorinostat antiproliferative activity. Notably, in TG2-knockdown cancer cells vorinostat anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects were enhanced, whereas in TG2-full-length transfected cells were impaired, suggesting that TG2 could represent a mechanism of intrinsic or acquired resistance to vorinostat. In fact, co-treatment of tumor cells with inhibitors of TG2 transamidating activity potentiated the antitumor effect of vorinostat. Moreover, vorinostat-resistant MCF7 cells selected by stepwise increasing concentrations of the drug, significantly overexpressed TG2 protein compared to parental cells, and co-treatment of these cells with TG2 inhibitors reversed vorinostat-resistance. Taken together, our data demonstrated that TG2 is involved in the resistance of cancer cells to vorinostat, as well as to other HDACi.

  3. WE-PIS-Exhibit Hall-01: Tools for TG-142 Linac Imaging QA II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childress, N [Mobius Medical Management, LLC,, Houston, TX (United States); Murray, B [ZapIT Medical, Dublin, OH (Ireland)

    2014-06-15

    Partners in Solutions is an exciting new program in which AAPM partners with our vendors to present practical “hands-on” information about the equipment and software systems that we use in our clinics. The therapy topic this year is solutions for TG-142 recommendations for linear accelerator imaging QA. Note that the sessions are being held in a special purpose room built on the Exhibit Hall Floor, to encourage further interaction with the vendors. Using DoseLab to Perform TG-142 Imaging QA The goals of this session will be to present a clinical overview of acquiring images for TG-142 Imaging QA, as well as analyzing and evaluating results using DoseLab software. DoseLab supports planar imaging QA analysis using almost any QA phantom provided by numerous vendors. General advantages and disadvantages of selecting each of these phantoms will be briefly summarized. Best practices for selecting image acquisition parameters will be presented. A demonstration of using DoseLab software to perform a series of TG-142 tests will be performed. We will disuss why DoseLab uses its own set of imaging QA formulas, and why imaging QA measurement values of the same nominal properties will vary between TG- 142 software packages. Because TG-142 does not specify baseline and tolerance values for imaging QA, the presentation will recommend performing the manufacturer's acceptance test procedure to validate the equipment is functioning correctly. Afterwards, results can be obtained using the clinic's selected set of phantoms, image acquisition parameters, and TG-142 software to set proper baseline values. This presentation will highlight the reasons why comparing imaging QA results can be trickier than comparing linear accelerator treatment results and what physicists should keep in mind when comparing imaging QA results for different machines. Physicists are often unsure of the next step when there is an issue discovered during Imaging QA. Therefore, a few common examples

  4. WE-PIS-Exhibit Hall-01: Tools for TG-142 Linac Imaging QA II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childress, N; Murray, B

    2014-01-01

    Partners in Solutions is an exciting new program in which AAPM partners with our vendors to present practical “hands-on” information about the equipment and software systems that we use in our clinics. The therapy topic this year is solutions for TG-142 recommendations for linear accelerator imaging QA. Note that the sessions are being held in a special purpose room built on the Exhibit Hall Floor, to encourage further interaction with the vendors. Using DoseLab to Perform TG-142 Imaging QA The goals of this session will be to present a clinical overview of acquiring images for TG-142 Imaging QA, as well as analyzing and evaluating results using DoseLab software. DoseLab supports planar imaging QA analysis using almost any QA phantom provided by numerous vendors. General advantages and disadvantages of selecting each of these phantoms will be briefly summarized. Best practices for selecting image acquisition parameters will be presented. A demonstration of using DoseLab software to perform a series of TG-142 tests will be performed. We will disuss why DoseLab uses its own set of imaging QA formulas, and why imaging QA measurement values of the same nominal properties will vary between TG- 142 software packages. Because TG-142 does not specify baseline and tolerance values for imaging QA, the presentation will recommend performing the manufacturer's acceptance test procedure to validate the equipment is functioning correctly. Afterwards, results can be obtained using the clinic's selected set of phantoms, image acquisition parameters, and TG-142 software to set proper baseline values. This presentation will highlight the reasons why comparing imaging QA results can be trickier than comparing linear accelerator treatment results and what physicists should keep in mind when comparing imaging QA results for different machines. Physicists are often unsure of the next step when there is an issue discovered during Imaging QA. Therefore, a few common examples

  5. Particle Swarm Optimization algorithms for geophysical inversion, practical hints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Gonzalo, E.; Fernandez Martinez, J.; Fernandez Alvarez, J.; Kuzma, H.; Menendez Perez, C.

    2008-12-01

    PSO is a stochastic optimization technique that has been successfully used in many different engineering fields. PSO algorithm can be physically interpreted as a stochastic damped mass-spring system (Fernandez Martinez and Garcia Gonzalo 2008). Based on this analogy we present a whole family of PSO algorithms and their respective first order and second order stability regions. Their performance is also checked using synthetic functions (Rosenbrock and Griewank) showing a degree of ill-posedness similar to that found in many geophysical inverse problems. Finally, we present the application of these algorithms to the analysis of a Vertical Electrical Sounding inverse problem associated to a seawater intrusion in a coastal aquifer in South Spain. We analyze the role of PSO parameters (inertia, local and global accelerations and discretization step), both in convergence curves and in the a posteriori sampling of the depth of an intrusion. Comparison is made with binary genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. As result of this analysis, practical hints are given to select the correct algorithm and to tune the corresponding PSO parameters. Fernandez Martinez, J.L., Garcia Gonzalo, E., 2008a. The generalized PSO: a new door to PSO evolution. Journal of Artificial Evolution and Applications. DOI:10.1155/2008/861275.

  6. Age-dependent modifications of AMPA receptor subunit expression levels and related cognitive effects in 3xTg-AD mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eCantanelli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available GluA1, GluA2, GluA3, and GluA4 are the constitutive subunits of AMPA receptors (AMPARs, the major mediators of fast excitatory transmission in the mammalian central nervous system. Most AMPARs are Ca2+-impermeable because of the presence of the GluA2 subunit. GluA2 mRNA undergoes an editing process that results in a Q to R substitution, a key factor in the regulation of AMPAR Ca2+-permeability. AMPARs lacking GluA2 or containing the unedited subunit are permeable to Ca2+ and Zn2+. The phenomenon physiologically modulates synaptic plasticity while, in pathologic conditions, leads to increased vulnerability to excitotoxic neuronal death. Given the importance of these subunits, we have therefore evaluated possible associations between changes in expression levels of AMPAR subunits and development of cognitive deficits in 3xTg-AD mice, a widely investigated transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. With qRT-PCR, we assayed hippocampal mRNA expression levels of GluA1-4 subunits occurring in young [3 months of age (m.o.a.] and old (12 m.o.a Tg-AD mice and made comparisons with levels found in age-matched wild type (WT mice. Efficiency of GluA2 RNA editing was also analyzed. All animals were cognitively tested for short- and long-term spatial memory with the Morris Water Maze (MWM navigation task. 3xTg-AD mice showed age-dependent decreases of mRNA levels for all the AMPAR subunits, with the exception of GluA2. Editing remained fully efficient with aging in 3xTg-AD and WT mice. A one-to-one correlation analysis between MWM performances and GluA1-4 mRNA expression profiles showed negative correlations between GluA2 levels and MWM performances in young 3xTg-AD mice. On the contrary, positive correlations between GluA2 mRNA and MWM performances were found in young WT mice. Our data suggest that increases of AMPARs that contain GluA1, GluA3, and GluA4 subunits may help in maintaining cognition in pre-symptomatic 3xTg-AD mice.

  7. Cotinine halts the advance of Alzheimer’s disease-like pathology and associated depressive-like behavior in Tg6799 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar ePatel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is associated with cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms for which there are currently no effective therapies. We have previously reported that cotinine, a natural product obtained from tobacco leaves, prevented memory loss and diminished amyloid-β (Aβ plaque pathology in the transgenic 6799 mice (Tg6799 mice when treated prior to the development of the pathology. We have also shown that cotinine reduces depressive-like behavior in normal and chronically stressed C57BL/6 mice. Here, we extend our previous studies by investigating the effects of cotinine on the progression of AD-like pathology, depressive-like behavior, and the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects in the Tg6799 mice when left untreated until after a more advanced stage of the disease’s development. The results show that vehicle-treated Tg6799 mice displayed an accentuated loss of working memory and an abundant Aβ plaque pathology that were accompanied by higher levels of depressive-like behavior as compared to control littermates. By contrast, prolonged daily cotinine treatment, withheld until after a mid-level progression of AD-like pathology, reduced Aβ levels, Aβ plaques, and depressive-like behavior as well as dramatically improved working memory in Tg6799 mice to levels no different from control littermates. The beneficial effects of cotinine were accompanied by an increase in the expression of the active form of protein kinase B (Akt and the postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95 in the hippocampi and frontal cortices of Tg6799 mice. This suggests that cotinine halts the progression of AD-like pathology while reducing depressive-like behavior by stimulating signaling pathways supporting synaptic plasticity in Tg6799 mice. The potential use of cotinine to treat cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms of AD is discussed.

  8. Trend analysis of body weight parameters, mortality, and incidence of spontaneous tumors in Tg.rasH2 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjpe, Madhav G; Denton, Melissa D; Vidmar, Tom; Elbekai, Reem H

    2014-01-01

    Carcinogenicity studies have been performed in conventional 2-year rodent studies for at least 3 decades, whereas the short-term carcinogenicity studies in transgenic mice, such as Tg.rasH2, have only been performed over the last decade. In the 2-year conventional rodent studies, interlinked problems, such as increasing trends in the initial body weights, increased body weight gains, high incidence of spontaneous tumors, and low survival, that complicate the interpretation of findings have been well established. However, these end points have not been evaluated in the short-term carcinogenicity studies involving the Tg.rasH2 mice. In this article, we present retrospective analysis of data obtained from control groups in 26-week carcinogenicity studies conducted in Tg.rasH2 mice since 2004. Our analysis showed statistically significant decreasing trends in initial body weights of both sexes. Although the terminal body weights did not show any significant trends, there was a statistically significant increasing trend toward body weight gains, more so in males than in females, which correlated with increasing trends in the food consumption. There were no statistically significant alterations in mortality trends. In addition, the incidence of all common spontaneous tumors remained fairly constant with no statistically significant differences in trends. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Open TG-GATEs: a large-scale toxicogenomics database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yoshinobu; Nakatsu, Noriyuki; Yamashita, Tomoya; Ono, Atsushi; Ohno, Yasuo; Urushidani, Tetsuro; Yamada, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Toxicogenomics focuses on assessing the safety of compounds using gene expression profiles. Gene expression signatures from large toxicogenomics databases are expected to perform better than small databases in identifying biomarkers for the prediction and evaluation of drug safety based on a compound's toxicological mechanisms in animal target organs. Over the past 10 years, the Japanese Toxicogenomics Project consortium (TGP) has been developing a large-scale toxicogenomics database consisting of data from 170 compounds (mostly drugs) with the aim of improving and enhancing drug safety assessment. Most of the data generated by the project (e.g. gene expression, pathology, lot number) are freely available to the public via Open TG-GATEs (Toxicogenomics Project-Genomics Assisted Toxicity Evaluation System). Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the database, including both gene expression data and metadata, with a description of experimental conditions and procedures used to generate the database. Open TG-GATEs is available from http://toxico.nibio.go.jp/english/index.html. PMID:25313160

  10. Observation of changes of serum leptin and lipid (TG and TC) levels in patients with graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaobao; Cheng Guanghua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of changes of serum leptin (with RIA) and lipid (TG and TC) (with biochemistry) levels in patients with Graves' disease. Methods: Serum Leptin, TG and TC levels were determined in 29 patients with Graves' disease both before and after treatment as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before treatment, serum Leptin, TG and TC levels in the patients were significantly lower than those in the controls. After treatment, serum Leptin, TG and TC levels increased and were significantly higher than those before treatment and were not much different from those in controls. Conclusion: The changes of serum Leptin, TG and TC levels may be of value for outcome prediction in patients with Graves' disease. (authors)

  11. SU-D-204-07: Comparison of AAPM TG150 Draft Image Receptor Tests with Vendor Automated QC Tests for Five Mobile DR Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, G; Nishino, T [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Greene, T [Radiation Services, Inc., Dover, FL (United States); Willis, C [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Bellaire, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the consistency of digital detector (DR) tests recommended by AAPM TG150 and tests provided by commercially available DirectView Total Quality Tool (TQT). Methods: The DR tests recommended by the TG150 Detector Subgroup[1] were performed on 4 new Carestream DRX-Revolution and one Carestream DRX1C retrofit of a GE AMX-4 that had been in service for three years. After detector calibration, flat-field images plus images of two bar patterns oriented parallel and perpendicular to the A-C axis, were acquired at conditions recommended by TG150. Raw images were harvested and then analyzed using a MATLAB software previously validated[2,3,4]. Data were analyzed using ROIs of two different dimensions: 1) 128 x 128 ROIs matching the detector electronics; and 2) 256 x 256 ROIs, each including 4 adjacent smaller ROIs. TG150 metrics from 128 x 128 ROIs were compared to TQT metrics, which are also obtained from 128 x 128 ROIs[5]. Results: The results show that both TG150 and TQT measurements were consistent among these detectors. Differences between TG150 and TQT values appear systematic. Compared with 128 x 128 ROIs, noise and SNR non-uniformity were lower with 256 x 256 ROIs, although signal non-uniformity was similar, indicating detectors were appropriately calibrated for gain and offset. MTF of the retrofit unit remained essentially the same between 2012 and 2015, but was inferior to the new units. The older generator focal spot is smaller (0.75mm vs. 1.2mm), and the SID for acquisition is 182cm as well, so focal spot dimensions cannot explain the difference. The difference in MTF may be secondary to differences in generator X-ray spectrum or by unannounced changes in detector architecture. Further investigation is needed. Conclusion: The study shows that both TG150 and TQT tests are consistent. The numerical value of some metrics are dependent on ROI size.

  12. Spaceflight influences both mucosal and peripheral cytokine production in PTN-Tg and wild type mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin L McCarville

    Full Text Available Spaceflight is associated with several health issues including diminished immune efficiency. Effects of long-term spaceflight on selected immune parameters of wild type (Wt and transgenic mice over-expressing pleiotrophin under the human bone-specific osteocalcin promoter (PTN-Tg were examined using the novel Mouse Drawer System (MDS aboard the International Space Station (ISS over a 91 day period. Effects of this long duration flight on PTN-Tg and Wt mice were determined in comparison to ground controls and vivarium-housed PTN-Tg and Wt mice. Levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2 and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1 were measured in mucosal and systemic tissues of Wt and PTN-Tg mice. Colonic contents were also analyzed to assess potential effects on the gut microbiota, although no firm conclusions could be made due to constraints imposed by the MDS payload and the time of sampling. Spaceflight-associated differences were observed in colonic tissue and systemic lymph node levels of IL-2 and TGF-β1 relative to ground controls. Total colonic TGF-β1 levels were lower in Wt and PTN-Tg flight mice in comparison to ground controls. The Wt flight mouse had lower levels of IL-2 and TGF-β1 compared to the Wt ground control in both the inguinal and brachial lymph nodes, however this pattern was not consistently observed in PTN-Tg mice. Vivarium-housed Wt controls had higher levels of active TGF-β1 and IL-2 in inguinal lymph nodes relative to PTN-Tg mice. The results of this study suggest compartmentalized effects of spaceflight and on immune parameters in mice.

  13. A vacuolar iron transporter in tulip, TgVit1, is responsible for blue coloration in petal cells through iron accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momonoi, Kazumi; Yoshida, Kumi; Mano, Shoji; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Nakamori, Chihiro; Shoji, Kazuaki; Nitta, Akira; Nishimura, Mikio

    2009-08-01

    Blue color in flowers is due mainly to anthocyanins, and a considerable part of blue coloration can be attributed to metal-complexed anthocyanins. However, the mechanism of metal ion transport into vacuoles and subsequent flower color development has yet to be fully explored. Previously, we studied the mechanism of blue color development specifically at the bottom of the inner perianth in purple tulip petals of Tulipa gesneriana cv. Murasakizuisho. We found that differences in iron content were associated with the development of blue- and purple-colored cells. Here, we identify a vacuolar iron transporter in T. gesneriana (TgVit1), and characterize the localization and function of this transporter protein in tulip petals. The amino acid sequence of TgVit1 is 85% similar that of the Arabidopsis thaliana vacuolar iron transporter AtVIT1, and also showed similarity to the AtVIT1 homolog in yeast, Ca(2+)-sensitive cross-complementer 1 (CCC1). The gene TgVit1 was expressed exclusively in blue-colored epidermal cells, and protein levels increased with increasing mRNA expression and blue coloration. Transient expression experiments revealed that TgVit1 localizes to the vacuolar membrane, and is responsible for the development of the blue color in purple cells. Expression of TgVit1 in yeast rescued the growth defect of ccc1 mutant cells in the presence of high concentrations of FeSO(4). Our results indicate that TgVit1 plays an essential role in blue coloration as a vacuolar iron transporter in tulip petals. These results suggest a new role for involvement of a vacuolar iron transporter in blue flower color development.

  14. TH-EF-BRC-00: TG-100 Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    This Hands-on Workshop will be focused on providing participants with experience with the principal tools of TG 100 and hence start to build both competence and confidence in the use of risk-based quality management techniques. The three principal tools forming the basis of TG 100’s risk analysis: Process mapping, Failure-Modes and Effects Analysis and fault-tree analysis will be introduced with a 5 minute refresher presentation and each presentation will be followed by a 30 minute small group exercise. An exercise on developing QM from the risk analysis follows. During the exercise periods, participants will apply the principles in 2 different clinical scenarios. At the conclusion of each exercise there will be ample time for participants to discuss with each other and the faculty their experience and any challenges encountered. Learning Objectives: To review the principles of Process Mapping, Failure Modes and Effects Analysis and Fault Tree Analysis. To gain familiarity with these three techniques in a small group setting. To share and discuss experiences with the three techniques with faculty and participants. Director, TreatSafely, LLC. Director, Center for the Assessment of Radiological Sciences. Occasional Consultant to the IAEA and Varian.

  15. TH-EF-BRC-00: TG-100 Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This Hands-on Workshop will be focused on providing participants with experience with the principal tools of TG 100 and hence start to build both competence and confidence in the use of risk-based quality management techniques. The three principal tools forming the basis of TG 100’s risk analysis: Process mapping, Failure-Modes and Effects Analysis and fault-tree analysis will be introduced with a 5 minute refresher presentation and each presentation will be followed by a 30 minute small group exercise. An exercise on developing QM from the risk analysis follows. During the exercise periods, participants will apply the principles in 2 different clinical scenarios. At the conclusion of each exercise there will be ample time for participants to discuss with each other and the faculty their experience and any challenges encountered. Learning Objectives: To review the principles of Process Mapping, Failure Modes and Effects Analysis and Fault Tree Analysis. To gain familiarity with these three techniques in a small group setting. To share and discuss experiences with the three techniques with faculty and participants. Director, TreatSafely, LLC. Director, Center for the Assessment of Radiological Sciences. Occasional Consultant to the IAEA and Varian.

  16. SU-E-J-52: Decreasing Frequency of Performing TG-142 Imaging QA – 5 Year Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, T; Ma, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study is an update to check if the frequency of imaging QA suggested by AAPM Task Group Report 142 (TG142) is necessary with our 5 year experience. TG142 presents recommendations for QA criteria of IGRT treatment. ACR has adopted it to be the requirements for any radiatiotherapy practices; however, we propose to reduce the frequency on image quality QA according to this 5 year study.Method and Materials: This study uses VarianIX2100 and Siemens Artiste Linacs to perform QAs on KV, MV, CBCT modalities. The QA was designed following under the recommendations of TG142. This study reports the daily imaging positioning/repositioning and imaging and treatment coordinate coincidence. QA results on kV, MV and CBCT from 4/7/2010∼3/11/15 are analyzed. KV, MV, CBCT images are taken with the Varian isocube localized at the isocenter. Digital graticule is used in the software to verify the isocenter position. CBCT images are taken with the cube placed at 1cm superior, lateral and anterior of the isocenter. In-line fusion software is used to verify the contrived shift. Digital ruler provided at the on-board-imaging software or adaptive-targeting software was used to measure the position differences. The position differences were recorded at AP,LR,SI directions. Results 5 year records on kV, MV, CBCT show the shifts in all three directions are within the tolerance of 1mm suggested in TG142 for stereotactic radiation treatment(SRS/SRT). There is no occasion where shifts are outside 1mm tolerance. Conclusions The daily imaging QA suggested in TG142 is useful in ensuring the accuracy needed for SRS/SRT in IGRT. 5 year measurements presented suggest that decreasing the frequency of imaging QA may be acceptable, in particular for institutions reporting no violation of tolerance over periods of few years

  17. SU-E-J-52: Decreasing Frequency of Performing TG-142 Imaging QA – 5 Year Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, T; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose This study is an update to check if the frequency of imaging QA suggested by AAPM Task Group Report 142 (TG142) is necessary with our 5 year experience. TG142 presents recommendations for QA criteria of IGRT treatment. ACR has adopted it to be the requirements for any radiatiotherapy practices; however, we propose to reduce the frequency on image quality QA according to this 5 year study.Method and Materials: This study uses VarianIX2100 and Siemens Artiste Linacs to perform QAs on KV, MV, CBCT modalities. The QA was designed following under the recommendations of TG142. This study reports the daily imaging positioning/repositioning and imaging and treatment coordinate coincidence. QA results on kV, MV and CBCT from 4/7/2010∼3/11/15 are analyzed. KV, MV, CBCT images are taken with the Varian isocube localized at the isocenter. Digital graticule is used in the software to verify the isocenter position. CBCT images are taken with the cube placed at 1cm superior, lateral and anterior of the isocenter. In-line fusion software is used to verify the contrived shift. Digital ruler provided at the on-board-imaging software or adaptive-targeting software was used to measure the position differences. The position differences were recorded at AP,LR,SI directions. Results 5 year records on kV, MV, CBCT show the shifts in all three directions are within the tolerance of 1mm suggested in TG142 for stereotactic radiation treatment(SRS/SRT). There is no occasion where shifts are outside 1mm tolerance. Conclusions The daily imaging QA suggested in TG142 is useful in ensuring the accuracy needed for SRS/SRT in IGRT. 5 year measurements presented suggest that decreasing the frequency of imaging QA may be acceptable, in particular for institutions reporting no violation of tolerance over periods of few years.

  18. High Tg and fast curing epoxy-based anisotropic conductive paste for electronic packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeratitham, Waralee; Somwangthanaroj, Anongnat

    2016-03-01

    Herein, our main objective is to prepare the fast curing epoxy system with high glass transition temperature (Tg) by incorporating the multifunctional epoxy resin into the mixture of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) as a major epoxy component and aromatic diamine as a hardener. Furthermore, the curing behavior as well as thermal and thermomechanical properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermomechanical analysis (TMA). It was found that Tg obtained from tan δ of DGEBA/aromatic diamine system increased from 100 °C to 205 °C with the presence of 30 percentage by weight of multifunctional epoxy resin. Additionally, the isothermal DSC results showed that the multifunctional epoxy resin can accelerate the curing reaction of DGEBA/aromatic diamine system. Namely, a high degree of curing (˜90%) was achieved after a few minutes of curing at low temperature of 130 °C, owing to a large number of epoxy ring of multifunctional epoxy resin towards the active hydrogen atoms of aromatic diamine.

  19. A Monte Carlo derived TG-51 equivalent calibration for helical tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.D.; Mackenzie, M.; Rogers, D.W.O.; Fallone, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    Helical tomotherapy (HT) requires a method of accurately determining the absorbed dose under reference conditions. In the AAPM's TG-51 external beam dosimetry protocol, the quality conversion factor, k Q , is presented as a function of the photon component of the percentage depth-dose at 10 cm depth, %dd(10) x , measured under the reference conditions of a 10x10 cm 2 field size and a source-to-surface distance (SSD) of 100 cm. The value of %dd(10) x from HT cannot be used for the determination of k Q because the design of the HT does not meet the following TG-51 reference conditions: (i) the field size and the practical SSD required by TG-51 are not obtainable and (ii) the absence of the flattening filter changes the beam quality thus affecting some components of k Q . The stopping power ratio is not affected because of its direct relationship to %dd(10) x . We derive a relationship for the Exradin A1SL ion chamber converting the %dd(10) x measured under HT 'reference conditions' of SSD=85 cm and a 5x10 cm 2 field-size [%dd(10) x[HTRef] ], to the dosimetric equivalent value under for TG-51 reference conditions [%dd(10) x[HTTG-51] ] for HT. This allows the determination of k Q under the HT reference conditions. The conversion results in changes of 0.1% in the value of k Q for our particular unit. The conversion relationship should also apply to other ion chambers with possible errors on the order of 0.1%

  20. Measurements of Gasification Characteristics of Coal and Char in CO2-Rich Gas Flow by TG-DTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification properties of pulverized coal and char in CO2-rich gas flow were investigated by using gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA with changing O2%, heating temperature gradient, and flow rate of CO2-rich gases provided. Together with TG-DTA, flue gas generated from the heated coal, such as CO, CO2, and hydrocarbons (HCs, was analyzed simultaneously on the heating process. The optimum O2% in CO2-rich gas for combustion and gasification of coal or char was discussed by analyzing flue gas with changing O2 from 0 to 5%. The experimental results indicate that O2% has an especially large effect on carbon oxidation at temperature less than 1100°C, and lower O2 concentration promotes gasification reaction by producing CO gas over 1100°C in temperature. The TG-DTA results with gas analyses have presented basic reference data that show the effects of O2 concentration and heating rate on coal physical and chemical behaviors for the expected technologies on coal gasification in CO2-rich gas and oxygen combustion and underground coal gasification.

  1. A meta-analysis of adiponectin gene rs22411766 T>G polymorphism and ischemic stroke susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuju Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated the correlation between adiponectin gene rs22411766 T>G polymorphism and ischemic stroke risk. However, the results were not conclusive with each other. Therefore, to overcome this obstacle, we performed this meta-analysis to further explicate the adiponectin gene rs22411766 T>G polymorphism and ischemic stroke susceptibility. Case-control or cohort studies focused on adiponectin gene rs22411766 T>G polymorphism and ischemic stroke risk were electronic searched in the databases of Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane library, Excerpta Medica database(EMBASE and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI. All the potentially relevant studies were included in this meta-analysis. The association between adiponectin gene rs22411766 T>G polymorphism and ischemic stroke was expressed by odds ratio with its confidence interval. Publication bias has been assessed by begg’s funnel plot. All the analyses have been performed by Revman 5.1 statistical software. Finally, a total of six studies with 1,345 cases and 1,421 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Our results demonstrated that there was a significant association between adiponectin gene rs22411766 T>G polymorphism and ischemic stroke risk (p<0.05. People with G single nucleotide of adiponectin gene have the increased risk of developing ischemic stroke compared to T single nucleotide.

  2. The triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio as a predictor of β-cell function in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturu, Amita; DeWitt, Peter; Kern, Philip A; Rasouli, Neda

    2015-05-01

    The TG/HDL-C ratio is used as a marker of insulin resistance (IR) in Caucasians. However, there are conflicting data on TG/HDL-C ratio as a predictor of IR in African Americans. Compared to Caucasians, African Americans have lower TG levels and increased insulin levels despite a greater risk for diabetes. We hypothesized that the TG/HDL-C ratio is predictive of IR and/or β-cell function in African American (AA) women. Non-diabetic AA women (n = 41) with a BMI > 25 kg/m(2) underwent frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT). Insulin sensitivity (SI) and the acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg) were measured using minimal model and β-cell function was determined by disposition index (DI = S I*AIRg). IR was defined as the lowest tertile of SI ( 0.70 was defined as significant discrimination. The mean (± SD) age was 38.5 ± 11.3 years, with BMI of 33.5 ± 6.7 kg/m(2) and fasting glucose of 86.5 ± 10.5 mg/dL. The AUC-ROC for the prediction of DI women. However, we did show an inverse association between the TG/HDL-C ratio and β-cell function, suggesting that this simple tool may effectively identify AA women at risk for DM2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Novel Form of Compensation in the Tg2576 Amyloid Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Attila; Katonai, Zoltán; Alpár, Alán; Wolf, Ervin

    2016-01-01

    One century after its first description, pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still poorly understood. Amyloid-related dendritic atrophy and membrane alterations of susceptible brain neurons in AD, and in animal models of AD are widely recognized. However, little effort has been made to study the potential effects of combined morphological and membrane alterations on signal transfer and synaptic integration in neurons that build up affected neural networks in AD. In this study spatial reconstructions and electrophysiological measurements of layer II/III pyramidal neurons of the somatosensory cortex from wild-type (WT) and transgenic (TG) human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) overexpressing Tg2576 mice were used to build faithful segmental cable models of these neurons. Local synaptic activities were simulated in various points of the dendritic arbors and properties of subthreshold dendritic impulse propagation and predictors of synaptic input pattern recognition ability were quantified and compared in modeled WT and TG neurons. Despite the widespread dendritic degeneration and membrane alterations in mutant mouse neurons, surprisingly little, or no change was detected in steady-state and 50 Hz sinusoidal voltage transfers, current transfers, and local and propagation delays of PSPs traveling along dendrites of TG neurons. Synaptic input pattern recognition ability was also predicted to be unaltered in TG neurons in two different soma-dendritic membrane models investigated. Our simulations predict the way how subthreshold dendritic signaling and pattern recognition are preserved in TG neurons: amyloid-related membrane alterations compensate for the pathological effects that dendritic atrophy has on subthreshold dendritic signal transfer and integration in layer II/III somatosensory neurons of this hAPP mouse model for AD. Since neither propagation of single PSPs nor integration of multiple PSPs (pattern recognition) changes in TG neurons, we conclude that AD

  4. Age-related changes in core body temperature and activity in triple-transgenic Alzheimer's disease (3xTgAD) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Elysse M; Brown, Timothy M; Gümüsgöz, Sarah; Smith, Jennifer C M; Waters, Elizabeth J; Allan, Stuart M; Lawrence, Catherine B

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterised, not only by cognitive deficits and neuropathological changes, but also by several non-cognitive behavioural symptoms that can lead to a poorer quality of life. Circadian disturbances in core body temperature and physical activity are reported in AD patients, although the cause and consequences of these changes are unknown. We therefore characterised circadian patterns of body temperature and activity in male triple transgenic AD mice (3xTgAD) and non-transgenic (Non-Tg) control mice by remote radiotelemetry. At 4 months of age, daily temperature rhythms were phase advanced and by 6 months of age an increase in mean core body temperature and amplitude of temperature rhythms were observed in 3xTgAD mice. No differences in daily activity rhythms were seen in 4- to 9-month-old 3xTgAD mice, but by 10 months of age an increase in mean daily activity and the amplitude of activity profiles for 3xTgAD mice were detected. At all ages (4-10 months), 3xTgAD mice exhibited greater food intake compared with Non-Tg mice. The changes in temperature did not appear to be solely due to increased food intake and were not cyclooxygenase dependent because the temperature rise was not abolished by chronic ibuprofen treatment. No β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques or neurofibrillary tangles were noted in the hypothalamus of 3xTgAD mice, a key area involved in temperature regulation, although these pathological features were observed in the hippocampus and amygdala of 3xTgAD mice from 10 months of age. These data demonstrate age-dependent changes in core body temperature and activity in 3xTgAD mice that are present before significant AD-related neuropathology and are analogous to those observed in AD patients. The 3xTgAD mouse might therefore be an appropriate model for studying the underlying mechanisms involved in non-cognitive behavioural changes in AD.

  5. TH-A-BRC-01: AAPM TG-135U1 QA for Robotic Radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieterich, S.

    2016-01-01

    AAPM TG-135U1 QA for Robotic Radiosurgery - Sonja Dieterich Since the publication of AAPM TG-135 in 2011, the technology of robotic radiosurgery has rapidly developed. AAPM TG-135U1 will provide recommendations on the clinical practice for using the IRIS collimator, fiducial-less real-time motion tracking, and Monte Carlo based treatment planning. In addition, it will summarize currently available literature about uncertainties. Learning Objectives: Understand the progression of technology since the first TG publication Learn which new QA procedures should be implemented for new technologies Be familiar with updates to clinical practice guidelines AAPM TG-178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance - Steven Goetsch Purpose: AAPM Task Group 178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance was formed in August, 2008. The Task Group has 12 medical physicists, two physicians and two consultants. Methods: A round robin dosimetry intercomparison of proposed ionization chambers, electrometer and dosimetry phantoms was conducted over a 15 month period in 2011 and 2012 (Med Phys 42, 11, Nov, 2015). The data obtained at 9 institutions (with ten different Elekta Gamma Knife units) was analyzed by the lead author using several protocols. Results: The most consistent results were obtained using the Elekta ABS 16cm diameter phantom, with the TG-51 protocol modified as recommended by Alfonso et al (Med Phys 35, 11, Nov 2008). A key white paper (Med Phys, in press) sponsored by Elekta Corporation, was used to obtain correction factors for the ionization chambers and phantoms used in this intercomparison. Consistent results were obtained for both Elekta Gamma Knife Model 4C and Gamma Knife Perfexion units as measured with each of two miniature ionization chambers. Conclusion: The full report gives clinical history and background of gamma stereotactic radiosurgery, clinical examples and history, quality assurance recommendations and outline

  6. TH-A-BRC-01: AAPM TG-135U1 QA for Robotic Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieterich, S. [UC Davis Medical Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    AAPM TG-135U1 QA for Robotic Radiosurgery - Sonja Dieterich Since the publication of AAPM TG-135 in 2011, the technology of robotic radiosurgery has rapidly developed. AAPM TG-135U1 will provide recommendations on the clinical practice for using the IRIS collimator, fiducial-less real-time motion tracking, and Monte Carlo based treatment planning. In addition, it will summarize currently available literature about uncertainties. Learning Objectives: Understand the progression of technology since the first TG publication Learn which new QA procedures should be implemented for new technologies Be familiar with updates to clinical practice guidelines AAPM TG-178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance - Steven Goetsch Purpose: AAPM Task Group 178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance was formed in August, 2008. The Task Group has 12 medical physicists, two physicians and two consultants. Methods: A round robin dosimetry intercomparison of proposed ionization chambers, electrometer and dosimetry phantoms was conducted over a 15 month period in 2011 and 2012 (Med Phys 42, 11, Nov, 2015). The data obtained at 9 institutions (with ten different Elekta Gamma Knife units) was analyzed by the lead author using several protocols. Results: The most consistent results were obtained using the Elekta ABS 16cm diameter phantom, with the TG-51 protocol modified as recommended by Alfonso et al (Med Phys 35, 11, Nov 2008). A key white paper (Med Phys, in press) sponsored by Elekta Corporation, was used to obtain correction factors for the ionization chambers and phantoms used in this intercomparison. Consistent results were obtained for both Elekta Gamma Knife Model 4C and Gamma Knife Perfexion units as measured with each of two miniature ionization chambers. Conclusion: The full report gives clinical history and background of gamma stereotactic radiosurgery, clinical examples and history, quality assurance recommendations and outline

  7. Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) Show Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Lung Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Isumi, Kyoko; Ogawa, Sumito; Akishita, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is increasingly recognized as a prevalent problem worldwide, especially in patients with a chronic lung disease. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of chronic inflammatory lung disease. Previous clinical studies have shown that COPD leads to low vitamin D levels, which further increase the severity of COPD. Vitamin D homeostasis represents one of the most important factors that potentially determine the severity of COPD. Nonetheless, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in lung tissues are still unclear. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of VDR, we generated transgenic mice that show lung-specific VDR overexpression under the control of the surfactant protein C promoter (TG mice). The TG mice were used to study the expression patterns of proinflammatory cytokines using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. The TG mice had lower levels of T helper 1 (Th1)-related cytokines than wild-type (WT) mice did. No significant differences in the expression of Th2 cytokines were observed between TG and WT mice. This study is the first to achieve lung-specific overexpression of VDR in TG mice: an interesting animal model useful for studying the relation between airway cell inflammation and vitamin D signaling. VDR expression is an important factor that influences anti-inflammatory responses in lung tissues. Our results show the crucial role of VDR in anti-inflammatory effects in lungs; these data are potentially useful for the treatment or prevention of COPD.

  8. FXIIIA and TGF-beta over-expression produces normal musculo-skeletal phenotype in TG2-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, U; Oliva, F; Taurisano, G; Orlandi, A; Pietroni, V; Candi, E; Melino, G; Maffulli, N

    2009-04-01

    Transglutaminase (TGs) enzymes and proteins crosslinking have for long time been implicated in the formation of hard tissue development, matrix maturation and mineralization. Among the TGs family members, in the context of connective tissue formation, TG2 and Factor XIII are expressed in cartilage by hypertrophic chondrocytes. Here, we analyse the morphological consequences of TG2 deficiency, during the development of skeletal elements. When TG2 is absent, there are not gross abnormalities in the development of the skeletal system, probably from compensatory mechanisms resulting in increased expression of FXIIIA and TGF-beta 1. In vivo other TGs may be involved in promoting chondrocytes and osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralisation.

  9. Textural properties of low-fat set-type yoghurt depending on mTG addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Darnay

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to determine how 0.5-2 U/g non-inactivated mTG affects the pH development and apparent viscosity during fermentation. Furthermore we wished to examine how the enzyme addition could change protein structure, gel strength and sensory characteristics by healthy low-fat set-type yoghurt product. Therefore commercial mTG enzyme preparation was added in different concentrations (0.5-2.0 U/g, in 0.5 U/g steps to 1.5 % bovine milk simultaneously with DVS starter culture. Our study revealed that enzyme dosage (0.5-2 U/g protein had no impact on pH development and apparent viscosity during fermentation when manufacturing low-fat (1.5 % set-type yoghurt. The addition of mTG contributed to 38 % more whey retention with incorporation of β-casein, and caused 44 % higher gel strength up to a level of 1 U/g protein.

  10. Toxoplasma gondii: humoral and cellular immune response of BALB/c mice immunized via intranasal route with rTgROP2 Toxoplasma gondii: avaliação da resposta imune humoral e celular de camundongos BALB/c imunizados pela via nasal com rTgROP2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Igarashi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available TgROP2 is an intracellular protein associated with rhoptries of Toxoplama gondii and an antigen component of a candidate vaccine for toxoplasmosis. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of rTgROP2 to stimulate humoral and cellular immune responses in BALB/c mice via intranasal injection. TgROP2 partial coding sequence was (196-561 amplified by PCR from genomic T. gondii RH strain DNA and cloned into the pTrcHis expression vector. Escherichia coli Rosetta 2 cells transformed with pTrcHis-TgROP2 showed high levels (~1 mg.mL-1 of recombinant protein after 4 hours of IPTG induction. Recombinant TgROP2 exhibited an apparent Mr equal to 54 kDa. In order to test immunogenicity of the recombinant protein, 10 BALB/c mice received 10 µg of rROP2 protein + 10 µg of Quil-A via intranasal injection. Doses were administered at days 0, 21, and 42. Three animals were euthanized and used to evaluate cell-ular immune response on day 62. Five (50% and two (20% out of ten animals produced IgG (DO mean = 0.307; cut-off = 0.240 and IgA (DO mean = 0.133, cut-off = 0.101, respectively, by ELISA on day 62. The proliferation of splenocytes revealed high stimulation index (SI when co-cultured with 5, 10 and 15 µg.mL-1 of rTgROP2. These results indicate that intranasal immunization with recombinant protein ROP2 plus Quil-A can elicit both cellular and humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice.TgROP2 é uma proteína localizada nas roptrias do Toxoplasma gondii, sendo um antígeno candidato a componente de uma vacina contra a toxoplasmose. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a eficácia da TgROP2 recombinante em estimular a resposta imune celular e humoral de camundongos BALB/c após estímulo intranasal. A sequência da TgROP2 foi amplificada pela PCR a partir da cepa RH e clonada em vetor de expressão pTrc-His. Após a transformação em Escherichia coli- Rosetta 2, a pTrcHis-TgROP2 exibiu alto nível de expressão após 4 horas de indu

  11. A Manipulation of Visual Feedback during Gait Training in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quincy J. Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual cues are known to improve gait in Parkinson's disease (PD; however, the contribution of optic flow continues to be disputed. This study manipulated transverse line cues during two gait training interventions (6 weeks. PD subjects (N=42 were assigned to one of three groups: treadmill (TG, overground (OG, or control group (CG. Participants walked across lines placed on either treadmills or 16-meter carpets, respectively. The treadmill (TG offered a reduced dynamic flow from the environment, while lines presented on the ground (OG emphasized optic flow related to the participant's own displacement. Both interventions significantly improved (and maintained through retention period step length, thus improving walking velocity. Only the OG improved in the TUG test, while only the TG showed hints of improving (and maintaining motor symptoms. Since gait improvements were found in both training groups, we conclude that by reducing optic flow, gait benefits associated with visual cueing training can still be achieved.

  12. Age-related changes in core body temperature and activity in triple-transgenic Alzheimer’s disease (3xTgAD mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elysse M. Knight

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD is characterised, not only by cognitive deficits and neuropathological changes, but also by several non-cognitive behavioural symptoms that can lead to a poorer quality of life. Circadian disturbances in core body temperature and physical activity are reported in AD patients, although the cause and consequences of these changes are unknown. We therefore characterised circadian patterns of body temperature and activity in male triple transgenic AD mice (3xTgAD and non-transgenic (Non-Tg control mice by remote radiotelemetry. At 4 months of age, daily temperature rhythms were phase advanced and by 6 months of age an increase in mean core body temperature and amplitude of temperature rhythms were observed in 3xTgAD mice. No differences in daily activity rhythms were seen in 4- to 9-month-old 3xTgAD mice, but by 10 months of age an increase in mean daily activity and the amplitude of activity profiles for 3xTgAD mice were detected. At all ages (4–10 months, 3xTgAD mice exhibited greater food intake compared with Non-Tg mice. The changes in temperature did not appear to be solely due to increased food intake and were not cyclooxygenase dependent because the temperature rise was not abolished by chronic ibuprofen treatment. No β-amyloid (Aβ plaques or neurofibrillary tangles were noted in the hypothalamus of 3xTgAD mice, a key area involved in temperature regulation, although these pathological features were observed in the hippocampus and amygdala of 3xTgAD mice from 10 months of age. These data demonstrate age-dependent changes in core body temperature and activity in 3xTgAD mice that are present before significant AD-related neuropathology and are analogous to those observed in AD patients. The 3xTgAD mouse might therefore be an appropriate model for studying the underlying mechanisms involved in non-cognitive behavioural changes in AD.

  13. Age-related changes in core body temperature and activity in triple-transgenic Alzheimer’s disease (3xTgAD) mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Elysse M.; Brown, Timothy M.; Gümüsgöz, Sarah; Smith, Jennifer C. M.; Waters, Elizabeth J.; Allan, Stuart M.; Lawrence, Catherine B.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterised, not only by cognitive deficits and neuropathological changes, but also by several non-cognitive behavioural symptoms that can lead to a poorer quality of life. Circadian disturbances in core body temperature and physical activity are reported in AD patients, although the cause and consequences of these changes are unknown. We therefore characterised circadian patterns of body temperature and activity in male triple transgenic AD mice (3xTgAD) and non-transgenic (Non-Tg) control mice by remote radiotelemetry. At 4 months of age, daily temperature rhythms were phase advanced and by 6 months of age an increase in mean core body temperature and amplitude of temperature rhythms were observed in 3xTgAD mice. No differences in daily activity rhythms were seen in 4- to 9-month-old 3xTgAD mice, but by 10 months of age an increase in mean daily activity and the amplitude of activity profiles for 3xTgAD mice were detected. At all ages (4–10 months), 3xTgAD mice exhibited greater food intake compared with Non-Tg mice. The changes in temperature did not appear to be solely due to increased food intake and were not cyclooxygenase dependent because the temperature rise was not abolished by chronic ibuprofen treatment. No β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques or neurofibrillary tangles were noted in the hypothalamus of 3xTgAD mice, a key area involved in temperature regulation, although these pathological features were observed in the hippocampus and amygdala of 3xTgAD mice from 10 months of age. These data demonstrate age-dependent changes in core body temperature and activity in 3xTgAD mice that are present before significant AD-related neuropathology and are analogous to those observed in AD patients. The 3xTgAD mouse might therefore be an appropriate model for studying the underlying mechanisms involved in non-cognitive behavioural changes in AD. PMID:22864021

  14. Characterization of Two Different Clay Materials by Thermogravimetry (TG), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Dilatometry (DIL) and Mass Spectrometry (MS) - 12215

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Ekkehard [NETZSCH Geraetebau GmbH, Wittelsbacherstrasse 42, 95100 Selb (Germany); Henderson, Jack B. [NETZSCH Instruments North America, LLC, 129 Middlesex Turnpike, Burlington, MA 01803 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    An illitic clay containing higher amounts of organic materials was investigated by dilatometry, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetric. The evolved gases were studied during simultaneous TG-DSC (STA) and dilatometer measurements with simultaneous mass spectrometry in inert gas and oxidizing atmosphere. The dilatometer results were compared with the STA-MS results which confirmed and explained the reactions found during heating of the clay, like dehydration, dehydroxylation, shrinkage, sintering, quartz phase transition, combustion or pyrolysis of organics and the solid state reactions forming meta-kaolinite and mullite. The high amount of organic material effects in inert gas atmosphere most probably a reduction of the oxides which leads to a higher mass loss than in oxidizing atmosphere. Due to this reduction an additional CO{sub 2} emission at around 1000 deg. C was detected which did not occur in oxidizing atmosphere. Furthermore TG-MS results of a clay containing alkali nitrates show that during heating, in addition to water and CO{sub 2}, NO and NO{sub 2} are also evolved, leading to additional mass loss steps. These types of clays showed water loss starting around 100 deg. C or even earlier. This relative small mass loss affects only less shrinkage during the expansion of the sample. The dehydroxylation and the high crystalline quartz content result in considerable shrinkage and expansion of the clay. During the usual solid state reaction where the clay structure collapses, the remaining material finally shrinks down to a so-called clinker. With the help of MS the TG steps can be better interpreted as the evolved gases are identified. With the help of the MS it is possible to distinguish between CO{sub 2} and water (carbonate decomposition, oxidation of organics or dehydration/dehydroxylation). The MS also clearly shows that mass number 44 is found during the TG step of the illitic clay at about 900 deg. C in inert gas, which was interpreted

  15. Evaluation of TG-43 recommended 2D-anisotropy function for elongated brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, Shahid B.; Meigooni, Ali S.; Mokhberiosgouei, Ramin; Hussain, Manzoor

    2006-01-01

    The original and updated protocols recommended by Task Group 43 from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (i.e., TG-43 and TG-43U1, respectively), have been introduced to unify brachytherapy source dosimetry around the world. Both of these protocols are based on experiences with sources less than 1.0 cm in length. TG-43U1 recommends that for 103 Pd sources, 2D anisotropy function F(r,θ), should be tabulated at a minimum for radial distances of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 5.0 cm. Anisotropy functions defined in these protocols are only valid when the point of calculation does not fall on the active length of the source. However, for elongated brachytherapy sources (active length >1 cm), some of the calculation points with r 103 Pd source at radial distances of 2.5, 3.0, and 4.0 cm were 2.95, 1.74, and 1.19, respectively, with differences up to about a factor of 3. Therefore, the validity of the linear interpolation technique for an elongated brachytherapy source with such a large variation in F(r,θ) needs to be investigated. In this project, application of the TG-43U1 formalism for dose calculation around an elongated RadioCoil trade mark sign 103 Pd brachytherapy source has been investigated. In addition, the linear interpolation techniques as described in TG-43U1 for seed type sources have been evaluated for a 5.0 cm long RadioCoil trade mark sign 103 Pd brachytherapy source. Application of a polynomial fit to F(r,θ) has also been investigated as an alternate approach to the linear interpolation technique. The results of these investigations indicate that the TG-43U1 formalism can be extended for elongated brachytherapy sources, if the two-dimensional (2D) anisotropy function is tabulated at a minimum for radial distances of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0 cm, L/2, and L/2±0.2 cm. Moreover, with the addition of recommended radial distances for 2D anisotropy functions, the linear interpolation technique more closely replicates

  16. MO-PIS-Exhibit Hall-01: Tools for TG-142 Linac Imaging QA I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, M; Wiesmeyer, M

    2014-01-01

    Partners in Solutions is an exciting new program in which AAPM partners with our vendors to present practical “hands-on” information about the equipment and software systems that we use in our clinics. The therapy topic this year is solutions for TG-142 recommendations for linear accelerator imaging QA. Note that the sessions are being held in a special purpose room built on the Exhibit Hall Floor, to encourage further interaction with the vendors. Automated Imaging QA for TG-142 with RIT Presentation Time: 2:45 – 3:15 PM This presentation will discuss software tools for automated imaging QA and phantom analysis for TG-142. All modalities used in radiation oncology will be discussed, including CBCT, planar kV imaging, planar MV imaging, and imaging and treatment coordinate coincidence. Vendor supplied phantoms as well as a variety of third-party phantoms will be shown, along with appropriate analyses, proper phantom setup procedures and scanning settings, and a discussion of image quality metrics. Tools for process automation will be discussed which include: RIT Cognition (machine learning for phantom image identification), RIT Cerberus (automated file system monitoring and searching), and RunQueueC (batch processing of multiple images). In addition to phantom analysis, tools for statistical tracking, trending, and reporting will be discussed. This discussion will include an introduction to statistical process control, a valuable tool in analyzing data and determining appropriate tolerances. An Introduction to TG-142 Imaging QA Using Standard Imaging Products Presentation Time: 3:15 – 3:45 PM Medical Physicists want to understand the logic behind TG-142 Imaging QA. What is often missing is a firm understanding of the connections between the EPID and OBI phantom imaging, the software “algorithms” that calculate the QA metrics, the establishment of baselines, and the analysis and interpretation of the results. The goal of our brief presentation will be to

  17. MO-PIS-Exhibit Hall-01: Tools for TG-142 Linac Imaging QA I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, M [RAD Image, Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Wiesmeyer, M [Standard Imaging, Inc., Middleton, WI (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Partners in Solutions is an exciting new program in which AAPM partners with our vendors to present practical “hands-on” information about the equipment and software systems that we use in our clinics. The therapy topic this year is solutions for TG-142 recommendations for linear accelerator imaging QA. Note that the sessions are being held in a special purpose room built on the Exhibit Hall Floor, to encourage further interaction with the vendors. Automated Imaging QA for TG-142 with RIT Presentation Time: 2:45 – 3:15 PM This presentation will discuss software tools for automated imaging QA and phantom analysis for TG-142. All modalities used in radiation oncology will be discussed, including CBCT, planar kV imaging, planar MV imaging, and imaging and treatment coordinate coincidence. Vendor supplied phantoms as well as a variety of third-party phantoms will be shown, along with appropriate analyses, proper phantom setup procedures and scanning settings, and a discussion of image quality metrics. Tools for process automation will be discussed which include: RIT Cognition (machine learning for phantom image identification), RIT Cerberus (automated file system monitoring and searching), and RunQueueC (batch processing of multiple images). In addition to phantom analysis, tools for statistical tracking, trending, and reporting will be discussed. This discussion will include an introduction to statistical process control, a valuable tool in analyzing data and determining appropriate tolerances. An Introduction to TG-142 Imaging QA Using Standard Imaging Products Presentation Time: 3:15 – 3:45 PM Medical Physicists want to understand the logic behind TG-142 Imaging QA. What is often missing is a firm understanding of the connections between the EPID and OBI phantom imaging, the software “algorithms” that calculate the QA metrics, the establishment of baselines, and the analysis and interpretation of the results. The goal of our brief presentation will be to

  18. A Novel Form of Compensation in the Tg2576 Amyloid Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Attila; Katonai, Zoltán; Alpár, Alán; Wolf, Ervin

    2016-01-01

    One century after its first description, pathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is still poorly understood. Amyloid-related dendritic atrophy and membrane alterations of susceptible brain neurons in AD, and in animal models of AD are widely recognized. However, little effort has been made to study the potential effects of combined morphological and membrane alterations on signal transfer and synaptic integration in neurons that build up affected neural networks in AD. In this study spatial reconstructions and electrophysiological measurements of layer II/III pyramidal neurons of the somatosensory cortex from wild-type (WT) and transgenic (TG) human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) overexpressing Tg2576 mice were used to build faithful segmental cable models of these neurons. Local synaptic activities were simulated in various points of the dendritic arbors and properties of subthreshold dendritic impulse propagation and predictors of synaptic input pattern recognition ability were quantified and compared in modeled WT and TG neurons. Despite the widespread dendritic degeneration and membrane alterations in mutant mouse neurons, surprisingly little, or no change was detected in steady-state and 50 Hz sinusoidal voltage transfers, current transfers, and local and propagation delays of PSPs traveling along dendrites of TG neurons. Synaptic input pattern recognition ability was also predicted to be unaltered in TG neurons in two different soma-dendritic membrane models investigated. Our simulations predict the way how subthreshold dendritic signaling and pattern recognition are preserved in TG neurons: amyloid-related membrane alterations compensate for the pathological effects that dendritic atrophy has on subthreshold dendritic signal transfer and integration in layer II/III somatosensory neurons of this hAPP mouse model for AD. Since neither propagation of single PSPs nor integration of multiple PSPs (pattern recognition) changes in TG neurons, we conclude that AD

  19. Download - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive ...

  20. TH-A-BRC-02: AAPM TG-178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetsch, S. [San Diego Medical Physics (United States)

    2016-06-15

    AAPM TG-135U1 QA for Robotic Radiosurgery - Sonja Dieterich Since the publication of AAPM TG-135 in 2011, the technology of robotic radiosurgery has rapidly developed. AAPM TG-135U1 will provide recommendations on the clinical practice for using the IRIS collimator, fiducial-less real-time motion tracking, and Monte Carlo based treatment planning. In addition, it will summarize currently available literature about uncertainties. Learning Objectives: Understand the progression of technology since the first TG publication Learn which new QA procedures should be implemented for new technologies Be familiar with updates to clinical practice guidelines AAPM TG-178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance - Steven Goetsch Purpose: AAPM Task Group 178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance was formed in August, 2008. The Task Group has 12 medical physicists, two physicians and two consultants. Methods: A round robin dosimetry intercomparison of proposed ionization chambers, electrometer and dosimetry phantoms was conducted over a 15 month period in 2011 and 2012 (Med Phys 42, 11, Nov, 2015). The data obtained at 9 institutions (with ten different Elekta Gamma Knife units) was analyzed by the lead author using several protocols. Results: The most consistent results were obtained using the Elekta ABS 16cm diameter phantom, with the TG-51 protocol modified as recommended by Alfonso et al (Med Phys 35, 11, Nov 2008). A key white paper (Med Phys, in press) sponsored by Elekta Corporation, was used to obtain correction factors for the ionization chambers and phantoms used in this intercomparison. Consistent results were obtained for both Elekta Gamma Knife Model 4C and Gamma Knife Perfexion units as measured with each of two miniature ionization chambers. Conclusion: The full report gives clinical history and background of gamma stereotactic radiosurgery, clinical examples and history, quality assurance recommendations and outline

  1. TH-A-BRC-02: AAPM TG-178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetsch, S.

    2016-01-01

    AAPM TG-135U1 QA for Robotic Radiosurgery - Sonja Dieterich Since the publication of AAPM TG-135 in 2011, the technology of robotic radiosurgery has rapidly developed. AAPM TG-135U1 will provide recommendations on the clinical practice for using the IRIS collimator, fiducial-less real-time motion tracking, and Monte Carlo based treatment planning. In addition, it will summarize currently available literature about uncertainties. Learning Objectives: Understand the progression of technology since the first TG publication Learn which new QA procedures should be implemented for new technologies Be familiar with updates to clinical practice guidelines AAPM TG-178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance - Steven Goetsch Purpose: AAPM Task Group 178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance was formed in August, 2008. The Task Group has 12 medical physicists, two physicians and two consultants. Methods: A round robin dosimetry intercomparison of proposed ionization chambers, electrometer and dosimetry phantoms was conducted over a 15 month period in 2011 and 2012 (Med Phys 42, 11, Nov, 2015). The data obtained at 9 institutions (with ten different Elekta Gamma Knife units) was analyzed by the lead author using several protocols. Results: The most consistent results were obtained using the Elekta ABS 16cm diameter phantom, with the TG-51 protocol modified as recommended by Alfonso et al (Med Phys 35, 11, Nov 2008). A key white paper (Med Phys, in press) sponsored by Elekta Corporation, was used to obtain correction factors for the ionization chambers and phantoms used in this intercomparison. Consistent results were obtained for both Elekta Gamma Knife Model 4C and Gamma Knife Perfexion units as measured with each of two miniature ionization chambers. Conclusion: The full report gives clinical history and background of gamma stereotactic radiosurgery, clinical examples and history, quality assurance recommendations and outline

  2. Homozygous carriers of the TCF7L2 rs7903146 T-allele show altered postprandial response in triglycerides and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrechtsen, L; Hansen, T H; Mahendran, Y

    2017-01-01

    to CC carriers. Additionally, TT carriers had lower postprandial levels of total triglycerides (TG) (q = 0.03), VLDL-TG (q = 0.05, including medium, small and extra small, q = 0.048, q = 0.0009, q = 0.04, respectively), HDL-TG (triglycerides in high density lipoproteins q = 0.037) and S-HDL-TG (q = 0.......00003). In conclusion, TT carriers show altered postprandial triglyceride response, mainly influencing VLDL and HDL subclasses suggesting a genotype-mediated effect on hepatic lipid regulation....

  3. Role of Tulipa gesneriana TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 (TgTB1) in the control of axillary bud outgrowth in bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Pachon, Natalia M; Mutimawurugo, Marie-Chantal; Heynen, Eveline; Sergeeva, Lidiya; Benders, Anne; Blilou, Ikram; Hilhorst, Henk W M; Immink, Richard G H

    2018-06-01

    Tulip vegetative reproduction. Tulips reproduce asexually by the outgrowth of their axillary meristems located in the axil of each bulb scale. The number of axillary meristems in one bulb is low, and not all of them grow out during the yearly growth cycle of the bulb. Since the degree of axillary bud outgrowth in tulip determines the success of their vegetative propagation, this study aimed at understanding the mechanism controlling the differential axillary bud activity. We used a combined physiological and "bottom-up" molecular approach to shed light on this process and found that first two inner located buds do not seem to experience dormancy during the growth cycle, while mid-located buds enter dormancy by the end of the growing season. Dormancy was assessed by weight increase and TgTB1 expression levels, a conserved TCP transcription factor and well-known master integrator of environmental and endogenous signals influencing axillary meristem outgrowth in plants. We showed that TgTB1 expression in tulip bulbs can be modulated by sucrose, cytokinin and strigolactone, just as it has been reported for other species. However, the limited growth of mid-located buds, even when their TgTB1 expression is downregulated, points at other factors, probably physical, inhibiting their growth. We conclude that the time of axillary bud initiation determines the degree of dormancy and the sink strength of the bud. Thus, development, apical dominance, sink strength, hormonal cross-talk, expression of TgTB1 and other possibly physical but unidentified players, all converge to determine the growth capacity of tulip axillary buds.

  4. TU-D-201-03: Results of a Survey On the Implementation of the TG-51 Protocol and Associated Addendum On Reference Dosimetry of External Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Muir, B [National Research Council, Ottawa, AB (Canada); Culberson, W [University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Davis, S [McGill University Health Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Huang, Y [Henry Ford Health System, West Bloomfield, MI (United States); Lee, S [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Columbia, MD (United States); Lowenstein, J [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Sarfehnia, A [Sunnybrook Health Science Center, Toronto, ON (Canada); Tolani, N [Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, Sugarland (United States); Siebers, J [University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The working group on the review and extension of the TG-51 protocol (WGTG51) collected data from American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) members with respect to their current TG-51 and associated addendum usage in the interest of considering future protocol addenda and guidance on reference dosimetry best practices. This study reports an overview of this survey on dosimetry of external beams. Methods: Fourteen survey questions were developed by WGTG51 and released in November 2015. The questions collected information on reference dosimetry, beam quality specification, and ancillary calibration equipment. Results: Of the 190 submissions completed worldwide (U.S. 70%), 83% were AAPM members. Of the respondents, 33.5% implemented the TG-51 addendum, with the maximum calibration difference for any photon beam, with respect to the original TG-51 protocol, being <1% for 97.4% of responses. One major finding is that 81.8% of respondents used the same cylindrical ionization chamber for photon and electron dosimetry, implying that many clinics are foregoing the use of parallel-plate chambers. Other evidence suggests equivalent dosimetric results can be obtained with both cylindrical and parallel-plate chambers in electron beams. This, combined with users comfort with cylindrical chambers for electrons will likely impact recommendations put forward in an upcoming electron beam addendum to the TG-51 protocol. Data collected on ancillary equipment showed 58.2% (45.0%) of the thermometers (barometers) in use for beam calibration had NIST traceable calibration certificates, but 48.4% (42.7%) were never recalibrated. Conclusion: This survey provides a snapshot of TG-51 external beam reference dosimetry practice in radiotherapy centers. Findings demonstrate the rapid take-up of the TG-51 photon beam addendum and raise issues for the WGTG51 to focus on going forward, including guidelines on ancillary equipment and the choice of chamber for electron beam

  5. Report of AAPM TG 135: quality assurance for robotic radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, Sonja; Cavedon, Carlo; Chuang, Cynthia F; Cohen, Alan B; Garrett, Jeffrey A; Lee, Charles L; Lowenstein, Jessica R; d'Souza, Maximian F; Taylor, David D; Wu, Xiaodong; Yu, Cheng

    2011-06-01

    The task group (TG) for quality assurance for robotic radiosurgery was formed by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine's Science Council under the direction of the Radiation Therapy Committee and the Quality Assurance (QA) Subcommittee. The task group (TG-135) had three main charges: (1) To make recommendations on a code of practice for Robotic Radiosurgery QA; (2) To make recommendations on quality assurance and dosimetric verification techniques, especially in regard to real-time respiratory motion tracking software; (3) To make recommendations on issues which require further research and development. This report provides a general functional overview of the only clinically implemented robotic radiosurgery device, the CyberKnife. This report includes sections on device components and their individual component QA recommendations, followed by a section on the QA requirements for integrated systems. Examples of checklists for daily, monthly, annual, and upgrade QA are given as guidance for medical physicists. Areas in which QA procedures are still under development are discussed.

  6. Follow-up of patients with thyroglobulin-antibodies : Rising Tg-Ab trend is a risk factor for recurrence of differentiated thyroid cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meer, Siegrid G A; Vorselaars, Wessel M C M; Kist, Jakob W; Stokkel, Marcel P M; de Keizer, Bart; Valk, Gerlof D; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M; Vriens, Menno R

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Differentiated thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. Recurrences (5-20%) are the main reason for follow-up. Thyroglobulin (Tg) has proven to be an excellent disease marker, but thyroglobulin-antibodies (Tg-Ab) may interfere with Tg measurement, leading to over or

  7. Transgenic mice overexpressing glia maturation factor-β, an oxidative stress inducible gene, show premature aging due to Zmpste24 down-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Rika; Asai, Kanae; Hanai, Jun-ichi; Takenaka, Masaru

    2015-07-01

    Glia Maturation Factor-β (GMF), a brain specific protein, is induced by proteinuria in renal tubules. Ectopic GMF overexpression causes apoptosisin vitro via cellular vulnerability to oxidative stress. In order to examine the roles of GMF in non-brain tissue, we constructed transgenic mice overexpressing GMF (GMF-TG). The GMF-TG mice exhibited appearance phenotypes associated with premature aging. The GMF-TG mice also demonstrated short lifespans and reduced hair regrowth, suggesting an accelerated aging process. The production of an abnormal lamin A, a nuclear envelope protein, plays a causal role in both normal aging and accelerated aging diseases, known as laminopathies. Importantly, we identified the abnormal lamin A (prelamin A), accompanied by a down-regulation of a lamin A processing enzyme (Zmpste24) in the kidney of the GMF-TG mice. The GMF-TG mice showed accelerated aging in the kidney, compared with wild-type mice, showing increased TGF-β1, CTGF gene and serum creatinine. The gene expression of p21/waf1 was increased at an earlier stage of life, at 10 weeks, which was in turn down-regulated at a later stage, at 60 weeks. In conclusion, we propose that GMF-TG mice might be a novel mouse model of accelerated aging, due to the abnormal lamin A.

  8. Comparison between AAPM TG-51 and IAEA TRS-398 for plane parallel ionization chambers irradiated by clinical electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    We compared the results of absorbed dose determined at reference conditions according to AAPM T G-51 and IAEA TRS-398 using plane parallel ionization chambers. The study showed agreement between the two protocols for Holt ,Exradin P11, NACP, Attix RMI 449 and Roos ionization chambers. For Markus ionization chambers the absorbed dose calculated using AAPM TG-51 is higher than that calculated using IAEA TRS-398 by 1.8 % for R 5 0 =2 cm and decrease with increased R 5 0 to reach 1.2 % for R 5 0 =20 cm. For Capintec PS-033 ionization chambers the absorbed dose calculated using AAPM TG-51 is constantly higher than that calculated by IAEA TRS-398 by 1.5 %. A theoretical explanation was introduced for these results

  9. Investigation on caloric requirement of biomass pyrolysis using TG-DSC analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Fang [Institute of Utilization of Biomass, Shandong University of Technology, No. 12, Zhangzhou Road, Zibo, Shandong 255049 (China)]. E-mail: hf@sdut.edu.cn; Yi Weiming [Institute of Utilization of Biomass, Shandong University of Technology, No. 12, Zhangzhou Road, Zibo, Shandong 255049 (China); Bai Xueyuan [Institute of Utilization of Biomass, Shandong University of Technology, No. 12, Zhangzhou Road, Zibo, Shandong 255049 (China)

    2006-09-15

    The caloric requirement of biomass pyrolysis has an important influence on the course of the thermal conversion. However, precise data are difficult to achieve by the current calculation method because of the complexity of the process. A new method for achieving the caloric requirement of the process by integrating the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves was proposed after the simultaneous thermal analyzer (TG-DSC) and DSC curves were investigated. Experiments were conducted for wheat straw, cotton stalk, pine and peanut shell on a Netsch STA 449C analyzer. Powder samples were put into a platinum crucible with a lid on a high accuracy DSC-cp sample holder in the furnace and then heated from ambient temperature up to the maximum temperature of 973 K at the heating rate of 10 K/min in the analyzer. The product gases were swept away by 25 ml/min nitrogen. Mass changes (TG) and calorimetric effects (DSC) were recorded and analyzed. The process was investigated in detail through comparison of the DTG (differential thermogravimetric) and DSC curves of wheat straw. After the water influence in the DSC was eliminated, the relationship of the caloric requirement with the temperature of the aforementioned dry biomass was obtained by integrating the DSC curve. The results showed that 523 kJ, 459 kJ, 646 kJ and 385 kJ were required, respectively, to increase the temperature of 1 kg of dried wheat straw, cotton stalk, pine and peanut from 303 K to 673 K.

  10. Molecular structure of virgin and Tg cycled (Ag2Se)x (AsSe)1-x bulk glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtman, Jacob; Chen, Ping; Boochand, P.

    2009-03-01

    AsSe, the base glass (x = 0) in the titled ternary, is an interesting example of a chalcogenide that is partially de-mixed into As4Se4 molecules segregated from a connected AsSe network, with the latter determining glass network properties. Raman scattering reveals sharp modes of the Realgar molecules that are superimposed on broad modes coming from of the backbone. Upon Tg cycling virgin samples (as quenched melts), the concentration of de-mixed As4Se4 molecules decreases, suggesting that thermally induced polymerization occurs; molecules break up to form part of the connective tissue. Modulated DSC experiments reveal a broad exotherm near 140 ^oC in virgin samples, which becomes nearly extinct in Tg cycled samples. The exotherm may represent Realgar molecules nano-crystallizing as the temperature approaches Tg. Compositional trends in thermal parameters such as Tg(x), δCp(x), and the δHnr(x) as a function of Ag2Se content `x' of the glasses will be reported.

  11. Comparison between TG-51 and TRS-398: electron contamination effect on photon beam-quality specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, Antonio Lopez; Teijeiro, Antonio; Salvador, Francisco; Medal, Daniela; Vazquez, Julio; Salgado, Manuel; Carrion, MarIa C

    2004-01-01

    Two dosimetry protocols based on absorbed dose to water have recently been implemented: TG-51 and TRS-398. These protocols use different beam-quality indices. The effect of electron contamination in measurements of %dd(10) x has been proposed as a disadvantage of the TG-51. For actual measurements of %dd(10) x in five clinical beams ) a purging magnet was employed to remove the electron contamination. Also, %dd(10) x was measured in the different ways described in TG-51 for high-energy beams: with a lead foil at 50 cm from the phantom surface, at 30 cm, and for open beam. Moreover, TPR 20,10 was determined. Also, periodic quality-control measurements were used for comparing both quality indices and variation over time, but D 20,10 was used instead of TPR 20,10 and measurements in open beam for the %dd(10) x determination. Considering both protocols, S w,air and k Q were calculated in order to compare the results with the experimental data. Significant differences (0.3% for k Q ) were only found for the two high-energy beams, but when the electron contamination is underestimated by TG-51, the difference in k Q is lower. Differences in the other cases and variations over time were less than 0.1%

  12. The relationship between high-frequency pure-tone hearing loss, hearing in noise test (HINT) thresholds, and the articulation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermiglio, Andrew J; Soli, Sigfrid D; Freed, Daniel J; Fisher, Laurel M

    2012-01-01

    Speech recognition in noise testing has been conducted at least since the 1940s (Dickson et al, 1946). The ability to recognize speech in noise is a distinct function of the auditory system (Plomp, 1978). According to Kochkin (2002), difficulty recognizing speech in noise is the primary complaint of hearing aid users. However, speech recognition in noise testing has not found widespread use in the field of audiology (Mueller, 2003; Strom, 2003; Tannenbaum and Rosenfeld, 1996). The audiogram has been used as the "gold standard" for hearing ability. However, the audiogram is a poor indicator of speech recognition in noise ability. This study investigates the relationship between pure-tone thresholds, the articulation index, and the ability to recognize speech in quiet and in noise. Pure-tone thresholds were measured for audiometric frequencies 250-6000 Hz. Pure-tone threshold groups were created. These included a normal threshold group and slight, mild, severe, and profound high-frequency pure-tone threshold groups. Speech recognition thresholds in quiet and in noise were obtained using the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) (Nilsson et al, 1994; Vermiglio, 2008). The articulation index was determined by using Pavlovic's method with pure-tone thresholds (Pavlovic, 1989, 1991). Two hundred seventy-eight participants were tested. All participants were native speakers of American English. Sixty-three of the original participants were removed in order to create groups of participants with normal low-frequency pure-tone thresholds and relatively symmetrical high-frequency pure-tone threshold groups. The final set of 215 participants had a mean age of 33 yr with a range of 17-59 yr. Pure-tone threshold data were collected using the Hughson-Weslake procedure. Speech recognition data were collected using a Windows-based HINT software system. Statistical analyses were conducted using descriptive, correlational, and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) statistics. The

  13. Hint of a Z' boson from the CERN LEP II data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulov, A. V.; Skalozub, V. V.

    2007-01-01

    The many-parametric fits of the LEP2 data on e + e - →e + e - , μ + μ - , τ + τ - processes are performed with the goal to estimate the signals of the Abelian Z ' boson. Four independent parameters must be fitted, if the derived already low-energy relations between the Z ' couplings to the standard model fermions are taken into consideration. No signals are found when the complete LEP2 data set for these processes is treated. In the fit of the backward bins, the hint at the 1.3σ confidence level is detected. The Z ' couplings to the vector and axial-vector lepton currents are constrained. The comparisons with the one-parameter fits and with the corresponding LEP1 experiments are fulfilled

  14. Specific expression of the vacuolar iron transporter, TgVit, causes iron accumulation in blue-colored inner bottom segments of various tulip petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momonoi, Kazumi; Tsuji, Toshiaki; Kazuma, Kohei; Yoshida, Kumi

    2012-01-01

    Several flowers of Tulipa gesneriana exhibit a blue color in the bottom segments of the inner perianth. We have previously reported the inner-bottom tissue-specific iron accumulation and expression of the vacuolar iron transporter, TgVit1, in tulip cv. Murasakizuisho. To clarify whether the TgVit1-dependent iron accumulation and blue-color development in tulip petals are universal, we analyzed anthocyanin, its co-pigment components, iron contents and the expression of TgVit1 mRNA in 13 cultivars which show a blue color in the bottom segments of the inner perianth accompanying yellow- and white-colored inner-bottom petals. All of the blue bottom segments contained the same anthocyanin component, delphinidin 3-rutinoside. The flavonol composition varied with cultivar and tissue part. The major flavonol in the bottom segments of the inner perianth was rutin. The iron content in the upper part was less than that in the bottom segments of the inner perianth. The iron content in the yellow and white petals was higher in the bottom segment of the inner perianth than in the upper tissues. TgVit1 mRNA expression was apparent in all of the bottom tissues of the inner perianth. The result of a reproduction experiment by mixing the constituents suggests that the blue coloration in tulip petals is generally caused by iron complexation to delphinidin 3-rutinoside and that the iron complex is solubilized and stabilized by flavonol glycosides. TgVit1-dependent iron accumulation in the bottom segments of the inner perianth might be controlled by an unknown system that differentiated the upper parts and bottom segments of the inner perianth.

  15. Database Description - Open TG-GATEs Pathological Image Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Open TG-GATEs Pathological Image Database Database Description General information of database Database... name Open TG-GATEs Pathological Image Database Alternative name - DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00954-0...iomedical Innovation 7-6-8, Saito-asagi, Ibaraki-city, Osaka 567-0085, Japan TEL:81-72-641-9826 Email: Database... classification Toxicogenomics Database Organism Taxonomy Name: Rattus norvegi... Article title: Author name(s): Journal: External Links: Original website information Database

  16. Análise TG-ROC de testes de imunofluorescência no diagnóstico de leishmaniose visceral canina Análisis TG-ROC de pruebas de inmunofluorescencia en el diagnóstico de leishmaniasis visceral canina TG-ROC analysis of immunofluorescence assays in canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria da Silva

    2009-12-01

    costo-beneficio.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the accuracy of the diagnosis of two protocols of indirect immunofluorescence assays for canine visceral leishmaniasis. METHODS: Dogs from the seroepidemiological survey conducted in an endemic area of the cities of Araçatuba and Andradina, in Northwestern São Paulo state, in 2003, and in a non-endemic area of the metropolitan region of São Paulo, were used to assess two protocols of indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA for leishmaniasis: one using a Leishmania major heterologous antigen (IFA-BM and another using a Leishmania chagasi homologous antigen (IFA-CH. Two-graph receiver operating characteristic (TG-ROC analysis was used to estimate accuracy. TG-ROC analysis compared 1:20 dilution readings of the homologous antigen (IFA-CH, considered as reference test, with IFA-BM dilutions (heterologous antigen. RESULTS: The 1:20 dilution used in the IFA-CH test showed the best contingency coefficient (0.755 and the highest strength of association between the two variables studied (chi-square=124.3. Thus, it was considered the test reference dilution in comparisons with different IFA-BM test dilutions. The best IFA-BM results were obtained from 1:40 dilutions with the best contingency coefficient (0.680 and highest strength of association (chi-square=80.8. With the change in the cut-off point, recommended for the IFA-BM 1:40 dilution in this analysis, the specificity parameter value rose from 57.5% to 97.7%, even though the 1:80 dilution showed the best sensitivity estimate (80.2%, with the new cut-off point. CONCLUSIONS: TG-ROC analysis can provide important information about diagnostic tests, in addition to offering suggestions on cut-off points that can improve test sensitivity and specificity estimates and assessing these tests in terms of the best cost-benefit ratio.

  17. Celiac Disease-Specific TG2-Targeted Autoantibodies Inhibit Angiogenesis Ex Vivo and In Vivo in Mice by Interfering with Endothelial Cell Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Kalliokoski

    Full Text Available A characteristic feature of celiac disease is the presence of circulating autoantibodies targeted against transglutaminase 2 (TG2, reputed to have a function in angiogenesis. In this study we investigated whether TG2-specific autoantibodies derived from celiac patients inhibit angiogenesis in both ex vivo and in vivo models and sought to clarify the mechanism behind this phenomenon. We used the ex vivo murine aorta-ring and the in vivo mouse matrigel-plug assays to address aforementioned issues. We found angiogenesis to be impaired as a result of celiac disease antibody supplementation in both systems. Our results also showed the dynamics of endothelial cells was affected in the presence of celiac antibodies. In the in vivo angiogenesis assays, the vessels formed were able to transport blood despite impairment of functionality after treatment with celiac autoantibodies, as revealed by positron emission tomography. We conclude that celiac autoantibodies inhibit angiogenesis ex vivo and in vivo and impair vascular functionality. Our data suggest that the anti-angiogenic mechanism of the celiac disease-specific autoantibodies involves extracellular TG2 and inhibited endothelial cell mobility.

  18. Celiac Disease–Specific TG2-Targeted Autoantibodies Inhibit Angiogenesis Ex Vivo and In Vivo in Mice by Interfering with Endothelial Cell Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliokoski, Suvi; Sulic, Ana-Marija; Korponay-Szabó, Ilma R.; Szondy, Zsuzsa; Frias, Rafael; Perez, Mileidys Alea; Martucciello, Stefania; Roivainen, Anne; Pelliniemi, Lauri J.; Esposito, Carla; Griffin, Martin; Sblattero, Daniele; Mäki, Markku; Kaukinen, Katri; Lindfors, Katri; Caja, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    A characteristic feature of celiac disease is the presence of circulating autoantibodies targeted against transglutaminase 2 (TG2), reputed to have a function in angiogenesis. In this study we investigated whether TG2-specific autoantibodies derived from celiac patients inhibit angiogenesis in both ex vivo and in vivo models and sought to clarify the mechanism behind this phenomenon. We used the ex vivo murine aorta-ring and the in vivo mouse matrigel-plug assays to address aforementioned issues. We found angiogenesis to be impaired as a result of celiac disease antibody supplementation in both systems. Our results also showed the dynamics of endothelial cells was affected in the presence of celiac antibodies. In the in vivo angiogenesis assays, the vessels formed were able to transport blood despite impairment of functionality after treatment with celiac autoantibodies, as revealed by positron emission tomography. We conclude that celiac autoantibodies inhibit angiogenesis ex vivo and in vivo and impair vascular functionality. Our data suggest that the anti-angiogenic mechanism of the celiac disease-specific autoantibodies involves extracellular TG2 and inhibited endothelial cell mobility. PMID:23824706

  19. Tissue Transglutaminase (TG2)-Induced Inflammation in Initiation, Progression, and Pathogenesis of Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, Kapil, E-mail: kmehta@mdanderson.org; Han, Amy [Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2011-02-25

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is among the deadliest cancers, with a median survival of six months. It is generally believed that infiltrating PC arises through the progression of early grade pancreatic intraepithelial lesions (PanINs). In one model of the disease, the K-ras mutation is an early molecular event during progression of pancreatic cancer; it is followed by the accumulation of additional genetic abnormalities. This model has been supported by animal studies in which activated K-ras and p53 mutations produced metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in mice. According to this model, oncogenic K-ras induces PanIN formation but fails to promote the invasive stage. However, when these mice are subjected to caerulein treatment, which induces a chronic pancreatitis-like state and inflammatory response, PanINs rapidly progress to invasive carcinoma. These results are consistent with epidemiologic studies showing that patients with chronic pancreatitis have a much higher risk of developing PC. In line with these observations, recent studies have revealed elevated expression of the pro-inflammatory protein tissue transglutaminase (TG2) in early PanINs, and its expression increases even more as the disease progresses. In this review we discuss the implications of increased TG2 expression in initiation, progression, and pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer.

  20. Local confidence limits for IMRT and VMAT techniques: a study based on TG119 test suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, M.; Chandroth, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to generate a local confidence limit (CL) for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) techniques used at Waikato Regional Cancer Centre. This work was carried out based on the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group (TG) 119 report. The AAPM TG 119 report recommends CLs as a bench mark for IMRT commissioning and delivery based on its multiple institutions planning and dosimetry comparisons. In this study the locally obtained CLs were compared to TG119 benchmarks. Furthermore, the same bench mark was used to test the capabilities and quality of the VMAT technique in our clinic. The TG 119 test suite consists of two primary and four clinical tests for evaluating the accuracy of IMRT planning and dose delivery systems. Pre defined structure sets contoured on computed tomography images were downloaded from AAPM website and were transferred to a locally designed phantom. For each test case two plans were generated using IMRT and VMAT optimisation. Dose prescriptions and planning objectives recommended by TG119 report were followed to generate the test plans in Eclipse Treatment Planning System. For each plan the point dose measurements were done using an ion chamber at high dose and low dose regions. The planar dose distribution was analysed for percentage of points passing the gamma criteria of 3 %/3 mm, for both the composite plan and individual fields of each plan. The CLs were generated based on the results from the gamma analysis and point dose measurements. For IMRT plans, the CLs obtained were (1) from point dose measurements: 2.49 % at high dose region and 2.95 % for the low dose region (2) from gamma analysis: 2.12 % for individual fields and 5.9 % for the composite plan. For VMAT plans, the CLs obtained were (1) from point dose measurements: 2.56 % at high dose region and 2.6 % for the low dose region (2) from gamma analysis: 1.46 % for individual fields and 0

  1. Axion-like particles: possible hints and constraints from the high-energy Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The high-energy Universe is potentially a great laboratory for searching new light bosons such as axion-like particles (ALPs). Cosmic sources are indeed the scene of violent phenomena that involve strong magnetic field and/or very long baselines, where the effects of the mixing of photons with ALPs could lead to observable effects. Two examples are archetypal of this fact, that are the Universe opacity to gamma-rays and the imprints of astrophysical magnetic turbulence in the energy spectra of high-energy sources. In the first case, hints for the existence of ALPs can be proposed whereas the second one is used to put constraints on the ALP mass and coupling to photons

  2. Hints for clarification of influencing factors in case of occupational liver diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zober, A; Raithel, H; Valentin, H

    1981-05-01

    Clarification of influencing factors is of great importance in suspected occupational liver diseases. Hints are given on the basis of the author's own experience and after critical evaluation of the relevant literature. Most important are: 1) Establishment of a comprehensive working anamnesis with special regard to specific features of the job, exposure patterns, and all working materials; 2) assessment of the hepatotoxic potential of the suspected working material according to the present state of knowledge in working medicine and toxicology; 3) objectification and quantification of the suspected noxious substances at the place of work by means of air analysis and analysis of the biological matter; 4) differential diagnosis in view of possible competitive influencing factors.

  3. Rhodiola rosea L extract shows protective activity against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease in 3xTg-AD mice. Methods: The cognitive function of 3xTg-AD mice was assessed using Morris water maze test. ... (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and Pharmacy Abstracts ..... potentially be developed as an alternative ... Billings LM, Oddo S, Green KN, McGaugh JL, LaFerla. FM.

  4. Database Description - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne expression data and predict the safety of candidate chemicals has been develop...ears of the project, more than 30 safety biomarkers were develped by using TG-GATEs. In addition, data acqui

  5. New physics hints in Β decays and collider outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, George W.S.

    2006-01-01

    There are currently two hints for new physics involving CP violation in b →s transitions: ΔS ≡ S f - S J/ ψK ≠ 0, and difference in direct CP asymmetry ΔA Kπ ≡ A K + π 0 - A K + π - ≠0. We explore the two scenarios with a large and unique new CP phase in b s transitions. Motivated by ΔS ≠ 0, we update on the right-handed strange beauty squark sb 1R at TeV scale. Motivated by ΔA Kπ ≠ 0, we explore sequential fourth generation t and b quarks. Both scenarios can survive constraints such as SM level b→sγ, sll and Β s mixing, and predict sizable CP violation in Β s mixing. The fourth generation picture predicts sizable K L → π 0 νν. Direct search for sb R , b' and t' at hadronic colliders, such as Tevatron Run II and LHC, can complement further CP violation studies at these machines, as well as at the future Super Β factory. (author)

  6. Notes on the implementation of the TG-43 formalism in high-rate brachytherapy; Notas sobre la implementacion del formalismo TG-43 en braquiterapia de lata tasa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sendon del Rio, J. R.; Gonzalez Ruiz, C.; Garcia Marcos, R.; Jimenez Rojas, R.; Lopez Bote, M. A.

    2011-07-01

    The TG-43 formalism is based on dosimetric parameters depend on the specific font design extracted from dose distributions calculated by Monte Carlo in water. Relatively easy to implement, yet provides a degree of uncertainty, making it necessary to verify the calculation algorithm in the planning system to assess its behavior.

  7. Impaired hippocampal acetylcholine release parallels spatial memory deficits in Tg2576 mice subjected to basal forebrain cholinergic degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bettina; Mørk, Arne; Plath, Niels

    2013-01-01

    (BFCD) in 3 months old male Tg2576 mice to co-express cholinergic degeneration with Aβ overexpression as these characteristics constitutes key hallmarks of AD. At 9 months, SAP lesioned Tg2576 mice were cognitively impaired in two spatial paradigms addressing working memory and mid to long-term memory...

  8. Characterization of pH dependent Mn(II) oxidation strategies and formation of a bixbyite-like phase by Mesorhizobium australicum T-G1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohu, Tsing; Santelli, Cara M; Akob, Denise M.; Neu, Thomas R; Ciobota, Valerian; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Nietzsche, Sándor; Küsel, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of Mn oxides in natural environments, there are only a few observations of biological Mn(II) oxidation at pH MOB) isolates limits our understanding of how pH influences biological Mn(II) oxidation in extreme environments. Here, we report that a novel MOB isolate, Mesorhizobium australicum strain T-G1, isolated from an acidic and metalliferous uranium mining area, can oxidize Mn(II) at both acidic and neutral pH using different enzymatic pathways. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that T-G1 initiated bixbyite-like Mn oxide formation at pH 5.5 which coincided with multi-copper oxidase expression from early exponential phase to late stationary phase. In contrast, reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly superoxide, appeared to be more important for T-G1 mediated Mn(II) oxidation at neutral pH. ROS was produced in parallel with the occurrence of Mn(II) oxidation at pH 7.2 from early stationary phase. Solid phase Mn oxides did not precipitate, which is consistent with the presence of a high amount of H2O2 and lower activity of catalase in the liquid culture at pH 7.2. Our results show that M. australicum T-G1, an acid tolerant MOB, can initiate Mn(II) oxidation by varying its oxidation mechanisms depending on the pH and may play an important role in low pH manganese biogeochemical cycling.

  9. Insulin receptor in mouse neuroblastoma cell line N18TG2: binding properties and visualization with colloidal gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, C; Stefanini, S; Bernardo, A; Augusti-Tocco, G

    1992-08-01

    Insulin function in the nervous system is still poorly understood. Possible roles as a neuromodulator and as a growth factor have been proposed (Baskin et al., 1987, Ann. Rev. Physiol. 49, 335-347). Stable cell lines may provide an appropriate experimental system for the analysis of insulin action on the various cellular components of the central nervous system. We report here a study to investigate the presence and the properties of insulin specific binding sites in the murine neuroblastoma line, N18TG2, together with insulin action on cell growth and metabolism. Also, receptor internalization has been studied. Binding experiments, carried out in standard conditions at 20 degrees C, enabled us to demonstrate that these cells bind insulin in a specific manner, thus confirming previous findings on other cell lines. Saturation curves showed the presence of two binding sites with Kd 0.3 and 9.7 nM. Competition experiments with porcine and bovine insulin showed an IC50 of 1 and 10 nM, respectively. Competition did not occur in the presence of the unrelated hormones ACTH and FSH. Dissociation experiments indicated the existence of an internalization process of the ligand-receptor complex; this was confirmed by an ultrastructural study using gold conjugated insulin. As far as the insulin action in N18TG2 cells is concerned, physiological concentrations stimulate cell proliferation, whereas no stimulation of glucose uptake was observed, indicating that insulin action in these cells is not mediated by general metabolic effects. On the basis of these data, N18TG2 line appears to be a very suitable model for further studies of the neuronal type insulin receptors, and possibly insulin specific action on the nervous system.

  10. Sci-Sat AM(2): Brachy-05: Dosimetry effects of the TG-43 approximations for two iodine seeds in LDR brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furstoss, C; Bertrand, M J; Poon, E; Reniers, B; Pignol, J P; Carrier, J F; Beaulieu, L; Verhaegen, F

    2008-07-01

    This work consists of studying the interseed and tissue composition effects for two model iodine seeds: the IBt Interseed-125 and the 6711 model seed. Three seeds were modeled with the MCNP MC code in a water sphere to evaluate the interseed effect. The dose calculated at different distances from the centre was compared to the dose summed when the seeds were simulated separately. The tissue composition effect was studied calculating the radial dose function for different tissues. Before carrying out post-implant studies, the absolute dose calculated by MC was compared to experiment results: with LiF TLDs in an acrylic breast phantom and with an EBT Gafchromic film placed in a water tank. Afterwards, the TG-43 approximation effects were studied for a prostate and breast post-implant. The interseed effect study shows that this effect is more important for model 6711 (15%) than for IBt (10%) due to the silver rod in 6711. For both seed models the variations of the radial dose function as a function of the tissue composition are quasi similar. The absolute dose comparisons between MC calculations and experiments give good agreement (inferior to 3% in general). For the prostate and breast post-implant studies, a 10% difference between MC calculations and the TG-43 is found for both models of seeds. This study shows that the differences in dose distributions between TG43 and MC are quite similar for the two models of seeds and are about 10% for the studied post-implant treatments. © 2008 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  11. Non-HDL Cholesterol is a More Superior Predictor of Small-Dense LDL Cholesterol than LDL Cholesterol in Japanese Subjects with TG Levels <400 mg/dL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Kengo; Takahashi, Eiko

    2016-09-01

    The Japan Atherosclerosis Society (JAS) guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hyperlipidemia in Japanese adults recommend using low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) calculated by Friedewald formula (F_LDL-C) for subjects with triglyceride (TG) levels <400 mg/dL and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels for subjects with TG levels ≥400 mg/dL. Because small-dense LDL particles are more atherogenic than large LDL particles, we sought the better lipid parameter which was more reflective of the high small-dense LDL-C (sdLDL-C) levels in subjects with TG levels <400 mg/dL. This study included 769 Japanese subjects who met our inclusion criteria and underwent an annual health examination, including sdLDL-C analyses. The correlation coefficient of non-HDL-C for sdLDL-C (r=0.760) was significantly higher than that of F_LDL-C (r=0.601). The area under the curve (95% confidence interval) was 0.771 (0.731, 0.811) for F_LDL-C and 0.871 (0.842, 0.901) for non HDL-C, which showed significantly higher predictive value for more than fourth quartile value of sdLDL-C (46 mg/dL). The optimal cut-off point of non-HDL-C was 158 mg/dL. Even in subjects stratified by waist circumstance, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, TG, and F_LDL-C levels and non-HDL-C showed stronger relationships with sdLDL-C than F_LDL-C. Moreover, non-HDL-C showed a better relationship with sdLDL-C than total cholesterol (TC), TC/HDL-C, and non-HDL-C/HDL-C. Our data suggested that non-HDL-C is superior to F_LDL-C and one of the reliable surrogate lipid markers of sdLDL-C in Japanese subjects with TG levels <400 mg/dL.

  12. Helhetsorienterad utvärdering av kollektivtrafikåtgärder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiselius, Lena Winslott; Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Leleur, Steen

    Under hösten 2008 och våren 2009 har forskare vid Avd. Trafik och väg vid Lunds Tekniska Högskola, DTU Transport vid Danmarks Tekniska Universitet samt National-ekonomiska institutionen vid Lunds Universitet genomfört ett forskningsprojekt med syfte att studera tillämpningen av en sammansatt...... (helhetsorienterad) analys av kollektiv-trafikåtgärder....

  13. The relationship between the Tg depression and the speeding up of physical aging in polystyrene/gold nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Virginie M.; Cangialosi, Daniele; Alegria, Angel; Colmenero, Juan

    2011-03-01

    The effect of gold nanoparticles on the segmental dynamics, glass transition (Tg) and physical aging of polystyrene (PS) was studied in PS/Gold nanocomposites samples containing 5 and 15 wt.% of 60 nm spherical gold nanoparticles, surface-treated with thiolated-PS. While the segmental dynamics of PS, as assessed by broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS), was found to be unchanged in presence of gold nanoparticles, the calorimetric Tg of PS was shown to decrease with increasing the amount of nanoparticles in the samples. Furthermore, the physical aging of PS, monitored by measuring the enthalpy relaxation below Tg by means of DSC, was shown to speed up with increasing the nanoparticles weight fraction, i.e. the amount of PS/Gold interface in the hybrid material. Thus, the main conclusion of our work is that PS molecular mobility and out-of-equilibrium dynamics are decoupled in these nanocomposites. The significant effect of the amount of PS/Gold interface on both the physical aging rate of PS and the calorimetric Tg depression are quantitatively accounted for by a model based on the diffusion of free volume holes towards polymer interfaces, with a diffusion coefficient depending only on the molecular mobility.

  14. Molybdenum(V, germanium(IV, aluminum(III and nickel(II adducts with ethyleneurea, ethylenethiourea and propyleneurea: some empirical correlations involving TG and IR data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBSON F. DE FARIAS

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The adducts MoCl5·2eu, MoCl5·2pu, GeCl4·2etu, AlCl3·2pu, AlCl3·3pu, NiCl2·2etu and NiCl2·4etu (eu = ethyleneurea, etu = ethylenethiourea and pu =propyleneurea were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis (C, H, N, infrared spectroscopy (IR and thermogravimetry (TG. IR Results show that eu and pu coordinate through oxygen, whereas etu coordinates through nitrogen. For all investigated adducts, a single mass loss step associated with the release of ligand molecules is observed. Empirical correlations involving TG and IR data are established.

  15. ALGUNAS PAUTAS PARA LA ESCRITURA DE ARTÍCULOS CIENTÍFICOS SOME HINTS FOR WRITING SCIENTIFIC PAPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Zapata

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es presentar, a aquellos investigadores neófitos, una serie de pautas que faciliten los procesos de escritura y publicación de manuscritos en revistas científicas de corriente principal. En la comunidad científica, una investigación sólo se completa cuando los resultados se socializan a través de artículos en revistas arbitradas que garanticen la originalidad, importancia y validez científica de los hallazgos reportados. Consecuentemente, es necesario que los investigadores desarrollen destrezas y habilidades en la escritura científica. Sin embargo, el proceso de preparación de un manuscrito, desde su fase inicial hasta su publicación final, suele ser largo y difícil, debido a algunos factores clave que tienen influencia sobre su calidad. Este artículo, suministra lineamientos generales sobre la preparación de manuscritos y entrega, también, pautas alrededor de las buenas prácticas de escritura de artículos con miras a facilitar la revisión por parte de los árbitros. En este sentido, este trabajo constituye aporte para quienes se inician en la difusión de la investigación científica.The objective of this paper is to present, to those neophyte researchers, a set of hints that facilitate manuscript writing and publishing processes needed for high class scientific journals. In the scientific community, a research would only be completed when the results are shared through papers in peer-reviewed journals that guarantees the originality, importance and scientific validation of reported contributions. Consequently, researchers have the necessity to develop skills and abilities in scientific writing. However, the manuscript preparation process from the initial phase to the final publication is usually slow and difficult, due to some key factors having influence over its quality. In this paper, we present general guidelines about manuscript preparation and we give some hints about good scientific

  16. Citalopram Ameliorates Impairments in Spatial Memory and Synaptic Plasticity in Female 3xTgAD Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the primary cause of dementia. There is no effective treatment. Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ plays an important role in the pathogenesis and thus strategies suppressing Aβ production and accumulation seem promising. Citalopram is an antidepressant drug and can decrease Aβ production and amyloid plaques in transgenic mice of AD and humans. Whether citalopram can ameliorate memory deficit was not known yet. We tested the effects of citalopram on behavioral performance and synaptic plasticity in female 3xTgAD mice, a well-characterized model of AD. Mice were treated with citalopram or water from 5 months of age for 3 months. Citalopram treatment at approximately 10 mg/kg/day significantly improved spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM test, while not affecting anxiety-like and depression-like behavior in 3xTgAD mice. Further, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP impairment in 3xTgAD mice was reversed by citalopram treatment. Citalopram treatment also significantly decreased the levels of insoluble Aβ40 in hippocampal and cortical tissues in 3xTgAD mice, accompanied with a reduced amyloid precursor protein (APP. Together, citalopram treatment may be a promising strategy for AD and further clinical trials should be conducted to verify the effect of citalopram on cognition in patients with AD or mild cognitive impairment.

  17. TG13 current terminology, etiology, and epidemiology of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimura, Yasutoshi; Takada, Tadahiro; Strasberg, Steven M.; Pitt, Henry A.; Gouma, Dirk J.; Garden, O. James; Büchler, Markus W.; Windsor, John A.; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Masahiro; Miura, Fumihiko; Higuchi, Ryota; Gabata, Toshifumi; Hata, Jiro; Gomi, Harumi; Dervenis, Christos; Lau, Wan-Yee; Belli, Giulio; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Hilvano, Serafin C.; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    While referring to the evidence adopted in the Tokyo Guidelines 2007 (TG07) as well as subsequently obtained evidence, further discussion took place on terminology, etiology, and epidemiological data. In particular, new findings have accumulated on the occurrence of symptoms in patients with

  18. AIR QUALITY IN THE CITY OF TG JIU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina TĂTAR

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems of the modern age is the air pollution. Within this work I realized a description of Tgjiu City: geographic location, climate, hydrographical network, variations in temperature, terrain, sources of pollution. On the basis of registered values for the air quality indicator, sedimentable powders, and interpretation of results on the basis of the provisions of the standards in force, the comments were made in relation to particulate air pollution in the city area of sedimentableTg Jiu, identifying the polluters in the area, the proposed solutions for the reduction of pollution.

  19. Characterization of pH dependent Mn(II) oxidation strategies and formation of a bixbyite-like phase by Mesorhizobium australicum T-G1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohu, Tsing; Santelli, Cara M; Akob, Denise M.; Neu, Thomas R; Ciobota, Valerian; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Nietzsche, Sándor; Küsel, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of Mn oxides in natural environments, there are only a few observations of biological Mn(II) oxidation at pH < 6. The lack of low pH Mn-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) isolates limits our understanding of how pH influences biological Mn(II) oxidation in extreme environments. Here, we report that a novel MOB isolate, Mesorhizobium australicum strain T-G1, isolated from an acidic and metalliferous uranium mining area, can oxidize Mn(II) at both acidic and neutral pH using different enzymatic pathways. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that T-G1 initiated bixbyite-like Mn oxide formation at pH 5.5 which coincided with multi-copper oxidase expression from early exponential phase to late stationary phase. In contrast, reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly superoxide, appeared to be more important for T-G1 mediated Mn(II) oxidation at neutral pH. ROS was produced in parallel with the occurrence of Mn(II) oxidation at pH 7.2 from early stationary phase. Solid phase Mn oxides did not precipitate, which is consistent with the presence of a high amount of H2O2 and lower activity of catalase in the liquid culture at pH 7.2. Our results show that M. australicum T-G1, an acid tolerant MOB, can initiate Mn(II) oxidation by varying its oxidation mechanisms depending on the pH and may play an important role in low pH manganese biogeochemical cycling.

  20. Abnormal three-steplike sub-Tg enthalpy relaxation pattern in hyperquenched metallic glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Lina; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Our recent work observed a quite different relaxation pattern, i.e., the abnormal three-steplike sub-Tg relaxation in CuZrAl GRs[1]. However, the generality and the origin of this remarkable thermodynamic anomaly remain enigmatic. By hyperquenching strategy, the present work investigated the depe......Our recent work observed a quite different relaxation pattern, i.e., the abnormal three-steplike sub-Tg relaxation in CuZrAl GRs[1]. However, the generality and the origin of this remarkable thermodynamic anomaly remain enigmatic. By hyperquenching strategy, the present work investigated...... in La55Al25Ni20 GRs. However, the correlation between Tf and the activation energy for initiating the energy releasing during thermal scanning is three-steplike for La55Al25Ni20, revealing the similar phenomenon with the abnormal ERP of Cu46Zr46Al8. These unexpected phenomena have been well explained...

  1. Furoquinoline Alkaloids and Methoxyflavones from the Stem Bark of Melicope madagascariensis (Baker T.G. Hartley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent E. Rasamison

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Melicope madagascariensis (Rutaceae is an endemic plant species of Madagascar that was first classified as a member of the genus Euodia J. R. & G. Forst (Rutaceae under the scientific name Euodia madagascariensis Baker. Based on morphological characteristics, Thomas Gordon Hartley taxonomically revised E. madagascariensis Baker to be M. madagascariensis (Baker T.G. Hartley. Chemotaxonomical studies have long been used to help the identification and confirmation of taxonomical classification of plant species and botanicals. Aiming to find more evidences to support the taxonomical revision performed on E. madagascariensis, we carried out phytochemical investigation of two samples of the plant. Fractionation of the ethanol extracts prepared from two stem bark samples of M. madagascariensis (Baker T.G. Hartley led to the isolation of seven known furoquinoline alkaloids 1–7 and two known methoxyflavones 8 and 9. The presence of furoquinoline alkaloids and methoxyflavones in the title species is in agreement with its taxonomic transfer from Euodia to Melicope. Antiprotozoal evaluation of the isolated compounds showed that 6-methoxy-7-hydroxydictamnine (heliparvifoline, 3 showed weak antimalarial activity (IC50 = 35 µM against the chloroquine-resistant strain Dd2 of Plasmodium falciparum. Skimmianine (4 displayed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 value of 1.5 µM against HT-29 colon cancer cell line whereas 3,5-dihydroxy-3′,4′,7-trimethoxyflavone (9 was weakly active in the same assay (IC50 = 13.9 µM. Graphical Abstract

  2. The role of FDG-PET/CT in differentiated thyroid cancer patients with negative iodine-131 whole-body scan and elevated anti-Tg level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa, Sertac; Aksoy, Sabire Yılmaz; Vatankulu, Betül; Aliyev, Anar; Uslu, Lebriz; Ozhan, Meftune; Sager, Sait; Halac, Metin; Sonmezoglu, Kerim

    2014-12-01

    In the follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) after a successful total-near total thyroidectomy and I-131 ablation therapy, anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (anti-Tg) may be persistently or progressively increased in the patients with an undetectable serum thyroglobulin (Tg) level. In these cases, further investigation was performed to search for recurrence/metastases. The aim of our study was clarifying the role of FDG-PET/CT in detecting recurrence/metastasis in patients with DTC with negative serum Tg and elevated anti-Tg level. A total of 40 patients (32 female, 8 male; mean age: 43.15 years (22-65); mean age at diagnosis: 39.08 (16-64)) with DTC who had undetectable serum Tg and elevated anti-Tg level after a successful initial therapy were included in the study. All of the patients had serum anti-Tg of >40 IU/ml and underwent FDG-PET/CT to search for recurrence/metastasis. Twenty patients (50 %) had recurrence/metastasis on FDG-PET/CT while the other 20 had no pathologic findings. Of the 20 patients who had positive FDG-PET/CT, 12 had a histopathological final diagnosis of which 11 were true positive (TP) and 1 was false positive (FP). On the other hand, 16 of the 40 patients had a histopathological final diagnosis of which 11/16 had TP, 1/16 FP, 3/16 false negative (FN) and 1/16 true negative (TN) findings by PET/CT. The final diagnosis was made by clinical follow-up in the remaining 24 patients. Of these, 8 patients were PET positive, and in 1 (12.5 %) of 8 patients a decrease in serum anti-Tg level, in 2 (25 %) patients a saw-toothed pattern and in 5 (62.5 %) a progressive increase in the serum anti-Tg level were noted during the follow-up. Of the 16 of 24 patients who were diagnosed by clinical follow-up, in 8 a (50 %) decrease in serum anti-Tg level, in 6 (37.5 %) a saw-toothed pattern, and in 2 (12.5 %) a progressively increased anti-Tg level was seen. Of the 40 patients, 14 (35 %) had a diagnosis of recurrence/metastasis finally, with

  3. Anxiety-like behavior as an early endophenotype in the TgF344-AD rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentkowski, Nathan S; Berkowitz, Laura E; Thompson, Shannon M; Drake, Emma N; Olguin, Carlos R; Clark, Benjamin J

    2018-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive cognitive decline and the presence of aggregates of amyloid beta (plaques) and hyperphosphorylated tau (tangles). Early diagnosis through neuropsychological testing is difficult due to comorbidity of symptoms between AD and other types of dementia. As a result, there is a need to identify the range of behavioral phenotypes expressed in AD. In the present study, we utilized a transgenic rat (TgF344-AD) model that bears the mutated amyloid precursor protein as well as presenilin-1 genes, resulting in progressive plaque and tangle pathogenesis throughout the cortex. We tested young adult male and female TgF344-AD rats in a spatial memory task in the Morris water maze and for anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze. Results indicated that regardless of sex, TgF344-AD rats exhibited increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze, which occurred without significant deficits in the spatial memory. Together, these results indicate that enhanced anxiety-like behavior represents an early-stage behavioral marker in the TgF344-AD rat model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ocular Changes in TgF344-AD Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Yuchun; Lu, Bin; Ljubimov, Alexander V.; Girman, Sergey; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N.; Sadun, Alfredo A.; Svendsen, Clive N.; Cohen, Robert M.; Wang, Shaomei

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we observed pathological changes in the choroid and in RPE cells in the TgF344-AD rat model; choroidal thinning was further observed in human AD retina. Along with Aβ deposition, the inflammatory response was manifested by microglial recruitment and complement activation.

  5. Body weight - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...le URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/open_tggates_body_...atabase Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Body weight - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive ...

  6. Seven Hints for Primordial Black Hole Dark Matter arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Clesse, Sebastien

    Seven observations point towards the existence of primordial black holes (PBH), constituting the whole or an important fraction of the dark matter in the Universe: the mass and spin of black holes detected by Advanced LIGO/VIRGO, the detection of micro-lensing events of distant quasars and stars in M31, the non-detection of ultra-faint dwarf satellite galaxies with radius below 15 parsecs, evidences for core galactic dark matter profiles, the correlation between X-ray and infrared cosmic backgrounds, and the existence of super-massive black holes very early in the Universe's history. Some of these hints are newly identified and they are all intriguingly compatible with the re-constructed broad PBH mass distribution from LIGO events, peaking on PBH mass $m_{\\rm PBH} \\approx 3 M_\\odot$ and passing all other constraints on PBH abundances. PBH dark matter also provides a new mechanism to explain the mass-to-light ratios of dwarf galaxies, including the recent detection of a diffuse galaxy not dominated by dark ma...

  7. Primary fatty acid amide metabolism: conversion of fatty acids and an ethanolamine in N18TG2 and SCP cells1[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Emma K.; Chen, Yuden; Barazanji, Muna; Jeffries, Kristen A.; Cameroamortegui, Felipe; Merkler, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Primary fatty acid amides (PFAM) are important signaling molecules in the mammalian nervous system, binding to many drug receptors and demonstrating control over sleep, locomotion, angiogenesis, and many other processes. Oleamide is the best-studied of the primary fatty acid amides, whereas the other known PFAMs are significantly less studied. Herein, quantitative assays were used to examine the endogenous amounts of a panel of PFAMs, as well as the amounts produced after incubation of mouse neuroblastoma N18TG2 and sheep choroid plexus (SCP) cells with the corresponding fatty acids or N-tridecanoylethanolamine. Although five endogenous primary amides were discovered in the N18TG2 and SCP cells, a different pattern of relative amounts were found between the two cell lines. Higher amounts of primary amides were found in SCP cells, and the conversion of N-tridecanoylethanolamine to tridecanamide was observed in the two cell lines. The data reported here show that the N18TG2 and SCP cells are excellent model systems for the study of PFAM metabolism. Furthermore, the data support a role for the N-acylethanolamines as precursors for the PFAMs and provide valuable new kinetic results useful in modeling the metabolic flux through the pathways for PFAM biosynthesis and degradation. PMID:22095832

  8. Characterization of pH dependent Mn(II oxidation strategies and formation of a bixbyite-like phase by Mesorhizobium australicum T-G1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsing eBohu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the ubiquity of Mn oxides in natural environments, there are only a few observations of biological Mn(II oxidation at pH < 6. The lack of low pH Mn-oxidizing bacteria (MOB isolates limits our understanding of how pH influences biological Mn(II oxidation in extreme environments. Here, we report that a novel MOB isolate, Mesorhizobium australicum strain T-G1, isolated from an acidic and metalliferous uranium mining area, can oxidize Mn(II at both acidic and neutral pH using different enzymatic pathways. X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS revealed that T-G1 initiated bixbyite-like Mn oxide formation at pH 5.5 which coincided with multi-copper oxidase (MCO expression from early exponential phase to late stationary phase. In contrast, reactive oxygen species (ROS, particularly superoxide, appeared to be more important for T-G1 mediated Mn(II oxidation at neutral pH. ROS was produced in parallel with the occurrence of Mn(II oxidation at pH 7.2 from early stationary phase. Solid phase Mn oxides did not precipitate, which is consistent with the presence of a high amount of H2O2 and lower activity of catalase in the liquid culture at pH 7.2. Our results show that M. australicum T-G1, an acid tolerant MOB, can initiate Mn(II oxidation by varying its oxidation mechanisms depending on the pH and may play an important role in low pH manganese biogeochemical cycling.

  9. A poliomyelitis model through mucosal infection in transgenic mice bearing human poliovirus receptor, TgPVR21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Noriyo; Iwasaki, Takuya; Ami, Yasushi; Sato, Yuko; Hatano, Ikuyoshi; Harashima, Ayako; Suzaki, Yuriko; Yoshii, Takao; Hashikawa, Tsutomu; Sata, Tetsutaro; Horiuchi, Yoshinobu; Koike, Satoshi; Kurata, Takeshi; Nomoto, Akio

    2004-01-01

    Transgenic mice bearing the human poliovirus receptor (TgPVR) are less susceptible to oral inoculation, although they are susceptible to parenteral inoculation. We investigated the susceptibility of TgPVR 21 line [Arch. Virol. 130 (1994) 351] to poliovirus through various mucosal routes. Intranasal inoculation of a neurovirulent Mahoney strain (OM1) caused flaccid paralysis with viral replication in the central nervous system at a dose of 10 6 cell culture infectious dose (CCID 50 ), in contrast, no paralysis following oral or intragastric inoculation of the same dose. Intranasal inoculation of a vaccine strain, Sabin 1, at 10 6 CCID 50 , resulted in no paralysis. Initial replication of poliovirus in the nasal cavity was confirmed by virus isolation and detection of negative-stranded replicative intermediates by RT-PCR and viral antigens using a high-sensitive immunohistochemistry and genome/transcripts by in situ hybridization. Poliovirus-specific IgG antibodies were elevated in the sera of surviving TgPVR21. This model can be used as a mucosal infection model and for differentiation of neurovirulent and attenuated poliovirus strains

  10. c.1643_1644delTG XPC mutation is more frequent in Moroccan patients with xeroderma pigmentosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senhaji, Mohamed Amine; Abidi, Omar; Nadifi, Sellama; Benchikhi, Hakima; Khadir, Khadija; Ben Rekaya, Mariem; Eloualid, Abdelmajid; Messaoud, Olfa; Abdelhak, Sonia; Barakat, Abdelhamid

    2013-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by hypersensitivity to UV light which is due to alterations of the nucleotide excision repair pathway. Eight genes (XPA to XPG and XPV) are responsible for the disease. Among them, the XPC gene is known to be the most mutated in Mediterranean patients. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of the most common XPC mutation and describe the clinical features of Moroccan patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. Twenty four patients belonging to 21 unrelated Moroccan families and 58 healthy subjects were investigated. After clinical examination, the screening for the c.1643_1644delTG (p.Val548AlafsX25) mutation in the XPC gene was performed by PCR and automated sequencing of exon 9 in all patients and controls. The molecular analysis showed that among the 24 patients, 17 were homozygous for the c.1643_1644delTG mutation and all their tested parents were heterozygous, whereas the others (7 patients) did not carry the mutation. The frequency of this mutation was estimated to be 76.19 % (16/21 families). None of the 58 healthy individuals carried this mutation. In addition, clinical investigation showed that the majority of the patients bearing this mutation have the same clinical features. Our results revealed that the p.Val548AlafsX25 mutation is the major cause (76.19 %) of xeroderma pigmentosum in Moroccan families. This would have an important impact on improving management of patients and their relatives.

  11. TH-A-BRC-03: AAPM TG218: Measurement Methods and Tolerance Levels for Patient-Specific IMRT Verification QA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miften, M. [University of Colorado School of Medicine (United States)

    2016-06-15

    AAPM TG-135U1 QA for Robotic Radiosurgery - Sonja Dieterich Since the publication of AAPM TG-135 in 2011, the technology of robotic radiosurgery has rapidly developed. AAPM TG-135U1 will provide recommendations on the clinical practice for using the IRIS collimator, fiducial-less real-time motion tracking, and Monte Carlo based treatment planning. In addition, it will summarize currently available literature about uncertainties. Learning Objectives: Understand the progression of technology since the first TG publication Learn which new QA procedures should be implemented for new technologies Be familiar with updates to clinical practice guidelines AAPM TG-178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance - Steven Goetsch Purpose: AAPM Task Group 178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance was formed in August, 2008. The Task Group has 12 medical physicists, two physicians and two consultants. Methods: A round robin dosimetry intercomparison of proposed ionization chambers, electrometer and dosimetry phantoms was conducted over a 15 month period in 2011 and 2012 (Med Phys 42, 11, Nov, 2015). The data obtained at 9 institutions (with ten different Elekta Gamma Knife units) was analyzed by the lead author using several protocols. Results: The most consistent results were obtained using the Elekta ABS 16cm diameter phantom, with the TG-51 protocol modified as recommended by Alfonso et al (Med Phys 35, 11, Nov 2008). A key white paper (Med Phys, in press) sponsored by Elekta Corporation, was used to obtain correction factors for the ionization chambers and phantoms used in this intercomparison. Consistent results were obtained for both Elekta Gamma Knife Model 4C and Gamma Knife Perfexion units as measured with each of two miniature ionization chambers. Conclusion: The full report gives clinical history and background of gamma stereotactic radiosurgery, clinical examples and history, quality assurance recommendations and outline

  12. TH-A-BRC-03: AAPM TG218: Measurement Methods and Tolerance Levels for Patient-Specific IMRT Verification QA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miften, M.

    2016-01-01

    AAPM TG-135U1 QA for Robotic Radiosurgery - Sonja Dieterich Since the publication of AAPM TG-135 in 2011, the technology of robotic radiosurgery has rapidly developed. AAPM TG-135U1 will provide recommendations on the clinical practice for using the IRIS collimator, fiducial-less real-time motion tracking, and Monte Carlo based treatment planning. In addition, it will summarize currently available literature about uncertainties. Learning Objectives: Understand the progression of technology since the first TG publication Learn which new QA procedures should be implemented for new technologies Be familiar with updates to clinical practice guidelines AAPM TG-178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance - Steven Goetsch Purpose: AAPM Task Group 178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance was formed in August, 2008. The Task Group has 12 medical physicists, two physicians and two consultants. Methods: A round robin dosimetry intercomparison of proposed ionization chambers, electrometer and dosimetry phantoms was conducted over a 15 month period in 2011 and 2012 (Med Phys 42, 11, Nov, 2015). The data obtained at 9 institutions (with ten different Elekta Gamma Knife units) was analyzed by the lead author using several protocols. Results: The most consistent results were obtained using the Elekta ABS 16cm diameter phantom, with the TG-51 protocol modified as recommended by Alfonso et al (Med Phys 35, 11, Nov 2008). A key white paper (Med Phys, in press) sponsored by Elekta Corporation, was used to obtain correction factors for the ionization chambers and phantoms used in this intercomparison. Consistent results were obtained for both Elekta Gamma Knife Model 4C and Gamma Knife Perfexion units as measured with each of two miniature ionization chambers. Conclusion: The full report gives clinical history and background of gamma stereotactic radiosurgery, clinical examples and history, quality assurance recommendations and outline

  13. Long-term Treatment with Low-Dose Caffeine Worsens BPSD-Like Profile in 3xTg-AD Mice Model of Alzheimer’s Disease and Affects Mice with Normal Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Baeta-Corral

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coffee or caffeine has recently been suggested as prophylaxis for dementia. Although memory problems are hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease, this dementia is also characterized by neuropsychiatric symptoms called Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD. The impact of preventive/therapeutic strategies on both cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms can be addressed in the 3xTg-AD mice, since they exhibit cognitive but also BPSD-like profiles. Here, we studied the long-term effects of a low dose of caffeine in male 3xTg-AD mice and as compared to age-matched non-transgenic (NTg counterparts with normal aging. Animals were treated (water or caffeine in drinking water from adulthood (6 months of age until middle-aged (13 months of age, that in 3xTg-AD mice correspond to onset of cognitive impairment and advanced stages, respectively. The low caffeine dosing used (0.3 mg/ml was previously found to give a plasma concentration profile in mice roughly equivalent to that of a human coffee drinker. There were significant effects of caffeine on most behavioral variables, especially those related to neophobia and other anxiety-like behaviors, emotionality, and cognitive flexibility. The 3xTg-AD and NTg mice were differently influenced by caffeine. Overall, the increase of neophobia and other anxiety-related behaviors resulted in an exacerbation of BPSD-like profile in 3xTg-AD mice. Learning and memory, strongly influenced by anxiety in 3xTg-AD mice, got little benefit from caffeine, only shown after a detailed analysis of navigation strategies. The worsened pattern in NTg mice and the use of search strategies in 3xTg-AD mice make both groups more similar. Circadian motor activity showed genotype differences, which were found to be enhanced by caffeine. Selective effects of caffeine on NTg were found in the modulation of behaviors related to emotional profile and risk assessment. Caffeine normalized splenomegaly of 3xTg-AD mice, a physical

  14. Short-term modern life-like stress exacerbates Aβ-pathology and synapse loss in 3xTg-AD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglietto-Vargas, David; Chen, Yuncai; Suh, Dongjin; Ager, Rahasson R; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Myczek, Kristoffer; Green, Kim N; Baram, Tallie Z; LaFerla, Frank M

    2015-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurological disorder that impairs memory and other cognitive functions in the elderly. The social and financial impacts of AD are overwhelming and are escalating exponentially as a result of population aging. Therefore, identifying AD-related risk factors and the development of more efficacious therapeutic approaches are critical to cure this neurological disorder. Current epidemiological evidence indicates that life experiences, including chronic stress, are a risk for AD. However, it is unknown if short-term stress, lasting for hours, influences the onset or progression of AD. Here, we determined the effect of short-term, multi-modal 'modern life-like' stress on AD pathogenesis and synaptic plasticity in mice bearing three AD mutations (the 3xTg-AD mouse model). We found that combined emotional and physical stress lasting 5 h severely impaired memory in wild-type mice and tended to impact it in already low-performing 3xTg-AD mice. This stress reduced the number of synapse-bearing dendritic spines in 3xTg-AD mice and increased Aβ levels by augmenting AβPP processing. Thus, short-term stress simulating modern-life conditions may exacerbate cognitive deficits in preclinical AD by accelerating amyloid pathology and reducing synapse numbers. Epidemiological evidence indicates that life experiences, including chronic stress, are a risk for Alzheimer disease (AD). However, it is unknown if short stress in the range of hours influences the onset or progression of AD. Here, we determined the effect of short, multi-modal 'modern-lifelike'stress on AD pathogenesis and synaptic plasticity in mice bearing three AD mutations (the 3xTg-AD mouse model). We found that combined emotional and physical stress lasting 5 h severely impaired memory in wild-type mice and tended to impact it in already low-performing 3xTg-AD mice. This stress reduced the number of synapse-bearing dendritic spines in 3xTg-AD mice and increased Aβ levels by

  15. The polyphenol oleuropein aglycone protects TgCRND8 mice against Aß plaque pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Grossi

    Full Text Available The claimed beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet include prevention of several age-related dysfunctions including neurodegenerative diseases and Alzheimer-like pathology. These effects have been related to the protection against cognitive decline associated with aging and disease by a number of polyphenols found in red wine and extra virgin olive oil. The double transgenic TgCRND8 mice (overexpressing the Swedish and Indiana mutations in the human amyloid precursor protein, aged 1.5 and 4, and age-matched wild type control mice were used to examine in vivo the effects of 8 weeks dietary supplementation of oleuropein aglycone (50 mg/kg of diet, the main polyphenol found in extra virgin olive oil. We report here that dietary supplementation of oleuropein aglycone strongly improves the cognitive performance of young/middle-aged TgCRND8 mice, a model of amyloid-ß deposition, respect to age-matched littermates with un-supplemented diet. Immunofluorescence analysis of cerebral tissue in oleuropein aglycone-fed transgenic mice showed remarkably reduced ß-amyloid levels and plaque deposits, which appeared less compact and "fluffy"; moreover, microglia migration to the plaques for phagocytosis and a remarkable reduction of the astrocyte reaction were evident. Finally, oleuropein aglycone-fed mice brain displayed an astonishingly intense autophagic reaction, as shown by the increase of autophagic markers expression and of lysosomal activity. Data obtained with cultured cells confirmed the latter evidence, suggesting mTOR regulation by oleuropein aglycone. Our results support, and provide mechanistic insights into, the beneficial effects against Alzheimer-associated neurodegeneration of a polyphenol enriched in the extra virgin olive oil, a major component of the Mediterranean diet.

  16. Activation pattern of ACE2/Ang-(1-7) and ACE/Ang II pathway in course of heart failure assessed by multiparametric MRI in vivo in Tgαq*44 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrankiewicz, Urszula; Olkowicz, Mariola; Skórka, Tomasz; Jablonska, Magdalena; Orzylowska, Anna; Bar, Anna; Gonet, Michal; Berkowicz, Piotr; Jasinski, Krzysztof; Zoladz, Jerzy A; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Here, we analyzed systemic (plasma) and local (heart/aorta) changes in ACE/ACE-2 balance in Tgαq*44 mice in course of heart failure (HF). Tgαq*44 mice with cardiomyocyte-specific Gαq overexpression and late onset of HF were analyzed at different age for angiotensin pattern in plasma, heart, and aorta using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, for progression of HF by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging under isoflurane anesthesia, and for physical activity by voluntary wheel running. Six-month-old Tgαq*44 mice displayed decreased ventricle radial strains and impaired left atrial function. At 8-10 mo, Tgαq*44 mice showed impaired systolic performance and reduced voluntary wheel running but exhibited preserved inotropic reserve. At 12 mo, Tgαq*44 mice demonstrated a severe impairment of basal cardiac performance and modestly compromised inotropic reserve with reduced voluntary wheel running. Angiotensin analysis in plasma revealed an increase in concentration of angiotensin-(1-7) in 6- to 10-mo-old Tgαq*44 mice. However, in 12- to 14-mo-old Tgαq*44 mice, increased angiotensin II was noted with a concomitant increase in Ang III, Ang IV, angiotensin A, and angiotensin-(1-10). The pattern of changes in the heart and aorta was also compatible with activation of ACE2, followed by activation of the ACE pathway. In conclusion, mice with cardiomyocyte Gαq protein overexpression develop HF that is associated with activation of the systemic and the local ACE/Ang II pathway. However, it is counterbalanced by a prominent ACE2/Ang-(1-7) activation, possibly allowing to delay decompensation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Changes in ACE/ACE-2 balance were analyzed based on measurements of a panel of nine angiotensins in plasma, heart, and aorta of Tgαq*44 mice in relation to progression of heart failure (HF) characterized by multiparametric MRI and exercise performance. The early stage of HF was associated with upregulation of the ACE2/angiotensin-(1-7) pathway, whereas the end

  17. SU-E-T-468: Implementation of the TG-142 QA Process for Seven Linacs with Enhanced Beam Conformance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woollard, J; Ayan, A; DiCostanzo, D; Grzetic, S; Hessler, J; Gupta, N [OH State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a TG-142 compliant QA process for 7 Varian TrueBeam linear accelerators (linacs) with enhanced beam conformance and dosimetrically matched beam models. To ensure consistent performance of all 7 linacs, the QA process should include a common set of baseline values for use in routine QA on all linacs. Methods: The TG 142 report provides recommended tests, tolerances and frequencies for quality assurance of medical accelerators. Based on the guidance provided in the report, measurement tests were developed to evaluate each of the applicable parameters listed for daily, monthly and annual QA. These tests were then performed on each of our 7 new linacs as they came on line at our institution. Results: The tolerance values specified in TG-142 for each QA test are either absolute tolerances (i.e. ±2mm) or require a comparison to a baseline value. The results of our QA tests were first used to ensure that all 7 linacs were operating within the suggested tolerance values provided in TG −142 for those tests with absolute tolerances and that the performance of the linacs was adequately matched. The QA test results were then used to develop a set of common baseline values for those QA tests that require comparison to a baseline value at routine monthly and annual QA. The procedures and baseline values were incorporated into a spreadsheets for use in monthly and annual QA. Conclusion: We have developed a set of procedures for daily, monthly and annual QA of our linacs that are consistent with the TG-142 report. A common set of baseline values was developed for routine QA tests. The use of this common set of baseline values for comparison at monthly and annual QA will ensure consistent performance of all 7 linacs.

  18. SU-E-T-468: Implementation of the TG-142 QA Process for Seven Linacs with Enhanced Beam Conformance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woollard, J; Ayan, A; DiCostanzo, D; Grzetic, S; Hessler, J; Gupta, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a TG-142 compliant QA process for 7 Varian TrueBeam linear accelerators (linacs) with enhanced beam conformance and dosimetrically matched beam models. To ensure consistent performance of all 7 linacs, the QA process should include a common set of baseline values for use in routine QA on all linacs. Methods: The TG 142 report provides recommended tests, tolerances and frequencies for quality assurance of medical accelerators. Based on the guidance provided in the report, measurement tests were developed to evaluate each of the applicable parameters listed for daily, monthly and annual QA. These tests were then performed on each of our 7 new linacs as they came on line at our institution. Results: The tolerance values specified in TG-142 for each QA test are either absolute tolerances (i.e. ±2mm) or require a comparison to a baseline value. The results of our QA tests were first used to ensure that all 7 linacs were operating within the suggested tolerance values provided in TG −142 for those tests with absolute tolerances and that the performance of the linacs was adequately matched. The QA test results were then used to develop a set of common baseline values for those QA tests that require comparison to a baseline value at routine monthly and annual QA. The procedures and baseline values were incorporated into a spreadsheets for use in monthly and annual QA. Conclusion: We have developed a set of procedures for daily, monthly and annual QA of our linacs that are consistent with the TG-142 report. A common set of baseline values was developed for routine QA tests. The use of this common set of baseline values for comparison at monthly and annual QA will ensure consistent performance of all 7 linacs

  19. Trigeminal ganglion neurons of mice show intracellular chloride accumulation and chloride-dependent amplification of capsaicin-induced responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Schöbel

    Full Text Available Intracellular Cl(- concentrations ([Cl(-](i of sensory neurons regulate signal transmission and signal amplification. In dorsal root ganglion (DRG and olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs, Cl(- is accumulated by the Na(+-K(+-2Cl(- cotransporter 1 (NKCC1, resulting in a [Cl(-](i above electrochemical equilibrium and a depolarizing Cl(- efflux upon Cl(- channel opening. Here, we investigate the [Cl(-](i and function of Cl(- in primary sensory neurons of trigeminal ganglia (TG of wild type (WT and NKCC1(-/- mice using pharmacological and imaging approaches, patch-clamping, as well as behavioral testing. The [Cl(-](i of WT TG neurons indicated active NKCC1-dependent Cl(- accumulation. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A receptor activation induced a reduction of [Cl(-](i as well as Ca(2+ transients in a corresponding fraction of TG neurons. Ca(2+ transients were sensitive to inhibition of NKCC1 and voltage-gated Ca(2+ channels (VGCCs. Ca(2+ responses induced by capsaicin, a prototypical stimulus of transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member-1 (TRPV1 were diminished in NKCC1(-/- TG neurons, but elevated under conditions of a lowered [Cl(-](o suggesting a Cl(--dependent amplification of capsaicin-induced responses. Using next generation sequencing (NGS, we found expression of different Ca(2+-activated Cl(- channels (CaCCs in TGs of mice. Pharmacological inhibition of CaCCs reduced the amplitude of capsaicin-induced responses of TG neurons in Ca(2+ imaging and electrophysiological recordings. In a behavioral paradigm, NKCC1(-/- mice showed less avoidance of the aversive stimulus capsaicin. In summary, our results strongly argue for a Ca(2+-activated Cl(--dependent signal amplification mechanism in TG neurons that requires intracellular Cl(- accumulation by NKCC1 and the activation of CaCCs.

  20. Gender-Specific Neuroimmunoendocrine Response to Treadmill Exercise in 3xTg-AD Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Giménez-Llort

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The 3xTg-AD mouse develops a progressive Alzheimer's disease- (AD- like brain pathology that causes cognitive- and neuropsychiatric-like symptoms of dementia. Since its neuroimmunoendocrine axis is likewise impaired, this mouse is also useful for modelling complex age-related neurodegeneration. This study analyzed behavioral, physiological, neurochemical, pathological and immunoendocrine alterations in male and female 3xTg-AD mice and assayed the effects of a short therapy of forced physical exercise at the moderate pathology stage of 6 months of age. Gender effects were observed in most AD-related pathology and dysfunctions. Five weeks of treadmill training produced beneficial effects, such as the reduction of brain oxidative stress and GABA-A receptor dysfunction in males and improvement of sensorimotor function in females. In both sexes, exercise decreased the brain amyloid 42/40 ratio levels. The results highlight the importance of analyzing experimental therapies in both mouse model genders in order to improve our understanding of the disease and develop more appropriate therapies.

  1. TG-FTIR Study of the Influence of potassium Chloride on Wheat Straw Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wójtowicz, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    of products into char, tar and gas. In this work, a combination of thermogravimetry and evolved gas analysis by Fourier transform infrared analysis (TG-FTIR) has been applied to study the influence of potassium chloride (KCl) on wheat straw pyrolysis. Raw straw, washed straw and washed straw impregnated...

  2. ANÁLISES DE PROTOCOLOS TELETERÁPICOS DE CONTROLE DE QUALIDADE DE ALGUNS SERVIÇOS LOCAIS, BASEADOS NO TG40 E ARCAL XXX Routine teletherapy quality control protocols based on TG40 and ARCAL XXX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen S. Guzmán Calcina

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a importância da garantia da qualidade nos serviços de radioterapia, este trabalho tem como primeiro objetivo fazer uma avaliação dos testes propostos pelos protocolos oficiais internacionais TG40 e ARCAL XXX para os equipamentos de cobalto, acelerador linear e simulador. O segundo objetivo consistiu em se fazer uma avaliação dos testes que atualmente são realizados por alguns serviços de radioterapia nacionais e da América Latina, comparando-os com os apresentados nos protocolos citados. Dos resultados obtidos, observou-se que embora o TG40 apresente os testes básicos necessários para um controle de qualidade adequado, o ARCAL ainda sugere testes complementares. Dos resultados e discussões, concluiu-se que é necessário que os serviços de radioterapia implementem os testes de controle de qualidade básicos e indispensáveis aos seus equipamentos, e que os demais testes sejam implementados de acordo com as suas necessidades e disponibilidades. Como produto deste estudo, sugestões de protocolos são apresentadas para o trabalho de rotina, provenientes da fusão dos protocolos analisados.In view of the great importance of quality control in radiotherapy services, this paper aimed primarily to evaluate the tests recommended by international protocols TG40 and ARCAL XXX for teletherapic equipments (cobalt, linear accelerator and simulator. A second objective was to evaluate the tests currently used in some radiotherapy services in Brazil and Latin America and to compare these tests with the ones recommended by the international protocols. Our results suggest that ARCAL is more complete than TG40, although the latter includes all the essential basic tests. We concluded that radiotherapy services should implement all basic quality control tests and that all other complementary tests should be implemented according to the need of each service. Finally, suggestions of protocols are presented, elaborated from the official and

  3. Dynamic traffic grooming with Spectrum Engineering (TG-SE) in flexible grid optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaosong; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jiawei; Wang, Jianping; Zhang, Guoying; Chen, Xue; Zhang, Jie

    2015-12-01

    Flexible grid has emerged as an evolutionary technology to satisfy the ever increasing demand for higher spectrum efficiency and operational flexibility. To optimize the spectrum resource utilization, this paper introduces the concept of Spectrum Engineering in flex-grid optical networks. The sliceable optical transponder has been proposed to offload IP traffic to the optical layer and reduce the number of IP router ports and transponders. We discuss the impact of sliceable transponder in traffic grooming and propose several traffic-grooming schemes with Spectrum Engineering (TG-SE). Our results show that there is a tradeoff among different traffic grooming policies, which should be adopted based on the network operator's objectives. The proposed traffic grooming with Spectrum Engineering schemes can reduce OPEX as well as increase spectrum efficiency by efficiently utilizing the bandwidth variability and capability of sliceable optical transponders.

  4. Structure-to-property relationships in addition cured polymers. II - Resin Tg and composite initial mechanical properties of norbornenyl cured polyimide resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, William B.

    1986-01-01

    PRM (polymerization of monomeric reactants) methodology was used to prepare thirty different polyimide oligomeric resins. Monomeric composition as well as chain length between sites of crosslinks were varied to examine their effects on glass transition temperature (Tg) of the cured/postcured resins. An almost linear correlation of Tg versus molecular distance between the crosslinks was observed. An attempt was made to correlate Tg with initial mechanical properties (flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength) of unidirectional graphite fiber composites prepared with these resins. However, the scatter in mechanical strength data prevented obtaining as clear a correlation as was observed for the structural modification/crosslink distance versus Tg. Instead, only a range of composite mechanical properties was obtained at the test temperatures studied (room temperature, 288 and 316 C). Perhaps more importantly, what did become apparent during the attempted correlation study was: (1) that PMR methodology could be used to prepare composites from resins that contain a wide variety of monomer modifications, and (2) that these composites almost invariably provided satisfactory initial mechanical properties as long as the resins selected were melt processable.

  5. Correlations of serum levels of TG with leptin and other related factors (L-1, NPY adiponectin) in patients with hyperlipidaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Donghong; Yu Ping; Wei Jingjun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes and correlations of serum levels of triglyeride (TG), leptin, L -1, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and adiponectin in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG). Methods: Serum levels of TG, leptin, L-1, NPY and adiponectin in 54 patients with HTG and 55 controls were measured with radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results: The serum levels of TG, Leptin, L -1 and NPY in patients with HTG [ (3.46 ± 1.14) mmol/L, (10.56 ±3.79) μg/L, (0.40 ± 0.18) μg/L, (115.89 ± 24.56) μg/L, respectively] were significantly higher than those in controls [ (1.26 ± 0.30) mmol/L, (5.66 ± 2.01) μg/L, (0.22 ± 0.09) μg/L, (95.21 ± 16.85) μg/L, respectively] P < 0.01 in all. But serum levels of adiponectin in patients with HTG (8.98 ± 3.51μg/L) was significantly lower than those in controls [(13.21 ± 9.46) μg/L, P < 0.01]. There were significantly positive correlations between serum TG levels and serum levels of leptin (r = 0.576, P < 0.05). There were also significantly positive correlations between serum leptin levels and serum levels of L-1 and NPY (r = 0.582; r = 0.479, respectively, P < 0.05). Conclusion: There was close relationship between increase in serum TG level and changes of serum levels of leptin, L-1, NPY, adiponectin. Neural-endocrine-immune system participated in fatty metabolism and could result in HTG. (authors)

  6. SU-E-T-393: Using TG119 to Assess RapidArc at Hamad Medical Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobah, A; El-Kaissi, T; Hammoud, R; Al-Hammadi, N

    2012-06-01

    To provide a confidence level within our clinic relating to the implementation and administration of RapidArc, the AAPM TG1 19 has been implemented. This task group provides a sound and relatively simple methodology for determining the accuracy of the overall IMRT process administered in the day-to-day clinicMethods: Six different test plans, of varying complexity, were created on mock structure sets, downloaded from AAPM, and delivered. The treatment planning system results were then compared with the delivered results. Plans were created and delivered on a solid water phantom, using 25×25cm water equivalent slabs of varying thicknesses. Delivered point and planar dose measurements were obtained using an ionization chamber and film, respectively. The confidence limit (CL), averaged for all test plans, was calculated for the high dose point in the PTV and for the low dose point in the avoidance structure. This was used as an indicator of the uncertainty of the average difference between measured and planned dose. Where the precision of the delivery is based on how small the CL value is.For both the high and low dose points, the local CL's were determined to be 0.036 and 0.011, respectively. The range of results for the CL presented in TG1 19 varies from 0.015 to 0.098 for the high dose point, and from 0.014 to 0.086 for the low dose point. Our results indicate the accurate implementation of RapidArc within our clinic, especially when compared to the results of other institutions, published in TG1 19. Furthermore, the CL value for the low dose measurements is lower than any of the results published in TG119. We recommend that any clinic conducting IMRT should implement this task group. This will not only provide a greater understanding of the delivery and its limitations, but will also give the overall accuracy and consistency of the technique as it applies to the various treatment sites. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  7. AbetaPP induces cdk5-dependent tau hyperphosphorylation in transgenic mice Tg2576.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otth, Carola; Concha, Ilona I; Arendt, Thomas; Stieler, Jens; Schliebs, Reinhard; González-Billault, Christian; Maccioni, Ricardo B

    2002-10-01

    Previous studies of Abeta-induced neuronal damage of hippocampal cells in culture have provided strong evidence that deregulation of the Cdk5/p35 kinase system is involved in the neurodegeneration pathway. Cdk5 inhibitors and antisense probes neuroprotected hippocampal cells against the neurotoxic action of Abeta. To further investigate the mechanisms underlying the participation of Cdk5 in neuronal degeneration, the transgenic mouse containing the Swedish mutations, Tg2576, was used as an animal model. Immunocytochemical studies using anti-Abeta(1-17) antibody evidenced the presence of labeled small-clustered core plaques in the hippocampus and cortex of 18-month-old transgenic mice brains. The loss of granular cells without a compressed appearance was detected in the vicinity of the cores in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Immunostaining of Tg2576 brain sections with antibodies AT8, PHF1 and GFAP labeled punctuate dystrophic neurites in and around the amyloid core. Reactive astrogliosis around the plaques in the hippocampus was also observed. Studies at the molecular level showed differences in the expression of the truncated Cdk5 activator p25 in the transgenic animal, as compared with wild type controls. However no differences in Cdk5 levels were detected, thus corroborating previous cellular findings. Interestingly, hyperphosphorylated tau epitopes were substantially increased as assessed with the AT8 and PHF1 antibodies, in agreement with the observation of a p25 increase in the transgenic animal. These observations strongly suggest that the increased exposure of Alzheimer's type tau phosphoepitopes in the transgenic mice correlated with deregulation of Cdk5 leading to an increase in p25 levels. These studies also provide further evidence on the links between extraneuronal amyloid deposition and tau pathology.

  8. Technical Report: TG-142 compliant and comprehensive quality assurance tests for respiratory gating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Kyle [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Rong, Yi, E-mail: yrong@ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To develop and establish a comprehensive gating commissioning and quality assurance procedure in compliance with TG-142. Methods: Eight Varian TrueBeam Linacs were used for this study. Gating commissioning included an end-to-end test and baseline establishment. The end-to-end test was performed using a CIRS dynamic thoracic phantom with a moving cylinder inside the lung, which was used for carrying both optically simulated luminescence detectors (OSLDs) and Gafchromic EBT2 films while the target is moving, for a point dose check and 2D profile check. In addition, baselines were established for beam-on temporal delay and calibration of the surrogate, for both megavoltage (MV) and kilovoltage (kV) beams. A motion simulation device (MotionSim) was used to provide periodic motion on a platform, in synchronizing with a surrogate motion. The overall accuracy and uncertainties were analyzed and compared. Results: The OSLD readings were within 5% compared to the planned dose (within measurement uncertainty) for both phase and amplitude gated deliveries. Film results showed less than 3% agreement to the predicted dose with a standard sinusoid motion. The gate-on temporal accuracy was averaged at 139 ± 10 ms for MV beams and 92 ± 11 ms for kV beams. The temporal delay of the surrogate motion depends on the motion speed and was averaged at 54.6 ± 3.1 ms for slow, 24.9 ± 2.9 ms for intermediate, and 23.0 ± 20.1 ms for fast speed. Conclusions: A comprehensive gating commissioning procedure was introduced for verifying the output accuracy and establishing the temporal accuracy baselines with respiratory gating. The baselines are needed for routine quality assurance tests, as suggested by TG-142.

  9. Technical Report: TG-142 compliant and comprehensive quality assurance tests for respiratory gating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, Kyle; Rong, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and establish a comprehensive gating commissioning and quality assurance procedure in compliance with TG-142. Methods: Eight Varian TrueBeam Linacs were used for this study. Gating commissioning included an end-to-end test and baseline establishment. The end-to-end test was performed using a CIRS dynamic thoracic phantom with a moving cylinder inside the lung, which was used for carrying both optically simulated luminescence detectors (OSLDs) and Gafchromic EBT2 films while the target is moving, for a point dose check and 2D profile check. In addition, baselines were established for beam-on temporal delay and calibration of the surrogate, for both megavoltage (MV) and kilovoltage (kV) beams. A motion simulation device (MotionSim) was used to provide periodic motion on a platform, in synchronizing with a surrogate motion. The overall accuracy and uncertainties were analyzed and compared. Results: The OSLD readings were within 5% compared to the planned dose (within measurement uncertainty) for both phase and amplitude gated deliveries. Film results showed less than 3% agreement to the predicted dose with a standard sinusoid motion. The gate-on temporal accuracy was averaged at 139 ± 10 ms for MV beams and 92 ± 11 ms for kV beams. The temporal delay of the surrogate motion depends on the motion speed and was averaged at 54.6 ± 3.1 ms for slow, 24.9 ± 2.9 ms for intermediate, and 23.0 ± 20.1 ms for fast speed. Conclusions: A comprehensive gating commissioning procedure was introduced for verifying the output accuracy and establishing the temporal accuracy baselines with respiratory gating. The baselines are needed for routine quality assurance tests, as suggested by TG-142

  10. High-Tg TOPAS microstructured polymer optical fiber for fiber Bragg grating strain sensing at 110 degrees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markos, Christos; Stefani, Alessio; Nielsen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    We present the fabrication and characterization of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) in an endlessly single-mode microstructured polymer optical fiber (mPOF) made of humidity-insensitive high-Tg TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer. The mPOF is the first made from grade 5013 TOPAS with a glass transition...... temperature of Tg = 135°C and we experimentally demonstrate high strain operation (2.5%) of the FBG at 98°C and stable operation up to a record high temperature of 110°C. The Bragg wavelengths of the FBGs are around 860 nm, where the propagation loss is 5.1dB/m, close to the fiber loss minimum of 3.67d...

  11. Modelling magnetic islands in the H-1NF heliac with the hint code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, S.S.; Gardner, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Recent progress in the theoretical modelling of the effects of plasma pressure on the growth and change in geometry of magnetic islands in the H-1NF Heliac will be reviewed. The HINT magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium code, which has become a standard workhorse in the stellarator community for problems of this type, has been modified to incorporate an interpolation algorithm which significantly accelerates its convergence. This has enabled the critical evaluation of earlier results, and of some conventional wisdom. In many ways the treatment of magnetic islands in low shear fusion reactors, such as H-1NF, is an ideal case study in computational science - the devil is in the details and the devil is important: the existence or otherwise of island self-healing at reactor pressures could significantly affect the design of future experiments. (author)

  12. [Correlation of SNP of IL-2-330T/G Gene with Genetic Susceptibility and Efficacy of Immunosuppressive Therapy in Patients with Aplastic Anemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiang; Chang, Hong

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the correlation of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of Interleukin-2(IL-2)-330T/G with genetic susceptibility and the efficacy of immunosuppressive therapy in patients with aplastic anemia. The peripheral blood samples from 103 patients with aplastic anemia in our hospital were collected. Out of 103 patients 46 received immuosuppressive therapy and were observed for 4 months, and 100 healthy adults were selected as control. The electrophoresis and DNA sequence were performed. The polymerase chain reaction(PCR) was used to amplify the polymorphic gene segment of IL-2 -330T/G from 103 aplastic anemia patients and 100 healthy adults. The frequencis of IL-2-330 GG genotype and G allele were a little higher in patients with aplastic anemia than that in the healthy adults(12.6% vs 12.0%, P>0.05; 27.7% vs 33.5%, P>0.05), but not statistically significant(P>0.05); in the 103 patients with aplastic anemia, 46 received immunosuppressive therapy, whereas 29 patients showed response, no significant difference was found between the responders and non-responders in the IL-2-330 GG genotype and G allele (31.0% vs 48.3%, P>0.05; 64.8% vs 61.8%, P>0.05). IL-2 -330T/G gene polymorphism may not correlate with the susceptibility of aplastic anemia or the efficacy of immunosuppressive therapy.

  13. Sub-Tg enthalpy relaxation in an unstable oxide glass former: insights into the structural heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yuanzheng; Zhang, Yanfei

    Structural heterogeneity plays a crucial role in determining functionality of glasses. In this work we have found that the sub-Tg enthalpy relaxation pattern in a hyperquenched glass is highly sensitive to structural heterogeneity. As a consequence, the former can be used as an effective approach...... to detect and quantify the structural heterogeneity in glass-forming liquids. However, the chemical nature of structural heterogeneity should be revealed by other means such as high resolution microscopic and spectroscopic methods. To study the impact of the structural heterogeneity on the sub-Tg relaxation...... chemical features and degrees of structural heterogeneity in glass-forming liquids. This finding contributes to the microscopic origin of both the primary and secondary relaxation in terms of structural heterogeneity. Finally the results provide insights into the relation between structural heterogeneity...

  14. HIV-1 Nef mutations abrogating downregulation of CD4 affect other Nef functions and show reduced pathogenicity in transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, Zaher; Priceputu, Elena; Hu, Chunyan; Vincent, Patrick; Jolicoeur, Paul

    2006-01-01

    HIV-1 Nef has the ability to downmodulate CD4 cell surface expression. Several studies have shown that CD4 downregulation is required for efficient virus replication and high infectivity. However, the pathophysiological relevance of this phenomenon in vivo, independently of its role in sustaining high virus loads, remains unclear. We studied the impact of the CD4 downregulation function of Nef on its pathogenesis in vivo, in the absence of viral replication, in the CD4C/HIV transgenic (Tg) mouse model. Two independent Nef mutants (RD35/36AA and D174K), known to abrogate CD4 downregulation, were tested in Tg mice. Flow cytometry analysis showed that downregulation of murine CD4 was severely decreased or abrogated on Tg T cells expressing respectively Nef RD35/36AA and Nef D174K . Similarly, the severe depletion of double-positive CD4 + CD8 + and of single-positive CD4 + CD8 - thymocytes, usually observed with Nef Wt , was not detected in Nef RD35/36AA and Nef D174K Tg mice. However, both mutant Tg mice showed a partial depletion of peripheral CD4 + T cells. This was accompanied, as previously reported for Net Wt Tg mice, by the presence of an activated/memory-like phenotype (CD69 + , CD25 + , CD44 + , CD45RB Low , CD62 Low ) of CD4 + T cells expressing Nef RD35/36AA and to a lesser extent Nef D174K . In addition, both mutants retained the ability to block CD4 + T cell proliferation in vitro after anti-CD3 stimulation, but not to enhance apoptosis/death of CD4 + T cells. Therefore, it appears that Nef-mediated CD4 downregulation is associated with thymic defects, but segregates independently of the activated/memory-like phenotype, of the partial depletion and of the impaired in vitro proliferation of peripheral CD4 + T cells. Histopathological assessment revealed the total absence of or decrease severity and frequency of organ AIDS-like diseases (lung, heart and kidney pathologies) in respectively Nef RD35/36AA and Nef D174K Tg mice, relative to those developing in

  15. Roles of TgAb and TPOAb in the development of hypothyroidism after 131I treatment in hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yunfeng; Tong Liangqian; Lan Qiong; Zhu Xiaohua; Chen Jing; Zhao Ming

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the roles of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) and antithyroglobulin antibodies (TbAb) in the development of hypothyroidism after 131 I treatment in hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease (GD), data were collected from 160 GD patients who were treated with 131 I in the department of nuclear medicine of Tongji Hospital between January 2008 and February 2011. Patients were divided into four groups: group A (TgAb 131 I. The incidence of hypothyroidism after 131 I treatment was different for each group(P=0.034 131 I treatment. In conclusion, because TgAb and TPOAb play important roles in the occurrence of hypothyroidism after 131 I therapy, in patients with positive levels of TgAb and TPOAb, lower doses of 131 I might prevent hypothyroidism. (authors)

  16. Effect of Sodium Selenate on Hippocampal Proteome of 3×Tg-AD Mice-Exploring the Antioxidant Dogma of Selenium against Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Javed; Zhang, Kaoyuan; Jin, Na; Zhao, Yuxi; Liu, Qiong; Ni, Jiazuan; Shen, Liming

    2018-04-19

    Selenium (Se), an antioxidant trace element, is an important nutrient for maintaining brain functions and is reported to be involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathologies. The present study has been designed to elucidate the protein changes in hippocampus of 3×Tg-AD mice after supplementing sodium selenate as an inorganic source of selenium. By using iTRAQ proteomics technology, 113 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) are found in AD/WT mice with 37 upregulated and 76 downregulated proteins. Similarly, in selenate-treated 3×Tg-AD (ADSe/AD) mice, 115 DEPs are found with 98 upregulated and 17 downregulated proteins. The third group of mice (ADSe/WT) showed 75 DEPs with 46 upregulated and 29 downregulated proteins. Among these results, 42 proteins (40 downregulated and 2 upregulated) in the diseased group showed reverse expression when treated with selenate. These DEPs are analyzed with different bioinformatics tools and are found associated with various AD pathologies and pathways. Based on their functions, selenate-reversed proteins are classified as structural proteins, metabolic proteins, calcium regulating proteins, synaptic proteins, signaling proteins, stress related proteins, and transport proteins. Six altered AD associated proteins are successfully validated by Western blot analysis. This study shows that sodium selenate has a profound effect on the hippocampus of the triple transgenic AD mice. This might be established as an effective therapeutic agent after further investigation.

  17. Long-term phenylbutyrate administration prevents memory deficits in Tg2576 mice by decreasing Abeta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricobaraza, Ana; Cuadrado-Tejedor, Mar; Garcia-Osta, Ana

    2011-06-01

    Aberrations in protein folding, processing, and/or degradation are common features of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) is a well-known histone deacetylase inhibitor, which increases gene transcription of a number of genes, and also exerts neuroprotective effects. PBA acts as a chemical chaperone reducing the load of mutant or unfolded proteins during cellular stress. Previously, we reported that 5-week administration of PBA reinstated memory loss and dendritic spine densities in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. In this study we reported that chronic administration of PBA, starting before the onset of disease symptoms (6 month-old) prevents age-related memory deficits in Tg2576 mice. The amelioration of the memory impairment is associated to a decrease in amyloid beta pathology and the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), suggesting that inflammation was reduced in PBA-treated animals. Together, the beneficial effects of PBA make it a promising agent for the prevention of AD.

  18. Cheese whey protein recovery by ultrafiltration through transglutaminase (TG) catalysis whey protein cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-Qiong, Wang; Lan-Wei, Zhang; Xue, Han; Yi, Lu

    2017-01-15

    In whey ultrafiltration (UF) production, two main problems are whey protein recovery and membrane fouling. In this study, membrane coupling protein transglutaminase (TG) catalysis protein cross-linking was investigated under different conditions to find out the best treatment. We found that the optimal conditions for protein recovery involved catalyzing whey protein cross-linking with TG (40U/g whey proteins) at 40°C for 60min at pH 5.0. Under these conditions, the recovery rate was increased 15-20%, lactose rejection rate was decreased by 10%, and relative permeate flux was increase 30-40% compared to the sample without enzyme treatment (control). It was noticeable that the total resistance and cake resistance were decreased after enzyme catalysis. This was mainly due to the increased particle size and decreased zeta potential. Therefore, membrane coupling enzyme catalysis protein cross-linking is a potential means for further use. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Role of humidity and other correction factors in the AAPM TG-21 dosimetry protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, D.W.; Ross, C.K.

    1988-01-01

    A detailed derivation is presented of the formulas required to determine Ngas and Dmed in the AAPM TG-21 dosimetry protocol. This protocol specifies how to determine the absorbed dose in an electron or photon beam when using exposure or absorbed dose calibrated ion chambers. It is shown that the expression given in TG-21's recent letter of clarification is incorrect. Accounting for humidity correctly increases, by 0.4%, all absorbed dose determinations using an exposure calibrated ion chamber. Taking into account other correction factors in the equation for exposure could also have varying, but significant effects (possibly over 1%). These are the stem scatter correction, the axial nonuniformity correction and the electrode correction for electrodes made of different materials from the wall. Attention is drawn to differences in the definitions of the exposure and absorbed dose calibration factors, Nx and ND, respectively, as supplied by the NBS and the NRCC

  20. NOG-hIL-4-Tg, a new humanized mouse model for producing tumor antigen-specific IgG antibody by peptide vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshie Kametani

    Full Text Available Immunodeficient mice transplanted with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs are promising tools to evaluate human immune responses to vaccines. However, these mice usually develop severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD, which makes estimation of antigen-specific IgG production after antigen immunization difficult. To evaluate antigen-specific IgG responses in PBMC-transplanted immunodeficient mice, we developed a novel NOD/Shi-scid-IL2rγnull (NOG mouse strain that systemically expresses the human IL-4 gene (NOG-hIL-4-Tg. After human PBMC transplantation, GVHD symptoms were significantly suppressed in NOG-hIL-4-Tg compared to conventional NOG mice. In kinetic analyses of human leukocytes, long-term engraftment of human T cells has been observed in peripheral blood of NOG-hIL-4-Tg, followed by dominant CD4+ T rather than CD8+ T cell proliferation. Furthermore, these CD4+ T cells shifted to type 2 helper (Th2 cells, resulting in long-term suppression of GVHD. Most of the human B cells detected in the transplanted mice had a plasmablast phenotype. Vaccination with HER2 multiple antigen peptide (CH401MAP or keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH successfully induced antigen-specific IgG production in PBMC-transplanted NOG-hIL-4-Tg. The HLA haplotype of donor PBMCs might not be relevant to the antibody secretion ability after immunization. These results suggest that the human PBMC-transplanted NOG-hIL-4-Tg mouse is an effective tool to evaluate the production of antigen-specific IgG antibodies.

  1. SU-F-T-485: Independent Remote Audits for TG51 NonCompliant Photon Beams Performed by the IROC Houston QA Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, P; Molineu, A; Lowenstein, J; Taylor, P; Kry, S; Followill, D [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: IROC-H conducts external audits for output check verification of photon and electron beams. Many of these beams can meet the geometric requirements of the TG 51 calibration protocol. For those photon beams that are non TG 51 compliant like Elekta GammaKnife, Accuray CyberKnife and TomoTherapy, IROC-H has specific audit tools to monitor the reference calibration. Methods: IROC-H used its TLD and OSLD remote monitoring systems to verify the output of machines with TG 51 non compliant beams. Acrylic OSLD miniphantoms are used for the CyberKnife. Special TLD phantoms are used for TomoTherapy and GammaKnife machines to accommodate the specific geometry of each machine. These remote audit tools are sent to institutions to be irradiated and returned to IROC-H for analysis. Results: The average IROC-H/institution ratios for 480 GammaKnife, 660 CyberKnife and 907 rotational TomoTherapy beams are 1.000±0.021, 1.008±0.019, 0.974±0.023, respectively. In the particular case of TomoTherapy, the overall ratio is 0.977±0.022 for HD units. The standard deviations of all results are consistent with values determined for TG 51 compliant photon beams. These ratios have shown some changes compared to values presented in 2008. The GammaKnife results were corrected by an experimentally determined scatter factor of 1.025 in 2013. The TomoTherapy helical beam results are now from a rotational beam whereas in 2008 the results were from a static beam. The decision to change modality was based on recommendations from the users. Conclusion: External audits of beam outputs is a valuable tool to confirm the calibrations of photon beams regardless of whether the machine is TG 51 or TG 51 non compliant. The difference found for TomoTherapy units is under investigation. This investigation was supported by IROC grant CA180803 awarded by the NCI.

  2. SU-F-T-485: Independent Remote Audits for TG51 NonCompliant Photon Beams Performed by the IROC Houston QA Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, P; Molineu, A; Lowenstein, J; Taylor, P; Kry, S; Followill, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: IROC-H conducts external audits for output check verification of photon and electron beams. Many of these beams can meet the geometric requirements of the TG 51 calibration protocol. For those photon beams that are non TG 51 compliant like Elekta GammaKnife, Accuray CyberKnife and TomoTherapy, IROC-H has specific audit tools to monitor the reference calibration. Methods: IROC-H used its TLD and OSLD remote monitoring systems to verify the output of machines with TG 51 non compliant beams. Acrylic OSLD miniphantoms are used for the CyberKnife. Special TLD phantoms are used for TomoTherapy and GammaKnife machines to accommodate the specific geometry of each machine. These remote audit tools are sent to institutions to be irradiated and returned to IROC-H for analysis. Results: The average IROC-H/institution ratios for 480 GammaKnife, 660 CyberKnife and 907 rotational TomoTherapy beams are 1.000±0.021, 1.008±0.019, 0.974±0.023, respectively. In the particular case of TomoTherapy, the overall ratio is 0.977±0.022 for HD units. The standard deviations of all results are consistent with values determined for TG 51 compliant photon beams. These ratios have shown some changes compared to values presented in 2008. The GammaKnife results were corrected by an experimentally determined scatter factor of 1.025 in 2013. The TomoTherapy helical beam results are now from a rotational beam whereas in 2008 the results were from a static beam. The decision to change modality was based on recommendations from the users. Conclusion: External audits of beam outputs is a valuable tool to confirm the calibrations of photon beams regardless of whether the machine is TG 51 or TG 51 non compliant. The difference found for TomoTherapy units is under investigation. This investigation was supported by IROC grant CA180803 awarded by the NCI

  3. Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Traumatic Grief (BEP-TG): toward integrated treatment of symptoms related to traumatic loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Geert E; Kleber, Rolf J; de la Rie, Simone M; Bos, Jannetta B A; Gersons, Berthold P R; Boelen, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic events such as disasters, accidents, war, or criminal violence are often accompanied by the loss of loved ones, and may then give rise to traumatic grief. Traumatic grief refers to a clinical diagnosis of persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) with comorbid (symptoms of) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or major depressive disorder (MDD) following confrontation with a traumatic loss. Trauma survivors, who are frequently from different cultural backgrounds, have often experienced multiple losses and ambiguous loss (missing family members or friends). Current evidence-based treatments for PTSD do not focus on traumatic grief. To develop a treatment for traumatic grief combining treatment interventions for PTSD and PCBD that may accommodate cultural aspects of grief. To provide a rationale for treatment, we propose a cognitive stress model of traumatic grief. Based on this model and on existing evidence-based treatments for PTSD and complicated grief, we developed Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Traumatic Grief (BEP-TG) for the treatment of patients with traumatic grief. The treatment is presented along with a case vignette. Processes contributing to traumatic grief include inadequately integrating the memory of the traumatic loss, negative appraisal of the traumatic loss, sensitivity to matching triggers and new stressors, and attempting to avoid distress. BEP-TG targets these processes. The BEP-TG protocol consists of five parts with proven effectiveness in the treatment of PCBD, PTSD, and MDD: information and motivation, grief-focused exposure, memorabilia and writing assignments, finding meaning and activation, and a farewell ritual. Tailored to fit the needs of trauma survivors, BEP-TG can be used to address traumatic grief symptoms related to multiple losses and ambiguous loss, as well as cultural aspects of bereavement through its different components.

  4. Developing a Treatment Planning Software Based on TG-43U1 Formalism for Cs-137 LDR Brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sina, Sedigheh; Faghihi, Reza; Soleimani Meigooni, Ali; Siavashpour, Zahra; Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin

    2013-08-01

    The old Treatment Planning Systems (TPSs) used for intracavitary brachytherapy with Cs-137 Selectron source utilize traditional dose calculation methods, considering each source as a point source. Using such methods introduces significant errors in dose estimation. As of 1995, TG-43 is used as the main dose calculation formalism in treatment TPSs. The purpose of this study is to design and establish a treatment planning software for Cs-137 Solectron brachytherapy source, based on TG-43U1 formalism by applying the effects of the applicator and dummy spacers. Two softwares used for treatment planning of Cs-137 sources in Iran (STPS and PLATO), are based on old formalisms. The purpose of this work is to establish and develop a TPS for Selectron source based on TG-43 formalism. In this planning system, the dosimetry parameters of each pellet in different places inside applicators were obtained by MCNP4c code. Then the dose distribution around every combination of active and inactive pellets was obtained by summing the doses. The accuracy of this algorithm was checked by comparing its results for special combination of active and inactive pellets with MC simulations. Finally, the uncertainty of old dose calculation formalism was investigated by comparing the results of STPS and PLATO softwares with those obtained by the new algorithm. For a typical arrangement of 10 active pellets in the applicator, the percentage difference between doses obtained by the new algorithm at 1cm distance from the tip of the applicator and those obtained by old formalisms is about 30%, while the difference between the results of MCNP and the new algorithm is less than 5%. According to the results, the old dosimetry formalisms, overestimate the dose especially towards the applicator's tip. While the TG-43U1 based software perform the calculations more accurately.

  5. Total skin high-dose-rate electron therapy dosimetry using TG-51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossman, Michael S.; Sharma, Subhash C.

    2004-01-01

    An approach to dosimetry for total skin electron therapy (TSET) is discussed using the currently accepted TG-51 high-energy calibration protocol. The methodology incorporates water phantom data for absolute calibration and plastic phantom data for efficient reference dosimetry. The scheme is simplified to include the high-dose-rate mode conversion and provides support for its use, as it becomes more available on newer linear accelerators. Using a 6-field, modified Stanford technique, one may follow the process for accurate determination of absorbed dose

  6. License - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Open TG-GATEs License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2012/05/24 You may use this database...scribed below. The Standard License specifies the license terms regarding the use of this database and the r...equirements you must follow in using this database. The Additional License specif...icense. Standard License The Standard License for this database is the license specified in the Creative Com...mons Attribution-Share Alike 2.1 Japan . If you use data from this database, plea

  7. High-Tg Polynorbornene-Based Block and Random Copolymers for Butanol Pervaporation Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Register, Richard A.; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Takigawa, Tamami; Kashino, Tomomasa; Burtovyy, Oleksandr; Bell, Andrew

    Vinyl addition polymers of substituted norbornene (NB) monomers possess desirably high glass transition temperatures (Tg); however, until very recently, the lack of an applicable living polymerization chemistry has precluded the synthesis of such polymers with controlled architecture, or copolymers with controlled sequence distribution. We have recently synthesized block and random copolymers of NB monomers bearing hydroxyhexafluoroisopropyl and n-butyl substituents (HFANB and BuNB) via living vinyl addition polymerization with Pd-based catalysts. Both series of polymers were cast into the selective skin layers of thin film composite (TFC) membranes, and these organophilic membranes investigated for the isolation of n-butanol from dilute aqueous solution (model fermentation broth) via pervaporation. The block copolymers show well-defined microphase-separated morphologies, both in bulk and as the selective skin layers on TFC membranes, while the random copolymers are homogeneous. Both block and random vinyl addition copolymers are effective as n-butanol pervaporation membranes, with the block copolymers showing a better flux-selectivity balance. While polyHFANB has much higher permeability and n-butanol selectivity than polyBuNB, incorporating BuNB units into the polymer (in either a block or random sequence) limits the swelling of the polyHFANB and thereby improves the n-butanol pervaporation selectivity.

  8. Role of protein glycosylation on the expression of muscarinic receptors of N4TG1 neuroblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, A.; Chiang, P.K.

    1986-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) are glycoproteins. Experiments were conducted to determine whether active glycosylation of proteins in N4TG1 neuroblastoma cells could affect the expression of muscarinic receptors on the cell surface. The binding of radioactive N-methylscopolamine, a membrane impermeable ligand, to intact cells was used as a measure of mAChR. In the presence of the inhibitors of glycosylation, such as tunicamycin, monensin and amphomycin, N-linked glycosylation of proteins in the N4TG1 cells was inhibited, as measured by the incorporation of radioactive glucosamine or mannose in proteins. At the concentrations of tunicamycin and monensin used, the glycosylation of proteins after 3 hours were drastically reduced, but the number of mAChR in the cells was not altered. The apparent lack of effect within a short incubation period could be attributed to the presence of preformed oligosaccharide dolichol readily available for N-glycosylation. However, after 24 hours, tunicamycin (0.05 μg/ml) caused a decrease in the number of mAChR by 17% without having any effect on protein synthesis. Therefore, de novo glycosylation of proteins may be required for the expression of mAChR receptors in the N4TG1 neuroblastoma cell surface

  9. Characteristic Study of Some Different Kinds of Coal Particles Combustion with Online TG-MS-FTIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Guanfu

    2018-01-01

    Four kinds of pulverized coal samples from China and Indonesia were studied by thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectrometry and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-MS-FTIR). The thermal behaviors and gaseous emissions of these coals were analyzed in this work. The results indicate that the relative lower values of H/C ratios, which normally represent the degree of aromatization and ring condensation in coal samples, could lead to the relative more intense thermal reaction. The time-evolved profiles of some typical gas products (i.e., CO, SO2, CH4, NO, NO2, NH3 and etc.) were provided by TG-MS-FTIR, and their variations are different. For all the samples, the releases of SO2 and COS can be found at lower temperature than those of NO and CO. As the temperature increases, the possible conversion of NO2 and NH3 to NO is deduced in this work.

  10. Patient-provider discussion of online health information: results from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae Eun

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of people have turned to the Internet for health information. Little has been done beyond speculation to empirically investigate patients' discussion of online health information with health care professionals (HCPs) and patients' perception of HCPs' reactions to such discussion. The author analyzed data from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) to identify the characteristics of patients (a) who search for health information on the Internet, (b) who discuss the information found on the Internet with HCPs, and (c) who positively assess HCPs' reaction to the online information. Findings show that men were more likely than were women to have a conversation on online information with HCPs. It is unfortunate that patients who had trouble understanding or trusting online health information were no more likely to ask questions to or seek guidance from HCPs. Reactions of HCPs to online information were perceived as particularly negative by certain groups of patients, such as those who experienced poor health and those who had more concerns about the quality of their searched information. Results are discussed for their implications for patient empowerment and patient-HCP relationships.

  11. Immuno-Spin Trapping-Based Detection of Oxidative Modifications in Cardiomyocytes and Coronary Endothelium in the Progression of Heart Failure in Tgαq*44 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Proniewski

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest both beneficial and detrimental role of increased reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in heart failure (HF. However, it is not clear at which stage oxidative stress and oxidative modifications occur in the endothelium in relation to cardiomyocytes in non-ischemic HF. Furthermore, most methods used to date to study oxidative stress are either non-specific or require tissue homogenization. In this study, we used immuno-spin trapping (IST technique with fluorescent microscopy-based detection of DMPO nitrone adducts to localize and quantify oxidative modifications of the hearts from Tgαq*44 mice; a murine model of HF driven by cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of Gαq* protein. Tgαq*44 mice and age-matched FVB controls at early, transition, and late stages of HF progression were injected with DMPO in vivo and analyzed ex vivo for DMPO nitrone adducts signals. Progressive oxidative modifications in cardiomyocytes, as evidenced by the elevation of DMPO nitrone adducts, were detected in hearts from 10- to 16-month-old, but not in 8-month-old Tgαq*44 mice, as compared with age-matched FVB mice. The DMPO nitrone adducts were detected in left and right ventricle, septum, and papillary muscle. Surprisingly, significant elevation of DMPO nitrone adducts was also present in the coronary endothelium both in large arteries and in microcirculation simultaneously, as in cardiomyocytes, starting from 10-month-old Tgαq*44 mice. On the other hand, superoxide production in heart homogenates was elevated already in 6-month-old Tgαq*44 mice and progressively increased to high levels in 14-month-old Tgαq*44 mice, while the enzymatic activity of catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase was all elevated as early as in 4-month-old Tgαq*44 mice and stayed at a similar level in 14-month-old Tgαq*44. In summary, this study demonstrates that IST represents a unique method that allows to quantify oxidative

  12. TG101209, a small molecule JAK2-selective kinase inhibitor potently inhibits myeloproliferative disorder-associated JAK2V617F and MPLW515L/K mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardanani, A; Hood, J; Lasho, T; Levine, R L; Martin, M B; Noronha, G; Finke, C; Mak, C C; Mesa, R; Zhu, H; Soll, R; Gilliland, D G; Tefferi, A

    2007-08-01

    JAK2V617F and MPLW515L/K represent recently identified mutations in myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) that cause dysregulated JAK-STAT signaling, which is implicated in MPD pathogenesis. We developed TG101209, an orally bioavailable small molecule that potently inhibits JAK2 (IC(50)=6 nM), FLT3 (IC(50)=25 nM) and RET (IC(50)=17 nM) kinases, with significantly less activity against other tyrosine kinases including JAK3 (IC(50)=169 nM). TG101209 inhibited growth of Ba/F3 cells expressing JAK2V617F or MPLW515L mutations with an IC(50) of approximately 200 nM. In a human JAK2V617F-expressing acute myeloid leukemia cell line, TG101209-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and inhibited phosphorylation of JAK2V617F, STAT5 and STAT3. Therapeutic efficacy of TG101209 was demonstrated in a nude mouse model. Furthermore, TG101209 suppressed growth of hematopoietic colonies from primary progenitor cells harboring JAK2V617F or MPL515 mutations.

  13. Influence of processing parameters on microstructure and tensile properties of TG6 titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tao; Guo Hongzhen; Wang Yanwei; Yao Zekun

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → This paper highlights the relationships among processing parameters, microstructure and tensile properties of TG6 high temperature titanium alloy. → The microstructural evolutions under different processing parameters were studied by the quantitative metallography, and the effects of microstructure on room and high temperature tensile properties of TG6 alloy were analysed by SEM and TEM. → Linear relationships of elongation vs. volume fraction of primary α phase and ultimate tensile strength vs. thickness of lamellar α phase were determined. - Abstract: Near-isothermal forging of the TG6 titanium alloy was conducted on microprocessor-controlled 630 ton hydraulic press at the deformation temperatures ranging from 850 deg. C to 1045 deg. C, the strain rates of 0.0008 s -1 , 0.003 s -1 and 0.008 s -1 and the deformation degree from 10% to 70%, and then different double heat treatments were applied to the forged specimens. The microstructural evolutions were researched by optical microscope and the microstructural features, i.e. volume fraction of primary α phase and thickness of lamellar α phase, were measured by means of the image analysis software. The room and high temperature tensile properties were obtained for all the specimens. Effects of microstructure on the properties were analysed by scanning electronic microscope. It was found that tenslie properties depended on microstructural features strongly. The plots of ultimate tensile strength vs. thickness of α lamellae and elongation vs. volume fraction of primary α phase produced straight lines. The liner equations were determined by fitting the experimental date, respectively. Compared to other parameters, heat treatment had more influence on the tensile strength and the tensile plasticity was more sensitive to the forging temperature.

  14. Novel insights into the functional metabolic impact of an apparent de novo m.8993T>G variant in the MT-ATP6 gene associated with maternally inherited form of Leigh Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uittenbogaard, Martine; Brantner, Christine A; Fang, ZiShui; Wong, Lee-Jun C; Gropman, Andrea; Chiaramello, Anne

    2018-03-27

    In this study, we report a novel perpective of metabolic consequences for the m.8993T>G variant using fibroblasts from a proband with clinical symptoms compatible with Maternally Inherited Leigh Syndrome (MILS). Definitive diagnosis was corroborated by mitochondrial DNA testing for the pathogenic variant m.8993T>G in MT-ATP6 subunit by Sanger sequencing. The long-range PCR followed by massively parallel sequencing method detected the near homoplasmic m.8993T>G variant at 83% in the proband's fibroblasts and at 0.4% in the mother's fibroblasts. Our results are compatible with very low levels of germline heteroplasmy or an apparent de novo mutation. Our mitochondrial morphometric analysis reveals severe defects in mitochondrial cristae structure in the proband's fibroblasts. Our live-cell mitochondrial respiratory analyses show impaired oxidative phosphorylation with decreased spare respiratory capacity in response to energy stress in the proband's fibroblasts. We detected a diminished glycolysis with a lessened glycolytic capacity and reserve, revealing a stunted ability to switch to glycolysis upon full inhibition of OXPHOS activities. This dysregulated energy reprogramming results in a defective interplay between OXPHOS and glycolysis during an energy crisis. Our study sheds light on the potential pathophysiologic mechanism leading to chronic energy crisis in this MILS patient harboring the m.8993T>G variant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermal Phenomena in the Friction Process of the TG15 - Hard Anodic Coating Couple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Służałek G.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a one-dimensional model of heat conduction in a couple consisting of a cylinder made of a sliding plastic material, TG15, and a cuboid made of alloy AW 6061 coated with a hard anodic coating, where the couple is heated with the heat generated during friction. TG15 is a composite material based on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE with a 15% graphite filler, used for piston rings in oil-free air-compressors. Measurement of temperature in the friction zone is extremely important for the understanding and analysis of the phenomena occurring therein. It is practically impossible to introduce a temperature sensor in such a place. Therefore, the interaction taking place in such a couple was modelled using numerical methods. In order to simplify and accelerate the calculations, a one-dimensional model and constant thermophysical parameters of the materials participating in friction were adopted. To solve the proposed model, the finite difference method was used (FDM. The resultant system of equations was solved by means of an explicit scheme.

  16. Primary motor cortex alterations in Alzheimer disease: A study in the 3xTg-AD model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta-Salazar, E; Feria-Velasco, A I; Díaz-Cintra, S

    2017-04-19

    In humans and animal models, Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterised by accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau protein, neuronal degeneration, and astrocytic gliosis, especially in vulnerable brain regions (hippocampus and cortex). These alterations are associated with cognitive impairment (loss of memory) and non-cognitive impairment (motor impairment). The purpose of this study was to identify cell changes (neurons and glial cells) and aggregation of Aβ and hyperphosphorylated tau protein in the primary motor cortex (M1) in 3xTg-AD mouse models at an intermediate stage of AD. We used female 3xTg-AD mice aged 11 months and compared them to non-transgenic mice of the same age. In both groups, we assessed motor performance (open field test) and neuronal damage in M1 using specific markers: BAM10 (extracellular Aβ aggregates), tau 499 (hyperphosphorylated tau protein), GFAP (astrocytes), and Klüver-Barrera staining (neurons). Female 3xTg-AD mice in intermediate stages of the disease displayed motor and cellular alterations associated with Aβ and hyperphosphorylated tau protein deposition in M1. Patients with AD display signs and symptoms of functional impairment from early stages. According to our results, M1 cell damage in intermediate-stage AD affects motor function, which is linked to progression of the disease. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. The triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio as a predictor of insulin resistance but not of β cell function in a Chinese population with different glucose tolerance status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meicen; Zhu, Lixin; Cui, Xiangli; Feng, Linbo; Zhao, Xuefeng; He, Shuli; Ping, Fan; Li, Wei; Li, Yuxiu

    2016-06-07

    Triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio was a surrogate marker of IR; however, the relationship of TG/HDL-C with IR might vary by ethnicity. This study aims to investigate whether lipid ratios-TG/HDL-C, cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C)) could be potential clinical markers of insulin resistance (IR) and β cell function and further to explore the optimal cut-offs in a Chinese population with different levels of glucose tolerance. Four hundred seventy-nine subjects without a history of diabetes underwent a 75 g 2 h Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). New-onset diabetes (n = 101), pre-diabetes (n = 186), and normal glucose tolerance (n = 192) were screened. IR was defined by HOMA-IR > 2.69. Based on indices (HOMA-β, early-phase disposition index [DI30], (ΔIns30/ΔGlu30)/HOMA-IR and total-phase index [DI120]) that indicated different phases of insulin secretion, the subjects were divided into two groups, and the lower group was defined as having inadequate β cell compensation. Logistic regression models and accurate estimates of the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) were obtained. In all of the subjects, TG/HDL, TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, and TG were significantly associated with IR. The AUROCs of TG/HDL-C and TG were 0.71 (95 % CI: 0.66-0.75) and 0.71 (95 % CI: 0.65-0.75), respectively. The optimal cut-offs of TG/HDL-C and TG for IR diagnosis were 1.11 and 1.33 mmol/L, respectively. The AUROCs of TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C were 0.66 and 0.65, respectively, but they were not acceptable for IR diagnosis. TG/HDL-C,LDL-C/HDL-C and TG were significantly associated with HOMA-β, but AUROCs were less than 0.50; therefore, the lipid ratios could not be predictors of basal β cell dysfunction. None of the lipid ratios was associated with early-phase insulin secretion. Only TG/HDL-C and

  18. Mobility of coated and uncoated TiO2 nanomaterials in soil columns--Applicability of the tests methods of OECD TG 312 and 106 for nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Carmen; Gabsch, Stephan; Hellack, Bryan; Nogowski, Andre; Babick, Frank; Stintz, Michael; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J

    2015-07-01

    Nanomaterials are commonly used in everyday life products and during their life cycle they can be released into the environment. Soils and sediments are estimated as significant sinks for those nanomaterials. To investigate and assess the behaviour of nanomaterials in soils and sediments standardized test methods are needed. In this study the applicability of two existing international standardized test guidelines for the testing of nanomaterials, OECD TG 106 "Adsorption/Desorption using a Bath Equilibrium Method" and the OECD TG 312 "Leaching in Soil Columns", were investigated. For the study one coated and two uncoated TiO2 nanomaterials were used, respectively. The results indicate that the OECD TG 106 is not applicable for nanomaterials. However, the test method according to OECD TG 312 was found to be applicable if nano-specific adaptations are applied. The mobility investigations of the OECD TG 312 indicated a material-dependent mobility of the nanomaterials, which in some cases may lead to an accumulation in the upper soil layers. Whereas no significant transport was observed for the uncoated materials for the double-coated material (coating with dimethicone and aluminiumoxide) a significant transport was detected and attributed to the coating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-chain fatty acid triglyceride (TG) metabolism disorder impairs male fertility: a study using adipose triglyceride lipase deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Hidetake; Kim, Namhyo; Nakamura, Hitomi; Kumasawa, Keiichi; Kamata, Eriko; Hirano, Ken-Ichi; Kimura, Tadashi

    2017-07-01

    Does the deletion of adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) gene impair male fertility? The deletion of Atgl gene impaired male fertility but the effect was partially reversed by a low long-chain triglyceride (TG) diet. ATGL specifically hydrolyses long-chain fatty acid TG to diacylglycerol and a high level of expression of ATGL in testes has been reported. However, the role of ATGL in male fertility is unknown. To investigate the effect of deletion of Atgl gene on male fertility, cauda epididymides and testes were collected from wild-type, heterozygous and homozygous Atgl-deficient mice at 10 weeks of age and epididymal sperm analysis and histological analysis of the testes were performed. To investigate whether a medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) replacement diet mitigated the impaired male fertility by deletion of Atgl gene, homozygous Atgl-deficient mice were fed a MCT replacement diet, or a standard diet including long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) in a control group, for 6 weeks from 5 weeks of age (n = 22). The systematic and local effects of the MCT replacement diet on spermatogenesis and sperm maturation in the epididymis were analyzed at 10 weeks of age. Hematoxylin and eosin staining in paraffin-embedded sections of testes and Oil Red O staining in frozen sections of testes were performed. The epididymal sperm concentrations were analyzed. Statistical analyses were performed using the Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U test with Shapiro-Wilk Normality test. Although heterozygous mice were fertile and showed a similar number of epididymal total and motile sperm concentrations to wild-type mice, the deletion of Atgl gene in homozygous mice led to accumulation of TG deposits in testes and impaired spermatogenesis. The deletion of Atgl gene also impaired the sperm maturation process required for sperm to acquire the ability to move forward in the epididymis. The MCT replacement diet for 6 weeks increased the plasma level of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) (1

  20. SU-E-I-20: Comprehensive Quality Assurance Test of Second Generation Toshiba Aquilion Large Bore CT Simulator Based On AAPM TG-66 Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D [Toshiba America Medical Systems, Tustin, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: AAPM radiation therapy committee task group No. 66 (TG-66) published a report which described a general approach to CT simulator QA. The report outlines the testing procedures and specifications for the evaluation of patient dose, radiation safety, electromechanical components, and image quality for a CT simulator. The purpose of this study is to thoroughly evaluate the performance of a second generation Toshiba Aquilion Large Bore CT simulator with 90 cm bore size (Toshiba, Nasu, JP) based on the TG-66 criteria. The testing procedures and results from this study provide baselines for a routine QA program. Methods: Different measurements and analysis were performed including CTDIvol measurements, alignment and orientation of gantry lasers, orientation of the tabletop with respect to the imaging plane, table movement and indexing accuracy, Scanogram location accuracy, high contrast spatial resolution, low contrast resolution, field uniformity, CT number accuracy, mA linearity and mA reproducibility using a number of different phantoms and measuring devices, such as CTDI phantom, ACR image quality phantom, TG-66 laser QA phantom, pencil ion chamber (Fluke Victoreen) and electrometer (RTI Solidose 400). Results: The CTDI measurements were within 20% of the console displayed values. The alignment and orientation for both gantry laser and tabletop, as well as the table movement and indexing and scanogram location accuracy were within 2mm as specified in TG66. The spatial resolution, low contrast resolution, field uniformity and CT number accuracy were all within ACR’s recommended limits. The mA linearity and reproducibility were both well below the TG66 threshold. Conclusion: The 90 cm bore size second generation Toshiba Aquilion Large Bore CT simulator that comes with 70 cm true FOV can consistently meet various clinical needs. The results demonstrated that this simulator complies with the TG-66 protocol in all aspects including electromechanical component

  1. Amitriptyline-mediated cognitive enhancement in aged 3×Tg Alzheimer's disease mice is associated with neurogenesis and neurotrophic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Chadwick

    Full Text Available Approximately 35 million people worldwide suffer from Alzheimer's disease (AD. Existing therapeutics, while moderately effective, are currently unable to stem the widespread rise in AD prevalence. AD is associated with an increase in amyloid beta (Aβ oligomers and hyperphosphorylated tau, along with cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration. Several antidepressants have shown promise in improving cognition and alleviating oxidative stress in AD but have failed as long-term therapeutics. In this study, amitriptyline, an FDA-approved tricyclic antidepressant, was administered orally to aged and cognitively impaired transgenic AD mice (3×TgAD. After amitriptyline treatment, cognitive behavior testing demonstrated that there was a significant improvement in both long- and short-term memory retention. Amitriptyline treatment also caused a significant potentiation of non-toxic Aβ monomer with a concomitant decrease in cytotoxic dimer Aβ load, compared to vehicle-treated 3×TgAD controls. In addition, amitriptyline administration caused a significant increase in dentate gyrus neurogenesis as well as increases in expression of neurosynaptic marker proteins. Amitriptyline treatment resulted in increases in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein as well as increased tyrosine phosphorylation of its cognate receptor (TrkB. These results indicate that amitriptyline has significant beneficial actions in aged and damaged AD brains and that it shows promise as a tolerable novel therapeutic for the treatment of AD.

  2. Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Interact with Dietary Fat Intakes to Modulate the Plasma TG Response to a Fish Oil Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard-Mercier, Annie; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    A large inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride (TG) response to an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation has been observed. The objective was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response after a fish oil supplementation, between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes. Two hundred and eight (208) participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The participants completed a six-week fish oil supplementation (5 g fish oil/day: 1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA). Dietary fat intakes were measured using three-day food records. SNPs within RXRA, CPT1A, ACADVL, ACAA2, ABCD2, ACOX1 and ACAA1 genes were genotyped using TAQMAN methodology. Gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response were observed for SNPs within RXRA (rs11185660, rs10881576 and rs12339187) and ACOX1 (rs17583163) genes. For rs11185660, fold changes in RXRA gene expression levels were different depending on SFA intakes for homozygotes T/T. Gene-diet interaction effects of SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes may be important in understanding the inter-individual variability in plasma TG levels and in the plasma TG response to a fish oil supplementation. PMID:24647074

  3. Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Interact with Dietary Fat Intakes to Modulate the Plasma TG Response to a Fish Oil Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Bouchard-Mercier

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A large inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride (TG response to an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA supplementation has been observed. The objective was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response after a fish oil supplementation, between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes. Two hundred and eight (208 participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The participants completed a six-week fish oil supplementation (5 g fish oil/day: 1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA. Dietary fat intakes were measured using three-day food records. SNPs within RXRA, CPT1A, ACADVL, ACAA2, ABCD2, ACOX1 and ACAA1 genes were genotyped using TAQMAN methodology. Gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response were observed for SNPs within RXRA (rs11185660, rs10881576 and rs12339187 and ACOX1 (rs17583163 genes. For rs11185660, fold changes in RXRA gene expression levels were different depending on SFA intakes for homozygotes T/T. Gene-diet interaction effects of SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes may be important in understanding the inter-individual variability in plasma TG levels and in the plasma TG response to a fish oil supplementation.

  4. HEALTH INFO SANTÉ – REMINDER ANNUAL DEDUCTIBLE AND REIMBURSEMENT CLAIMS HINTS FOR USE

    CERN Multimedia

    CHIS Board

    2000-01-01

    Information from the CHIS Board and the Human Resources Division:Annual deductible and reimbursement claims: hints for useOne should bear in mind that the annual deductible is an amount (currently CHF 100) charged automatically by the Administrator of the scheme for every adult aged 18 and above. This is what happens: The amount is deducted annually for all medical services received over a calendar year.It is triggered by the date of the treatment and neither by the date of the bill nor that of the reimbursement claim.In other words, if you receive medical treatment in December for the first time in a given year, the CHF 100 will be deducted from the claim for that treatment. So, except for urgent cases, it would be better to wait till the following month, thus avoiding one annual deductible.It is also worth remembering that the cost of processing our reimbursement claims - and there were 54, 000 in 1999 - is part of the cost of our insurance.Help keep administrative costs down: do not submit reimbursement cl...

  5. [Morphological analysis of the hippocampal region associated with an innate behaviour task in the transgenic mouse model (3xTg-AD) for Alzheimer disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta-Salazar, E; Feria-Velasco, A; Medina-Aguirre, G I; Díaz-Cintra, S

    2013-10-01

    Different animal models for Alzheimer disease (AD) have been designed to support the hypothesis that the neurodegeneration (loss of neurons and synapses with reactive gliosis) associated with Aβ and tau deposition in these models is similar to that in the human brain. These alterations produce functional changes beginning with decreased ability to carry out daily and social life activities, memory loss, and neuropsychiatric disorders in general. Neuronal alteration plays an important role in early stages of the disease, especially in the CA1 area of hippocampus in both human and animal models. Two groups (WT and 3xTg-AD) of 11-month-old female mice were used in a behavioural analysis (nest building) and a morphometric analysis of the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus. The 3xTg-AD mice showed a 50% reduction in nest quality associated with a significant increase in damaged neurons in the CA1 hippocampal area (26%±6%, Pde Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. TG-MS analysis and kinetic study for thermal decomposition of six representative components of municipal solid waste under steam atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinzhi; Chen, Tianju; Wu, Jingli; Wu, Jinhu

    2015-09-01

    Thermal decomposition of six representative components of municipal solid waste (MSW, including lignin, printing paper, cotton, rubber, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and cabbage) was investigated by thermogravimetric-mass spectroscopy (TG-MS) under steam atmosphere. Compared with TG and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) curves under N2 atmosphere, thermal decomposition of MSW components under steam atmosphere was divided into pyrolysis and gasification stages. In the pyrolysis stage, the shapes of TG and DTG curves under steam atmosphere were almost the same with those under N2 atmosphere. In the gasification stage, the presence of steam led to a greater mass loss because of the steam partial oxidation of char residue. The evolution profiles of H2, CH4, CO and CO2 were well consistent with DTG curves in terms of appearance of peaks and relevant stages in the whole temperature range, and the steam partial oxidation of char residue promoted the generation of more gas products in high temperature range. The multi-Gaussian distributed activation energy model (DAEM) was proved plausible to describe thermal decomposition behaviours of MSW components under steam atmosphere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis of Co/MCM-41catalysts and characterization by XRD, EDX, DTA/TG, SEM and TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, B.V.; Rodrigues, M.G.F.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In this work, molecular sieve MCM-41 was prepared as well as the Co/MCM-41 catalyst, via humid impregnation with concentration of 5 wt.% and 10 wt.% Co/MCM- 41. The attainment of the mesoporous molecular sieve, Si-MCM-41, was confirmed by the x-ray diffractogram. It was verified that after the calcination all the bromine (Br) was removed indicating that the calcination process removed all surfactant in the mesoporous structure. XRD and EDX analyses indicated that cobalt was found in the form of Co3O2 in the Co/MCM-41 catalysts. The diffraction standards showed that the impregnation and calcination processes caused changes in the structure only for catalyst with 10 wt.% Co/MCM-41. The DTA/TG curves showed that cobalt nitrate was totally decomposed on the MCM-41. From the images of SEM, it was possible to observe that the Co/MCM-41 catalysts were composed by clusters of small crystals. The images obtained from TEM showed clearly the presence of metal cobalt particles in a well dispersed form for catalyst with 5 wt.% Co/MCM41, except for the catalyst with 10 wt.% Co/MCM41. (author)

  8. Multi-valued logic circuits using hybrid circuit consisting of three gates single-electron transistors (TG-SETs) and MOSFETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, SeungJun; Yu, YunSeop; Choi, JungBum

    2008-10-01

    New multi-valued logic (MVL) families using the hybrid circuits consisting of three gates single-electron transistors (TG-SETs) and a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) are proposed. The use of SETs offers periodic literal characteristics due to Coulomb oscillation of SET, which allows a realization of binary logic (BL) circuits as well as multi-valued logic (MVL) circuits. The basic operations of the proposed MVL families are successfully confirmed through SPICE circuit simulation based on the physical device model of a TG-SET. The proposed MVL circuits are found to be much faster, but much larger power consumption than a previously reported MVL, and they have a trade-off between speed and power consumption. As an example to apply the newly developed MVL families, a half-adder is introduced.

  9. In silico analysis and gene expression of TgNAC01 transcription factor involved in xylogenesis and abiotic stress in Tectona grandis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Camel Paucar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary xylem is the most abundant component of plant biomass. Therefore, knowing the genes that regulate its formation would help to design strategies for wood genetic improvement. Thus, the objective of this work was to perform computational analysis of the primary and secondary structure of the TgNAC01 transcription factor (FT of Tectona grandis, and to evaluate its evolutionary history, conserved domains and gene expression in lignified tissues of 12 and 60 years. For this, an ion-electron interaction potential (IEP was evaluated using the information-spectrum method (IEM using the R-Project and SFAPS library, followed by structural modeling using the MODELLER software and visualized by PyMol program. In addition, the analysis of multiple sequence alignment and phylogeny was performed using Bioedit and MrBayes software, respectively. We also evaluated the qRT-PCR levels of TgNAC01. As results, it was found that TgNAC01 maintains a twisted antiparallel β-sheet structure, which is compacted against an α-helix in the N-terminal region, having three α-helix domains and seven folded β-domains. Also, through the IEM, it was demonstrated that it has about five biological functions, and mutations on amino acids with higher IEP, which leads to evolutions on genetic regulation networks. Finally, the FT TgNAC01 plays an esential role in the organization and development of the parts that make up the sapwood, such as the radial cells of the cambial zone, the vessels, fibers and the growth rings.

  10. Influence of prevastein (R), an isoflavone-rich soy product, on mammary gland development and Tumorigenesis in Tg.NK (MMTV/c-neu) mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anni R.; Mortensen, Alicja; Breinholt, Vibeke

    2005-01-01

    We investigated spontaneous mammary tumor development and mammary gland morphogenesis in female Tg.NK mice postnatally exposed to dietary soy isoflavones (0, 11, 39, and 130 mg aglycones/kg diet) added to a Western-style diet. Instead of preventing mammary tumorigenesis, the highest dose of isofl......We investigated spontaneous mammary tumor development and mammary gland morphogenesis in female Tg.NK mice postnatally exposed to dietary soy isoflavones (0, 11, 39, and 130 mg aglycones/kg diet) added to a Western-style diet. Instead of preventing mammary tumorigenesis, the highest dose...

  11. Chromosomal localisation of the CD4cre transgene in B6·Cg-Tg(Cd4-cre)1Cwi mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorf, Kerstin; Durek, Pawel; Ayew, Samia; Mashreghi, Mir-Farzin; Radbruch, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    The B6·Cg-Tg(Cd4-cre)1Cwi line expresses CRE recombinase under the control of the promoter and regulatory elements of the Cd4 gene. Here we show that CRE recombinase expression reduces the number and frequencies of CD4 positive subsets in a dose-dependent manner and localize the integration site of the transgenic construct to position 60335693-60341285 (qD) of chromosome 3. The insert contains at least 15 complete sequential copies of the transgenic construct. Based on this information we describe a novel PCR assay for genetic typing of transgenic mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Immunization with a DNA vaccine encoding Toxoplasma gondii Superoxide dismutase (TgSOD) induces partial immune protection against acute toxoplasmosis in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Cao, Aiping; Li, Yawen; Li, Xun; Cong, Hua; He, Shenyi; Zhou, Huaiyu

    2017-06-07

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that infects all warm-blooded animals including humans and causes toxoplasmosis. An effective vaccine could be an ideal choice for preventing and controlling toxoplasmosis. T. gondii Superoxide dismutase (TgSOD) might participate in affecting the intracellular growth of both bradyzoite and tachyzoite forms. In the present study, the TgSOD gene was used to construct a DNA vaccine (pEGFP-SOD). TgSOD gene was amplified and inserted into eukaryotic vector pEGFP-C1 and formed the DNA vaccine pEGFP-SOD. Then the BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly with the DNA vaccine and those injected with pEGFP-C1, PBS or nothing were treated as controls. Four weeks after the last immunization, all mouse groups followed by challenging intraperitoneally with tachyzoites of T. gondii ME49 strain. Results showed higher levels of total IgG, IgG2α in the sera and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in the splenocytes from pEGFP-SOD inoculated mice than those unvaccinated, or inoculated with either empty plasmid vector or PBS. The proportions of CD4 + T cells and CD8 + T cells in the spleen from pEGFP-SOD inoculated mice were significantly (p < 0.05) increased compared to control groups. In addition, the survival time of mice immunized with pEGFP-SOD was significantly prolonged as compared to the controls (p < 0.05) although all the mice died. The present study revealed that the DNA vaccine triggered strong humoral and cellular immune responses, and aroused partial protective immunity against acute T. gondii infection in BALB/c mice. The collective data suggests the SOD may be a potential vaccine candidate for further development.

  13. The human interactome knowledge base (hint-kb): An integrative human protein interaction database enriched with predicted protein–protein interaction scores using a novel hybrid technique

    KAUST Repository

    Theofilatos, Konstantinos A.

    2013-07-12

    Proteins are the functional components of many cellular processes and the identification of their physical protein–protein interactions (PPIs) is an area of mature academic research. Various databases have been developed containing information about experimentally and computationally detected human PPIs as well as their corresponding annotation data. However, these databases contain many false positive interactions, are partial and only a few of them incorporate data from various sources. To overcome these limitations, we have developed HINT-KB (http://biotools.ceid.upatras.gr/hint-kb/), a knowledge base that integrates data from various sources, provides a user-friendly interface for their retrieval, cal-culatesasetoffeaturesofinterest and computesaconfidence score for every candidate protein interaction. This confidence score is essential for filtering the false positive interactions which are present in existing databases, predicting new protein interactions and measuring the frequency of each true protein interaction. For this reason, a novel machine learning hybrid methodology, called (Evolutionary Kalman Mathematical Modelling—EvoKalMaModel), was used to achieve an accurate and interpretable scoring methodology. The experimental results indicated that the proposed scoring scheme outperforms existing computational methods for the prediction of PPIs.

  14. WE-A-18A-01: TG246 On Patient Dose From Diagnostic Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supanich, M [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Dong, F [The Cleveland Clinic, Solon, OH (United States); Andersson, J [Umea University, Umea (Sweden); Pavlicek, W [Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Bolch, W [University Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Fetterly, K [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Radiation dose from diagnostic and interventional radiations continues to be a focus of the regulatory, accreditation and standards organizations in the US and Europe. A Joint AAPM/EFOMP effort has been underway in the past year — having the goal to assist the clinical medical physicist with communicating optional and varied approaches in estimating (and validating) patient dose. In particular, the tools provided by DICOM Radiation Dose Structured Reports, either by themselves or as part of a networked data repository of dose related information are a rich source of actionable information. The tools of the medical physicist have evolved to include using DICOM data in meaningful ways to look at patient dose with respect to imaging practices. In addition to how accurate or reproducible a dose value is (totally necessary and our traditional workspace) it is now being asked how reproducible (patient to patient, device to device) are the delivered doses (new tasking)? Clinical medical physicists are best equipped to assist our radiology and technologist colleagues with this effort. The purpose of this session is to review the efforts of TG246 - bringing forward a summary content of the TG246 Report including specific dose descriptors for CT and Fluoroscopy — particularly in a focus of leveraging the RDSR as a means for monitoring good practices ALARA. Additionally, rapidly evolving technologies for more refined dose estimates are now in use. These will be presented as they look to having highly patient specific dose estimates in automated use.

  15. Rozmanitost projevů heteroplazmické mtDNA mutace 8993 T>G ve dvou rodinách

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesařová, M.; Hansíková, H.; Hlavatá, A.; Klement, P.; Houšťková, H.; Houštěk, Josef; Zeman, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 17 (2002), s. 551-554 ISSN 0008-7335 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NE6533; GA MZd(CZ) NE6555; GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : NARP syndrome * mtDNA mutation 8993 T>G Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  16. Re-examining TG-142 recommendations in light of modern techniques for linear accelerator based radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Austin M; Trager, Michael; Yin, Fang-Fang; Kirkpatrick, John; Adamson, Justus

    2016-10-01

    The recent development of multifocal stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) using a single isocenter volumetric modulated arc theory (VMAT) technique warrants a re-examination of the quality assurance (QA) tolerances for routine mechanical QA recommended by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group Report Number 142. Multifocal SRS can result in targets with small volumes being at a large off-axis distance from the treatment isocenter. Consequently, angular errors in the collimator, patient support assembly (PSA), or gantry could have an increased impact on target coverage. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of dose deviations caused by systematic errors in PSA, collimator, and gantry angle at the tolerance level for routine linear accelerator QA as recommended by TG-142. Dosimetric deviations from multifocal SRS plans (N = 10) were compared to traditional single target SRS using dynamic conformal arcs (N = 10). The chief dosimetric quantities used in determining clinical impact were V 100% and D 99% of the individual planning target volumes and V 12Gy of the healthy brain. Induced errors at tolerance levels showed the greatest change in multifocal SRS target coverage for collimator rotations (±1.0°) with the average changes to V 100% and D 99% being 5% and 6%, respectively, with maximum changes of 33% and 20%. A reduction in the induced error to half the TG-142 tolerance (±0.5°) demonstrated similar changes in coverage loss to traditional single target SRS assessed at the recommended tolerance level. The observed change in coverage for multifocal SRS was reduced for gantry errors (±1.0°) at 2% and 4.5% for V 100% and D 99% , respectively, with maximum changes of 18% and 12%. Minimal change in coverage was noted for errors in PSA rotation. This study indicates that institutions utilizing a single isocenter VMAT technique for multifocal disease should pay careful attention to the angular mechanical tolerances in designing a robust and

  17. Association of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA4) and Thyroglobulin (TG) Genetic Variants with Autoimmune Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hinal; Mansuri, Mohmmad Shoab; Singh, Mala; Begum, Rasheedunnisa; Shastri, Minal; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune hypothyroidism is known to be caused by immune responses related to the thyroid gland and its immunological feature includes presence of autoimmune antibodies. Therefore the aim was to analyze presence of anti-TPO antibodies in hypothyroidism patients in Gujarat. Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA4) is one of the susceptibility genes for various autoimmune diseases. Hence, exon1 +49A/G and 3’UTR CT60A/G single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CTLA4 and its mRNA expression levels were investigated in autoimmune hypothyroidism patients. Thyroglobulin (TG) is known to be associated with autoimmune thyroid disorders and thus exon 33 (E33) SNP in TG was investigated. We analyzed the presence of anti-TPO antibodies in the plasma samples of 84 hypothyroidism patients and 62 controls by ELISA. PCR-RFLP technique was used for genotyping of polymorphisms. sCTLA4 and flCTLA4 mRNA expression levels were assessed by real time PCR. 59.52% of hypothyroid patients had anti-TPO antibodies in their circulation. The genotype and allele frequencies differed significantly for +49A/G (p = 0.0004 for +49AG, p = 0.0019 for +49GG & p = 0.0004 for allele), CT60 (p = 0.0110 for CT60AG, p = 0.0005 for CT60GG & phypothyroidism when adjusted for age and gender. Our results suggest +49A/G and CT60 polymorphism of CTLA4 and E33 polymorphism of TG may be genetic risk factors for autoimmune hypothyroidism susceptibility and down regulation of both forms of CTLA4 advocates the crucial role of CTLA4 in pathogenesis of autoimmune hypothyroidism. PMID:26963610

  18. WE-G-BRB-08: TG-51 Calibration of First Commercial MRI-Guided IMRT System in the Presence of 0.35 Tesla Magnetic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddu, S; Green, O Pechenaya; Mutic, S

    2012-06-01

    The first real-time-MRI-guided radiotherapy system has been installed in a clinic and it is being evaluated. Presence of magnetic field (MF) during radiation output calibration may have implications on ionization measurements and there is a possibility that standard calibration protocols may not be suitable for dose measurements for such devices. In this study, we evaluated whether a standard calibration protocol (AAPM- TG-51) is appropriate for absolute dose measurement in presence of MF. Treatment delivery of the ViewRay (VR) system is via three 15,000Ci Cobalt-60 heads positioned 120-degrees apart and all calibration measurements were done in the presence of 0.35T MF. Two ADCL- calibrated ionization-chambers (Exradin A12, A16) were used for TG-51 calibration. Chambers were positioned at 5-cm depth, (SSD=105cm: VR's isocenter), and the MLC leaves were shaped to a 10.5cm × 10.5 cm field size. Percent-depth-dose (PDD) measurements were performed for 5 and 10 cm depths. Individual output of each head was measured using the AAPM- TG51 protocol. Calibration accuracy for each head was subsequently verified by Radiological Physics Center (RPC) TLD measurements. Measured ion-recombination (Pion) and polarity (Ppol) correction factors were less-than 1.002 and 1.006, respectively. Measured PDDs agreed with BJR-25 within ±0.2%. Maximum dose rates for the reference field size at VR's isocenter for heads 1, 2 and 3 were 1.445±0.005, 1.446±0.107, 1.431±0.006 Gy/minute, respectively. Our calibrations agreed with RPC- TLD measurements within ±1.3%, ±2.6% and ±2.0% for treatment-heads 1, 2 and 3, respectively. At the time of calibration, mean activity of the Co-60 sources was 10,800Ci±0.1%. This study shows that the TG- 51 calibration is feasible in the presence of 0.35T MF and the measurement agreement is within the range of results obtainable for conventional treatment machines. Drs. Green, Goddu, and Mutic served as scientific consultants for ViewRay, Inc. Dr. Mutic

  19. Implementation of a Quality Assurance Program in a new Radiotherapy Center taking as base the TG-40; Implementacion del programa de Garantia de Calidad en un Centro nuevo de Radioterapia tomando como base el TG-40

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marles, A.; Besa, P.; Hecht, P.; Arriagada, L.; Ruz, A.; Garay, C. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Centro de Cancer. Diagonal Paraguay, 319. Santiago (Chile)

    1998-12-31

    The recommended principles in the `Comprehensive QA for radiation oncology: Report of AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 40`, TG-40, have been the base for implementation of the Quality Assurance Program of a modern Radiotherapy service. During its application has been necessary: to initiate its implementation before the equipment installation, assuming the costs of the contracts of the qualified personnel, realizing an initial investment adequate for equipment acquisition necessary for acceptation, commissioning and routinary control, the experienced formation of the personnel in the protocol philosophy, establishing procedures for day by day process which would allow the retrofeeding, the elaboration of templates and opening to changes and adjustments according to the necessities. The experience of two years had been demonstrated that the TG-40: a) It is feasible to be implemented but sometimes no strict totally and it is essential to have qualified personnel and the necessary material resources; b) It does not contains all the necessary for its practical implementation and must be completing with procedures and routine formats which facilitate their application; c) It allows the detection and opportune failure correction in the process; d) It is a continuous process that does not finishes. (Author)

  20. Differences Between Tg2576 and Wild Type Mice in the NMDA Receptor-Nitric Oxide Pathway After Prolonged Application of a Diet High in Advanced Glycation End Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristofikova, Zdena; Ricny, Jan; Sirova, Jana; Ripova, Daniela; Lubitz, Irit; Schnaider-Beeri, Michal

    2015-08-01

    It has been suggested that advanced glycation end (AGE) products, via cognate receptor activation, are implicated in several diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. The NMDA receptor-nitric oxide pathway appears to be influenced by AGE products and involved in the pathogenesis of this type of dementia. In this study, C57BL/6J (WT) and transgenic (Tg2576) mice expressing human mutant amyloid precursor protein were kept on prolonged (8 months) diets containing regular or high amounts of AGE products. After the decapitation of 11-months old mice, brain tissue analyses were performed [expressions of the NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors, activities of neuronal, endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, eNOS and iNOS)]. Moreover, levels of malondialdehyde and of human amyloid β 1-42 were estimated. We found increased activity of nNOS in WT mice maintained on a high compared to regular AGE diet; however, no similar differences were found in Tg2576 mice. In addition, we observed an increase in NR1 expression in Tg2576 compared to WT mice, both kept on a diet high in AGE products. Correlation analyses performed on mice kept on the regular AGE diet supported close links between particular subunits (NR2A-NR2B, in WT as well as in Tg2576 mice), between subunits and synthase (NR2A/NR2B-nNOS, only in WT mice) or between particular synthases (nNOS-iNOS, only in WT). Correlation analysis also revealed differences between WT mice kept on both diets (changed correlations between NR2A/NR2B-nNOS, between nNOS-eNOS and between eNOS-iNOS). Malondialdehyde levels were increased in both Tg2576 groups when compared to the corresponding WT mice, but no effects of the diets were observed. Analogously, no significant effects of diets were found in the levels of soluble or insoluble amyloid β 1-42 in Tg2576 mice. Our results demonstrate that prolonged ingestion of AGE products can influence the NMDA receptor-nitric oxide pathway in the brain and that only WT mice

  1. Association between MDM2 SNP309 T>G polymorphism and the risk of bladder cancer: new data in a Chinese population and an updated meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie LG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Linguo Xie,1,2,* Yan Sun,2,* Tao Chen,1,2,* Dawei Tian,1,2 Yujuan Li,3 Yu Zhang,1,2 Na Ding,2 Zhonghua Shen,1,2 Hao Xu,1,2 Xuewu Nian,4 Nan Sha,1,2 Ruifa Han,1,2 Hailong Hu,1,2 Changli Wu1,2 Objective: Human murine double minute 2 protein (MDM2 is mainly a negative regulator of p53 tumor suppressor pathway. We aimed to investigate the association between MDM2 SNP309 polymorphism and bladder cancer risk. Methods: A total of 535 bladder cancer patients and 649 health controls were recruited for our study. MDM2 SNP309 T>G polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction method. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between the genotype and susceptibility of bladder cancer. Kaplan–Meier estimates and log-rank test were obtained to analyze the association between the genotype and risk of recrudesce in nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer patients. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was fitted to identify independent prognostic factors. To further investigate the association, we conducted a meta-analysis including six studies. Results: The frequency of the MDM2 SNP309 T>G polymorphism showed no significant difference between cases and controls (all P>0.05. In the stratification analysis, the results showed that G allele carriers were prone to have a significant decrease in risk of low-grade bladder cancer (adjusted odds ratio: 0.613, 95% confidence interval: 0.427–0.881, and G variant was associated with a significantly reduced risk of recurrence in nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer patients with or without chemotherapy (P<0.05. The results of the meta-analysis showed that G allele and GG genotype of MDM2 SNP309 polymorphism were significantly associated with increased risk of bladder cancer in Caucasians (both P<0.05, and no association was observed in total populations and Asians (P>0.05. Conclusion: MDM2 SNP309 T>G polymorphism has no influence on bladder cancer risk in Asians, but

  2. Reversal of autophagy dysfunction in the TgCRND8 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease ameliorates amyloid pathologies and memory deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dun-Sheng; Stavrides, Philip; Mohan, Panaiyur S; Kaushik, Susmita; Kumar, Asok; Ohno, Masuo; Schmidt, Stephen D; Wesson, Daniel; Bandyopadhyay, Urmi; Jiang, Ying; Pawlik, Monika; Peterhoff, Corrinne M; Yang, Austin J; Wilson, Donald A; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Westaway, David; Mathews, Paul M; Levy, Efrat; Cuervo, Ana M; Nixon, Ralph A

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy, a major degradative pathway for proteins and organelles, is essential for survival of mature neurons. Extensive autophagic-lysosomal pathology in Alzheimer's disease brain contributes to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, although the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we identified and characterized marked intraneuronal amyloid-β peptide/amyloid and lysosomal system pathology in the Alzheimer's disease mouse model TgCRND8 similar to that previously described in Alzheimer's disease brains. We further establish that the basis for these pathologies involves defective proteolytic clearance of neuronal autophagic substrates including amyloid-β peptide. To establish the pathogenic significance of these abnormalities, we enhanced lysosomal cathepsin activities and rates of autophagic protein turnover in TgCRND8 mice by genetically deleting cystatin B, an endogenous inhibitor of lysosomal cysteine proteases. Cystatin B deletion rescued autophagic-lysosomal pathology, reduced abnormal accumulations of amyloid-β peptide, ubiquitinated proteins and other autophagic substrates within autolysosomes/lysosomes and reduced intraneuronal amyloid-β peptide. The amelioration of lysosomal function in TgCRND8 markedly decreased extracellular amyloid deposition and total brain amyloid-β peptide 40 and 42 levels, and prevented the development of deficits of learning and memory in fear conditioning and olfactory habituation tests. Our findings support the pathogenic significance of autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease and indicate the potential value of restoring normal autophagy as an innovative therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Tail-flick test response in 3×Tg-AD mice at early and advanced stages of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeta-Corral, Raquel; Defrin, Ruti; Pick, Chagi G; Giménez-Llort, Lydia

    2015-07-23

    Despite the impact of pain in cognitive dysfunctions and affective disorders has been largely studied, the research that examines pain dimensions in cognitive impairment or dementia is still scarce. In patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias, management of pain is challenging. While the sensory-discriminative dimension of pain is preserved, the cognitive-evaluative and the affective-motivational pain dimensions are affected. Due to the complexity of the disease and the poor self-reports, pain is underdiagnosed and undertreated. In confluence with an impaired thermoregulatory behavior, the patients' ability to confront environmental stressors such as cold temperature can put them at risk of fatal accidental hypothermia. Here, 3xTg-AD mice demonstrate that the sensorial-discriminative threshold to a noxious cold stimulus, as measured by the latency of tail-flicking, was preserved at early and advances stages of disease (7 and 11 month-old, respectively) as compared to age-matched (adulthood and middle aged, respectively) non-transgenic mice (NTg). In both genotypes, the sensory deterioration and poor thermoregulatory behavior associated to age was observed as an increase of tail-flick response and poor sensorimotor performance. At both stages studied, 3xTg-AD mice exhibited BPSD (Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia)-like alterations in the corner, open-field, dark-light box and the T-maze tests. In the adult NTg mice, this nociceptive withdrawal response was correlated with copying with stress-related behaviors. This integrative behavioral profile was lost in both groups of 3xTg-AD mice and middle aged controls, suggesting derangements in their subjacent networks and the complex interplay between the pain dimensions in the elderly with dementia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. SU-F-T-248: FMEA Risk Analysis Implementation (AAPM TG-100) in Total Skin Electron Irradiation Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez-Rosello, B; Bautista-Ballesteros, J; Bonaque, J [Hospital La Fe, Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Perez-Calatayud, J [Hospital La Fe, Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Clinica Benidorm, Benidorm, Alicante (Spain); Gonzalez-Sanchis, A; Lopez-Torrecilla, J; Brualla-Gonzalez, L; Garcia-Hernandez, T; Vicedo-Gonzalez, A; Granero, D; Serrano, A; Borderia, B; Solera, C [Hospital General ERESA, Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Rosello, J [Hospital General ERESA, Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Total Skin Electron Irradiation (TSEI) is a radiotherapy treatment which involves irradiating the entire body surface as homogeneously as possible. It is composed of an extensive multi-step technique in which quality management requires high consumption of resources and a fluid communication between the involved staff, necessary to improve the safety of treatment. The TG-100 proposes a new perspective of quality management in radiotherapy, presenting a systematic method of risk analysis throughout the global flow of the stages through the patient. The purpose of this work has been to apply TG-100 approach to the TSEI procedure in our institution. Methods: A multidisciplinary team specifically targeting TSEI procedure was formed, that met regularly and jointly developed the process map (PM), following TG-100 guidelines of the AAPM. This PM is a visual representation of the temporal flow of steps through the patient since start until the end of his stay in the radiotherapy service. Results: This is the first stage of the full risk analysis, which is being carried out in the center. The PM provides an overview of the process and facilitates the understanding of the team members who will participate in the subsequent analysis. Currently, the team is implementing the analysis of failure modes and effects (FMEA). The failure modes of each of the steps have been identified and assessors are assigning a value of severity (S), frequency of occurrence (O) and lack of detection (D) individually. To our knowledge, this is the first PM made for the TSEI. The developed PM can be useful for those centers that intend to implement the TSEI technique. Conclusion: The PM of TSEI technique has been established, as the first stage of full risk analysis, performed in a reference center in this treatment.

  5. Acoustic Doppler current profiling from the JGOFS Arabian Sea cruises aboard the RV T.G. Thompson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.S.; Flagg, C.N.; Shi, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Oceanographic and Atmospheric Sciences Div.

    1996-12-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data is part of the core data for the US JGOFS Arabian Sea project, along with hydrographic and nutrient data. Seventeen cruises are scheduled to take place between September 1994 and January 1996 on the R/V T.G. Thompson. Seven of the cruises follow a standard cruise track, taking hydrographic, chemical and biological measurements. The rest of the cruises, which take place generally within the standard cruise region defined by a set track, are for the deployment and recovery of moored equipment and towing of a SeaSoar. Detailed description of ADCP hardware, the AutoADCP data acquisition system, and the collection of navigation and compass data on the Thompson is documented in Section 2. Followed by data collection for each cruise together with a cruise track, Section 3 presents the processing and analysis of velocity and acoustic backscatter intensity data. Section 5 shows results of profile quality diagnosis.

  6. Adaptation of the fish juvenile growth test (OECD TG 215, 2000) to the marine species Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornambè, A; Manfra, L; Canepa, S; Oteri, F; Martuccio, G; Cicero, A M; Magaletti, E

    2018-02-01

    The OECD TG 215 method (2000) (C.14 method of EC Regulation 440/2008) was developed on the rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss) to assess chronic toxicity (28d) of chemicals on fish juveniles. It contemplates to use other well documented species identifying suitable conditions to evaluate their growth. OECD proposes the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. 1758) as Mediterranean species among vertebrates recommended in the OECD guidelines for the toxicity testing of chemicals. In this context, our study is aimed to proposing the adaptation of the growth test (OECD TG 215, 2000) to D. labrax. For this purpose toxicity tests were performed with sodium dodecyl sulfate, a reference toxicant commonly used in fish toxicity assays. The main aspects of the testing procedure were reviewed: fish size (weight), environmental conditions, dilution water type, experimental design, loading rate and stocking density, feeding (food type and ration), test validity criteria. The experience gained from growth tests with the sea bass allows to promote its inclusion among the species to be used for the C.14 method. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. TH-B-204-03: TG-199: Implanted Markers for Radiation Treatment Verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Implanted markers as target surrogates have been widely used for treatment verification, as they provide safe and reliable monitoring of the inter- and intra-fractional target motion. The rapid advancement of technology requires a critical review and recommendation for the usage of implanted surrogates in current field. The symposium, also reporting an update of AAPM TG 199 - Implanted Target Surrogates for Radiation Treatment Verification, will be focusing on all clinical aspects of using the implanted target surrogates for treatment verification and related issues. A wide variety of markers available in the market will be first reviewed, including radiopaque markers, MRI compatible makers, non-migrating coils, surgical clips and electromagnetic transponders etc. The pros and cons of each kind will be discussed. The clinical applications of implanted surrogates will be presented based on different anatomical sites. For the lung, we will discuss gated treatments and 2D or 3D real-time fiducial tracking techniques. For the prostate, we will be focusing on 2D-3D, 3D-3D matching and electromagnetic transponder based localization techniques. For the liver, we will review techniques when patients are under gating, shallow or free breathing condition. We will review techniques when treating challenging breast cancer as deformation may occur. Finally, we will summarize potential issues related to the usage of implanted target surrogates with TG 199 recommendations. A review of fiducial migration and fiducial derived target rotation in different disease sites will be provided. The issue of target deformation, especially near the diaphragm, and related suggestions will be also presented and discussed. Learning Objectives: Knowledge of a wide variety of markers Knowledge of their application for different disease sites Understand of issues related to these applications Z. Wang: Research funding support from Brainlab AG Q. Xu: Consultant for Accuray; Q. Xu, I am a consultant

  8. TH-B-204-03: TG-199: Implanted Markers for Radiation Treatment Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z. [Duke University Medical Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Implanted markers as target surrogates have been widely used for treatment verification, as they provide safe and reliable monitoring of the inter- and intra-fractional target motion. The rapid advancement of technology requires a critical review and recommendation for the usage of implanted surrogates in current field. The symposium, also reporting an update of AAPM TG 199 - Implanted Target Surrogates for Radiation Treatment Verification, will be focusing on all clinical aspects of using the implanted target surrogates for treatment verification and related issues. A wide variety of markers available in the market will be first reviewed, including radiopaque markers, MRI compatible makers, non-migrating coils, surgical clips and electromagnetic transponders etc. The pros and cons of each kind will be discussed. The clinical applications of implanted surrogates will be presented based on different anatomical sites. For the lung, we will discuss gated treatments and 2D or 3D real-time fiducial tracking techniques. For the prostate, we will be focusing on 2D-3D, 3D-3D matching and electromagnetic transponder based localization techniques. For the liver, we will review techniques when patients are under gating, shallow or free breathing condition. We will review techniques when treating challenging breast cancer as deformation may occur. Finally, we will summarize potential issues related to the usage of implanted target surrogates with TG 199 recommendations. A review of fiducial migration and fiducial derived target rotation in different disease sites will be provided. The issue of target deformation, especially near the diaphragm, and related suggestions will be also presented and discussed. Learning Objectives: Knowledge of a wide variety of markers Knowledge of their application for different disease sites Understand of issues related to these applications Z. Wang: Research funding support from Brainlab AG Q. Xu: Consultant for Accuray; Q. Xu, I am a consultant

  9. Appraisal of within- and between-laboratory reproducibility of non-radioisotopic local lymph node assay using flow cytometry, LLNA:BrdU-FCM: comparison of OECD TG429 performance standard and statistical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyeri; Na, Jihye; Jang, Won-Hee; Jung, Mi-Sook; Jeon, Jun-Young; Heo, Yong; Yeo, Kyung-Wook; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Lim, Kyung-Min; Bae, SeungJin

    2015-05-05

    Mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA, OECD TG429) is an alternative test replacing conventional guinea pig tests (OECD TG406) for the skin sensitization test but the use of a radioisotopic agent, (3)H-thymidine, deters its active dissemination. New non-radioisotopic LLNA, LLNA:BrdU-FCM employs a non-radioisotopic analog, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and flow cytometry. For an analogous method, OECD TG429 performance standard (PS) advises that two reference compounds be tested repeatedly and ECt(threshold) values obtained must fall within acceptable ranges to prove within- and between-laboratory reproducibility. However, this criteria is somewhat arbitrary and sample size of ECt is less than 5, raising concerns about insufficient reliability. Here, we explored various statistical methods to evaluate the reproducibility of LLNA:BrdU-FCM with stimulation index (SI), the raw data for ECt calculation, produced from 3 laboratories. Descriptive statistics along with graphical representation of SI was presented. For inferential statistics, parametric and non-parametric methods were applied to test the reproducibility of SI of a concurrent positive control and the robustness of results were investigated. Descriptive statistics and graphical representation of SI alone could illustrate the within- and between-laboratory reproducibility. Inferential statistics employing parametric and nonparametric methods drew similar conclusion. While all labs passed within- and between-laboratory reproducibility criteria given by OECD TG429 PS based on ECt values, statistical evaluation based on SI values showed that only two labs succeeded in achieving within-laboratory reproducibility. For those two labs that satisfied the within-lab reproducibility, between-laboratory reproducibility could be also attained based on inferential as well as descriptive statistics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A meta-analysis of the antiviral activity of the HBV-specific immunotherapeutic TG1050 confirms its value over a wide range of HBsAg levels in a persistent HBV pre-clinical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzer, Roland; Sansas, Benoît; Lélu, Karine; Evlachev, Alexei; Schmitt, Doris; Silvestre, Nathalie; Inchauspé, Geneviève; Martin, Perrine

    2018-02-01

    Pre-clinical models mimicking persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) expression are seldom, do not capture all features of a human chronic infection and due to their complexity, are subject to variability. We report a meta-analysis of seven experiments performed with TG1050, an HBV-targeted immunotherapeutic, 1 in an HBV-persistent mouse model based on the transduction of mice by an adeno-associated virus coding for an infectious HBV genome (AAV-HBV). To mimic the clinical diversity seen in HBV chronically infected patients, AAV-HBV transduced mice displaying variable HBsAg levels were treated with TG1050. Overall mean percentages of responder mice, displaying decrease in important clinical parameters i.e. HBV-DNA (viremia) and HBsAg levels, were 52% and 51% in TG1050 treated mice, compared with 8% and 22%, respectively, in untreated mice. No significant impact of HBsAg level at baseline on response to TG1050 treatment was found. TG1050-treated mice displayed a significant shorter Time to Response (decline in viral parameters) with an Hazard Ratio (HR) of 8.3 for viremia and 2.6 for serum HBsAg. The mean predicted decrease for TG1050-treated mice was 0.5 log for viremia and 0.8 log for HBsAg, at the end of mice follow-up, compared to no decrease for viremia and 0.3 log HBsAg decrease for untreated mice. For mice receiving TG1050, a higher decline of circulating viremia and serum HBsAg level over time was detected by interaction term meta-analysis with a significant treatment effect (p = 0.002 and pHBV-persistent model mimicking clinical situations.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and TG-DSC study of cadmium halides adducts with caffeine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Robson F. de; Silva, Ademir O. da; Silva, Umberto G. da

    2003-11-28

    The synthesis, characterization and TG-DSC study of the compounds CdX{sub 2}{center_dot}ncaff, for which X: Cl, Br and I; n=1 and 2 and caff: caffeine is reported. It is verified that caffeine is coordinated through more than one coordination site, despite the fact that the nitrogen of the imidazole ring is the main coordination site. The following thermal stability trend is observed: Cl>Br>I and monoadducts are more stable than bisadducts. The thermal degradation (td) enthalpies have the values (kJ mol{sup -1}): 58.2 and 71.5; 74.9 and 91.4; 31.1 and 47.5 for Cl, Br and I mono and bisadducts, respectively.

  12. W7-X vacuum and finite-β magnetic field structure resolved with the HINT 3D equilibrium code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Merkel, P.; Nuehrenberg, J.; Schwenn, U.

    1994-01-01

    The 3D equilibrium code HINT allows the direct investigation of finite-β effects on sizes and phases of islands in genuinely 3D configurations like the W7-X stellarator planned by the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik in Germany. The code does not require the existence of nested flux surfaces. This, in contrast to the inverse formulation used in the VMEC code, leads to a considerably more complex computational goal. The HINT code combines some crucial features reducing the numerical problems and the computational effort to such an extent as to allow computation of 3D equilibria at finite-β with magnetic islands. The code is based on a two-step procedure: Starting from a given B and an initial pressure, the iteration technique for the pressure advancement is differencing in an artificial time with an explicit 4th order scheme, or - alternatively for resolving the island topology - field lines starting from all gridpoints are followed long enough to allow pressure equalization along these. B.∇p 0, for fixed B. In a second step, p is kept fixed and B is advanced with an artificial time for solving ∇p - jxB = 0 under the constraint of vanishing toroidal current J. The differential equations are discretized in space with 4th order difference approximations on an Eulerian grid spanned by a rectangular box whose toroidal rotation law follows the W7-X geometry. The two sub-iteration steps are repeated until the force balance is satisfied to an appropriate accuracy. The boundaries (where the boundary conditions are prescribed) are far enough away from the last closed magnetic surface, thus guaranteeing the motion of the plasma column not being constrained by the boundary conditions. Due to the stellarator symmetry in the toroidal direction only half of an equilibrium period is computed, using modified periodic boundary conditions guaranteeing the 4th order of the spatial discretization. (author) 5 refs., 4 figs

  13. Tracking the conversion of nitrogen during pyrolysis of antibiotic mycelial fermentation residues using XPS and TG-FTIR-MS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiangdong; Yang, Shijun; Wang, Liang; Liu, Yuchen; Qian, Feng; Yao, Wenqing; Zhang, Shicheng; Chen, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic mycelial fermentation residues (AMFRs), which are emerging solid pollutants, have been recognized as hazardous waste in China since 2008. Nitrogen (N), which is an environmental sensitivity element, is largely retained in AMFR samples derived from fermentation substrates. Pyrolysis is a promising technology for the treatment of solid waste. However, the outcomes of N element during the pyrolysis of AMFRs are still unknown. In this study, the conversion of N element during the pyrolysis of AMFRs was tracked using XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and online TG-FTIR-MS (Thermogravimetry-Fourier transform infrared-Mass spectrometry) technology. In the AMFR sample, organic amine-N, pyrrolic-N, protein-N, pyridinic-N, was the main N-containing species. XPS results indicated that pyrrolic-N and pyridinic-N were retained in the AMFR-derived pyrolysis char. More stable species, such as N-oxide and quaternary-N, were also produced in the char. TG-FTIR-MS results indicated that NH_3 and HCN were the main gaseous species, and their contents were closely related to the contents of amine-N and protein-N, and pyrrolic-N and pyridinic-N of AMFRs, respectively. Increases in heating rate enhanced the amounts of NH_3 and HCN, but had less of an effect on the degradation degree of AMFRs. N-containing organic compounds, including amine-N, nitrile-N and heterocyclic-N, were discerned from the AMFR pyrolysis process. Their release range was extended with increasing of heating rate and carbon content of AMFR sample. This work will help to take appropriate measure to reduce secondary pollution from the treatment of AMFRs. - Highlights: • Hazardous AMFR material was treated by slow pyrolysis reaction. • TG-FTIR-MS were used to study the N conversion for pyrolysis gas and bio-oil. • NH_3 and HCN were observed as the main N-containing gas species. • XPS were used to study the N conversion for pyrolysis char. • Stable species, such as N-oxide and quaternary-N, were

  14. TG-FTIR measurement of CO2-H2O co-adsorption for CO2 air capture sorbent screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smal, I.M.; Yu, Qian; Veneman, Rens; Fränzel-Luiten, B.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2014-01-01

    Capturing atmospheric CO2 using solid sorbents is gaining interest. As ambient air normally contains much more (up to 100 times) water than CO2, a selective sorbent is desirable as co-adsorption will most likely occur. In this study, a convenient method based on an TG-FTIR analysis system is

  15. Rapid detection of SNP (c.309T>G in the MDM2 gene by the Duplex SmartAmp method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuaki Enokida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic polymorphisms in the human MDM2 gene are suggested to be a tumor susceptibility marker and a prognostic factor for cancer. It has been reported that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP c.309T>G in the MDM2 gene attenuates the tumor suppressor activity of p53 and accelerates tumor formation in humans. METHODOLOGY: In this study, to detect the SNP c.309T>G in the MDM2 gene, we have developed a new SNP detection method, named "Duplex SmartAmp," which enabled us to simultaneously detect both 309T and 309G alleles in one tube. To develop this new method, we introduced new primers i.e., nBP and oBPs, as well as two different fluorescent dyes that separately detect those genetic polymorphisms. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: By the Duplex SmartAmp method, the genetic polymorphisms of the MDM2 gene were detected directly from a small amount of genomic DNA or blood samples. We used 96 genomic DNA and 24 blood samples to validate the Duplex SmartAmp by comparison with results of the conventional PCR-RFLP method; consequently, the Duplex SmartAmp results agreed totally with those of the PCR-RFLP method. Thus, the new SNP detection method is considered useful for detecting the SNP c.309T>G in the MDM2 gene so as to judge cancer susceptibility against some cellular stress in the clinical setting, and also to handle a large number of samples and enable rapid clinical diagnosis.

  16. Adiponectin gene polymorphism rs2241766 T/G is associated with response to pioglitazone treatment in type 2 diabetic patients from southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Insulin sensitizing drugs such as pioglitazone are not uniformly treatment effective among individual type 2 diabetic patients. Here, the relationship of pioglitazone efficacy to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP of the adiponectin gene, a critical gene directly regulated by the drug, was examined in a cohort of Chinese Han type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: Eighty type 2 diabetic patients were treated with pioglitazone (15 mg/day for 12 weeks without interruption of their current therapeutic regimen. Fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c% were collected both prior to and following pioglitazone treatment. Response to pioglitazone was defined as a decrease of at least 15% in HbA1c% levels. Three regions of the adiponectin gene containing SNPs (promoter, intron 2 and exon 2, and exon 3 were amplified and sequenced to determine genotype. RESULTS: Serum adiponectin levels were significantly increased (p<0.001 whereas fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and HbA1c% values were significantly decreased relative to baseline measurements (p<0.001. Response of patients with TG and TT genotypes at rs2241766 (exon2; 52.9% vs. 12.7%, respectively p = 0.001 was statistically significant relative to all other patients. Amongst rs2241766 TG and TT patients, the mean decrease in HbA1c% levels was greater where the genotype was TG (1.15±0.80 vs. 0.52±0.64, p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The adiponectin gene polymorphism rs2241766 T/G is associated with pioglitazone efficacy in type 2 diabetic patients, and status of the polymorphism may be an important clinical factor to consider prior to pioglitazone treatment.

  17. No Effect of Resveratrol on VLDL-TG Kinetics and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Men with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Marianne K; Nellemann, Birgitte; Bibby, Bo Martin

    2018-01-01

    The present study assess long-term effects of high-dose Resveratrol (RSV) on basal and insulin-mediated very low-desity lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDL-TG), palmitate and glucose kinetics, and liver fat content in men with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Participants (n=16) were non...

  18. SU-F-P-15: Report On AAPM TG 178 Gamma Knife Dosimetry and Quality Assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetsch, S [San Diego Medical Physics, Solana Beach, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: AAPM Task Group 178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance was formed in August, 2008. The Task Group has 12 medical physicists, two physicians and two consultants. Methods: A round robin dosimetry intercomparison of proposed ionization chambers, electrometer and dosimetry phantoms was conducted over a 15 month period in 2011 and 2012 (Med Phys 42, 11, Nov, 2015). The data obtained at 9 institutions (with ten different Elekta Gamma Knife units) was analyzed by the lead author using several protocols. Results: The most consistent results were obtained using the Elekta ABS 16cm diameter phantom, with the TG-51 protocol modified as recommended by Alfonso et al (Med Phys 35, 11, Nov 2008). A key white paper (Med Phys, in press) sponsored by Elekta Corporation, was used to obtain correction factors for the ionization chambers and phantoms used in this intercomparison. Consistent results were obtained for both Elekta Gamma Knife Model 4C and Gamma Knife Perfexion units as measured with each of two miniature ionization chambers Conclusion: The full TG 178 report gives clinical history and background of gamma stereotactic radiosurgery, clinical examples and history, quality assurance recommendations and outline of possible dosimetry protocols. The report will be reviewed by the AAPM Working Group on Recommendations for Radiotherapy External Beam Quality Assurance and then by the AAPM Science Council before publication in Medical Physics. Consultant to Elekta, Inc.

  19. SU-F-P-15: Report On AAPM TG 178 Gamma Knife Dosimetry and Quality Assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetsch, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: AAPM Task Group 178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance was formed in August, 2008. The Task Group has 12 medical physicists, two physicians and two consultants. Methods: A round robin dosimetry intercomparison of proposed ionization chambers, electrometer and dosimetry phantoms was conducted over a 15 month period in 2011 and 2012 (Med Phys 42, 11, Nov, 2015). The data obtained at 9 institutions (with ten different Elekta Gamma Knife units) was analyzed by the lead author using several protocols. Results: The most consistent results were obtained using the Elekta ABS 16cm diameter phantom, with the TG-51 protocol modified as recommended by Alfonso et al (Med Phys 35, 11, Nov 2008). A key white paper (Med Phys, in press) sponsored by Elekta Corporation, was used to obtain correction factors for the ionization chambers and phantoms used in this intercomparison. Consistent results were obtained for both Elekta Gamma Knife Model 4C and Gamma Knife Perfexion units as measured with each of two miniature ionization chambers Conclusion: The full TG 178 report gives clinical history and background of gamma stereotactic radiosurgery, clinical examples and history, quality assurance recommendations and outline of possible dosimetry protocols. The report will be reviewed by the AAPM Working Group on Recommendations for Radiotherapy External Beam Quality Assurance and then by the AAPM Science Council before publication in Medical Physics. Consultant to Elekta, Inc

  20. AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY WITH NEUROMYOTONIA (ARAN-NM: DESCRIPTION OF A CLINICAL CASE CONFIRMED BY A MUTATION IN THE HINT1 GENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Klochkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive  peripheral neuropathy with neuromyotonia  (ARAN-NM  is a relatively newly described  disease associated  with mutations  in the HINT1 gene.  It accounts  for a significant  part of the poorly  differentiated  forms  of axonal polyneuropathies.  We present the first in Russia description of the genetically confirmed case of ARAN-NM in a boy aged 14 years and 11 months without the hereditary-tainted anamnesis. On presentation,  the patient experienced  progressive  distal muscular weakness, asymmetric foot deformity,  gait disorders  and minimal manifestations  of neuromyotonia  (stiffness  in the fingers.  During examination,  we detected an increase in the level of creatine phosphokinase up to 635 U/l, a disturbance of conduction of motor and, to a lesser extent, sensory fibers  of  the  peripheral  nerves  (according  to  the  stimulation  electromyography,  EMG,  denervation-reinnervation  changes,  single positive acute waves, fibrillation potentials, complex repeated discharge (according to the data of needle EMG. In the study of exome, a homozygous mutation c.110G>C, p.R37P was determined in exon 01 of the HINT1 gene, which confirmed the presence of ARAN-NM. A molecular-genetic  examination of the patient's immediate relatives was carried out. The described case is compared with literature data. An overview of currently available information on ARAN-NM is provided. Diagnostic criteria of the disease are presented.

  1. Association of ADIPOQ +45T>G polymorphism with body fat mass and blood levels of soluble adiponectin and inflammation markers in a Mexican-Mestizo population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzman-Ornelas MO

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Milton-Omar Guzman-Ornelas,1 Efrain Chavarria-Avila,1 Jose-Francisco Munoz-Valle,1,2 Laura-Elizabeth Armas-Ramos,3 Jorge Castro-Albarran,3,4 Maria Elena Aguilar Aldrete,1,5 Edith Oregon-Romero,2 Monica Vazquez-Del Mercado,2 Rosa-Elena Navarro-Hernandez1–31Biomedical Sciences Doctorate Program, 2Department of Molecular Biology and Genomics, 3Master of Human Nutrition Program, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México; 4HMIELM, Secretaria de Salud Jalisco, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico; 5Department of Public Health, University of Guadalajara, Jalisco, MéxicoPurpose: Obesity is a disease with genetic susceptibility characterized by an increase in storage and irregular distribution of body fat. In obese patients, the decrease in the Adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ expression has been associated with a systemic low-grade inflammatory state. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between ADIPOQ +45T>G gene simple nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs2241766 with serum adiponectin (sAdiponectin, distribution of body fat storage, and inflammation markers.Subjects and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 242 individuals from Western Mexico characterized as Mexican-Mestizo and classified by body mass index (BMI, were included. Anthropometrics, body composition, body fat distribution, and inflammation markers were measured by routine methods. Genotypes were characterized using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP technique and sAdiponectin by the ELISA method. A P-value <0.05 was considered the statistically significant threshold.Results: sAdiponectin is associated with BMI (P < 0.001 and the genotypes (P < 0.001 to 0.0046 GG (8169 ± 1162 ng/mL, TG (5189 ± 501 ng/mL, and TT (3741 ± 323 ng/mL, but the SNP ADIPOQ +45T.G is not associated with BMI. However, the detailed analysis showed association of this SNP with a pattern of fat distribution and correlations (P < 0.05 with inflammation markers and

  2. Hints on cost- and energy saving during lime-sand brick production; Hinweise zur Kosten- und Energieeinsparung bei der Kalksandstein-Produktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eden, W.

    2001-05-01

    The publication contains hints for reduction of energy consumption and cost in lime-sand brick production. The information was compiled by Bundesverband Kalksandsteinindustrie e.V. and was derived from technical discussions of the master seminars on production technology of the years 1995 - 2000, consultations form member organizations, or from other sources. [German] Diese Arbeit ist eine Zusammenstellung von Hinweisen zur Reduzierung des Energieverbrauchs und der Kostensenkung bei der KS-Produktion und soll eine Hilfestellung bei entsprechenden Rationalisierungsmassnahmen in den Mitgliedsunternehmen sein. Die hier aufgefuehrten Hinweise und Anregungen entstammen den Fachdiskussionen der Meisterseminare zur Produktionstechnik aus den Jahren 1995 bis 2000, Beratungsgespraechen fuer Mitgliedsunternehmen oder wurden dem Bundesverband Kalksandsteinindustrie eV freundlicherweise fuer die Gemeinschaftsarbeit zur Verfuegung gestellt. (orig.)

  3. Language Image in National Minority Language Television Idents. TG4 (Teilifís na Gaeilge, Ireland and Whakaata Māori (Māori Television, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Lysaght

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Born of community and political action, Teilifis na Gaeilge (TG4 began in 1996, and Whakaata Māori/ Māori Television Service (MTS in 2004. Despite obvious differences between the two broadcasting environments, both stations attempt to reclaim a national (but minority language (Ó Ruairc 1996; Moring 2007 and compete with other broadcasters (Horrocks and Perry 2004 to attract an audience (Smith and Abel 2008 by an appeal to identity (Cormack 2000; 2007; Delap 2007. This paper investigates idents from TG4 and MTS. What image or brand have the language and culture in these mini-advertisements? Thornley’s (2004 discussion of “transculturation” is useful in examining the often inventive approach taken to elements of the dominant culture. Indeed, the motto ‘Súil eile’ [another perspective] is the criterion for many TG4 projects, and there is a clear awareness of multiple audiences in the MTS logline, ‘mā mātou, mā rātou, mā koutou, mā tātou’ [just for us, for them, for all of you, for all of us]. In the symbiotic relationship between a minority station and other larger stations in terms of the depiction/creation of local and national identity, language is used as another marketing tool. TG4 and MTS idents respond to and celebrate current sociolinguistic changes (Romaine 2006; Ó Tuathaigh 2008, making them visible.

  4. Implementation of a Quality Assurance Program in a new Radiotherapy Center taking as base the TG-40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marles, A.; Besa, P.; Hecht, P.; Arriagada, L.; Ruz, A.; Garay, C.

    1998-01-01

    The recommended principles in the 'Comprehensive QA for radiation oncology: Report of AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 40', TG-40, have been the base for implementation of the Quality Assurance Program of a modern Radiotherapy service. During its application has been necessary: to initiate its implementation before the equipment installation, assuming the costs of the contracts of the qualified personnel, realizing an initial investment adequate for equipment acquisition necessary for acceptation, commissioning and routinary control, the experienced formation of the personnel in the protocol philosophy, establishing procedures for day by day process which would allow the retrofeeding, the elaboration of templates and opening to changes and adjustments according to the necessities. The experience of two years had been demonstrated that the TG-40: a) It is feasible to be implemented but sometimes no strict totally and it is essential to have qualified personnel and the necessary material resources; b) It does not contains all the necessary for its practical implementation and must be completing with procedures and routine formats which facilitate their application; c) It allows the detection and opportune failure correction in the process; d) It is a continuous process that does not finishes. (Author)

  5. TGF-β2 and TGF-β3 from cultured β-amyloid-treated or 3xTg-AD-derived astrocytes may mediate astrocyte-neuron communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapella, Laura; Cerruti, Matteo; Biocotino, Isabella; Stevano, Alessio; Rocchio, Francesca; Canonico, Pier Luigi; Grilli, Mariagrazia; Genazzani, Armando A; Lim, Dmitry

    2018-02-01

    Astrocytes participate in the development and resolution of neuroinflammation in numerous ways, including the release of cytokines and growth factors. Among many, astrocytes release transforming growth factors beta (TGF-β) TGF-β1, TGF-β2 and TGF-β3. TGF-β1 is the most studied isoform, while production and release of TGF-β2 and TGF-β3 by astrocytes have been poorly characterized. Here, we report that purified cultures of hippocampal astrocytes produce mainly TGF-β3 followed by TGF-β2 and TGF-β1. Furthermore, astrocytes release principally the active form of TGF-β3 over the other two. Changes in release of TGF-β were sensitive to the calcineurin (CaN) inhibitor FK506. Starvation had no effect on TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 while TGF-β2 mRNA was significantly up-regulated in a CaN-dependent manner. We further investigated production and release of astroglial TGF-β in Alzheimer's disease-related conditions. Oligomeric β-amyloid (Aβ) down-regulated TGF-β1, while up-regulating TGF-β2 and TGF-β3, in a CaN-dependent manner. In cultured hippocampal astrocytes from 3xTg-AD mice, TGF-β2 and TGF-β3, but not TGF-β1, were up-regulated, and this was CaN-independent. In hippocampal tissues from symptomatic 3xTg-AD mice, TGF-β2 was up-regulated with respect to control mice. Finally, treatment with recombinant TGF-βs showed that TGF-β2 and TGF-β3 significantly reduced PSD95 protein in cultured hippocampal neurons, and this effect was paralleled by conditioned media from Aβ-treated astrocytes or from astrocytes from 3xTg-AD mice. Taken together, our data suggest that TGF-β2 and TGF-β3 are produced by astrocytes in a CaN-dependent manner and should be investigated further in the context of astrocyte-mediated neurodegeneration. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. U.S. Army RDECOM-ARDEC's results of the TG-53 experiment and field test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sachi V.; Morcos, Amir

    2009-05-01

    Herein is described the U.S. Army RDECOM-ARDEC's purpose and series of activities conducted at the 2008 NATO SET-093 TG-53 experiment and field test. The overall purpose of the field test as stated by SET-093 panel was to provide a baseline test capable of providing relevant scenarios and data regarding a variety of impulsive generated acoustic events. As organized, the field experiment also allowed the room o study sensor interoperability across multiple platforms and multi-national users via the spider communication framework/reporting structure. This multinational network maintained by the host ETBS with a standardized messaging format with specific goals for each participating organization. ARDEC's role and purpose for the test was to provide situational awareness via the Spider and associated messaging format to the ETBS command center while continuing to gather unique acoustic data from various vantage points. ARDEC had several deliverables for the TG-53 field experiment derived from the mission and spirit of the field test. The most relevant deliverable was to demonstrate sensor interoperability via the Spider network and provide situational awareness by describing the said mortar/artillery events. The second purpose revolved around a relevant environment algorithm validation of the muzzle blast discrimination for future UGS transition in particular the UTAMS II. The algorithm validation information remained internal to the specific data acquisition system and not broadcasted out on the Spider network. The TG-53 field experiments provided the added opportunity to further test and refine the algorithm based on the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and multiresolution analysis. These techniques are used to classify and reliably discriminates between launch and impact artillery and/or mortar events via acoustic signals produced during detonation. Distinct characteristics are found within the acoustic signatures since impact events emphasize concussive and

  7. Value of IgA tTG in Predicting Mucosal Recovery in Children with Celiac Disease on a Gluten Free Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Maureen M.; Weir, Dascha C.; DeGroote, Maya; Mitchell, Paul D.; Singh, Prashant; Silvester, Jocelyn A.; Leichtner, Alan M.; Fasano, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to determine the rate of mucosal recovery in pediatric patients with celiac disease on a gluten free diet. We also sought to determine whether IgA tissue transglutaminase (tTG) correlates with mucosal damage at the time of a repeat endoscopy with duodenal biopsy in these patients. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of one-hundred and three pediatric patients, under 21 years of age, with a diagnosis of celiac disease defined as Marsh 3 histology, and who underwent a repeat endoscopy with duodenal biopsy at least twelve months after initiating a gluten free diet. Results We found that 19% of pediatric patients treated with a gluten free diet had persistent enteropathy. At the time of the repeat biopsy, tTG was elevated in 43% of cases with persistent enteropathy and 32% of cases in which there was mucosal recovery. Overall the positive predictive value of the autoantibody tissue transglutaminase was 25% and the negative predictive value was 83% in patients on a gluten free diet for a median of 2.4 years. Conclusions Nearly one in five children with celiac disease in our population had persistent enteropathy despite maintaining a gluten free diet and IgA tTG was not an accurate marker of mucosal recovery. Neither the presence of symptoms nor positive serology were predictive of a patient’s histology at the time of repeat biopsy. These findings suggest a revisitation of monitoring and management criteria of celiac disease in childhood. PMID:28112686

  8. TH-B-204-00: Implanted Markers for Radiation Therapy and TG 199 Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Implanted markers as target surrogates have been widely used for treatment verification, as they provide safe and reliable monitoring of the inter- and intra-fractional target motion. The rapid advancement of technology requires a critical review and recommendation for the usage of implanted surrogates in current field. The symposium, also reporting an update of AAPM TG 199 - Implanted Target Surrogates for Radiation Treatment Verification, will be focusing on all clinical aspects of using the implanted target surrogates for treatment verification and related issues. A wide variety of markers available in the market will be first reviewed, including radiopaque markers, MRI compatible makers, non-migrating coils, surgical clips and electromagnetic transponders etc. The pros and cons of each kind will be discussed. The clinical applications of implanted surrogates will be presented based on different anatomical sites. For the lung, we will discuss gated treatments and 2D or 3D real-time fiducial tracking techniques. For the prostate, we will be focusing on 2D-3D, 3D-3D matching and electromagnetic transponder based localization techniques. For the liver, we will review techniques when patients are under gating, shallow or free breathing condition. We will review techniques when treating challenging breast cancer as deformation may occur. Finally, we will summarize potential issues related to the usage of implanted target surrogates with TG 199 recommendations. A review of fiducial migration and fiducial derived target rotation in different disease sites will be provided. The issue of target deformation, especially near the diaphragm, and related suggestions will be also presented and discussed. Learning Objectives: Knowledge of a wide variety of markers Knowledge of their application for different disease sites Understand of issues related to these applications Z. Wang: Research funding support from Brainlab AG Q. Xu: Consultant for Accuray; Q. Xu, I am a consultant

  9. TH-B-204-00: Implanted Markers for Radiation Therapy and TG 199 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    Implanted markers as target surrogates have been widely used for treatment verification, as they provide safe and reliable monitoring of the inter- and intra-fractional target motion. The rapid advancement of technology requires a critical review and recommendation for the usage of implanted surrogates in current field. The symposium, also reporting an update of AAPM TG 199 - Implanted Target Surrogates for Radiation Treatment Verification, will be focusing on all clinical aspects of using the implanted target surrogates for treatment verification and related issues. A wide variety of markers available in the market will be first reviewed, including radiopaque markers, MRI compatible makers, non-migrating coils, surgical clips and electromagnetic transponders etc. The pros and cons of each kind will be discussed. The clinical applications of implanted surrogates will be presented based on different anatomical sites. For the lung, we will discuss gated treatments and 2D or 3D real-time fiducial tracking techniques. For the prostate, we will be focusing on 2D-3D, 3D-3D matching and electromagnetic transponder based localization techniques. For the liver, we will review techniques when patients are under gating, shallow or free breathing condition. We will review techniques when treating challenging breast cancer as deformation may occur. Finally, we will summarize potential issues related to the usage of implanted target surrogates with TG 199 recommendations. A review of fiducial migration and fiducial derived target rotation in different disease sites will be provided. The issue of target deformation, especially near the diaphragm, and related suggestions will be also presented and discussed. Learning Objectives: Knowledge of a wide variety of markers Knowledge of their application for different disease sites Understand of issues related to these applications Z. Wang: Research funding support from Brainlab AG Q. Xu: Consultant for Accuray; Q. Xu, I am a consultant

  10. Cystatin C, CRP, log TG/HDLc and metabolic syndrome are associated with microalbuminuria in hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Rafaela do Socorro Souza e Silva [Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Daniel França [Área de Cardiologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Freitas, Eduardo [Departamento de Estatística, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Moura, Flavio José Dutra de; Rosa, Tânia Torres; Veiga, Joel Paulo Russomano, E-mail: joelprv@unb.br [Área de Clínica Médica, Nefrologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    In patients with systemic hypertension, microalbuminuria is a marker of endothelial damage and is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. To determine the factors that may lead to the occurrence of microalbuminuria in hypertensive patients with serum creatinine lower than 1.5 mg/dL. This cross-sectional study included 133 Brazilians with essential hypertension followed up at a hypertension outpatient clinic. Those with serum creatinine higher than 1.5 mg/dL, as well as those with diabetes mellitus, were excluded. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and GFR estimated by using the CKD-EPI formula were calculated. The serum levels of the following were assessed: CysC, creatinine, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP) and fasting glucose. Microalbuminuria was determined in 24-hour urine. Hypertensive patients were classified according to the presence of one or more criteria for metabolic syndrome. In a multiple regression analysis, the serum levels of CysC and CRP, the atherogenic index log TG/HDLc and the presence of three or more criteria for metabolic syndrome were positively correlated with microalbuminuria (r{sup 2}: 0.277, p < 0.05). CysC, CRP, log TG/HDLc, and the presence of three or more criteria for metabolic syndrome, regardless of serum creatinine, were associated with microalbuminuria, an early marker of kidney damage and cardiovascular risk in patients with essential hypertension.

  11. Cystatin C, CRP, log TG/HDLc and metabolic syndrome are associated with microalbuminuria in hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Rafaela do Socorro Souza e Silva; Vasconcelos, Daniel França; Freitas, Eduardo; Moura, Flavio José Dutra de; Rosa, Tânia Torres; Veiga, Joel Paulo Russomano

    2014-01-01

    In patients with systemic hypertension, microalbuminuria is a marker of endothelial damage and is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. To determine the factors that may lead to the occurrence of microalbuminuria in hypertensive patients with serum creatinine lower than 1.5 mg/dL. This cross-sectional study included 133 Brazilians with essential hypertension followed up at a hypertension outpatient clinic. Those with serum creatinine higher than 1.5 mg/dL, as well as those with diabetes mellitus, were excluded. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and GFR estimated by using the CKD-EPI formula were calculated. The serum levels of the following were assessed: CysC, creatinine, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP) and fasting glucose. Microalbuminuria was determined in 24-hour urine. Hypertensive patients were classified according to the presence of one or more criteria for metabolic syndrome. In a multiple regression analysis, the serum levels of CysC and CRP, the atherogenic index log TG/HDLc and the presence of three or more criteria for metabolic syndrome were positively correlated with microalbuminuria (r 2 : 0.277, p < 0.05). CysC, CRP, log TG/HDLc, and the presence of three or more criteria for metabolic syndrome, regardless of serum creatinine, were associated with microalbuminuria, an early marker of kidney damage and cardiovascular risk in patients with essential hypertension

  12. A generic high-dose rate {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source for evaluation of model-based dose calculations beyond the TG-43 formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballester, Facundo, E-mail: Facundo.Ballester@uv.es [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain); Carlsson Tedgren, Åsa [Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH), Radiation Physics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping SE-581 85, Sweden and Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm SE-171 76 (Sweden); Granero, Domingo [Department of Radiation Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia E-46014 (Spain); Haworth, Annette [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria 3000 (Australia); Mourtada, Firas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Helen F. Graham Cancer Center, Christiana Care Health System, Newark, Delaware 19713 (United States); Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares – IPEN-CNEN/SP, São Paulo 05508-000, Brazil and Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW, School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Zourari, Kyveli; Papagiannis, Panagiotis [Medical Physics Laboratory, Medical School, University of Athens, 75 MikrasAsias, Athens 115 27 (Greece); Rivard, Mark J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States); Siebert, Frank-André [Clinic of Radiotherapy, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel 24105 (Germany); Sloboda, Ron S. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2, Canada and Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada); and others

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In order to facilitate a smooth transition for brachytherapy dose calculations from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group No. 43 (TG-43) formalism to model-based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs), treatment planning systems (TPSs) using a MBDCA require a set of well-defined test case plans characterized by Monte Carlo (MC) methods. This also permits direct dose comparison to TG-43 reference data. Such test case plans should be made available for use in the software commissioning process performed by clinical end users. To this end, a hypothetical, generic high-dose rate (HDR) {sup 192}Ir source and a virtual water phantom were designed, which can be imported into a TPS. Methods: A hypothetical, generic HDR {sup 192}Ir source was designed based on commercially available sources as well as a virtual, cubic water phantom that can be imported into any TPS in DICOM format. The dose distribution of the generic {sup 192}Ir source when placed at the center of the cubic phantom, and away from the center under altered scatter conditions, was evaluated using two commercial MBDCAs [Oncentra{sup ®} Brachy with advanced collapsed-cone engine (ACE) and BrachyVision ACUROS{sup TM}]. Dose comparisons were performed using state-of-the-art MC codes for radiation transport, including ALGEBRA, BrachyDose, GEANT4, MCNP5, MCNP6, and PENELOPE2008. The methodologies adhered to recommendations in the AAPM TG-229 report on high-energy brachytherapy source dosimetry. TG-43 dosimetry parameters, an along-away dose-rate table, and primary and scatter separated (PSS) data were obtained. The virtual water phantom of (201){sup 3} voxels (1 mm sides) was used to evaluate the calculated dose distributions. Two test case plans involving a single position of the generic HDR {sup 192}Ir source in this phantom were prepared: (i) source centered in the phantom and (ii) source displaced 7 cm laterally from the center. Datasets were independently produced by

  13. Solid-phase microextraction for bioconcentration studies according to OECD TG 305

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duering, Rolf-Alexander; Boehm, Leonard [Land Use and Nutrition (IFZ) Justus Liebig University Giessen, Institute of Soil Science and Soil Conservation, Research Centre for BioSystems, Giessen (Germany); Schlechtriem, Christian [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME), Schmallenberg (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    An important aim of the European Community Regulation on chemicals and their safe use is the identification of (very) persistent, (very) bioaccumulative, and toxic substances. In other regulatory chemical safety assessments (pharmaceuticals, biocides, pesticides), the identification of such (very) persistent, (very) bioaccumulative, and toxic substances is of increasing importance. Solid-phase microextraction is especially capable of extracting total water concentrations as well as the freely dissolved fraction of analytes in the water phase, which is available for bioconcentration in fish. However, although already well established in environmental analyses to determine and quantify analytes mainly in aqueous matrices, solid-phase microextraction is still a rather unusual method in regulatory ecotoxicological research. Here, the potential benefits and drawbacks of solid-phase microextraction are discussed as an analytical routine approach for aquatic bioconcentration studies according to OECD TG 305, with a special focus on the testing of hydrophobic organic compounds characterized by log K{sub OW}> 5. (orig.)

  14. Structure investigations on zirconium phosphate preparates by means of DTA, ETA, and TG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbell, J.D.; Specht, S.; Born, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    The simultanous DTA, ETA and TG inorganic ion exchanger based on zirconium phosphate enables the clear interpretation of the effects occuring. In particular it can be seen that the fast transition in amorphous preparates at high temperature of a badly defined form of pyrophosphate into the cubic crystalline substances, however a measurable energy release by means of DTA is not observed due to the slight mobility of the atoms in the crystal lattice. This effect on the other hand may be seen using ETA. In addition, an exothermal reaction occuring in some preparates, especially in cation charged ones, was traced back to the forming of part-crystalline structures which could be especially fast and sensitively characterized using DTA. (orig.) [de

  15. Maysin and Its Flavonoid Derivative from Centipedegrass Attenuates Amyloid Plaques by Inducting Humoral Immune Response with Th2 Skewed Cytokine Response in the Tg (APPswe, PS1dE9 Alzheimer's Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuno Song

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a slow, progressive neurodegenerative disease and the most common type of dementia in the elderly. The etiology of AD and its underlying mechanism are still not clear. In a previous study, we found that an ethyl acetate extract of Centipedegrass (CG (i.e., EA-CG contained 4 types of Maysin derivatives, including Luteolin, Isoorientin, Rhamnosylisoorientin, and Derhamnosylmaysin, and showed protective effects against Amyloid beta (Aβ by inhibiting oligomeric Aβ in cellular and in vitro models. Here, we examined the preventative effects of EA-CG treatment on the Aβ burden in the Tg (Mo/Hu APPswe PS1dE9 AD mouse model. We have investigated the EA-CG efficacy as novel anti-AD likely preventing amyloid plaques using immunofluorescence staining to visually analyze Aβ40/42 and fibril formation with Thioflavin-S or 6E10 which are the profile of immunoreactivity against epitope Aβ1-16 or neuritic plaque, the quantitation of humoral immune response against Aβ, and the inflammatory cytokine responses (Th1 and Th2 using ELISA and QRT-PCR. To minimize the toxicity of the extracted CG, we addressed the liver toxicity in response to the CG extract treatment in Tg mice using relevant markers, such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST/ alanine aminotransferase (ALT measurements in serum. The EA-CG extract significantly reduced the Aβ burden, the concentration of soluble Aβ40/42 protein, and fibril formation in the hippocampus and cortex of the Tg mice treated with EA-CG (50 mg/kg BW/day for 6 months compared with the Tg mice treated with a normal diet. Additionally, the profile of anti-inflammatory cytokines revealed that the levels of Th2 (interleukin-4 (IL-4 and interleukin-10 (IL-10 cytokines are more significantly increased than Th1 (interferon-γ (IFN-γ, interleukin-2(IL-2 in the sera. These results suggest that the EA-CG fraction induces IL-4/IL-10-dependent anti-inflammatory cytokines (Th2 rather than pro

  16. Data showing non-conventional HLA-B27 expression in axial joints and gut tissue from B27 transgenic rats, and in frozen and paraffin-fixed synovial SpA tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rysnik, Oliwia; McHugh, Kirsty; van Duivenvoorde, Leonie; van Tok, Melissa; Taurog, Joel; Kollnberger, Simon; Baeten, Dominique; Bowness, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Data is presented showing expression of non-conventional (NC) heavy chain forms of B27 in synovial tissues from SpA patients. Data is presented showing the expression patterns of NC-B27 in joint, gastrointestinal and lymphoid tissues from B27 transgenic (TG(1)) rats with M. tuberculosis-induced SpA.

  17. Anti-inflammatory and anti-amyloidogenic effects of a small molecule, 2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl-2-butenal in Tg2576 Alzheimer’s disease mice model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD is pathologically characterized by excessive accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ fibrils within the brain and activation of astrocytes and microglial cells. In this study, we examined anti-inflammatory and anti-amyloidogenic effects of 2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl-2-butenal (HPB242, an anti-inflammatory compound produced by the tyrosine-fructose Maillard reaction. Methods 12-month-old Tg2576 mice were treated with HPB242 (5 mg/kg for 1 month and then cognitive function was assessed by the Morris water maze test and passive avoidance test. In addition, western blot analysis, Gel electromobility shift assay, immunostaining, immunofluorescence staining, ELISA and enzyme activity assays were used to examine the degree of Aβ deposition in the brains of Tg2576 mice. The Morris water maze task was analyzed using two-way ANOVA with repeated measures. Otherwise were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s post hoc test. Results Treatment of HPB242 (5 mg/kg for 1 month significantly attenuated cognitive impairments in Tg2576 transgenic mice. HPB242 also prevented amyloidogenesis in Tg2576 transgenic mice brains. This can be evidenced by Aβ accumulation, BACE1, APP and C99 expression and β-secretase activity. In addition, HPB242 suppresses the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 as well as activation of astrocytes and microglial cells. Furthermore, activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1/3 (STAT1/3 in the brain was potently inhibited by HPB242. Conclusions Thus, these results suggest that HPB242 might be useful to intervene in development or progression of neurodegeneration in AD through its anti-inflammatory and anti-amyloidogenic effects.

  18. SU-F-T-458: Tracking Trends of TG-142 Parameters Via Analysis of Data Recorded by 2D Chamber Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrian, A; Kabat, C; Defoor, D; Saenz, D; Rasmussen, K; Kirby, N; Gutierrez, A; Papanikolaou, N; Stathakis, S [University of Texas HSC SA, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: With increasing QA demands of medical physicists in clinical radiation oncology, the need for an effective method of tracking clinical data has become paramount. A tool was produced which scans through data automatically recorded by a 2D chamber array and extracts relevant information recommended by TG-142. Using this extracted information a timely and comprehensive analysis of QA parameters can be easily performed enabling efficient monthly checks on multiple linear accelerators simultaneously. Methods: A PTW STARCHECK chamber array was used to record several months of beam outputs from two Varian 2100 series linear accelerators and a Varian NovalisTx−. In conjunction with the chamber array, a beam quality phantom was used to simultaneously to determine beam quality. A minimalist GUI was created in MatLab that allows a user to set the file path of the data for each modality to be analyzed. These file paths are recorded to a MatLab structure and then subsequently accessed by a script written in Python (version 3.5.1) which then extracts values required to perform monthly checks as outlined by recommendations from TG-142. The script incorporates calculations to determine if the values recorded by the chamber array fall within an acceptable threshold. Results: Values obtained by the script are written to a spreadsheet where results can be easily viewed and annotated with a “pass” or “fail” and saved for further analysis. In addition to creating a new scheme for reviewing monthly checks, this application allows for able to succinctly store data for follow up analysis. Conclusion: By utilizing this tool, parameters recommended by TG-142 for multiple linear accelerators can be rapidly obtained and analyzed which can be used for evaluation of monthly checks.

  19. Efficient protein-repelling thin films regulated by chain mobility of low-Tg polymers with increased stability via crosslinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinghui; Huang, Zhiwei; Liu, Dan

    2017-12-01

    Polymer thin films are generally employed as coatings on implants to prevent protein adsorption. Polymer chain mobility and surface softness have been found to contribute to the protein resistance, but also bring film instability in a liquid protein medium. We investigated the protein resistance ability of three low-Tg polymers, including hydrophobic polymers polyisoprene (PI), poly(n-butyl methacrylate) (PnBMA) and hydrophilic polyethylene oxide (PEO), by overcoming the instability issue with crosslinking. We found that the Tgs of PI and PEO can be increased to around 0 °C after crosslinking. The remained strong chain mobility of both films can still resist protein adsorption regardless the hydrophobicity, yet greatly increases the film stability under an aqueous circumstance. The PnBMA film increased its Tg to around room temperature after crosslinking, which deteriorated the protein-resistance ability having the surface covered by BSA molecules. Our results support that the chain mobility of a polymer film plays an important role in resisting protein adsorption due to the increased entropy associated with more mobile polymer chains. By tune the degree of crosslinking, the stability of polymer in aqueous environment can be increased while the protein resistant ability can be remained. Our results provide a new strategy to design polymer materials for effective antifouling.

  20. Relationship of body weight parameters with the incidence of common spontaneous tumors in Tg.rasH2 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjpe, Madhav G; Denton, Melissa D; Vidmar, Tom J; Elbekai, Reem H

    2014-10-01

    The mechanistic relationship between increased food consumption, increased body weights, and increased incidence of tumors has been well established in 2-year rodent models. Body weight parameters such as initial body weights, terminal body weights, food consumption, and the body weight gains in grams and percentages were analyzed to determine whether such relationship exists between these parameters with the incidence of common spontaneous tumors in Tg.rasH2 mice. None of these body weight parameters had any statistically significant relationship with the incidence of common spontaneous tumors in Tg.rasH2 males, namely lung tumors, splenic hemangiosarcomas, nonsplenic hemangiosarcomas, combined incidence of all hemangiosarcomas, and Harderian gland tumors. These parameters also did not have any statistically significant relationship with the incidence of lung and Harderian gland tumors in females. However, in females, increased initial body weights did have a statistically significant relationship with the nonsplenic hemangiosarcomas, and increased terminal body weights did have a statistically significant relationship with the incidence of splenic hemangiosarcomas, nonsplenic hemangiosarcomas, and the combined incidence of all hemangiosarcomas. In addition, increased body weight gains in grams and percentages had a statistically significant relationship with the combined incidence of all hemangiosarcomas in females, but not separately with splenic and nonsplenic hemangiosarcomas. © 2013 by The Author(s).

  1. Deducting the temperature dependence of the structural relaxation time in equilibrium far below the nominal Tg by aging the decoupled conductivity relaxation to equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnarowska, Z; Ngai, K L; Paluch, M

    2014-05-07

    Using broadband dielectric spectroscopy we investigate the changes in the conductivity relaxation times τσ observed during the physical aging of the protic ionic conductor carvedilol dihydrogen phosphate (CP). Due to the large decoupling of ion diffusion from host molecule reorientation, the ion conductivity relaxation time τσ(Tage,tage) can be directly measured at temperatures Tage below Tg for exceedingly long aging times tage till τσ(Tage,tage) has reached the equilibrium value τσ(eq)(Tage). The dependence of τσ(Tage,tage) on tage is well described by the stretched exponential function, τσ(Tage, tage) = Aexp[-((tage)/(τage(Tage)))(β)] + τσ(eq)(Tage), where β is a constant and τage(Tage) can be taken as the structural α-relaxation time of the equilibrium liquid at T = Tage. The value of τσ(eq)(Tage) obtained after 63 days long annealing of CP, deviates from the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann-Hesse (VFTHσ) dependence of τσ(T) determined from data taken above Tg and extrapolated down to Tage. Concurrently, τage(Tage) also deviates from the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann-Hesse (VFTHα) dependence. The results help to answer the longstanding question of whether the VFTH dependence of τσ(T) as well as the structural α-relaxation time τα(T) holds or not in the equilibrium liquid state far below Tg.

  2. Prolonged Running, not Fluoxetine Treatment, Increases Neurogenesis, but does not Alter Neuropathology, in the 3xTg Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marlatt, M.W.; Potter, M.C.; Bayer, T.A.; van Praag, H.; Lucassen, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Reductions in adult neurogenesis have been documented in the original 3xTg mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), notably occurring at the same age when spatial memory deficits and amyloid plaque pathology appeared. As this suggested reduced neurogenesis was associated with behavioral deficits, we

  3. Studies concerning recycling by composting organic waste in Tg-Mureş

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recycling organic waste has become a matter of utmost importance for overall healthiness of the Earth, its volume largely interacting with the economic development. The problem tends to become a vital matter of survival for an entire society. In this context, recovery, recycling, physical-chemical treatment, composting or incineration are methods of waste processing, commonly used in most countries of the world. These measures are intended to both environmental protection and rational use and economically efficient. Based on the data regarding the municipal waste generated in Mures County, in previous years, and in Tg-Mures city, in 2007 were calculated the quantities expected to generate by the year 2038. Also, concerning the cleaning recovery it is proposed the pile composting method, being, from our point of view, more Beneficial in the area. In conclusion, at county level but at city level too, there is still working to do, primarily in terms of awareness, not only the population but also the relevant, local bodies, of what means the cleaning recovery of the municipal waste.

  4. SU-E-T-127: Application of TG-119 for Evaluation of Proton Spot Scanning Based Planning and Treatment Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, J; Cao, N; Wong, T [SCCA Proton Therapy, A Procure Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Bowen, S; Bloch, C [University of Washington, School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The clinical test cases presented in AAPM TG-119 are used to evaluate the accuracy of treatment planning and delivery through spot scanning proton beams. Methods: An IBA spot scanning delivery system has been commissioned to be used with the RayStation treatment planning system. Various test cases provided in TG-119 were used for planning and delivery verification. The CT dataset and structures as provided by TG-119 were imported into a mock patient. The plans were optimized using the multi field optimization (MFO) to achieve the desired goals. The planner was given the flexibility to achieve the given dose-volume goals by creating appropriate objectives and constraints. Beams were delivered to a phantom and measurements were performed at multiple depths using the MatrixxPT detector array. The analyses were performed on beam by beam basis and quantified using the gamma index. A tolerance of 3%/3 mm in 2D was used for gamma index analysis along with dose threshold of 10%. Results: The clinical goals for targets and critical structures were met or improved for all cases except the C-Shape target with difficult constraints. The minimum gamma index using the 3%/3mm as a criterion is 93.3% for one of the planes measured for C-Shape target. Using 2%/2mm as a criterion, the minimum gamma index drops to 70%. Only Prostate target has all the planes above >90% pass using the 2%/2mm criterion. Conclusion: The overall accuracy of the treatment planning and delivery is deemed clinically acceptable. The test cases with highly modulated beams can have steep gradients in the dose profiles that can reduce the gamma index pass rate. Gamma analysis based on 3D data may be needed for routine use of 2%/2mm criterion. In addition, improvements in modelling of spot profiles in dose engine may be required for further improving the gamma index pass rate.

  5. Investigation of thermodynamic properties of magnesium chloride amines by HPDSC and TG. For application in a high-lift high-temperature chemical heat pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevers, E.R.T.; Oonk, H.A.J.; Haije, W.G.; Ekeren, P.J. van

    2007-01-01

    The formation as well as the decomposition of magnesium chloride ammonia complexes was studied by high-pressure differential scanning calorimetry (HPDSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). HPDSC runs were performed under constant ammonia pressure conditions to determine the transition temperatures

  6. SU-G-TeP2-03: Comparison of Standard Dosimetry Protocol in Japan and AAPM TG-51 Addendum in Order to Establish Optimal Dosimetry for FFF Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, T; Adachi, Y [Department of Radiology, Seirei Hamamatsu General Hospital, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka (Japan); Hayashi, N [Graduate School of Health Sciences, Fujita Health University, Tayoake, Aichi (Japan); Nozue, M [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seirei Hamamtsu General Hospital, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Japan Standard Dosimetry of Absorbed dose to water in external beam radiotherapy (JSDP12) is widely used to measure radiation dose in radiotherapy. However, JSDP12 does not take flattening-filter-free (FFF) beam into consideration. In addition, JSDP12 applied TPR20,10 for dose quality index for photon beam. The purpose of this study is to compare JSDP12 with AAPM TG-51 addendum in order to establish optimal dosimetry procedure for FFF beam. Method: We evaluated the ion-recombination factor (ks) and the correction factor of radial beam profile (Prp) in FFF beam dosimetry. The ks was introduced by 2 voltages method and verified by Jaffe’s plot. The Prp was given by both film measurement and calculation of treatment planning system, and compared them. Next, we compared the dose quality indexes (kQ) between TPR20,10 method and PDD(10)x method. Finally we considered optimal dosimetry protocol for FFF photon beam using JSDP12 with referring TG-51 addendum protocols. The FFF photon beams of 6 MV (6X-FFF) and 10 MV (10X-FFF) from TrueBeam were investigated in this study. Results: The ks for 6X-FFF and 10X-FFF beams were 1.005 and 1.010, respectively. The Prp of 0.6 cc ionization chamber for 6X-FFF and 10X-FFF beams (Film, TPS) were (1.004, 1.008) and (1.005, 1.008), respectively. The kQ for 6X-FFF and 10X-FFF beams (JSDP12, TG-51 addendum) were (0.9950, 0.9947) and (0.9851, 0.9845), respectively. The most effective factor for uncertainty in FFF photon beam measurement was Prp for JSDP12 formalism. Total dosimetric differences between JSDP12 and TG-51 addendum for 6X-FFF and 10X-FFF were -0.47% and -0.73%, respectively. Conclusion: The total dosimetric difference between JSDP12 and TG-51 addendum was within 1%. The introduction of kQ given by JSDP is feasible for FFF photon beam dosimetry. However, we think Prp should be considered for optimal dosimetry procedure even if JSDP12 is used for FFF photon beam dosimetry.

  7. A comparative Tg-Ms study of the carbonization behaviour of different pitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, R.; Arenillas, A.; Crespo, J.L.; Pis, J.J.; Moinelo, S.R. [CSIC, Oviedo (Spain). Inst. Nacional del Carbon

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the formation of mesophase spherules from a low-temperature coal tar pitch under carbonization conditions. For comparison, the carbonization of a high-temperature coal tar pitch and a petroleum pitch were also considered. Different degrees of mesophase formation and development for each pitch. The results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), elemental analysis, and the thermogravimetric analyzer mass spectrometer (TG-MS) tests were compared with the different extents of mesophase formation, checked by optical microscopy. According to the results, several stages can be distinguished as temperature increases in the carbonization process of the pitches. In the low-temperature coal tar pitch, the devolatilization of light components, especially phenols, accounts for the most significant weight loss. Moreover, cross-linking contributes greatly to the formation and development of mesophase, resulting in the predominance of bulk mesophase in a relatively short time in the case of the low-temperature coal tar pitch. 19 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Kinetic analysis of dechlorination and oxidation of PrOCl by using a non-isothermal TG method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H.C.; Eun, H.C.; Cho, Y.Z.; Lee, H.S.; Kim, I.T.

    2009-01-01

    Thermal dechlorination and oxidation process of praseodymium oxychloride, PrOCl, was studied from the view point of reaction kinetics. On the basis of data of thermogravimetry under different oxygen partial pressures at various heating rates, a kinetic analysis was performed using an isoconversional method and a master plot method. The results of the isoconversional method of TG data suggested that the dechlorination and oxidation of PrOCl followed a single step with activation energy of 112.6 ± 3.4 kJ mol -1 , and from master plot methods, the reaction was described by a linear-contracting phase boundary reaction

  9. MO-D-BRD-02: In Memoriam of Bengt Bjarngard: SBRT II: Small Field Dosimetry - TG155

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, I; Reft, C

    2014-01-01

    Specialized radiation treatment such as SRS/SRT. SBRT, IMRT, VMAT, Tomotherapy, CyberKnife and Gamma Knife use small fields or combination of small fields where dosimetry is challenging and uncertain due to non-equilibrium conditions such as longitudinal and lateral disequilibrium. Additionally the primary photon fluence is greatly affected by the obstruction of the source size by the jaws creating a large dose gradient across the field. Electronic equilibrium is a phenomenon associated with the range of secondary particles which depend on the beam energy, photon spectrum and the composition of the medium. Additionally, the finite size of detectors creates volume averaging and fluence perturbations especially in small fields. The IAEA/AAPM has provided a frame work for non-compliant reference dosimetry in small fields1. The AAPM TG-1552 has adopted this frame work to provide guidelines in relative dosimetry. This course provides the insight of TG-155 that defines small field, provides recommendations for suitable detectors and associated correction factors to convert reading to dose. Recommendations of a good working practice for relative dosimetry measurements (PDD, TMR, output factor, etc.) and dose calculations based on the new formulation is are elaborated. It also discusses beam modeling and dose calculations as a critical step in clinical utilization of small field radiotherapy. Small errors in beam data, approximations in dose algorithms, or misaligned of detectors and field settings can propagate into large errors in planned and delivered dose. The modeling and treatment planning aspects of small field dosimetry are reviewed with emphasis on the most critical parts for ensuring accurate and safe radiation therapy. Discussion on k(fmsr, fclin) for commercially available detectors are also provided.1 P. Alfonso, P. Andreo, R. Capote, M. S. Huq, W. Kilby, P. Kjall, T. R. Mackie, H. Palmans, K. Rosser, J. Seuntjens, W. Ullrich and S. Vatnitsky, “A new

  10. Long-term Ameliorative Effects of the Antidepressant Fluoxetine Exposure on Cognitive Deficits in 3 × TgAD Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li; Gao, Li-Feng; Sun, Dong-Sheng; Wu, Hao; Wang, Qun; Ke, Dan; Lei, Hao; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Liu, Gong-Ping

    2017-08-01

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is neuroprotective; therefore, it has been applied to treat some neurodegenerative disorders. For instance, chronic fluoxetine exposure has short-term effects on Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the long-term ameliorative effects of fluoxetine exposure on AD have not been reported. In the present study, 6-month-old 3 × TgAD mice were treated with fluoxetine for 15 days, and then the influence of fluoxetine was detected at 20 days after the drug withdrawal. We found that chronic fluoxetine treatment ameliorated cognitive deficits of 3 × TgAD mice and increased the volume of the hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) with increased neuron number and dendritic spine density. Meanwhile, fluoxetine exposure also stimulated the long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampal DG. The synaptic-related protein expression increased via activation of the cyclic AMP response element binding (CREB) protein/brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathway induced by fluoxetine exposure. Lastly, we found that fluoxetine treatment decreased beta-amyloid (Aβ) levels. These results further certified that fluoxetine may be a potent effective drug for AD.

  11. SU-D-19A-05: The Dosimetric Impact of Using Xoft Axxent® Electronic Brachytherapy Source TG-43 Dosimetry Parameters for Treatment with the Xoft 30 Mm Diameter Vaginal Applicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simiele, S; Micka, J; Culberson, W; DeWerd, L [University of WI-Madison/ADCL, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A full TG-43 dosimetric characterization has not been performed for the Xoft Axxent ® electronic brachytherapy source (Xoft, a subsidiary of iCAD, San Jose, CA) within the Xoft 30 mm diameter vaginal applicator. Currently, dose calculations are performed using the bare-source TG-43 parameters and do not account for the presence of the applicator. This work focuses on determining the difference between the bare-source and sourcein- applicator TG-43 parameters. Both the radial dose function (RDF) and polar anisotropy function (PAF) were computationally determined for the source-in-applicator and bare-source models to determine the impact of using the bare-source dosimetry data. Methods: MCNP5 was used to model the source and the Xoft 30 mm diameter vaginal applicator. All simulations were performed using 0.84p and 0.03e cross section libraries. All models were developed based on specifications provided by Xoft. The applicator is made of a proprietary polymer material and simulations were performed using the most conservative chemical composition. An F6 collision-kerma tally was used to determine the RDF and PAF values in water at various dwell positions. The RDF values were normalized to 2.0 cm from the source to accommodate the applicator radius. Source-in-applicator results were compared with bare-source results from this work as well as published baresource results. Results: For a 0 mm source pullback distance, the updated bare-source model and source-in-applicator RDF values differ by 2% at 3 cm and 4% at 5 cm. The largest PAF disagreements were observed at the distal end of the source and applicator with up to 17% disagreement at 2 cm and 8% at 8 cm. The bare-source model had RDF values within 2.6% of the published TG-43 data and PAF results within 7.2% at 2 cm. Conclusion: Results indicate that notable differences exist between the bare-source and source-in-applicator TG-43 simulated parameters. Xoft Inc. provided partial funding for this work.

  12. Progressive impairment of directional and spatially precise trajectories by TgF344-AD Rats in the Morris Water Task

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Shannon; Harvey, Ryan; Clark, Benjamin; Drake, Emma; Berkowitz, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Spatial navigation is impaired in early stages of Alzheimers disease (AD), and may be a defining behavioral marker of preclinical AD. Nevertheless, limitations of diagnostic criteria for AD and within animal models of AD make characterization of preclinical AD difficult. A new rat model (TgF344-AD) of AD overcomes many of these limitations, though spatial navigation has not been comprehensively assessed. Using the hidden and cued platform variants of the Morris water task, a longitudinal asse...

  13. Comparison of time-gated surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TG-SERS) and classical SERS based monitoring of Escherichia coli cultivation samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kögler, Martin; Paul, Andrea; Anane, Emmanuel; Birkholz, Mario; Bunker, Alex; Viitala, Tapani; Maiwald, Michael; Junne, Stefan; Neubauer, Peter

    2018-06-08

    The application of Raman spectroscopy as a monitoring technique for bioprocesses is severely limited by a large background signal originating from fluorescing compounds in the culture media. Here we compare time-gated Raman (TG-Raman)-, continuous wave NIR-process Raman (NIR-Raman) and continuous wave micro-Raman (micro-Raman) approaches in combination with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for their potential to overcome this limit. For that purpose, we monitored metabolite concentrations of Escherichia coli bioreactor cultivations in cell-free supernatant samples. We investigated concentration transients of glucose, acetate, AMP and cAMP at alternating substrate availability, from deficiency to excess. Raman and SERS signals were compared to off-line metabolite analysis of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and nucleotides. Results demonstrate that SERS, in almost all cases, led to a higher number of identifiable signals and better resolved spectra. Spectra derived from the TG-Raman were comparable to those of micro-Raman resulting in well-discernable Raman peaks, which allowed for the identification of a higher number of compounds. In contrast, NIR-Raman provided a superior performance for the quantitative evaluation of analytes, both with and without SERS nanoparticles when using multivariate data analysis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  14. Mannan-Abeta28 conjugate prevents Abeta-plaque deposition, but increases microhemorrhages in the brains of vaccinated Tg2576 (APPsw mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karapetyan Adrine

    2008-09-01

    antigen, BSA (mannan-BSA or non-immunized mice. Of note, mice immunized with mannan-Aβ28 showed a trend toward elevated levels of CAA in the neocortex and in the leptomeninges compared to that in mice of both control groups. Conclusion Mannan conjugated to Aβ28 provided sufficient adjuvant activity to induce potent anti-Aβ antibodies in APP transgenic mice, which have been shown to be hyporesponsive to immunization with Aβ self-antigen. However, in old Tg2576 mice there were increased levels of cerebral microhemorrhages in mannan-Aβ28 immunized mice. This effect was likely unrelated to the anti-mannan antibodies induced by the immunoconjugate, because control mice immunized with mannan-BSA also induced antibodies specific to mannan, but did not have increased levels of cerebral microhemorrhages compared with non-immunized mice. Whether these anti-mannan antibodies increased the permeability of the blood brain barrier thus allowing elevated levels of anti-Aβ antibodies entry into cerebral perivascular or brain parenchymal spaces and contributed to the increased incidence of microhemorrhages remains to be investigated in the future studies.

  15. Design of a PET/CT facility considering the shielding calculation in accordance with AAPM TG-108; Diseno de una instalacion PET/CT considerando el calculo de blindaje segun AAPM TG-108

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara R, V. Y.; Romero C, N. [Empresa QC DOSE S. A. C., Av. Tomas Marsano 1915, Surquillo, Lima 34 (Peru); Berrocal T, M., E-mail: vguevara@qcdose.com [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, C. German Amezaga 375, Edif. Jorge Basadre, Ciudad Universitaria, Lima 1 (Peru)

    2014-08-15

    A Positron Emission Tomography / Computed Tomography facility may require protection barriers on floor, ceiling and walls, because the patient becomes a radioactive source that emits photons of 0.511 MeV, after having received a radiopharmaceutical, usually F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG). This work has as objective to propose the design of a PET/CT facility, taking into account technical and radiation protection considerations applied internationally, and also develop the necessary shielding for such installation by applying as published by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group Report 108. A shielding spreadsheet in Excel program was developed with reference to the recommendations of the AAPM TG - 08, to determine the shielding required for the walls, floor and ceiling. For fixing the radiation levels in the shielding calculation has been considered the actual restrictions for the occupationally exposed personnel (100 μSv/week) as well as the people in general (20 μSv/ week). The radiopharmaceutical used as a reference for the shielding calculation was the F-18 FDG. With the assistance of an architectural plan were determined distances from potential sources of radiation in facility (uptake and image acquisition living rooms) to points of interest around them. Finally the thickness of the protective barriers in lead and concrete necessary to achieve the established radiation levels were calculated and these results were stored in a table. This paper shows that technical aspects considered in the design of the installation and environments distribution can improve work processes within the PET/CT facility, consequently resulting in a reduction of the dose levels for people in general. (author)

  16. Profiling and quantitative evaluation of three Nickel-Coated magnetic matrices for purification of recombinant proteins: lelpful hints for the optimized nanomagnetisable matrix preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarei Saeed

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several materials are available in the market that work on the principle of protein magnetic fishing by their histidine (His tags. Little information is available on their performance and it is often quoted that greatly improved purification of histidine-tagged proteins from crude extracts could be achieved. While some commercial magnetic matrices could be used successfully for purification of several His-tagged proteins, there are some which have been proved to operate just for a few extent of His-tagged proteins. Here, we address quantitative evaluation of three commercially available Nickel nanomagnetic beads for purification of two His-tagged proteins expressed in Escherichia coli and present helpful hints for optimized purification of such proteins and preparation of nanomagnetisable matrices. Results Marked differences in the performance of nanomagnetic matrices, principally on the basis of their specific binding capacity, recovery profile, the amount of imidazole needed for protein elution and the extent of target protein loss and purity were obtained. Based on the aforesaid criteria, one of these materials featured the best purification results (SiMAG/N-NTA/Nickel for both proteins at the concentration of 4 mg/ml, while the other two (SiMAC-Nickel and SiMAG/CS-NTA/Nickel did not work well with respect to specific binding capacity and recovery profile. Conclusions Taken together, functionality of different types of nanomagnetic matrices vary considerably. This variability may not only be dependent upon the structure and surface chemistry of the matrix which in turn determine the affinity of interaction, but, is also influenced to a lesser extent by the physical properties of the protein itself. Although the results of the present study may not be fully applied for all nanomagnetic matrices, but provide a framework which could be used to profiling and quantitative evaluation of other magnetisable matrices and also

  17. Exercise alters the immune profile in Tg2576 Alzheimer mice toward a response coincident with improved cognitive performance and decreased amyloid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cribbs David H

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation is associated with Aβ pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD and transgenic AD models. Previously, it has been demonstrated that chronic stimulation of the immune response induces pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α which contribute to neurodegeneration. However, recent evidence has shown that inducing the adaptive immune response reduces Aβ pathology and is neuroprotective. Low concentrations of IFN-γ modulate the adaptive immune response by directing microglia to differentiate to antigen presenting cells. Our objective was to determine if exercise could induce a shift from the immune profile in aged (17–19 months Tg2576 mice to a response that reduces Aβ pathology. Methods TG (n = 29 and WT (n = 27 mice were divided into sedentary (SED and exercised (RUN groups. RUN animals were provided an in-cage running wheel for 3 weeks. Tissue was harvested and hippocampus and cortex dissected out. Quantitative data was analyzed using 2 × 2 ANOVA and student's t-tests. Results IL-1β and TNF-α were significantly greater in hippocampi from sedentary Tg2576 (TGSED mice than in wildtype (WTSED (p = 0.04, p = 0.006. Immune response proteins IFN-γ and MIP-1α are lower in TGSED mice than in WTSED (p = 0.03, p = 0.07. Following three weeks of voluntary wheel running, IL-1β and TNF-α decreased to levels indistinguishable from WT. Concurrently, IFN-γ and MIP-1α increased in TGRUN. Increased CD40 and MHCII, markers of antigen presentation, were observed in TGRUN animals compared to TGSED, as well as CD11c staining in and around plaques and vasculature. Additional vascular reactivity observed in TGRUN is consistent with an alternative activation immune pathway, involving perivascular macrophages. Significant decreases in soluble Aβ40 (p = 0.01 and soluble fibrillar Aβ (p = 0.01 were observed in the exercised transgenic animals. Conclusion Exercise shifts the immune response from innate to an adaptive or

  18. A 28-day oral gavage toxicity study of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) in CB6F1-non-Tg rasH2 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoung-Seok; Park, Sang-Jin; Kim, Yong-Bum; Han, Ji-Seok; Jeong, Eun-Ju; Moon, Kyoung-Sik; Son, Hwa-Young

    2015-12-01

    3-Monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) is a well-known contaminant of foods containing hydrolyzed vegetable protein. However, limited toxicity data are available for the risk assessment of 3-MCPD and its carcinogenic potential is controversial. To evaluate the potential toxicity and determine the dose levels for a 26-week carcinogenicity test using Tg rasH2 mice, 3-MCPD was administered once daily by oral gavage at doses of 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day for 28 days to male and female CB6F1-non-Tg rasH2 mice (N = 5 males and females per dose). The standard toxicological evaluations were conducted during the in-life and post-mortem phase. In the 100 mg/kg b.w./day group, 3 males and 1 female died during the study and showed clinical signs such as thin appearance and subdued behavior accompanied by significant decreases in mean b.w. Microscopy revealed tubular basophilia in the kidneys, exfoliated degenerative germ cells in the lumen of the seminiferous tubule of the testes, vacuolation in the brain, axonal degeneration of the sciatic nerve, and cardiomyopathy in the 100, ≥25, ≥50, 100, and 100 mg/kg b.w./day groups, respectively. In conclusion, 3-MCPD's target organs were the kidneys, testes, brain, sciatic nerve, and heart. The "no-observed-adverse-effect level" (NOAEL) of 3-MCPD was ≤25 and 25 mg/kg b.w./day in males and females, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cistatina C, PCR, Log TG/HDLc e Sindrome Metabolica estao Relacionados a Microalbuminuria na Hipertensao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela do Socorro Souza e Silva Moura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Em pacientes com hipertensão arterial sistêmica, a microalbuminúria é um marcador de lesão endotelial e está associada a um risco aumentado de doença cardiovascular. Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar os fatores que influenciam a ocorrência de microalbumiúria em pacientes hipertensos com creatinina sérica menor que 1,5 mg/dL. Métodos: Foram incluídos no estudo 133 pacientes brasileiros atendidos em um ambulatório multidisciplinar para hipertensos. Pacientes com creatinina sérica maior do que 1,5 mg/dL e aqueles com diabete mellitus foram excluídos do estudo. A pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica foi aferida. O índice de massa corporal (IMC e a taxa de filtração glomerular estimada pela fórmula CKD-EPI foram calculados. Em um estudo transversal, creatinina, cistatina C, colesterol total, HDL colesterol, LDL colesterol, triglicerídeos, proteína C-reativa (PCR e glicose foram mensurados em amostra de sangue. A microalbuminúria foi determinada na urina colhida em 24 horas. Os hipertensos foram classificados pela presença de um ou mais critérios para síndrome metabólica. Resultados: Em análise de regressão múltipla, os níveis séricos de cistatina C, PCR, o índice aterogênico log TG/HDLc e a presença de três ou mais critérios para síndrome metabólica foram positivamente correlacionados com a microalbuminuria (r2: 0,277; p < 0,05. Conclusão: Cistatina C, PCR, log TG/HDLc e presença de três ou mais critérios para síndrome metabólica, independentemente da creatinina sérica, foram associados com a microalbuminúria, um marcador precoce de lesão renal e de risco cardiovascular em pacientes com hipertensão arterial essencial.

  20. Prevalence of iodine- and thyroglobulin-negative findings in differentiated thyroid cancer. A retrospective analysis of patients treated from 1961 to 1998 in a university hospital; Haeufigkeit lod- und hTG-negativer Befunde beim differenzierten Schilddruesenkarzinom. Eine retrospektive Analyse der von 1961 bis 1998 in einer Universitaetsklinik behandelten Patienten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klutmann, S.; Jenicke, L.; Geiss-Toenshoff, M.; Bohuslavizki, K.H.; Mester, J.; Clausen, M. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2001-10-01

    Aim: The prevalence of iodine- and thyroglobulin-negative findings was evaluated in all patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) treated from 1961 until 1998 at the Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf. Methods: A total of 490 patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PCA) and 242 patients with follicular thyroid cancer (FCA) were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into four groups: 1: no recurrence, 2: recurrent disease, 3: primary metastatic/progressive disease and 4: inconclusive follow-up. Results of iodine scan, serum-TG, and additional imaging modalities as well as histology were compared in all patients. Results: 21/490 (4,3%) of patients with PCA and 16/242 (6,6%) with FCA suffered from recurrent disease. 62/490 (12,7%) of patients with PCA and 59/242 (24,4%) with FCA had primary metastatic/progressive disease. 12/21 patients with PCA and 12/16 with FCA showing up with recurrent disease had a negative iodinescan. 11/21 of patients with PCA and 4/16 with FCA and tumor recurrence had negative serum-TG levels. 14/62 patients with PCA and 14/59 with FCA presenting with primary metastatic/progressive disease had negative iodinescan. 14/62 patients with PCA and 6/59 with FCA had negative serum-TG. Conclusion: The prevalence of iodine-negative recurrent/metastatic disease is in accordance to the literature, whereas the prevalence of TG-negative recurrent/metastatic was noted higher than reported previously. Thus, the commonly used follow-up scheme of DTC is confirmed. However, iodine scan should be regularly performed in patients with high risk of recurrence. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Retrospektiv wurden alle von 1961 bis 1998 in der Abteilung fuer Nukleamedizin des Universitaetsklinikums Hamburg-Eppendorf behandelten Patienten mit einem differenzierten Schilddruesenkarzinom bezueglich des Anteils lod- und/oder hTG-negativer Rezidive analysiert. Methoden: Es wurden 490 Patienten mit einem papillaeren

  1. Leigh-Like Syndrome Due to Homoplasmic m.8993T>G Variant with Hypocitrullinemia and Unusual Biochemical Features Suggestive of Multiple Carboxylase Deficiency (MCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Shanti; Lewis, B; Mock, D M; Said, H M; Tarailo-Graovac, M; Mattman, A; van Karnebeek, C D; Thorburn, D R; Rodenburg, R J; Christodoulou, J

    2017-01-01

    Leigh syndrome (LS), or subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy, is a genetically heterogeneous, relentlessly progressive, devastating neurodegenerative disorder that usually presents in infancy or early childhood. A diagnosis of Leigh-like syndrome may be considered in individuals who do not fulfil the stringent diagnostic criteria but have features resembling Leigh syndrome.We describe a unique presentation of Leigh-like syndrome in a 3-year-old boy with elevated 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (C5-OH) on newborn screening (NBS). Subsequent persistent plasma elevations of C5-OH and propionylcarnitine (C3) as well as fluctuating urinary markers were suggestive of multiple carboxylase deficiency (MCD). Normal enzymology and mutational analysis of genes encoding holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS) and biotinidase (BTD) excluded MCD. Biotin uptake studies were normal excluding biotin transporter deficiency. His clinical features at 13 months of age comprised psychomotor delay, central hypotonia, myopathy, failure to thrive, hypocitrullinemia, recurrent episodes of decompensation with metabolic keto-lactic acidosis and an episode of hyperammonemia. Biotin treatment from 13 months of age was associated with increased patient activity, alertness, and attainment of new developmental milestones, despite lack of biochemical improvements. Whole exome sequencing (WES) analysis failed to identify any other variants which could likely contribute to the observed phenotype, apart from the homoplasmic (100%) m.8993T>G variant initially detected by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing.Hypocitrullinemia has been reported in patients with the m.8993T>G variant and other mitochondrial disorders. However, persistent plasma elevations of C3 and C5-OH have previously only been reported in one other patient with this homoplasmic mutation. We suggest considering the m.8993T>G variant early in the diagnostic evaluation of MCD-like biochemical disturbances, particularly when associated with

  2. Eplerenone ameliorates the phenotypes of metabolic syndrome with NASH in liver-specific SREBP-1c Tg mice fed high-fat and high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Tsutomu; Miyashita, Yusuke; Sasaki, Motohiro; Aruga, Yusuke; Nakamura, Yuto; Ishii, Yoko; Sasahara, Masakiyo; Kanasaki, Keizo; Kitada, Munehiro; Koya, Daisuke; Shimano, Hitoshi; Tsuneki, Hiroshi; Sasaoka, Toshiyasu

    2013-12-01

    Because the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance and promotion of fibrosis in some tissues, such as the vasculature, we examined the effect of eplerenone, a selective mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist, on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and metabolic phenotypes in a mouse model reflecting metabolic syndrome in humans. We adopted liver-specific transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing the active form of sterol response element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) fed a high-fat and fructose diet (HFFD) as the animal model in the present study. When wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 and liver-specific SREBP-1c Tg mice grew while being fed HFFD for 12 wk, body weight and epididymal fat weight increased in both groups with an elevation in blood pressure and dyslipidemia. Glucose intolerance and insulin resistance were also observed. Adipose tissue hypertrophy and macrophage infiltration with crown-like structure formation were also noted in mice fed HFFD. Interestingly, the changes noted in both genotypes fed HFFD were significantly ameliorated with eplerenone. HFFD-fed Tg mice exhibited the histological features of NASH in the liver, including macrovesicular steatosis and fibrosis, whereas HFFD-fed WT mice had hepatic steatosis without apparent fibrotic changes. Eplerenone effectively ameliorated these histological abnormalities. Moreover, the direct suppressive effects of eplerenone on lipopolysaccharide-induced TNFα production in the presence and absence of aldosterone were observed in primary-cultured Kupffer cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. These results indicated that eplerenone prevented the development of NASH and metabolic abnormalities in mice by inhibiting inflammatory responses in both Kupffer cells and macrophages.

  3. Thermochemical study of 2,4-, 2,6- and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acids in the liquid phase using a TG apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecchio, Stefano; Brunetti, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Vapor pressures of solid and liquid 2,4- 2,6- and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acids, that don't decompose appreciably in the temperature range considered, were determined by torsion-effusion technique and thermogravimetry, respectively. → Agreement between the experimental sublimation vapor pressures and literature data recently published is good for all the three isomers. → From the temperature dependence of vapor pressure the molar enthalpies of sublimation and vaporization were determined at the middle of the respective experimental temperature intervals. → For validation of TG pressure data, the TG vapor pressures of solid ferrocene and 1,2-dihydroxybenzoic acid were successfully compared with the corresponding literature values. → The following increasing-order of volatility can be established: 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid l g H m o ( ) were determined, respectively, at the middle of the respective temperature intervals. The melting temperatures and the molar enthalpies of fusion of these compounds were measured by d.s.c. The vapor pressures of these compounds in the solid state, measured by torsion-effusion technique, were compared with recently published data, while the corresponding molar sublimation enthalpies were determined. In order to validate the vapor pressure results determined by TG, the experimental vapor pressure data regarding solid ferrocene and 1,2-dihydroxybenzoic acid were successfully compared with literature values in the range 20-200 Pa. In addition, the experimental molar enthalpies of fusion were compared with those calculated by subtracting the molar vaporization enthalpies to the sublimation ones, both adjusted to their respective melting temperatures. Finally, the standard (p o = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies, entropies and Gibbs energies of sublimation, corrected at the reference temperature of 298.15 K, have been calculated using the estimated heat capacity differences between gas and liquid for vaporization

  4. Comparison on Classification Results Based on Data of TG-1 HSI and HJ-1 CCD%天宫一号高光谱成像仪数据与环境星CCD数据分类效果比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新杰; 刘良云; 李绪志; 张九星

    2013-01-01

    本文以北京市通州区为例,利用最短距离法、最大似然法和支持向量机3种分类方法分别对天宫一号高光谱成像仪数据与HJ-A星CCD数据进行监督分类,通过比较分类结果发现,天宫一号高光谱成像仪数据在样本可分性度量、目视效果及分类精度3个方面均优于HJ-A星CCD数据,在土地利用类型分类应用中具有显著优势.%The TianGong-1 target spacecraft is equipped with a Hyperspectral Imager (HSI) which has the highest aggregative indicator of spectral and spatial resolution in China.In this paper,we used the case of Tongzhou,Beijing to compare the results of classification based on the data of TG-1 HSI and HJ-1A CCD.Three different methods (Minimum Distance,Maximum Likelihood,and Support Vector Machine) were used.The results based on the TG-1 HSI data performed better in the separability of the ROIs,the vision of the maps and the total accuracy of classification.The results of this study show the advantages of TG-1 HSI data in the application of classification.

  5. Transgenic fluorescent zebrafish Tg(fli1:EGFP)y¹ for the identification of vasotoxicity within the zFET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delov, Vera; Muth-Köhne, Elke; Schäfers, Christoph; Fenske, Martina

    2014-05-01

    The fish embryo toxicity test (FET) is currently one of the most advocated animal alternative tests in ecotoxicology. To date, the application of the FET with zebrafish (zFET) has focused on acute toxicity assessment, where only lethal morphological effects are accounted for. An application of the zFET beyond acute toxicity, however, necessitates the establishment of more refined and quantifiable toxicological endpoints. A valuable tool in this context is the use of gene expression-dependent fluorescent markers that can even be measured in vivo. We investigated the application of embryos of Tg(fli1:EGFP)(y1) for the identification of vasotoxic substances within the zFET. Tg(fli1:EGFP)(y1) fish express enhanced GFP in the entire vasculature under the control of the fli1 promoter, and thus enable the visualization of vascular defects in live zebrafish embryos. We assessed the fli1 driven EGFP-expression in the intersegmental blood vessels (ISVs) qualitatively and quantitatively, and found an exposure concentration related increase in vascular damage for chemicals like triclosan, cartap and genistein. The fluorescence endpoint ISV-length allowed an earlier and more sensitive detection of vasotoxins than the bright field assessment method. In combination with the standard bright field morphological effect assessment, an increase in significance and value of the zFET for a mechanism-specific toxicity evaluation was achieved. This study highlights the benefits of using transgenic zebrafish as convenient tools for identifying toxicity in vivo and to increase sensitivity and specificity of the zFET. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characteristic Study of Shenmu Bituminous Coal Combustion with Online TG-MS-FTIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Guanfu

    2018-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of Shenmu bituminous pulverized coal (SBC) were comprehensively investigated with a combined TG-MS-FTIR system by considering the effect of particle size, heating rate and total flowrate. The combustion products were accurately quantified by normalization and numerical analysis of MS results. The results indicate that the decrease of the particle size, heating rate and total flowrate result in lower ignition and burnout temperatures. The activation energy tends to be lower with smaller particle size, lower heating rate and total flowrate. The MS and FTIR results demonstrate that lower concentrations of different products, such as NO, NO2, HCN, CH4 and SO2 were produced with smaller particle size, slower heating rate and lower total flowrate. The decrease of particle size would lead to more contact area with oxygen and slower heating rate could provide more sufficient time for the diffusion. High total flowrate would reduce the oxygen adsorbability on the coal particle surface and shorten the residence time of oxygen, which makes the ignition difficult to occur. This work will guide to understand the combustion kinetics of pulverized coals and be beneficial to control the formation of pollutants.

  7. Yersinia enterocolitica-Specific Infection by Bacteriophages TG1 and ϕR1-RT Is Dependent on Temperature-Regulated Expression of the Phage Host Receptor OmpF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Velarde, Carlos G; Happonen, Lotta; Pajunen, Maria; Leskinen, Katarzyna; Kropinski, Andrew M; Mattinen, Laura; Rajtor, Monika; Zur, Joanna; Smith, Darren; Chen, Shu; Nawaz, Ayesha; Johnson, Roger P; Odumeru, Joseph A; Griffiths, Mansel W; Skurnik, Mikael

    2016-09-01

    Bacteriophages present huge potential both as a resource for developing novel tools for bacterial diagnostics and for use in phage therapy. This potential is also valid for bacteriophages specific for Yersinia enterocolitica To increase our knowledge of Y. enterocolitica-specific phages, we characterized two novel yersiniophages. The genomes of the bacteriophages vB_YenM_TG1 (TG1) and vB_YenM_ϕR1-RT (ϕR1-RT), isolated from pig manure in Canada and from sewage in Finland, consist of linear double-stranded DNA of 162,101 and 168,809 bp, respectively. Their genomes comprise 262 putative coding sequences and 4 tRNA genes and share 91% overall nucleotide identity. Based on phylogenetic analyses of their whole-genome sequences and large terminase subunit protein sequences, a genus named Tg1virus within the family Myoviridae is proposed, with TG1 and ϕR1-RT (R1RT in the ICTV database) as member species. These bacteriophages exhibit a host range restricted to Y. enterocolitica and display lytic activity against the epidemiologically significant serotypes O:3, O:5,27, and O:9 at and below 25°C. Adsorption analyses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and OmpF mutants demonstrate that these phages use both the LPS inner core heptosyl residues and the outer membrane protein OmpF as phage receptors. Based on RNA sequencing and quantitative proteomics, we also demonstrate that temperature-dependent infection is due to strong repression of OmpF at 37°C. In addition, ϕR1-RT was shown to be able to enter into a pseudolysogenic state. Together, this work provides further insight into phage-host cell interactions by highlighting the importance of understanding underlying factors which may affect the abundance of phage host receptors on the cell surface. Only a small number of bacteriophages infecting Y. enterocolitica, the predominant causative agent of yersiniosis, have been previously described. Here, two newly isolated Y. enterocolitica phages were studied in detail, with the aim of

  8. Highly Stabilized Curcumin Nanoparticles Tested in an In Vitro Blood–Brain Barrier Model and in Alzheimer’s Disease Tg2576 Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Kwok Kin; Yeung, Chin Fung; Ho, Shuk Wai; Chow, Shing Fung; Chow, Albert H. L.; Baum, Larry

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic effects of curcumin in treating Alzheimer’s disease (AD) depend on the ability to penetrate the blood–brain barrier. The latest nanoparticle technology can help to improve the bioavailability of curcumin, which is affected by the final particle size and stability. We developed a stable curcumin nanoparticle formulation to test in vitro and in AD model Tg2576 mice. Flash nanoprecipitation of curcumin, polyethylene glycol-polylactic acid co-block polymer, and polyvinylpyrrolidon...

  9. Characteristics of miniature electronic brachytherapy x-ray sources based on TG-43U1 formalism using Monte Carlo simulation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safigholi, Habib; Faghihi, Reza; Jashni, Somaye Karimi; Meigooni, Ali S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study is to determine a method for Monte Carlo (MC) characterization of the miniature electronic brachytherapy x-ray sources (MEBXS) and to set dosimetric parameters according to TG-43U1 formalism. TG-43U1 parameters were used to get optimal designs of MEBXS. Parameters that affect the dose distribution such as anode shapes, target thickness, target angles, and electron beam source characteristics were evaluated. Optimized MEBXS designs were obtained and used to determine radial dose functions and 2D anisotropy functions in the electron energy range of 25-80 keV. Methods: Tungsten anode material was considered in two different geometries, hemispherical and conical-hemisphere. These configurations were analyzed by the 4C MC code with several different optimization techniques. The first optimization compared target thickness layers versus electron energy. These optimized thicknesses were compared with published results by Ihsan et al.[Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 264, 371-377 (2007)]. The second optimization evaluated electron source characteristics by changing the cathode shapes and electron energies. Electron sources studied included; (1) point sources, (2) uniform cylinders, and (3) nonuniform cylindrical shell geometries. The third optimization was used to assess the apex angle of the conical-hemisphere target. The goal of these optimizations was to produce 2D-dose anisotropy functions closer to unity. An overall optimized MEBXS was developed from this analysis. The results obtained from this model were compared to known characteristics of HDR 125 I, LDR 103 Pd, and Xoft Axxent electronic brachytherapy source (XAEBS) [Med. Phys. 33, 4020-4032 (2006)]. Results: The optimized anode thicknesses as a function of electron energy is fitted by the linear equation Y (μm) = 0.0459X (keV)-0.7342. The optimized electron source geometry is obtained for a disk-shaped parallel beam (uniform cylinder) with 0.9 mm radius. The TG-43 distribution

  10. Characteristics of miniature electronic brachytherapy x-ray sources based on TG-43U1 formalism using Monte Carlo simulation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safigholi, Habib; Faghihi, Reza; Jashni, Somaye Karimi; Meigooni, Ali S. [Faculty of Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, 73481-13111, Persepolis (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Research Center, Shiraz University, 71936-16548, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, 71348-14336, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Radiation therapy, Comprehensive Cancer Center of Nevada, 3730 South Eastern Avenue, Las Vegas, Nevada 89169 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: The goal of this study is to determine a method for Monte Carlo (MC) characterization of the miniature electronic brachytherapy x-ray sources (MEBXS) and to set dosimetric parameters according to TG-43U1 formalism. TG-43U1 parameters were used to get optimal designs of MEBXS. Parameters that affect the dose distribution such as anode shapes, target thickness, target angles, and electron beam source characteristics were evaluated. Optimized MEBXS designs were obtained and used to determine radial dose functions and 2D anisotropy functions in the electron energy range of 25-80 keV. Methods: Tungsten anode material was considered in two different geometries, hemispherical and conical-hemisphere. These configurations were analyzed by the 4C MC code with several different optimization techniques. The first optimization compared target thickness layers versus electron energy. These optimized thicknesses were compared with published results by Ihsan et al.[Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 264, 371-377 (2007)]. The second optimization evaluated electron source characteristics by changing the cathode shapes and electron energies. Electron sources studied included; (1) point sources, (2) uniform cylinders, and (3) nonuniform cylindrical shell geometries. The third optimization was used to assess the apex angle of the conical-hemisphere target. The goal of these optimizations was to produce 2D-dose anisotropy functions closer to unity. An overall optimized MEBXS was developed from this analysis. The results obtained from this model were compared to known characteristics of HDR {sup 125}I, LDR {sup 103}Pd, and Xoft Axxent electronic brachytherapy source (XAEBS) [Med. Phys. 33, 4020-4032 (2006)]. Results: The optimized anode thicknesses as a function of electron energy is fitted by the linear equation Y ({mu}m) = 0.0459X (keV)-0.7342. The optimized electron source geometry is obtained for a disk-shaped parallel beam (uniform cylinder) with 0.9 mm radius. The TG-43

  11. Perturbed Lepton-Specific Two-Higgs-Doublet Model Facing Experimental Hints for Physics beyond the Standard Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivellin, Andreas; Heeck, Julian; Stoffer, Peter

    2016-02-26

    BABAR, Belle, and LHCb Collaborations report evidence for new physics in B→Dτν and B→D^{*}τν of approximately 3.8σ. There is also the long lasting discrepancy of about 3σ in the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the branching ratio for τ→μνν is 1.8σ (2.4σ) above the standard model expectation using the HFAG (PDG) values. Furthermore, CMS Collaboration finds hints for a nonzero decay rate of h→μτ. Interestingly, all these observations can be explained by introducing new scalars. In this Letter we consider these processes within a lepton-specific two-Higgs doublet model (i.e., of type X) with additional nonstandard Yukawa couplings. It is found that one can accommodate τ→μνν with modified Higgs-τ couplings. The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon can be explained if the additional neutral CP-even Higgs boson H is light (below 100 GeV). Also R(D) and R(D^{*}) can be easily explained by additional t-c-Higgs couplings. Combining these t-c couplings with a light H the decay rate for t→Hc can be in a testable range for the LHC. Effects in h→μτ are also possible, but in this case a simultaneous explanation of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon is difficult due to the unavoidable τ→μγ decay.

  12. Effect of heating rate on thermal cracking characteristics and kinetics of Xinjiang oil sand bitumen by TG-FTIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Junhui; Zhang, Jinhong; Qiao, Yingyun; Tian, Yuanyu

    2017-08-01

    This work was aimed to investigate effects of heating rate on thermal cracking behaviors, distribution of gaseous products and activation energy of the thermal cracking process of Xinjiang oil sand bitumen (OSB). The thermal cracking experiments of Xinjiang OSB were performed by using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) at various heating rates of 10, 20, 50, 80 and 120 K/min. The evolving characteristic of gaseous products produced from the thermal cracking process was evaluated by the Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) connected with TG. The kinetic parameters of the thermal cracking process of Xinjiang OSB at each of heating rate were determined by the Coats-Redfern model. The result show that the temperature intervals of DE volatilization stage and main reaction stage, the ((dw/dt) max and Tmax in thermal cracking process of Xinjiang OSB all increased with the increasing heating rate. While the heating rate has not obvious effect on the coke yield of Xinjiang OSB. Furthermore, the maximum absorbance of gaseous products and corresponding temperature became larger as the heating rate increases. The activation energy of this two stage both presented increasing trend with the rising heating rate, while the increasing content of that of DE volatilization stage was weaker compared to that of main reaction stage.

  13. Multi-Shell Hybrid Diffusion Imaging (HYDI) at 7 Tesla in TgF344-AD Transgenic Alzheimer Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daianu, Madelaine; Jacobs, Russell E; Weitz, Tara M; Town, Terrence C; Thompson, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is widely used to study microstructural characteristics of the brain. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and high-angular resolution imaging (HARDI) are frequently used in radiology and neuroscience research but can be limited in describing the signal behavior in composite nerve fiber structures. Here, we developed and assessed the benefit of a comprehensive diffusion encoding scheme, known as hybrid diffusion imaging (HYDI), composed of 300 DWI volumes acquired at 7-Tesla with diffusion weightings at b = 1000, 3000, 4000, 8000 and 12000 s/mm2 and applied it in transgenic Alzheimer rats (line TgF344-AD) that model the full clinico-pathological spectrum of the human disease. We studied and visualized the effects of the multiple concentric "shells" when computing three distinct anisotropy maps-fractional anisotropy (FA), generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) and normalized quantitative anisotropy (NQA). We tested the added value of the multi-shell q-space sampling scheme, when reconstructing neural pathways using mathematical frameworks from DTI and q-ball imaging (QBI). We show a range of properties of HYDI, including lower apparent anisotropy when using high b-value shells in DTI-based reconstructions, and increases in apparent anisotropy in QBI-based reconstructions. Regardless of the reconstruction scheme, HYDI improves FA-, GFA- and NQA-aided tractography. HYDI may be valuable in human connectome projects and clinical research, as well as magnetic resonance research in experimental animals.

  14. Tg(Th-Cre)FI172Gsat (Th-Cre) defines neurons that are required for full hypercapnic and hypoxic reflexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jenny J; Ray, Russell S

    2017-08-15

    The catecholaminergic (CA) system has been implicated in many facets of breathing control and offers an important target to better comprehend the underlying etiologies of both developmental and adult respiratory pathophysiologies. Here, we used a noninvasive DREADD-based pharmacogenetic approach to acutely perturb Tg(Th-Cre)FI172Gsat ( Th-Cre )-defined neurons in awake and unrestrained mice in an attempt to characterize CA function in breathing. We report that clozapine-N-oxide (CNO)-DREADD-mediated inhibition of Th-Cre -defined neurons results in blunted ventilatory responses under respiratory challenge. Under a hypercapnic challenge (5% CO 2 /21% O 2 /74% N 2 ), perturbation of Th-Cre neurons results in reduced f R , [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] Under a hypoxic challenge (10% O 2 /90% N 2 ), we saw reduced f R , [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], in addition to instability in both interbreath interval and tidal volume, resulting in a Cheyne-Stokes-like respiratory pattern. These findings demonstrate the necessity of Th-Cre -defined neurons for the hypercapnic and hypoxic ventilatory responses and breathing stability during hypoxia. However, given the expanded non-CA expression domains of the Tg(Th-Cre)FI172Gsat mouse line found in the brainstem, full phenotypic effect cannot be assigned solely to CA neurons. Nonetheless, this work identifies a key respiratory population that may lead to further insights into the circuitry that maintains respiratory stability in the face of homeostatic challenges. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Tau causes synapse loss without disrupting calcium homeostasis in the rTg4510 model of tauopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J Kopeikina

    Full Text Available Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs of tau are one of the defining hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD, and are closely associated with neuronal degeneration. Although it has been suggested that calcium dysregulation is important to AD pathogenesis, few studies have probed the link between calcium homeostasis, synapse loss and pathological changes in tau. Here we test the hypothesis that pathological changes in tau are associated with changes in calcium by utilizing in vivo calcium imaging in adult rTg4510 mice that exhibit severe tau pathology due to over-expression of human mutant P301L tau. We observe prominent dendritic spine loss without disruptions in calcium homeostasis, indicating that tangles do not disrupt this fundamental feature of neuronal health, and that tau likely induces spine loss in a calcium-independent manner.

  16. Regulatory Forum Opinion Piece*: Retrospective Evaluation of Doses in the 26-week Tg.rasH2 Mice Carcinogenicity Studies: Recommendation to Eliminate High Doses at Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) in Future Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjpe, Madhav G; Denton, Melissa D; Vidmar, Tom J; Elbekai, Reem H

    2015-07-01

    High doses in Tg.rasH2 carcinogenicity studies are usually set at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), although this dose selection strategy has not been critically evaluated. We analyzed the body weight gains (BWGs), mortality, and tumor response in control and treated groups of 29 Tg.rasH2 studies conducted at BioReliance. Based on our analysis, it is evident that the MTD was exceeded at the high and/or mid-doses in several studies. The incidence of tumors in high doses was lower when compared to the low and mid-doses of both sexes. Thus, we recommend that the high dose in male mice should not exceed one-half of the estimated MTD (EMTD), as it is currently chosen, and the next dose should be one-fourth of the EMTD. Because females were less sensitive to decrements in BWG, the high dose in female mice should not exceed two-third of EMTD and the next dose group should be one-third of EMTD. If needed, a third dose group should be set at one-eighth EMTD in males and one-sixth EMTD in females. In addition, for compounds that do not show toxicity in the range finding studies, a limit dose should be applied for the 26-week carcinogenicity studies. © 2014 by The Author(s).

  17. SU-F-T-54: Determination of the AAPM TG-43 Brachytherapy Dosimetry Parameters for A New Titanium-Encapsulated Yb-169 Source by Monte Carlo Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynoso, F [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Munro, J [Source Production & Equipment Co., Inc., St. Rose, LA (United States); Cho, S [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the AAPM TG-43 brachytherapy dosimetry parameters of a new titanium-encapsulated Yb-169 source designed to maximize the dose enhancement during gold nanoparticle-aided radiation therapy (GNRT). Methods: An existing Monte Carlo (MC) model of the titanium-encapsulated Yb-169 source, which was described in the current investigators’ published MC optimization study, was modified based on the source manufacturer’s detailed specifications, resulting in an accurate model of the titanium-encapsulated Yb-169 source that was actually manufactured. MC calculations were then performed using the MCNP5 code system and the modified source model, in order to obtain a complete set of the AAPM TG-43 parameters for the new Yb-169 source. Results: The MC-calculated dose rate constant for the new titanium-encapsulated Yb-169 source was 1.05 ± 0.03 cGy per hr U, indicating about 10% decrease from the values reported for the conventional stainless steel-encapsulated Yb-169 sources. The source anisotropy and radial dose function for the new source were found similar to those reported for the conventional Yb-169 sources. Conclusion: In this study, the AAPM TG-43 brachytherapy dosimetry parameters of a new titanium-encapsulated Yb-169 source were determined by MC calculations. The current results suggested that the use of titanium, instead of stainless steel, to encapsulate the Yb-169 core would not lead to any major change in the dosimetric characteristics of the Yb-169 source, while it would allow more low energy photons being transmitted through the source filter thereby leading to an increased dose enhancement during GNRT. Supported by DOD/PCRP grant W81XWH-12-1-0198 This investigation was supported by DOD/PCRP grant W81XWH-12-1- 0198.

  18. SU-E-T-159: Evaluation of a Patient Specific QA Tool Based On TG119

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashmeg, S; Zhang, Y; O'Daniel, J; Yin, F; Ren, L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of a 3D patient specific QA tool by analysis of the results produced from associated software in homogenous phantom and heterogonous patient CT. Methods: IMRT and VMAT plans of five test suites introduced by TG119 were created in ECLIPSE on a solid water phantom. The ten plans -of increasing complexity- were delivered to Delta4 to give a 3D measurement. The Delta4's “Anatomy” software uses the measured dose to back-calculate the energy fluence of the delivered beams, which is used for dose calculation in a patient CT using a pencilbeam algorithm. The effect of the modulated beams' complexity on the accuracy of the “Anatomy” calculation was evaluated. Both measured and Anatomy doses were compared to ECLIPSE calculation using 3% - 3mm gamma criteria.We also tested the effect of heterogeneity by analyzing the results of “Anatomy” calculation on a Brain VMAT and a 3D conformal lung cases. Results: In homogenous phantom, the gamma passing rates were found to be as low as 74.75% for a complex plan with high modulation. The mean passing rates were 91.47% ± 6.35% for “Anatomy” calculation and 99.46% ± 0.62% for Delta4 measurements.As for the heterogeneous cases, the rates were 96.54%±3.67% and 83.87%±9.42% for Brain VMAT and 3D lung respectively. This increased error in the lung case could be due to the use of the pencil beam algorithm as opposed to the AAA used by ECLIPSE.Also, gamma analysis showed high discrepancy along the beam edge in the “Anatomy” calculated results. This suggests a poor beam modeling in the penumbra region. Conclusion: The results show various sources of errors in “Anatomy” calculations. These include beam modeling in the penumbra region, complexity of a modulated beam (shown in homogenous phantom and brain cases) and dose calculation algorithms (3D conformal lung case)

  19. MO-A-BRB-00: TG191: Clinical Use of Luminescent Dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    This presentation will highlight the upcoming TG-191 report: Clinical Use of Luminescent Dosimeters. Luminescent dosimetry based on TLD and OSLD is a practical, accurate, and precise technique for point dosimetry in medical physics applications. The charges of Task Group 191 were to detail the methodologies for practical and optimal luminescent dosimetry in a clinical setting. This includes (1) To review the variety of TLD/OSL materials available, including features and limitations of each. (2) To outline the optimal steps to achieve accurate and precise dosimetry with luminescent detectors and to evaluate the uncertainty induced when less rigorous procedures are used. (3) To develop consensus guidelines on the optimal use of luminescent dosimeters for clinical practice. (4) To develop guidelines for special medically relevant uses of TLDs/OSLs (e.g., mixed field i.e. photon/neutron dosimetry, particle beam dosimetry, skin dosimetry). While this report provides general guidelines for arbitrary TLD and OSLD processes, the report, and therefore this presentation, provide specific guidance for TLD-100 (LiF:Ti,Mg) and nanoDot (Al2O3:C) dosimeters because of their prevalence in clinical practice. Learning Objectives: Understand the available dosimetry systems, and basic theory of their operation Understand the range of dose determination methodologies and the uncertainties associated with them Become familiar with special considerations for TLD/OSLD relevant for special clinical situations Learn recommended commissioning and QA procedures for these dosimetry systems.

  20. MO-A-BRB-01: TG191: Clinical Use of Luminescent Dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kry, S. [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    This presentation will highlight the upcoming TG-191 report: Clinical Use of Luminescent Dosimeters. Luminescent dosimetry based on TLD and OSLD is a practical, accurate, and precise technique for point dosimetry in medical physics applications. The charges of Task Group 191 were to detail the methodologies for practical and optimal luminescent dosimetry in a clinical setting. This includes (1) To review the variety of TLD/OSL materials available, including features and limitations of each. (2) To outline the optimal steps to achieve accurate and precise dosimetry with luminescent detectors and to evaluate the uncertainty induced when less rigorous procedures are used. (3) To develop consensus guidelines on the optimal use of luminescent dosimeters for clinical practice. (4) To develop guidelines for special medically relevant uses of TLDs/OSLs (e.g., mixed field i.e. photon/neutron dosimetry, particle beam dosimetry, skin dosimetry). While this report provides general guidelines for arbitrary TLD and OSLD processes, the report, and therefore this presentation, provide specific guidance for TLD-100 (LiF:Ti,Mg) and nanoDot (Al2O3:C) dosimeters because of their prevalence in clinical practice. Learning Objectives: Understand the available dosimetry systems, and basic theory of their operation Understand the range of dose determination methodologies and the uncertainties associated with them Become familiar with special considerations for TLD/OSLD relevant for special clinical situations Learn recommended commissioning and QA procedures for these dosimetry systems.

  1. MO-A-BRB-01: TG191: Clinical Use of Luminescent Dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kry, S.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will highlight the upcoming TG-191 report: Clinical Use of Luminescent Dosimeters. Luminescent dosimetry based on TLD and OSLD is a practical, accurate, and precise technique for point dosimetry in medical physics applications. The charges of Task Group 191 were to detail the methodologies for practical and optimal luminescent dosimetry in a clinical setting. This includes (1) To review the variety of TLD/OSL materials available, including features and limitations of each. (2) To outline the optimal steps to achieve accurate and precise dosimetry with luminescent detectors and to evaluate the uncertainty induced when less rigorous procedures are used. (3) To develop consensus guidelines on the optimal use of luminescent dosimeters for clinical practice. (4) To develop guidelines for special medically relevant uses of TLDs/OSLs (e.g., mixed field i.e. photon/neutron dosimetry, particle beam dosimetry, skin dosimetry). While this report provides general guidelines for arbitrary TLD and OSLD processes, the report, and therefore this presentation, provide specific guidance for TLD-100 (LiF:Ti,Mg) and nanoDot (Al2O3:C) dosimeters because of their prevalence in clinical practice. Learning Objectives: Understand the available dosimetry systems, and basic theory of their operation Understand the range of dose determination methodologies and the uncertainties associated with them Become familiar with special considerations for TLD/OSLD relevant for special clinical situations Learn recommended commissioning and QA procedures for these dosimetry systems.

  2. MO-A-BRB-00: TG191: Clinical Use of Luminescent Dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will highlight the upcoming TG-191 report: Clinical Use of Luminescent Dosimeters. Luminescent dosimetry based on TLD and OSLD is a practical, accurate, and precise technique for point dosimetry in medical physics applications. The charges of Task Group 191 were to detail the methodologies for practical and optimal luminescent dosimetry in a clinical setting. This includes (1) To review the variety of TLD/OSL materials available, including features and limitations of each. (2) To outline the optimal steps to achieve accurate and precise dosimetry with luminescent detectors and to evaluate the uncertainty induced when less rigorous procedures are used. (3) To develop consensus guidelines on the optimal use of luminescent dosimeters for clinical practice. (4) To develop guidelines for special medically relevant uses of TLDs/OSLs (e.g., mixed field i.e. photon/neutron dosimetry, particle beam dosimetry, skin dosimetry). While this report provides general guidelines for arbitrary TLD and OSLD processes, the report, and therefore this presentation, provide specific guidance for TLD-100 (LiF:Ti,Mg) and nanoDot (Al2O3:C) dosimeters because of their prevalence in clinical practice. Learning Objectives: Understand the available dosimetry systems, and basic theory of their operation Understand the range of dose determination methodologies and the uncertainties associated with them Become familiar with special considerations for TLD/OSLD relevant for special clinical situations Learn recommended commissioning and QA procedures for these dosimetry systems.

  3. Influence of the Zeolite ZSM-5 on Catalytic Pyrolysis of Biomass via TG-FTIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bio-oil from the pyrolysis of biomass is an important renewable source for liquid fuel. However, the application of bio-oil has been severely restricted due to its high viscosity, acidity, and low heating value. Thus, it has been necessary to upgrade bio-oil for automobile fuel via catalytic deoxygenation reactions. Herein, the effects of the zeolite ZSM-5 on the pyrolysis of four biomass materials (corn cob, corn straw, pine powder, and cellulose were investigated via TG-FTIR (thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer to better understand the working mechanism of ZSM-5. The contents of the products of H2O, CO, CO2, and the C-O, C=O, and OH groups evolved with increasing pyrolytic temperature were monitored by FTIR. It was found that the relative contents of the C-O and C=O groups were decreased under the catalysis of ZSM-5, while the formations of CO, H2O, and the OH containing compounds were promoted. To explain the regulations, reaction routes were speculated and the catalytic conversion mechanisms were deduced.

  4. Tracking the conversion of nitrogen during pyrolysis of antibiotic mycelial fermentation residues using XPS and TG-FTIR-MS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiangdong; Yang, Shijun; Wang, Liang; Liu, Yuchen; Qian, Feng; Yao, Wenqing; Zhang, Shicheng; Chen, Jianmin

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotic mycelial fermentation residues (AMFRs), which are emerging solid pollutants, have been recognized as hazardous waste in China since 2008. Nitrogen (N), which is an environmental sensitivity element, is largely retained in AMFR samples derived from fermentation substrates. Pyrolysis is a promising technology for the treatment of solid waste. However, the outcomes of N element during the pyrolysis of AMFRs are still unknown. In this study, the conversion of N element during the pyrolysis of AMFRs was tracked using XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and online TG-FTIR-MS (Thermogravimetry-Fourier transform infrared-Mass spectrometry) technology. In the AMFR sample, organic amine-N, pyrrolic-N, protein-N, pyridinic-N, was the main N-containing species. XPS results indicated that pyrrolic-N and pyridinic-N were retained in the AMFR-derived pyrolysis char. More stable species, such as N-oxide and quaternary-N, were also produced in the char. TG-FTIR-MS results indicated that NH3 and HCN were the main gaseous species, and their contents were closely related to the contents of amine-N and protein-N, and pyrrolic-N and pyridinic-N of AMFRs, respectively. Increases in heating rate enhanced the amounts of NH3 and HCN, but had less of an effect on the degradation degree of AMFRs. N-containing organic compounds, including amine-N, nitrile-N and heterocyclic-N, were discerned from the AMFR pyrolysis process. Their release range was extended with increasing of heating rate and carbon content of AMFR sample. This work will help to take appropriate measure to reduce secondary pollution from the treatment of AMFRs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Her Excellency Ms Monique T.G. van Daalen Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Her Excellency Ms Monique T.G. van Daalen Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

  6. Multi-Shell Hybrid Diffusion Imaging (HYDI at 7 Tesla in TgF344-AD Transgenic Alzheimer Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelaine Daianu

    Full Text Available Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI is widely used to study microstructural characteristics of the brain. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and high-angular resolution imaging (HARDI are frequently used in radiology and neuroscience research but can be limited in describing the signal behavior in composite nerve fiber structures. Here, we developed and assessed the benefit of a comprehensive diffusion encoding scheme, known as hybrid diffusion imaging (HYDI, composed of 300 DWI volumes acquired at 7-Tesla with diffusion weightings at b = 1000, 3000, 4000, 8000 and 12000 s/mm2 and applied it in transgenic Alzheimer rats (line TgF344-AD that model the full clinico-pathological spectrum of the human disease. We studied and visualized the effects of the multiple concentric "shells" when computing three distinct anisotropy maps-fractional anisotropy (FA, generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA and normalized quantitative anisotropy (NQA. We tested the added value of the multi-shell q-space sampling scheme, when reconstructing neural pathways using mathematical frameworks from DTI and q-ball imaging (QBI. We show a range of properties of HYDI, including lower apparent anisotropy when using high b-value shells in DTI-based reconstructions, and increases in apparent anisotropy in QBI-based reconstructions. Regardless of the reconstruction scheme, HYDI improves FA-, GFA- and NQA-aided tractography. HYDI may be valuable in human connectome projects and clinical research, as well as magnetic resonance research in experimental animals.

  7. Comparison of Dose Distributions With TG-43 and Collapsed Cone Convolution Algorithms Applied to Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Patient Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrower, Sara L., E-mail: slloupot@mdanderson.org [The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Shaitelman, Simona F.; Bloom, Elizabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Salehpour, Mohammad; Gifford, Kent [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: To compare the treatment plans for accelerated partial breast irradiation calculated by the new commercially available collapsed cone convolution (CCC) and current standard TG-43–based algorithms for 50 patients treated at our institution with either a Strut-Adjusted Volume Implant (SAVI) or Contura device. Methods and Materials: We recalculated target coverage, volume of highly dosed normal tissue, and dose to organs at risk (ribs, skin, and lung) with each algorithm. For 1 case an artificial air pocket was added to simulate 10% nonconformance. We performed a Wilcoxon signed rank test to determine the median differences in the clinical indices V90, V95, V100, V150, V200, and highest-dosed 0.1 cm{sup 3} and 1.0 cm{sup 3} of rib, skin, and lung between the two algorithms. Results: The CCC algorithm calculated lower values on average for all dose-volume histogram parameters. Across the entire patient cohort, the median difference in the clinical indices calculated by the 2 algorithms was <10% for dose to organs at risk, <5% for target volume coverage (V90, V95, and V100), and <4 cm{sup 3} for dose to normal breast tissue (V150 and V200). No discernable difference was seen in the nonconformance case. Conclusions: We found that on average over our patient population CCC calculated (<10%) lower doses than TG-43. These results should inform clinicians as they prepare for the transition to heterogeneous dose calculation algorithms and determine whether clinical tolerance limits warrant modification.

  8. Characterization of Amazon fibers of the peach palm, balsa, and babassu by XDR, TGA and NMR; Caracterizacao das fibras amazonicas de pupunha, babacu e balsa atraves de DRX, TG e RMN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Maria A.; Marconcini, Jose M., E-mail: mariaalice@cnpdia.embrapa.br [Embrapa Instrumentacao, Sao Carlos-SP (Brazil); Morelli, Carolina L.; Marinelli, Alessandra L.; Bretas, Rosario E.S. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos - UFSCar, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work was to present the results by testing X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and determining the moisture content of the peach palm, balsa and babassu fibers for assessing the feasibility of composite materials. The fibers of peach palm, balsa and babassu showed characteristic chemical structure of lignocellulosic material, and good thermal stability up to 220 deg C. The fiber with the highest crystallinity index (Ic) is the peach palm (72%) and the less crystalline is the babassu (37%), while the balsa fibers have Ic equal to 64%. The results have shown that these fibers can be used in the manufacture of composite materials. (author)

  9. SU-F-T-78: Minimum Data Set of Measurements for TG 71 Based Electron Monitor-Unit Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, H; Guerrero, M; Prado, K; Yi, B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Building up a TG-71 based electron monitor-unit (MU) calculation protocol usually involves massive measurements. This work investigates a minimum data set of measurements and its calculation accuracy and measurement time. Methods: For 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV of our Varian Clinac-Series linear accelerators, the complete measurements were performed at different depth using 5 square applicators (6, 10, 15, 20 and 25 cm) with different cutouts (2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 15 and 20 cm up to applicator size) for 5 different SSD’s. For each energy, there were 8 PDD scans and 150 point measurements for applicator factors, cutout factors and effective SSDs that were then converted to air-gap factors for SSD 99–110cm. The dependence of each dosimetric quantity on field size and SSD was examined to determine the minimum data set of measurements as a subset of the complete measurements. The “missing” data excluded in the minimum data set were approximated by linear or polynomial fitting functions based on the included data. The total measurement time and the calculated electron MU using the minimum and the complete data sets were compared. Results: The minimum data set includes 4 or 5 PDD’s and 51 to 66 point measurements for each electron energy, and more PDD’s and fewer point measurements are generally needed as energy increases. Using only <50% of complete measurement time, the minimum data set generates acceptable MU calculation results compared to those with the complete data set. The PDD difference is within 1 mm and the calculated MU difference is less than 1.5%. Conclusion: Data set measurement for TG-71 electron MU calculations can be minimized based on the knowledge of how each dosimetric quantity depends on various setup parameters. The suggested minimum data set allows acceptable MU calculation accuracy and shortens measurement time by a few hours.

  10. SU-F-T-78: Minimum Data Set of Measurements for TG 71 Based Electron Monitor-Unit Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, H; Guerrero, M; Prado, K; Yi, B [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Building up a TG-71 based electron monitor-unit (MU) calculation protocol usually involves massive measurements. This work investigates a minimum data set of measurements and its calculation accuracy and measurement time. Methods: For 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV of our Varian Clinac-Series linear accelerators, the complete measurements were performed at different depth using 5 square applicators (6, 10, 15, 20 and 25 cm) with different cutouts (2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 15 and 20 cm up to applicator size) for 5 different SSD’s. For each energy, there were 8 PDD scans and 150 point measurements for applicator factors, cutout factors and effective SSDs that were then converted to air-gap factors for SSD 99–110cm. The dependence of each dosimetric quantity on field size and SSD was examined to determine the minimum data set of measurements as a subset of the complete measurements. The “missing” data excluded in the minimum data set were approximated by linear or polynomial fitting functions based on the included data. The total measurement time and the calculated electron MU using the minimum and the complete data sets were compared. Results: The minimum data set includes 4 or 5 PDD’s and 51 to 66 point measurements for each electron energy, and more PDD’s and fewer point measurements are generally needed as energy increases. Using only <50% of complete measurement time, the minimum data set generates acceptable MU calculation results compared to those with the complete data set. The PDD difference is within 1 mm and the calculated MU difference is less than 1.5%. Conclusion: Data set measurement for TG-71 electron MU calculations can be minimized based on the knowledge of how each dosimetric quantity depends on various setup parameters. The suggested minimum data set allows acceptable MU calculation accuracy and shortens measurement time by a few hours.

  11. Sense of Accomplishment Is Modulated by a Proper Level of Instruction and Represented in the Brain Reward System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Tomoya; Nakatani, Hironori; Hosoda, Chihiro; Nonaka, Yulri; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    Problem-solving can be facilitated with instructions or hints, which provide information about given problems. The proper amount of instruction that should be provided for learners is controversial. Research shows that tasks with intermediate difficulty induce the largest sense of accomplishment (SA), leading to an intrinsic motivation for learning. To investigate the effect of instructions, we prepared three instruction levels (No hint, Indirect hint, and Direct hint) for the same insight-problem types. We hypothesized that indirect instructions impose intermediate difficulty for each individual, thereby inducing the greatest SA per person. Based on previous neuroimaging studies that showed involvement of the bilateral caudate in learning and motivation, we expected SA to be processed in this reward system. We recruited twenty-one participants, and investigated neural activations during problem solving by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We confirmed that the Indirect hint, which imposed intermediate difficulty, induced the largest SA among the three instruction types. Using fMRI, we showed that activations in the bilateral caudate and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were significantly modulated by SA. In the bilateral caudate, the indirect hint induced the largest activation, while the ACC seemed to reflect the difference between correct and incorrect trials. Importantly, such activation pattern was independent of notations (number or letter). Our results indicate that SA is represented in the reward system, and that the Indirect instruction effectively induces such sensation.

  12. High frequency of a single nucleotide substitution (c.-6-180T>G) of the canine MDR1/ABCB1 gene associated with phenobarbital-resistant idiopathic epilepsy in Border Collie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Keijiro; Yabuki, Akira; Chang, Hye-Sook; Uddin, Mohammad Mejbah; Rahman, Mohammad Mahbubur; Kushida, Kazuya; Kohyama, Moeko; Yamato, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    A single nucleotide substitution (c.-6-180T>G) associated with resistance to phenobarbital therapy has been found in the canine MDR1/ABCB1 gene in Border Collies with idiopathic epilepsy. In the present study, a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay was developed for genotyping this mutation, and a genotyping survey was carried out in a population of 472 Border Collies in Japan to determine the current allele frequency. The survey demonstrated the frequencies of the T/T wild type, T/G heterozygote, and G/G mutant homozygote to be 60.0%, 30.3%, and 9.8%, respectively, indicating that the frequency of the mutant G allele is extremely high (24.9%) in Border Collies. The results suggest that this high mutation frequency of the mutation is likely to cause a high prevalence of phenobarbital-resistant epilepsy in Border Collies.

  13. Assembly of the novel five-component apicomplexan multi-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex is driven by the hybrid scaffold protein Tg-p43.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M van Rooyen

    Full Text Available In Toxoplasma gondii, as in other eukaryotes, a subset of the amino-acyl-tRNA synthetases are arranged into an abundant cytoplasmic multi-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (MARS complex. Through a series of genetic pull-down assays, we have identified the enzymes of this complex as: methionyl-, glutaminyl-, glutamyl-, and tyrosyl-tRNA synthetases, and we show that the N-terminal GST-like domain of a partially disordered hybrid scaffold protein, Tg-p43, is sufficient for assembly of the intact complex. Our gel filtration studies revealed significant heterogeneity in the size and composition of isolated MARS complexes. By targeting the tyrosyl-tRNA synthetases subunit, which was found exclusively in the complete 1 MDa complex, we were able to directly visualize MARS particles in the electron microscope. Image analyses of the negative stain data revealed the observed heterogeneity and instability of these complexes to be driven by the intrinsic flexibility of the domain arrangements within the MARS complex. These studies provide unique insights into the assembly of these ubiquitous but poorly understood eukaryotic complexes.

  14. Estimates of epistatic and pleiotropic effects of casein alpha s1 (CSN1S1) and thyroglobulin (TG) genetic markers on beef heifer performance traits enhanced by selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic marker effects and type of inheritance are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. A stable composite population (MARC II) was subjected to marker assisted selection for two years to equalize CSN1S1 and TG genetic marker frequencies to evaluate the epista...

  15. SU-E-T-275: Dose Verification in a Small Animal Image-Guided Radiation Therapy X-Ray Machine: A Dose Comparison between TG-61 Based Look-Up Table and MOSFET Method for Various Collimator Sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, A; Nguyen, G; Li, Y; Roy Choudhury, K; Kirsch, D; Das, S; Yoshizumi, T

    2012-06-01

    To verify the accuracy of TG-61 based dosimetry with MOSFET technology using a tissue-equivalent mouse phantom. Accuracy of mouse dose between a TG-61 based look-up table was verified with MOSFET technology. The look-up table followed a TG-61 based commissioning and used a solid water block and radiochromic film. A tissue-equivalent mouse phantom (2 cm diameter, 8 cm length) was used for the MOSFET method. Detectors were placed in the phantom at the head and center of the body. MOSFETs were calibrated in air with an ion chamber and f-factor was applied to derive the dose to tissue. In CBCT mode, the phantom was positioned such that the system isocenter coincided with the center of the MOSFET with the active volume perpendicular to the beam. The absorbed dose was measured three times for seven different collimators, respectively. The exposure parameters were 225 kVp, 13 mA, and an exposure time of 20 s. For a 10 mm, 15 mm, and 20 mm circular collimator, the dose measured by the phantom was 4.3%, 2.7%, and 6% lower than TG-61 based measurements, respectively. For a 10 × 10 mm, 20 × 20 mm, and 40 × 40 mm collimator, the dose difference was 4.7%, 7.7%, and 2.9%, respectively. The MOSFET data was systematically lower than the commissioning data. The dose difference is due to the increased scatter radiation in the solid water block versus the dimension of the mouse phantom leading to an overestimation of the actual dose in the solid water block. The MOSFET method with the use of a tissue- equivalent mouse phantom provides less labor intensive geometry-specific dosimetry and accuracy with better dose tolerances of up to ± 2.7%. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  16. Accelerator beam data commissioning equipment and procedures: Report of the TG-106 of the Therapy Physics Committee of the AAPM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Indra J.; Cheng, C.-W.; Watts, Ronald J.; Ahnesjoe, Anders; Gibbons, John; Li, X. Allen; Lowenstein, Jessica; Mitra, Raj K.; Simon, William E.; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2008-01-01

    For commissioning a linear accelerator for clinical use, medical physicists are faced with many challenges including the need for precision, a variety of testing methods, data validation, the lack of standards, and time constraints. Since commissioning beam data are treated as a reference and ultimately used by treatment planning systems, it is vitally important that the collected data are of the highest quality to avoid dosimetric and patient treatment errors that may subsequently lead to a poor radiation outcome. Beam data commissioning should be performed with appropriate knowledge and proper tools and should be independent of the person collecting the data. To achieve this goal, Task Group 106 (TG-106) of the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine was formed to review the practical aspects as well as the physics of linear accelerator commissioning. The report provides guidelines and recommendations on the proper selection of phantoms and detectors, setting up of a phantom for data acquisition (both scanning and no-scanning data), procedures for acquiring specific photon and electron beam parameters and methods to reduce measurement errors (<1%), beam data processing and detector size convolution for accurate profiles. The TG-106 also provides a brief discussion on the emerging trend in Monte Carlo simulation techniques in photon and electron beam commissioning. The procedures described in this report should assist a qualified medical physicist in either measuring a complete set of beam data, or in verifying a subset of data before initial use or for periodic quality assurance measurements. By combining practical experience with theoretical discussion, this document sets a new standard for beam data commissioning

  17. The selective positive allosteric M1 muscarinic receptor modulator PQCA attenuates learning and memory deficits in the Tg2576 Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Vanita; Wang, Xiaohai; Vardigan, Joshua D; Kuduk, Scott D; Uslaner, Jason M

    2015-01-01

    We have recently shown that the M1 muscarinic receptor positive allosteric modulator, PQCA, improves cognitive performance in rodents and non-human primates administered the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine. The purpose of the present experiments was to characterize the effects of PQCA in a model more relevant to the disease pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Tg2576 transgenic mice that have elevated Aβ were tested in the novel object recognition task to characterize recognition memory as a function of age and treatment with the PQCA. The effects of PQCA were compared to the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil, the standard of care for Alzheimer's disease. In addition, the effect of co-administering PQCA and donepezil was evaluated. Aged Tg2576 mice demonstrated a deficit in recognition memory that was significantly attenuated by PQCA. The positive control donepezil also reversed the deficit. Furthermore, doses of PQCA and donepezil that were inactive on their own were found to improve recognition memory when given together. These studies suggest that M1 muscarinic receptor positive allosteric modulation can ameliorate memory deficits in disease relevant models of Alzheimer's disease. These data, combined with our previous findings demonstrating PQCA improves scopolamine-induced cognitive deficits in both rodents and non-human primates, suggest that M1 positive allosteric modulators have therapeutic potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. STUDY ON THE CONTENT OF SEDIMENT PARTICLES IN THE AIR AROUND TG. JIU TOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Violeta Cazalbașu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems of the modern era is the air pollution. This phenomenon, highly complex, has become the focus of several international organizations since the consequences of air pollution are felt outside the country borders. By and large wecan speak of a regional pollution, which consists of atmospheric contamination by waste or by products liquids, solids gas, threatening the health of people, plants and animals or which can attack materials, reduce visibility and cause unpleasant odors. On a planetary scale, the elimination or accumulation in the atmosphere of certain products, leads to irreparable consequences on the planet's natural balance: ozone depletion and global warming of the atmosphere. This paper presents the study on the sedimentparticles in the air in Tg-Jiu. Determination of particulate matter from the air was done according to Standard no. 10195 / 75.Air purity.Determination of settled particles. In 2014 no exceeding of the maximum allowable concentration of sediment particles has been found in the four sampling points and in2015, out of a total of 60 measurements in four sampling points only one was above the maximum permissible concentration

  19. Design of a PET/CT facility considering the shielding calculation in accordance with AAPM TG-108

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guevara R, V. Y.; Romero C, N.; Berrocal T, M.

    2014-08-01

    A Positron Emission Tomography / Computed Tomography facility may require protection barriers on floor, ceiling and walls, because the patient becomes a radioactive source that emits photons of 0.511 MeV, after having received a radiopharmaceutical, usually F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG). This work has as objective to propose the design of a PET/CT facility, taking into account technical and radiation protection considerations applied internationally, and also develop the necessary shielding for such installation by applying as published by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group Report 108. A shielding spreadsheet in Excel program was developed with reference to the recommendations of the AAPM TG - 08, to determine the shielding required for the walls, floor and ceiling. For fixing the radiation levels in the shielding calculation has been considered the actual restrictions for the occupationally exposed personnel (100 μSv/week) as well as the people in general (20 μSv/ week). The radiopharmaceutical used as a reference for the shielding calculation was the F-18 FDG. With the assistance of an architectural plan were determined distances from potential sources of radiation in facility (uptake and image acquisition living rooms) to points of interest around them. Finally the thickness of the protective barriers in lead and concrete necessary to achieve the established radiation levels were calculated and these results were stored in a table. This paper shows that technical aspects considered in the design of the installation and environments distribution can improve work processes within the PET/CT facility, consequently resulting in a reduction of the dose levels for people in general. (author)

  20. Immunogenicity of oncolytic vaccinia viruses JX-GFP and TG6002 in a human melanoma in vitro model: studying immunogenic cell death, dendritic cell maturation and interaction with cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich B

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available B Heinrich,1 J Klein,1 M Delic,1 K Goepfert,1 V Engel,1 L Geberzahn,1 M Lusky,2 P Erbs,2 X Preville,3 M Moehler1 1First Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Mainz, Mainz, Germany; 2Transgene SA, Illkirch-Graffenstaden, 3Amoneta Diagnostics, Huningue, France Abstract: Oncolytic virotherapy is an emerging immunotherapeutic modality for cancer treatment. Oncolytic viruses with genetic modifications can further enhance the oncolytic effects on tumor cells and stimulate antitumor immunity. The oncolytic vaccinia viruses JX-594-GFP+/hGM-CSF (JX-GFP and TG6002 are genetically modified by secreting granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF or transforming 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC into 5-fluorouracil (5-FU. We compared their properties to kill tumor cells and induce an immunogenic type of cell death in a human melanoma cell model using SK29-MEL melanoma cells. Their influence on human immune cells, specifically regarding the activation of dendritic cells (DCs and the interaction with the autologous cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL clone, was investigated. Melanoma cells were infected with either JX-GFP or TG6002 alone or in combination with 5-FC and 5-FU. The influence of viral infection on cell viability followed a time- and multiplicity of infection dependent manner. Combination of virus treatment with 5-FU resulted in stronger reduction of cell viability. TG6002 in combination with 5-FC did not significantly strengthen the reduction of cell viability in this setting. Expression of calreticulin and high mobility group 1 protein (HMGB1, markers of immunogenic cell death (ICD, could be detected after viral infection. Accordingly, DC maturation was noted after viral oncolysis. DCs presented stronger expression of activation and maturation markers. The autologous CTL clone IVSB expressed the activation marker CD69, but viral treatment failed to enhance cytotoxicity marker. In summary, vaccinia viruses JX-GFP and TG6002 lyse

  1. High Frequency of a Single Nucleotide Substitution (c.-6-180T>G of the Canine MDR1/ABCB1 Gene Associated with Phenobarbital-Resistant Idiopathic Epilepsy in Border Collie Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keijiro Mizukami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A single nucleotide substitution (c.-6-180T>G associated with resistance to phenobarbital therapy has been found in the canine MDR1/ABCB1 gene in Border Collies with idiopathic epilepsy. In the present study, a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay was developed for genotyping this mutation, and a genotyping survey was carried out in a population of 472 Border Collies in Japan to determine the current allele frequency. The survey demonstrated the frequencies of the T/T wild type, T/G heterozygote, and G/G mutant homozygote to be 60.0%, 30.3%, and 9.8%, respectively, indicating that the frequency of the mutant G allele is extremely high (24.9% in Border Collies. The results suggest that this high mutation frequency of the mutation is likely to cause a high prevalence of phenobarbital-resistant epilepsy in Border Collies.

  2. SU-E-T-179: Clinical Impact of IMRT Failure Modes at Or Near TG-142 Tolerance Criteria Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faught, J Tonigan; Balter, P; Johnson, J; Kry, S; Court, L; Stingo, F; Followill, D [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Quantitatively assess the clinical impact of 11 critical IMRT dose delivery failure modes. Methods: Eleven step-and-shoot IMRT failure modes (FMs) were introduced into twelve Pinnacle v9.8 treatment plans. One standard and one highly modulated plan on the IROC IMRT phantom and ten previous H&N patient treatment plans were used. FMs included physics components covered by basic QA near tolerance criteria levels (TG-142) such as beam energy, MLC positioning, and MLC modeling. Resultant DVHs were compared to those of failure-free plans and the severity of plan degradation was assessed considering PTV coverage and OAR and normal tissue tolerances and used for FMEA severity scoring. Six of these FMs were physically simulated and phantom irradiations performed. TLD and radiochromic film results are used for comparison to treatment planning studies. Results: Based on treatment planning studies, the largest clinical impact from the phantom cases was induced by 2 mm systematic MLC shift in one bank with the combination of a D95% target under dose near 16% and OAR overdose near 8%. Cord overdoses of 5%–11% occurred with gantry angle, collimator angle, couch angle, MLC leaf end modeling, and MLC transmission and leakage modeling FMs. PTV coverage and/or OAR sparing was compromised in all FMs introduced in phantom plans with the exception of CT number to electron density tables, MU linearity, and MLC tongue-and-groove modeling. Physical measurements did not entirely agree with treatment planning results. For example, symmetry errors resulted in the largest physically measured discrepancies of up to 3% in the PTVs while a maximum of 0.5% deviation was seen in the treatment planning studies. Patient treatment plan study results are under analysis. Conclusion: Even in the simplistic anatomy of the IROC phantom, some basic physics FMs, just outside of TG-142 tolerance criteria, appear to have the potential for large clinical implications.

  3. Thought about ICRP TG84 report. What beyond it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Ohtsura

    2013-01-01

    Explained was the ICRP TG84 Report (Report of ICRP Task Group 84 on Initial Lessons Learned from the Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Japan vis-a-vis the ICRP System of Radiological Protection: Issues Identified from the NPP Accident in Japan and Recommendations to Improve the System of Radiation Protection; presented in October, 2012), together with author's thought about it. The Report contained 18 items and their related proposals: Inferring radiation risks (and the misunderstanding of nominal risk coefficients), Attributing radiation effects from low dose exposures, Quantifying radiation exposure, Assessing the importance of internal exposures, Managing emergency crisis, Protecting rescuers and volunteers, Responding with medical aid, Justifying necessary but disruptive protective actions, Transiting from an emergency to an existing situation, Rehabilitating evacuated areas, Categorizing public exposures due to an accident, Restricting individual doses of members of the public, Caring for infants and children, Considering pregnant women and their foetuses and embryos, Monitoring public protection, Dealing with 'contamination' of territories, rubble and residues, and consumer products, Recognizing the importance of psychological consequences, and Fostering the sharing of information. The Report also contained 11 Recommendations of actions for the Commission to take. The author had been installed as the Chair of Radiation Council in February, 2011, just before the Accident in March, and had had to concern the definition of various post-Accident dose limits in Japan, having had often faced the inefficiency of measures. He thought the ICRP protecting system was difficult to understand due to 2 reasons: one was that the system had been written aiming at experts of radiological protection and the other, that the system had been composed not only from science but also from an incorporated standard of social values, which resulted in inconsiderateness to the general

  4. SU-G-201-06: Directional Low-Dose Rate Brachytherapy: Determination of the TG-43 Dose-Rate Constant Analog for a New Pd-103 Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aima, M; Culberson, W; Hammer, C; Micka, J; DeWerd, L [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to determine the TG-43 dose-rate constant analog for a new directional low-dose rate brachytherapy source based on experimental methods and comparison to Monte Carlo simulations. The CivaSheet™ is a new commercially available planar source array comprised of a variable number of discrete directional source elements called “CivaDots”. Given the directional nature and non-conventional design of the source, modifications to the AAPM TG-43 protocol for dosimetry are required. As a result, various parameters of the TG-43 dosimetric formalism have to be adapted to accommodate this source. This work focuses on the dose-rate constant analog determination for a CivaDot. Methods: Dose to water measurements of the CivaDot were performed in a polymethyl methacrylate phantom (20×20×12 cm{sup 3}) using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and Gafchromic EBT3 film. The source was placed in the center of the phantom, and nine TLD micro-cubes were irradiated along its central axis at a distance of 1 cm. For the film measurements, the TLDs were substituted by a (3×3) cm{sup 2} EBT3 film. Primary air-kerma strength measurements of the source were performed using a variable-aperture free-air chamber. Finally, the source was modeled using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code 6. Results: Dose-rate constant analog observed for a total of eight CivaDots using TLDs and five CivaDots using EBT3 film was within ±7.0% and ±2.9% of the Monte Carlo predicted value respectively. The average difference observed was −4.8% and −0.1% with a standard deviation of 1.7% and 2.1% for the TLD and the film measurements respectively, which are both within the comparison uncertainty. Conclusion: A preliminary investigation to determine the doserate constant analog for a CivaDot was conducted successfully with good agreement between experimental and Monte Carlo based methods. This work will aid in the eventual realization of a clinically-viable dosimetric

  5. Exercise training in Tgαq*44 mice during the progression of chronic heart failure: cardiac vs. peripheral (soleus muscle) impairments to oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Bruno; Majerczak, Joanna; Bardi, Eleonora; Buso, Alessia; Comelli, Marina; Chlopicki, Stefan; Guzik, Magdalena; Mavelli, Irene; Nieckarz, Zenon; Salvadego, Desy; Tyrankiewicz, Urszula; Skórka, Tomasz; Bottinelli, Roberto; Zoladz, Jerzy A; Pellegrino, Maria Antonietta

    2017-08-01

    Cardiac function, skeletal (soleus) muscle oxidative metabolism, and the effects of exercise training were evaluated in a transgenic murine model (Tgα q *44) of chronic heart failure during the critical period between the occurrence of an impairment of cardiac function and the stage at which overt cardiac failure ensues (i.e., from 10 to 12 mo of age). Forty-eight Tgα q *44 mice and 43 wild-type FVB controls were randomly assigned to control groups and to groups undergoing 2 mo of intense exercise training (spontaneous running on an instrumented wheel). In mice evaluated at the beginning and at the end of training we determined: exercise performance (mean distance covered daily on the wheel); cardiac function in vivo (by magnetic resonance imaging); soleus mitochondrial respiration ex vivo (by high-resolution respirometry); muscle phenotype [myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform content; citrate synthase (CS) activity]; and variables related to the energy status of muscle fibers [ratio of phosphorylated 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to unphosphorylated AMPK] and mitochondrial biogenesis and function [peroxisome proliferative-activated receptor-γ coactivator-α (PGC-1α)]. In the untrained Tgα q *44 mice functional impairments of exercise performance, cardiac function, and soleus muscle mitochondrial respiration were observed. The impairment of mitochondrial respiration was related to the function of complex I of the respiratory chain, and it was not associated with differences in CS activity, MHC isoforms, p-AMPK/AMPK, and PGC-1α levels. Exercise training improved exercise performance and cardiac function, but it did not affect mitochondrial respiration, even in the presence of an increased percentage of type 1 MHC isoforms. Factors "upstream" of mitochondria were likely mainly responsible for the improved exercise performance. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Functional impairments in exercise performance, cardiac function, and soleus muscle mitochondrial respiration

  6. The role of the daily feeding rhythm in the regulation of the day/night rhythm in triglyceride secretion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Foppen, Ewout; Mansur Machado, Frederico Sander; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2018-02-15

    Plasma triglyceride (TG) levels show a clear daily rhythm, however, thus far it is still unknown whether this rhythm results from a daily rhythm in TG production, TG uptake or both. Previous studies have shown that feeding activity affects plasma TG concentrations, but it is not clear how the daily rhythm in feeding activity affects plasma TG concentrations. In the present study, we measured plasma TG concentrations and TG secretion rates in rats at 6 Zeitgeber times to investigate whether plasma TG concentrations and TG secretion show a daily rhythm. We found that plasma TG concentrations and TG secretion show a significant day/night rhythm. Next, we removed the daily rhythm in feeding behavior by introducing a 6-meals-a-day (6M) feeding schedule to investigate whether the daily rhythm in feeding behavior is necessary to maintain the daily rhythm in TG secretion. We found that the day/night rhythm in TG secretion was abolished under 6M feeding conditions. Hepatic apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and microsomal TG transfer protein (Mttp), which are both involved in TG secretion, also lost their daily rhythmicity under 6M feeding conditions. Together, these results indicate that: (1) the daily rhythm in TG secretion contributes to the formation of a day/night rhythm in plasma TG levels and (2) a daily feeding rhythm is essential for maintaining the daily rhythm in TG secretion.

  7. Atherogenic Impact of Lecithin-Cholesterol Acyltransferase and Its Relation to Cholesterol Esterification Rate in HDL (FERHDL) and AIP [log(TG/HDL-C)] Biomarkers: The Butterfly Effect?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobiášová, Milada

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 2 (2017), s. 193-203 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) * atherosclerosis * FERHDL (fractional esterification rate in HDL) * AIP (atherogenic index of plasma, log(TG/HDL-C) * biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk * lipoprotein particle size Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery OBOR OECD: Endocrinology and metabolism (including diabetes, hormones) Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  8. Higgs hints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-10-15

    As well as dominating the news at the recent Joint International Lepton-Photon Symposium and Europhysics Conference on High Energy Physics in Geneva, results from the four big experiments - Aleph , Delphi, L3 and Opal - at CERN's big LEP electron-positron collider had far-reaching implications.

  9. The AMH genotype (rs10407022 T>G) is associated with circulating AMH levels in boys, but not in girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greiber, Iben Katinka; Hagen, Casper P; Busch, Alexander Siegfried

    2018-01-01

    and girls. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study is a combined longitudinal and cross-sectional study in healthy Danish boys and girls from the general population. We included 658 boys aged 5.8-19.8 years and 320 girls aged 5.6-16.5 years. The main outcome measures were genotyping ofAMHandAMHR2, pubertal staging...... the genetic variation also had lower levels of LH (TT: 3.0 IU/L vs TG: 2.8 IU/L vs GG: 1.8 IU/L,P = 0.012). Hormone levels in girls and pubertal onset in either sex did not seem to be profoundly affected by the genotypes. CONCLUSION: Our findings support recent GWAS results in young adults and expand our...

  10. Estudo termoanalítico de comprimidos revestidos contendo captopril através de termogravimetria (TG e calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC Thermal analysis study of captopril coated tablets by thermogravimetry (TG and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Carolina Bazzo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foram desenvolvidos comprimidos de captopril revestidos com hidroxipropilmetilcelulose (HPMC, Opadry®, polivinilpirrolidona (PVP, Eudragit® E e goma laca. Foi realizado estudo termoanalítico do fármaco e das formulações através de termogravimetria (TG e calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC. Através da análise das curvas DSC verificou-se que não houve a ocorrência de interação entre o fármaco e os excipientes lactose, celulose microcristalina, croscarmelose sódica, Aerosil® e talco, utilizados na formulação do comprimido. Através desta técnica detectou-se a possibilidade de interação entre captopril e estearato de magnésio. De acordo com os resultados obtidos através de DSC não foram observadas alterações na cristalinidade do fármaco decorrentes dos processos de compressão e revestimento. A termogravimetria foi utilizada para o estudo da cinética de degradação do captopril e dos comprimidos. Os parâmetros cinéticos foram determinados através do método de Ozawa. Os resultados demonstraram que não houve alteração da estabilidade térmica do captopril na forma de comprimido. A formulação revestida com HPMC foi a que apresentou maior estabilidade térmica, quando comparada às demais formulações de revestimento.In the present study, captopril coated tablets with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC, Opadry®, polyvinylpirrolidone (PVP, Eudragit® and shellac were produced. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetry (TG were used to evaluate the thermal properties of the drug and the formulations. On the basis of DSC results, captopril was found to be compatible with lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium croscarmellose, Aerosil® and talc. Some possibility of interaction between drug-excipient was observed with magnesium stearate. However, additional techniques to confirm the results obtained are needed. There was no influence of mechanical treatment (tableting

  11. Hint from the interfamily mass hierarchy: Two vectorlike families in the TeV range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, K. S.; Pati, Jogesh C.; Stremnitzer, Hanns

    1995-03-01

    Two vectorlike familes QL,R=(U, D, N, E)L,R and Q'L,R=(U', D', N', E')L,R with masses of order 1 TeV, one of which is a doublet of SU(2)L and the other a doublet of SU(2)R, have been predicted to exist, together with the three observed chiral families, in the context of a viable and economical SUSY preon model. The model itself possesses many attractive features which include explanations of the origins of (i) diverse mass scales, (ii) family replication, (iii) protection of the masses of the composite quarks and leptons compared to their compositeness scales, and (iv) interfamily mass hierarchy. The existence of the two vectorlike familes, a prediction of the model, turns out to be crucial especially for an explanation of the interfamily mass hierarchy (IFMH). Given the simplicity of the explanation, the observed IFMH in turn appears to us to be a strong hint in favor of the existence of the two vectorlike families. This paper is devoted to a detailed study of the expected masses, mixings and decay modes of the fermions belonging to the two vectorlike families, in the context of the SUSY preon model, with the inclusion of the renormalization effects due to the standard model gauge interactions. Including QCQ renormalization effects, the masses of the vectorlike quarks are expected to lie in the range of 500 GeV to about 2.5 TeV, while those of the vectorlike leptons are expected to be in the range of 200 GeV to 1 TeV. Their mass pattern and decay modes exhibit certain distinguishing features and characteristic signals. For example, when the CERN LHC and, possibly a future version of the SSC are built, pair production of the vectorlike quarks would lead to systems such as (bb¯+4Z+W+W-) and (bb¯+2Z+W+W-), while an e-e+ linear collider (NLC) of suitable energy can produce appreciably a single neutral heavy lepton N together, with ντ, followed by the decay of N into (Z+ντ)-->(e-e+)+ντ. This last signal may conceivably materialize even at CERN LEP 200 if N is

  12. Deficits in synaptic function occur at medial perforant path-dentate granule cell synapses prior to Schaffer collateral-CA1 pyramidal cell synapses in the novel TgF344-Alzheimer's Disease Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lindsey A; McMahon, Lori L

    2018-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology begins decades prior to onset of clinical symptoms, and the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus are among the first and most extensively impacted brain regions. The TgF344-AD rat model, which more fully recapitulates human AD pathology in an age-dependent manner, is a next generation preclinical rodent model for understanding pathophysiological processes underlying the earliest stages of AD (Cohen et al., 2013). Whether synaptic alterations occur in hippocampus prior to reported learning and memory deficit is not known. Furthermore, it is not known if specific hippocampal synapses are differentially affected by progressing AD pathology, or if synaptic deficits begin to appear at the same age in males and females in this preclinical model. Here, we investigated the time-course of synaptic changes in basal transmission, paired-pulse ratio, as an indirect measure of presynaptic release probability, long-term potentiation (LTP), and dendritic spine density at two hippocampal synapses in male and ovariectomized female TgF344-AD rats and wildtype littermates, prior to reported behavioral deficits. Decreased basal synaptic transmission begins at medial perforant path-dentate granule cell (MPP-DGC) synapses prior to Schaffer-collateral-CA1 (CA3-CA1) synapses, in the absence of a change in paired-pulse ratio (PPR) or dendritic spine density. N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent LTP magnitude is unaffected at CA3-CA1 synapses at 6, 9, and 12months of age, but is significantly increased at MPP-DGC synapses in TgF344-AD rats at 6months only. Sex differences were only observed at CA3-CA1 synapses where the decrease in basal transmission occurs at a younger age in males versus females. These are the first studies to define presymptomatic alterations in hippocampal synaptic transmission in the TgF344-AD rat model. The time course of altered synaptic transmission mimics the spread of pathology through hippocampus in human AD and provides

  13. TG-FTIR, DSC and quantum chemical studies of the thermal decomposition of quaternary methylammonium halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicka, Marlena; Storoniak, Piotr; Skurski, Piotr; Blazejowski, Jerzy; Rak, Janusz

    2006-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of quaternary methylammonium halides was studied using thermogravimetry coupled to FTIR (TG-FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as well as the DFT, MP2 and G2 quantum chemical methods. There is almost perfect agreement between the experimental IR spectra and those predicted at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level: this has demonstrated for the first time that an equimolar mixture of trimethylamine and a methyl halide is produced as a result of decomposition. The experimental enthalpies of dissociation are 153.4, 171.2, and 186.7 kJ/mol for chloride, bromide and iodide, respectively, values that correlate well with the calculated enthalpies of dissociation based on crystal lattice energies and quantum chemical thermodynamic barriers. The experimental activation barriers estimated from the least-squares fit of the F1 kinetic model (first-order process) to thermogravimetric traces - 283, 244 and 204 kJ/mol for chloride, bromide and iodide, respectively - agree very well with theoretically calculated values. The theoretical approach assumed in this work has been shown capable of predicting the relevant characteristics of the thermal decomposition of solids with experimental accuracy

  14. MsDpo4—a DinB Homolog from Mycobacterium smegmatis—Is an Error-Prone DNA Polymerase That Can Promote G:T and T:G Mismatches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Error-prone DNA synthesis in prokaryotes imparts plasticity to the genome to allow for evolution in unfavorable environmental conditions, and this phenomenon is termed adaptive mutagenesis. At a molecular level, adaptive mutagenesis is mediated by upregulating the expression of specialized error-prone DNA polymerases that generally belong to the Y-family, such as the polypeptide product of the dinB gene in case of E. coli. However, unlike E. coli, it has been seen that expression of the homologs of dinB in Mycobacterium tuberculosis are not upregulated under conditions of stress. These studies suggest that DinB homologs in Mycobacteria might not be able to promote mismatches and participate in adaptive mutagenesis. We show that a representative homolog from Mycobacterium smegmatis (MsDpo4 can carry out template-dependent nucleotide incorporation and therefore is a DNA polymerase. In addition, it is seen that MsDpo4 is also capable of misincorporation with a significant ability to promote G:T and T:G mismatches. The frequency of misincorporation for these two mismatches is similar to that exhibited by archaeal and prokaryotic homologs. Overall, our data show that MsDpo4 has the capacity to facilitate transition mutations and can potentially impart plasticity to the genome.

  15. TH-B-12A-01: TG124 “A Guide for Establishing a Credentialing and Privileging Program for Users of Fluoroscopic Equipment in Healthcare Organizations”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, M [Philadelphia VA Medical Ctr., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Fluoroscopy credentialing and privileging programs are being instituted because of recorded patient injuries and the widespread growth in fluoroscopy use by operators whose medical education did not include formal fluoroscopy training. This lack of training is recognized as a patient safety deficiency, and medical physicists and health physicists are finding themselves responsible for helping to establish fluoroscopy credentialing programs. While physicians are very knowledgeable about clinical credentials review and the privileging process, medical physicists and health physicists are not as familiar with the process and associated requirements. To assist the qualified medical physicist (QMP) and the radiation safety officer (RSO) with these new responsibilities, TG 124 provides an overview of the credentialing process, guidance for policy development and incorporating trained fluoroscopy users into a facility's established process, as well as recommendations for developing and maintaining a risk-based fluoroscopy safety training program. This lecture will review the major topics addressed in TG124 and relate them to practical situations. Learning Objectives: Understand the difference between credentialing and privileging. Understand the responsibilities, interaction and coordination among key individuals and committees. Understand options for integrating the QMP and/or RSO and Radiation Safety Committee into the credentialing and privileging process. Understand issues related to implementing the fluoroscopy safety training recommendations and with verifying and documenting successful completion.

  16. TH-B-12A-01: TG124 “A Guide for Establishing a Credentialing and Privileging Program for Users of Fluoroscopic Equipment in Healthcare Organizations”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, M

    2014-01-01

    Fluoroscopy credentialing and privileging programs are being instituted because of recorded patient injuries and the widespread growth in fluoroscopy use by operators whose medical education did not include formal fluoroscopy training. This lack of training is recognized as a patient safety deficiency, and medical physicists and health physicists are finding themselves responsible for helping to establish fluoroscopy credentialing programs. While physicians are very knowledgeable about clinical credentials review and the privileging process, medical physicists and health physicists are not as familiar with the process and associated requirements. To assist the qualified medical physicist (QMP) and the radiation safety officer (RSO) with these new responsibilities, TG 124 provides an overview of the credentialing process, guidance for policy development and incorporating trained fluoroscopy users into a facility's established process, as well as recommendations for developing and maintaining a risk-based fluoroscopy safety training program. This lecture will review the major topics addressed in TG124 and relate them to practical situations. Learning Objectives: Understand the difference between credentialing and privileging. Understand the responsibilities, interaction and coordination among key individuals and committees. Understand options for integrating the QMP and/or RSO and Radiation Safety Committee into the credentialing and privileging process. Understand issues related to implementing the fluoroscopy safety training recommendations and with verifying and documenting successful completion

  17. Twenty six-week exposure to 2 amino-3 methylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) does not significantly increase the incidence of tumours in HMGCR/mts1 tg579 transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Lukanidin, E.; Ambartsumian, N.S.

    2004-01-01

    HMGCR/mtsl t9579 transgenic mice were designed to direct the expression of metastasis-promoting mts 1 (S100A4) gene to all the tissues. In order to test the usefulness of this mouse model for carcinogenicity tests shorter than that recommended by OECD guideline mr. 451, HMGCR/mtsl tg579 transgenic...

  18. Molecular docking, TG/DTA, molecular structure, harmonic vibrational frequencies, natural bond orbital and TD-DFT analysis of diphenyl carbonate by DFT approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, S.; Periandy, S.; Carthigayan, K.; Sebastian, S.

    2016-12-01

    Vibrational spectral analysis of Diphenyl Carbonate (DPC) is carried out by using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic techniques. It is found that all vibrational modes are in the expected region. Gaussian computational calculations were performed using B3LYP method with 6-311++G (d, p) basis set. The computed geometric parameters are in good agreement with XRD data. The observation shows that the structure of the carbonate group is unsymmetrical by ∼5° due to the attachment of the two phenyl rings. The stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interaction and charge delocalization are analyzed by Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) study and the results show the lone pair transition has higher stabilization energy compared to all other. The 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts are calculated using the Gauge-Including Atomic Orbital (GIAO) method with B3LYP/6-311++G (d, p) method. The chemical shifts computed theoretically go very closer to the experimental results. A study on the electronic and optical properties; absorption wavelengths, excitation energy, dipole moment and frontier molecular orbital energies and Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) exhibit the high reactivity nature of the molecule. The non-linear optical property of the DPC molecule predicted theoretically found to be good candidate for NLO material. TG/DTA analysis was made and decomposition of the molecule with respect to the temperature was studied. DPC having the anthelmintic activity is docked in the Hemoglobin of Fasciola hepatica protein. The DPC has been screened to antimicrobial activity and found to exhibit antibacterial effects.

  19. Histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A resensitizes gemcitabine resistant urothelial carcinoma cells via suppression of TG-interacting factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Bi-Wen [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Li, Wei-Ming [Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Li, Ching-Chia [Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Kang, Wan-Yi [Department of Pathology, Kuo General Hospital, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chun-Nung [Department of Urology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Hour, Tzyh-Chyuan [Institute of Biochemistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Liu, Zi-Miao [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); and others

    2016-01-01

    Gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC) has been widely used for advanced and metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC). However, resistance to this remedy has been noticed. We have demonstrated that increase of TG-interacting factor (TGIF) in specimens is associated with worse prognosis of upper tract UC (UTUC) patients. The roles of TGIF in the gemcitabine resistance of UC were explored. Specimens of 23 locally advanced/advanced stage UTUC patients who received GC systemic chemotherapy after radical nephroureterectomy were collected to evaluate the alterations of TGIF in the resistance to the remedy by using immunohistochemistry. In vitro characterizations of mechanisms mediating TGIF in gemcitabine resistance were conducted by analyzing NTUB1 cells and their gemcitabine-resistant subline, NGR cells. Our results show that increased TGIF is significantly associated with chemo-resistance, poor progression-free survival, and higher cancer-related deaths of UTUC patients. Higher increases of TGIF, p-AKT{sup Ser473} and invasive ability were demonstrated in NGR cells. Overexpression of TGIF in NTUB1 cells upregulated p-AKT{sup Ser473} activation, enhanced migration ability, and attenuated cellular sensitivity to gemcitabine. Knockdown of TGIF in NGR cells downregulated p-AKT{sup Ser473} activation, declined migration ability, and enhanced cellular sensitivity to gemcitabine. In addition, histone deacetylases inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) inhibited TGIF, p-AKT{sup Ser473} expression and migration ability. Synergistic effects of gemcitabine and TSA on NGR cells were also demonstrated. Collectively, TGIF contributes to the gemcitabine resistance of UC via AKT activation. Combined treatment with gemcitabine and TSA might be a promising therapeutic remedy to improve the gemcitabine resistance of UC. - Highlights: • TGIF expression in UC cells is associated with chemoresistance to gemcitabine. • TGIF-regulated AKT activation contributes to the gemcitabine resistance. • Increased

  20. Histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A resensitizes gemcitabine resistant urothelial carcinoma cells via suppression of TG-interacting factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Bi-Wen; Li, Wei-Ming; Li, Ching-Chia; Kang, Wan-Yi; Huang, Chun-Nung; Hour, Tzyh-Chyuan; Liu, Zi-Miao

    2016-01-01

    Gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC) has been widely used for advanced and metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC). However, resistance to this remedy has been noticed. We have demonstrated that increase of TG-interacting factor (TGIF) in specimens is associated with worse prognosis of upper tract UC (UTUC) patients. The roles of TGIF in the gemcitabine resistance of UC were explored. Specimens of 23 locally advanced/advanced stage UTUC patients who received GC systemic chemotherapy after radical nephroureterectomy were collected to evaluate the alterations of TGIF in the resistance to the remedy by using immunohistochemistry. In vitro characterizations of mechanisms mediating TGIF in gemcitabine resistance were conducted by analyzing NTUB1 cells and their gemcitabine-resistant subline, NGR cells. Our results show that increased TGIF is significantly associated with chemo-resistance, poor progression-free survival, and higher cancer-related deaths of UTUC patients. Higher increases of TGIF, p-AKT Ser473 and invasive ability were demonstrated in NGR cells. Overexpression of TGIF in NTUB1 cells upregulated p-AKT Ser473 activation, enhanced migration ability, and attenuated cellular sensitivity to gemcitabine. Knockdown of TGIF in NGR cells downregulated p-AKT Ser473 activation, declined migration ability, and enhanced cellular sensitivity to gemcitabine. In addition, histone deacetylases inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) inhibited TGIF, p-AKT Ser473 expression and migration ability. Synergistic effects of gemcitabine and TSA on NGR cells were also demonstrated. Collectively, TGIF contributes to the gemcitabine resistance of UC via AKT activation. Combined treatment with gemcitabine and TSA might be a promising therapeutic remedy to improve the gemcitabine resistance of UC. - Highlights: • TGIF expression in UC cells is associated with chemoresistance to gemcitabine. • TGIF-regulated AKT activation contributes to the gemcitabine resistance. • Increased TGIF is significantly

  1. X11beta rescues memory and long-term potentiation deficits in Alzheimer's disease APPswe Tg2576 mice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mitchell, Jacqueline C

    2009-12-01

    Increased production and deposition of amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) are believed to be key pathogenic events in Alzheimer\\'s disease. As such, routes for lowering cerebral Abeta levels represent potential therapeutic targets for Alzheimer\\'s disease. X11beta is a neuronal adaptor protein that binds to the intracellular domain of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Overexpression of X11beta inhibits Abeta production in a number of experimental systems. However, whether these changes to APP processing and Abeta production induced by X11beta overexpression also induce beneficial effects to memory and synaptic plasticity are not known. We report here that X11beta-mediated reduction in cerebral Abeta is associated with normalization of both cognition and in vivo long-term potentiation in aged APPswe Tg2576 transgenic mice that model the amyloid pathology of Alzheimer\\'s disease. Overexpression of X11beta itself has no detectable adverse effects upon mouse behaviour. These findings support the notion that modulation of X11beta function represents a therapeutic target for Abeta-mediated neuronal dysfunction in Alzheimer\\'s disease.

  2. Analytical and clinical performance of thyroglobulin autoantibody assays in thyroid cancer follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrangi, Waddah; Grebe, Stephan K G; Algeciras-Schimnich, Alicia

    2017-10-26

    While thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TgAb) can result in false low serum thyroglobulin (Tg) immunoassay (IA) measurements, they might also be indicators of disease persistence/recurrence. Hence, accurate TgAb measurement, in addition to Tg quantification, is crucial for thyroid cancer monitoring. We compared the analytical and clinical performance of four commonly used TgAb IAs. We measured Tg by mass spectrometry (Tg-MS) and by four pairs of Tg and TgAb IAs (Beckman, Roche, Siemens, Thermo) in 576 samples. Limit of quantitation (LOQ) and manufacturers' upper reference interval cut-off (URI) were used for comparisons. Clinical performance was assessed by receiving operator characteristics (ROC) curve analysis. Quantitative and qualitative agreement between TgAb-IAs was moderate with R2 of 0.20-0.70 and κ from 0.41-0.66 using LOQ and 0.47-0.71 using URI. In samples with TgAb interference, detection rates of TgAb were similar using LOQ and URI for Beckman, Siemens, and Thermo, but much lower for the Roche TgAb-IA when the URI was used. In TgAb positive cases, the ROC areas under the curve (AUC) for the TgAb-IAs were 0.59 (Beckman), 0.62 (Siemens), 0.59 (Roche), and 0.59 (Thermo), similar to ROC AUCs achieved with Tg. Combining Tg and TgAb measurements improved the ROC AUCs compared to Tg or TgAb alone. TgAb-IAs show significant qualitative and quantitative differences. For 2 of the 4 TgAb-IAs, using the LOQ improves the detection of interfering TgAbs. All assays showed suboptimal clinical performance when used as surrogate markers of disease, with modest improvements when Tg and TgAb were combined.

  3. Genome-Wide Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation-Based Proteomic Analysis of Toxoplasma gondii ROP18’s Human Interactome Shows Its Key Role in Regulation of Cell Immunity and Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii rhoptry protein ROP18 (TgROP18 is a key virulence factor secreted into the host cell during invasion, where it modulates the host cell response by interacting with its host targets. However, only a few TgROP18 targets have been identified. In this study, we applied a high-throughput protein–protein interaction (PPI screening in human cells using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC to identify the targets of Type I strain ROP18 (ROP18I and Type II strain ROP18 (ROP18II. From a pool of more than 18,000 human proteins, 492 and 141 proteins were identified as the targets of ROP18I and ROP18II, respectively. Gene ontology, search tool for the retrieval of interacting genes/proteins PPI network, and Ingenuity pathway analyses revealed that the majority of these proteins were associated with immune response and apoptosis. This indicates a key role of TgROP18 in manipulating host’s immunity and cell apoptosis, which might contribute to the immune escape and successful parasitism of the parasite. Among the proteins identified, the immunity-related proteins N-myc and STAT interactor, IL20RB, IL21, ubiquitin C, and vimentin and the apoptosis-related protein P2RX1 were further verified as ROP18I targets by sensitized emission-fluorescence resonance energy transfer (SE-FRET and co-immunoprecipitation. Our study substantially contributes to the current limited knowledge on human targets of TgROP18 and provides a novel tool to investigate the function of parasite effectors in human cells.

  4. Biomechanical assays amniotic membrane preserved in glycerol correlating with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Fernando Augusto N.; Santin, Stefany P.; Martino Junior, Antonio C.; Machado, Luci Diva B.; Freitas, Anderson Z.; Mathor, Monica B.

    2013-01-01

    Young's modulus, the OCT technique, to generate high-resolution images in real time being a non-destructive technique, thermogravimetry (TG) assessing the amount of water and rate of water output membranes after treatment with ionizing radiation, relating the possible changes with non-irradiated tissue. However the results of the tensile test had the same behavior compared to the values of total attenuation coefficient by OCT, in addition the dehydration rate analyzed by TG had no statistically significant variation to some radiation doses. (author)

  5. Biomechanical assays amniotic membrane preserved in glycerol correlating with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Fernando Augusto N.; Santin, Stefany P.; Martino Junior, Antonio C.; Machado, Luci Diva B.; Freitas, Anderson Z.; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: fernandonevessoares@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energetias Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Young's modulus, the OCT technique, to generate high-resolution images in real time being a non-destructive technique, thermogravimetry (TG) assessing the amount of water and rate of water output membranes after treatment with ionizing radiation, relating the possible changes with non-irradiated tissue. However the results of the tensile test had the same behavior compared to the values of total attenuation coefficient by OCT, in addition the dehydration rate analyzed by TG had no statistically significant variation to some radiation doses. (author)

  6. A fixed cations and low Tg polymer: the poly(4-vinyl-pyridine) quaternized by poly(ethylene oxide) links. Conductivity study; Un electrolyte polymere a cations fixes et bas Tg: les poly(4-vinylpyridine) quaternisees par des chainons de poly(oxyde d`ethylene). Etude de la conductivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramain, Ph. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Montpellier, 34 (France); Frere, Y. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 67 - Strasbourg (France). Institut Charles Sadron

    1996-12-31

    The spontaneous ionic polymerization of 4-vinyl-pyridine in presence of mono-tosylated or bromated short chains of poly(ethylene oxide)-(PEO) is used to prepare amorphous comb-like poly-cations with low Tg. The polymer electrolyte properties of these new structures have been studied without any addition of salts. The ionic conductivity of these fixed cation poly-electrolytes depends on the length of the grafted PEO and varies from 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -4} S/cm between 25 and 80 deg. C. It is only weakly dependent on the nature of the cation but it is controlled by the movements of the pyridinium cation which are facilitated by the plastifying effect of the POE chains which do not directly participate to the ionic transport. (J.S.) 17 refs.

  7. A fixed cations and low Tg polymer: the poly(4-vinyl-pyridine) quaternized by poly(ethylene oxide) links. Conductivity study; Un electrolyte polymere a cations fixes et bas Tg: les poly(4-vinylpyridine) quaternisees par des chainons de poly(oxyde d`ethylene). Etude de la conductivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramain, Ph [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Montpellier, 34 (France); Frere, Y [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 67 - Strasbourg (France). Institut Charles Sadron

    1997-12-31

    The spontaneous ionic polymerization of 4-vinyl-pyridine in presence of mono-tosylated or bromated short chains of poly(ethylene oxide)-(PEO) is used to prepare amorphous comb-like poly-cations with low Tg. The polymer electrolyte properties of these new structures have been studied without any addition of salts. The ionic conductivity of these fixed cation poly-electrolytes depends on the length of the grafted PEO and varies from 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -4} S/cm between 25 and 80 deg. C. It is only weakly dependent on the nature of the cation but it is controlled by the movements of the pyridinium cation which are facilitated by the plastifying effect of the POE chains which do not directly participate to the ionic transport. (J.S.) 17 refs.

  8. Influence of metal additives on pyrolysis behavior of bituminous coal by TG-FTIR analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Wenjuan; Fang, Mengxiang; Cen, Jianmeng; Li, Chao; Luo, Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). State Key Lab. of Clean Energy Utilization

    2013-07-01

    To study the catalytic effects of alkali, alkaline earth and transition metal additives on coal pyrolysis behavior, bituminous coal loaded NaCl, KCl, CaCl{sub 2}, MgCl{sub 2}, FeCl{sub 3} and NiCl{sub 2} was respectively investigated using Thermogravimetry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (TG-FTIR). Results indicated that the maximum mass loss rate decreased under the metal additives in the primary pyrolysis stage. The total mass loss of pyrolysis was reduced in metals catalyzed pyrolysis except for Na loaded sample. Kinetic analysis was taken for all samples adopting the method of Coats-Redfern. Activation energy of raw coal in the primary pyrolysis stage was 92.15vkJ.mol{sup -1}, which was lowered to 44.59-73.42 kJ.mol{sup -1} under metal additives. The orders of catalytic effect for this bituminous coal were Mg > Fe > Ca > Ni > K > Na according to their activation energies. Several investigated volatiles including CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, CO, toluene, phenol and formic acid were identified from FTIR spectra. The yields of CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, toluene, phenol and formic acid were decreased, but the evolution of CO was increased. The presence of metals in the coal samples have been involved in a repeated bond-forming and bond-breaking process, which greatly hindered the release of tars during pyrolysis as the tar precursors were connected to coal/char matrix and were thermally cracked, becoming a part of char.

  9. SU-E-T-212: Comparison of TG-43 Dosimetric Parameters of Low and High Energy Brachytherapy Sources Obtained by MCNP Code Versions of 4C, X and 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehtabian, M; Zaker, N; Sina, S [Shiraz University, Shiraz, Fars (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Meigooni, A Soleimani [Comprehensive Cancer Center of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Different versions of MCNP code are widely used for dosimetry purposes. The purpose of this study is to compare different versions of the MCNP codes in dosimetric evaluation of different brachytherapy sources. Methods: The TG-43 parameters such as dose rate constant, radial dose function, and anisotropy function of different brachytherapy sources, i.e. Pd-103, I-125, Ir-192, and Cs-137 were calculated in water phantom. The results obtained by three versions of Monte Carlo codes (MCNP4C, MCNPX, MCNP5) were compared for low and high energy brachytherapy sources. Then the cross section library of MCNP4C code was changed to ENDF/B-VI release 8 which is used in MCNP5 and MCNPX codes. Finally, the TG-43 parameters obtained using the MCNP4C-revised code, were compared with other codes. Results: The results of these investigations indicate that for high energy sources, the differences in TG-43 parameters between the codes are less than 1% for Ir-192 and less than 0.5% for Cs-137. However for low energy sources like I-125 and Pd-103, large discrepancies are observed in the g(r) values obtained by MCNP4C and the two other codes. The differences between g(r) values calculated using MCNP4C and MCNP5 at the distance of 6cm were found to be about 17% and 28% for I-125 and Pd-103 respectively. The results obtained with MCNP4C-revised and MCNPX were similar. However, the maximum difference between the results obtained with the MCNP5 and MCNP4C-revised codes was 2% at 6cm. Conclusion: The results indicate that using MCNP4C code for dosimetry of low energy brachytherapy sources can cause large errors in the results. Therefore it is recommended not to use this code for low energy sources, unless its cross section library is changed. Since the results obtained with MCNP4C-revised and MCNPX were similar, it is concluded that the difference between MCNP4C and MCNPX is their cross section libraries.

  10. Producción de anticuerpos policlonales IgG contra una proteína con actividad de óxido nítrico sintetasa de Toxoplasma gondii recombinante (NOS-Tg-r y marcación inmunológica en taquizoítoso Production of Polyclonal Antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii Recombinant protein with Nitric Oxide Synthase activity and immunologic marking in Tachyzoites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Mauricio Padilla-Londoño

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available La enzima óxido nítrico sintetasa ha sido estudiada en mamíferos; en los últimos años se ha descrito que existe también en protozoos, pero se desconocen aspectos importantes de su función. Se logró producir anticuerpos policlonales contra la proteína recombinante con actividad de óxido nítrico sintetasa (NOS-Tg-r de Toxoplasma gondii y realizar marcación inmunológica en taquizoítos. Se usaron dos conejos Nueva Zelanda (Oryctolagus cuniculusque se inmunizaron por vía intramuscular con NOS-Tg-r, y dos tipos de adyuvantes, hidróxido de aluminio y adyuvante de Freund. Se comprobó la presencia de anticuerpos policlonales con la técnica de ensayo inmunoenzimático indirecto. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que a NOS-Tg-r con adyuvante de Freund indujo mayor respuesta inmune que la de la NOS-Tg-r con hidróxido aluminio p 0,005. Para verificar si había reacción cruzada, se realizó una prueba ELISA utilizando como antígenos: metaloproteasa de T. gondii recombinante, cisteína proteasa 5 de Entamoeba histolytica recombinante, albúmina al 2%, hidróxido de aluminio y adyuvante de Freund. Los valores obtenidos con sueros preinmunes y contra proteínas alternas no superaron el punto de corte (0,069, lo cual indica que los anticuerpos policlonales obtenidos son específicos para NOS-Tg-r. Se realizó marcación inmunológica en taquizoítos de Toxoplasma gondii con inmunofluorescencia indirecta que mostró una marcación difusa a nivel de citoplasma y confirmó la presencia de esta proteína en los taquizoítos.The nitric oxide synthase (NOSis an enzyme well described on mammals but little is known about the role of these enzymes on pathogenic parasites. We produced polyclonal antibodies against a recombinant NOS enzyme from Toxoplasma gondii nd e lso er formed n mmunol locali zation of the enzyme on tachyzoites. We used two New Zealand rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus to perform intramuscular immunization and we used two types of

  11. Influence of thyroid gland status on the thyroglobulin cutoff level in washout fluid from cervical lymph nodes of patients with recurrent/metastatic papillary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Ho; Lee, Hyun Chul; Yi, Ha Woo; Kim, Bong Kyun; Bae, Soo Youn; Lee, Se Kyung; Choe, Jun-Ho; Kim, Jung-Han; Kim, Jee Soo

    2016-04-01

    The influence of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroidectomy status on Tg in fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) washout fluid is unclear. A total of 282 lymph nodes were prospectively subjected to FNAC, fine-needle aspiration (FNA)-Tg measurement, and frozen and permanent biopsies. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of several predetermined FNA-Tg cutoff values for recurrence/metastasis in lymph nodes according to thyroidectomy status. The diagnostic performance of FNA-Tg varied according to thyroidectomy status. The optimized cutoff value of FNA-Tg was 2.2 ng/mL. However, among FNAC-negative lymph nodes, the FNA-Tg cutoff value of 0.9 ng/mL showed better diagnostic performance in patients with a thyroid gland. An FNA-Tg/serum-Tg cutoff ratio of 1 showed the best diagnostic performance in patients without a thyroid gland. Applying the optimal cutoff values of FNA-Tg according to thyroid gland status and serum Tg level facilitates the diagnostic evaluation of neck lymph node recurrences/metastases in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E1705-E1712, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. SU-G-201-10: Experimental Determination of Modified TG-43 Dosimetry Parameters for the Xoft Axxent® Electronic Brachytherapy Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simiele, S; Palmer, B; DeWerd, L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The establishment of an air kerma rate standard at NIST for the Xoft Axxent"® electronic brachytherapy source (Axxent"® source) motivated the establishment of a modified TG-43 dosimetry formalism. This work measures the modified dosimetry parameters for the Axxent"® source in the absence of a treatment applicator for implementation in Xoft’s treatment planning system. Methods: The dose-rate conversion coefficient (DRCC), radial dose function (RDF) values, and polar anisotropy (PA) were measured using TLD-100 microcubes with NIST-calibrated sources. The DRCC and RDF measurements were performed in liquid water using an annulus of Virtual Water™ designed to align the TLDs at the height of the anode at fixed radii from the source. The PA was measured at several distances from the source in a PMMA phantom. MCNP-determined absorbed dose energy dependence correction factors were used to convert from dose to TLD to dose to liquid water for the DRCC, RDF, and PA measurements. The intrinsic energy dependence correction factor from the work of Pike was used. The AKR was determined using a NIST-calibrated HDR1000 Plus well-type ionization chamber. Results: The DRCC was determined to be 8.6 (cGy/hr)/(µGy/min). The radial dose values were determined to be 1.00 (1cm), 0.60 (2cm), 0.42 (3cm), and 0.32 (4cm), with agreement ranging from (5.7% to 10.9%) from the work of Hiatt et al. 2015 and agreement from (2.8% to 6.8%) with internal MCNP simulations. Conclusion: This work presents a complete dataset of modified TG-43 dosimetry parameters for the Axxent"® source in the absence of an applicator. Prior to this study a DRCC had not been measured for the Axxent"® source. This data will be used for calculating dose distributions for patients receiving treatment with the Axxent"® source in Xoft’s breast balloon and vaginal applicators, and for intraoperative radiotherapy. Sources and partial funding for this work were provided by Xoft Inc. (a subsidiary of i

  13. Hints for Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K

    2015-01-01

    /or caretakers. Based on this, a provisional decision to pursue a food allergy diagnosis may be made after carefully considering other possible reasons for an adverse reaction to a food: aversion, infection, intoxication, or an underlying metabolic disease. To respond to the next question, the anamnesis...

  14. Impact of the serum thyroglobulin concentration on the diagnostics of benign and malignant thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rink, T.; Schroth, H.J.; Dembowski, W.; Klinger, K.

    2000-01-01

    Aim of this study is to evaluate new and controversially discussed indications for determining the thyroglobulin (Tg) level in different thyroid diseases to support routine diagnostics. Methods: The following groups were included: 250 healthy subjects without goiter, 50 persons with diffuse goiter, 161 patients with multinodular goiter devoid of functional disorder (108 of them underwent surgery, in 17 cases carcinomas were detected), 60 hyperthyroid patients with autonomously functioning nodular goiter, 150 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and 30 hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease. Results: The upper limit of the normal range of the Tg level was calculated as 30 ng Tg/ml. The evaluation of the collective with diffuse goiter showed that the figure of the Tg level can be expected in a similar magnitude as the thyroid volume in milliliters. Nodular tissue led to far higher Tg values then presumed when considering the respective thyroid volume, with a rather high variance. A formula for a rough prediction of the Tg levels in nodular goiters is described. In ten out of 17 cases with thyroid carcinoma, the Tg was lower than estimated with thyroid and nodular volumes, but two patients showed a Tg exceeding 1000 ng/ml. The collective with functional autonomy had a significantly higher average Tg level than a matched euthyroid group being under suppressive levothyroxine substitution. However, due to the high variance of the Tg values, the autonomy could not consistently be predicted with the Tg level in individual cases. The patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed slightly decreased Tg levels. In Graves' disease, a significantly higher average Tg level was observed compared with a matched group with diffuse goiter, but 47% of all Tg values were still in the normal range ( [de

  15. Comparative clinical evaluation on herbal formulation Pepsil, Safoof-e-Katira and Omeprazole in gastro esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toseef, Muhammad Umar; Saeed, Aftab; Mohi-Ud-Din, Ejaz; Usmanghani, Khan; Nazar, Halima; Nawaz, Allah; Ahmad, Irshad; Siddiqui, Faheem Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the role of Unani herbal drugs Pepsil and Safoof-e-katira on the gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD). This was multicentre randomized case control study conducted at Matab Hakeem Muhammad Noor-ud-din, Burewala; Aziz Muhammad din Medical and Surgical Centre, Burewala and Shifa-ul-mulk Memorial Hospital, Hamdard University Karachi. The patients were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. In test group-1 the male female ratio was 40%, 60%; test group-2 was 42%, 58% and in control group was 44%, 56% respectively. The observed symptoms in the study were increased appetite (TG-1-95%, TG-2-95% and CG-89%), difficulty in swallowing (TG-1-93%, TG-2-96% and TC-94%), belching/burping (TG-1-97%, TG-2-97% and CG-95%), vomiting (TG-1-90%, TG-2-96% and CG-89%), heart burn (TG-1-100%, TG-2-100% and CG-98%), palpitation (TG-1-100%, TG-2-100% and CG-97%), epigastric pain (TG-1-97%, TG-2-97% and CG-90%), abdominal cramps (TG-1-97%, TG-2-98% and CG-95%), tenesmus (TG-1-100%, TG-2-100% and CG-97%), flatulence (TG-1-100%, TG-2-75% and CG-95%), wakeup during sleep (TG-1-94%, TG-2-87% and CG-94%). The p-value of the results of the symptoms was 0.000 except flatulence where the value was 0.001. The statistical results of the study prescribed that all the drugs studied (Pepsil, Safoof-e-katira and Omeprazole) are highly significant. The herbal coded drug Pepsil showed no side effects and unani herbal drug safoof-e-katira showed minimum result of 75% in the patients while Omeprazole resulted with some side effects. In the result it can be concluded that the herbal coded drug Pepsil is a potent herbal drug for gastro esophageal reflux disease.

  16. Influence of the thyroid remnant in the elevation of the serum thyroglobulin after thyroidectomy in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Importance of the diagnostic iodine total-body scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero-Calabuig, Elisa; Cano-Terol, Carmen; Sopena-Monforte, Ramon; Reyes-Ojeda, Dolores; Abreu-Sanchez, Pedro; Ferrer-Rebolleda, Jose; Sopena-Novales, Pablo; Plancha-Mansanet, Carmen; Felix-Fontestad, Jesus

    2008-01-01

    Stimulated thyroglobulin (Tg) and 131 I total-body scan (TBS) have been the mainstays of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), but now diagnostic TBS has been eliminated from some follow-up protocols. Nevertheless, Tg can be negative in the presence of thyroid tissue, and moderately elevated Tg poses management problems. The purpose of this study was to check how many patients have Tg negative but visible thyroid tissue and if diagnostic TBS could be clinically useful. Retrospective review of 317 exams (stimulated Tg and TBS) of 128 patients with DTC. Patients with high-grade criteria and/or positive autoantibodies are excluded. Tg is considered positive if higher than the sensitivity level of the technique. TBS is positive if thyroid remnant, lymphatic node or metastases are detected. Results are classified in Tg and TBS concordant or discordant. Discordant 131 I TBS and Tg were found in 74/317 studies (23.3%), 48 (65%) being TBS positive and Tg negative. None of 128 patients had a first post-surgery negative scan, but 13 (10%) were Tg negative, even two patients with lymph node uptake. One year after radioiodine treatment, 26 out of 115 patients (initially Tg and TBS concordant positive) showed Tg negative and TBS still positive due to cervical remnants (20 patients), lymph node uptake (one) and metastasis (five); 20 patients remained Tg and TBS positive, but 14 of them only showed thyroid remnants. We propose to perform periodic diagnostic TBS to improve Tg specificity, at least while neck thyroid activity is detected, even if Tg is negative. (orig.)

  17. Influence of the thyroid remnant in the elevation of the serum thyroglobulin after thyroidectomy in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Importance of the diagnostic iodine total-body scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Calabuig, Elisa; Cano-Terol, Carmen; Sopena-Monforte, Ramon; Reyes-Ojeda, Dolores; Abreu-Sanchez, Pedro; Ferrer-Rebolleda, Jose; Sopena-Novales, Pablo; Plancha-Mansanet, Carmen; Felix-Fontestad, Jesus [Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset - Medicina Nuclear, Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    Stimulated thyroglobulin (Tg) and {sup 131}I total-body scan (TBS) have been the mainstays of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), but now diagnostic TBS has been eliminated from some follow-up protocols. Nevertheless, Tg can be negative in the presence of thyroid tissue, and moderately elevated Tg poses management problems. The purpose of this study was to check how many patients have Tg negative but visible thyroid tissue and if diagnostic TBS could be clinically useful. Retrospective review of 317 exams (stimulated Tg and TBS) of 128 patients with DTC. Patients with high-grade criteria and/or positive autoantibodies are excluded. Tg is considered positive if higher than the sensitivity level of the technique. TBS is positive if thyroid remnant, lymphatic node or metastases are detected. Results are classified in Tg and TBS concordant or discordant. Discordant {sup 131}I TBS and Tg were found in 74/317 studies (23.3%), 48 (65%) being TBS positive and Tg negative. None of 128 patients had a first post-surgery negative scan, but 13 (10%) were Tg negative, even two patients with lymph node uptake. One year after radioiodine treatment, 26 out of 115 patients (initially Tg and TBS concordant positive) showed Tg negative and TBS still positive due to cervical remnants (20 patients), lymph node uptake (one) and metastasis (five); 20 patients remained Tg and TBS positive, but 14 of them only showed thyroid remnants. We propose to perform periodic diagnostic TBS to improve Tg specificity, at least while neck thyroid activity is detected, even if Tg is negative. (orig.)

  18. Data showing non-conventional HLA-B27 expression in axial joints and gut tissue from B27 transgenic rats, and in frozen and paraffin-fixed synovial SpA tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliwia Rysnik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Data is presented showing expression of non-conventional (NC heavy chain forms of B27 in synovial tissues from SpA patients. Data is presented showing the expression patterns of NC-B27 in joint, gastrointestinal and lymphoid tissues from B27 transgenic (TG1 rats with M. tuberculosis-induced SpA. Expression of NC-B27 was determined by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry using HC10 and HD6 antibodies. These data are the extension of the data presented and discussed in “Non-conventional forms of HLA-B27 are expressed in Spondyloarthritis joints and gut tissue” (O. Rysnik, K. McHugh, L. M. van Duivenvoorde, M. N. van Tok, G. Guggino, J. D. Taurog, S. Kollnberger, F. Ciccia, D. L. Baeten, P. Bowness, 2016 [1].

  19. The role of the daily feeding rhythm in the regulation of the day/night rhythm in triglyceride secretion in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Yan; Foppen, Ewout; Mansur Machado, Frederico Sander; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, A.

    2018-01-01

    Plasma triglyceride (TG) levels show a clear daily rhythm, however, thus far it is still unknown whether this rhythm results from a daily rhythm in TG production, TG uptake or both. Previous studies have shown that feeding activity affects plasma TG concentrations, but it is not clear how the daily

  20. Utilización de técnicas acopladas de análisis térmico TG-DSC-QMSFTIR en la caracterización de arcillas y composiciones cerámicas utilizadas en la fabricación de baldosas cerámicas. Cuantificación de compuestos de carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez, M. P.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a work methodology has been developed for t evolved gas analysis (EGA in clay raw materials and ceramic compositions used in ceramic tile manufacture using coupled thermal analysis techniques (TG-DSC-QMS-FTIR. The different types of gases (CO2, CO, NOx, F, SOx evolving from these raw materials during a thermal cycle up to a peak temperature of 1200ºC were characterised. The possibility of using this calorimeter for the quantification of the CO2 gases evolving from the organic and inorganic carbon (carbonates present in the studied clay materials was also evaluated. The measurements were validated with different reference materials, and the results were compared with those obtained with other analysis techniques, such as thermogravimetry (TG, calcimetry, and coulometry. The thermal analysis technique (TG-DSC-QMS-FTIR is a suitable technique for analysing evolved gases with low uncertainties for carbon compounds quantification. Furthermore, the methodology allows the mineralogical origin identification of the elements present in the evolved gases.

    En el presente estudio se ha desarrollado una metodología de trabajo para el análisis de emisiones gaseosas (EGA en materias primas arcillosas y composiciones cerámicas utilizadas en la fabricación de baldosas cerámicas mediante técnicas acopladas de análisis térmico (TG-DSC-QMS-FTIR. Se caracterizaron los distintos tipos de emisiones (CO2, CO, NOx, F, SOx que se emiten durante un ciclo térmico hasta una temperatura máxima de 1200ºC. Asimismo, se evaluó la posibilidad de la utilización de la técnica para la cuantificación de dichas emisiones. En concreto se ha realizado la cuantificación de emisiones de CO2 procedentes de la presencia de carbono orgánico e inorgánico en materiales arcillosos. Se han validado las medidas con distintos materiales de referencia y se han comparado los resultados con los obtenidos con otras técnicas de análisis, tales como la

  1. An oceanic fixed nitrogen sink exceeding 400 Tg N a−1 vs the concept of homeostasis in the fixed-nitrogen inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Codispoti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the N2 produced by denitrification, a better understanding of non-canonical pathways for N2 production such as the anammox reaction, better appreciation of the multiple environments in which denitrification can occur (e.g. brine pockets in ice, within particles outside of suboxic water, etc. suggest that it is unlikely that the oceanic denitrification rate is less than 400 Tg N a−1. Because this sink term far exceeds present estimates for nitrogen fixation, the main source for oceanic fixed-N, there is a large apparent deficit (~200 Tg N a−1 in the oceanic fixed-N budget. The size of the deficit appears to conflict with apparent constraints of the atmospheric carbon dioxide and sedimentary δ15N records that suggest homeostasis during the Holocene. In addition, the oceanic nitrate/phosphate ratio tends to be close to the canonical Redfield biological uptake ratio of 16 (by N and P atoms which can be interpreted to indicate the existence of a powerful feed-back mechanism that forces the system towards a balance. The main point of this paper is that one cannot solve this conundrum by reducing the oceanic sink term. To do so would violate an avalanche of recent data on oceanic denitrification. A solution to this problem may be as simple as an upwards revision of the oceanic nitrogen fixation rate, and it is noted that most direct estimates for this term have concentrated on nitrogen fixation by autotrophs in the photic zone, even though nitrogen fixing genes are widespread. Another simple explanation may be that we are simply no longer in the Holocene and one might expect to see temporary imbalances in the oceanic fixed-N budget as we transition from the Holocene to the Anthropocene in line with an apparent denitrification maximum during the Glacial-Holocene transition. Other possible full or partial explanations involve plausible changes in the oceanic nitrate/phosphate and N/C ratios, an oceanic phosphorus budget that may also

  2. Acoustic Doppler current profiling from the JGOFS Arabian sea cruises aboard the RV T.G. Thompson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Sook; Flagg, C.N.; Shi, Yan

    1996-06-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data is part of the core data for the U.S. JGOFS Arabian Sea project, along with hydrographic and nutrient data. Seventeen cruises are scheduled to take place between September 1994 and January 1996 on the R/V T.G. Thompson. They are numbered consecutively from the ship`s commissioning with the first JGOFS cruise designated TN039. Table 1 lists start and end dates of each cruise with its mission. All but the first cruise have been or will be staged from Muscat, Oman. Each cruise is scheduled for a duration of between two weeks and one month. Seven of the cruises, referred to as process cruises, follow a standard cruise track, taking hydrographic, chemical and biological measurements. The rest of the cruises, which take place generally within the standard cruise region defined by a set track, are for the deployment and recovery of moored equipments and towing of a SeaSoar. ADCP data are collected using an autonomous data acquisition system developed for ship-of-opportunity cruises, named the AutoADCP system. The system is an extension of RD instrument`s DAS version 2.48 using enhancements made possible with {open_quotes}user-exit{close_quotes} programs. It makes it possible to collect ADCP data without the constant monitoring usually necessary and insures constant data coverage and uniform data quality.

  3. Postprandial Triglyceride Is Associated with Fasting Triglyceride and HOMA-IR in Korean Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Hee Lee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRecent studies indicate postprandial triglyceride (TG had a better association with cardiovascular events and metabolic syndrome than fasting TG. The authors of the present study investigated the metabolic and clinical relevance of postprandial TG.MethodsIn a cross-sectional retrospective study, the authors of the present study compared fasting and postprandial TG and analyzed the relationship between postprandial TG and various demographic and metabolic parameters in 639 Korean subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D, group I, n=539 and impaired fasting glucose (IFG, group II, n=100 after ingestion of a standardized liquid meal (total 500 kcal, 17.5 g fat, 68.5 g carbohydrate, and 17.5 g protein.ResultsFasting and postprandial TG were significantly correlated (r=0.973, r=0.937, P<0.001 in group I and II, respectively. Of the variables, total cholesterol, waist circumference and body mass index were significantly correlated with fasting and postprandial TG in both groups. Only postprandial TG showed a significant correlation with glucose metabolic parameters (e.g., postprandial glucose, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], and fasting C-peptide in subjects with T2D. Multiple regression analysis showed fasting TG and HOMA-IR could be predictable variables for postprandial TG in subjects with T2D.ConclusionPostprandial TG was very strongly correlated with fasting TG. The authors of the present study suggest insulin resistance may be more associated with postprandial TG than fasting TG in Korean T2D patients on a low-fat diet.

  4. Linear pharmacokinetic parameters for monoclonal antibodies are similar within a species and across different pharmacological targets: A comparison between human, cynomolgus monkey and hFcRn Tg32 transgenic mouse using a population-modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Alison; Keunecke, Anne; van Steeg, Tamara J; van der Graaf, Piet H; Avery, Lindsay B; Jones, Hannah; Berkhout, Jan

    2018-04-10

    The linear pharmacokinetics (PK) of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can be considered a class property with values that are similar to endogenous IgG. Knowledge of these parameters across species could be used to avoid unnecessary in vivo PK studies and to enable early PK predictions and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) simulations. In this work, population-pharmacokinetic (popPK) modeling was used to determine a single set of 'typical' popPK parameters describing the linear PK of mAbs in human, cynomolgus monkey and transgenic mice expressing the human neonatal Fc receptor (hFcRn Tg32), using a rich dataset of 27 mAbs. Non-linear PK was excluded from the datasets and a 2-compartment model was applied to describe mAb disposition. Typical human popPK estimates compared well with data from comparator mAbs with linear PK in the clinic. Outliers with higher than typical clearance were found to have non-specific interactions in an affinity-capture self-interaction nanoparticle spectroscopy assay, offering a potential tool to screen out these mAbs at an early stage. Translational strategies were investigated for prediction of human linear PK of mAbs, including use of typical human popPK parameters and allometric exponents from cynomolgus monkey and Tg32 mouse. Each method gave good prediction of human PK with parameters predicted within 2-fold. These strategies offer alternative options to the use of cynomolgus monkeys for human PK predictions of linear mAbs, based on in silico methods (typical human popPK parameters) or using a rodent species (Tg32 mouse), and call into question the value of completing extensive in vivo preclinical PK to inform linear mAb PK.

  5. Observational hints on the Big Bounce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielczarek, Jakub; Kurek, Aleksandra; Szydłowski, Marek; Kamionka, Michał

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study possible observational consequences of the bouncing cosmology. We consider a model where a phase of inflation is preceded by a cosmic bounce. While we consider in this paper only that the bounce is due to loop quantum gravity, most of the results presented here can be applied for different bouncing cosmologies. We concentrate on the scenario where the scalar field, as the result of contraction of the universe, is driven from the bottom of the potential well. The field is amplified, and finally the phase of the standard slow-roll inflation is realized. Such an evolution modifies the standard inflationary spectrum of perturbations by the additional oscillations and damping on the large scales. We extract the parameters of the model from the observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation. In particular, the value of inflaton mass is equal to m = (1.7±0.6)·10 13 GeV. In our considerations we base on the seven years of observations made by the WMAP satellite. We propose the new observational consistency check for the phase of slow-roll inflation. We investigate the conditions which have to be fulfilled to make the observations of the Big Bounce effects possible. We translate them to the requirements on the parameters of the model and then put the observational constraints on the model. Based on assumption usually made in loop quantum cosmology, the Barbero-Immirzi parameter was shown to be constrained by γ < 1100 from the cosmological observations. We have compared the Big Bounce model with the standard Big Bang scenario and showed that the present observational data is not informative enough to distinguish these models

  6. Smartphone Ownership Among US Adult Cigarette Smokers: 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Jaimee L; Mull, Kristin E

    2017-08-31

    Despite increasing interest in smartphone apps as a platform for delivery of tobacco cessation interventions, no previous studies have evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of smokers who can access smartphone-delivered interventions. To guide treatment development in this new platform and to evaluate disparities in access to smartphone-delivered interventions, we examined associations of smartphone ownership with demographics, tobacco use and thoughts about quitting, other health behaviors, physical and mental health, health care access, and Internet and technology utilization using a nationally representative sample of US adult smokers. Data were from the National Cancer Institute's 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4), Cycle 4. This mailed survey targeted noninstitutionalized individuals aged 18 years or older using two-stage stratified random sampling. For this analysis, we restricted the sample to current smokers with complete data on smartphone ownership (n=479). Nearly two-thirds (weighted percent=63.8%, 248/479) of smokers reported owning a smartphone. Those who were younger (P<.001), employed (P=.002), never married (P=.002), and had higher education (P=.002) and income (P<.001) had the highest rates of ownership. Smartphone owners did not differ from nonowners on frequency of smoking, recent quit attempts, or future plans to quit smoking, although they reported greater belief in the benefits of quitting (P=.04). Despite being equally likely to be overweight or obese, smartphone owners reported greater fruit and vegetable consumption (P=.03) and were more likely to report past-year efforts to increase exercise (P=.001) and to lose weight (P=.02). No differences in health care access and utilization were found. Smartphone owners reported better physical and mental health in several domains and higher access to and utilization of technology and the Internet, including for health reasons. Smartphone ownership among smokers mirrors

  7. MO-A-BRB-01: Review of TG-262 Internal Survey of Practices in EMR for External Beam Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechalakos, J.

    2015-01-01

    The process of converting to an electronic chart for radiation therapy can be daunting. It requires a dedicated committee to first research and choose appropriate software, to review the entire documentation policy and flow of the clinic, to convert this system to electronic form or if necessary, redesign the system to more easily conform to the electronic process. Those making the conversion and those who already use electronic charting would benefit from the shared experience of those who have been through the process in the past. Therefore TG262 was convened to provide guidance on electronic charting for external beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy. This course will present the results of an internal survey of task group members on EMR practices in External Beam Radiation Therapy as well as discuss important issues in EMR development and structure for both EBRT and brachytherapy. Learning Objectives: Be familiarized with common practices and pitfalls in development and maintenance of an electronic chart in Radiation Oncology Be familiarized with important issues related to electronic charting in External Beam Radiation Therapy Be familiarized with important issues related to electronic charting in Brachytherapy

  8. Evaluation of Protective Immune Responses Induced by Recombinant TrxLp and ENO2 Proteins against Toxoplasma gondii Infection in BALB/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasitic protozoan that can infect almost all species of warm-blooded animals. As any chemical-based drugs could not act against the tissue cyst stage of T. gondii, vaccination may be one of the ideal control strategies. In the present study, two new vaccine candidates, named TgENO2 and TgTrxLp, were purified from Escherichia coli with pET-30a(+ expression system and then were injected into BALB/c mice to evaluate the protective efficacy against acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. The results showed that both the recombinant proteins, either alone or in combination, could elicit strong humoral and cellular immune responses with a higher level of IgG antibodies, IFN-γ, IL-2, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells as compared to those in mice from control groups. After acute challenge with tachyzoites of the GJS strain, mice immunized with rTgTrxLp (8±2.77 d, rTgENO2 (7.4±1.81 d, and rTgTrxLp + rTgENO2 (8.38±4.57 d proteins showed significantly longer survival time than those that received Freund’s adjuvant (6.78±2.08 d and PBS (6.38±4.65 d (χ2 = 9.687, df = 4, P=0.046. The protective immunity of rTgTrxLp, rTgENO2, and rTgTrxLp + rTgENO2 proteins against chronic T. gondii infection showed 69.77%, 58.14%, and 20.93% brain cyst reduction as compared to mice that received PBS. The present study suggested that both TgENO2 and TgTrxLp were potential candidates for the development of multicomponent vaccines against toxoplasmosis.

  9. SU-G-201-10: Experimental Determination of Modified TG-43 Dosimetry Parameters for the Xoft Axxent® Electronic Brachytherapy Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simiele, S; Palmer, B; DeWerd, L [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The establishment of an air kerma rate standard at NIST for the Xoft Axxent{sup ®} electronic brachytherapy source (Axxent{sup ®} source) motivated the establishment of a modified TG-43 dosimetry formalism. This work measures the modified dosimetry parameters for the Axxent{sup ®} source in the absence of a treatment applicator for implementation in Xoft’s treatment planning system. Methods: The dose-rate conversion coefficient (DRCC), radial dose function (RDF) values, and polar anisotropy (PA) were measured using TLD-100 microcubes with NIST-calibrated sources. The DRCC and RDF measurements were performed in liquid water using an annulus of Virtual Water™ designed to align the TLDs at the height of the anode at fixed radii from the source. The PA was measured at several distances from the source in a PMMA phantom. MCNP-determined absorbed dose energy dependence correction factors were used to convert from dose to TLD to dose to liquid water for the DRCC, RDF, and PA measurements. The intrinsic energy dependence correction factor from the work of Pike was used. The AKR was determined using a NIST-calibrated HDR1000 Plus well-type ionization chamber. Results: The DRCC was determined to be 8.6 (cGy/hr)/(µGy/min). The radial dose values were determined to be 1.00 (1cm), 0.60 (2cm), 0.42 (3cm), and 0.32 (4cm), with agreement ranging from (5.7% to 10.9%) from the work of Hiatt et al. 2015 and agreement from (2.8% to 6.8%) with internal MCNP simulations. Conclusion: This work presents a complete dataset of modified TG-43 dosimetry parameters for the Axxent{sup ®} source in the absence of an applicator. Prior to this study a DRCC had not been measured for the Axxent{sup ®} source. This data will be used for calculating dose distributions for patients receiving treatment with the Axxent{sup ®} source in Xoft’s breast balloon and vaginal applicators, and for intraoperative radiotherapy. Sources and partial funding for this work were provided by Xoft

  10. Thyroid stimulating antibodies, thyroglobulin antibodies and serum proteins during treatment of graves' disease with radioiodine or propylthouracil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, U; Bech, K; Johansen, K; Nistrup Madsen, S [Dept. of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology F, Herlev University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark); Date, J; Hyltoft Pedersen, P [Dept. of Clinical Chemistry, Odense University Hospital, (Denmark)

    1982-01-01

    The relation between serum concentrations of thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb), thyroid stimulating antibodies (TSAb) and serum immunoglobulins during treatment of Graves disease was studied in 36 consecutive patients treated randomly with 131-iodine (n=16) or propylthiouracil (n=20). The patients were investigated before treatment was started and on seven occasions within the following year. In the entire patient group 78% were positive for TSAb and 47% for TgAb. There was a significant correlation between TSAb and TgAb in 15 patients concomitantly positive. There were no significant changes in serum immunoglobulins during treatment in either group of patients. In the radioiodine-treated group of patients TgAb was reduced after one week, whereas TSAb showed insignificant variations. After 5-10 weeks both antibodies increased, for TgAb with a median peak level 3 times above the initial concentration. Of 16 patients treated with radioiodine five developed myxoedema and four of these were positive for TgAb. There was a relation between the development of myxoedema and the ratio between increases of TSAb and TgAb. Increase in the TSAb was not related to serum thyroglobulin (Tg) measured in TgAb-negative patients. Propylthiouracil showed minor effects on the studied variables, but with lower mean values of Tg, TgAb and TSAb at the end of the observation period. The results indicate an immunological relation between TSAb and TgAb, although differences between their courses exist in some situations.

  11. High Frequency of a Single Nucleotide Substitution (c.-6-180T>G) of the Canine MDR1/ABCB1 Gene Associated with Phenobarbital-Resistant Idiopathic Epilepsy in Border Collie Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Mizukami, Keijiro; Yabuki, Akira; Chang, Hye-Sook; Uddin, Mohammad Mejbah; Rahman, Mohammad Mahbubur; Kushida, Kazuya; Kohyama, Moeko; Yamato, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    A single nucleotide substitution (c.-6-180T>G) associated with resistance to phenobarbital therapy has been found in the canine MDR1/ABCB1 gene in Border Collies with idiopathic epilepsy. In the present study, a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay was developed for genotyping this mutation, and a genotyping survey was carried out in a population of 472 Border Collies in Japan to determine the current allele frequency. The survey demonstrated the frequencies of the T/T wild type...

  12. Glucose homeostasis in mice is transglutaminase 2 independent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siiri E Iismaa

    Full Text Available Transglutaminase type 2 (TG2 has been reported to be a candidate gene for maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY because three different mutations that impair TG2 transamidase activity have been found in 3 families with MODY. TG2 null (TG2(-/- mice have been reported to be glucose intolerant and have impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS. Here we rigorously evaluated the role of TG2 in glucose metabolism using independently generated murine models of genetic TG2 disruption, which show no compensatory enhanced expression of other TGs in pancreatic islets or other tissues. First, we subjected chow- or fat-fed congenic SV129 or C57BL/6 wild type (WT and TG2(-/- littermates, to oral glucose gavage. Blood glucose and serum insulin levels were similar for both genotypes. Pancreatic islets isolated from these animals and analysed in vitro for GSIS and cholinergic potentiation of GSIS, showed no significant difference between genotypes. Results from intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (GTTs and insulin tolerance tests (ITTs were similar for both genotypes. Second, we directly investigated the role of TG2 transamidase activity in insulin secretion using a coisogenic model that expresses a mutant form of TG2 (TG2(R579A, which is constitutively active for transamidase activity. Intraperitoneal GTTs and ITTs revealed no significant differences between WT and TG2(R579A/R579A mice. Given that neither deletion nor constitutive activation of TG2 transamidase activity altered basal responses, or responses to a glucose or insulin challenge, our data indicate that glucose homeostasis in mice is TG2 independent, and question a link between TG2 and diabetes.

  13. Molecular diversity of tuliposide A-converting enzyme in the tulip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Taiji; Tsuchigami, Aya; Ogita, Shinjiro; Kato, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Tuliposide A-converting enzyme (TCEA) catalyzes the conversion of 6-tuliposide A to its lactonized aglycon, tulipalin A, in the tulip (Tulipa gesneriana). The TgTCEA gene, isolated previously from petals, was transcribed in all tulip tissues but not in the bulbs despite the presence of TCEA activity, which allowed prediction of the presence of a TgTCEA isozyme gene preferentially expressed in the bulbs. Here, the TgTCEA-b gene, the TgTCEA homolog, was identified in bulbs. TgTCEA-b polypeptides showed approximately 77% identity to the petal TgTCEA. Functional characterization of the recombinant enzyme verified that TgTCEA-b encoded the TCEA. Moreover, the TgTCEA-b was found to be localized to plastids, as found for the petal TgTCEA. Transcript analysis revealed that TgTCEA-b was functionally transcribed in the bulb scales, unlike the TgTCEA gene, whose transcripts were absent there. In contrast, TgTCEA-b transcripts were in the minority in other tissues where TgTCEA transcripts were dominant, indicating a tissue preference for the transcription of those isozyme genes.

  14. Behind the curtain of tauopathy: a show of multiple players orchestrating tau toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunpeng; Wu, Zhihao; Zhou, Bing

    2016-01-01

    tau, a microtubule-associated protein, directly binds with microtubules to dynamically regulate the organization of cellular cytoskeletons, and is especially abundant in neurons of the central nervous system. Under disease conditions such as Pick's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, frontotemporal dementia, parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 and Alzheimer's disease, tau proteins can self-assemble to paired helical filaments progressing to neurofibrillary tangles. In these diseases, collectively referred to as "tauopathies", alterations of diverse tau modifications including phosphorylation, metal ion binding, glycosylation, as well as structural changes of tau proteins have all been observed, indicating the complexity and variability of factors in the regulation of tau toxicity. Here, we review our current knowledge and hypotheses from relevant studies on tau toxicity, emphasizing the roles of phosphorylations, metal ions, folding and clearance control underlining tau etiology and their regulations. A summary of clinical efforts and associated findings of drug candidates under development is also presented. It is hoped that a more comprehensive understanding of tau regulation will provide us with a better blueprint of tau networking in neuronal cells and offer hints for the design of more efficient strategies to tackle tau-related diseases in the future.

  15. Correlation of consecutive serum thyroglobulin levels during hormone withdrawal and failure of initial radioiodine ablation in thyroid cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyuk Jin; Kim, Sung Hoon; O, Joo Hyun; Lee, Yeong Joo; Kim, Hyoung Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Ye Young [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, College of Medicine, The Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Ji Young [Dept. of Radiology, Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of thyroglobulin (Tg) kinetics during preparation of radioiodine ablation for prediction of initial radioiodine ablation failure in thyroid cancer patients. Thyroid cancer patients after total thyroidectomy who underwent radioiodine ablation with 3–4 weeks of hormone withdrawal between May 2011 and January 2012 were included. Consecutive serum Tg levels 5–10 days before ablation (Tg1) and on the day of ablation (Tg2) were obtained. The difference between Tg1 and Tg2 (ΔTg), daily change rate of TgTg/day) and Tg doubling time (Tg-DT) were calculated. Success of initial ablation was determined by the results of the follow-up ultrasonography, diagnostic radioiodine scan and stimulated Tg level after 6 to 20 months. A total of 143 patients were included. Failed ablation was reported in 52 patients. Tg2 higher than 5.6 ng/ml and Tg-DT shorter than 4.2 days were significantly related to a high risk of ablation failure. ΔTg and ΔTg/day did not show significant correlation with ablation failure. Thyroglobulin kinetics on consecutive blood sampling during hormone withdrawal may be helpful in predicting patients with higher risk of treatment failure of initial radioiodine ablation therapy in thyroid cancer patients.

  16. Correlation of consecutive serum thyroglobulin levels during hormone withdrawal and failure of initial radioiodine ablation in thyroid cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hyuk Jin; Kim, Sung Hoon; O, Joo Hyun; Lee, Yeong Joo; Kim, Hyoung Woo; Seo, Ye Young; Ryu, Ji Young

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of thyroglobulin (Tg) kinetics during preparation of radioiodine ablation for prediction of initial radioiodine ablation failure in thyroid cancer patients. Thyroid cancer patients after total thyroidectomy who underwent radioiodine ablation with 3–4 weeks of hormone withdrawal between May 2011 and January 2012 were included. Consecutive serum Tg levels 5–10 days before ablation (Tg1) and on the day of ablation (Tg2) were obtained. The difference between Tg1 and Tg2 (ΔTg), daily change rate of TgTg/day) and Tg doubling time (Tg-DT) were calculated. Success of initial ablation was determined by the results of the follow-up ultrasonography, diagnostic radioiodine scan and stimulated Tg level after 6 to 20 months. A total of 143 patients were included. Failed ablation was reported in 52 patients. Tg2 higher than 5.6 ng/ml and Tg-DT shorter than 4.2 days were significantly related to a high risk of ablation failure. ΔTg and ΔTg/day did not show significant correlation with ablation failure. Thyroglobulin kinetics on consecutive blood sampling during hormone withdrawal may be helpful in predicting patients with higher risk of treatment failure of initial radioiodine ablation therapy in thyroid cancer patients

  17. MO-AB-206-02: Testing Gamma Cameras Based On TG177 WG Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halama, J. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    This education session will cover the physics and operation principles of gamma cameras and PET scanners. The first talk will focus on PET imaging. An overview of the principles of PET imaging will be provided, including positron decay physics, and the transition from 2D to 3D imaging. More recent advances in hardware and software will be discussed, such as time-of-flight imaging, and improvements in reconstruction algorithms that provide for options such as depth-of-interaction corrections. Quantitative applications of PET will be discussed, as well as the requirements for doing accurate quantitation. Relevant performance tests will also be described. Learning Objectives: Be able to describe basic physics principles of PET and operation of PET scanners. Learn about recent advances in PET scanner hardware technology. Be able to describe advances in reconstruction techniques and improvements Be able to list relevant performance tests. The second talk will focus on gamma cameras. The Nuclear Medicine subcommittee has charged a task group (TG177) to develop a report on the current state of physics testing of gamma cameras, SPECT, and SPECT/CT systems. The report makes recommendations for performance tests to be done for routine quality assurance, annual physics testing, and acceptance tests, and identifies those needed satisfy the ACR accreditation program and The Joint Commission imaging standards. The report is also intended to be used as a manual with detailed instructions on how to perform tests under widely varying conditions. Learning Objectives: At the end of the presentation members of the audience will: Be familiar with the tests recommended for routine quality assurance, annual physics testing, and acceptance tests of gamma cameras for planar imaging. Be familiar with the tests recommended for routine quality assurance, annual physics testing, and acceptance tests of SPECT systems. Be familiar with the tests of a SPECT/CT system that include the CT images

  18. MO-E-9A-01: Risk Based Quality Management: TG100 In Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, M [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Palta, J [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Dunscombe, P [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada); Thomadsen, B [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-06-15

    One of the goals of quality management in radiation therapy is to gain high confidence that patients will receive the prescribed treatment correctly. To accomplish these goals professional societies such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) has published many quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC), and quality management (QM) guidance documents. In general, the recommendations provided in these documents have emphasized on performing device-specific QA at the expense of process flow and protection of the patient against catastrophic errors. Analyses of radiation therapy incidents find that they are most often caused by flaws in the overall therapy process, from initial consult through final treatment, than by isolated hardware or computer failures detectable by traditional physics QA. This challenge is shared by many intrinsically hazardous industries. Risk assessment tools and analysis techniques have been developed to define, identify, and eliminate known and/or potential failures, problems, or errors, from a system, process and/or service before they reach the customer. These include, but are not limited to, process mapping, failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), fault tree analysis (FTA), and establishment of a quality management program that best avoids the faults and risks that have been identified in the overall process. These tools can be easily adapted to radiation therapy practices because of their simplicity and effectiveness to provide efficient ways to enhance the safety and quality of treatment processes. Task group 100 (TG100) of AAPM has developed a risk-based quality management program that uses these tools. This session will be devoted to a discussion of these tools and how these tools can be used in a given radiotherapy clinic to develop a risk based QM program. Learning Objectives: Learn how to design a process map for a radiotherapy process. Learn how to perform a FMEA analysis for a given process. Learn what

  19. MO-AB-206-02: Testing Gamma Cameras Based On TG177 WG Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halama, J.

    2016-01-01

    This education session will cover the physics and operation principles of gamma cameras and PET scanners. The first talk will focus on PET imaging. An overview of the principles of PET imaging will be provided, including positron decay physics, and the transition from 2D to 3D imaging. More recent advances in hardware and software will be discussed, such as time-of-flight imaging, and improvements in reconstruction algorithms that provide for options such as depth-of-interaction corrections. Quantitative applications of PET will be discussed, as well as the requirements for doing accurate quantitation. Relevant performance tests will also be described. Learning Objectives: Be able to describe basic physics principles of PET and operation of PET scanners. Learn about recent advances in PET scanner hardware technology. Be able to describe advances in reconstruction techniques and improvements Be able to list relevant performance tests. The second talk will focus on gamma cameras. The Nuclear Medicine subcommittee has charged a task group (TG177) to develop a report on the current state of physics testing of gamma cameras, SPECT, and SPECT/CT systems. The report makes recommendations for performance tests to be done for routine quality assurance, annual physics testing, and acceptance tests, and identifies those needed satisfy the ACR accreditation program and The Joint Commission imaging standards. The report is also intended to be used as a manual with detailed instructions on how to perform tests under widely varying conditions. Learning Objectives: At the end of the presentation members of the audience will: Be familiar with the tests recommended for routine quality assurance, annual physics testing, and acceptance tests of gamma cameras for planar imaging. Be familiar with the tests recommended for routine quality assurance, annual physics testing, and acceptance tests of SPECT systems. Be familiar with the tests of a SPECT/CT system that include the CT images

  20. MO-E-9A-01: Risk Based Quality Management: TG100 In Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huq, M; Palta, J; Dunscombe, P; Thomadsen, B

    2014-01-01

    One of the goals of quality management in radiation therapy is to gain high confidence that patients will receive the prescribed treatment correctly. To accomplish these goals professional societies such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) has published many quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC), and quality management (QM) guidance documents. In general, the recommendations provided in these documents have emphasized on performing device-specific QA at the expense of process flow and protection of the patient against catastrophic errors. Analyses of radiation therapy incidents find that they are most often caused by flaws in the overall therapy process, from initial consult through final treatment, than by isolated hardware or computer failures detectable by traditional physics QA. This challenge is shared by many intrinsically hazardous industries. Risk assessment tools and analysis techniques have been developed to define, identify, and eliminate known and/or potential failures, problems, or errors, from a system, process and/or service before they reach the customer. These include, but are not limited to, process mapping, failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), fault tree analysis (FTA), and establishment of a quality management program that best avoids the faults and risks that have been identified in the overall process. These tools can be easily adapted to radiation therapy practices because of their simplicity and effectiveness to provide efficient ways to enhance the safety and quality of treatment processes. Task group 100 (TG100) of AAPM has developed a risk-based quality management program that uses these tools. This session will be devoted to a discussion of these tools and how these tools can be used in a given radiotherapy clinic to develop a risk based QM program. Learning Objectives: Learn how to design a process map for a radiotherapy process. Learn how to perform a FMEA analysis for a given process. Learn what

  1. Clinical relevance of DPYD variants c.1679T>G, c.1236G>A/HapB3, and c.1601G>A as predictors of severe fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity : A systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulendijks, Didier; Henricks, Linda M.; Sonke, Gabe S.; Deenen, Maarten J.; Froehlich, Tanja K.; Amstutz, Ursula; Largiadèr, Carlo R.; Jennings, Barbara A.; Marinaki, Anthony M.; Sanderson, Jeremy D.; Kleibl, Zdenek; Kleiblova, Petra; Schwab, Matthias; Zanger, Ulrich M.; Palles, Claire; Tomlinson, Ian; Gross, Eva; van Kuilenburg, André B P; Punt, Cornelis J A; Koopman, Miriam; Beijnen, Jos H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071919570; Cats, Annemieke; Schellens, Jan H M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073926272

    2015-01-01

    Background: The best-known cause of intolerance to fluoropyrimidines is dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency, which can result from deleterious polymorphisms in the gene encoding DPD (DPYD), including. DPYD*2A and c.2846A>T. Three other variants- DPYD c.1679T>G, c.1236G>A/HapB3, and

  2. Clinical relevance of DPYD variants c.1679T>G, c.1236G>A/HapB3, and c.1601G>A as predictors of severe fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity : a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulendijks, Didier; Henricks, Linda M; Sonke, Gabe S; Deenen, Maarten J; Froehlich, Tanja K; Amstutz, Ursula; Largiadèr, Carlo R; Jennings, Barbara A; Marinaki, Anthony M; Sanderson, Jeremy D; Kleibl, Zdenek; Kleiblova, Petra; Schwab, Matthias; Zanger, Ulrich M; Palles, Claire; Tomlinson, Ian; Gross, Eva; van Kuilenburg, André B P; Punt, Cornelis J A; Koopman, Miriam; Beijnen, Jos H; Cats, Annemieke; Schellens, Jan H M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The best-known cause of intolerance to fluoropyrimidines is dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency, which can result from deleterious polymorphisms in the gene encoding DPD (DPYD), including DPYD*2A and c.2846A>T. Three other variants-DPYD c.1679T>G, c.1236G>A/HapB3, and

  3. Discrepancy between haemagglutination and radioimmunological techniques for measurement of serum thyroglobulin autoantibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, U; Perrild, H; Bech, K; Bliddal, H; Date, J; Hoeier Madsen, M; Nordfang, O; Ryder, L P; Thomsen, M; Kappelgaard, E [Dept. of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Herlev University Hospital, Dept. of Medicine E, Frederiksberg Hospital, Dept. of Clinical Chemistry, Odense University Hospital, Autoimmune Lab., Serum Institute, Tissue Typing Laboratory and Medical Dept. TA, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

    1983-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that in some patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases the tanned red cell (TRC) method for detection of thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TgAb) is negative where TgAb measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) show positive values. To investigate this further, patients with thyroid diseaes, pernicious anaemia and a control group were studied for serum concentrations of TgAb by TRC and by quantitative RIA, calibrated against MRC Standard A65/93. Antibodies for microsomes (MAb) were measured immunofluoretically. There was in all patient groups Hashimoto's thyroiditis (n=41), Graves' disease (n=50), Idiopathic myxoedemia (n=12), euthyroid Graves' disease (n=7), pernicious anaemia (n=81) a discrepancy between TgAb measured by TRC and RIA, respectively, whereas there was a reasonable correlation between the presence of TgAb by RIA and the presence of MAb. A possible interference from antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factors was ruled out. There was no increased frequency of TgAb measured by RIA in the control group. Fractionation of TRC negative sera revealed macromolecular TRC-activity, whereas TgAb positive sera by both methods had almost exclusively RIA and TRC activiy corresponding to TgG. Based on these results and others it seems that the TRC method for measurement of serum TgAb is of limited diagnostic value. Furthermore, the TRC method is in many cases not sensitive for screening fo TgAb prior to measurement of serum Tg which is of importance as this method shows false values in the presence of TgAb due to methodologial interference.

  4. Discrepancy between haemagglutination and radioimmunological techniques for measurement of serum thyroglobulin autoantibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, U.; Perrild, H.; Bech, K.; Bliddal, H.; Date, J.; Hoeier Madsen, M.; Nordfang, O.; Ryder, L.P.; Thomsen, M.; Kappelgaard, E. (Dept. of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Herlev University Hospital, Dept. of Medicine E, Frederiksberg Hospital, Dept. of Clinical Chemistry, Odense University Hospital, Autoimmune Lab., Serum Institute, Tissue Typing Laboratory and Medical Dept. TA, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark)

    1983-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that in some patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases the tanned red cell (TRC) method for detection of thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TgAb) is negative where TgAb measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) show positive values. To investigate this further, patients with thyroid diseaes, pernicious anaemia and a control group were studied for serum concentrations of TgAb by TRC and by quantitative RIA, calibrated against MRC Standard A65/93. Antibodies for microsomes (MAb) were measured immunofluoretically. There was in all patient groups Hashimoto's thyroiditis (n=41), Graves' disease (n=50), Idiopathic myxoedemia (n=12), euthyroid Graves' disease (n=7), pernicious anaemia (n=81) a discrepancy between TgAb measured by TRC and RIA, respectively, whereas there was a reasonable correlation between the presence of TgAb by RIA and the presence of MAb. A possible interference from antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factors was ruled out. There was no increased frequency of TgAb measured by RIA in the control group. Fractionation of TRC negative sera revealed macromolecular TRC-activity, whereas TgAb positive sera by both methods had almost exclusively RIA and TRC activiy corresponding to TgG. Based on these results and others it seems that the TRC method for measurement of serum TgAb is of limited diagnostic value. Furthermore, the TRC method is in many cases not sensitive for screening fo TgAb prior to measurement of serum Tg which is of importance as this method shows false values in the presence of TgAb due to methodologial interference.

  5. Evaluation of the highly sensitive Roche thyroglobulin II assay and establishment of a reference limit for thyroglobulin-negative patient samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotteveel-de Groot, Dorien M; Ross, H Alec; Janssen, Marcel J R; Netea-Maier, Romana T; Oosting, Janine D; Sweep, Fred C G J; van Herwaarden, Antonius E

    2016-08-01

    Thyroglobulin (Tg) measurements are used to monitor for residual thyroid tissue in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) after thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablative therapy. In recent years highly sensitive Tg assays have been developed. In this study the analytical performance of the new Roche Elecsys Tg II assay was evaluated and compared with the well documented Access2 Tg assay (Beckman-Coulter). Analytical performance was examined using various Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) evaluation protocols. Tg negative patient sera were used to establish an upper reference limit (URL) for the Elecsys Tg II assay. Non-linearity, drift and carry-over according to CLSI EP10 and EP6 in a measuring range of 0.04-500 ng/mL were non-significant. Total precision according to CLSI EP5 was 10% at a Tg concentration of 0.08 ng/mL. A patient serum comparison performed according to a modified CLSI EP9 protocol showed a significant difference of a factor of approximately 1.4, despite using an identical CRM calibrator. The Elecsys Tg II assay measured Tg with a two-fold higher sensitivity than the Access2 assay. Finally, using human sera without Tg, an URL of 0.05 ng/mL was determined. In our hands the highly sensitive Elecsys Tg II assay shows a good analytical performance and a higher sensitivity compared to the Access2 Tg assay. An URL of 0.05 ng/mL for the Elecsys Tg II assay was determined which may improve the clinical utility of the assay for the detection of residual DTC or disease recurrence.

  6. Evaluation of the highly sensitive Roche thyroglobulin II assay and establishment of a reference limit for thyroglobulin-negative patient samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorien M. Rotteveel-de Groot

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Thyroglobulin (Tg measurements are used to monitor for residual thyroid tissue in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC after thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablative therapy. In recent years highly sensitive Tg assays have been developed. In this study the analytical performance of the new Roche Elecsys Tg II assay was evaluated and compared with the well documented Access2 Tg assay (Beckman–Coulter. Design and methods: Analytical performance was examined using various Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI evaluation protocols. Tg negative patient sera were used to establish an upper reference limit (URL for the Elecsys Tg II assay. Results: Non-linearity, drift and carry-over according to CLSI EP10 and EP6 in a measuring range of 0.04–500 ng/mL were non-significant. Total precision according to CLSI EP5 was 10% at a Tg concentration of 0.08 ng/mL. A patient serum comparison performed according to a modified CLSI EP9 protocol showed a significant difference of a factor of approximately 1.4, despite using an identical CRM calibrator. The Elecsys Tg II assay measured Tg with a two-fold higher sensitivity than the Access2 assay. Finally, using human sera without Tg, an URL of 0.05 ng/mL was determined. Conclusions: In our hands the highly sensitive Elecsys Tg II assay shows a good analytical performance and a higher sensitivity compared to the Access2 Tg assay. An URL of 0.05 ng/mL for the Elecsys Tg II assay was determined which may improve the clinical utility of the assay for the detection of residual DTC or disease recurrence. Keywords: Thyroglobulin, Roche Elecsys Tg II assay, validation, reporting limit

  7. Exploration of a new method in determining the glass transition temperature of BMGs by electrical resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Zu, Fangqiu; Chen, Zhihao; Zheng, Shubin; Yuan, Yuan

    2005-07-01

    Based on a brief retrospect of the method in establishing Tg of the bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), some perplexities concerning this are pointed out. With the experimental results of Zr-Al-Ni-Cu-X (Nb,Ti) BMGs, a electrical resistivity method is proposed to determine the glass transition temperature of BMGs. With the method, we define two kinds of characteristic temperature related to the glass transition, Tg-dep and Tg-int, respectively. By comparing Tg-dep and Tg-int with Tg determined by the DSC method, we have found that, for the same alloy at the same heating rate, Tg-dep is very close to Tg-onset while Tg-int is approximate to Tg-mid. As a method to determine the glass transition temperature, the electrical resistivity method has proved to be more convenient and practical in comparison with the DSC method, especially when the DSC curve cannot show the glass transition character of BMGs. In addition, we would emphasize that when we refer to Tg, it is necessary to expatiate on the way of denoting the glass transition temperature, such as Tg-dep or Tg-int ( Tg-onset or Tg-mid), and on the heating rate, in order to avoid ambiguity.

  8. Cool WISPs for stellar cooling excesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannotti, Maurizio [Physical Sciences, Barry University, 11300 NE 2nd Avenue, Miami Shores, FL 33161 (United States); Irastorza, Igor; Redondo, Javier [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza, España (Spain); Ringwald, Andreas, E-mail: mgiannotti@barry.edu, E-mail: igor.irastorza@cern.ch, E-mail: jredondo@unizar.es, E-mail: andreas.ringwald@desy.de [Theory group, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-01

    Several stellar systems (white dwarfs, red giants, horizontal branch stars and possibly the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) show a mild preference for a non-standard cooling mechanism when compared with theoretical models. This exotic cooling could be provided by Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), produced in the hot cores and abandoning the star unimpeded, contributing directly to the energy loss. Taken individually, these excesses do not show a strong statistical weight. However, if one mechanism could consistently explain several of them, the hint could be significant. We analyze the hints in terms of neutrino anomalous magnetic moments, minicharged particles, hidden photons and axion-like particles (ALPs). Among them, the ALP or a massless HP represent the best solution. Interestingly, the hinted ALP parameter space is accessible to the next generation proposed ALP searches, such as ALPS II and IAXO and the massless HP requires a multi TeV energy scale of new physics that might be accessible at the LHC.

  9. Cool WISPs for stellar cooling excesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannotti, Maurizio; Irastorza, Igor; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Several stellar systems (white dwarfs, red giants, horizontal branch stars and possibly the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) show a mild preference for a non-standard cooling mechanism when compared with theoretical models. This exotic cooling could be provided by Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), produced in the hot cores and abandoning the star unimpeded, contributing directly to the energy loss. Taken individually, these excesses do not show a strong statistical weight. However, if one mechanism could consistently explain several of them, the hint could be significant. We analyze the hints in terms of neutrino anomalous magnetic moments, minicharged particles, hidden photons and axion-like particles (ALPs). Among them, the ALP or a massless HP represent the best solution. Interestingly, the hinted ALP parameter space is accessible to the next generation proposed ALP searches, such as ALPS II and IAXO and the massless HP requires a multi TeV energy scale of new physics that might be accessible at the LHC.

  10. The n-butyl amine TPD measurement of Brönsted acidity for solid catalysts by simultaneous TG/DTG-DTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasca, V.; Avram, Livia; Verdes, Orsina; Popa, A.

    2010-06-01

    The method for Brönsted acidity measurement based on TPD of alkyl amines desorption by gas-chromatography or thermogravimetry was adapted for simultaneous TG/DTG-DTA analysis. The acidity measurements were focused on the 12-tungstophosphoric acid (H 3PW 12O 40) and its salts, especially with Cesium since these posses the highest Brönsted acidity and they are among the most interesting catalysts. The n-butyl amine (NBA) desorption takes place in three steps for Cs xH 3- xPW 12O 40, x = 0-2, and four steps for the Cs 2.5H 0.5PW 12O 40. The steps of desorption correspond to the release of NBA molecules in stages, as NBA or butene molecules resulted from the Hofmann elimination reaction and NH 3 + H 2O formed by decomposition of ammonium salt. The quantities of desorption products, C 4H 8 and NH 3 + H 2O, corresponding to the stages with the maximum desorption rates at 400-420 °C, respectively 560-600 °C, are in the stoichiometric ratio with the Brönsted acidity.

  11. Study on the characterization and thermal decomposition of uranium compounds by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, J.M.; Abrao, A.

    1981-04-01

    A contribution to the characterization of several uranium compounds obtained at the IPEN' Uranium Pilot Plant is given. Particularly, samples of ammonium diuranate (ADU) and uranium oxides were studied. The main objective was to know the stoichiometry of the ADU and the oxides resulting from its thermal transformation. ADU samples were prepared by batchwise precipitation, stationary dewatering into stove and batchwise thermal decomposition, or, alternatively, continuous precipitation, continuous filtration, continuous drying and continuous thermal decomposition inside a temperature gradient electrical furnace. All ADU were precipitated using NH 3 gas from uranul sulfate or uranyl nitrate solutions. The thermal decomposition of ADU and uranium oxides were studied in an air atmosphere by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Any correlation between the parameters of precipitation, drying, calcination and the hystory of the obtaintion of the several uraniumm compounds and their initial and final composition was looked for. Heating program was established to have the U 3 O 8 oxide as the final product. Intermediary phases were tentatively identified. Temperatures at which occurred the absorption water elimination, crystallization water elimination, evolution or oxidation of NH 3 , decomposition of NO -3 ion and oxygen evolution and the exo- and endothermic process for each sample were identified. (Author) [pt

  12. Role of 5'TG3'-interacting factors (TGIFs) in Vorinostat (HDAC inhibitor)-mediated Corneal Fibrosis Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajay; Sinha, Nishant R; Siddiqui, Saad; Mohan, Rajiv R

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that vorinostat, an FDA-approved, clinically used histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, attenuates corneal fibrosis in vivo in rabbits by blocking transforming growth factor β (TGFβ). The 5'TG3'-interacting factors (TGIFs) are transcriptional repressors of TGFβ1 signaling via the Smad pathway. The present study was designed to explore the expression of TGIFs in human corneal fibroblasts and to investigate their role in mediating the antifibrotic effect of vorinostat. Human corneal fibroblast cultures were generated from donor corneas. RNA isolation, cDNA preparation, and PCR were performed to detect the presence of TGIF1 and TGIF2 transcripts. The cultures were exposed to vorinostat (2.5 µM) to test its effect on TGIF mRNA and protein levels using qPCR and immunoblotting. Myofibroblast formation was induced with TGFβ1 (5 ng/ml) treatment under serum-free conditions. The changes in fibrosis parameters were quantified by measuring fibrosis marker α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) mRNA and protein levels with qPCR, immunostaining, and immunoblotting. Smad2/3/4 and TGIF knockdowns were performed using pre-validated RNAi/siRNAs and a commercially available transfection reagent. Human corneal fibroblasts showed the expression of TGIF1 and TGIF2. Vorinostat (2.5 µM) caused a 2.8-3.3-fold increase in TGIF1 and TGIF2 mRNA levels and a 1.4-1.8-fold increase in TGIF1 and TGIF2 protein levels. Vorinostat treatment also caused a significant increase in acetylhistone H3 and acetylhistone H4. Vorinostat-induced increases in TGIF1 and TGIF2 were accompanied by a concurrent decrease in corneal fibrosis, as indicated by a decrease in αSMA mRNA by 83±7.7% and protein levels by 97±5%. The RNAi-mediated knockdown of Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4 markedly attenuated TGFβ1-evoked transdifferentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of TGIF1 and TGIF2 neutralized vorinostat-evoked decreases in αSMA mRNA by 31%-45% and protein

  13. Compositional Changes and Baking Performance of Rye Dough As Affected by Microbial Transglutaminase and Xylanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Isabel; Döring, Clemens; Jekle, Mario; Becker, Thomas; Koehler, Peter

    2016-07-20

    Doughs supplemented with endoxylanase (XYL) and varying amounts of microbial transglutaminase (TG) were analyzed by sequential protein extraction, quantitation of protein fractions and protein types, and determination of water-extractable arabinoxylans. With increasing TG activity, the concentration of prolamins and glutelins decreased and increased, respectively, and the prolamin-to-glutelin ratio strongly declined. The overall amount of extractable protein decreased with increasing TG level showing that cross-linking by TG provided high-molecular-weight protein aggregates. The decrease of the high-molecular-weight arabinoxylan fraction and the concurrent increase of the medium-molecular-weight fraction confirmed the degradation of arabinoxylans by XYL. However, XYL addition did not lead to significant improved cross-linking of rye proteins by TG. Volume and crumb hardness measurements of bread showed increased protein connectivity induced by XYL and TG. Significant positive effects on the final bread quality were especially obtained by XYL addition.

  14. Impact of the serum thyroglobulin concentration on the diagnostics of benign and malignant thyroid diseases; Stellenwert des Serum-Thyreoglobulinspiegels bei der Diagnostik benigner und maligner Schilddruesenerkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rink, T.; Schroth, H.J. [Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin, Staedtisches Klinikum, Hanau (Germany); Dembowski, W.; Klinger, K. [Medizinische Klinik, St. Vinzenz Krankenhaus, Hanau (Germany)

    2000-08-01

    Aim of this study is to evaluate new and controversially discussed indications for determining the thyroglobulin (Tg) level in different thyroid diseases to support routine diagnostics. Methods: The following groups were included: 250 healthy subjects without goiter, 50 persons with diffuse goiter, 161 patients with multinodular goiter devoid of functional disorder (108 of them underwent surgery, in 17 cases carcinomas were detected), 60 hyperthyroid patients with autonomously functioning nodular goiter, 150 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and 30 hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease. Results: The upper limit of the normal range of the Tg level was calculated as 30 ng Tg/ml. The evaluation of the collective with diffuse goiter showed that the figure of the Tg level can be expected in a similar magnitude as the thyroid volume in milliliters. Nodular tissue led to far higher Tg values then presumed when considering the respective thyroidvolume, with a rather high variance. A formula for a rough prediction of the Tg levels in nodular goiters is described. In ten out of 17 cases with thyroid carcinoma, the Tg was lower than estimated with thyroid and nodular volumes, but two patients showed a Tg exceeding 1000 ng/ml. The collective with functional autonomy had a significantly higher average Tg level than a matched euthyroid group being under suppressive levothyroxine substitution. However, due to the high variance of the Tg values, the autonomy could not consistently be predicted with the Tg level in individual cases. The patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed slightly decreased Tg levels. In Graves' disease, a significantly higher average Tg level was observed compared with a matched group with diffuse goiter, but 47% of all Tg values were still in the normal range (<30 ng/ml). Conclusion: Elevated Tg levels indicate a high probability of thyroid diseases, such as malignancy, autonomy or Graves' disease. However, as low Tg

  15. The transport of triglycerides through the secretory pathway of hepatocytes is impaired in apolipoprotein E deficient mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensenkamp, A.R.; Luyn, M.J.A. van; Havinga, R.; Teusink, B.; Waterman, I.J.; Mann, C.J.; Elzinga, B.M.; Verkade, H.J.; Zammit, V.A.; Havekes, L.M.; Shoulders, C.C.; Kuipers, F.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice develop hepatic steatosis and secrete reduced levels of VLDL-TG. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the effects of apoE-deficiency on intracellular lipid homeostasis and secretion of triglycerides (TG). We show that intracellular TG turnover and

  16. The transport of triglycerides through the secretory pathway of hepatocytes is impaired in apolipoprotein E deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensenkamp, AR; van Luyn, MJA; Havinga, R; Teusink, B; Waterman, IJ; Mann, CJ; Elzinga, BM; Verkade, HJ; Zammit, VA; Havekes, LM; Shoulders, CC; Kuipers, F

    Background/Aims: Apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice develop hepatic steatosis and secrete reduced levels of VLDL-TG. Methods and results: We examined the effects of apoE-deficiency on intracellular lipid homeostasis and secretion of triglycerides (TG). We show that intracellular TG turnover and

  17. Thyroglobulin recovery test of sera containing elevated levels of anti-thyroglobulin antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervas, I.; Gonzalez-Cabezas, P.; Flores, D.; Perez-Pastor, J.L.; Bello, P.; Rivas, A.; Alonso, J.; Olivas, C.; Mateo, A.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a macro-molecule synthesized exclusively in the thyroid gland for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. In differentiated thyroid carcinoma, after radical thyroidectomy, the discovering of measurable quantities of Tg can be indicator of relapse y/or spread of disease but Thyroglobulin antibodies can alter the determination of Tg. The aim of this study is to assess and measure the interference of Tg antibodies on the Tg determination. Methods: We have selected 50 consecutive serum whose Tg-antibodies levels were higher than the normality values (0-100 UI/mL). Tg-antibodies were measured using a 'sandwich' radioimmunometric assay on solid phase. We have performed a recovery test on these sera. This test consists on adding a known quantity (50 UI) of Tg on that sera and then measure the Tg values to find out the percentage of Tg that is recuperated. Tg was measured using a radioimmunometric assay on solid phase. Results: Sera were divided in two groups: A.- 15 sera with Tg-antibodies levels between 100-250 UI/mL: 85% of them presented a Tg recovery percentage higher than 90% (Tg-antibodies did not interfere on Tg values due to Tg was recovered almost in its totality). B.- 53 sera with Tg-antibodies levels higher than 250 UI/mL: Only 10% of them presented a Tg recovery percentage higher than >90% . (90% of sera interfered on Tg values). 70% of that sera presented percentages under 50%. The Pearson's correlation coefficient between Tg-antibodies and Tg recovery percentage was -0.34. Conclusions: The majority (90%)of sera with Tg-antibodies higher than 250 UI/mL presented an high interference on Tg determination. However the majority of sera with Tg-antibodies between 100-250 did not show any interference on Tg determination. There are not linear correlation between highest values and lowest percentages of Tg recovered. We recommend the realization of Tg recovery test on sera with elevated Tg antibodies specially when are higher than 250 UI/mL

  18. Mast cell activator compound 48/40 is not an effective adjuvant for UV-attenuated Toxoplasma gondii vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Chen, Shengjie; Huang, Shiguang; Lu, Fangli

    2017-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii, Tg) is a globally distributed parasitic protozoan causing different forms of toxoplasmosis in humans. Mast cells (MCs) play a role during T. gondii infection. Several studies suggest that MC activator compound 48/80 (C48/80) may be an effective vaccine adjuvant resulting in a potent and protective antigen-specific immune response against bacteria or virus infections. The present study was performed to determine whether C48/80 had adjuvant activity for ultraviolet (UV)-attenuated T. gondii vaccine to induce protective immune responses against T. gondii in mouse model. Kunming mice were divided into the following groups: naive mice, naive mice administrated with C48/80 intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, mice infected by i.p. injection of 10 4 T. gondii RH strain alone (Tg group), mice infected with 10 4 RH tachyzoites plus C48/80 administration (Tg + C48/80), mice immunized with UV-Tg alone, and mice immunized with UV-Tg plus C48/80 administration (UV-Tg + C48/80). All the vaccinated mice were challenged with 10 4 tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain at the same time as the primary infection. The survival rates, liver histopathologies, liver parasite burdens, and mRNA expression levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in the livers and spleens detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were compared among the aforementioned groups after primary infection or challenge infection. The results showed that, compared to the Tg group or Tg + C48/80 group, the UV-Tg + Tg group and UV-Tg + C48/80 + Tg group had significantly prolonged survival time, lower liver histopathological scores, decreased liver parasite burdens, and increased levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in the livers and spleens. There was no significant difference of survival time between the UV-Tg + Tg group and the UV-Tg + C48/80 + Tg group; however, the UV-Tg + C48/80 + Tg group showed higher parasite burden, more severe

  19. Towards high-density matter with relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, Shoji.

    1990-04-01

    Recent progress in nucleus-nucleus collisions at BNL and CERN suggests a hint that the formation of high-density nuclear matter could be possible with relativistic heavy-ion beams. What is the maximum density that can be achieved by heavy-ion collisions? Are there data which show evidence or hints on the formation of high density matter? Why is the research of high-density interesting? How about the future possibilities on this subject? These points are discussed. (author)

  20. Early thymic T cell development in young transgenic mice overexpressing human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, a model of Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Julien; Paly, Evelyne; Marche, Patrice N; London, Jacqueline

    2006-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that transgenic mice overexpressing Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, a model of Down syndrome, exhibit premature thymic involution. We have performed a flow cytometry analysis of the developing thymus in these homozygous transgenic mice (hSOD1/hSOD1: Tg-SOD). Longitudinal follow-up analysis from day 3 to day 280 showed an early thymic development in Tg-SOD mice compared with controls. This early thymic development was associated with an increased migration of mature T cells to peripheral lymphoid organs. BrdU labeling showed no difference between Tg-SOD and control mice, confirming that the greater number of peripheral T cells in Tg-SOD mice was not due to extensive proliferation of these cells but rather to a greater pool of emigrant T cells in Tg-SOD.

  1. ETS transcription factor ELF5 induces lumen formation in a 3D model of mammary morphogenesis and its expression is inhibited by Jak2 inhibitor TG101348.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chean, Jennifer; Chen, Charng-Jui; Shively, John E

    2017-10-01

    The loss of expression of a single gene can revert normal tissue to a malignant phenotype. For example, while normal breast has high lumenal expression of CEACAM1, the majority of breast cancers exhibit the early loss of this gene with the concurrent loss of their lumenal phenotype. MCF7 cells that lack CEACAM1 expression and fail to form lumena in 3D culture, regain the normal phenotype when transfected with CEACAM1. In order to probe the mechanism of this gain of function, we treated these cells with the clinically relevant Jak2 inhibitor TG101348 (TG), expecting that disruption of the prolactin receptor signaling pathway would interfere with the positive effects of transfection of MCF7 cells with CEACAM1. Indeed, lumen formation was inhibited, resulting in the down regulation of a set of genes, likely involved in the complex process of lumen formation. As expected, inhibition of the expression of many of these genes also inhibited lumen formation, confirming their involvement in a single pathway. Among the genes identified by the inhibition assay, ETS transcription factor ELF5 stood out, since it has been identified as a master regulator of mammary morphogenesis, and is associated with prolactin receptor signaling. When ELF5 was transfected into the parental MCF7 cells that lack CEACAM1, lumen formation was restored, indicating that ELF5 can replace CEACAM1 in this model system of lumenogenesis. We conclude that the event(s) that led to the loss of expression of CEACAM1 is epistatic in that multiple genes associated with a critical pathway were affected, but that restoration of the normal phenotype can be achieved with reactivation of certain genes at various nodal points in tissue morphogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. {sup 99m}Tc-labeled-1-thio-{beta}-D-glucose as a new tool to temporomandibular joint inflammatory disorders diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges Brasileiro, Claudia, E-mail: cbbrasileiro@gmail.co [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear-PCA, Escola de Engenharia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG)-Avenida Presidente Antonio Carlos, 6627, CEP: 31270-100 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fonseca Pacheco, Cinthia Mara da, E-mail: cinthia@newtonpaiva.b [Faculdade de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude, Centro Universitario Newton Paiva-Avenida Silva Lobo, 1730, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Martins Queiroz-Junior, Celso, E-mail: cmqj@yahoo.com.b [Departamento de Clinica, Patologia e Cirurgia Odontologica, Faculdade de Odontologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG)-Avenida Presidente Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Flavia de Lima, Carla, E-mail: carla.flavia@terra.com.b [Nucleo de Diagnostico Cardiovascular (ECOGRAF)-Rua dos Otoni, 881, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Batista da Silva, Juliana, E-mail: silvajb@cdtn.b [Unidade de Pesquisa e Producao de Radiofarmacos, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN)-Avenida Presidente Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Passos Ribeiro de Campos, Tarcisio, E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmb.b [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear-PCA, Escola de Engenharia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG)-Avenida Presidente Antonio Carlos, 6627, CEP: 31270-100 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate early detection of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammatory changes based on 1-thio-{beta}-D-glucose radiolabeled with technetium-99m. Method: The method applied a TMJ inflammation model in rats followed by radiopharmaceutical synthesis, intravenous administration of {sup 99m}Tc-1-TG and kinetic scintigraphy imaging. Results: Results show a significant difference of {sup 99m}Tc-1-TG uptake between inflamed TMJ and the control joint. The biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-1-TG by images showed the kidneys' excretion. Conclusion: As conclusion, {sup 99m}Tc-1-TG is a helpful tool in TMJ inflammatory process detection.

  3. Serum transglutaminase 3 antibodies correlate with age at celiac disease diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmi, Teea T; Kurppa, Kalle; Hervonen, Kaisa; Laurila, Kaija; Collin, Pekka; Huhtala, Heini; Saavalainen, Päivi; Sievänen, Harri; Reunala, Timo; Kaukinen, Katri

    2016-06-01

    Transglutaminase (TG)2 is the autoantigen in celiac disease, but also TG3 antibodies have been detected in the serum of celiac disease patients. To investigate the correlations between serum TG3 antibodies and clinical and histological manifestations of celiac disease and to assess gluten-dependency of TG3 antibodies. Correlations between serum TG3 antibody levels measured from 119 adults and children with untreated coeliac disease and the demographic data, clinical symptoms, celiac antibodies, histological data and results of laboratory tests and bone mineral densities were tested. TG3 antibodies were reinvestigated in 97 celiac disease patients after 12 months on a gluten-free diet (GFD). TG3 antibody titers were shown to correlate with the age at celiac disease diagnosis. Further, negative correlation with TG3 antibodies and intestinal γδ+ cells at diagnosis and on GFD was detected. Correlations were not detected with the clinical manifestation of celiac disease, TG2 or endomysial autoantibodies, laboratory values, severity of mucosal villous atrophy, associated diseases or complications. TG3 antibody titers decreased on GFD in 56% of the TG3 antibody positive patients. Serum TG3 antibody positivity in celiac disease increases as the diagnostic age rises. TG3 antibodies did not show similar gluten-dependency as TG2 antibodies. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Circadian system functionality, hippocampal oxidative stress, and spatial memory in the APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic model of Alzheimer disease: effects of melatonin or ramelteon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baño Otalora, Beatriz; Popovic, Natalija; Gambini, Juan; Popovic, Miroljub; Viña, José; Bonet-Costa, Vicent; Reiter, Russel J; Camello, Pedro Javier; Rol, Maria Ángeles; Madrid, Juan Antonio

    2012-08-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that primarily causes β-amyloid accumulation in the brain, resulting in cognitive and behavioral deficits. AD patients, however, also suffer from severe circadian rhythm disruptions, and the underlying causes are still not fully known. Patients with AD show reduced systemic melatonin levels. This may contribute to their symptoms, since melatonin is an effective chronobiotic and antioxidant with neuroprotective properties. Here, the authors critically assessed the effects of long-term melatonin treatment on circadian system function, hippocampal oxidative stress, and spatial memory performance in the APPswe/PS1 double transgenic (Tg) mouse model of AD. To test if melatonin MT1/MT2 receptor activation, alone, was involved, the authors chronically treated some mice with the selective MT1/MT2 receptor agonist ramelteon. The results indicate that many of the circadian and behavioral parameters measured, including oxidative stress markers, were not significantly affected in these AD mice. During the day, though, Tg controls (Tg-CON) showed significantly higher mean activity and body temperature (BT) than wild-type (WT) mice. Overall, BT rhythm amplitude was significantly lower in Tg than in WT mice. Although melatonin treatment had no effect, ramelteon significantly reduced the amplitude of the BT rhythm in Tg mice. Towards the end of the experiment, Tg mice treated with ramelteon (Tg-RAM) showed significantly higher circadian rhythm fragmentation than Tg-CON and reduced circadian BT rhythm strength. The free-running period (τ) for the BT and locomotor activity (LA) rhythms of Tg-CON was RAM compared with Tg-CON animals. These results suggest that not all aspects of the circadian system are affected in the APPswe/PS1 mice. Therefore, care should be taken when extending the results obtained in Tg mice to develop new therapies in humans. This study also revealed the complexity in the therapeutic actions of melatonin

  5. SU-E-T-87: A TG-100 Approach for Quality Improvement of Associated Dosimetry Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manger, R; Pawlicki, T; Kim, G [UCSD Medical Center, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Dosimetry protocols devote so much time to the discussion of ionization chamber choice, use and performance that is easy to forget about the importance of the associated dosimetry equipment (ADE) in radiation dosimetry - barometer, thermometer, electrometer, phantoms, triaxial cables, etc. Improper use and inaccuracy of these devices may significantly affect the accuracy of radiation dosimetry. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the risk factors in the monthly output dosimetry procedure and recommend corrective actions using a TG-100 approach. Methods: A failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) of the monthly linac output check procedure was performed to determine which steps and failure modes carried the greatest risk. In addition, a fault tree analysis (FTA) was performed to expand the initial list of failure modes making sure that none were overlooked. After determining the failure modes with the highest risk priority numbers (RPNs), 11 physicists were asked to score corrective actions based on their ease of implementation and potential impact. The results were aggregated into an impact map to determine the implementable corrective actions. Results: Three of the top five failure modes were related to the thermometer and barometer. The two highest RPN-ranked failure modes were related to barometric pressure inaccuracy due to their high lack-of-detectability scores. Six corrective actions were proposed to address barometric pressure inaccuracy, and the survey results found the following two corrective actions to be implementable: 1) send the barometer for recalibration at a calibration laboratory and 2) check the barometer accuracy against the local airport and correct for elevation. Conclusion: An FMEA on monthly output measurements displayed the importance of ADE for accurate radiation dosimetry. When brainstorming for corrective actions, an impact map is helpful for visualizing the overall impact versus the ease of implementation.

  6. Antisense Oligonucleotides Promote Exon Inclusion and Correct the Common c.-32-13T>G GAA Splicing Variant in Pompe Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik van der Wal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The most common variant causing Pompe disease is c.-32-13T>G (IVS1 in the acid α-glucosidase (GAA gene, which weakens the splice acceptor of GAA exon 2 and induces partial and complete exon 2 skipping. It also allows a low level of leaky wild-type splicing, leading to a childhood/adult phenotype. We hypothesized that cis-acting splicing motifs may exist that could be blocked using antisense oligonucleotides (AONs to promote exon inclusion. To test this, a screen was performed in patient-derived primary fibroblasts using a tiling array of U7 small nuclear RNA (snRNA-based AONs. This resulted in the identification of a splicing regulatory element in GAA intron 1. We designed phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer-based AONs to this element, and these promoted exon 2 inclusion and enhanced GAA enzyme activity to levels above the disease threshold. These results indicate that the common IVS1 GAA splicing variant in Pompe disease is subject to negative regulation, and inhibition of a splicing regulatory element using AONs is able to restore canonical GAA splicing and endogenous GAA enzyme activity.

  7. A Disposable Tear Glucose Biosensor-Part 4: Preliminary Animal Model Study Assessing Efficacy, Safety, and Feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Belle, Jeffrey T; Engelschall, Erica; Lan, Kenneth; Shah, Pankti; Saez, Neil; Maxwell, Stephanie; Adamson, Teagan; Abou-Eid, Michelle; McAferty, Kenyon; Patel, Dharmendra R; Cook, Curtiss B

    2014-01-01

    A prototype tear glucose (TG) sensor was tested in New Zealand white rabbits to assess eye irritation, blood glucose (BG) and TG lag time, and correlation with BG. A total of 4 animals were used. Eye irritation was monitored by Lissamine green dye and analyzed using image analysis software. Lag time was correlated with an oral glucose load while recording TG and BG readings. Correlation between TG and BG were plotted against one another to form a correlation diagram, using a Yellow Springs Instrument (YSI) and self-monitoring of blood glucose as the reference measurements. Finally, TG levels were calculated using analytically derived expressions. From repeated testing carried over the course of 12 months, little to no eye irritation was detected. TG fluctuations over time visually appeared to trace the same pattern as BG with an average lag times of 13 minutes. TG levels calculated from the device current measurements ranged from 4 to 20 mg/dL and correlated linearly with BG levels of 75-160 mg/dL (TG = 0.1723 BG = 7.9448 mg/dL; R 2 = .7544). The first steps were taken toward preliminary development of a sensor for self-monitoring of tear glucose (SMTG). No conjunctival irritation in any of the animals was noted. Lag time between TG and BG was found to be noticeable, but a quantitative modeling to correlate lag time in this study is unnecessary. Measured currents from the sensors and the calculated TG showed promising correlation to BG levels. Previous analytical bench marking showed BG and TG levels consistent with other literature. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  8. A Disposable Tear Glucose Biosensor—Part 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelschall, Erica; Lan, Kenneth; Shah, Pankti; Saez, Neil; Maxwell, Stephanie; Adamson, Teagan; Abou-Eid, Michelle; McAferty, Kenyon; Patel, Dharmendra R.; Cook, Curtiss B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: A prototype tear glucose (TG) sensor was tested in New Zealand white rabbits to assess eye irritation, blood glucose (BG) and TG lag time, and correlation with BG. Methods: A total of 4 animals were used. Eye irritation was monitored by Lissamine green dye and analyzed using image analysis software. Lag time was correlated with an oral glucose load while recording TG and BG readings. Correlation between TG and BG were plotted against one another to form a correlation diagram, using a Yellow Springs Instrument (YSI) and self-monitoring of blood glucose as the reference measurements. Finally, TG levels were calculated using analytically derived expressions. Results: From repeated testing carried over the course of 12 months, little to no eye irritation was detected. TG fluctuations over time visually appeared to trace the same pattern as BG with an average lag times of 13 minutes. TG levels calculated from the device current measurements ranged from 4 to 20 mg/dL and correlated linearly with BG levels of 75-160 mg/dL (TG = 0.1723 BG = 7.9448 mg/dL; R2 = .7544). Conclusion: The first steps were taken toward preliminary development of a sensor for self-monitoring of tear glucose (SMTG). No conjunctival irritation in any of the animals was noted. Lag time between TG and BG was found to be noticeable, but a quantitative modeling to correlate lag time in this study is unnecessary. Measured currents from the sensors and the calculated TG showed promising correlation to BG levels. Previous analytical bench marking showed BG and TG levels consistent with other literature. PMID:24876546

  9. Influence of catalysts on co-combustion of sewage sludge and water hyacinth blends as determined by TG-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Limao; Xie, Candie; Liu, Jingyong; Zhang, Xiaochun; Chang, KenLin; Kuo, Jiahong; Sun, Jian; Xie, Wuming; Zheng, Li; Sun, Shuiyu; Buyukada, Musa; Evrendilek, Fatih

    2018-01-01

    Effects of the three metal carbonates (K 2 CO 3 , Na 2 CO 3 , and MgCO 3 ) were quantified on catalytic co-combustion of the sewage sludge and water hyacinth (SW) blend using a thermogravimetric-mass spectrometric (TG-MS) analysis and kinetics modeling. The main dominating steps of the catalysts were the organic volatile matter release and combustion stage. Weighted mean values of activation energy (E m ) were estimated at 181.18KJ·mol -1 , 199.76KJ·mol -1 , 138.76KJ·mol -1 , and 177.88KJ·mol -1 for SW, SW+5% K 2 CO 3 , SW+5% Na 2 CO 3 , and SW+5% MgCO 3 , respectively. The lowest E m occurred with SW+5% Na 2 CO 3 . Overall, catalyst effect on co-combustion appeared to be negligible as indicated by Gibbs free energy (ΔG). The normalized intensities of SW+MgCO 3 were strongest. The addition of Na 2 CO 3 and MgCO 3 to SW increased flue gases emissions (CO 2 , NO 2 , SO 2 , HCN, and NH 3 ) of SW, whereas the addition of K 2 CO 3 to SW reduced flue gases emissions from the entire combustion process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Endostatin and transglutaminase 2 are involved in fibrosis of the aging kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi Hua Sarah; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Zhongtao; Johnson, Gail; Cooper, Arthur JL; Feola, Julianne; Bank, Alexander; Shein, Jonathan; Ruotsalainen, Heli; Pihlajaniemi, Taina; Goligorsky, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Endostatin (EST), an anti-angiogenic factor, is enriched in aging kidneys. EST is also an interactive partner of transglutaminase 2 (TG2), an enzyme that cross-links extracellular matrix proteins. Here we tested whether EST and TG2 play a role in the fibrosis of aging. In wild type mice, aging kidneys exhibited a 2–4 fold increase in TG2 paralleled by increased cross-linked extracellular matrix proteins and fibrosis. Mice transgenic to express EST showed renal fibrosis at a young age. One month delivery of EST via minipumps to young mice showed increased renal fibrosis that became more robust when superimposed on folic acid-induced nephropathy. Upregulated TG2 and impaired renal function were apparent with EST delivery combined with folic acid-induced nephropathy. Subcapsular injection of TG2 and/or EST into kidneys of young mice not only induced interstitial fibrosis, but also increased the proportion of senescent cells. Thus, kidney fibrosis in aging may represent a natural outcome of upregulated EST and TG2, but more likely it appears to be a result of cumulative stresses occurring on the background of synergistically acting geronic (aging) proteins, EST and TG2. PMID:27165830

  11. Coronary triglyceride deposition in contemporary advanced diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Yoshihiko; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Hirano, Ken-ichi; Mano, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Kunihisa; Yamada, Sohsuke; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Suzuki, Akira; Kanzaki, Hideaki; Hamasaki, Toshimitsu; Kotani, Jun-ichi; Kato, Seiya; Nagasaka, Hironori; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue

    2014-07-01

    It is of importance to clarify pathophysiology of diabetic heart diseases such as heart failure and coronary artery disease. We reported a novel clinical phenotype called triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy (TGCV), showing aberrant TG accumulation in both coronary arteries and myocardium, in a cardiac transplant recipient. Here, we examined autopsied diabetics for