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Sample records for tg delta values

  1. Diagnostic value of Tg and TgAb for metastasis following ablation in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma coexistent with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Hong; Zhu, Zhao-Jin; Chen, Ze-Quan; Yu, Yong-Li

    2016-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the clinical value of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and antithyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) measurements and the cutoff value after ablation in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) complicated by Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) with metastasis. We measured serum Tg and TgAb levels and evaluated the disease status in 164 cases of DTC coexistent with HT in pathologically confirmed patients after surgery and post-remnant ablation during a 3-year follow-up. All Tg and TgAb levels were assessed by chemiluminescent immunoassay (IMA). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the prognostic value of Tg and TgAb for disease metastasis. The relationship between Tg and TgAb was analyzed using the scatter diagram distribution method. We found that the cutoff values of Tg and TgAb were 1.48 µg/L and 45 kIU/L, respectively. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of Tg and TgAb was 0.907 and 0.650, respectively. In DTC coexistent with HT patients, the optimal cutoff value correlated with metastasis in Tg and TgAb was 1.48 µg/L and 45 kIU/L, respectively.

  2. Variation in leaf water delta D and delta 18O values during the evapotranspiration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leopoldo, P.R.; Foloni, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical model was developed to evaluate leaf water delta D and delta 18 O variation in relation to: leaf temperature, relative humidity converted to leaf temperature and delta D and delta 18 O values of atmospheric water vapour and soil water. (M.A.C.) [pt

  3. Influence of different organic fertilizers on quality parameters and the delta(15)N, delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O values of orange fruit (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, Paolo; Camin, Federica; Fabroni, Simona; Perini, Matteo; Torrisi, Biagio; Intrigliolo, Francesco

    2010-03-24

    To investigate the influence of different types of fertilizers on quality parameters, N-containing compounds, and the delta(15)N, delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta (34)S, and delta(18)O values of citrus fruit, a study was performed on the orange fruit cv. 'Valencia late' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), which was harvested in four plots (three organic and one conventional) located on the same farm. The results demonstrated that different types of organic fertilizers containing the same amount of nitrogen did not effect important changes in orange fruit quality parameters. The levels of total N and N-containing compounds such as synephrine in fruit juice were not statistically different among the different treatments. The delta(15)N values of orange fruit grown under fertilizer derived from animal origin as well as from vegetable compost were statistically higher than those grown with mineral fertilizer. Therefore, delta(15)N values can be used as an indicator of citrus fertilization management (organic or conventional), because even when applied organic fertilizers are of different origins, the natural abundance of (15)N in organic citrus fruit remains higher than in conventional ones. These treatments also did not effect differences in the delta(13)C, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O values of fruit.

  4. Utility of Reference Change Values for Delta Check Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Dae-Hyun; Park, Hae-Il; Hyun, Jungwon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Min-Jeong; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2017-10-01

    To assess the utility of reference change values (RCVs) as delta check limits. A total of 1,650,518 paired results for 23 general chemistry test results from June 1, 2014, to October 31, 2016, were analyzed. The RCVs for each analyte were calculated from the analytical imprecision and within-subject biological variation. The percent differences between two consecutive results in one patient were categorized into one of four groups: outpatients, inpatients, emergency care, and general health care. For each, 2.5th and 97.5th percentile values were computed and compared with their RCVs. The distributions were assessed for normality using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Most of the estimated limits were larger than the corresponding RCVs and, furthermore, with notable differences across the groups. Patients in the emergency care group usually demonstrated larger delta percent values than those in the other groups. None of the distributions of the percent differences passed tests of normality when subjected to Kolmogorov-Smirnov analysis. Comparison of estimated RCVs and real-world patient data revealed the pitfalls of applying RCVs in clinical laboratories. Laboratory managers should be aware of the limitations of RCVs and exercise caution when using them. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. The Localizing Value Of Focal Delta Slowing In Temporal Lobe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slow wave EEG had a higher marginal probability than neuropsychological assessment of predicting the focus, and was equally effective as other investigative methods. Conclusion These results suggest that focal temporal delta slowing is useful in the localization of epileptogenic foci. There was no discordance with the ...

  6. Analysis of historical delta values for IAEA/LANL NDA training courses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geist, William; Santi, Peter; Swinhoe, Martyn; Bonner, Elisa

    2009-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supports the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) by providing training for IAEA inspectors in neutron and gamma-ray Nondestructive Assay (NDA) of nuclear material. Since 1980, all new IAEA inspectors attend this two week course at LANL gaining hands-on experience in the application of NDA techniques, procedures and analysis to measure plutonium and uranium nuclear material standards with well known pedigrees. As part of the course the inspectors conduct an inventory verification exercise. This exercise provides inspectors the opportunity to test their abilities in performing verification measurements using the various NDA techniques. For an inspector, the verification of an item is nominally based on whether the measured assay value agrees with the declared value to within three times the historical delta value. The historical delta value represents the average difference between measured and declared values from previous measurements taken on similar material with the same measurement technology. If the measurement falls outside a limit of three times the historical delta value, the declaration is not verified. This paper uses measurement data from five years of IAEA courses to calculate a historical delta for five non-destructive assay methods: Gamma-ray Enrichment, Gamma-ray Plutonium Isotopics, Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting, Active Neutron Coincidence Counting and the Neutron Coincidence Collar. These historical deltas provide information as to the precision and accuracy of these measurement techniques under realistic conditions.

  7. Multi-valued logic circuits using hybrid circuit consisting of three gates single-electron transistors (TG-SETs) and MOSFETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, SeungJun; Yu, YunSeop; Choi, JungBum

    2008-10-01

    New multi-valued logic (MVL) families using the hybrid circuits consisting of three gates single-electron transistors (TG-SETs) and a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) are proposed. The use of SETs offers periodic literal characteristics due to Coulomb oscillation of SET, which allows a realization of binary logic (BL) circuits as well as multi-valued logic (MVL) circuits. The basic operations of the proposed MVL families are successfully confirmed through SPICE circuit simulation based on the physical device model of a TG-SET. The proposed MVL circuits are found to be much faster, but much larger power consumption than a previously reported MVL, and they have a trade-off between speed and power consumption. As an example to apply the newly developed MVL families, a half-adder is introduced.

  8. Measuring and predicting Delta(vap)H298 values of ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyko, Alexey; Lovelock, Kevin R J; Corfield, Jo-Anne; Taylor, Alasdair W; Gooden, Peter N; Villar-Garcia, Ignacio J; Licence, Peter; Jones, Robert G; Krasovskiy, Vladimir G; Chernikova, Elena A; Kustov, Leonid M

    2009-10-14

    We report the enthalpies of vaporisation (measured using temperature programmed desorption by mass spectrometry) of twelve ionic liquids (ILs), covering four imidazolium, [C(m)C(n)Im]+, five pyrrolidinium, [C(n)C(m)Pyrr]+, two pyridinium, [C(n)Py]+, and a dication, [C3(C1Im)2]2+ based IL. These cations were paired with a range of anions: [BF4]-, [FeCl4]-, [N(CN)2]-, [PF3(C2F5)3]- ([FAP]-), [(CF3SO2)2N]- ([Tf2N]-) and [SCN]-. Using these results, plus those for a further eight imidazolium based ILs published earlier (which include the anions [CF3SO3]- ([TfO]-), [PF6]- and [EtSO4]-), we show that the enthalpies of vaporisation can be decomposed into three components. The first component is the Coulombic interaction between the ions, DeltaU(Cou,R), which is a function of the IL molar volume, V(m), and a parameter R(r) which quantifies the relative change in anion-cation distance on evaporation from the liquid phase to the ion pair in the gas phase. The second and third components are the van der Waals contributions from the anion, DeltaH(vdw,A), and the cation, DeltaH(vdw,C). We derive a universal value for R(r), and individual values of DeltaH(vdw,A) and DeltaH(vdw,C) for each of the anions and cations considered in this study. Given the molar volume, it is possible to estimate the enthalpies of vaporisation of ILs composed of any combination of the ions considered here; values for fourteen ILs which have not yet been studied experimentally are given.

  9. Value of IgA tTG in Predicting Mucosal Recovery in Children with Celiac Disease on a Gluten Free Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Maureen M.; Weir, Dascha C.; DeGroote, Maya; Mitchell, Paul D.; Singh, Prashant; Silvester, Jocelyn A.; Leichtner, Alan M.; Fasano, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to determine the rate of mucosal recovery in pediatric patients with celiac disease on a gluten free diet. We also sought to determine whether IgA tissue transglutaminase (tTG) correlates with mucosal damage at the time of a repeat endoscopy with duodenal biopsy in these patients. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of one-hundred and three pediatric patients, under 21 years of age, with a diagnosis of celiac disease defined as Marsh 3 histology, and who underwent a repeat endoscopy with duodenal biopsy at least twelve months after initiating a gluten free diet. Results We found that 19% of pediatric patients treated with a gluten free diet had persistent enteropathy. At the time of the repeat biopsy, tTG was elevated in 43% of cases with persistent enteropathy and 32% of cases in which there was mucosal recovery. Overall the positive predictive value of the autoantibody tissue transglutaminase was 25% and the negative predictive value was 83% in patients on a gluten free diet for a median of 2.4 years. Conclusions Nearly one in five children with celiac disease in our population had persistent enteropathy despite maintaining a gluten free diet and IgA tTG was not an accurate marker of mucosal recovery. Neither the presence of symptoms nor positive serology were predictive of a patient’s histology at the time of repeat biopsy. These findings suggest a revisitation of monitoring and management criteria of celiac disease in childhood. PMID:28112686

  10. An automated technique for measuring deltaD and delta18O values of porewater by direct CO2 and H2 equilibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, G; Wassenaar, L I; Hendry, M J

    2000-11-15

    The stable-oxygen and -hydrogen isotopic values (deltaD, delta18O) of porewater in geologic media are commonly determined on water obtained by extraction techniques such as centrifugation, mechanical squeezing, vacuum heating and cryogenic microdistillation, and azeotropic distillation. Each of these techniques may cause isotopic fractionation as part the extraction process and each is laborious. Here we demonstrate a new approach to obtain automated, high-precision deltaD and delta18O measurements of porewater in geologic sediments by direct H2- and CO2-porewater equilibration using a modified commercial CO2-water equilibrator. This technique provides an important and cost-effective improvement over current extraction methods, because many samples can be rapidly analyzed with minimal handling, thereby reducing errors and potential for isotopic fractionation. The precision and accuracy of direct H2- and CO2-porewater equilibration is comparable to or better than current porewater extraction methods. Finally, the direct equilibration technique allows investigators to obtain high-resolution (cm scale) porewater deltaD and delta18O profiles using cores from individual boreholes, eliminating the need for costly piezometers or conventional porewater extractions.

  11. A point-value enhanced finite volume method based on approximate delta functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Li-Jun; Majdalani, Joseph

    2018-02-01

    We revisit the concept of an approximate delta function (ADF), introduced by Huynh (2011) [1], in the form of a finite-order polynomial that holds identical integral properties to the Dirac delta function when used in conjunction with a finite-order polynomial integrand over a finite domain. We show that the use of generic ADF polynomials can be effective at recovering and generalizing several high-order methods, including Taylor-based and nodal-based Discontinuous Galerkin methods, as well as the Correction Procedure via Reconstruction. Based on the ADF concept, we then proceed to formulate a Point-value enhanced Finite Volume (PFV) method, which stores and updates the cell-averaged values inside each element as well as the unknown quantities and, if needed, their derivatives on nodal points. The sharing of nodal information with surrounding elements saves the number of degrees of freedom compared to other compact methods at the same order. To ensure conservation, cell-averaged values are updated using an identical approach to that adopted in the finite volume method. Here, the updating of nodal values and their derivatives is achieved through an ADF concept that leverages all of the elements within the domain of integration that share the same nodal point. The resulting scheme is shown to be very stable at successively increasing orders. Both accuracy and stability of the PFV method are verified using a Fourier analysis and through applications to the linear wave and nonlinear Burgers' equations in one-dimensional space.

  12. [Seasonal variation patterns of NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratio and delta 15 NH4(+) value in rainwater in Yangtze River Delta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ying-Xin; Zhang, Shu-Li; Zhao, Xu; Xiong, Zheng-Qin; Xing, Guang-Xi

    2008-09-01

    By using a customized manual rainwater sampler made of polyvinyl chloride plastic, the molar ratio of NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N and the natural 15N abundance of NH4(+) (delta 15 NH4(+) in rainwater was monitored all year round from June 2003 to July 2005 at three observation sites (Changshu, Nanjing, and Hangzhou) in the Yangtze River Delta. The results indicated that at the three sites, the NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratio and the delta 15 NH4(+) value in rainwater had the similar seasonal variation trend, being more obvious in Changshu (rural monitoring type) site than in Nanjing (urban monitoring type) and Hangzhou (urban-rural monitoring type) sites. The NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratio peaked from early June to early August, declined gradually afterwards, and reached the bottom in winter; while the delta 15 NH4(+) value was negative from late June to mid-August, turned positive from late August to mid or late November, became negative again when winter dominated from December to March, but turned positive again in next May and negative again in next July. These seasonal variation patterns of NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratio and delta 15 NH4(+) value were found in relation to the application of chemical nitrogen fertilizers during different crop growth periods, and also, the alternation of seasons and the NH3 volatilization from other NH3 emission sources (including excrements of human and animals, nitrogen- polluted water bodies, and organic nitrogen sources, etc.), which could be taken as an indicator of defining the sources and form composition of NH4(+) in atmospheric wet deposition and the intensity of various terrestrial NH3 emission sources.

  13. In-situ Kd values and geochemical behavior for inorganic and organic constituents of concern at the TNX Outfall Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D.I.

    2000-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted to provide site-specific Kd values for constituents of concern at the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit. These Kd values can be used to calculate contaminant migration within the operable unit and are, at this time considered to be the most defensible values

  14. Using delta15N- and delta18O-values to identify nitrate sources in karst ground water, Guiyang, southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong-Qiang; Li, Si-Liang; Lang, Yun-Chao; Xiao, Hua-Yun

    2006-11-15

    Nitrate pollution of the karstic groundwater is an increasingly serious problem with the development of Guiyang, the capital city of Guizhou Province, southwest China. The higher content of NO3- in groundwater compared to surface water during both summer and winter seasons indicates that the karstic groundwater system cannot easily recover once contaminated with nitrate. In order to assess the sources and conversion of nitrate in the groundwater of Guiyang, we analyzed the major ions, delta(15)N-NH4+, delta(15)N-NO3-, and delta(18)O-NO3- in surface and groundwater samples collected during both summer and winter seasons. The results show that nitrate is the major dominant species of nitrogen in most water samples and there is a big variation of nitrate sources in groundwater between winter and summer season, due to fast response of groundwater to rain or surface water in the karst area. Combined with information on NO3- /Cl-, the variations of the isotope values of nitrate in the groundwater show a mixing process of multiple sources of nitrate, especially in the summer season. Chemical fertilizer and nitrification of nitrogen-containing organic materials contribute nitrate to suburban groundwater, while the sewage effluents and denitrification mainly control the nitrate distribution in urban groundwater.

  15. [Characteristics of foliar delta13C values of common shrub species in various microhabitats with different karst rocky desertification degrees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xue-Lian; Wang, Shi-Jie; Rong, Li

    2011-12-01

    By measuring the foliar delta13C values of 5 common shrub species (Rhamnus davurica, Pyracantha fortuneana, Rubus biflorus, Zanthoxylum planispinum, and Viburnum utile) growing in various microhabitats in Wangjiazhai catchment, a typical karst desertification area in Guizhou Province, this paper studied the spatial heterogeneity of plant water use at niche scale and the response of the heterogeneity to different karst rocky desertification degrees. The foliar delta13C values of the shrub species in the microhabitats followed the order of stony surface > stony gully > stony crevice > soil surface, and those of the majority of the species were more negative in the microhabitat soil surface than in the others. The foliar delta13C values decreased in the sequence of V. utile > R. biflorus > Z. planispinum > P. fortuneana > R. davurica, and the mean foliar delta13C value of the shrubs and that of typical species in various microhabitats all increased with increasing karst rocky desertification degree, differed significantly among different microhabitats. It was suggested that with the increasing degree of karst rocky desertification, the structure and functions of karst habitats were impaired, microhabitats differentiated gradually, and drought degree increased.

  16. Application Value of Slider-Crank Mechanism in Pick-and-Place Operation of Delta Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe QIN

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By absorbing the advantages of the rotary-driven Delta robot and linear-driven Delta robot, a Delta robot for pick-and-place operation that forms a crank-slider at the drive joint is designed.To take the most common gate shaped curve in Cartesian space as the motion trail of robotic pick-and-place operation, according to the kinematics inverse solution theory of Delta robot, this thesis mainly solves the output angular velocity of robot-driven joint. Establishing the static transfer mathematical model and solving the forced condition of driving joint. The simulation analysis show that after the upper slider-crank mechanism is connected to the driving joint, the angular velocity of the driving joint changes suddenly, which caused a rigid impact on the robot in the picking and releasing operation, though the force of the driving joint can be made smaller.

  17. Enhancing the understanding of earthworm feeding behaviour via the use of fatty acid delta13C values determined by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungait, Jennifer A J; Briones, Maria J I; Bol, Roland; Evershed, Richard P

    2008-06-01

    Litter-dwelling (epigeic) Lumbricus rubellus and soil-dwelling (endogeic) Allolobophora chlorotica earthworms were observed aggregating under C(3) (delta(13)C = -31.3 per thousand; delta(15)N = 10.7 per thousand) and C(4) (delta(13)C = -12.6 per thousand; delta(15)N = 7.5 per thousand) synthetic dung pats applied to a temperate grassland (delta(13)C = -30.3 per thousand; delta(15)N = 5.7 per thousand) in an experiment carried out for 372 days. Bulk delta(13)C values of earthworms collected from beneath either C(3) or C(4) dung after 28, 56, 112 and 372 days demonstrated that (i) L. rubellus beneath C(4) dung were significantly (13)C-enriched after 56 days (delta(13)C = -23.8 per thousand) and 112 days (delta(13)C = -22.4 per thousand) compared with those from C(3) dung treatments (56 days, delta(13)C = -26.5 per thousand; 112 days, delta(13)C = -27.0 per thousand), and (ii) A. chlorotica were 2.1 per thousand (13)C-enriched (delta(13)C = -24.2 per thousand) relative to those from C(3) dung (delta(13)C = -26.3 per thousand) treatments after 372 days. Bulk delta(15)N values did not suggest significant uptake of dung N by either species beneath C(3) or C(4) dung, but showed that the endogeic species (total mean delta(15)N = 3.3 per thousand) had higher delta(15)N values than the epigeic species (total mean delta(15)N = 5.4 per thousand). Although the two species exhibited similar fatty acid profiles, individual fatty acid delta(13)C values revealed extensive routing of dietary C into body tissue of L. rubellus, but minor incorporation into A. chlorotica. In particular, the direct incorporation of microbial biomarker fatty acids (iC(17:0), aC(17:0)) from (13)C-labelled dung in situ, the routing of dung C into de novo synthesised compounds (iC(20:4)(omega)(6),C(20:5)(omega)(3), and the assimilation of essential fatty acids ((C(18:1)(omega)(9), C(18:1)(omega(7), C(18:2)(omega(6), C(18:3)(omega)(3)) derived from dung, were determined. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  18. Financial Performance of Hospitals in the Mississippi Delta Region Under the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program and Hospital Value-based Purchasing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsueh-Fen; Karim, Saleema; Wan, Fei; Nevola, Adrienne; Morris, Michael E; Bird, T Mac; Tilford, J Mick

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies showed that the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP) and the Hospital Value-based Purchasing Program (HVBP) disproportionately penalized hospitals caring for the poor. The Mississippi Delta Region (Delta Region) is among the most socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in the United States. The financial performance of hospitals in the Delta Region under both HRRP and HVBP remains unclear. To compare the differences in financial performance under both HRRP and HVBP between hospitals in the Delta Region (Delta hospitals) and others in the nation (non-Delta hospitals). We used a 7-year panel dataset and applied difference-in-difference models to examine operating and total margin between Delta and non-Delta hospitals in 3 time periods: preperiod (2008-2010); postperiod 1 (2011-2012); and postperiod 2 (2013-2014). The Delta hospitals had a 0.89% and 4.24% reduction in operating margin in postperiods 1 and 2, respectively, whereas the non-Delta hospitals had 1.13% and 1% increases in operating margin in postperiods 1 and 2, respectively. The disparity in total margins also widened as Delta hospitals had a 1.98% increase in postperiod 1, but a 0.30% reduction in postperiod 2, whereas non-Delta hospitals had 1.27% and 2.28% increases in postperiods 1 and 2, respectively. The gap in financial performance between Delta and non-Delta hospitals widened following the implementation of HRRP and HVBP. Policy makers should modify these 2 programs to ensure that resources are not moved from the communities that need them most.

  19. Ecosystem Service Value for the Common Reed Wetlands in the Liaohe Delta, Northeast China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Siyuan; Laws, Edward A.; Costanza, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The largest reed field in the world, with an area of 1000 km2 in 1953, is located in the Liaohe Delta, which lies in the five-point-in-a-line economic strategic zone of northeastern China. However, the area of reeds has declined dramatically in recent years to accommodate oil field infrastructure...

  20. Incorporation of Socio-Cultural Values in Damage Assessment Valuations of Contaminated Lands in the Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor A. Akujuru

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Damages on contaminated land have been mostly assessed for developments subsisting on the land, neglecting the goods and services derived from the land which possess only socio-cultural values. This paper aims to ascertain the importance of socio-cultural values in the total economic value of contaminated land, drawing from the experience of a coastal community oil spillage in the Niger Delta. The paper examines what constitutes a valuable interest on contaminated land and how socio-cultural factors are valued in the damage assessment process. After reviewing the literature and decided cases, a questionnaire survey was conducted and a sample valuation report was analysed. It is concluded that there exists a socio-cultural interest on contaminated land which professional valuers do not reflect in damage assessment claims. It is recommended that any comprehensive damage assessment requires the incorporation of socio-cultural values in the valuations.

  1. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations and (delta)13C values across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current between New Zealand and Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longinelli, Antonio; Selmo, Enricomaria; Giglio, Federico; Langone, Leonardo; Lenaz, Renzo; Ori, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of atmospheric CO 2 concentrations were repeatedly carried out on the vessel 'Italica' of the Italian National Research Program in Antarctica, during cruises from Italy to Antarctica. Discrete air samples were also collected in 4-L Pyrex flasks during these cruises in order to carry out (delta) 13 C analyses on atmospheric CO 2 . The results acquired between New Zealand and Antarctica are reported here. The mean growth rate of the CO 2 concentration from 1996 to 2003 in this area of the Southern Oceans is of about 1.8 ppmv/yr, in good agreement with NOAA/CMDL measurements. The rates of increase from cruise to cruise are rather variable. From 1996-1997 to 1998-1999 cruise the yearly growth rate is 2.75 ppmv/yr, close to the large growth rates measured in several areas and mainly related to the most severe El Nino event of the last years. The other yearly growth rates are of about 1.3 and 2 ppmv for the periods 1998-1999 to 2001-2002 and 2001-2002 to 2003-2004, respectively. The large difference between these two values is probably related to the uncertainty on the only two 2001-2002 discrete measurements of CO 2 concentration in this area. The measured (delta) 13 C values show two completely different distributions and a large interannual variability. The 1998-1999, 2002-2003, and 2003-2004 results obtained between about 55 deg S and 65 deg S across the Antarctic Polar Front show a marked negativization of up to more than 0.2% when compared to the background values. The results are related to local source regions of CO 2 , as frequently found in the Southern Ocean by several authors; the negative (delta) 13 C values are tentatively related to the possible contribution of different causes. Among them, the southward negative gradient of (delta) 13 C of the dissolved inorganic carbon, the contribution from upwelling deep waters and from subsurface processes between the Northern SubAntarctic Front and the Polar Front, and, partly, the contribution of CO 2

  2. Thyroglobulin (Tg) Testing Revisited: Tg Assays, TgAb Assays, and Correlation of Results With Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzel, Brian C; Grebe, Stefan K G; Carranza Leon, B Gisella; Castro, M Regina; Clark, Penelope M; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Spencer, Carole A; Turcu, Adina F; Algeciras-Schimnich, Alicia

    2015-08-01

    Measurement of thyroglobulin (Tg) by mass spectrometry (Tg-MS) is emerging as a tool for accurate Tg quantification in patients with anti-Tg autoantibodies (TgAbs). The objective of the study was to perform analytical and clinical evaluations of two Tg-MS assays in comparison with immunometric Tg assays (Tg-IAs) and Tg RIAs (Tg-RIAs) in a cohort of thyroid cancer patients. A total of 589 samples from 495 patients, 243 TgAb-/252 TgAb+, were tested by Beckman, Roche, Siemens-Immulite, and Thermo-Brahms Tg and TgAb assays, two Tg-RIAs, and two Tg-MS assays. The frequency of TgAb+ was 58%, 41%, 27%, and 39% for Roche, Beckman, Siemens-Immulite, and Thermo-Brahms, respectively. In TgAb- samples, clinical sensitivities and specificities of 100% and 74%-100%, respectively, were observed across all assays. In TgAb+ samples, all Tg-IAs demonstrated assay-dependent Tg underestimation, ranging from 41% to 86%. In TgAb+ samples, the use of a common cutoff (0.5 ng/mL) for the Tg-MS, three Tg-IAs, and the USC-RIA improved the sensitivity for the Tg-MSs and Tg-RIAs when compared with the Tg-IAs. In up to 20% of TgAb+ cases, Tg-IAs failed to detect Tg that was detectable by Tg-MS. In Tg-RIAs false-high biases were observed in TgAb+ samples containing low Tg concentrations. Tg-IAs remain the method of choice for Tg quantitation in TgAb- patients. In TgAb+ patients with undetectable Tg by immunometric assay, the Tg-MS will detect Tg in up to 20% additional cases. The Tg-RIA will detect Tg in approximately 35% cases, but a significant proportion of these will be clinical false-positive results. The undetectable Tg-MS seen in approximately 40% of TgAb+ cases in patients with disease need further evaluation.

  3. Estimation of water transit time in soils under Amazon forest cover using variations in delta18O values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leopoldo, P.R.; Matsui, E.; Salati, E.

    1984-01-01

    The work was carried out at the forest reserve of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, located at km 45 of Manaus, in an area characterized by Amazon vegetation of the 'terra-firme' type. To extract the soil water, four soil-water collecting stations were installed, and in each the porous cups were placed at 15, 25, 50, 80 and 120 cm depth from the soil surface. The rain-water and soil-water samples were collected only weekly for analysis of the 18 O content. In an attempt to estimate the soil-water transit time using the variation in 18 O values, a statistical model was used. This model is based on linear regression analysis applied to the values observed for soil water and rain water. From this analysis, regression coefficients are obtained which vary according to time. The values of the coefficients obtained can be adjusted generally, according to a quadratic regression, with the maximum value of the function representing the time in which the best statistical correlation between the observed delta 18 O values occurs. The time obtained from these correlations represents the mean time necessary for the water to run from one collecting point to the next. (author)

  4. The Opportunity Cost of Labor for Valuing Mangrove Restoration in Mahakam Delta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Susilo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, damage to mangroves is alarming. Restoration is required to recover mangrove ecosystems, and communities’ involvement is a primary factor to reduce the threat to mangroves. Their participation might be interpreted as the appropriate decision concerning conservation and utilization of mangroves. Using a contingent valuation approach, this study assesses mangroves’ values to local communities through their willingness to contribute labor to obtain monetary value. Results showed that the opportunity cost of time was valued at IDR 398.76 thousand (US$29.99 a month or IDR 4.79 million (US$359.90 per year. A total annual benefit of mangrove restoration using the wage rate of time (WRT is IDR 143 billion (US$10.77 million per year. Accessing such information is crucial to making the appropriate decisions about conservation of mangroves within the context of developing countries that have poor coastal communities and low incomes. Tobit regression determined that five variables affect willingness to provide labor time and WRT significantly for mangrove restoration. These findings can support decision-makers with the relevant information for assessing a mangrove restoration project.

  5. Anthropogenic nitrogen input traced by means of {delta} {sup 15}N values in macroalgae: Results from in-situ incubation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, Barbara [Baltic Sea Research Institute, Seestr. 15, 18119 Rostock (Germany)]. E-mail: barbara.deutsch@io-warnemuende.de; Voss, Maren [Baltic Sea Research Institute, Seestr. 15, 18119 Rostock (Germany)

    2006-08-01

    The macroalgae species Fucus vesiculosus (Phaeophyta), Polysiphonia sp., and Ceramium rubrum (Rhodophyta) originally grown at an unpolluted brackish site of the southern Baltic Sea were incubated for 10 and 14 days at 12 stations along a salinity gradient in a highly polluted estuary. We have expected an adaptation of the initially low {delta} {sup 15}N values to the higher ones within the incubation period. In addition to the macroalgae the {delta} {sup 15}N values of NO{sub 3} {sup -} were measured to evaluate fractionation processes of the source nitrate. Inside the estuary, {delta} {sup 15}N-NO{sub 3} {sup -} values were 6.2-9.7 per mille , indicating anthropogenic nitrogen sources. The red macroalgae adequately reflected the nitrate isotope values in the surrounding waters, whereas for F. vesiculosus the results were not that clear. The reasons were assumed to be higher initial {delta} {sup 15}N values of F. vesiculosus and presumably a too slow nitrogen uptake and growth rate. The method of macroalgae incubations seems suitable as a simple monitoring to study the influence of anthropogenic nitrogen loading in an estuarine environment.

  6. [Simultaneous determination of delta13C values of glycerol and ethanol in wine by liquid chromatography coupled with isotope ratio mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuemin; Jia, Guangqun; Cao, Yanzhong; Zhang, Jinjie; Wang, Lei; Sun, Huiyuan

    2013-12-01

    A novel procedure was established for the characterization of delta13C values of glycerol and ethanol in wine by liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC-IRMS). Several parameters influencing the separation of glycerol and ethanol from wine matrix were optimized. The precision and accuracy of the proposed method were 0.15 per thousand to 0.26 per thousand and 0.11 per thousand to 0.28 per thousand, respectively. The results obtained for 40 wine samples displayed that the delta13C value of glycerol ranged from--26.87 per thousand to--32.96 per thousand and that of ethanol ranged from--24.06 per thousand to--28.29 per thousand. Close correlations (R = 0.82) were obtained between the delta13C values of glycerol and ethanol. The proposed method didn't need complex sample treatment, and the delta13C values of glycerol and ethanol in wine can be simultaneously determined, thus improving the method in terms of simplicity and speed compared with traditional methods.

  7. Thyroglobulin (Tg) recovery testing with quantitative Tg antibody measurement for determining interference in serum Tg assays in differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persoon, ACM; Links, TP; Wilde, J; Sluiter, WJ; Wolffenbuttel, BHR; van den Ouweland, JMW

    Background: Thyroglobulin (Tg) measurements are complicated by interference from Tg autoantibodies (TgAbs) or heterophilic antibodies (HAMAs). We used a new automated immunochemiluminometric assay (ICMA) with Tg recovery (TgR) on the Nichols Advantage (R) platform to reassess the clinical utility of

  8. Measurement of the delta34S value in methionine by double spike multi-collector thermal ionization mass spectrometry using Carius tube digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Jacqueline L; Kelly, W Robert

    2010-09-15

    Methionine is an essential amino acid and is the primary source of sulfur for humans. Using the double spike ((33)S-(36)S) multi-collector thermal ionization mass spectrometry (MC-TIMS) technique, three sample bottles of a methionine material obtained from the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements have been measured for delta(34)S and sulfur concentration. The mean delta(34)S value, relative to Vienna Canyon Diablo Troilite (VCDT), determined was 10.34 +/- 0.11 per thousand (n = 9) with the uncertainty reported as expanded uncertainties (U). These delta(34)S measurements include a correction for blank which has been previously ignored in studies of sulfur isotopic composition. The sulfur concentrations for the three bottles range from 56 to 88 microg/g. The isotope composition and concentration results demonstrate the high accuracy and precision of the DS-MC-TIMS technique for measuring sulfur in methionine.

  9. A meta-analysis of the antiviral activity of the HBV-specific immunotherapeutic TG1050 confirms its value over a wide range of HBsAg levels in a persistent HBV pre-clinical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzer, Roland; Sansas, Benoît; Lélu, Karine; Evlachev, Alexei; Schmitt, Doris; Silvestre, Nathalie; Inchauspé, Geneviève; Martin, Perrine

    2018-02-01

    Pre-clinical models mimicking persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) expression are seldom, do not capture all features of a human chronic infection and due to their complexity, are subject to variability. We report a meta-analysis of seven experiments performed with TG1050, an HBV-targeted immunotherapeutic, 1 in an HBV-persistent mouse model based on the transduction of mice by an adeno-associated virus coding for an infectious HBV genome (AAV-HBV). To mimic the clinical diversity seen in HBV chronically infected patients, AAV-HBV transduced mice displaying variable HBsAg levels were treated with TG1050. Overall mean percentages of responder mice, displaying decrease in important clinical parameters i.e. HBV-DNA (viremia) and HBsAg levels, were 52% and 51% in TG1050 treated mice, compared with 8% and 22%, respectively, in untreated mice. No significant impact of HBsAg level at baseline on response to TG1050 treatment was found. TG1050-treated mice displayed a significant shorter Time to Response (decline in viral parameters) with an Hazard Ratio (HR) of 8.3 for viremia and 2.6 for serum HBsAg. The mean predicted decrease for TG1050-treated mice was 0.5 log for viremia and 0.8 log for HBsAg, at the end of mice follow-up, compared to no decrease for viremia and 0.3 log HBsAg decrease for untreated mice. For mice receiving TG1050, a higher decline of circulating viremia and serum HBsAg level over time was detected by interaction term meta-analysis with a significant treatment effect (p = 0.002 and pHBV-persistent model mimicking clinical situations.

  10. Comparison of Thyroglobulin Measurements Using Three Different Immunoassay Kits: A BRAMHS Tg-Plus RIA Kit, a BRAMHS hTg Sensitive Kryptor Kit, and a Beckman Coulter ACCESS Immunoassay Kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijin Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSecond-generation thyroglobulin immunometric assays (Tg-IMAs have been developed with improved sensitivity. Our aim was to compare the diagnostic value of Tg-IMA measurements using a Kryptor (BRAHMS AG kit (Tg-K and an ACCESS (Beckman Coulter kit (Tg-A with that of the first-generation Tg measurement using a Tg-plus (BRAHMS AG kit (Tg+.MethodsWe enrolled 82 differentiated thyroid cancer patients who underwent total thyroidectomy with radioactive iodine remnant ablation and who underwent diagnostic whole body scan using recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH. The Tg+, Tg-K, and Tg-A were measured before rhTSH administration during levothyroxine treatment (suppressed Tg from the same sample. Serum Tg+ was measured after rhTSH stimulation (stimulated Tg.ResultsSuppressed Tg+ was more significantly correlated with suppressed Tg-K (R2=0.919, P<0.001 than with suppressed Tg-A (R2=0.536, P<0.001. The optimal cut-off values of suppressed Tg+, Tg-K, and Tg-A for predicting stimulated Tg+ of 1 ng/mL were 0.3, 0.2, and 0.2 ng/mL, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of suppressed Tg+ were 67%, 100%, and 90%, respectively; those of suppressed Tg-K were 83%, 90%, and 88%; those of suppressed Tg-A were 96%, 82%, and 87%, respectively. The positive predictive and negative predictive values of Tg+ were 100% and 87%, respectively; those of Tg-K were 79% and 92%; and those of Tg-A were 73% and 98%.ConclusionWe could not clearly demonstrate which kit had better diagnostic performance after comparison of first-generation Tg measurements with Tg-IMA measurements. Also, there were kit-to-kit variations between Tg-IMA kits. Suppressed Tg measured by Tg-IMA was insufficient to completely substitute for a stimulated Tg measurement.

  11. TG 220 MW hydraulic control system diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svabcik, A.

    1996-01-01

    The TG power output control system comprises a hydraulic and an electronic part. TG speed, power output or the main steam header pressure (HPK) depend on the steam flow at the turbine inlet. The steam admission into the turbine is controlled by four control valves and one by-pass valve in case of the HP part and by four capture flap valves in case of the LP part. The task of the SKODA K-220 MW turbine protection and control systems is to provide both the turbine speed and power output control to the setpoint value. Diagnostic measurements were aimed at getting an overview of both technical and functional states of all power output control elements. Principally, it can be stated that some deficiencies of a design nature originating from the manufacturer's factory were revealed and some other deficiencies related to hydraulic control elements functionality were identified more closely by the new method. 5 figs

  12. TG 220 MW hydraulic control system diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svabcik, A [Atomova Elektraren Bohunice, Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    The TG power output control system comprises a hydraulic and an electronic part. TG speed, power output or the main steam header pressure (HPK) depend on the steam flow at the turbine inlet. The steam admission into the turbine is controlled by four control valves and one by-pass valve in case of the HP part and by four capture flap valves in case of the LP part. The task of the SKODA K-220 MW turbine protection and control systems is to provide both the turbine speed and power output control to the setpoint value. Diagnostic measurements were aimed at getting an overview of both technical and functional states of all power output control elements. Principally, it can be stated that some deficiencies of a design nature originating from the manufacturer`s factory were revealed and some other deficiencies related to hydraulic control elements functionality were identified more closely by the new method. 5 figs.

  13. Cartilage quality in rheumatoid arthritis: comparison of T2* mapping, native T1 mapping, dGEMRIC, {delta}R1 and value of pre-contrast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchbender, Christian; Scherer, Axel; Kroepil, Patric; Quentin, Michael; Reichelt, Dorothea C.; Lanzman, Rotem S.; Mathys, Christian; Blondin, Dirk; Wittsack, Hans-Joerg; Antoch, Gerald; Miese, Falk [University Duesseldorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Koerbl, Birthe [Heinrich-Heine-University, Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Rheumatology, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Heinrich-Heine-University, Leibniz Centre for Diabetes Research, Institute of Biometrics and Epidemiology, German Diabetes Centre, Duesseldorf (Germany); Bittersohl, Bernd; Zilkens, Christoph [Heinrich-Heine-University, Department of Orthopaedics, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Hofer, Matthias [Heinrich-Heine-University, Medical Education Group, Medical School, Duesseldorf (Germany); Schneider, Matthias; Ostendorf, Benedikt [Heinrich-Heine-University, Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Rheumatology, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    To prospectively evaluate four non-invasive markers of cartilage quality - T2* mapping, native T1 mapping, dGEMRIC and {delta}R1 - in healthy volunteers and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Cartilage of metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints II were imaged in 28 consecutive subjects: 12 healthy volunteers [9 women, mean (SD) age 52.67 (9.75) years, range 30-66] and 16 RA patients with MCP II involvement [12 women, mean (SD) age 58.06 (12.88) years, range 35-76]. Sagittal T2* mapping was performed with a multi-echo gradient-echo on a 3 T MRI scanner. For T1 mapping the dual flip angle method was applied prior to native T1 mapping and 40 min after gadolinium application (delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage, dGEMRIC, T1{sub Gd}). The difference in the longitudinal relaxation rate induced by gadolinium ({delta}R1) was calculated. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AROC) was used to test for differentiation of RA patients from healthy volunteers. dGEMRIC (AUC 0.81) and {delta}R1 (AUC 0.75) significantly differentiated RA patients from controls. T2* mapping (AUC 0.66) and native T1 mapping (AUC 0.66) were not significantly different in RA patients compared to controls. The data support the use of dGEMRIC for the assessment of MCP joint cartilage quality in RA. T2* and native T1 mapping are of low diagnostic value. Pre-contrast T1 mapping for the calculation of {delta}R1 does not increase the diagnostic value of dGEMRIC. (orig.)

  14. Seasonal inter-relationships in atmospheric methane and companion delta13C values: effects of sinks and sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassey, K. R.; Mikaloff Fletcher, S. E. (NIWA, Wellington (New Zealand)), e-mail: k.lassey@niwa.co.nz; Allan, W. (Allan Planning and Research Ltd., Petone (New Zealand))

    2011-07-15

    Recent developments in applying carbon-isotope information to better understand regional and global methane budgets infer a strong role by a highly fractionating seasonal sink such as atomic chlorine. Specifically, OH as the predominant seasonal sink cannot account for the 'phase ellipses' based on observed seasonal cycles of methane mixing ratio and isotope ratio, delta13C. Although a strong role by atomic chlorine is inferred empirically, open questions remain about the interplay between sources and sinks in determining the properties of phase ellipses. This paper employs a simple didactic model of the seasonal cycling of atmospheric methane to understand such interplay. We demonstrate that a single seasonal sink and seasonal source act together to imprint anti-phase seasonalities on atmospheric methane and delta13C, which lead to phase ellipses that collapse onto a straight line with slope characteristic of that sink. This explains empirical findings of these anti-phase relationships in three-dimensional modelling studies. We also demonstrate that multiple seasonal sinks acting with a seasonal source can yield surprising properties for the phase ellipse that not only explain some features of phase ellipses reported in modelling studies but also have the potential to explain marked inter-annual variation in phase ellipses based on observation

  15. IMRT Commissioning: application of the AAPM's TG-119; Comissionamento de IMRT: aplicacao do TG-119 da AAPM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeppellini, Caroline; Furnari, Laura, E-mail: laurafurnari@hotmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Inst. de Radiologia

    2013-08-15

    In order to verify the commissioning of the planning of intensity-modulated radiation therapy system (IMRT), the TG-119 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) was applied. Using pre defined targets and normal structures, plans were realized, absolute and relative dose were measured with an ionizing chamber and films, and the results were compared with planned values. The maximum deviation of the measurements with the ionization chamber was 3,6%, but, in the total eleven measurements, only two were bigger than the tolerance limit of 3%, recommended by TG-119. The number of points which passed criteria gamma 3% to 3 mm ranged between 96.36% and 99.92%, all measurements were within the recommended 95%. The confidence limits found for both film and for chamber were lower than those achieved in the TG-119. Our results showed a good concordance with TG-119, what means that the system is adequate for clinical applications. (author)

  16. Soil microarthropods and their bioindicator value regarding the bio-edaphic conditions in forest ecosystems of Danube Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călugăr A.,

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to compare soil mesofauna communities in natural and anthropogenic forests from Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve and establish a baseline data in monitoring the disturbed sites. The abundance and diversity of edaphic microarthropods were analyzed in five plots, three of them being natural forests and two plantations (Canada poplar, and respectively willow. The mites from Trombidiformes and Oribatida were closely investigated being identified at family level. Qualitative analysis of edaphic microarthropods evidences numerical dominance of mites, excepting only one stand (Canada poplar plantation. Among mites Oribatida owns the biggest weight (76.6 - 94.1% of the total mites, followed by Trombidiformes or Mesostigmata. Among insects the collembolans hold higher density in the poplar plantation, and the lowest one in the willow plantation. Structure of mites communities differs between the investigated ecosystems both in quantitative and qualitative aspects depending on particular conditions of each plot.

  17. Concentrations and (delta)13C values of atmospheric CO2 from oceanic atmosphere through time: polluted and non-polluted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longinelli, Antonio; Selmo, Enrico; Lenaz, Renzo; Ori, Carlo

    2005-01-01

    CO 2 is one of the primary agents of global climate changes. The increase of atmospheric CO 2 concentration is essentially related to human-induced emissions and, particularly, to the burning of fossil fuel whose (delta) 13 C values are quite negative. Consequently, an increase of the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere should be paralleled by a decrease of its (delta) 13 C. Continuous and/or spot measurements of CO 2 concentrations were repeatedly carried out during the last decade and in the same period of the year along hemispheric courses from Italy to Antarctica on a vessel of the Italian National Research Program in Antarctica. During these expeditions, discrete air samples were also collected in 4-l Pyrex flasks in order to carry out precise carbon isotope analyses on atmospheric CO 2 from different areas, including theoretically 'clean' open ocean areas, with the main purpose of comparing these open ocean results with the results obtained by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/World Meteorological Organization (NOAA/WMO) at land-based stations. According to the data obtained for these two variables, a relatively large atmospheric pollution is apparent in the Mediterranean area where the CO 2 concentration has reached the value of 384 ppmv while quite negative (delta) 13 C values have been measured only occasionally. In this area, southerly winds probably help to reduce the effect of atmospheric pollution even though, despite a large variability of CO 2 concentrations, these values are consistently higher than those measured in open ocean areas by a few ppmv to about 10 ppmv. A marked, though non-continuous, pollution is apparent in the area of the Bab-el-Mandeb strait where (delta) 13 C values considerably more negative than in the Central and Southern Red Sea were measured. The concentration of atmospheric CO 2 over the Central Indian Ocean increased from about 361 ppmv at the end of 1996 to about 373 ppmv at the end of 2003 (mean growth

  18. Delta Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette

    . The warming air temperature affects the soil temperature and permafrost thaws and destabilizes the material in the coastal zone. In Greenland, the warming temperature lowers the surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet and more material is transported to the coastal zone. The sea ice extent is thinning...... of a fjord and the second type is a wider fan-shaped open delta. Most deltas are directly coupled to the Greenland Ice Sheet or local icecaps and are highly influenced by the dynamics in the catchments. It is demonstrated how a modern changing climate directly affects delta dynamics, and that Greenlandic...... deltas are prograding, contrary to the global trend showing eroding Arctic coasts. Moreover, it is revealed that the increasing proglacial freshwater runoff, caused by a lowering of the surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet is the main determining agent in delta progradation. The final part...

  19. Drug testing data from the 2007 Pan American Games: delta13C values of urinary androsterone, etiocholanolone and androstanediols determined by GC/C/IRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Rodrigo; Chapman, Thomas E; Pereira, Henrique; Oliveira, Giselle C; Illanes, Renata P; Fernandes, Telma F; Azevedo, Débora A; Neto, Francisco Aquino

    2009-07-01

    The main purpose of this article is to show the application of the CG/C/IRMS in real time during competition in the steroid confirmation analysis. For this reason, this paper summarizes the results obtained from the doping control analysis during the period of the 2007 Pan American Games held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Approximately 5600 athletes from 42 different countries competed in the games. Testing was performed in accordance to World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) technical note for prohibited substances. This paper reports data where abnormal urinary steroid profiles, have been found with the screening procedures. One 8 mL urine sample was used for the analysis of five steroid metabolites with two separate analyses by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS). Urine samples were submitted to GC/C/IRMS for confirmation analysis to determine the (13)C/(12)C ratio of selected steroids. Fifty-seven urine samples were analyzed by GC/C/IRMS and the delta(13)C values ( per thousand) of androsterone, etiocholanolone, 5beta-androstane-3alpha, 17beta-diol (5beta-diol), 5alpha-androstane-3alpha, 17beta-diol (5alpha-diol) and 5beta-pregnane-3alpha, 20alpha-diol (5beta-pdiol), the endogenous reference compound are presented. One urine sample with a testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio of 4.7 was confirmed to be positive of doping by GC/C/IRMS analysis. The delta values of 5beta-diol and 5alpha-diol were 3.8 and 10.8, respectively, compared to the endogenous reference compound 5beta-pdiol, which exceeded the WADA limit of 3 per thousand. The results obtained by CG/C/IRMS confirmation analyses, in suspicious samples, were conclusive in deciding whether or not a doping steroid violation had occurred.

  20. Paleogeographic variations of pedogenic carbonate delta13C values from Koobi Fora, Kenya: implications for floral compositions of Plio-Pleistocene hominin environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Rhonda L; Lepre, Christopher J; Wright, James D; Feibel, Craig S

    2007-11-01

    Plio-Pleistocene East African grassland expansion and faunal macroevolution, including that of our own lineage, are attributed to global climate change. To further understand environmental factors of early hominin evolution, we reconstruct the paleogeographic distribution of vegetation (C(3)-C(4) pathways) by stable carbon isotope (delta(13)C) analysis of pedogenic carbonates from the Plio-Pleistocene Koobi Fora region, northeast Lake Turkana Basin, Kenya. We analyzed 202 nodules (530 measurements) from ten paleontological/archaeological collecting areas spanning environments over a 50-km(2) area. We compared results across subregions in evolving fluviolacustrine depositional environments in the Koobi Fora Formation from 2.0-1.5 Ma, a stratigraphic interval that temporally brackets grassland ascendancy in East Africa. Significant differences in delta(13)C values between subregions are explained by paleogeographic controls on floral composition and distribution. Our results indicate grassland expansion between 2.0 and 1.75 Ma, coincident with major shifts in basin-wide sedimentation and hydrology. Hypotheses may be correct in linking Plio-Pleistocene hominin evolution to environmental changes from global climate; however, based on our results, we interpret complexity from proximate forces that mitigated basin evolution. An approximately 2.5 Ma tectonic event in southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya exerted strong effects on paleography in the Turkana Basin from 2.0-1.5 Ma, contributing to the shift from a closed, lacustrine basin to one dominated by open, fluvial conditions. We propose basin transformation decreased residence time for Omo River water and expanded subaerial floodplain landscapes, ultimately leading to reduced proportions of wooded floras and the establishment of habitats suitable for grassland communities.

  1. DELTAS: A new Global Delta Sustainability Initiative (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2013-12-01

    Deltas are economic and environmental hotspots, food baskets for many nations, home to a large part of the world population, and hosts of exceptional biodiversity and rich ecosystems. Deltas, being at the land-water interface, are international, regional, and local transport hubs, thus providing the basis for intense economic activities. Yet, deltas are deteriorating at an alarming rate as 'victims' of human actions (e.g. water and sediment reduction due to upstream basin development), climatic impacts (e.g. sea level rise and flooding from rivers and intense tropical storms), and local exploration (e.g. sand or aggregates, groundwater and hydrocarbon extraction). Although many efforts exist on individual deltas around the world, a comprehensive global delta sustainability initiative that promotes awareness, science integration, data and knowledge sharing, and development of decision support tools for an effective dialogue between scientists, managers and policy makers is lacking. Recently, the international scientific community proposed to establish the International Year of Deltas (IYD) to serve as the beginning of such a Global Delta Sustainability Initiative. The IYD was proposed as a year to: (1) increase awareness and attention to the value and vulnerability of deltas worldwide; (2) promote and enhance international and regional cooperation at the scientific, policy, and stakeholder level; and (3) serve as a launching pad for a 10-year committed effort to understand deltas as complex socio-ecological systems and ensure preparedness in protecting and restoring them in a rapidly changing environment. In this talk, the vision for such an international coordinated effort on delta sustainability will be presented as developed by a large number of international experts and recently funded through the Belmont Forum International Opportunities Fund. Participating countries include: U.S., France, Germany, U.K., India, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Brazil, Bangladesh

  2. On the experimental value of the DELTA sup + (1232) mass from gamma p -> n pi sup + (p suppi sup 0) reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Omelaenko, A S

    2002-01-01

    The reliability of the phenomenological estimates for the DELTA sup + (1232) mass is questioned coming from the of pi sup + and pi sup 0 mesons photoproduction data off proton target till the end of 2001. The origin of an old discrepancy for the DELTA sup + (1232) mass presented in tables of the Particle Data Group is discussed.

  3. A new VME timing module: TG8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beetham, C.G.; Daems, G.; Lewis, J.; Puccio, B.

    1992-01-01

    The two accelerator divisions of CERN, namely PS and SL, are defining a new common control system based on PC, VME and Workstations. This has provided an opportunity to review both central timing systems and to come up with common solutions. The result was, amongst others, the design of a unique timing module, called TG8. The TG8 is a multipurpose VME module, which receives messages distributed over a timing network. These messages include timing information, clock plus calendar and telegrams instructing the CERN accelerators on the characteristics of the next beam to be produced. The TG8 compares incoming messages with up to 256 programmed actions. An action consists of two parts, a trigger which matches an incoming message and what to do when the match occurs. The latter part may optionally create an output pulse on one of the eight output channels and/or a bus interrupt, both with programmable delay and telegram conditioning. (author)

  4. Transglutaminase (TG) involvement in early embryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maccioni, R.B.; Arechaga, J.

    1986-01-01

    Transglutaminase (TG) has been examined in different stages of preimplantation mouse embryogenesis. The specific activity of this enzyme in the soluble cellular fraction increases 2-fold from 2-cell embryos to 8-cell morulae and 4-fold from 2-cell embryos to blastocyst. The same developmental profile was seen when either N,N-dimethylcasein or endogenous substrates were used in the TG assay. Using high-speed supernatants from different stage embryos as a source of enzyme and [ 3 H]putrescine as acyl acceptor, the major acyl donor components were tubulin and a high molecular weight (HMW) cross-linkage product, as assessed by electrophoresis and immunoblotting. When either assembled or monomeric cytoskeleton proteins were compared as subtrates, microtubules were the best acyl donors. These studies indicate that TG activity is modulated during the changing demands of blastomeres for microtubule cytoskeleton in early embryogenesis

  5. Seasonal mercury concentrations and {delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 13}C values of benthic macroinvertebrates and sediments from a historically polluted estuary in south central Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Jaramillo, Mauricio, E-mail: mdiazjaramillo@conicet.gov.ar [Aquatic Systems Research Unit, EULA Chile Environmental Sciences Centre, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Munoz, Claudia; Rudolph, Ignacio [Aquatic Systems Research Unit, EULA Chile Environmental Sciences Centre, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Servos, Mark [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, ON (Canada); Barra, Ricardo [Aquatic Systems Research Unit, EULA Chile Environmental Sciences Centre, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile)

    2013-01-01

    The Lenga Estuary is one of the most industrialized sites in south central Chile where the historic operation of chlor-alkali plants resulted in large quantities of mercury (Hg) being deposited into the estuary. This historical contamination may still represent a risk to the biota in the estuary. To investigate this four macroinvertebrates, Neotrypaea uncinata (ghostshrimp), Elminius kingii (barnacle), Hemigrapsus crenulatus (shore crab) and Perinereis gualpensis (ragworm) were collected seasonally from three different sites in the Lenga Estuary and one in a reference estuary (Tubul Estuary), and analyzed for Hg and stable isotopes ({delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 13}C). Mercury concentrations in Lenga sediments ranged from 0.4 {+-} 0.1 to 13 {+-} 3 mg/kg, while those in Tubul sediments ranged from 0.02 {+-} 0.01 to 0.07 {+-} 0.09 mg/kg. Total Hg concentrations of invertebrates were significantly different between estuaries (p < 0.05), but not by species or season for each estuary (p > 0.05). In contrast, organic Hg concentrations were different by species and season with shore crab muscle tissues exhibiting the greatest percent difference. Site-specific relationships demonstrated that total Hg concentrations in ragworm best reflected the total Hg sediment mercury concentrations. Signatures of {delta}{sup 13}C were correlated to the organic Hg % rather than total Hg. This suggests that organic Hg concentrations in these species were related to the carbon sources. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hg in sediments and biota from Lenga Estuary were elevated compared to nearby estuary. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Invertebrates showed interspecific and seasonal differences in terms of organic Hg %. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Total Hg levels in the ragworm best reflect Hg sediment gradient in Lenga Estuary. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interspecific variation in {delta}{sup 13}C signatures indicated different feeding modes. Black

  6. Correlation of infrared reflectance ratios at 2.3 microns/1.6 micron and 1.1 micron/1.6 micron with delta O-18 values delineating fossil hydrothermal systems in the Idaho batholith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, A. R.; Criss, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Reflectance ratios from laboratory spectra and airborne multispectral images are found to be strongly correlated with delta O-18 values of granite rocks in the Idaho batholith. The correlation is largely a result of interactions between hot water and rock, which lowered the delta O-18 values of the rocks and produced secondary hydrous material. Maps of the ratio of reflectivities at 2.3 and 1.6 microns should delineate fossil hydrothermal systems and provide estimates of alteration intensity. However, hydrous minerals produced during deuteric alteration or weathering cannot be unambiguously distinguished in remotely sensed images from the products of propylitic alteration without the use of narrow-band scanners. The reflectivity at 1.6 micron is strongly correlated with rock density and may be useful in distinguishing rock types in granitic terranes.

  7. Aging of Dielectric Properties below Tg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe; Christensen, Tage Emil

    The dielectric loss at 1Hz in TPP is studied during a temperature step from one equilibrium state to another. In the applied cryostate the temperature can be equilibrated on a timescale of 1 second. The aging time dependence of the dielectric loss is studied below Tg applying temperature steps...

  8. TU-D-207B-02: Delta-Radiomics: The Prognostic Value of Therapy-Induced Changes in Radiomics Features for Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fave, X; Court, L; Zhang, L; Yang, J; Mackin, D; Stingo, F; Followill, D; Balter, P; Jones, A; Gomez, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine how radiomics features change during radiation therapy and whether those changes (delta-radiomics features) can improve prognostic models built with clinical factors. Methods: 62 radiomics features, including histogram, co-occurrence, run-length, gray-tone difference, and shape features, were calculated from pretreatment and weekly intra-treatment CTs for 107 stage III NSCLC patients (5–9 images per patient). Image preprocessing for each feature was determined using the set of pretreatment images: bit-depth resample and/or a smoothing filter were tested for their impact on volume-correlation and significance of each feature in univariate cox regression models to maximize their information content. Next, the optimized features were calculated from the intratreatment images and tested in linear mixed-effects models to determine which features changed significantly with dose-fraction. The slopes in these significant features were defined as delta-radiomics features. To test their prognostic potential multivariate cox regression models were fitted, first using only clinical features and then clinical+delta-radiomics features for overall-survival, local-recurrence, and distant-metastases. Leave-one-out cross validation was used for model-fitting and patient predictions. Concordance indices(c-index) and p-values for the log-rank test with patients stratified at the median were calculated. Results: Approximately one-half of the 62 optimized features required no preprocessing, one-fourth required smoothing, and one-fourth required smoothing and resampling. From these, 54 changed significantly during treatment. For overall-survival, the c-index improved from 0.52 for clinical factors alone to 0.62 for clinical+delta-radiomics features. For distant-metastases, the c-index improved from 0.53 to 0.58, while for local-recurrence it did not improve. Patient stratification significantly improved (p-value<0.05) for overallsurvival and distant

  9. TU-D-207B-02: Delta-Radiomics: The Prognostic Value of Therapy-Induced Changes in Radiomics Features for Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fave, X; Court, L [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); UT Health Science Center, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, TX (United States); Zhang, L; Yang, J; Mackin, D; Stingo, F; Followill, D; Balter, P; Jones, A; Gomez, D [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To determine how radiomics features change during radiation therapy and whether those changes (delta-radiomics features) can improve prognostic models built with clinical factors. Methods: 62 radiomics features, including histogram, co-occurrence, run-length, gray-tone difference, and shape features, were calculated from pretreatment and weekly intra-treatment CTs for 107 stage III NSCLC patients (5–9 images per patient). Image preprocessing for each feature was determined using the set of pretreatment images: bit-depth resample and/or a smoothing filter were tested for their impact on volume-correlation and significance of each feature in univariate cox regression models to maximize their information content. Next, the optimized features were calculated from the intratreatment images and tested in linear mixed-effects models to determine which features changed significantly with dose-fraction. The slopes in these significant features were defined as delta-radiomics features. To test their prognostic potential multivariate cox regression models were fitted, first using only clinical features and then clinical+delta-radiomics features for overall-survival, local-recurrence, and distant-metastases. Leave-one-out cross validation was used for model-fitting and patient predictions. Concordance indices(c-index) and p-values for the log-rank test with patients stratified at the median were calculated. Results: Approximately one-half of the 62 optimized features required no preprocessing, one-fourth required smoothing, and one-fourth required smoothing and resampling. From these, 54 changed significantly during treatment. For overall-survival, the c-index improved from 0.52 for clinical factors alone to 0.62 for clinical+delta-radiomics features. For distant-metastases, the c-index improved from 0.53 to 0.58, while for local-recurrence it did not improve. Patient stratification significantly improved (p-value<0.05) for overallsurvival and distant

  10. Relationship TG/HDL-C and insulin resistance in adult women by nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Belén

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The ratio assessment TG/HDL-C is an indicator of LDL size, facilitating the detection of individuals with increased atherogenic risk. Estimating the size of the LDL becomes important, especially in patients with TG values near the upper limit of normal values of reference and HDL-C. The objective of the study is to estimate the association between TG/HDL-C and insulin resistance (IR by nutritional status in adult women attending the Foundation for Endocrine Metabolic Diseases Research and Applied Clinical Research (FIEEM.Material and methods: Design Cross-sectional, non-pregnant adult women, apparently healthy, older than 30 years old, attending FIEEM in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. Dependent variable: TG/HDL-C ≥ 3.0 considered high value. Independent variables: IR by homeostatic model index HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5 categorizing the sample into two groups: with and without IR, and controlled by nutritional status using body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (CC. SPSS Statistics 15.0, calculating X2 or Fisher exact test, OR with confidence intervals of 95% and establishing logistic regression p value < 0.05.Results: We evaluated a purposive sample of 104 women (31.4% and 26% IR with TG/HDL-C high. 84.6% were overweight or obese and 88.5% increased CC. Women with BMI had significantly increased 0.15-fold increased risk (95% CI = 0.01 to 1.26 for TG/HDL-C high (p = 0.04 than the control women. There was no significance with increased CC. The ratio TG/HDL-C high IR was significantly correlated (r = 0.30 p = 0.002.Conclusions: Body weight was significantly associated with IR and the ratio TG/HDL-C increased. This ratio correlated significantly with IR in apparently healthy women.

  11. TG-FTIR analysis of biomass pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassilakis, R.; Carangelo, R.M.; Wojtowicz, M.A. [Advanced Fuel Research Inc., Hartford, CT (United States)

    2001-10-09

    A great need exists for comprehensive biomass-pyrolysis models that could predict yields and evolution patterns of selected volatile products as a function of feedstock characteristics and process conditions. A thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared analysis of evolving products (TG-FTIR) can provide useful input to such models in the form of kinetic information obtained under low heating rate conditions. In this work, robust TG-FTIR quantification routes were developed for infrared analysis of volatile products relevant to biomass pyrolysis. The analysis was applied to wheat straw, three types of tobacco (Burley, Oriental, and Bright) and three biomass model compounds (xylan, chlorogenic acid, and D-glucose). Product yields were compared with literature data, and species potentially quantifiable by FT-IR are reviewed. Product-evolution patterns are reported for all seven biomass samples. 41 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Clinical electron beam dosimetry: transition from AAPM TG-25 to AAPM TG-70

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihailidis, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    The absolute calibration of clinical electron beams is increasingly based on TG-51 protocol. In addition, recently published dosimetry data on electrons beams bring up the question of how would one need to modify the widely used TG-25 that originally was based on TG-21 calibration protocol? The answer to the question is given by the recently published TG-70. This new protocol operates as supplement and update to TG-25 on issues that need to be modified because of TG-51 approach to electron dosimetry and because of newer data on clinical electron beams. It describes in detail the procedure of converting measured depth-ionization curves with ion chambers into depth-dose curves, making use of recently published stopping-power ratios and other conversion factors. It also describes the use of water equivalent phantoms to perform relative electron dosimetry based on recently published conversions factors. The report discusses small and irregularly shaped electron field dosimetry using the concept of lateral buildup ratio (LBR) as an avenue to evaluate electronic equilibrium and compute dose per MU for those fields. Finally, it gives some common clinical examples where electron beam dosimetry are applied

  13. AIR QUALITY IN THE CITY OF TG JIU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina TĂTAR

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems of the modern age is the air pollution. Within this work I realized a description of Tgjiu City: geographic location, climate, hydrographical network, variations in temperature, terrain, sources of pollution. On the basis of registered values for the air quality indicator, sedimentable powders, and interpretation of results on the basis of the provisions of the standards in force, the comments were made in relation to particulate air pollution in the city area of sedimentableTg Jiu, identifying the polluters in the area, the proposed solutions for the reduction of pollution.

  14. Changes in concentration and (delta) 13C value of dissolved CH4, CO2 and organic carbon in rice paddies under ambient and elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiguo Cheng; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Hua Xu; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko

    2005-01-01

    Changes in concentration and (delta) 13 C value of dissolved CH 4 , CO 2 and organic carbon (DOC) in floodwater and soil solution from a Japanese rice paddy were studied under ambient and elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 in controlled environment chambers. The concentrations of dissolved CH 4 in floodwater increased with rice growth (with some fluctuation), while the concentrations of CO 2 remained between 2.9 to 4.4 and 4.2 to 5.8 μg C mL -1 under conditions of ambient and elevated CO 2 concentration, respectively. The amount of CH 4 dissolved in soil solution under elevated CO 2 levels was significantly lower than under ambient CO 2 in the tillering stage, implying that the elevated CO 2 treatment accelerated CH 4 oxidation during the early stage of growth. However, during later stages of growth, production of CH 4 increased and the amount of CH 4 dissolved in soil solution under elevated CO 2 levels was, on average, greater than that under ambient CO 2 conditions. Significant correlation existed among the (delta) 13 C values of dissolved CH 4 , CO 2 , and DOC in floodwater (except for the samples taken immediately after pulse feeding with 13 C enriched CO 2 ), indicating that the origins and cycling of CH 4 , CO 2 and DOC were related. There were also significant correlations among the (delta) 13 C values of CH 4 , CO 2 and DOC in the soil solution. The turnover rate of CO 2 in soil solution was most rapid in the panicle formation stage of rice growth and that of CH 4 fastest in the grain filling stage. (Author)

  15. Anaerobic Transformation of Furfural by Methanococcus deltae (Delta)LH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, N.; Boopathy, R.; Voskuilen, G.

    1997-01-01

    Methanococcus deltae (Delta)LH was grown on H(inf2)-CO(inf2) in the presence of various concentrations of furfural. Furfural at higher concentrations, namely, 20 and 25 mM, inhibited growth of this organism. At concentration of 5 and 10 mM, no inhibition of growth was observed. The other methanogens in this study were not inhibited by 10 mM furfural. Among the methanogens tested, M. deltae was capable of transforming furfural, whereas Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Marburg, Methanosarcina barkeri 227, Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus, and Methanobrevibacter ruminantium lacked this capability. One hundred percent removal of furfural was observed within 48 h of incubation in M. deltae cultures. The end product observed during furfural metabolism was furfuryl alcohol. An almost stoichiometric amount of furfuryl alcohol was produced by M. deltae. This transformation is likely to be of value in the detoxification of furfural and in its ultimate conversion to methane and CO(inf2) by anaerobic digestion. PMID:16535618

  16. Observation of changes of serum leptin and lipid (TG and TC) levels in patients with graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaobao; Cheng Guanghua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of changes of serum leptin (with RIA) and lipid (TG and TC) (with biochemistry) levels in patients with Graves' disease. Methods: Serum Leptin, TG and TC levels were determined in 29 patients with Graves' disease both before and after treatment as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before treatment, serum Leptin, TG and TC levels in the patients were significantly lower than those in the controls. After treatment, serum Leptin, TG and TC levels increased and were significantly higher than those before treatment and were not much different from those in controls. Conclusion: The changes of serum Leptin, TG and TC levels may be of value for outcome prediction in patients with Graves' disease. (authors)

  17. Delta Plaza kohvik = Delta Plaza cafe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt 141 asuva kohviku Delta Plaza sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tiiu Truus ja Marja Viltrop (Stuudio Truus OÜ). Tiiu Truusi tähtsamate tööde loetelu. Büroohoone Delta Plaza arhitektid Marika Lõoke ja Jüri Okas (AB J. Okas & M. Lõoke)

  18. delta-vision

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Delta Vision is intended to identify a strategy for managing the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta as a sustainable ecosystem that would continue to support environmental...

  19. TG Grammar's Implications for the Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷彩

    2009-01-01

    Chomsky's Transformational-Generative (TG) grammar is another revolution to linguistics after Saussure's strueturalism, and it plays an important role in the modem linguistics. Introducing the research perspective and method of TG grammar, this paper analyses its implications for the foreign language teaching.

  20. Delta antibody radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kselikova, M; Urbankova, J

    1985-11-15

    The principle and procedure are described of the radioimmunoassay of delta antibody (delta-Ab) using the ABBOTT ANTI-DELTA kit by Abbott Co. A description is given of the kit, the working procedure and the method of evaluation. The results are reported of the incidence of delta-Ab in sera of patients with viral hepatitis B, in haemophiliacs, carriers of the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and blood donors. The presence was detected of delta-Ab in one HBsAg carrier. The necessity is emphasized of delta-Ab determinations in the blood of donors in view of the antibody transfer with blood and blood preparations.

  1. The follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer and undetectable thyroglobulin (Tg) and Tg antibodies during ablation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, Ha T. T.; Jager, Pieter L.; van der Wal, Jacqueline E.; Sluiter, Wim J.; Plukker, John T. M.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Links, Thera P.

    Objective: This retrospective study describes the rote of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) in relation to tumor characteristics in the prediction of persistent/recurrent disease in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with negative Tg at the time of ablation. Design: Between 1989 and 2006, 94

  2. Fragility of chalcogenide glass in relation to characteristic temperature T0/Tg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, A. M.; Shanker Rao, T.; Lilly Shanker Rao, T.; Venkataraman, K.

    2018-03-01

    The present study reports the mutual relationship between the fragility index m and the characteristic temperature T0/Tg. The fragility of the chalcogenide amorphous glass of Ge10Se50Te40 is calculated by utilizing glass transition temperature (Tg) measured by DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) at different heating rates (β) in the range 5 to 20 K/min. Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation is fitted to the data of Tg. In addition to the VFT method, three other methods are also used to evaluate m. The fragility index m of the Ge10Se50Te40 system showed the trend of decrease with increasing heating rate but remained stable around 22 for the heating rate 10 K/min. The value of m for the glass is near the lower limit (m ≈ 16) this indicates the alloy is a strong glass forming material in accordance of Angell’s interpretation of fragility. The calculated values of characteristic temperature T0/Tg is very close to 1 which also indicates that clearly the system is most fragile.

  3. Clinical reevaluation of radioimmunological thyroglobulin (hTg) determination in follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, I.; Kanitz, W.; Pabst, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    A reevaluation of the clinical value of radioimmunological thyroglobulin (hTg) determination during follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, in general, confirms our previous results already published in 1980 and 1981. A total of 163 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, 53 with papillary and 110 with follicular carcinoma, was studied up to January 1984. 586 sera are included in this study. The differentiation of suspicious from nonsuspicious findings was found to be based upon a cut-off concentration of 10 μg/l. Pathological findings were associated with hTg concentrations above 20 μg/l. Diagnostic accuracy was calculated to be between 95 and 97%, sensitivity of the method in comparison to be radioiodine whole-body scan was 98 versus 83%, respectively, and specificity 94%. At first 5 false negative and 6 false positive hTg findings have been obtained. 7.6% of the patients demonstrated endogeneous hTg antibodies by Boyden test. 7.7% of Boyden test negative sera showed an unacceptable hTg recovery of worse than +- 50%, which was possibly due to endogeneous antibodies. Again, endogenous TSH was able to stimulate hTg secretion in the form of elevated levels, yet did not affect the clinical diagnosis. Examples of the behaviour of hTg levels during follow-up are demonstrated. Specifically, the cases with false hTg findings are discussed. Basically, the conclusions are the same as in 1980 and 1981: hTg determination is able to replace the routinely performed radioiodine whole-body scan during follow-up, if once residual thyroid tissue and metastases have been excluded by means of radioiodine and an optimal follow-up program is used. (orig.) [de

  4. Astrometric Observation of Delta Cepheus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Naomi; Wilson, Betsie; Estrada, Chris; Crisafi, Kim; King, Jackie; Jones, Stephany; Salam, Akash; Warren, Glenn; Collins, S. Jananne; Genet, Russell

    2012-04-01

    Members of a Cuesta College astronomy research seminar used a manually-controlled 10-inch Newtonian Reflector telescope to determine the separation and position angle of the binary star Delta Cepheus. It was observed on the night of Saturday, October 29, 2011, at Star Hill in Santa Margarita, California. Their values of 40.2 arc seconds and 192.4 degrees were similar to those reported in the WDS (1910).

  5. Non-shoring construction for T/G pedestal beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, T.

    1992-01-01

    The T/G pedestal construction work has been the critical path within the T/B construction work of BWR type nuclear power plant. In order to meet the requirement of shortening the construction period and improved in safety on a Turbine Building (T/B) construction work, Non-soring construction for T/G Pedestal Beams was developed. By applying this method to T/G pedestal construction work, we succeeded in shortening the T/B construction period and improvement in safety significantly. (author)

  6. Delta hedging strategies comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Giovanni, Domenico; Ortobelli, S.; Rachev, S.T.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we implement dynamic delta hedging strategies based on several option pricing models. We analyze different subordinated option pricing models and we examine delta hedging costs using ex-post daily prices of S&P 500. Furthermore, we compare the performance of each subordinated model...

  7. Connectivity in river deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, P.; Hiatt, M. R.; Sendrowski, A.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas host approximately half a billion people and are rich in ecosystem diversity and economic resources. However, human-induced activities and climatic shifts are significantly impacting deltas around the world; anthropogenic disturbance, natural subsidence, and eustatic sea-level rise are major causes of threat to deltas and in many cases have compromised their safety and sustainability, putting at risk the people that live on them. In this presentation, I will introduce a framework called Delta Connectome for studying connectivity in river deltas based on different representations of a delta as a network. Here connectivity indicates both physical connectivity (how different portions of the system interact with each other) as well as conceptual (pathways of process coupling). I will explore several network representations and show how quantifying connectivity can advance our understanding of system functioning and can be used to inform coastal management and restoration. From connectivity considerations, the delta emerges as a leaky network that evolves over time and is characterized by continuous exchanges of fluxes of matter, energy, and information. I will discuss the implications of connectivity on delta functioning, land growth, and potential for nutrient removal.

  8. Comparison of TG-43 and TG-186 in breast irradiation using a low energy electronic brachytherapy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Shane A.; Landry, Guillaume; Reniers, Brigitte; Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva; Holt, Randy; Rusch, Thomas; Beaulieu, Luc; Verhaegen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The recently updated guidelines for dosimetry in brachytherapy in TG-186 have recommended the use of model-based dosimetry calculations as a replacement for TG-43. TG-186 highlights shortcomings in the water-based approach in TG-43, particularly for low energy brachytherapy sources. The Xoft Axxent is a low energy ( w,m ) and dose to medium (D m,m ), for the heterogeneous simulations. All results were compared against TG-43-based dose distributions and evaluated using dose ratio maps and DVH metrics. Changes in skin and PTV dose were highlighted. Results: All simulated heterogeneous models showed a reduced dose to the DVH metrics that is dependent on the method of dose reporting and patient geometry. Based on a prescription dose of 34 Gy, the average D 90 to PTV was reduced by between ∼4% and ∼40%, depending on the scoring method, compared to the TG-43 result. Peak skin dose is also reduced by 10%–15% due to the absence of backscatter not accounted for in TG-43. The balloon applicator also contributed to the reduced dose. Other ROIs showed a difference depending on the method of dose reporting. Conclusions: TG-186-based calculations produce results that are different from TG-43 for the Axxent source. The differences depend strongly on the method of dose reporting. This study highlights the importance of backscatter to peak skin dose. Tissue heterogeneities, applicator, and patient geometries demonstrate the need for a more robust dose calculation method for low energy brachytherapy sources

  9. A Sensitive Tg Assay or rhTSH Stimulated Tg : What's the Best in the Long-Term Follow-Up of Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persoon, Adrienne C. M.; Jager, Pieter L.; Sluiter, Wim J.; Plukker, John T. M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Links, Thera P.

    2007-01-01

    Sensitivity of thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) can be optimized by using a sensitive Tg assay and rhTSH stimulation. We evaluated the diagnostic yield of a sensitive Tg assay and rhTSH stimulated Tg in the detection of recurrences in the

  10. WE-PIS-Exhibit Hall-01: Tools for TG-142 Linac Imaging QA II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childress, N; Murray, B

    2014-01-01

    Partners in Solutions is an exciting new program in which AAPM partners with our vendors to present practical “hands-on” information about the equipment and software systems that we use in our clinics. The therapy topic this year is solutions for TG-142 recommendations for linear accelerator imaging QA. Note that the sessions are being held in a special purpose room built on the Exhibit Hall Floor, to encourage further interaction with the vendors. Using DoseLab to Perform TG-142 Imaging QA The goals of this session will be to present a clinical overview of acquiring images for TG-142 Imaging QA, as well as analyzing and evaluating results using DoseLab software. DoseLab supports planar imaging QA analysis using almost any QA phantom provided by numerous vendors. General advantages and disadvantages of selecting each of these phantoms will be briefly summarized. Best practices for selecting image acquisition parameters will be presented. A demonstration of using DoseLab software to perform a series of TG-142 tests will be performed. We will disuss why DoseLab uses its own set of imaging QA formulas, and why imaging QA measurement values of the same nominal properties will vary between TG- 142 software packages. Because TG-142 does not specify baseline and tolerance values for imaging QA, the presentation will recommend performing the manufacturer's acceptance test procedure to validate the equipment is functioning correctly. Afterwards, results can be obtained using the clinic's selected set of phantoms, image acquisition parameters, and TG-142 software to set proper baseline values. This presentation will highlight the reasons why comparing imaging QA results can be trickier than comparing linear accelerator treatment results and what physicists should keep in mind when comparing imaging QA results for different machines. Physicists are often unsure of the next step when there is an issue discovered during Imaging QA. Therefore, a few common examples

  11. WE-PIS-Exhibit Hall-01: Tools for TG-142 Linac Imaging QA II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childress, N [Mobius Medical Management, LLC,, Houston, TX (United States); Murray, B [ZapIT Medical, Dublin, OH (Ireland)

    2014-06-15

    Partners in Solutions is an exciting new program in which AAPM partners with our vendors to present practical “hands-on” information about the equipment and software systems that we use in our clinics. The therapy topic this year is solutions for TG-142 recommendations for linear accelerator imaging QA. Note that the sessions are being held in a special purpose room built on the Exhibit Hall Floor, to encourage further interaction with the vendors. Using DoseLab to Perform TG-142 Imaging QA The goals of this session will be to present a clinical overview of acquiring images for TG-142 Imaging QA, as well as analyzing and evaluating results using DoseLab software. DoseLab supports planar imaging QA analysis using almost any QA phantom provided by numerous vendors. General advantages and disadvantages of selecting each of these phantoms will be briefly summarized. Best practices for selecting image acquisition parameters will be presented. A demonstration of using DoseLab software to perform a series of TG-142 tests will be performed. We will disuss why DoseLab uses its own set of imaging QA formulas, and why imaging QA measurement values of the same nominal properties will vary between TG- 142 software packages. Because TG-142 does not specify baseline and tolerance values for imaging QA, the presentation will recommend performing the manufacturer's acceptance test procedure to validate the equipment is functioning correctly. Afterwards, results can be obtained using the clinic's selected set of phantoms, image acquisition parameters, and TG-142 software to set proper baseline values. This presentation will highlight the reasons why comparing imaging QA results can be trickier than comparing linear accelerator treatment results and what physicists should keep in mind when comparing imaging QA results for different machines. Physicists are often unsure of the next step when there is an issue discovered during Imaging QA. Therefore, a few common examples

  12. Comparison of TG-43 and TG-186 in breast irradiation using a low energy electronic brachytherapy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Shane A.; Landry, Guillaume; Reniers, Brigitte, E-mail: brigitte.reniers@maastro.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC), Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC), Maastricht 6201 BN, The Netherlands and Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares – IPEN-CNEN/SP, São Paulo CP 11049, 05422-970 (Brazil); Holt, Randy; Rusch, Thomas [Xoft, A Subsidiary of iCAD, Sunnyvale, California 94085-4115 (United States); Beaulieu, Luc [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec Université Laval, Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de l’Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 Canada (Canada); Verhaegen, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC), Maastricht 6201 BN, The Netherlands and Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The recently updated guidelines for dosimetry in brachytherapy in TG-186 have recommended the use of model-based dosimetry calculations as a replacement for TG-43. TG-186 highlights shortcomings in the water-based approach in TG-43, particularly for low energy brachytherapy sources. The Xoft Axxent is a low energy (<50 kV) brachytherapy system used in accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Breast tissue is a heterogeneous tissue in terms of density and composition. Dosimetric calculations of seven APBI patients treated with Axxent were made using a model-based Monte Carlo platform for a number of tissue models and dose reporting methods and compared to TG-43 based plans. Methods: A model of the Axxent source, the S700, was created and validated against experimental data. CT scans of the patients were used to create realistic multi-tissue/heterogeneous models with breast tissue segmented using a published technique. Alternative water models were used to isolate the influence of tissue heterogeneity and backscatter on the dose distribution. Dose calculations were performed using Geant4 according to the original treatment parameters. The effect of the Axxent balloon applicator used in APBI which could not be modeled in the CT-based model, was modeled using a novel technique that utilizes CAD-based geometries. These techniques were validated experimentally. Results were calculated using two dose reporting methods, dose to water (D{sub w,m}) and dose to medium (D{sub m,m}), for the heterogeneous simulations. All results were compared against TG-43-based dose distributions and evaluated using dose ratio maps and DVH metrics. Changes in skin and PTV dose were highlighted. Results: All simulated heterogeneous models showed a reduced dose to the DVH metrics that is dependent on the method of dose reporting and patient geometry. Based on a prescription dose of 34 Gy, the average D{sub 90} to PTV was reduced by between ∼4% and ∼40%, depending on the

  13. The Niger Delta Crisis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2013-09-28

    Sep 28, 2013 ... Department of History & International Studies, Delta State University, Abraka,. Nigeria. .... democracy implies popular power. That is ... Okonta (2006:5) draws attention to Anna Zalik's treatise called 'Petro-Vio- lence' and ...

  14. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  15. Delta 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skott, Jeppe; Skott, Charlotte Krog; Jess, Kristine

    DELTA 2.0 er en ny og helt opdateret udgave af Delta, der i ti år været brugt i matematiklærernes grund-, efter- og videreuddannelse. DELTA 2.0 er seriens almene fagdidaktik. Der er også fagdidaktiske overvejelser i de øvrige bøger i serien, men de er knyttet til specifikt matematisk indhold. DELTA...... 2.0 behandler mere generelle matematikdidaktiske problemstillinger såsom læringsteoretiske overvejelser i forbindelse med matematik, centrale aspekter af det at undervise i matematik og digitale teknologier som værktøj til at støtte elevers faglige læring af matematik....

  16. A Monte Carlo derived TG-51 equivalent calibration for helical tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.D.; Mackenzie, M.; Rogers, D.W.O.; Fallone, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    Helical tomotherapy (HT) requires a method of accurately determining the absorbed dose under reference conditions. In the AAPM's TG-51 external beam dosimetry protocol, the quality conversion factor, k Q , is presented as a function of the photon component of the percentage depth-dose at 10 cm depth, %dd(10) x , measured under the reference conditions of a 10x10 cm 2 field size and a source-to-surface distance (SSD) of 100 cm. The value of %dd(10) x from HT cannot be used for the determination of k Q because the design of the HT does not meet the following TG-51 reference conditions: (i) the field size and the practical SSD required by TG-51 are not obtainable and (ii) the absence of the flattening filter changes the beam quality thus affecting some components of k Q . The stopping power ratio is not affected because of its direct relationship to %dd(10) x . We derive a relationship for the Exradin A1SL ion chamber converting the %dd(10) x measured under HT 'reference conditions' of SSD=85 cm and a 5x10 cm 2 field-size [%dd(10) x[HTRef] ], to the dosimetric equivalent value under for TG-51 reference conditions [%dd(10) x[HTTG-51] ] for HT. This allows the determination of k Q under the HT reference conditions. The conversion results in changes of 0.1% in the value of k Q for our particular unit. The conversion relationship should also apply to other ion chambers with possible errors on the order of 0.1%

  17. SU-E-T-468: Implementation of the TG-142 QA Process for Seven Linacs with Enhanced Beam Conformance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woollard, J; Ayan, A; DiCostanzo, D; Grzetic, S; Hessler, J; Gupta, N [OH State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a TG-142 compliant QA process for 7 Varian TrueBeam linear accelerators (linacs) with enhanced beam conformance and dosimetrically matched beam models. To ensure consistent performance of all 7 linacs, the QA process should include a common set of baseline values for use in routine QA on all linacs. Methods: The TG 142 report provides recommended tests, tolerances and frequencies for quality assurance of medical accelerators. Based on the guidance provided in the report, measurement tests were developed to evaluate each of the applicable parameters listed for daily, monthly and annual QA. These tests were then performed on each of our 7 new linacs as they came on line at our institution. Results: The tolerance values specified in TG-142 for each QA test are either absolute tolerances (i.e. ±2mm) or require a comparison to a baseline value. The results of our QA tests were first used to ensure that all 7 linacs were operating within the suggested tolerance values provided in TG −142 for those tests with absolute tolerances and that the performance of the linacs was adequately matched. The QA test results were then used to develop a set of common baseline values for those QA tests that require comparison to a baseline value at routine monthly and annual QA. The procedures and baseline values were incorporated into a spreadsheets for use in monthly and annual QA. Conclusion: We have developed a set of procedures for daily, monthly and annual QA of our linacs that are consistent with the TG-142 report. A common set of baseline values was developed for routine QA tests. The use of this common set of baseline values for comparison at monthly and annual QA will ensure consistent performance of all 7 linacs.

  18. SU-E-T-468: Implementation of the TG-142 QA Process for Seven Linacs with Enhanced Beam Conformance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woollard, J; Ayan, A; DiCostanzo, D; Grzetic, S; Hessler, J; Gupta, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a TG-142 compliant QA process for 7 Varian TrueBeam linear accelerators (linacs) with enhanced beam conformance and dosimetrically matched beam models. To ensure consistent performance of all 7 linacs, the QA process should include a common set of baseline values for use in routine QA on all linacs. Methods: The TG 142 report provides recommended tests, tolerances and frequencies for quality assurance of medical accelerators. Based on the guidance provided in the report, measurement tests were developed to evaluate each of the applicable parameters listed for daily, monthly and annual QA. These tests were then performed on each of our 7 new linacs as they came on line at our institution. Results: The tolerance values specified in TG-142 for each QA test are either absolute tolerances (i.e. ±2mm) or require a comparison to a baseline value. The results of our QA tests were first used to ensure that all 7 linacs were operating within the suggested tolerance values provided in TG −142 for those tests with absolute tolerances and that the performance of the linacs was adequately matched. The QA test results were then used to develop a set of common baseline values for those QA tests that require comparison to a baseline value at routine monthly and annual QA. The procedures and baseline values were incorporated into a spreadsheets for use in monthly and annual QA. Conclusion: We have developed a set of procedures for daily, monthly and annual QA of our linacs that are consistent with the TG-142 report. A common set of baseline values was developed for routine QA tests. The use of this common set of baseline values for comparison at monthly and annual QA will ensure consistent performance of all 7 linacs

  19. Characteristic Study of Some Different Kinds of Coal Particles Combustion with Online TG-MS-FTIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Guanfu

    2018-01-01

    Four kinds of pulverized coal samples from China and Indonesia were studied by thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectrometry and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-MS-FTIR). The thermal behaviors and gaseous emissions of these coals were analyzed in this work. The results indicate that the relative lower values of H/C ratios, which normally represent the degree of aromatization and ring condensation in coal samples, could lead to the relative more intense thermal reaction. The time-evolved profiles of some typical gas products (i.e., CO, SO2, CH4, NO, NO2, NH3 and etc.) were provided by TG-MS-FTIR, and their variations are different. For all the samples, the releases of SO2 and COS can be found at lower temperature than those of NO and CO. As the temperature increases, the possible conversion of NO2 and NH3 to NO is deduced in this work.

  20. Comparison of TG-43 and TG-186 in breast irradiation using a low energy electronic brachytherapy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Shane A; Landry, Guillaume; Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva; Holt, Randy; Rusch, Thomas; Beaulieu, Luc; Verhaegen, Frank; Reniers, Brigitte

    2014-06-01

    The recently updated guidelines for dosimetry in brachytherapy in TG-186 have recommended the use of model-based dosimetry calculations as a replacement for TG-43. TG-186 highlights shortcomings in the water-based approach in TG-43, particularly for low energy brachytherapy sources. The Xoft Axxent is a low energy (S700, was created and validated against experimental data. CT scans of the patients were used to create realistic multi-tissue/heterogeneous models with breast tissue segmented using a published technique. Alternative water models were used to isolate the influence of tissue heterogeneity and backscatter on the dose distribution. Dose calculations were performed using Geant4 according to the original treatment parameters. The effect of the Axxent balloon applicator used in APBI which could not be modeled in the CT-based model, was modeled using a novel technique that utilizes CAD-based geometries. These techniques were validated experimentally. Results were calculated using two dose reporting methods, dose to water (Dw,m) and dose to medium (Dm,m), for the heterogeneous simulations. All results were compared against TG-43-based dose distributions and evaluated using dose ratio maps and DVH metrics. Changes in skin and PTV dose were highlighted. All simulated heterogeneous models showed a reduced dose to the DVH metrics that is dependent on the method of dose reporting and patient geometry. Based on a prescription dose of 34 Gy, the average D90 to PTV was reduced by between ~4% and ~40%, depending on the scoring method, compared to the TG-43 result. Peak skin dose is also reduced by 10%-15% due to the absence of backscatter not accounted for in TG-43. The balloon applicator also contributed to the reduced dose. Other ROIs showed a difference depending on the method of dose reporting. TG-186-based calculations produce results that are different from TG-43 for the Axxent source. The differences depend strongly on the method of dose reporting. This study

  1. Improved γ-linolenic acid production in Mucor circinelloides by homologous overexpressing of delta-12 and delta-6 desaturases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Luan, Xiao; Zhang, Huaiyuan; Garre, Victoriano; Song, Yuanda; Ratledge, Colin

    2017-06-21

    γ-Linolenic acid (GLA) is important because of its nutritional value and medicinal applications. Although the biosynthetic pathways of some plant and microbial GLA have been deciphered, current understanding of the correlation between desaturases and GLA synthesis in oleaginous fungi is incomplete. In previous work, we found that a large amount of oleic acid (OA) had not been converted to linoleic acid (LA) or GLA in Mucor circinelloides CBS 277.49, which may be due to inadequate activities of the delta-12 or delta-6 desaturases, and thus leading to the accumulation of OA and LA. Thus, it is necessary to explore the main contributing factor during the process of GLA biosynthesis in M. circinelloides. To enhance GLA production in M. circinelloides, homologous overexpression of delta-12 and two delta-6 desaturases (named delta-6-1 and delta-6-2, respectively) were analyzed. When delta-6 desaturase were overexpressed in M. circinelloides, up to 43% GLA was produced in the total fatty acids, and the yield of GLA reached 180 mg/l, which were, respectively, 38 and 33% higher than the control strain. These findings revealed that delta-6 desaturase (especially for delta-6-1 desaturase) plays an important role in GLA synthesis by M. circinelloides. The strain overexpressing delta-6-1 desaturase may have potential application in microbial GLA production.

  2. MO-PIS-Exhibit Hall-01: Tools for TG-142 Linac Imaging QA I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, M [RAD Image, Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Wiesmeyer, M [Standard Imaging, Inc., Middleton, WI (United States)

    2014-06-15

    establish and solidify these connections. Our talk will be motivated by the Standard Imaging, Inc. phantom and software solutions. We will present and explain each of the image quality metrics in TG-142 in terms of the theory, mathematics, and algorithms used to implement them in the Standard Imaging PIPSpro software. In the process, we will identify the regions of phantom images that are analyzed by each algorithm. We then will discuss the process of the creation of baselines and typical ranges of acceptable values for each imaging quality metric.

  3. MO-PIS-Exhibit Hall-01: Tools for TG-142 Linac Imaging QA I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, M; Wiesmeyer, M

    2014-01-01

    establish and solidify these connections. Our talk will be motivated by the Standard Imaging, Inc. phantom and software solutions. We will present and explain each of the image quality metrics in TG-142 in terms of the theory, mathematics, and algorithms used to implement them in the Standard Imaging PIPSpro software. In the process, we will identify the regions of phantom images that are analyzed by each algorithm. We then will discuss the process of the creation of baselines and typical ranges of acceptable values for each imaging quality metric

  4. Solubility of hydrogen in delta iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapovalov, V.I.; Trofimenko, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    The solubility of hydrogen in iron (less than 0.002 % impurities) at temperatures of 800-1510 deg C and a pressure of 100 atm was measured. The heat of solution of hydrogen in delta-Fe, equal to 73 kJ/g-atom, is by far greater than the corresponding values for α- and γ-Fe

  5. Thought about ICRP TG84 report. What beyond it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Ohtsura

    2013-01-01

    Explained was the ICRP TG84 Report (Report of ICRP Task Group 84 on Initial Lessons Learned from the Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Japan vis-a-vis the ICRP System of Radiological Protection: Issues Identified from the NPP Accident in Japan and Recommendations to Improve the System of Radiation Protection; presented in October, 2012), together with author's thought about it. The Report contained 18 items and their related proposals: Inferring radiation risks (and the misunderstanding of nominal risk coefficients), Attributing radiation effects from low dose exposures, Quantifying radiation exposure, Assessing the importance of internal exposures, Managing emergency crisis, Protecting rescuers and volunteers, Responding with medical aid, Justifying necessary but disruptive protective actions, Transiting from an emergency to an existing situation, Rehabilitating evacuated areas, Categorizing public exposures due to an accident, Restricting individual doses of members of the public, Caring for infants and children, Considering pregnant women and their foetuses and embryos, Monitoring public protection, Dealing with 'contamination' of territories, rubble and residues, and consumer products, Recognizing the importance of psychological consequences, and Fostering the sharing of information. The Report also contained 11 Recommendations of actions for the Commission to take. The author had been installed as the Chair of Radiation Council in February, 2011, just before the Accident in March, and had had to concern the definition of various post-Accident dose limits in Japan, having had often faced the inefficiency of measures. He thought the ICRP protecting system was difficult to understand due to 2 reasons: one was that the system had been written aiming at experts of radiological protection and the other, that the system had been composed not only from science but also from an incorporated standard of social values, which resulted in inconsiderateness to the general

  6. QCD in the {delta}-regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, W. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares; Cundy, N. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Lattice Gauge Theory Research Center; Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R.; Zanotti, J.M. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Nakamura, Y. [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Center for Computational Sciences; Pleiter, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    The {delta}-regime of QCD is characterised by light quarks in a small spatial box, but a large extent in (Euclidean) time. In this setting a specific variant of chiral perturbation theory - the {delta}-expansion - applies, based on a quantum mechanical treatment of the quasi onedimensional system. In particular, for vanishing quark masses one obtains a residual pion mass M{sup R}{sub {pi}}, which has been computed to the third order in the {delta}-expansion. A comparison with numerical measurements of this residual mass allows for a new determination of some Low Energy Constants, which appear in the chiral Lagrangian. We first review the attempts to simulate 2-flavour QCD directly in the {delta}-regime. This is very tedious, but results compatible with the predictions for M{sup R}{sub {pi}} have been obtained. Then we show that an extrapolation of pion masses measured in a larger volume towards the {delta}-regime leads to good agreement with the theoretical predictions. From those results, we also extract a value for the (controversial) sub-leading Low Energy Constant anti l{sub 3}. (orig.)

  7. Women of Niger Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion Dept

    The Indispensability of Women in Conflict Resolution in the Niger Delta ... The situation leads to a shift in gender roles with a dramatic increase in the number of women .... organization is to work in partnership with the Nigerian Government and the .... that “women are the impartial arbitrators in family or clan disputes or.

  8. Conservative Delta Hedging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    an exact method for converting such intervals into arbitrage based prices of financial derivatives or industrial or contractual options. We call this...procedure conservative delta hedging . As existing procedures are of an ad hoc nature, the proposed approach will permit an institution’s man agement a greater oversight of its exposure to risk.

  9. The coastal system of the Volta delta, Ghana : Strategies and opportunities for development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, Lambertus W.M.

    2018-01-01

    The Volta delta is a very dynamic environment, forming the interface between the Volta river and the Atlantic ocean. The delta is a home for many communities, settled both at the shorelines and more inland. Furthermore the delta provides great natural values and a habitat for many species.
    The

  10. Mystery of the delta(980)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahn, R.N.; Landshoff, P.V.

    1986-01-01

    The apparent conflict between the dominance of the decay delta->etaπ in D->deltaπ and its absence in iota->deltaπ is analyzed. Explicit models are presented in which the nearby Kanti K threshold plays an important role in resolving the conflict. (orig.)

  11. Report of AAPM TG 135: quality assurance for robotic radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, Sonja; Cavedon, Carlo; Chuang, Cynthia F; Cohen, Alan B; Garrett, Jeffrey A; Lee, Charles L; Lowenstein, Jessica R; d'Souza, Maximian F; Taylor, David D; Wu, Xiaodong; Yu, Cheng

    2011-06-01

    The task group (TG) for quality assurance for robotic radiosurgery was formed by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine's Science Council under the direction of the Radiation Therapy Committee and the Quality Assurance (QA) Subcommittee. The task group (TG-135) had three main charges: (1) To make recommendations on a code of practice for Robotic Radiosurgery QA; (2) To make recommendations on quality assurance and dosimetric verification techniques, especially in regard to real-time respiratory motion tracking software; (3) To make recommendations on issues which require further research and development. This report provides a general functional overview of the only clinically implemented robotic radiosurgery device, the CyberKnife. This report includes sections on device components and their individual component QA recommendations, followed by a section on the QA requirements for integrated systems. Examples of checklists for daily, monthly, annual, and upgrade QA are given as guidance for medical physicists. Areas in which QA procedures are still under development are discussed.

  12. Thermal behaviors of mechanically activated pyrites by thermogravimetry (TG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Huiping; Chen Qiyuan; Yin Zhoulan; Zhang Pingmin

    2003-01-01

    The thermal decompositions of mechanically activated and non-activated pyrites were studied by thermogravimetry (TG) at the heating rate of 10 K min -1 in argon. Results indicate that the initial temperature of thermal decomposition (T di ) in TG curves for mechanically activated pyrites decreases gradually with increasing the grinding time. The specific granulometric surface area (S G ), the structural disorder of mechanically activated pyrites were analyzed by X-ray diffraction laser particle size analyzer, and X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. The results show that the S G of mechanically activated pyrites remains almost constant after a certain grinding time, and lattice distortions (ε) rise but the crystallite sizes (D) decrease with increasing the grinding time. All these results imply that the decrease of T di in TG curves of mechanically activated pyrites is mainly caused by the increase of lattice distortions ε and the decrease of the crystallite sizes D of mechanically activated pyrite with increasing the grinding time. The differences in the reactivity between non-activated and mechanically activated pyrites were observed using characterization of the products obtained from 1 h treatment of non-activated and mechanically activated pyrites at 713 K under inert atmosphere and characterization of non-activated and mechanically activated pyrites exposed to ambient air for a certain period

  13. SU-E-T-159: Evaluation of a Patient Specific QA Tool Based On TG119

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashmeg, S; Zhang, Y; O'Daniel, J; Yin, F; Ren, L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of a 3D patient specific QA tool by analysis of the results produced from associated software in homogenous phantom and heterogonous patient CT. Methods: IMRT and VMAT plans of five test suites introduced by TG119 were created in ECLIPSE on a solid water phantom. The ten plans -of increasing complexity- were delivered to Delta4 to give a 3D measurement. The Delta4's “Anatomy” software uses the measured dose to back-calculate the energy fluence of the delivered beams, which is used for dose calculation in a patient CT using a pencilbeam algorithm. The effect of the modulated beams' complexity on the accuracy of the “Anatomy” calculation was evaluated. Both measured and Anatomy doses were compared to ECLIPSE calculation using 3% - 3mm gamma criteria.We also tested the effect of heterogeneity by analyzing the results of “Anatomy” calculation on a Brain VMAT and a 3D conformal lung cases. Results: In homogenous phantom, the gamma passing rates were found to be as low as 74.75% for a complex plan with high modulation. The mean passing rates were 91.47% ± 6.35% for “Anatomy” calculation and 99.46% ± 0.62% for Delta4 measurements.As for the heterogeneous cases, the rates were 96.54%±3.67% and 83.87%±9.42% for Brain VMAT and 3D lung respectively. This increased error in the lung case could be due to the use of the pencil beam algorithm as opposed to the AAA used by ECLIPSE.Also, gamma analysis showed high discrepancy along the beam edge in the “Anatomy” calculated results. This suggests a poor beam modeling in the penumbra region. Conclusion: The results show various sources of errors in “Anatomy” calculations. These include beam modeling in the penumbra region, complexity of a modulated beam (shown in homogenous phantom and brain cases) and dose calculation algorithms (3D conformal lung case)

  14. Long term aging of selenide glasses: evidence of sub-Tg endotherms and pre-Tg exotherms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Boolchand, P.; Georgiev, D. G.

    2010-02-01

    Long term aging, extending from months to several years, is studied on several families of chalcogenide glasses including the Ge-Se, As-Se, and Ge-As-Se systems. Special attention is given to the As-Se binary, a system that displays a rich variety of aging behavior intimately tied to sample synthesis conditions and the ambient environment in which samples are aged. Calorimetric (modulated DSC) and Raman scattering experiments are undertaken. Our results show all samples display a sub-Tg endotherm typically 10-70 °C below Tg in glassy networks possessing a mean coordination number r in the 2.25 < r < 2.45 range. Two sets of AsxSe100-x samples aged for eight years were compared, set A consisted of slow cooled samples aged in the dark, and set B consisted of melt-quenched samples aged at laboratory environment. Samples of set B in the As concentration range, 35% < x < 60%, display a pre-Tg exotherm, but the feature is not observed in samples of set A. The aging behavior of set A presumably represents intrinsic aging in these glasses, while that of set B is extrinsic due to the presence of light. The reversibility window persists in both sets of samples, but is less well defined in set B. These findings contrast with a recent study by Golovchak et al (2008 Phys. Rev. B 78 014202), which finds the onset of the reversibility window moved up to the stoichiometric composition (x = 40%). Here we show that the up-shifted window is better understood as resulting due to demixing of As4Se4 and As4Se3 molecules from the backbone, i.e., nanoscale phase separation (NSPS). We attribute sub-Tg endotherms to compaction of the flexible part of the networks upon long term aging, while the pre-Tg exotherm is to NSPS. The narrowing and sharpening of the reversibility window upon aging is interpreted as the slow 'self-organizing' stress relaxation of the phases just outside the intermediate phase, which itself is stress free and displays little aging.

  15. Open TG-GATEs: a large-scale toxicogenomics database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yoshinobu; Nakatsu, Noriyuki; Yamashita, Tomoya; Ono, Atsushi; Ohno, Yasuo; Urushidani, Tetsuro; Yamada, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Toxicogenomics focuses on assessing the safety of compounds using gene expression profiles. Gene expression signatures from large toxicogenomics databases are expected to perform better than small databases in identifying biomarkers for the prediction and evaluation of drug safety based on a compound's toxicological mechanisms in animal target organs. Over the past 10 years, the Japanese Toxicogenomics Project consortium (TGP) has been developing a large-scale toxicogenomics database consisting of data from 170 compounds (mostly drugs) with the aim of improving and enhancing drug safety assessment. Most of the data generated by the project (e.g. gene expression, pathology, lot number) are freely available to the public via Open TG-GATEs (Toxicogenomics Project-Genomics Assisted Toxicity Evaluation System). Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the database, including both gene expression data and metadata, with a description of experimental conditions and procedures used to generate the database. Open TG-GATEs is available from http://toxico.nibio.go.jp/english/index.html. PMID:25313160

  16. TH-EF-BRC-00: TG-100 Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    This Hands-on Workshop will be focused on providing participants with experience with the principal tools of TG 100 and hence start to build both competence and confidence in the use of risk-based quality management techniques. The three principal tools forming the basis of TG 100’s risk analysis: Process mapping, Failure-Modes and Effects Analysis and fault-tree analysis will be introduced with a 5 minute refresher presentation and each presentation will be followed by a 30 minute small group exercise. An exercise on developing QM from the risk analysis follows. During the exercise periods, participants will apply the principles in 2 different clinical scenarios. At the conclusion of each exercise there will be ample time for participants to discuss with each other and the faculty their experience and any challenges encountered. Learning Objectives: To review the principles of Process Mapping, Failure Modes and Effects Analysis and Fault Tree Analysis. To gain familiarity with these three techniques in a small group setting. To share and discuss experiences with the three techniques with faculty and participants. Director, TreatSafely, LLC. Director, Center for the Assessment of Radiological Sciences. Occasional Consultant to the IAEA and Varian.

  17. TH-EF-BRC-00: TG-100 Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This Hands-on Workshop will be focused on providing participants with experience with the principal tools of TG 100 and hence start to build both competence and confidence in the use of risk-based quality management techniques. The three principal tools forming the basis of TG 100’s risk analysis: Process mapping, Failure-Modes and Effects Analysis and fault-tree analysis will be introduced with a 5 minute refresher presentation and each presentation will be followed by a 30 minute small group exercise. An exercise on developing QM from the risk analysis follows. During the exercise periods, participants will apply the principles in 2 different clinical scenarios. At the conclusion of each exercise there will be ample time for participants to discuss with each other and the faculty their experience and any challenges encountered. Learning Objectives: To review the principles of Process Mapping, Failure Modes and Effects Analysis and Fault Tree Analysis. To gain familiarity with these three techniques in a small group setting. To share and discuss experiences with the three techniques with faculty and participants. Director, TreatSafely, LLC. Director, Center for the Assessment of Radiological Sciences. Occasional Consultant to the IAEA and Varian.

  18. Perspectives on bay-delta science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Michael; Dettinger, Michael; Norgaard, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The State of Bay–Delta Science 2008 highlighted seven emerging perspectives on science and management of the Delta. These perspectives had important effects on policy and legislation concerning management of the Delta ecosystem and water exports. From the collection of papers that make up the State of Bay–Delta Science 2016, we derive another seven perspectives that augment those published in 2008. The new perspectives address nutrient and contaminant concentrations in Delta waters, the failure of the Delta food web to support native species, the role of multiple stressors in driving species toward extinction, and the emerging importance of extreme events in driving change in the ecosystem and the water supply. The scientific advances that underpin these new perspectives were made possible by new measurement and analytic tools. We briefly discuss some of these, including miniaturized acoustic fish tags, sensors for monitoring of water quality, analytic techniques for disaggregating complex contaminant mixtures, remote sensing to assess levee vulnerability, and multidimensional hydrodynamic modeling. Despite these new tools and scientific insights, species conservation objectives for the Delta are not being met. We believe that this lack of progress stems in part from the fact that science and policy do not incorporate sufficiently long-term perspectives. Looking forward half a century was central to the Delta Visioning process, but science and policy have not embraced this conceptual breadth. We are also concerned that protection and enhancement of the unique cultural, recreational, natural resource, and agricultural values of the Delta as an evolving place, as required by the Delta Reform Act, has received no critical study and analysis. Adopting wider and longer science and policy perspectives immediately encourages recognition of the need for evaluation, analysis, and public discourse on novel conservation approaches. These longer and wider perspectives

  19. Thermostatted delta f

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The delta f simulation method is revisited. Statistical coarse-graining is used to rigorously derive the equation for the fluctuation delta f in the particle distribution. It is argued that completely collisionless simulation is incompatible with the achievement of true statistically steady states with nonzero turbulent fluxes because the variance of the particle weights w grows with time. To ensure such steady states, it is shown that for dynamically collisionless situations a generalized thermostat or W-stat may be used in lieu of a full collision operator to absorb the flow of entropy to unresolved fine scales in velocity space. The simplest W-stat can be implemented as a self-consistently determined, time-dependent damping applied to w. A precise kinematic analogy to thermostatted nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) is pointed out, and the justification of W-stats for simulations of turbulence is discussed. An extrapolation procedure is proposed such that the long-time, steady-state, collisionless flux can be deduced from several short W-statted runs with large effective collisionality, and a numerical demonstration is given

  20. People of the Delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoire, L.

    2007-09-15

    The potential impacts of both global warming and the $16 billion Mackenzie pipeline project on communities in the Mackenzie Delta were discussed. A consortium of oil and gas developers is now planning to exploit the natural gas reserves located near the mouth of the Delta, whose largest town is Inuvik. The project is expected to place a significant burden on the resources and infrastructure of the town, which currently has a population of 6000. The community, comprised of a diverse international population and an Inuit majority, is largely in favour of the pipeline project. The Inuvialuit people have invested a significant amount of time to ensure that the project, which was stalled due to land claims in 1977, benefits their communities. Public hearings are now being held to consider the potential environmental and socio-economic impacts of the project. Separate hearings are also being held to consider the project's design. The pipeline project includes 3 natural gas production facilities, a gas-processing facility, a pipeline gathering system, a 480 km natural gas liquids pipeline to the Northwest Territories, and a 1220 km natural gas pipeline to northern Alberta. The pipeline will be buried to minimize environmental impacts. The project is expected to create 8200 jobs at the height of its construction. However, communities located near the site of the natural gas reserves, such as the town of Tuktoyaktuk are now threatened by soil erosion that has been attributed to global warming. 21 figs.

  1. Phenotypic expressions of CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, GT; Carrington, M; Beeler, JA; Dean, M; Aledort, LM; Blatt, PM; Cohen, AR; DiMichele, D; Eyster, ME; Kessler, CM; Konkle, B; Leissinger, C; Luban, N; O'Brien, SJ; Goedert, JJ; O'Brien, TR

    1999-01-01

    Objective: As blockade of CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) has been proposed as therapy for HIV-1, we examined whether the CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygous genotype has phenotypic expressions other than those related to HIV-1. Design: Study subjects were white homosexual men or men with hemophilia

  2. Peat compaction in deltas : implications for Holocene delta evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselen, S.

    2010-01-01

    Many deltas contain substantial amounts of peat, which is the most compressible soil type. Therefore, peat compaction potentially leads to high amounts of subsidence in deltas. The main objective of this research was to quantify subsidence due to peat compaction in Holocene fluvial-deltaic settings

  3. WE-A-18A-01: TG246 On Patient Dose From Diagnostic Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supanich, M [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Dong, F [The Cleveland Clinic, Solon, OH (United States); Andersson, J [Umea University, Umea (Sweden); Pavlicek, W [Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Bolch, W [University Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Fetterly, K [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Radiation dose from diagnostic and interventional radiations continues to be a focus of the regulatory, accreditation and standards organizations in the US and Europe. A Joint AAPM/EFOMP effort has been underway in the past year — having the goal to assist the clinical medical physicist with communicating optional and varied approaches in estimating (and validating) patient dose. In particular, the tools provided by DICOM Radiation Dose Structured Reports, either by themselves or as part of a networked data repository of dose related information are a rich source of actionable information. The tools of the medical physicist have evolved to include using DICOM data in meaningful ways to look at patient dose with respect to imaging practices. In addition to how accurate or reproducible a dose value is (totally necessary and our traditional workspace) it is now being asked how reproducible (patient to patient, device to device) are the delivered doses (new tasking)? Clinical medical physicists are best equipped to assist our radiology and technologist colleagues with this effort. The purpose of this session is to review the efforts of TG246 - bringing forward a summary content of the TG246 Report including specific dose descriptors for CT and Fluoroscopy — particularly in a focus of leveraging the RDSR as a means for monitoring good practices ALARA. Additionally, rapidly evolving technologies for more refined dose estimates are now in use. These will be presented as they look to having highly patient specific dose estimates in automated use.

  4. TU-B-304-00: The Aftermath of TG-142

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    Although published in 2009, the AAPM TG-142 report on accelerator quality assurance still proves a challenge for full clinical implementation. The choice of methodologies to satisfy TG-142 requirements is critical to a successful application. Understanding the philosophy of TG-142 can help in creating an institution-specific QA practice that is both efficient and effective. The concept of maintaining commissioned beam profiles is still found confusing. The physicist must also consider technologies not covered by TG-142 (i.e. arc therapy techniques). On the horizon is TG-198 report on implementing TG-142. Although the community still lacks a final TG-100 report, performing a failure-mode -and-effects analysis and statistical process control analysis to determine the institution-specific clinical impact of each TG-142 test may be useful for identifying trends for pro-active surveillance. Learning Objectives: To better understand the confusing and controversial aspects of TG-142. To understand what is still missing from TG-142 and how to account for these tests in clinical practice To describe which QA tests in TG-142 yield the largest potential clinical result if not discovered.

  5. TU-B-304-01: The Aftermath of TG-142

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, E. [Washington University (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Although published in 2009, the AAPM TG-142 report on accelerator quality assurance still proves a challenge for full clinical implementation. The choice of methodologies to satisfy TG-142 requirements is critical to a successful application. Understanding the philosophy of TG-142 can help in creating an institution-specific QA practice that is both efficient and effective. The concept of maintaining commissioned beam profiles is still found confusing. The physicist must also consider technologies not covered by TG-142 (i.e. arc therapy techniques). On the horizon is TG-198 report on implementing TG-142. Although the community still lacks a final TG-100 report, performing a failure-mode -and-effects analysis and statistical process control analysis to determine the institution-specific clinical impact of each TG-142 test may be useful for identifying trends for pro-active surveillance. Learning Objectives: To better understand the confusing and controversial aspects of TG-142. To understand what is still missing from TG-142 and how to account for these tests in clinical practice To describe which QA tests in TG-142 yield the largest potential clinical result if not discovered.

  6. TU-B-304-02: Quantitative FMEA of TG-142

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Daniel, J. [Duke University Medical Center (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Although published in 2009, the AAPM TG-142 report on accelerator quality assurance still proves a challenge for full clinical implementation. The choice of methodologies to satisfy TG-142 requirements is critical to a successful application. Understanding the philosophy of TG-142 can help in creating an institution-specific QA practice that is both efficient and effective. The concept of maintaining commissioned beam profiles is still found confusing. The physicist must also consider technologies not covered by TG-142 (i.e. arc therapy techniques). On the horizon is TG-198 report on implementing TG-142. Although the community still lacks a final TG-100 report, performing a failure-mode -and-effects analysis and statistical process control analysis to determine the institution-specific clinical impact of each TG-142 test may be useful for identifying trends for pro-active surveillance. Learning Objectives: To better understand the confusing and controversial aspects of TG-142. To understand what is still missing from TG-142 and how to account for these tests in clinical practice To describe which QA tests in TG-142 yield the largest potential clinical result if not discovered.

  7. Water and nitrogen conditions affect the relationships of Delta13C and Delta18O to gas exchange and growth in durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Molero, Gemma; Nogués, Salvador; Araus, José Luis

    2009-01-01

    Whereas the effects of water and nitrogen (N) on plant Delta(13)C have been reported previously, these factors have scarcely been studied for Delta(18)O. Here the combined effect of different water and N regimes on Delta(13)C, Delta(18)O, gas exchange, water-use efficiency (WUE), and growth of four genotypes of durum wheat [Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum (Desf.) Husn.] cultured in pots was studied. Water and N supply significantly increased plant growth. However, a reduction in water supply did not lead to a significant decrease in gas exchange parameters, and consequently Delta(13)C was only slightly modified by water input. Conversely, N fertilizer significantly decreased Delta(13)C. On the other hand, water supply decreased Delta(18)O values, whereas N did not affect this parameter. Delta(18)O variation was mainly determined by the amount of transpired water throughout plant growth (T(cum)), whereas Delta(13)C variation was explained in part by a combination of leaf N and stomatal conductance (g(s)). Even though the four genotypes showed significant differences in cumulative transpiration rates and biomass, this was not translated into significant differences in Delta(18)O(s). However, genotypic differences in Delta(13)C were observed. Moreover, approximately 80% of the variation in biomass across growing conditions and genotypes was explained by a combination of both isotopes, with Delta(18)O alone accounting for approximately 50%. This illustrates the usefulness of combining Delta(18)O and Delta(13)C in order to assess differences in plant growth and total transpiration, and also to provide a time-integrated record of the photosynthetic and evaporative performance of the plant during the course of crop growth.

  8. Challenges, Approaches and Experiences from Asian Deltas and the Rhine-Meuse Delta : Regional Training Workshop on Delta Planning and Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wosten, J.H.M.; Douven, W.; Long Phi, H.; Fida Abdullah Khan, M.

    2013-01-01

    River delta's, like the Mekong Delta (Vietnam), Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (Bangladesh), Ayeyarwady Delta (Myanmar), Nile (Egypt) and Ciliwung Delta (Indonesia) are developing rapidly and are characterised by large-scale urbanisation and industrialization processes. They are facing serious planning

  9. Mida pakub Delta? / Teele Kurm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurm, Teele

    2011-01-01

    Politsei- ja Piirivalveamet võtab kasutusele ühise Siseministeeriumi infotehnoloogia- ja arenduskeskuse ning Webmedia AS koostööna loodud dokumendihaldussüsteemi Delta. Kust sai Delta oma nime? Projekti "Dokumendihaldussüsteemi juurutamine Siseministeeriumi haldusalas" eesmärgid

  10. SU-D-204-07: Comparison of AAPM TG150 Draft Image Receptor Tests with Vendor Automated QC Tests for Five Mobile DR Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, G; Nishino, T [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Greene, T [Radiation Services, Inc., Dover, FL (United States); Willis, C [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Bellaire, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the consistency of digital detector (DR) tests recommended by AAPM TG150 and tests provided by commercially available DirectView Total Quality Tool (TQT). Methods: The DR tests recommended by the TG150 Detector Subgroup[1] were performed on 4 new Carestream DRX-Revolution and one Carestream DRX1C retrofit of a GE AMX-4 that had been in service for three years. After detector calibration, flat-field images plus images of two bar patterns oriented parallel and perpendicular to the A-C axis, were acquired at conditions recommended by TG150. Raw images were harvested and then analyzed using a MATLAB software previously validated[2,3,4]. Data were analyzed using ROIs of two different dimensions: 1) 128 x 128 ROIs matching the detector electronics; and 2) 256 x 256 ROIs, each including 4 adjacent smaller ROIs. TG150 metrics from 128 x 128 ROIs were compared to TQT metrics, which are also obtained from 128 x 128 ROIs[5]. Results: The results show that both TG150 and TQT measurements were consistent among these detectors. Differences between TG150 and TQT values appear systematic. Compared with 128 x 128 ROIs, noise and SNR non-uniformity were lower with 256 x 256 ROIs, although signal non-uniformity was similar, indicating detectors were appropriately calibrated for gain and offset. MTF of the retrofit unit remained essentially the same between 2012 and 2015, but was inferior to the new units. The older generator focal spot is smaller (0.75mm vs. 1.2mm), and the SID for acquisition is 182cm as well, so focal spot dimensions cannot explain the difference. The difference in MTF may be secondary to differences in generator X-ray spectrum or by unannounced changes in detector architecture. Further investigation is needed. Conclusion: The study shows that both TG150 and TQT tests are consistent. The numerical value of some metrics are dependent on ROI size.

  11. Delta isobars in neutron stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagliara Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of delta isobars in beta-stable matter is regulated by the behavior of the symmetry energy at densities larger than saturation density. We show that by taking into account recent constraints on the density derivative of the symmetry energy and the theoretical and experimental results on the excitations of delta isobars in nuclei, delta isobars are necessary ingredients for the equations of state used for studying neutron stars. We analyze the effect of the appearance of deltas on the structure of neutron stars: as in the case of hyperons, matter containing delta is too soft for allowing the existence of 2M⊙ neutron stars. Quark stars on the other hand, could reach very massive configurations and they could form from a process of conversion of hadronic stars in which an initial seed of strangeness appears through hyperons.

  12. DELTA 3D PRINTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘOVĂILĂ Florin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing is a very used process in industry, the generic name being “rapid prototyping”. The essential advantage of a 3D printer is that it allows the designers to produce a prototype in a very short time, which is tested and quickly remodeled, considerably reducing the required time to get from the prototype phase to the final product. At the same time, through this technique we can achieve components with very precise forms, complex pieces that, through classical methods, could have been accomplished only in a large amount of time. In this paper, there are presented the stages of a 3D model execution, also the physical achievement after of a Delta 3D printer after the model.

  13. Making the Tg-Confinement Effect Disappear in Thin Polystyrene Films: Good Physics vs. Inappropriate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkelson, John; Chen, Lawrence

    2013-03-01

    The Tg-confinement effect in polymers was first characterized in supported polystyrene (PS) films by Keddie et al. in 1994. Since then, many researchers have shown that (pseudo-)thermodynamic Tg measurements of supported PS films taken on cooling consistently yield the same qualitative results, with a decrease from bulk Tg beginning at 40-60 nm thickness and becoming very strong below 20 nm thickness. Some quantitative differences have been noted between studies, which may be ascribed to measurement method or the analysis employed. In 2004, we showed that the Tg-confinement effect in PS may be suppressed by adding several wt% of small-molecule diluents such as dioctyl phthalate. Recently, Kremer and co-workers (Macromolecules 2010, 43, 9937) reported that there was no Tg-confinement in supported PS films based on an analysis of the second derivative of ellipsometry data and use of a ninth order polynomial fit. Here, we demonstrate a new method for suppressing the Tg-confinement effect. In particular, PS made by emulsion polymerization yields no Tg-confinement effect as measured by ellipsometry or fluorescence, while PS made by anionic or conventional free radical polymerization yield strong Tg-confinement effects. The difference is hypothesized to result from surfactant in the emulsion polymerized PS. We also show that the absence of the Tg-confinement effect reported by Kremer is due to inappropriate analysis of ellipsometry data and that correct analysis yields Tg-confinement effects.

  14. The role of FDG-PET/CT in differentiated thyroid cancer patients with negative iodine-131 whole-body scan and elevated anti-Tg level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa, Sertac; Aksoy, Sabire Yılmaz; Vatankulu, Betül; Aliyev, Anar; Uslu, Lebriz; Ozhan, Meftune; Sager, Sait; Halac, Metin; Sonmezoglu, Kerim

    2014-12-01

    PET/CT detecting 11 (78.6 %) of them. The value of a persistently or progressively increased serum anti-Tg level in the follow-up of DTC in the prediction of recurrence/metastasis is controversial. However, it is reported that FDG-PET can be useful in the detection of recurrence/metastasis. We conclude from the available data that PET/CT can be effectively used in the detection of recurrence/metastasis in the follow-up of patients with DTC and negative serum Tg and a persistently/progressively increased anti-Tg level. Besides, one half of the patients were FDG negative, meaning that further studies are needed to assess the prognostic-clinical value of PET negativity.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and TG-DSC study of cadmium halides adducts with caffeine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Robson F. de; Silva, Ademir O. da; Silva, Umberto G. da

    2003-11-28

    The synthesis, characterization and TG-DSC study of the compounds CdX{sub 2}{center_dot}ncaff, for which X: Cl, Br and I; n=1 and 2 and caff: caffeine is reported. It is verified that caffeine is coordinated through more than one coordination site, despite the fact that the nitrogen of the imidazole ring is the main coordination site. The following thermal stability trend is observed: Cl>Br>I and monoadducts are more stable than bisadducts. The thermal degradation (td) enthalpies have the values (kJ mol{sup -1}): 58.2 and 71.5; 74.9 and 91.4; 31.1 and 47.5 for Cl, Br and I mono and bisadducts, respectively.

  16. Delta Evolution at Røde Elv, Disko Island, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, A.; Arngrimson, J.; Bendixen, M.; Sigsgaard, C.

    2017-12-01

    Ice, snow and freezing temperatures have a large impact on coastal morphodynamics in Arctic polar environments. A recent warming of the Arctic climate induces many changes along the arctic shorelines. Sea-levels are rising due to thermal expansion and due to an increased fresh water flux from the glaciers and land ice masses. At the same time, the ice coverage of the coastal waters reduces and the open water periods in summer extend. There is a strong seasonal variation with open waters and active rivers in summer and ice-covered coastal waters and inactive rivers in winter. Coastal processes by waves and tides are thus limited to the summer and early fall. Besides, there is also a strong daily variation in fluvial discharges due to the daily variations in glacier melt with maximum melt in the afternoon and minimum values at night. At the same time, the actual flux of the river to the coastal bay is influenced by the tidal phase. Low tides will enhance the transport to the delta front, while high tides will create stagnant waters over the delta plain. The delta of the Røde Elv is located in southwestern Disko Island in west Greenland. It has a relatively small (ca. 101 km2) and partly glaciated drainage basin (ca. 20%) and its sediments consist of a mixture of basaltic sands and gravels. The Røde Elv delta is located at the end of a pro-glacial and fluvial valley at about 20 km from the glacier. The shores of the delta are reworked by waves, predominantly from southwestern, southern (largest fetch, over 50 km), and southeastern directions. The environment has a micro- to meso- tidal range with a spring tidal range of 2.7 m. The morphologic changes on the delta over the last decades clearly showed a seaward extension of the delta and a periodic shift in the location of the main delta channel. In this presentation, we focus on quantification of water discharges and suspended sediment fluxes to the Røde Elv delta in western Greenland, and on the morphological

  17. THE RURAL TOURISM IN DANUBE DELTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica SOARE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the rural areas has market size and forecast its development as an economic activity. The present paper aims at analyzing the rural areas has in Danube Delta. In an enviable BAs which have responsibility for their particular isolated, such as the Danube Delta and the Danube that used, fishing and rural areas has the main activities that provide jobs and income sources for local populations. Design/methodology/approach - A survey was administered to customers’ rural hostel accommodation in Danube Delta. Descriptive statistics method was mainly adopted to calculate the mean with standard deviation of entry assumes variable, and to examine the different levels of consumers' awareness. The index values of product familiarity, the ratio between entries assumes product's familiarity value and the average value. Findings - the research results show hash has rural consumers have different perception and accomplished through behaviour. The information channels of brand hash mainly from friends, relatives and neighbours, so word of mouth spreading is very important for a brand. Women show a higher sensitivity in health and are currently operating the propensity than referred to follow the recommendations for nutrition. Research limitations/implications - This item is intended to synthesize developments and challenges," on June 13th rural market growth has. The results of this paper should be considered tentatively until has also features replicated by larger has rural consumers. Originality/value - members of rural areas has consumer's behavior would improve marketing and the development of rural areas has products, in order to reduce consumer confusion.

  18. Fast delta Hadamard transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.; Weston, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    In many fields (e.g., spectroscopy, imaging spectroscopy, photoacoustic imaging, coded aperture imaging) binary bit patterns known as m sequences are used to encode (by multiplexing) a series of measurements in order to obtain a larger throughput. The observed measurements must be decoded to obtain the desired spectrum (or image in the case of coded aperture imaging). Decoding in the past has used a technique called the fast Hadamard transform (FHT) whose chief advantage is that it can reduce the computational effort from N 2 multiplies of N log 2 N additions or subtractions. However, the FHT has the disadvantage that it does not readily allow one to sample more finely than the number of bits used in the m sequence. This can limit the obtainable resolution and cause confusion near the sample boundaries (phasing errors). Both 1-D and 2-D methods (called fast delta Hadamard transforms, FDHT) have been developed which overcome both of the above limitations. Applications of the FDHT are discussed in the context of Hadamard spectroscopy and coded aperture imaging with uniformly redundant arrays. Special emphasis has been placed on how the FDHT can unite techniques used by both of these fields into the same mathematical basis

  19. The influence of the heat treatment on delta ferrite transformation in austenitic stainless steel welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mateša

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Shielded metal arc (SMAW welded specimens using austenitic consumable materials with different amount of delta-ferrite are annealed in range 650-750 °C through 2-10 hours. Factorial plan 33 with influenced factors regression analyze of measured delta-ferrite values is used. The transformation i.e. decomposition of delta ferrite during annealing was analyzed regarding on weld cracking resistance using metallographic examination and WRC-1992 diagram.

  20. Energy deposition by delta rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigand, F.C.; Braby, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations for proton tracks were extended to projectile with more complex electronic structures which add additional delta ray production processes. An experimental apparatus was used to detect gas gain and resolution for H 2+ and 3 He ++

  1. Comparative study by TG and DSC Of membranes polyamide66/bentonite clay nanocomposite; Estudo comparativo por TG e DSC de membranas de nanocompositos poliamida66/argila bentonitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, K.M. de; Kojuch, L R; Araujo, E M; Lira, H.L., E-mail: keilamm@ig.com.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Lima, F [Universidade Estadual da Paraiba (UEPB), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    In this study, it was obtained membranes of nanocomposites polyamide66 with 3 and 5% bentonite clay consists of silicates in layers from the interior of Paraiba. The clay was treated with a quaternary ammonium salt in order to make it organophilic. The membranes were prepared by phase inversion technique from the nanocomposites in solution. The clays were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetry (TG). Also the membranes were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and TG. The XRD and TG confirmed the presence of salt in the clay and thermal stability of the treated clay. For DSC, it was observed that there was no change in melting temperature of the membranes of nanocomposites compared to membrane pure polyamide66. By TG, it was found that the decomposition of the membranes of polyamide66 with treated clay were higher compared with the untreated clay. (author)

  2. Niger Delta Development Commission and Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Niger Delta Development Commission and Sustainable Development of Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: The Case of Rivers State. Goddey Wilson. Abstract. The study is on Niger Delta Development Commission and sustainable development of Niger Delta region of Nigeria, the case of Rivers State. The main objective of the ...

  3. Furoquinoline Alkaloids and Methoxyflavones from the Stem Bark of Melicope madagascariensis (Baker T.G. Hartley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent E. Rasamison

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Melicope madagascariensis (Rutaceae is an endemic plant species of Madagascar that was first classified as a member of the genus Euodia J. R. & G. Forst (Rutaceae under the scientific name Euodia madagascariensis Baker. Based on morphological characteristics, Thomas Gordon Hartley taxonomically revised E. madagascariensis Baker to be M. madagascariensis (Baker T.G. Hartley. Chemotaxonomical studies have long been used to help the identification and confirmation of taxonomical classification of plant species and botanicals. Aiming to find more evidences to support the taxonomical revision performed on E. madagascariensis, we carried out phytochemical investigation of two samples of the plant. Fractionation of the ethanol extracts prepared from two stem bark samples of M. madagascariensis (Baker T.G. Hartley led to the isolation of seven known furoquinoline alkaloids 1–7 and two known methoxyflavones 8 and 9. The presence of furoquinoline alkaloids and methoxyflavones in the title species is in agreement with its taxonomic transfer from Euodia to Melicope. Antiprotozoal evaluation of the isolated compounds showed that 6-methoxy-7-hydroxydictamnine (heliparvifoline, 3 showed weak antimalarial activity (IC50 = 35 µM against the chloroquine-resistant strain Dd2 of Plasmodium falciparum. Skimmianine (4 displayed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 value of 1.5 µM against HT-29 colon cancer cell line whereas 3,5-dihydroxy-3′,4′,7-trimethoxyflavone (9 was weakly active in the same assay (IC50 = 13.9 µM. Graphical Abstract

  4. $\\delta$-Expansion at Finite Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Rudnei O.

    1996-01-01

    We apply the $\\delta$-expansion perturbation scheme to the $\\lambda \\phi^{4}$ self-interacting scalar field theory in 3+1 D at finite temperature. In the $\\delta$-expansion the interaction term is written as $\\lambda (\\phi^{2})^{ 1 + \\delta}$ and $\\delta$ is considered as the perturbation parameter. We compute within this perturbative approach the renormalized mass at finite temperature at a finite order in $\\delta$. The results are compared with the usual loop-expansion at finite temperature.

  5. Within-canopy and ozone fumigation effects on delta13C and Delta18O in adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) trees: relation to meteorological and gas exchange parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessler, Arthur; Löw, Markus; Heerdt, Christian; de Beeck, Maarten Op; Schumacher, Johannes; Grams, Thorsten E E; Bahnweg, Günther; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Werner, Herbert; Matyssek, Rainer; Rennenberg, Heinz; Haberer, Kristine

    2009-11-01

    In this study, the effects of different light intensities either in direct sunlight or in the shade crown of adult beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees on delta13C and Delta18O were determined under ambient (1 x O3) and twice-ambient (2 x O3) atmospheric ozone concentrations during two consecutive years (2003 and 2004). We analysed the isotopic composition in leaf bulk, leaf cellulose, phloem and xylem material and related the results to (a) meteorological data (air temperature, T and relative humidity, RH), (b) leaf gas exchange measurements (stomatal conductance, g(s); transpiration rate, E; and maximum photosynthetic activity, A(max)) and (c) the outcome of a steady-state evaporative enrichment model. Delta13C was significantly lower in the shade than in the sun crown in all plant materials, whilst Delta18O was increased significantly in the shade than in the sun crown in bulk material and cellulose. Elevated ozone had no effect on delta13C, although Delta18O was influenced by ozone to varied degrees during single months. We observed significant seasonal changes for both parameters, especially in 2004, and also significant differences between the study years. Relating the findings to meteorological data and gas exchange parameters, we conclude that the differences in Delta18O between the sun and the shade crown were predominantly caused by the Péclet effect. This assumption was supported by the modelled Delta18O values for leaf cellulose. It was demonstrated that independent of RH, light-dependent reduction of stomatal conductance (and thus transpiration) and of A(max) can drive the pattern of Delta18O increase with the concomitant decrease of delta13C in the shade crown. The effect of doubling ozone levels on time-integrated stomatal conductance and transpiration as indicated by the combined analysis of Delta18O and delta13C was much lower than the influence caused by the light exposure.

  6. Initial isotopic geochemistry ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) of fluids from wells of the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field; Geoquimica isotopica ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) inicial de fluidos de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmb@iie.org.mx; Ramirez Montes, Miguel; Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2010-01-15

    Isotopic data ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) from fluids from production wells at the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field were analyzed to investigate the possible origin of these fluids and the dominant processes of the reservoir at its initial state. According to pre-exploitation data, it is suggested the Los Humeros reservoir fluids are made of a mixture of meteoric water of very light isotopic composition (paleo-fluids) and andesitic water. The relationship {delta} D vs {delta} 18 O from pre-exploitation data indicates the produced fluids are composed of a mixture of (at least) two fluids with distinct isotopic compositions. At the more enriched end of the mixing relationship are the isotopic compositions of the wells H-23 and H-18 (located in the southern area of the field), while the lighter fluids were found in well H-16 (originally) and then in well H-16 (repaired). It was found that the liquid phases of deep wells are more enriched in {delta} 18 O while the shallow wells present lower values, suggesting a convection process at the initial state. Based on this isotopic profile, it is considered that even the production depths of the wells H-1, H-12 and H-16 (repaired) are just about the same, but their respective isotopic compositions are quite different. The {delta} 18 O value for well H-16 (repaired) seems to be that of condensate steam, while the corresponding values for wells H-1 and H-12 fall within the value interval of the deep wells (H-23). This suggests wells H-1 and H-12 are collecting very deep fluids enriched in {delta} 18 O. These results could be useful in creating a conceptual model of the reservoir. [Spanish] Se analizaron datos isotopicos ({delta}18 O, {delta}D) de los fluidos de pozos productores del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue., para investigar el posible origen de los fluidos asi como los procesos dominantes del yacimiento en su estado inicial. De acuerdo con datos previos a la explotacion, se plantea que los fluidos del yacimiento

  7. Tissue transglutaminase (TG2 activity regulates osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in the SAOS-2 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxue Yin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Tissue transglutaminase (type II, TG2 has long been postulated to directly promote skeletal matrix calcification and play an important role in ossification. However, limited information is available on the expression, function and modulating mechanism of TG2 during osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. To address these issues, we cultured the well-established human osteosarcoma cell line SAOS-2 with osteo-inductive conditioned medium and set up three time points (culture days 4, 7, and 14 to represent different stages of SAOS-2 differentiation. Osteoblast markers, mineralization, as well as TG2 expression and activity, were then assayed in each stage. Furthermore, we inhibited TG activity with cystamine and then checked SAOS-2 differentiation and mineralization in each stage. The results showed that during the progression of osteoblast differentiation SAOS-2 cells presented significantly high levels of osteocalcin (OC mRNA, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 and collagen I, significantly high alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, and the increased formation of calcified matrix. With the same tendency, TG2 expression and activity were up-regulated. Furthermore, inhibition of TG activity resulted in a significant decrease of OC, collagen I, and BMP-2 mRNA and of ALP activity and mineralization. This study demonstrated that TG2 is involved in osteoblast differentiation and may play a role in the initiation and regulation of the mineralization processes. Moreover, the modulating effects of TG2 on osteoblasts may be related to BMP-2.

  8. Endogenous murine tau promotes neurofibrillary tangles in 3xTg-AD mice without affecting cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglietto-Vargas, David; Kitazawa, Masashi; Le, Elaine J; Estrada-Hernandez, Tatiana; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Green, Kim N; LaFerla, Frank M

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies on tauopathy animal models suggest that the concomitant expression of the endogenous murine tau delays the pathological accumulation of human tau, and interferes with the disease progression. To elucidate the role of endogenous murine tau in a model with both plaques and tangles, we developed a novel transgenic mouse model by crossing 3xTg-AD with mtauKO mice (referred to as 3xTg-AD/mtauKO mice). Therefore, this new model allows us to determine the pathological consequences of the murine tau. Here, we show that 3xTg-AD/mtauKO mice have lower tau loads in both soluble and insoluble fractions, and lower tau hyperphosphorylation level in the soluble fraction relative to 3xTg-AD mice. In the 3xTg-AD model endogenous mouse tau is hyperphosphorylated and significantly co-aggregates with human tau. Despite the deletion of the endogenous tau gene in 3xTg-AD/mtauKO mice, cognitive dysfunction was equivalent to 3xTg-AD mice, as there was no additional impairment on a spatial memory task, and thus despite increased tau phosphorylation, accumulation and NFTs in 3xTg-AD mice no further effects on cognition are seen. These findings provide better understanding about the role of endogenous tau to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology and for developing new AD models. © 2013.

  9. SU-E-I-20: Comprehensive Quality Assurance Test of Second Generation Toshiba Aquilion Large Bore CT Simulator Based On AAPM TG-66 Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D [Toshiba America Medical Systems, Tustin, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: AAPM radiation therapy committee task group No. 66 (TG-66) published a report which described a general approach to CT simulator QA. The report outlines the testing procedures and specifications for the evaluation of patient dose, radiation safety, electromechanical components, and image quality for a CT simulator. The purpose of this study is to thoroughly evaluate the performance of a second generation Toshiba Aquilion Large Bore CT simulator with 90 cm bore size (Toshiba, Nasu, JP) based on the TG-66 criteria. The testing procedures and results from this study provide baselines for a routine QA program. Methods: Different measurements and analysis were performed including CTDIvol measurements, alignment and orientation of gantry lasers, orientation of the tabletop with respect to the imaging plane, table movement and indexing accuracy, Scanogram location accuracy, high contrast spatial resolution, low contrast resolution, field uniformity, CT number accuracy, mA linearity and mA reproducibility using a number of different phantoms and measuring devices, such as CTDI phantom, ACR image quality phantom, TG-66 laser QA phantom, pencil ion chamber (Fluke Victoreen) and electrometer (RTI Solidose 400). Results: The CTDI measurements were within 20% of the console displayed values. The alignment and orientation for both gantry laser and tabletop, as well as the table movement and indexing and scanogram location accuracy were within 2mm as specified in TG66. The spatial resolution, low contrast resolution, field uniformity and CT number accuracy were all within ACR’s recommended limits. The mA linearity and reproducibility were both well below the TG66 threshold. Conclusion: The 90 cm bore size second generation Toshiba Aquilion Large Bore CT simulator that comes with 70 cm true FOV can consistently meet various clinical needs. The results demonstrated that this simulator complies with the TG-66 protocol in all aspects including electromechanical component

  10. Biomass co-firing for Delta Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2014-01-01

    Electricity generator Delta Electricity has implemented a biomass co-firing program at its Vales Point power station on the Central Coast to reduce its reliance on coal and emissions of CO 2 . The program comprises two parts: direct co-firing with coal of up to 5% biomass; and development of Continuous Biomass Converter (CBC) technology with the Crucible Group to remove technology constraints and enable much higher rates of biomass co-firing. It is talking industrial scale tests. Delta increased biomass co-firing in 2013/14 to 32,000 tonnes, up from just 3,000 tonnes the previous year, and conducted biochar co-firing trials at a rate equivalent to 400,000 tonnes per annum to demonstrate the potential of CBC technology. It reduced CO 2 emissions in 2013/14 by more than 32,000 tonnes. 'Legislation and regulations define biomass as renewable,' said Delta Electricity sustainability manager Justin Flood. 'By preferring biomass over coal, the carbon in the coal is not burnt and remains locked up.' One biomass source is wood waste that would normally go to landfill, but the primary driver of Delta's recent increase in co-firing is sawmill residues. 'Previously there was a higher value market for the residues for paper pulp. However, when that market evaporated the timber industry was left with a sizable problem in terms of what to do with its residues and the loss of revenue,' said Flood. The way greenhouse gas accounting is conducted in Australia, with carbon emissions based on site activities, makes it difficult to undertake a life cycle assessment of the program. 'However, some of the international studies looking at this issue have concluded that the net carbon emissions of the biomass system are significantly lower than the coal system because of the uptake of carbon during biomass growth,' said Flood. Delta identified two challenges, sourcing the feedstock and that biomass conversion to electricity is slightly less

  11. TG-FTIR, DSC and quantum chemical studies of the thermal decomposition of quaternary methylammonium halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicka, Marlena; Storoniak, Piotr; Skurski, Piotr; Blazejowski, Jerzy; Rak, Janusz

    2006-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of quaternary methylammonium halides was studied using thermogravimetry coupled to FTIR (TG-FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as well as the DFT, MP2 and G2 quantum chemical methods. There is almost perfect agreement between the experimental IR spectra and those predicted at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level: this has demonstrated for the first time that an equimolar mixture of trimethylamine and a methyl halide is produced as a result of decomposition. The experimental enthalpies of dissociation are 153.4, 171.2, and 186.7 kJ/mol for chloride, bromide and iodide, respectively, values that correlate well with the calculated enthalpies of dissociation based on crystal lattice energies and quantum chemical thermodynamic barriers. The experimental activation barriers estimated from the least-squares fit of the F1 kinetic model (first-order process) to thermogravimetric traces - 283, 244 and 204 kJ/mol for chloride, bromide and iodide, respectively - agree very well with theoretically calculated values. The theoretical approach assumed in this work has been shown capable of predicting the relevant characteristics of the thermal decomposition of solids with experimental accuracy

  12. Perspectives on Bay–Delta Science and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Healey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss4art6The State of Bay–Delta Science 2008 highlighted seven emerging perspectives on science and management of the Delta. These perspectives had important effects on policy and legislation concerning management of the Delta ecosystem and water exports. From the collection of papers that make up the State of Bay–Delta Science 2016, we derive another seven perspectives that augment those published in 2008. The new perspectives address nutrient and contaminant concentrations in Delta waters, the failure of the Delta food web to support native species, the role of multiple stressors in driving species toward extinction, and the emerging importance of extreme events in driving change in the ecosystem and the water supply. The scientific advances that underpin these new perspectives were made possible by new measurement and analytic tools. We briefly discuss some of these, including miniaturized acoustic fish tags, sensors for monitoring of water quality, analytic techniques for disaggregating complex contaminant mixtures, remote sensing to assess levee vulnerability, and multidimensional hydrodynamic modeling. Despite these new tools and scientific insights, species conservation objectives for the Delta are not being met. We believe that this lack of progress stems in part from the fact that science and policy do not incorporate sufficiently long-term perspectives. Looking forward half a century was central to the Delta Visioning process, but science and policy have not embraced this conceptual breadth. We are also concerned that protection and enhancement of the unique cultural, recreational, natural resource, and agricultural values of the Delta as an evolving place, as required by the Delta Reform Act, has received no critical study and analysis. Adopting wider and longer science and policy perspectives immediately encourages recognition of the need for evaluation, analysis, and public discourse on

  13. Four new Delta Scuti stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutt, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    Four new Delta Scuti stars are reported. Power, modified into amplitude, spectra, and light curves are used to determine periodicities. A complete frequency analysis is not performed due to the lack of a sufficient time base in the data. These new variables help verify the many predictions that Delta Scuti stars probably exist in prolific numbers as small amplitude variables. Two of these stars, HR 4344 and HD 107513, are possibly Am stars. If so, they are among the minority of variable stars which are also Am stars.

  14. GLUT4 expression in human muscle fibres is not correlated with intracellular triglyceride (TG) content. Is TG a maker or a marker of insulin resistance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Ottosen, P D; Vach, W

    2003-01-01

    diabetic subjects, and young lean controls. TG density was significantly higher in slow compared to fast fibres in all studied subjects (pslow twitch fibres of obese diabetic subjects compared to obese (p...We have recently reported a progressive decline in the expression of glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4) from control subjects through obese non-diabetics to obese type 2 diabetic subjects, indicating that the reduced GLUT4 in slow twitch fibres could be secondary to obesity. In this study we...... densities in slow and fast fibres did not correlate with the corresponding GLUT4 density in the same fibres in our study groups (p>0.05). Plasma TG and FFA did not correlate with GLUT4 expression in slow or fast fibres (p>0.05). In conclusion, TG content was increased in diabetic slow fibres with a reduced...

  15. Inclusive production of. delta. /sup + +/(1232) in pn interactions at 19 GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, V.; Breivik, F.O.; Jacobsen, T.; Rudjord, A.L. (Oslo Univ. (Norway) Fysisk Inst.)

    1982-12-21

    We present a study of ..delta../sup + +/ production in pn interactions at 19 GeV/c, where the ..delta../sup + +/ is emitted in the protonlike (..delta..sub(F)/sup + +/) and neutron-like (..delta..sub(B)/sup + +/) c.m. hemispheres. The cross-section sigma(pn->..delta..sub(F)/sup + +/+X)=(3.09+-0.43) mb is about three times larger than sigma(pn->..delta..sub(B)/sup + +/+X)=(0.94+-0.34) mb. About 2/3 of ..delta..sub(F)/sup + +/ is peripherally produced with vertical stroketsub(p,..delta..)vertical stroke<1 (GeV/c)/sup 2/, while the cross-section for ..delta..sub(B)/sup + +/ production is nearly zero for vertical stroketsub(n,..delta..)vertical stroke<1 (GeV/c)/sup 2/. We have made a detailed study of the energy dependence of the reaction ap->..delta../sup + +/+X (a=p, anti p, n, ..pi..sup(+-), Ksup(+-)) for vertical stroketsub(p,..delta..)vertical stroke<1 (GeV/c)/sup 2/, by applying the same fitting procedure to extract the ..delta../sup + +/ cross-section to all available mass spectra. All the normalized cross-sections R=sigma(..delta../sup + +/)/sigmasub(inel) can be well described by R=R/sub 0/+R/sub 1/sup(a)psup(-..cap alpha..)sub(lab), where R/sub 0/ and ..cap alpha.. are the same for all reactions, while R/sub 1/sup(a) varies with the beam type a. The value of ..cap alpha.. is slightly below unity. The differential cross section of pn->..delta..sub(F)/sup + +/+X has been determined as a function of the variables t, t', x, y, psub(T)/sup 2/ and Msub(X)/sup 2/ both in the whole kinematical region and for vertical stroketsub(p,..delta..)vertical stroke<1 (GeV/c)/sup 2/. We show that the peripherally produced ..delta..sub(F)/sup + +/ is consistent with the dominance of the one-pion exchange mechanism. This follows from a study of the density matrix elements, the comparison of some properties of the system X with real ..pi../sup +/p data and from the results of a triple-Regge analysis.

  16. High-temperature Brillouin scattering study of haplogranitic glasses and liquids: Effects of F, K, Na and Li on Tg and elastic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manghnani, M. H.; Hushur, A.; Williams, Q. C.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    The density, compressibility and viscosity of silicate melts are important in understanding the thermodynamic and fluid dynamic properties of magmatic systems. Knowledge of the compressibility of silicate melts at 1 bar is an important component in the construction of accurate pressure-volume-temperature equations of state. In light of this, the velocity (nVp, Vp, Vs) and refractive index n of four anhydrous haplogranitic glasses and liquids with similar alkali abundances, but different cations, are measured at high temperature by Brillouin scattering spectroscopy through the glass transition temperature (Tg) in both platelet and back scattering geometry. The compositions of four haplogranites are 5 wt% of the components Li2O, Na2O, K2O and F each added to a base of haplogranitic (HPG8) composition. The glass transition temperature Tg of different haplogranite samples at the GHz frequency of the Brillouin probe are determined from the change in slope of the temperature-dependent longitudinal or transverse sound velocity. HPG8-Li5 has the lowest glass transition temperature (466°C), while HPG8-K5 has the highest glass transition temperature (575°C). Our Brillouin results, when compared with DSC measurements, show lower Tg values. This raises the possibility of a role of either heating rates or a frequency dependence of the glass transition in explaining the discrepancies in Tg values derived from the two methods. The sound velocity (nVp, Vp, Vs) shows markedly different temperature dependences (including differences in sign) below Tg depending on their different alkali contents. The unrelaxed elastic moduli of three haplogranitic glasses with added Li2O, Na2O and F components have been obtained as a function of temperature. The unrelaxed bulk modulus, shear modulus and Poisson’s ratio show strong compositional dependences at ambient temperature. On heating, The K initially decreases with increasing temperature up to ~ 135°C, then increases up to Tg, and then

  17. Flipped SU(5) predicts {delta}T/T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyae, Bumseok [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 207-43, Cheongnyangni-Dong, Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: bkyae@kias.re.kr; Shafi, Qaisar [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)]. E-mail: shafi@bartol.udel.edu

    2006-04-20

    We discuss hybrid inflation in supersymmetric flipped SU(5) model such that the cosmic microwave anisotropy {delta}T/T is essentially proportional to (M/M{sub P}){sup 2}, where M denotes the symmetry breaking scale and M{sub P} (=2.4x10{sup 18} GeV) is the reduced Planck mass. The magnitude of M determined from {delta}T/T measurements can be consistent with the value inferred from the evolution of SU(3) and SU(2) gauge couplings. In other words, one could state that flipped SU(5) predicts (more precisely 'postdicts') {delta}T/T. The scalar spectral index n{sub s}=0.993+/-0.007, the scalar to tensor ratio satisfies r-bar 10{sup -6}, while dn{sub s}/dlnk-bar 4x10{sup -4}.

  18. Hydrological and Climatic Significance of Martian Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Achille, G.; Vaz, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    We a) review the geomorphology, sedimentology, and mineralogy of the martian deltas record and b) present the results of a quantitative study of the hydrology and sedimentology of martian deltas using modified version of terrestrial model Sedflux.

  19. Adaptive delta management : Roots and branches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, J.S.; Haasnoot, M.; Hermans, L.M.; Kwakkel, J.H.; Rutten, M.M.; Thissen, W.A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Deltas are generally recognized as vulnerable to climate change and therefore a salient topic in adaptation science. Deltas are also highly dynamic systems viewed from physical (erosion, sedimentation, subsidence), social (demographic), economic (trade), infrastructures (transport, energy,

  20. Adaptive Delta Management : Roots and Branches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Jos; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Hermans, Leon; Kwakkel, Jan H.; Rutten, Maarten; Thissen, Wil A.H.; Mynett, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Deltas are generally recognized as vulnerable to climate change and therefore a salient topic in adaptation science. Deltas are also highly dynamic systems viewed from physical (erosion, sedimentation, subsidence), social (demographic), economic (trade), infrastructures (transport, energy,

  1. Delta Vegetation and Land Use [ds292

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vegetation and land use are mapped for the approximately 725,000 acres constituting the Legal Delta portion of the Sacramento and San Joaquin River Delta area....

  2. Delta Scuti variables. Lecture 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    The class of variables near or on the upper main sequence, the delta Scuti variables, are not only the usual ones about the masses, radii, and luminosities, but also the age, rotation, element diffusion to change the surface layer composition, the occurance of convection and the presence of radial and nonradial pulsation modes

  3. about the Dirac Delta Function(?)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Balakrishnan is in the. Department of ... and sweet as befits this impatient age. It said (in its en- ... to get down to real work by shutting down the system and reverting to ... the Dirac delta function" - but do note the all-important question mark in ...

  4. Lava delta deformation as a proxy for submarine slope instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Traglia, Federico; Nolesini, Teresa; Solari, Lorenzo; Ciampalini, Andrea; Frodella, William; Steri, Damiano; Allotta, Benedetto; Rindi, Andrea; Marini, Lorenzo; Monni, Niccolò; Galardi, Emanuele; Casagli, Nicola

    2018-04-01

    The instability of lava deltas is a recurrent phenomenon affecting volcanic islands, which can potentially cause secondary events such as littoral explosions (due to interactions between hot lava and seawater) and tsunamis. It has been shown that Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a powerful technique to forecast the collapse of newly emplaced lava deltas. This work goes further, demonstrating that the monitoring of lava deltas is a successful strategy by which to observe the long-term deformation of subaerial-submarine landslide systems on unstable volcanic flanks. In this paper, displacement measurements derived from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery were used to detect lava delta instability at Stromboli volcano (Italy). Recent flank eruptions (2002-2003, 2007 and 2014) affected the Sciara del Fuoco (SdF) depression, created a "stacked" lava delta, which overlies a pre-existing scar produced by a submarine-subaerial tsunamigenic landslide that occurred on 30 December 2002. Space-borne X-band COSMO-SkyMED (CSK) and C-band SENTINEL-1A (SNT) SAR data collected between February 2010 and October 2016 were processed using the SqueeSAR algorithm. The obtained ground displacement maps revealed the differential ground motion of the lava delta in both CSK and SNT datasets, identifying a stable area (characterized by less than 2 mm/y in both datasets) within the northern sector of the SdF and an unstable area (characterized by velocity fields on the order of 30 mm/y and 160 mm/y in the CSK and SNT datasets, respectively) in the central sector of the SdF. The slope stability of the offshore part of the SdF, as reconstructed based on a recently performed multibeam bathymetric survey, was evaluated using a 3D Limit Equilibrium Method (LEM). In all the simulations, Factor of Safety (F) values between 0.9 and 1.1 always characterized the submarine slope between the coastline and -250 m a.s.l. The critical surfaces for all the search volumes corresponded to

  5. Dynamic Regulation of Delta-Opioid Receptor in Rat Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons by Lipopolysaccharide-induced Acute Pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Lv, Yiheng; Fu, Yunjie; Ren, Lili; Wang, Pan; Liu, Baozhu; Huang, Keqiang; Bi, Jing

    2015-12-01

    Delta-opioid receptor (DOR) and its endogenous ligands distribute in trigeminal system and play a very important role in modulating peripheral inflammatory pain. DOR activation can trigger p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2) and Akt signaling pathways, which participate in anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. In this study, our purpose was to determine the dynamic changes of DOR in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons during the process of acute dental pulp inflammation and elucidate its possible mechanism. Forty rats were used to generate lipopolysaccharide-induced acute pulpitis animal models at 6, 12, and 24 hours and sham-operated groups. Acute pulpitis was confirmed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, and TG neuron activation was determined by anti-c-Fos immunohistochemistry. DOR protein and gene expression in TG was investigated by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and real-time polymerase chain reaction, and DOR expression in trigeminal nerves and dental pulp was also determined by immunohistochemistry. To further investigate the mechanism of DOR modulating acute inflammation, the change of pErk1/2 and pAkt in TG was examined by immunohistochemistry. Lipopolysaccharide could successfully induce acute pulpitis and activated TG neurons. Acute pulpitis could dynamically increase DOR protein and gene expression at 6, 12, and 24 hours in TG, and DOR dimerization was significantly increased at 12 and 24 hours. Acute pulpitis also induced the dynamic change of DOR protein in trigeminal nerve and dental pulp. Furthermore, ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways were inhibited in TG after acute pulpitis. Increased DOR expression and dimerization may play important roles in peripheral acute inflammatory pain. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. SU-E-T-393: Using TG119 to Assess RapidArc at Hamad Medical Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobah, A; El-Kaissi, T; Hammoud, R; Al-Hammadi, N

    2012-06-01

    To provide a confidence level within our clinic relating to the implementation and administration of RapidArc, the AAPM TG1 19 has been implemented. This task group provides a sound and relatively simple methodology for determining the accuracy of the overall IMRT process administered in the day-to-day clinicMethods: Six different test plans, of varying complexity, were created on mock structure sets, downloaded from AAPM, and delivered. The treatment planning system results were then compared with the delivered results. Plans were created and delivered on a solid water phantom, using 25×25cm water equivalent slabs of varying thicknesses. Delivered point and planar dose measurements were obtained using an ionization chamber and film, respectively. The confidence limit (CL), averaged for all test plans, was calculated for the high dose point in the PTV and for the low dose point in the avoidance structure. This was used as an indicator of the uncertainty of the average difference between measured and planned dose. Where the precision of the delivery is based on how small the CL value is.For both the high and low dose points, the local CL's were determined to be 0.036 and 0.011, respectively. The range of results for the CL presented in TG1 19 varies from 0.015 to 0.098 for the high dose point, and from 0.014 to 0.086 for the low dose point. Our results indicate the accurate implementation of RapidArc within our clinic, especially when compared to the results of other institutions, published in TG1 19. Furthermore, the CL value for the low dose measurements is lower than any of the results published in TG119. We recommend that any clinic conducting IMRT should implement this task group. This will not only provide a greater understanding of the delivery and its limitations, but will also give the overall accuracy and consistency of the technique as it applies to the various treatment sites. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  7. An analytical framework for strategic delta planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seijger, C.; Douven, W.; Halsema, van G.; Hermans, L.; Evers, J.; Phi, H.L.; Khan, M.F.; Brunner, J.; Pols, L.; Ligtvoet, W.; Koole, S.; Slager, K.; Vermoolen, M.S.; Hasan, S.; Thi Minh Hoang, Vo

    2017-01-01

    Sectoral planning on water, agriculture and urban development has not been able to prevent increased flood risks and environmental degradation in many deltas. Governments conceive strategic delta planning as a promising planning approach and develop strategic delta plans. Such plans are linked to

  8. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    and the possibility of using predicates to specify state changes. In this paper a formal semantics for Delta is defined and analysed using Petri nets. Petri nets was chosen because the ideas behind Petri nets and Delta concide on several points. A number of proposals for changes in Delta, which resulted from...

  9. Download - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive ...

  10. Database Description - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne expression data and predict the safety of candidate chemicals has been develop...ears of the project, more than 30 safety biomarkers were develped by using TG-GATEs. In addition, data acqui

  11. Influence of the Zeolite ZSM-5 on Catalytic Pyrolysis of Biomass via TG-FTIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bio-oil from the pyrolysis of biomass is an important renewable source for liquid fuel. However, the application of bio-oil has been severely restricted due to its high viscosity, acidity, and low heating value. Thus, it has been necessary to upgrade bio-oil for automobile fuel via catalytic deoxygenation reactions. Herein, the effects of the zeolite ZSM-5 on the pyrolysis of four biomass materials (corn cob, corn straw, pine powder, and cellulose were investigated via TG-FTIR (thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer to better understand the working mechanism of ZSM-5. The contents of the products of H2O, CO, CO2, and the C-O, C=O, and OH groups evolved with increasing pyrolytic temperature were monitored by FTIR. It was found that the relative contents of the C-O and C=O groups were decreased under the catalysis of ZSM-5, while the formations of CO, H2O, and the OH containing compounds were promoted. To explain the regulations, reaction routes were speculated and the catalytic conversion mechanisms were deduced.

  12. Notes on the implementation of the TG-43 formalism in high-rate brachytherapy; Notas sobre la implementacion del formalismo TG-43 en braquiterapia de lata tasa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sendon del Rio, J. R.; Gonzalez Ruiz, C.; Garcia Marcos, R.; Jimenez Rojas, R.; Lopez Bote, M. A.

    2011-07-01

    The TG-43 formalism is based on dosimetric parameters depend on the specific font design extracted from dose distributions calculated by Monte Carlo in water. Relatively easy to implement, yet provides a degree of uncertainty, making it necessary to verify the calculation algorithm in the planning system to assess its behavior.

  13. 132 Tanure Ojaide: The Poet-Priest of the Niger-Delta and the Land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Oil detection in the Niger Delta has had multifarious effects on the Nigerian ..... receives infinite respect and reverence from the people, and to this day, a cult .... appellations, sea animals and bird names and value placements form the oral.

  14. SU-F-T-248: FMEA Risk Analysis Implementation (AAPM TG-100) in Total Skin Electron Irradiation Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez-Rosello, B; Bautista-Ballesteros, J; Bonaque, J [Hospital La Fe, Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Perez-Calatayud, J [Hospital La Fe, Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Clinica Benidorm, Benidorm, Alicante (Spain); Gonzalez-Sanchis, A; Lopez-Torrecilla, J; Brualla-Gonzalez, L; Garcia-Hernandez, T; Vicedo-Gonzalez, A; Granero, D; Serrano, A; Borderia, B; Solera, C [Hospital General ERESA, Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Rosello, J [Hospital General ERESA, Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Total Skin Electron Irradiation (TSEI) is a radiotherapy treatment which involves irradiating the entire body surface as homogeneously as possible. It is composed of an extensive multi-step technique in which quality management requires high consumption of resources and a fluid communication between the involved staff, necessary to improve the safety of treatment. The TG-100 proposes a new perspective of quality management in radiotherapy, presenting a systematic method of risk analysis throughout the global flow of the stages through the patient. The purpose of this work has been to apply TG-100 approach to the TSEI procedure in our institution. Methods: A multidisciplinary team specifically targeting TSEI procedure was formed, that met regularly and jointly developed the process map (PM), following TG-100 guidelines of the AAPM. This PM is a visual representation of the temporal flow of steps through the patient since start until the end of his stay in the radiotherapy service. Results: This is the first stage of the full risk analysis, which is being carried out in the center. The PM provides an overview of the process and facilitates the understanding of the team members who will participate in the subsequent analysis. Currently, the team is implementing the analysis of failure modes and effects (FMEA). The failure modes of each of the steps have been identified and assessors are assigning a value of severity (S), frequency of occurrence (O) and lack of detection (D) individually. To our knowledge, this is the first PM made for the TSEI. The developed PM can be useful for those centers that intend to implement the TSEI technique. Conclusion: The PM of TSEI technique has been established, as the first stage of full risk analysis, performed in a reference center in this treatment.

  15. TG/FT-IR characterization of additives typically employed in EPDM formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Beck Sanches

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThermogravimetric analysis coupled to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG/FT-IR is a very popular technique for rubbers characterization. It involves analyses of the base polymer and additives. Ethylene–propylene–diene (EPDM rubbers are frequently investigated by TG/FT-IR; however, the focus has been the degradation temperature range of the polymer. In this study, unvulcanized and vulcanized EPDM rubber and its additives were investigated by TG/FT-IR, without solvent extraction, and in a wide temperature range. Initially, the additives were individually characterized. TG/FT-IR identified the characteristic groups of all the additives analyzed and distinguished them from each other. Afterwards, unvulcanized and vulcanized EPDM rubbers were investigated without prior extraction.TG/FT-IR detected absorptions due to the additives tetramethylthiuram monosulfide and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole. Both of these sulfur-containing additives were present in the EPDM formulation at concentrations of 0.7 phr (0.63 wt %. The TG/FT-IR technique had some limitations, because not all the additives in EPDM rubber were detected. Paraffin oil, stearic acid and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline functional groups were not observed in either the unvulcanized or vulcanized EPDM. Nevertheless, in addition to the ability of this method to detect sulfur-containing groups, the lack of a pre-extraction reduces the time and effort required for additive analysis in rubbers.

  16. Aged Tg2576 mice are impaired on social memory and open field habituation tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, R M J; Koros, E; Bornemann, K D; Rawlins, J N P

    2009-02-11

    In a previous publication [Deacon RMJ, Cholerton LL, Talbot K, Nair-Roberts RG, Sanderson DJ, Romberg C, et al. Age-dependent and -independent behavioral deficits in Tg2576 mice. Behav Brain Res 2008;189:126-38] we found that very few cognitive tests were suitable for demonstrating deficits in Tg2576 mice, an amyloid over-expression model of Alzheimer's disease, even at 23 months of age. However, in a retrospective analysis of a separate project on these mice, tests of social memory and open field habituation revealed large cognitive impairments. Controls showed good open field habituation, but Tg2576 mice were hyperactive and failed to habituate. In the test of social memory for a juvenile mouse, controls showed considerably less social investigation on the second meeting, indicating memory of the juvenile, whereas Tg2576 mice did not show this decrement.As a control for olfactory sensitivity, on which social memory relies, the ability to find a food pellet hidden under wood chip bedding was assessed. Tg2576 mice found the pellet as quickly as controls. As this test requires digging ability, this was independently assessed in tests of burrowing and directly observed digging. In line with previous results and the hippocampal dysfunction characteristic of aged Tg2576 mice, they both burrowed and dug less than controls.

  17. Average of delta: a new quality control tool for clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Graham R D

    2016-01-01

    Average of normals is a tool used to control assay performance using the average of a series of results from patients' samples. Delta checking is a process of identifying errors in individual patient results by reviewing the difference from previous results of the same patient. This paper introduces a novel alternate approach, average of delta, which combines these concepts to use the average of a number of sequential delta values to identify changes in assay performance. Models for average of delta and average of normals were developed in a spreadsheet application. The model assessed the expected scatter of average of delta and average of normals functions and the effect of assay bias for different values of analytical imprecision and within- and between-subject biological variation and the number of samples included in the calculations. The final assessment was the number of patients' samples required to identify an added bias with 90% certainty. The model demonstrated that with larger numbers of delta values, the average of delta function was tighter (lower coefficient of variation). The optimal number of samples for bias detection with average of delta was likely to be between 5 and 20 for most settings and that average of delta outperformed average of normals when the within-subject biological variation was small relative to the between-subject variation. Average of delta provides a possible additional assay quality control tool which theoretical modelling predicts may be more valuable than average of normals for analytes where the group biological variation is wide compared with within-subject variation and where there is a high rate of repeat testing in the laboratory patient population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Assessment of display performance for medical imaging systems: Executive summary of AAPM TG18 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samei, Ehsan; Badano, Aldo; Chakraborty, Dev

    2005-01-01

    Digital imaging provides an effective means to electronically acquire, archive, distribute, and view medical images. Medical imaging display stations are an integral part of these operations. Therefore, it is vitally important to assure that electronic display devices do not compromise image quality and ultimately patient care. The AAPM Task Group 18 (TG18) recently published guidelines and acceptance criteria for acceptance testing and quality control of medical display devices. This paper is an executive summary of the TG18 report. TG18 guidelines include visual, quantitative, and advanced testing methodologies for primary and secondary class display devices. The characteristics, tested in conjunction with specially designed test patterns (i.e., TG18 patterns), include reflection, geometric distortion, luminance, the spatial and angular dependencies of luminance, resolution, noise, glare, chromaticity, and display artifacts. Geometric distortions are evaluated by linear measurements of the TG18-QC test pattern, which should render distortion coefficients less than 2%/5% for primary/secondary displays, respectively. Reflection measurements include specular and diffuse reflection coefficients from which the maximum allowable ambient lighting is determined such that contrast degradation due to display reflection remains below a 20% limit and the level of ambient luminance (L amb ) does not unduly compromise luminance ratio (LR) and contrast at low luminance levels. Luminance evaluation relies on visual assessment of low contrast features in the TG18-CT and TG18-MP test patterns, or quantitative measurements at 18 distinct luminance levels of the TG18-LN test patterns. The major acceptable criteria for primary/secondary displays are maximum luminance of greater than 170/100 cd/m 2 , LR of greater than 250/100, and contrast conformance to that of the grayscale standard display function (GSDF) of better than 10%/20%, respectively. The angular response is tested to

  19. Future Change to Tide-Influenced Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhuis, Jaap H.; Hoitink, A. J. F. (Ton); Törnqvist, Torbjörn E.

    2018-04-01

    Tides tend to widen deltaic channels and shape delta morphology. Here we present a predictive approach to assess a priori the effect of fluvial discharge and tides on deltaic channels. We show that downstream channel widening can be quantified by the ratio of the tide-driven discharge and the fluvial discharge, along with a second metric representing flow velocities. A test of our new theory on a selection of 72 deltas globally shows good correspondence to a wide range of environments, including wave-dominated deltas, river-dominated deltas, and alluvial estuaries. By quantitatively relating tides and fluvial discharge to delta morphology, we offer a first-order prediction of deltaic change that may be expected from altered delta hydrology. For example, we expect that reduced fluvial discharge in response to dam construction will lead to increased tidal intrusion followed by enhanced tide-driven sediment import into deltas, with implications for navigation and other human needs.

  20. Identification of anthropogenic and natural inputs of sulfate and chloride into the karstic ground water of Guiyang, SW China: combined delta37Cl and delta34S approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong-Qiang; Lang, Yun-Chao; Satake, Hiroshi; Wu, Jiahong; Li, Si-Liang

    2008-08-01

    Because of active exchange between surface and groundwater of a karstic hydrological system, the groundwater of Guiyang, the capital city of Guizhou Province, southwest China, has been seriously polluted by anthropogenic inputs of NO3-, SO4(2-), Cl-, and Na+. In this work, delta37Cl of chloride and delta34S variations of sulfate in the karstic surface/groundwater system were studied, with a main focus to identify contaminant sources, including their origins. The surface, ground, rain, and sewage water studied showed variable delta37Cl and delta34S values, in the range of -4.1 to +2.0 per thousand, and -20.4 to +20.9 per thousand for delta37Cl and delta34S (SO4(2-)), respectively. The rainwater samples yielded the lowest delta37Cl values among those observed to date for aerosols and rainwater. Chloride in the Guiyang area rain waters emanated from anthropogenic sources rather than being of marine origin, probably derived from HCl (g) emitted by coal combustion. By plotting 1/SO4(2-) vs delta34S and 1/Cl- vs delta37Cl, respectively, we were able to identify some clusters of data, which were assigned as atmospheric deposition (acid rain component), discharge from municipal sewage, paleo-brine components in clastic sedimentary rocks, dissolution of gypsum mainly in dolomite, oxidation of sulfide minerals in coal-containing clastic rocks, and possibly degradation of chlorine-containing organic matter. We conclude that human activities give a significant input of sulfate and chloride ions, as well as other contaminants, into the studied groundwater system through enhanced atmospheric deposition and municipal sewage, and that multiple isotopic tracers constitute a powerful tool to ascertain geochemical characteristics and origin of complex contaminants in groundwater.

  1. Tissue transglutaminase (TG-2) modified amniotic membrane: a novel scaffold for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, David Y S; Brown, Sheridan V; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M; Mather, Melissa L; Hutter, Victoria; Tint, Naing L; Rose, Felicity R A J; Dua, Harminder S

    2012-01-01

    The amniotic membrane (AM) is considered as a natural cell culture substrate and has occasionally been exploited in regenerative medicine especially for ocular surface reconstruction and dermal wound healing applications. However, its use is limited by its relatively weak mechanical strength, difficulty during manual handling and susceptibility to proteolytic degradation in vivo. Therefore, in this study we aimed to enhance the mechanical and biological characteristics of the AM by enzymatically cross-linking it using tissue transglutaminase (TG)—a calcium-dependent enzyme capable of forming stable ε(γ-glutamyl)lysine cross-linkages. Using a biological catalyst such as TG does not only prevent denaturation during sample preparation but also minimizes the potential of residual chemical cross-linking agents compared to alternative methodologies. Human AM, sourced from elective caesarean sectioning, were treated with TG, bovine serum albumin and/or a no-treatment control. Samples were then compared in terms of their physical and (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transparency, mechanical strength, susceptibility to proteolytic degradation) biological characteristics (in vitro cell culture, activation of dendritic cells (DC)) and their in vivo biocompatibility/angiogenic capacity (chick chorioallantoic membrane assay). TG-treated AM exhibited enhanced mechanical strength and greater resistance to proteolytic/collagenase degradation compared to the control(s). SEM imaging of the TG-treated membrane summarized a significantly closer association and greater interconnectivity of individual collagen fibres yet it had no effect on the overall transparency of the AM. In vitro cell culture demonstrated no detrimental effect of TG-treatment on the AM in terms of cell attachment, spreading, proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, an ‘immune response’ was not elicited based on extended in vitro culture with human-monocyte-derived DC. Interestingly, the TG

  2. Stable isotope deltas: Tiny, yet robust signatures in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Willi A.; Coplen, Tyler B.

    2012-01-01

    Although most of them are relatively small, stable isotope deltas of naturally occurring substances are robust and enable workers in anthropology, atmospheric sciences, biology, chemistry, environmental sciences, food and drug authentication, forensic science, geochemistry, geology, oceanography, and paleoclimatology to study a variety of topics. Two fundamental processes explain the stable isotope deltas measured in most terrestrial systems: isotopic fractionation and isotope mixing. Isotopic fractionation is the result of equilibrium or kinetic physicochemical processes that fractionate isotopes because of small differences in physical or chemical properties of molecular species having different isotopes. It is shown that the mixing of radioactive and stable isotope end members can be modelled to provide information on many natural processes, including 14C abundances in the modern atmosphere and the stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of the oceans during glacial and interglacial times. The calculation of mixing fractions using isotope balance equations with isotope deltas can be substantially in error when substances with high concentrations of heavy isotopes (e.g. 13C, 2H, and 18O ) are mixed. In such cases, calculations using mole fractions are preferred as they produce accurate mixing fractions. Isotope deltas are dimensionless quantities. In the International System of Units (SI), these quantities have the unit 1 and the usual list of prefixes is not applicable. To overcome traditional limitations with expressing orders of magnitude differences in isotope deltas, we propose the term urey (symbol Ur), after Harold C. Urey, for the unit 1. In such a manner, an isotope delta value expressed traditionally as−25 per mil can be written as−25 mUr (or−2.5 cUr or−0.25 dUr; the use of any SI prefix is possible). Likewise, very small isotopic differences often expressed in per meg ‘units’ are easily included (e.g. either+0.015 ‰ or+15 per meg

  3. Head orientation prediction: delta quaternions versus quaternions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himberg, Henry; Motai, Yuichi

    2009-12-01

    Display lag in simulation environments with helmet-mounted displays causes a loss of immersion that degrades the value of virtual/augmented reality training simulators. Simulators use predictive tracking to compensate for display lag, preparing display updates based on the anticipated head motion. This paper proposes a new method for predicting head orientation using a delta quaternion (DQ)-based extended Kalman filter (EKF) and compares the performance to a quaternion EKF. The proposed framework operates on the change in quaternion between consecutive data frames (the DQ), which avoids the heavy computational burden of the quaternion motion equation. Head velocity is estimated from the DQ by an EKF and then used to predict future head orientation. We have tested the new framework with captured head motion data and compared it with the computationally expensive quaternion filter. Experimental results indicate that the proposed DQ method provides the accuracy of the quaternion method without the heavy computational burden.

  4. Deformation characteristics of {delta} phase in the delta-processed Inconel 718 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.Y., E-mail: haiyanzhang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang, S.H., E-mail: shzhang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Cheng, M. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, Z.X. [Beijing Institute of Aeronautica1 Materials, Beijing 100095 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The hot working characteristics of {delta} phase in the delta-processed Inconel 718 alloy during isothermal compression deformation at temperature of 950 deg. C and strain rate of 0.005 s{sup -1}, were studied by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and quantitative X-ray diffraction technique. The results showed that the dissolution of plate-like {delta} phase and the precipitation of spherical {delta} phase particles coexisted during the deformation, and the content of {delta} phase decreased from 7.05 wt.% to 5.14 wt.%. As a result of deformation breakage and dissolution breakage, the plate-like {delta} phase was spheroidized and transferred to spherical {delta} phase particles. In the center with largest strain, the plate-like {delta} phase disappeared and spherical {delta} phase appeared in the interior of grains and grain boundaries.

  5. Ocular changes in TgF344-AD rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yuchun; Lu, Bin; Ljubimov, Alexander V; Girman, Sergey; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N; Sadun, Alfredo A; Svendsen, Clive N; Cohen, Robert M; Wang, Shaomei

    2014-01-29

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive decline in learning, memory, and executive functions. In addition to cognitive and behavioral deficits, vision disturbances have been reported in early stage of AD, well before the diagnosis is clearly established. To further investigate ocular abnormalities, a novel AD transgenic rat model was analyzed. Transgenic (Tg) rats (TgF344-AD) heterozygous for human mutant APPswe/PS1ΔE9 and age-matched wild type (WT) rats, as well as 20 human postmortem retinal samples from both AD and healthy donors were used. Visual function in the rodent was analyzed using the optokinetic response and luminance threshold recording from the superior colliculus. Immunohistochemistry on retinal and brain sections was used to detect various markers including amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques. As expected, Aβ plaques were detected in the hippocampus, cortex, and retina of Tg rats. Plaque-like structures were also found in two AD human whole-mount retinas. The choroidal thickness was significantly reduced in both Tg rat and in AD human eyes when compared with age-matched controls. Tg rat eyes also showed hypertrophic retinal pigment epithelial cells, inflammatory cells, and upregulation of complement factor C3. Although visual acuity was lower in Tg than in WT rats, there was no significant difference in the retinal ganglion cell number and retinal vasculature. In this study, we observed pathological changes in the choroid and in RPE cells in the TgF344-AD rat model; choroidal thinning was observed further in human AD retina. Along with Ab deposition, the inflammatory response was manifested by microglial recruitment and complement activation. Further studies are needed to elucidate the significance and mechanisms of these pathological changes [corrected].

  6. Spaceflight influences both mucosal and peripheral cytokine production in PTN-Tg and wild type mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin L McCarville

    Full Text Available Spaceflight is associated with several health issues including diminished immune efficiency. Effects of long-term spaceflight on selected immune parameters of wild type (Wt and transgenic mice over-expressing pleiotrophin under the human bone-specific osteocalcin promoter (PTN-Tg were examined using the novel Mouse Drawer System (MDS aboard the International Space Station (ISS over a 91 day period. Effects of this long duration flight on PTN-Tg and Wt mice were determined in comparison to ground controls and vivarium-housed PTN-Tg and Wt mice. Levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2 and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1 were measured in mucosal and systemic tissues of Wt and PTN-Tg mice. Colonic contents were also analyzed to assess potential effects on the gut microbiota, although no firm conclusions could be made due to constraints imposed by the MDS payload and the time of sampling. Spaceflight-associated differences were observed in colonic tissue and systemic lymph node levels of IL-2 and TGF-β1 relative to ground controls. Total colonic TGF-β1 levels were lower in Wt and PTN-Tg flight mice in comparison to ground controls. The Wt flight mouse had lower levels of IL-2 and TGF-β1 compared to the Wt ground control in both the inguinal and brachial lymph nodes, however this pattern was not consistently observed in PTN-Tg mice. Vivarium-housed Wt controls had higher levels of active TGF-β1 and IL-2 in inguinal lymph nodes relative to PTN-Tg mice. The results of this study suggest compartmentalized effects of spaceflight and on immune parameters in mice.

  7. A Novel Form of Compensation in the Tg2576 Amyloid Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Attila; Katonai, Zoltán; Alpár, Alán; Wolf, Ervin

    2016-01-01

    One century after its first description, pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still poorly understood. Amyloid-related dendritic atrophy and membrane alterations of susceptible brain neurons in AD, and in animal models of AD are widely recognized. However, little effort has been made to study the potential effects of combined morphological and membrane alterations on signal transfer and synaptic integration in neurons that build up affected neural networks in AD. In this study spatial reconstructions and electrophysiological measurements of layer II/III pyramidal neurons of the somatosensory cortex from wild-type (WT) and transgenic (TG) human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) overexpressing Tg2576 mice were used to build faithful segmental cable models of these neurons. Local synaptic activities were simulated in various points of the dendritic arbors and properties of subthreshold dendritic impulse propagation and predictors of synaptic input pattern recognition ability were quantified and compared in modeled WT and TG neurons. Despite the widespread dendritic degeneration and membrane alterations in mutant mouse neurons, surprisingly little, or no change was detected in steady-state and 50 Hz sinusoidal voltage transfers, current transfers, and local and propagation delays of PSPs traveling along dendrites of TG neurons. Synaptic input pattern recognition ability was also predicted to be unaltered in TG neurons in two different soma-dendritic membrane models investigated. Our simulations predict the way how subthreshold dendritic signaling and pattern recognition are preserved in TG neurons: amyloid-related membrane alterations compensate for the pathological effects that dendritic atrophy has on subthreshold dendritic signal transfer and integration in layer II/III somatosensory neurons of this hAPP mouse model for AD. Since neither propagation of single PSPs nor integration of multiple PSPs (pattern recognition) changes in TG neurons, we conclude that AD

  8. Haematological and genetic features of delta beta-thalassaemia in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Anwar, M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the hematological and genetic features of delta beta-thalassaemia in Pakistani patients. Design: Descriptive case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology, PNS Shifa, Karachi and Department of Hematology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January 1994 to April 2004. Patients and Methods: Thirteen individuals from six unrelated Pakistani families with a hematological diagnosis of delta beta-thalassaemia were studied. A brief clinical history, and the results of blood counts, absolute values, Hb-F, Hb-A/sub 2/, and hemoglobin electrophoresis were recorded. The DNA from each subject was first screened for the delta beta-thalassaemia mutations found in the Pakistani population. The samples were then screened for the Invl Del sup G/gamma(sup A/gamma delta beta). Results: The subjects included six heterozygote, six homozygotes and one compound heterozygote of delta beta and delta beta-thalassaemia. All heterozygote and 4/6 homozygotes were asymptomatic. One homo zygote had thalassaemia intermedia while another had transfusion dependent anemia. The mean Hb, TRBC, MCV, MCH, Hb-F and Hb-A/sub 2/ in delta beta-thalassaemia heterozygote were 11.6 g/dl, 5.37 x 1012/L, 70.9 fl, and 21.7 pg, 14% and 2.6% respectively. The same values in the four un transfused homo zygote were 10.6 g/dl, 5.34x1012/L, 69.211, and 20.8pg, 100% and 0% respectively. The mutation analysis revealed that all 13 individuals had the same Invl Del sup G/gamma(sup A/gamma delta beta). Conclusion: delta beta-thalassaemia is a rare disorder in Pakistan. Although the clinical picture is very mild its combination with delta beta-thalassaemia trait can produce a sever transfusion dependent thalassaemia. The DNA based diagnosis is possible in the prenatal as well as the postnatal period. (author)

  9. Assessing Niger-Delta Wetland Resources: A Case-Study of Mangrove Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwan, R. H.; Ndimele, P. E.; Whenu, O. O.; Anetekhai, M. A.; Essien-Ibok, M. A.; Erondu, E. S.

    2016-02-01

    The Niger Delta is located in the Atlantic coast of Southern Nigeria and is the world's second largest delta with a coastline of about 450km. The Niger Delta region occupies a surface area of about 112,110km2, representing about 12% of Nigeria's total surface area. The Delta's environment can be broken down into four ecological zones: coastal barrier islands, mangrove swamp forests, freshwater swamps, and lowland rainforests. The mangrove swamps of Niger Delta, which is the largest delta in Africa constitute the dominant wetland ecosystem in the Niger Delta region and covers an area of about 1,900km2. Mangroves constitute important nurseries for fishes, crustaceans, sponges, algae and other invertebrates, and also acts as a sink, retaining pollutants from contaminated tidal water. The Niger Delta mangrove together with the creeks and rivers are a major source of food and livelihood for about 30 million people, which represents more than 17% of Nigeria's population. Other ecosystem services provided by this unique environment are flood control, ground water re-fill, reservoir of biodiversity, fuel wood, cultural values etc. This ecosystem also plays important role in climate change mitigation because of its high blue carbon sequestration potential. This is particularly important because of continuous gas flaring in Niger Delta from petroleum operations, which releases carbon dioxide among other gases into the atmosphere. This wetland is potentially a good site for ecotourism and also qualifies to be a world heritage site and Ramsar site if proper steps are taken. The benefits derivable from this fragile ecosystem are under severe threat by anthropogenic stressors. These include the installation of pipelines and seismic exploration by oil companies, crude oil pollution, deforestation, urbanization etc. This paper discusses the extent of depletion and loss of mangrove ecosystem in the Niger Delta region and the value of its goods and services.

  10. Migration in Deltas: An Integrated Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Hutton, Craig W.; Lazar, Attila; Adger, W. Neil; Allan, Andrew; Arto, Inaki; Vincent, Katharine; Rahman, Munsur; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Sugata, Hazra; Ghosh, Tuhin; Codjoe, Sam; Appeaning-Addo, Kwasi

    2017-04-01

    Deltas and low-lying coastal regions have long been perceived as vulnerable to global sea-level rise, with the potential for mass displacement of exposed populations. The assumption of mass displacement of populations in deltas requires a comprehensive reassessment in the light of present and future migration in deltas, including the potential role of adaptation to influence these decisions. At present, deltas are subject to multiple drivers of environmental change and often have high population densities as they are accessible and productive ecosystems. Climate change, catchment management, subsidence and land cover change drive environmental change across all deltas. Populations in deltas are also highly mobile, with significant urbanization trends and the growth of large cities and mega-cities within or adjacent to deltas across Asia and Africa. Such migration is driven primarily by economic opportunity, yet environmental change in general, and climate change in particular, are likely to play an increasing direct and indirect role in future migration trends. The policy challenges centre on the role of migration within regional adaptation strategies to climate change; the protection of vulnerable populations; and the future of urban settlements within deltas. This paper reviews current knowledge on migration and adaptation to environmental change to discern specific issues pertinent to delta regions. It develops a new integrated methodology to assess present and future migration in deltas using the Volta delta in Ghana, Mahanadi delta in India and Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta across India and Bangladesh. The integrated method focuses on: biophysical changes and spatial distribution of vulnerability; demographic changes and migration decision-making using multiple methods and data; macro-economic trends and scenarios in the deltas; and the policies and governance structures that constrain and enable adaptation. The analysis is facilitated by a range of

  11. Tides Stabilize Deltas until Humans Interfere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoitink, T.; Zheng Bing, W.; Vermeulen, B.; Huismans, Y.; Kastner, K.

    2017-12-01

    Despite global concerns about river delta degradation caused by extraction of natural resources, sediment retention by reservoirs and sea-level rise, human activity in the world's largest deltas intensifies. In this review, we argue that tides tend to stabilize deltas until humans interfere. Under natural circumstances, delta channels subject to tides are more stable than their fluvial-dominated counterparts. The oscillatory tidal flow counteracts the processes responsible for bank erosion, which explains why unprotected tidal channels migrate only slowly. Peak river discharges attenuate the tides, which creates storage space to accommodate the extra river discharge during extreme events and as a consequence, reduce flood risk. With stronger tides, the river discharge is being distributed more evenly over the various branches in a delta, preventing silting up of smaller channels. Human interference in deltas is massive. Storm surge barriers are constructed, new land is being reclaimed and large-scale sand excavation takes place, to collect building material. Evidence from deltas around the globe shows that in human-controlled deltas the tidal motion often plays a destabilizing role. In channels of the Rhine-Meuse Delta, some 100 scour holes are identified, which relates to the altered tidal motion after completion of a storm surge barrier. Sand mining has led to widespread river bank failures in the tidally-influenced Mekong Delta. The catastrophic flood event in the Gauges-Brahmaputra Delta by Cyclone Aila, which caused the inundation of an embanked polder area for over two years, was preceded by river bank erosion at the mouths of formal tidal channels that were blocked by the embankment. Efforts to predict the developments of degrading deltas are few. Existing delta models are capable of reproducing expanding deltas, which is essentially a matter of simulating the transport of sediment from source in a catchment to the sink in a delta. Processes of soil

  12. Losses of Sacramento River Chinook Salmon and Delta Smelt to Entrainment in Water Diversions in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim J. Kimmerer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Pumping at the water export facilities in the southern Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta kills fish at and near the associated fish-salvage facilities. Correlative analyses of salvage counts with population indices have failed to provide quantitative estimates of the magnitude of this mortality. I estimated the proportional losses of Sacramento River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus to place these losses in a population context. The estimate for salmon was based on recoveries of tagged smolts released in the upper Sacramento River basin, and recovered at the fish-salvage facilities in the south Delta and in a trawling program in the western Delta. The proportion of fish salvaged increased with export flow, with a mean value around 10% at the highest export flows recorded. Mortality was around 10% if pre-salvage losses were about 80%, but this value is nearly unconstrained. Losses of adult delta smelt in winter and young delta smelt in spring were estimated from salvage data (adults corrected for estimated pre-salvage survival, or from trawl data in the southern Delta (young. These losses were divided by population size and accumulated over the respective seasons. Losses of adult delta smelt were 1–50% (median 15% although the highest value may have been biased upward. Daily losses of larvae and juveniles were 0–8%, and seasonal losses accumulated were 0–25% (median 13%. The effect of these losses on population abundance was obscured by subsequent 50-fold variability in survival from summer to fall.

  13. Future Deltas Utrecht University research focus area: towards sustainable management of sinking deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouthamer, E.; van Asselen, S.

    2015-11-01

    Deltas are increasingly under pressure from human impact and climate change. To deal with these pressures that threat future delta functioning, we need to understand interactions between physical, biological, chemical and social processes in deltas. This requires an integrated approach, in which knowledge on natural system functioning is combined with knowledge on spatial planning, land and water governance and legislative frameworks. In the research focus area Future Deltas of Utrecht University an interdisciplinary team from different research groups therefore works together. This allows developing integrated sustainable and resilient delta management strategies, which is urgently needed to prevent loss of vital delta services.

  14. Stable Isotope (delta OXYGEN-18, Delta Deuterium, Delta CARBON-13) Dendroclimatological Studies in the Waterloo Region of Southern Ontario, Canada, Between AD 1610 and 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhay, William Mark

    Oxygen (delta^{18} O), hydrogen (delta^2H) and carbon (delta^{13}C) isotopes were measured in wood cellulose from elm, white pine and maple trees that grew in southwestern Ontario, Canada. The measured oxygen and hydrogen isotopic data were used for model-based reconstructions of delta^{18}{O}_{meteoric water}, mean annual temperature (MAT) and relative humidity for a period, AD 1610 to 1880, that precedes instrumental records of climate. The carbon isotope measurements were compared with the Cellulose Model inferred climate data to reveal additional environmental information. Modifications made to the Cellulose Model focused on the dynamics of oxygen and hydrogen isotopic fractionation in plants during evapotranspiration and photosynthetic assimilation. For instance, kinetic fractionation of ^{18}O was found to be predictable from theoretical considerations of leaf energy balance and boundary layer dynamics. Kinetic fractionation during evapotranspiration is sensitive to the nature of the boundary layer, which is controlled by leaf size and morphology. Generally, plants with small segmented leaves have a lower component of turbidity in the leaf boundary layer, which results in higher kinetic fractionation values, than do plants having large simple leaves and more turbulent boundary layers. Kinetic ^2H enrichment in plant leaf water can also be rationalized in terms of leaf size and morphology when an apparent temperature-dependent isotope effect, acting in opposition to evaporative enrichment, is taken into account. Accounting for this temperature -dependent isotope effect helps to: (1) reconcile hydrogen kinetic fractionation inconsistencies for different leaves; (2) explain a temperature effect previously attributed to variable biochemical fractionation during cellulose synthesis, and; (3) verify hydrogen biochemical effects in plants. This improved characterization of the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic effects in plants, using the modified Cellulose Model, helped

  15. Diet-tissue stable isotope (delta¹³C and delta¹⁵N) discrimination factors for multiple tissues from terrestrial reptiles (rock iguanas, Cyclura species)

    OpenAIRE

    Steinitz, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    Trophic interactions can drive community structure; therefore, studying food webs is key in understanding ecological communities. Stable isotope analysis is a powerful tool for reconstructing foraging patterns. However, stable isotope discrimination factors (delta¹³C and delta¹⁵N) are needed to best use this tool. We determined the first delta¹³C and delta¹⁵N values for Rock Iguanas (Cyclura spp.) to better understand isotope fractionation patterns in reptiles and estimate wild reptile diets....

  16. COMMD1 regulates the delta epithelial sodium channel ({delta}ENaC) through trafficking and ubiquitination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Tina; Ke, Ying; Ly, Kevin [Department of Physiology, University of Otago, P.O. Box 913, Dunedin 9054 (New Zealand); McDonald, Fiona J., E-mail: fiona.mcdonald@otago.ac.nz [Department of Physiology, University of Otago, P.O. Box 913, Dunedin 9054 (New Zealand)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} The COMM domain of COMMD1 mediates binding to {delta}ENaC. {yields} COMMD1 reduces the cell surface population of {delta}ENaC. {yields} COMMD1 increases the population of {delta}ENaC-ubiquitin. {yields} Both endogenous and transfected {delta}ENaC localize with COMMD1 and transferrin suggesting they are located in early/recycling endosomes. -- Abstract: The delta subunit of the epithelial sodium channel ({delta}ENaC) is a member of the ENaC/degenerin family of ion channels. {delta}ENaC is distinct from the related {alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}ENaC subunits, known for their role in sodium homeostasis and blood pressure control, as {delta}ENaC is expressed in brain neurons and activated by external protons. COMMD1 (copper metabolism Murr1 domain 1) was previously found to associate with and downregulate {delta}ENaC activity. Here, we show that COMMD1 interacts with {delta}ENaC through its COMM domain. Co-expression of {delta}ENaC with COMMD1 significantly reduced {delta}ENaC surface expression, and led to an increase in {delta}ENaC ubiquitination. Immunocytochemical and confocal microscopy studies show that COMMD1 promoted localization of {delta}ENaC to the early/recycling endosomal pool where the two proteins were localized together. These results suggest that COMMD1 downregulates {delta}ENaC activity by reducing {delta}ENaC surface expression through promoting internalization of surface {delta}ENaC to an intracellular recycling pool, possibly via enhanced ubiquitination.

  17. SU-F-T-485: Independent Remote Audits for TG51 NonCompliant Photon Beams Performed by the IROC Houston QA Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, P; Molineu, A; Lowenstein, J; Taylor, P; Kry, S; Followill, D [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: IROC-H conducts external audits for output check verification of photon and electron beams. Many of these beams can meet the geometric requirements of the TG 51 calibration protocol. For those photon beams that are non TG 51 compliant like Elekta GammaKnife, Accuray CyberKnife and TomoTherapy, IROC-H has specific audit tools to monitor the reference calibration. Methods: IROC-H used its TLD and OSLD remote monitoring systems to verify the output of machines with TG 51 non compliant beams. Acrylic OSLD miniphantoms are used for the CyberKnife. Special TLD phantoms are used for TomoTherapy and GammaKnife machines to accommodate the specific geometry of each machine. These remote audit tools are sent to institutions to be irradiated and returned to IROC-H for analysis. Results: The average IROC-H/institution ratios for 480 GammaKnife, 660 CyberKnife and 907 rotational TomoTherapy beams are 1.000±0.021, 1.008±0.019, 0.974±0.023, respectively. In the particular case of TomoTherapy, the overall ratio is 0.977±0.022 for HD units. The standard deviations of all results are consistent with values determined for TG 51 compliant photon beams. These ratios have shown some changes compared to values presented in 2008. The GammaKnife results were corrected by an experimentally determined scatter factor of 1.025 in 2013. The TomoTherapy helical beam results are now from a rotational beam whereas in 2008 the results were from a static beam. The decision to change modality was based on recommendations from the users. Conclusion: External audits of beam outputs is a valuable tool to confirm the calibrations of photon beams regardless of whether the machine is TG 51 or TG 51 non compliant. The difference found for TomoTherapy units is under investigation. This investigation was supported by IROC grant CA180803 awarded by the NCI.

  18. SU-F-T-485: Independent Remote Audits for TG51 NonCompliant Photon Beams Performed by the IROC Houston QA Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, P; Molineu, A; Lowenstein, J; Taylor, P; Kry, S; Followill, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: IROC-H conducts external audits for output check verification of photon and electron beams. Many of these beams can meet the geometric requirements of the TG 51 calibration protocol. For those photon beams that are non TG 51 compliant like Elekta GammaKnife, Accuray CyberKnife and TomoTherapy, IROC-H has specific audit tools to monitor the reference calibration. Methods: IROC-H used its TLD and OSLD remote monitoring systems to verify the output of machines with TG 51 non compliant beams. Acrylic OSLD miniphantoms are used for the CyberKnife. Special TLD phantoms are used for TomoTherapy and GammaKnife machines to accommodate the specific geometry of each machine. These remote audit tools are sent to institutions to be irradiated and returned to IROC-H for analysis. Results: The average IROC-H/institution ratios for 480 GammaKnife, 660 CyberKnife and 907 rotational TomoTherapy beams are 1.000±0.021, 1.008±0.019, 0.974±0.023, respectively. In the particular case of TomoTherapy, the overall ratio is 0.977±0.022 for HD units. The standard deviations of all results are consistent with values determined for TG 51 compliant photon beams. These ratios have shown some changes compared to values presented in 2008. The GammaKnife results were corrected by an experimentally determined scatter factor of 1.025 in 2013. The TomoTherapy helical beam results are now from a rotational beam whereas in 2008 the results were from a static beam. The decision to change modality was based on recommendations from the users. Conclusion: External audits of beam outputs is a valuable tool to confirm the calibrations of photon beams regardless of whether the machine is TG 51 or TG 51 non compliant. The difference found for TomoTherapy units is under investigation. This investigation was supported by IROC grant CA180803 awarded by the NCI

  19. The Niger Delta Amnesty Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. Okonofua

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The armed conflict between militias and government forces in Nigeria’s Niger Delta region has spanned for more than two decades, defying all solutions. A disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR program was established in August 2015 in effort to end the violence and has remained in place. It is a radically different approach from past approaches that displayed zero tolerance to all political challenges to oil production or the allocation of oil profits. The approach appeared to be immediately successful in that it forced a ceasefire, engaged militants in planned programs to rehabilitate and reintegrate them into civilian society, and opened up the oil wells (many of which had been shut due to the crisis with the effect of increasing government revenue, which depends 85% on oil exports. Yet, few studies have attempted to understand the dynamics within the country that are responsible for the design and implementation of this broad policy shift or to understand whether and how the current initiative is able to end the conflict and institute peace beyond the short term. This study, therefore, is important because it provides a critical perspective that anticipates and explains emerging issues with the Niger Delta Amnesty Program, which have implications for DDR adaptation and implementation all over the world. Ultimately, the research demonstrates how the DDR program both transforms the Niger Delta conflict and becomes embroiled in intense contestations not only about the mechanism for transforming the targeted population but also whether and how the program incorporates women who are being deprioritized by the program.

  20. Design of the 12-bit Delta-Sigma Modulator using SC Technique for Vibration Sensor Output Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pavlik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with the design of the 12-bit Delta-Sigma modulator using switched capacitors (SC technique. The modulator serves to vibration sensor output processing. The first part describes the Delta-Sigma modulator parameters definition. Results of the proposed topology ideal model were presented as well. Next, the Delta-Sigma modulator circuitry on the transistor level was done. The ONSemiconductor I2T100 0.7 um CMOS technology was used for design. Then, the Delta-Sigma modulator nonidealities were simulated and implemented into the MATLAB ideal model of the modulator. The model of real Delta-Sigma modulator was derived. Consequently, modulator coefficients were optimized. Finally, the corner analysis of the Delta-Sigma modulator with the optimized coefficients was simulated. The value of SNDR = 82.2 dB (ENOB = 13.4 bits was achieved.

  1. Local lymph node assay: how testing laboratories apply OECD TG 429 for REACH purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovida, Costanza

    2011-01-01

    The Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) is the official method for assessing the allergic contact dermatitis potential of chemicals for the purposes of REACH regulation. The LLNA went through a validation process that allowed the delineation of a robust protocol for performing new tests. The OECD accepted this method in 2002 and published OECD TG 429. The European Chemical Agency (ECHA) recently published data that were submitted in the registration dossiers of chemicals. This database was analysed to determine how testing laboratories apply OECD TG 429. This analysis comes after a detailed analysis of four full study reports that were also prepared for REACH purposes. Although the majority of the tests are fully compliant with OECD TG 429, some showed major deviations, and a number of others used more animals than necessary. This suggests that in vivo tests need to be planned more carefully and consciously to obtain meaningful results with the minimum animal number necessary.

  2. Deducting the temperature dependence of the structural relaxation time in equilibrium far below the nominal Tg by aging the decoupled conductivity relaxation to equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnarowska, Z; Ngai, K L; Paluch, M

    2014-05-07

    Using broadband dielectric spectroscopy we investigate the changes in the conductivity relaxation times τσ observed during the physical aging of the protic ionic conductor carvedilol dihydrogen phosphate (CP). Due to the large decoupling of ion diffusion from host molecule reorientation, the ion conductivity relaxation time τσ(Tage,tage) can be directly measured at temperatures Tage below Tg for exceedingly long aging times tage till τσ(Tage,tage) has reached the equilibrium value τσ(eq)(Tage). The dependence of τσ(Tage,tage) on tage is well described by the stretched exponential function, τσ(Tage, tage) = Aexp[-((tage)/(τage(Tage)))(β)] + τσ(eq)(Tage), where β is a constant and τage(Tage) can be taken as the structural α-relaxation time of the equilibrium liquid at T = Tage. The value of τσ(eq)(Tage) obtained after 63 days long annealing of CP, deviates from the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann-Hesse (VFTHσ) dependence of τσ(T) determined from data taken above Tg and extrapolated down to Tage. Concurrently, τage(Tage) also deviates from the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann-Hesse (VFTHα) dependence. The results help to answer the longstanding question of whether the VFTH dependence of τσ(T) as well as the structural α-relaxation time τα(T) holds or not in the equilibrium liquid state far below Tg.

  3. Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is involved in the resistance of cancer cells to the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Carmine; Di Gennaro, Elena; Piro, Geny; Milone, Maria Rita; Pucci, Biagio; Caraglia, Michele; Budillon, Alfredo

    2017-03-01

    Vorinostat demonstrated preclinical and clinical efficacy in human cancers and is the first histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) approved for cancer treatment. Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is a multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes a Ca 2+ dependent transamidating reaction resulting in covalent cross-links between proteins. TG2 acts also as G-protein in trans-membrane signaling and as a cell surface adhesion mediator. TG2 up-regulation has been demonstrated in several cancers and its expression levels correlate with resistance to chemotherapy and metastatic potential. We demonstrated that the anti-proliferative effect of the HDACi vorinostat is paralleled by the induction of TG2 mRNA and protein expression in cancer cells but not in ex vivo treated peripheral blood lymphocytes. This effect was also shared by other pan-HDACi and resulted in increased TG2 transamidating activity. Notably, high TG2 basal levels in a panel of cancer cell lines correlated with lower vorinostat antiproliferative activity. Notably, in TG2-knockdown cancer cells vorinostat anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects were enhanced, whereas in TG2-full-length transfected cells were impaired, suggesting that TG2 could represent a mechanism of intrinsic or acquired resistance to vorinostat. In fact, co-treatment of tumor cells with inhibitors of TG2 transamidating activity potentiated the antitumor effect of vorinostat. Moreover, vorinostat-resistant MCF7 cells selected by stepwise increasing concentrations of the drug, significantly overexpressed TG2 protein compared to parental cells, and co-treatment of these cells with TG2 inhibitors reversed vorinostat-resistance. Taken together, our data demonstrated that TG2 is involved in the resistance of cancer cells to vorinostat, as well as to other HDACi.

  4. Penelope Delta, recently discovered writer

    OpenAIRE

    MALAPANI A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a Greek writer, Penelope Delta. This writer has recently come up in the field of the studies of the Greek literature and, although thereare neither many translations of her works in foreign languages nor many theses or dissertations, she was chosen for the great interest for her works. Her books have been read by many generations, so she is considered a classical writer of Modern Greek Literature. The way she uses the Greek language, the unique characters...

  5. Climate change and the Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettinger, Michael; Anderson, Jamie; Anderson, Michael L.; Brown, Larry R.; Cayan, Daniel; Maurer, Edwin P.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change amounts to a rapidly approaching, “new” stressor in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta system. In response to California’s extreme natural hydroclimatic variability, complex water-management systems have been developed, even as the Delta’s natural ecosystems have been largely devastated. Climate change is projected to challenge these management and ecological systems in different ways that are characterized by different levels of uncertainty. For example, there is high certainty that climate will warm by about 2°C more (than late-20th-century averages) by mid-century and about 4°C by end of century, if greenhouse-gas emissions continue their current rates of acceleration. Future precipitation changes are much less certain, with as many climate models projecting wetter conditions as drier. However, the same projections agree that precipitation will be more intense when storms do arrive, even as more dry days will separate storms. Warmer temperatures will likely enhance evaporative demands and raise water temperatures. Consequently, climate change is projected to yield both more extreme flood risks and greater drought risks. Sea level rise (SLR) during the 20th century was about 22cm, and is projected to increase by at least 3-fold this century. SLR together with land subsidence threatens the Delta with greater vulnerabilities to inundation and salinity intrusion. Effects on the Delta ecosystem that are traceable to warming include SLR, reduced snowpack, earlier snowmelt and larger storm-driven streamflows, warmer and longer summers, warmer summer water temperatures, and water-quality changes. These changes and their uncertainties will challenge the operations of water projects and uses throughout the Delta’s watershed and delivery areas. Although the effects of climate change on Delta ecosystems may be profound, the end results are difficult to predict, except that native species will fare worse than invaders. Successful

  6. Protoneutron star formation with delta-resonance matter and trapped neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Jose Carlos Teixeira de; Souza, Ana Graice de; Duarte, Sergio Barbosa; Rodrigues, Hilario

    2009-01-01

    Full text: We discuss the proto-neutron star structure including delta-matter in its composition, and comparing the result with the same mass post-cooling compact object formed. The maximum mass values and corresponding configurations to pre and post-cooling situation are calculated and discussed face to variations in the coupling constants of delta-resonance with the mesons sigma, omega and rho in the context of the Relativistic Mean Field Theory (RMFT). The complete spin-1/2 sector is included solved consistently with the presence of the 3/2-spin delta-resonance quartet. (author)

  7. From Natural to Design River Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giosan, Liviu

    2016-04-01

    Productive and biologically diverse, deltaic lowlands attracted humans since prehistory and may have spurred the emergence of the first urban civilizations. Deltas continued to be an important nexus for economic development across the world and are currently home for over half a billion people. But recently, under the double whammy of sea level rise and inland sediment capture behind dams, they have become the most threatened coastal landscape. Here I will address several deceptively simple questions to sketch some unexpected answers using example deltas from across the world from the Arctic to the Tropics, from the Danube to the Indus, Mississippi to Godavari and Krishna, Mackenzie to Yukon. What is a river delta? What is natural and what is not in a river delta? Are the geological and human histories of a delta important for its current management? Is maintaining a delta the same to building a new one? Can we design better deltas than Nature? These answers help us see clearly that survival of deltas in the next century depends on human intervention and is neither assured nor simple to address or universally applicable. Empirical observations on the hydrology, geology, biology and biochemistry of deltas are significantly lagging behind modeling capabilities endangering the applicability of numerical-based reconstruction solutions and need to be ramped up significantly and rapidly across the world.

  8. High-Tg TOPAS mPOF strain sensing at 110 degrees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian; Markos, Christos; Stefani, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a mPOF made of high-Tg TOPAS grade 5013 with Tg = 135°C. We inscribe FBGs into the fiber and demonstrate strain sensing of 2.5% strain at 98°C, further we also demonstrate strain sensing at a record high temperature of 110°C. The Bragg wavelengths of the FBGs are around 860 nm, whe...... the propagation loss is 5.1dB/m, close to the fiber loss minimum of 3.67dB/m at 787nm....

  9. FPGA Implementation of Burst-Mode Synchronization for SOQSPK-TG

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    is normalized to π. The proposed burst-mode architecture is written in VHDL and verified using Modelsim. The VHDL design is implemented on a Xilinx...Document Number: SET 2014-0043 412TW-PA-14298 FPGA Implementation of Burst-Mode Synchronization for SOQSPK-TG June 2014 Final Report Test...To) 9/11 -- 8/14 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FPGA Implementation of Burst-Mode Synchronization for SOQSPK-TG 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER: W900KK-11-C-0032 5b

  10. Database Description - Open TG-GATEs Pathological Image Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Open TG-GATEs Pathological Image Database Database Description General information of database Database... name Open TG-GATEs Pathological Image Database Alternative name - DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00954-0...iomedical Innovation 7-6-8, Saito-asagi, Ibaraki-city, Osaka 567-0085, Japan TEL:81-72-641-9826 Email: Database... classification Toxicogenomics Database Organism Taxonomy Name: Rattus norvegi... Article title: Author name(s): Journal: External Links: Original website information Database

  11. Implications for future survival of delta smelt from four climate change scenarios for the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Larry R.; Bennett, William A.; Wagner, R. Wayne; Morgan-King, Tara; Knowles, Noah; Feyrer, Frederick; Schoellhamer, David H.; Stacey, Mark T.; Dettinger, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the position of the low salinity zone, a habitat suitability index, turbidity, and water temperature modeled from four 100-year scenarios of climate change were evaluated for possible effects on delta smelt Hypomesus transpacificus, which is endemic to the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta. The persistence of delta smelt in much of its current habitat into the next century appears uncertain. By mid-century, the position of the low salinity zone in the fall and the habitat suitability index converged on values only observed during the worst droughts of the baseline period (1969–2000). Projected higher water temperatures would render waters historically inhabited by delta smelt near the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers largely uninhabitable. However, the scenarios of climate change are based on assumptions that require caution in the interpretation of the results. Projections like these provide managers with a useful tool for anticipating long-term challenges to managing fish populations and possibly adapting water management to ameliorate those challenges.

  12. Unexpected {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 2}H Variability of Groundwater in the Eastern Paris Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourcy, L.; Petelet-Giraud, E. [BRGM Service EAU, Orleans (France)

    2013-07-15

    The Paris Basin covers about one-third of the total surface area of France. In 2009, two campaigns sampling 25 boreholes tapping Tertiary aquifers were carried out in the Basin. These aquifers are recharged at a similar altitude and the groundwater age is too young to have registered climate change. In the past, regional studies included the use of isotopes to understand groundwater origin and dynamics. Both {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 2}H as well as ages (CFC/SF{sub 6)} and chemical components were determined in all collected samples. A noticeable stable isotope 'anomaly' appears in the south-western part of the Basin, where the average {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 2}H values are more depleted and do not fit the pattern given by the continental effect in this area. A regional particularity of the spatial distribution of such isotopes in precipitation may be possible, but should be confirmed by additional work. (author)

  13. An analytical framework for strategic delta planning : negotiating consent for long-term sustainable delta development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seijger, C.; Douven, W; Hermans, L.M.; Evers, J.; Phi, H. L.; Brunner, J.; Pols, L.; Ligtvoet, W.; Koole, S.; Slager, K.; Vermoolen, M.S.; Hasan, S.; Hoang, V. T M; van Halsema, G

    2016-01-01

    Sectoral planning on water, agriculture and urban development has not been able to prevent increased flood risks and environmental degradation in many deltas. Governments conceive strategic delta planning as a promising planning approach and develop strategic delta plans. Such plans are linked to

  14. The dynamics of central Main Ethiopian Rift waters: Evidence from {delta}D, {delta}{sup 18}O and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rango, Tewodros, E-mail: tewodros.godebo@duke.edu [Division of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)] [Addis Ababa University, Department of Earth Sciences, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia); Petrini, Riccardo; Stenni, Barbara [University of Trieste, Department of Geosciences, Via Weiss 1, I-34100 Trieste (Italy); Bianchini, Gianluca [Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse-CNR, Pisa (Italy)] [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Slejko, Francesca [University of Trieste, Department of Geosciences, Via Weiss 1, I-34100 Trieste (Italy); Beccaluva, Luigi [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Ayenew, Tenalem [Addis Ababa University, Department of Earth Sciences, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2010-12-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Chemical and isotope ({delta}D, {delta}{sup 18}O and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) techniques are applied to understand various hydrological processes in the Main Ethiopian Rift. {yields} Some of the studied groundwaters display a depleted {delta}D-{delta}{sup 18}O composition when compared to the present-day average precipitation, thus suggesting that the rift floor aquifers also contains paleo-meteoric waters recharge associated with deep flow system. {yields} The pristine waters coming from the highlands display isotopic compositions characterized by less radiogenic {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr (and more depleted {delta}D, {delta}{sup 18}O). This isotopic signature subsequently evolves towards higher {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr by an interaction with the more radiogenic rhyolites of the rift and their weathered and redeposited products. - Abstract: Water samples from cold and geothermal boreholes, hot springs, lakes and rivers were analyzed for {delta}D, {delta}{sup 18}O and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr compositions in order to investigate lake water-groundwater mixing processes, water-rock interactions, and to evaluate groundwater flow paths in the central Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) of the Ziway-Shala basin. Different ranges of isotopic values were recorded for different water types: hot springs show {delta}{sup 18}O -3.36 to +3.69 and {delta}D -15.85 to +24.23, deep Aluto-Langano geothermal wells show {delta}{sup 18}O -4.65 to -1.24 and {delta}D -12.39 to -9.31, groundwater wells show {delta}{sup 18}O -3.99 to +5.14 and {delta}D -19.69 to +32.27, whereas the lakes show {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}D in the range +3.98 to +7.92 and +26.19 to +45.71, respectively. The intersection of the Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL: {delta}D = 7 {delta}{sup 18}O + 11.2, R{sup 2} = 0.94, n = 42) and the Local Evaporation Line (LEL: {delta}D = 5.63{delta}{sup 18}O + 8, n = 14, R{sup 2} = 0.82) was used to estimate the average isotopic composition of recharge water into the

  15. Inhabiting the Delta: A Landscape Approach to Transformative Socio-Ecological Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Milligan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available doi: https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2017v15iss3art3Current legislation and plans for the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta (Delta call for large-scale restoration of aquatic and terrestrial habitats, which will require significant changes in waterways, land uses, and cultural patterns. These re-made landscapes will be subject to a variety of new human uses, which Delta planning and adaptive management literature has yet to adequately consider. Failing to account for human uses and evolving place values can lead to diminished performance and public support for Delta restoration efforts. Our empirical study examined restored and naturalized Delta landscapes using an integrative landscape approach that seeks to reconcile multiple goals and land-use agendas that span ecological, social, economic, and political domains. The research design consisted of six overlapping methods that included a planning, policy, and law review specific to the Delta; surveys and interviews with approximately 100 land managers, scientists, land-owners, law-enforcement personnel, agency representatives, and Delta residents; nine case studies of restored and naturalized delta landscapes; GIS mapping; and extensive field work. Findings derived from the synthesis of these methods show that human uses of the Delta’s re-wilded landscapes are diverse and pervasive. Given the infrastructural and urbanized context of the region, these environments are subject to multiple and sometimes conflicting uses, perceptions, and place values. Though these myriad uses cannot be fully predicted or controlled (nor should they be, findings showed that more proactive and inclusive planning for human uses can encourage or discourage particular uses while also building constituency, support, and active engagement in ecological restoration efforts. We conclude that reconciling human uses with ecological recovery in the Delta will require a more localized, multi-functional, and creative approach to

  16. Sub-Tg enthalpy relaxation in an extremely unstable oxide glass and its implication for structural heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yanfei; Hu, L.N.; Liu, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    We study the sub-Tg relaxation in an extremely unstable glass former, i.e., 65SiO2-35Al2O3, and its relation to structural heterogeneity (e.g., structurally ordered domains in glass matrix). This is done by hyperquenching (~106 K/s) the liquid, then annealing the hyperquenched glass below Tg...... and subsequently scanning the annealed hyperquenched glass in a differential scanning calorimeter. The results show that structural ordering can take place even below Tg. An endothermic pre-peak is observed when the hyperquenched sample is annealed at 0.75Tg for sufficiently long time, which is, however, much...... weaker compared to that of stable glass formers subjected to same annealing conditions. We also investigate the effect of the sub-Tg annealing on crystallization above Tg. The results imply that some structurally ordered domains exist already in the liquid state. The ordered domains lower the activation...

  17. TG13 current terminology, etiology, and epidemiology of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimura, Yasutoshi; Takada, Tadahiro; Strasberg, Steven M.; Pitt, Henry A.; Gouma, Dirk J.; Garden, O. James; Büchler, Markus W.; Windsor, John A.; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Masahiro; Miura, Fumihiko; Higuchi, Ryota; Gabata, Toshifumi; Hata, Jiro; Gomi, Harumi; Dervenis, Christos; Lau, Wan-Yee; Belli, Giulio; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Hilvano, Serafin C.; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    While referring to the evidence adopted in the Tokyo Guidelines 2007 (TG07) as well as subsequently obtained evidence, further discussion took place on terminology, etiology, and epidemiological data. In particular, new findings have accumulated on the occurrence of symptoms in patients with

  18. Comparison between TG-51 and TRS-398: electron contamination effect on photon beam-quality specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, Antonio Lopez; Teijeiro, Antonio; Salvador, Francisco; Medal, Daniela; Vazquez, Julio; Salgado, Manuel; Carrion, MarIa C

    2004-01-01

    Two dosimetry protocols based on absorbed dose to water have recently been implemented: TG-51 and TRS-398. These protocols use different beam-quality indices. The effect of electron contamination in measurements of %dd(10) x has been proposed as a disadvantage of the TG-51. For actual measurements of %dd(10) x in five clinical beams ) a purging magnet was employed to remove the electron contamination. Also, %dd(10) x was measured in the different ways described in TG-51 for high-energy beams: with a lead foil at 50 cm from the phantom surface, at 30 cm, and for open beam. Moreover, TPR 20,10 was determined. Also, periodic quality-control measurements were used for comparing both quality indices and variation over time, but D 20,10 was used instead of TPR 20,10 and measurements in open beam for the %dd(10) x determination. Considering both protocols, S w,air and k Q were calculated in order to compare the results with the experimental data. Significant differences (0.3% for k Q ) were only found for the two high-energy beams, but when the electron contamination is underestimated by TG-51, the difference in k Q is lower. Differences in the other cases and variations over time were less than 0.1%

  19. Ocular Changes in TgF344-AD Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Yuchun; Lu, Bin; Ljubimov, Alexander V.; Girman, Sergey; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N.; Sadun, Alfredo A.; Svendsen, Clive N.; Cohen, Robert M.; Wang, Shaomei

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we observed pathological changes in the choroid and in RPE cells in the TgF344-AD rat model; choroidal thinning was further observed in human AD retina. Along with Aβ deposition, the inflammatory response was manifested by microglial recruitment and complement activation.

  20. TG-FTIR Study of the Influence of potassium Chloride on Wheat Straw Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wójtowicz, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    of products into char, tar and gas. In this work, a combination of thermogravimetry and evolved gas analysis by Fourier transform infrared analysis (TG-FTIR) has been applied to study the influence of potassium chloride (KCl) on wheat straw pyrolysis. Raw straw, washed straw and washed straw impregnated...

  1. Body weight - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...le URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/open_tggates_body_...atabase Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Body weight - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive ...

  2. Thermal behavior of biflorin by beans TG and a DSC photovisual system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. S. Aragão

    Full Text Available This work proposes thermal characterization, of the biflorine, orto-quinon of Capraria biflora L., through the TG and DSC photovisual data. The thermogravimetric results showed that the decomposition reaction biflorine occurs three steps under air atmosphere, The DSC of biflorin presented five peaks relating to phase transitions. The DSC photovisual system demonstrated changes in biflorin.

  3. Detecting spatial memory deficits beyond blindness in tg2576 Alzheimer mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine, Nour; Lazaris, Anelise; Dorner-Ciossek, Cornelia; Després, Olivier; Meyer, Laurence; Maitre, Michel; Mensah-Nyagan, Ayikoe Guy; Cassel, Jean-Christophe; Mathis, Chantal

    2013-03-01

    The retinal degeneration Pde6b(rd1) (rd) mutation can be a major pitfall in behavioral studies using tg2576 mice bred on a B6:SJL genetic background, 1 of the most widely used models of Alzheimer's disease. After a pilot study in wild type mice, performance of 8- and 16-month-old tg2576 mice were assessed in several behavioral tasks with the challenge of selecting 1 or more task(s) showing robust memory deficits on this genetic background. Water maze acquisition was impossible in rd homozygotes, whereas Y-maze alternation, object recognition, and olfactory discrimination were unaffected by both the transgene and the rd mutation. Spatial memory retention of 8- and 16-month-old tg2576 mice, however, was dramatically affected independently of the rd mutation when mice had to recognize a spatial configuration of objects or to perform the Barnes maze. Thus, the latter tasks appear extremely useful to evaluate spatial memory deficits and to test cognitive therapies in tg2576 mice and other mouse models bred on a background susceptible to visual impairment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Entropy and optimality in river deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Alejandro; Longjas, Anthony; Edmonds, Douglas A.; Zaliapin, Ilya; Georgiou, Tryphon T.; Rinaldo, Andrea; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2017-10-01

    The form and function of river deltas is intricately linked to the evolving structure of their channel networks, which controls how effectively deltas are nourished with sediments and nutrients. Understanding the coevolution of deltaic channels and their flux organization is crucial for guiding maintenance strategies of these highly stressed systems from a range of anthropogenic activities. To date, however, a unified theory explaining how deltas self-organize to distribute water and sediment up to the shoreline remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence for an optimality principle underlying the self-organized partition of fluxes in delta channel networks. By introducing a suitable nonlocal entropy rate (nER) and by analyzing field and simulated deltas, we suggest that delta networks achieve configurations that maximize the diversity of water and sediment flux delivery to the shoreline. We thus suggest that prograding deltas attain dynamically accessible optima of flux distributions on their channel network topologies, thus effectively decoupling evolutionary time scales of geomorphology and hydrology. When interpreted in terms of delta resilience, high nER configurations reflect an increased ability to withstand perturbations. However, the distributive mechanism responsible for both diversifying flux delivery to the shoreline and dampening possible perturbations might lead to catastrophic events when those perturbations exceed certain intensity thresholds.

  5. A Modal Logic for Abstract Delta Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.S. de Boer (Frank); M. Helvensteijn (Michiel); J. Winter (Joost)

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractAbstract Delta Modeling is a technique for implementing (software) product lines. Deltas are put in a partial order which restricts their application and are then sequentially applied to a core product in order to form specific products in the product line. In this paper we explore the

  6. Tidal controls on river delta morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoitink, A.J.F.; Wang, Z.B.; Vermeulen, B.; Huismans, Y.; Kästner, K.

    2017-01-01

    River delta degradation has been caused by extraction of natural resources, sediment retention by reservoirs, and sea-level rise. Despite global concerns about these issues, human activity in the world's largest deltas intensifies. Harbour development, construction of flood defences, sand mining and

  7. Tidal controls on river delta morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoitink, A.J.F.; Wang, Zhengbing; Vermeulen, B.; Huismans, Y; Kästner, K

    River delta degradation has been caused by extraction of natural resources, sediment retention by reservoirs, and sea-level rise. Despite global concerns about these issues, human activity in the world’s largest deltas intensifies. Harbour development, construction of flood defences, sand mining and

  8. Floating City IJmeer : Accelerator for Delta Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Graaf, R.; Fremouw, M.; Van Bueren, B.; Czapiewska, K.; Kuijper, M.

    2006-01-01

    Climate change, sea level rise, population growth and ongoing urbanization result in higher vulnerability of the Rhine delta because it will result in increased flooding frequency, increasing investments and increased use of water, energy and other resources. The Rhine Delta also faces strong

  9. SU-F-T-22: Clinical Implications When Using TG-186 (ACE) Heterogeneity Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likhacheva, A; Grade, E; Sadeghi, A; Sokolowski, T [Arizona Cancer Specialists, Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare dosimetric calculations using traditional TG-43 formalism and Oncentra Brachy Advanced Collapsed cone Engine (ACE) TG-186 calculation algorithm in clinical setting. Methods: We analyzed dosimetry of four patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation using a multi-channel intracavitary device (SAVI). All patients were treated to 34 Gy in 10 fractions using a high-dose-rate (192) Ir source. The plans were designed and treated using the TG-43 model. ACE was used to assess the effect heterogeneity correction on various dosimetric parameters. Mass density was estimated using Hounsfield units. Results: Compared to TG-43 formalism, ACE estimated lower doses to targets and organs at risk. The mean difference was 19.8% (range 15.3–24.1%) for PTV-eval V200, 12.0% (range 9.7–17.7%) for PTV-eval V150, 4.3% (range 3.3–6.5%) for PTV-eval D95, 3.3% (range 1.4–5.4%) for PTV-eval D90, 5.4% (range 2.9–9.9%) for maximum rib dose, and 5.7% (2.4–7.4%) for maximum skin dose. There was no correlation between the magnitude of the difference and the PTV-eval volume, air volume, or tissue-applicator conformance. Conclusion: Based on our preliminary study, the TG-43 algorithm appears to overestimate the dose to targets and organs at risk when compared to the ACE TG-186 software. We hypothesize that air adjacent to the SAVI struts contributes to lack of scatter thereby contributing a significant difference in dose calculation when using ACE. We believe that ACE calculation provides a more realistic isodose distribution than TG-43. We plan to further investigate the impact of heterogeneity correction on brachytherapy planning for a wide variety of clinical scenarios, include skin, cervix/uterus, prostate, and lung.

  10. Local confidence limits for IMRT and VMAT techniques: a study based on TG119 test suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, M.; Chandroth, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to generate a local confidence limit (CL) for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) techniques used at Waikato Regional Cancer Centre. This work was carried out based on the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group (TG) 119 report. The AAPM TG 119 report recommends CLs as a bench mark for IMRT commissioning and delivery based on its multiple institutions planning and dosimetry comparisons. In this study the locally obtained CLs were compared to TG119 benchmarks. Furthermore, the same bench mark was used to test the capabilities and quality of the VMAT technique in our clinic. The TG 119 test suite consists of two primary and four clinical tests for evaluating the accuracy of IMRT planning and dose delivery systems. Pre defined structure sets contoured on computed tomography images were downloaded from AAPM website and were transferred to a locally designed phantom. For each test case two plans were generated using IMRT and VMAT optimisation. Dose prescriptions and planning objectives recommended by TG119 report were followed to generate the test plans in Eclipse Treatment Planning System. For each plan the point dose measurements were done using an ion chamber at high dose and low dose regions. The planar dose distribution was analysed for percentage of points passing the gamma criteria of 3 %/3 mm, for both the composite plan and individual fields of each plan. The CLs were generated based on the results from the gamma analysis and point dose measurements. For IMRT plans, the CLs obtained were (1) from point dose measurements: 2.49 % at high dose region and 2.95 % for the low dose region (2) from gamma analysis: 2.12 % for individual fields and 5.9 % for the composite plan. For VMAT plans, the CLs obtained were (1) from point dose measurements: 2.56 % at high dose region and 2.6 % for the low dose region (2) from gamma analysis: 1.46 % for individual fields and 0

  11. Análises de protocolos de braquiterapia, por alta taxa de dose, do controle de qualidade de alguns serviços locais, baseados no TG40, TG56 e ARCAL XXX Analysis of the high dose rate brachytherapy protocols of quality assurance programs of some local services, based on TG40, TG56 and ARCAL XXX.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen S. Guzmán Calcina

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A braquiterapia por alta taxa de dose está recebendo atenção considerável na maioria dos países. Por isso, nos serviços que utilizam este equipamento exige-se que o desenvolvimento de um programa de controle de qualidade seja cada vez mais rigoroso, para garantir não apenas a segurança aos pacientes, mas também aos operadores e demais envolvidos. Este trabalho tem por objetivos fazer um levantamento dos tipos de testes para um equipamento de braquiterapia por alta taxa de dose, propostos pelos protocolos oficiais publicados (TG40, TG56 e ARCAL XXX e avaliar os tipos de testes que atualmente são realizados por alguns serviços de radioterapia, comparando-os com aqueles apresentados nos protocolos citados. Das análises feitas, observou-se que: a quanto aos protocolos oficiais, o TG56 é mais completo que o TG40 e o ARCAL XXX; b quanto às instituições analisadas, estas em geral se basearam no TG56 para elaborar seus próprios protocolos, os quais demonstraram ter também concordância com os outros já citados. Nestes protocolos, a inexistência dos testes anuais foi notada, o que pode ser explicado por sua aparição nas freqüências trimestral e semestral. Do produto deste estudo são apresentadas tabelas dos tipos de testes com suas respectivas freqüências de utilização, das quais um protocolo pode ser inferido para auxiliar na implementação, pelo menos, dos tipos de testes de controle de qualidade básicos e indispensáveis para o equipamento, garantindo, assim, um tratamento adequado aos pacientes e uma melhor segurança ao pessoal envolvido e, conseqüentemente, assegurando a garantia de qualidade na braquiterapia por alta taxa de dose.High dose rate brachytherapy has been increasingly recognized in most countries, and radiotherapy services using this equipment are encouraged to have a very efficient quality assurance program to ensure protection for patients, workers and other personnel involved. The objective of this

  12. Reversal of autophagy dysfunction in the TgCRND8 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease ameliorates amyloid pathologies and memory deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dun-Sheng; Stavrides, Philip; Mohan, Panaiyur S; Kaushik, Susmita; Kumar, Asok; Ohno, Masuo; Schmidt, Stephen D; Wesson, Daniel; Bandyopadhyay, Urmi; Jiang, Ying; Pawlik, Monika; Peterhoff, Corrinne M; Yang, Austin J; Wilson, Donald A; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Westaway, David; Mathews, Paul M; Levy, Efrat; Cuervo, Ana M; Nixon, Ralph A

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy, a major degradative pathway for proteins and organelles, is essential for survival of mature neurons. Extensive autophagic-lysosomal pathology in Alzheimer's disease brain contributes to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, although the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we identified and characterized marked intraneuronal amyloid-β peptide/amyloid and lysosomal system pathology in the Alzheimer's disease mouse model TgCRND8 similar to that previously described in Alzheimer's disease brains. We further establish that the basis for these pathologies involves defective proteolytic clearance of neuronal autophagic substrates including amyloid-β peptide. To establish the pathogenic significance of these abnormalities, we enhanced lysosomal cathepsin activities and rates of autophagic protein turnover in TgCRND8 mice by genetically deleting cystatin B, an endogenous inhibitor of lysosomal cysteine proteases. Cystatin B deletion rescued autophagic-lysosomal pathology, reduced abnormal accumulations of amyloid-β peptide, ubiquitinated proteins and other autophagic substrates within autolysosomes/lysosomes and reduced intraneuronal amyloid-β peptide. The amelioration of lysosomal function in TgCRND8 markedly decreased extracellular amyloid deposition and total brain amyloid-β peptide 40 and 42 levels, and prevented the development of deficits of learning and memory in fear conditioning and olfactory habituation tests. Our findings support the pathogenic significance of autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease and indicate the potential value of restoring normal autophagy as an innovative therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease.

  13. The influence of delta formation mechanism on geotechnical property sequence of the late Pleistocene–Holocene sediments in the Mekong River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Minh Hoang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to characterize a variety of microstructure development-levels and geotechnical property sequences of the late Pleistocene–Holocene deposits in the Mekong River delta (MRD, and the paper furthermore discusses the influences of delta formation mechanisms on them. The survey associated the geotechnical engineering and the sedimentary geology of the late Pleistocene–Holocene deposits at five sites and also undifferentiated Pleistocene sediments. A cross-section which was rebuilt in the delta progradation-direction and between the Mekong and Bassac rivers represents the stratigraphy. Each sedimentary unit was formed under a different delta formation mechanism and revealed a typical geotechnical property sequence. The mechanical behaviors of the sediment succession in the tide-dominated delta with significant fluvial-activity and material source tend to be more cohesionless soils and strengths than those in the tide- and wave-dominated delta and even the coast. The particular tendency of the mechanical behavior of the deposit succession can be reasonably estimated from the delta formation mechanism. The characteristics of the clay minerals from the Mekong River produced the argillaceous soil which does not have extremely high plasticity. The microstructure development-levels are low to very high indicating how to choose hydraulic conductivity value, k, for estimating overconsolidation ratio, OCR, by the piezocone penetration tests (CPTU. The OCR of sediments in the delta types strangely change with depth but none less than 1. The post-depositional processes significantly influenced the microstructure development, particularly the dehydrating and oxidizing processes.

  14. Entendiendo Delta desde las Humanidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Calvo Tello

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stylometry is one of the research areas in greater development within Digital Humanities. However, few studies have worked until recently with texts in Spanish and even less so from Spanish-speaking countries. The aim of this paper is to present in Spanish, and without prior statistical knowledge from the reader, one of the main methods used in stylometry, the measure of textual distance Burrows’ Delta. This paper explains this measure using a very small corpus of proverbs and then checks the results in a corpus of Spanish novels. Both data and Python scripts are available to the community through GitHub, commented step by step so that you can play and visualize each step.

  15. EEHG at FLASH and DELTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molo, Robert; Hoener, Markus; Huck, Holger; Hacker, Kirsten; Khan, Shaukat; Schick, Andreas; Ungelenk, Peter; Zeinalzadeh, Maryam [Center for Synchrotron Radiation (DELTA), TU Dortmund University (Germany); Meulen, Peter van der; Salen, Peter [Stockholm University (Sweden); Angelova Hamberg, Gergana; Ziemann, Volker [Uppsala University (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    The echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) scheme utilizes two modulators with two magnetic chicanes in order to generate an electron density modulation with high harmonic content. In contrast to free-electron lasers (FEL) based on self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), the radiation of an EEHG FEL has better longitudinal coherence and is naturally synchronized with an external laser, which is advantageous for pump-probe applications. At the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH), an EEHG experiment is currently under preparation. The short-pulse facility at DELTA (a 1.5-GeV synchrotron light source operated by the TU Dortmund University) based on coherent harmonic generation (CHG) will be upgraded using the EEHG technique in order to reach shorter wavelengths.

  16. Mapping Soil Carbon in the Yukon Kuskokwim River Delta Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, S.; Fiske, G.; Schade, J. D.; Mann, P. J.; Holmes, R. M.; Ludwig, S.; Melton, S.; Sae-lim, N.; Jardine, L. E.; Navarro-Perez, E.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic river deltas are hotspots for carbon storage, occupying 10% of carbon stored in arctic permafrost. The Yukon Kuskokwim (YK) Delta, Alaska is located in the lower latitudinal range of the northern permafrost region in an area of relatively warm permafrost that is particularly vulnerable to warming climate. Active layer depths range from 50 cm on peat plateaus to >100 cm in wetland and aquatic ecosystems. The size of the soil organic carbon pool and vulnerability of the carbon in the YK Delta is a major unknown and is critically important as climate warming and increasing fire frequency may make this carbon vulnerable to transport to aquatic and marine systems and the atmosphere. To characterize the size and distribution of soil carbon pools in the YK Delta, we mapped the land cover of a 1910 km2 watershed located in a region of the YK Delta that was impacted by fire in 2015. The map product was the result of an unsupervised classification using the Weka K Means clustering algorithm implemented in Google's Earth Engine. Inputs to the classification were Worldview2 resolution optical imagery (1m), Arctic DEM (5m), and Sentinel 2 level 1C multispectral imagery, including NDVI, (10 m). We collected 100 soil cores (0-30 cm) from sites of different land cover and landscape position, including moist and dry peat plateaus, high and low intensity burned plateaus, fens, and drained lakes; 13 lake sediment cores (0-50 cm); and 20 surface permafrost cores (to 100 cm) from burned and unburned peat plateaus. Active layer and permafrost soils were analyzed for organic matter content, soil moisture content, and carbon and nitrogen pools (30 and 100 cm). Soil carbon content varied across the landscape; average carbon content values for lake sediments were 12% (5- 17% range), fens 26% (9-44%), unburned peat plateaus 41% (34-44%), burned peat plateaus 19% (7-34%). These values will be used to estimate soil carbon pools, which will be applied to the spatial extent of each

  17. Growth and {delta}{sup 13}C responses to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations for several crop species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanba, Y.T.; Wada, E. [Center for Ecological Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Osaki, M.; Nakamura, T. [Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    The responses of plant growth and carbon isotope discrimination ({Delta}) to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations for several crop species (lettuce: Lactuca sativa L.; corn: Zea Mays L. var. P3540, wheat: Triticum aestivum L. var Haruyutaka; and soybean: Glycine Max (L). Merr. var. Kitamusume) were investigated. Shoot relative growth rate was used to indicate plant growth, and {delta}{sup 13}C value of leaf materials in corn (C4 species) was used to calculate {Delta} for C3 species. Plant growth was stimulated by enriched CO{sub 2}, while {Delta} remained almost constant as CO{sub 2} concentration changed. {Delta} showed interspecific difference, and the plant species of larger {Delta} had larger relative growth rates. Relative growth rates of the plants of larger {Delta} were stimulated by CO{sub 2} enrichment more than those of the plants of smaller {Delta}. We propose that plant {Delta} could be a possible parameter to assess the interspecific difference of plant response to the increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. 3 figs., 2 tabs., 25 refs.

  18. Adiponectin gene polymorphism rs2241766 T/G is associated with response to pioglitazone treatment in type 2 diabetic patients from southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Insulin sensitizing drugs such as pioglitazone are not uniformly treatment effective among individual type 2 diabetic patients. Here, the relationship of pioglitazone efficacy to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP of the adiponectin gene, a critical gene directly regulated by the drug, was examined in a cohort of Chinese Han type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: Eighty type 2 diabetic patients were treated with pioglitazone (15 mg/day for 12 weeks without interruption of their current therapeutic regimen. Fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c% were collected both prior to and following pioglitazone treatment. Response to pioglitazone was defined as a decrease of at least 15% in HbA1c% levels. Three regions of the adiponectin gene containing SNPs (promoter, intron 2 and exon 2, and exon 3 were amplified and sequenced to determine genotype. RESULTS: Serum adiponectin levels were significantly increased (p<0.001 whereas fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and HbA1c% values were significantly decreased relative to baseline measurements (p<0.001. Response of patients with TG and TT genotypes at rs2241766 (exon2; 52.9% vs. 12.7%, respectively p = 0.001 was statistically significant relative to all other patients. Amongst rs2241766 TG and TT patients, the mean decrease in HbA1c% levels was greater where the genotype was TG (1.15±0.80 vs. 0.52±0.64, p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The adiponectin gene polymorphism rs2241766 T/G is associated with pioglitazone efficacy in type 2 diabetic patients, and status of the polymorphism may be an important clinical factor to consider prior to pioglitazone treatment.

  19. Growth laws for delta crevasses in the Mississippi River Delta: observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yocum, T. A.; Georgiou, I. Y.

    2016-02-01

    River deltas are accumulations of sedimentary deposits delivered by rivers via a network of distributary channels. Worldwide they are threatened by environmental changes, including subsidence, global sea level rise and a suite of other local factors. In the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) these impacts are exemplified, and have led to proposed solutions to build land that include sediment diversions, thereby reinitiating the delta cycle. While economically efficient, there are too few analogs of small deltas aside from laboratory studies, numerical modeling studies, theoretical approaches, and limited field driven observations. Anthropogenic crevasses in the modern delta are large enough to overcome limitations of laboratory deltas, and small enough to allow for "rapid" channel and wetland development, providing an ideal setting to investigate delta development mechanics. Crevasse metrics were obtained using a combination of geospatial tools, extracting key parameters (bifurcation length and width, channel order and depth) that were non-dimensionalized and compared to river-dominated delta networks previously studied. Analysis showed that most crevasses in the MRD appear to obey delta growth laws and delta allometry relationships, suggesting that crevasses do exhibit similar planform metrics to larger Deltas; the distance to mouth bar versus bifurcation order demonstrated to be a very reasonable first order estimate of delta-top footprint. However, some crevasses exhibited different growth metrics. To better understand the hydrodynamic and geomorphic controls governing crevasse evolution in the MRD, we assess delta dynamics via a suite of field observations and numerical modeling in both well-established and newly constructed crevasses. Our analysis suggests that delta development is affected by the relative influence of external (upstream and downstream) and internal controls on the hydrodynamic and sediment transport patterns in these systems.

  20. Comparison of Dose Distributions With TG-43 and Collapsed Cone Convolution Algorithms Applied to Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Patient Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrower, Sara L., E-mail: slloupot@mdanderson.org [The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Shaitelman, Simona F.; Bloom, Elizabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Salehpour, Mohammad; Gifford, Kent [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: To compare the treatment plans for accelerated partial breast irradiation calculated by the new commercially available collapsed cone convolution (CCC) and current standard TG-43–based algorithms for 50 patients treated at our institution with either a Strut-Adjusted Volume Implant (SAVI) or Contura device. Methods and Materials: We recalculated target coverage, volume of highly dosed normal tissue, and dose to organs at risk (ribs, skin, and lung) with each algorithm. For 1 case an artificial air pocket was added to simulate 10% nonconformance. We performed a Wilcoxon signed rank test to determine the median differences in the clinical indices V90, V95, V100, V150, V200, and highest-dosed 0.1 cm{sup 3} and 1.0 cm{sup 3} of rib, skin, and lung between the two algorithms. Results: The CCC algorithm calculated lower values on average for all dose-volume histogram parameters. Across the entire patient cohort, the median difference in the clinical indices calculated by the 2 algorithms was <10% for dose to organs at risk, <5% for target volume coverage (V90, V95, and V100), and <4 cm{sup 3} for dose to normal breast tissue (V150 and V200). No discernable difference was seen in the nonconformance case. Conclusions: We found that on average over our patient population CCC calculated (<10%) lower doses than TG-43. These results should inform clinicians as they prepare for the transition to heterogeneous dose calculation algorithms and determine whether clinical tolerance limits warrant modification.

  1. Effects of recharge and discharge on delta2H and delta18O composition and chloride concentration of high arsenic/fluoride groundwater from the Datong Basin, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xianjun; Wang, Yanxin; Su, Chunli; Duan, Mengyu

    2013-02-01

    To better understand the effects of recharge and discharge on the hydrogeochemistry of high levels of arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) in groundwater, environmental isotopic composition (delta2H and delta18O) and chloride (Cl) concentrations were analyzed in 29 groundwater samples collected from the Datong Basin. High arsenic groundwater samples (As > 50 micog/L) were found to be enriched in lighter isotopic composition that ranged from -92 to -78 per thousand for deuterium (delta2H) and from -12.5 to -9.9 per thousand for oxygen-18 (delta18O). High F-containing groundwater (F > 1 mg/L) was relatively enriched in heavier isotopic composition and varied from -90 to -57 per thousand and from -12.2 to -6.7 per thousand for delta2H and delta18O, respectively. High chloride concentrations and delta18O values were primarily measured in groundwater samples from the northern and southwestern portions of the study area, indicating the effect of evaporation on groundwater. The observation of relatively homogenized and low delta18O values and chloride concentrations in groundwater samples from central part of the Datong Basin might be a result of fast recharge by irrigation returns, which suggests that irrigation using arsenic-contaminated groundwater affected the occurrence of high arsenic-containing groundwater in the basin.

  2. Tidal controls on river delta morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoitink, A. J. F.; Wang, Z. B.; Vermeulen, B.; Huismans, Y.; Kästner, K.

    2017-09-01

    River delta degradation has been caused by extraction of natural resources, sediment retention by reservoirs, and sea-level rise. Despite global concerns about these issues, human activity in the world’s largest deltas intensifies. Harbour development, construction of flood defences, sand mining and land reclamation emerge as key contemporary factors that exert an impact on delta morphology. Tides interacting with river discharge can play a crucial role in the morphodynamic development of deltas under pressure. Emerging insights into tidal controls on river delta morphology suggest that--despite the active morphodynamics in tidal channels and mouth bar regions--tidal motion acts to stabilize delta morphology at the landscape scale under the condition that sediment import during low flows largely balances sediment export during high flows. Distributary channels subject to tides show lower migration rates and are less easily flooded by the river because of opposing non-linear interactions between river discharge and the tide. These interactions lead to flow changes within channels, and a more uniform distribution of discharge across channels. Sediment depletion and rigorous human interventions in deltas, including storm surge defence works, disrupt the dynamic morphological equilibrium and can lead to erosion and severe scour at the channel bed, even decades after an intervention.

  3. Evaluation of TG-43 recommended 2D-anisotropy function for elongated brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, Shahid B.; Meigooni, Ali S.; Mokhberiosgouei, Ramin; Hussain, Manzoor

    2006-01-01

    The original and updated protocols recommended by Task Group 43 from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (i.e., TG-43 and TG-43U1, respectively), have been introduced to unify brachytherapy source dosimetry around the world. Both of these protocols are based on experiences with sources less than 1.0 cm in length. TG-43U1 recommends that for 103 Pd sources, 2D anisotropy function F(r,θ), should be tabulated at a minimum for radial distances of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 5.0 cm. Anisotropy functions defined in these protocols are only valid when the point of calculation does not fall on the active length of the source. However, for elongated brachytherapy sources (active length >1 cm), some of the calculation points with r 103 Pd source at radial distances of 2.5, 3.0, and 4.0 cm were 2.95, 1.74, and 1.19, respectively, with differences up to about a factor of 3. Therefore, the validity of the linear interpolation technique for an elongated brachytherapy source with such a large variation in F(r,θ) needs to be investigated. In this project, application of the TG-43U1 formalism for dose calculation around an elongated RadioCoil trade mark sign 103 Pd brachytherapy source has been investigated. In addition, the linear interpolation techniques as described in TG-43U1 for seed type sources have been evaluated for a 5.0 cm long RadioCoil trade mark sign 103 Pd brachytherapy source. Application of a polynomial fit to F(r,θ) has also been investigated as an alternate approach to the linear interpolation technique. The results of these investigations indicate that the TG-43U1 formalism can be extended for elongated brachytherapy sources, if the two-dimensional (2D) anisotropy function is tabulated at a minimum for radial distances of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0 cm, L/2, and L/2±0.2 cm. Moreover, with the addition of recommended radial distances for 2D anisotropy functions, the linear interpolation technique more closely replicates

  4. Rise and Fall of one of World's largest deltas; the Mekong delta in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minderhoud, P. S. J.; Eslami Arab, S.; Pham, H. V.; Erkens, G.; van der Vegt, M.; Oude Essink, G.; Stouthamer, E.; Hoekstra, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Mekong delta is the third's largest delta in the world. It is home to almost 20 million people and an important region for the food security in South East Asia. As most deltas, the Mekong delta is the dynamic result of a balance of sediment supply, sea level rise and subsidence, hosting a system of fresh and salt water dynamics. Ongoing urbanization, industrialization and intensification of agricultural practices in the delta, during the past decades, resulted in growing domestic, agricultural and industrial demands, and have led to a dramatic increase of fresh water use. Since the year 2000, the amount of fresh groundwater extracted from the subsurface increased by 500%. This accelerated delta subsidence as the groundwater system compacts, with current sinking rates exceeding global sea level rise up to an order of magnitude. These high sinking rates have greatly altered the sediment budget of the delta and, with over 50% of the Mekong delta surface elevated less than 1 meter above sea level, greatly increase vulnerability to flooding and storm surges and ultimately, permanent inundation. Furthermore, as the increasingly larger extractions rapidly reduce the fresh groundwater reserves, groundwater salinization subsequently increases. On top of that, dry season low-flows by the Mekong river cause record salt water intrusion in the delta's estuarine system, creating major problems for rice irrigation. We present the work of three years research by the Dutch-Vietnamese `Rise and Fall' project on land subsidence and salinization in both groundwater and surface water in the Vietnamese Mekong delta.

  5. Impaired hippocampal acetylcholine release parallels spatial memory deficits in Tg2576 mice subjected to basal forebrain cholinergic degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bettina; Mørk, Arne; Plath, Niels

    2013-01-01

    (BFCD) in 3 months old male Tg2576 mice to co-express cholinergic degeneration with Aβ overexpression as these characteristics constitutes key hallmarks of AD. At 9 months, SAP lesioned Tg2576 mice were cognitively impaired in two spatial paradigms addressing working memory and mid to long-term memory...

  6. Soil Organic Carbon Stocks in Arctic Deltaic Sediments: Investigations in the Lena River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycki, S.; Kutzbach, L.; Desyatkin, A.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2012-04-01

    -scaling over the soil-covered areas only, we excluded all water bodies from the geomorphological units studied (first river terrace and the active floodplains) and additionally corrected the extent of the first terrace's land area by reducing it by the percentage of small water ponds and cracks detected by high-resolution aerial photography for Samoylov Island. We scaled the area-weighted SSOC averages estimated for the two geomorphological units of Samoylov Island across the corrected total land areas of the Lena River Delta's first terrace (9,400 km2) and the active floodplains (3,500 km2) leading to total organic soil carbon storage estimates for a depth of 1 m of 290 Tg C and 50 Tg C, respectively.

  7. SU-F-T-458: Tracking Trends of TG-142 Parameters Via Analysis of Data Recorded by 2D Chamber Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrian, A; Kabat, C; Defoor, D; Saenz, D; Rasmussen, K; Kirby, N; Gutierrez, A; Papanikolaou, N; Stathakis, S [University of Texas HSC SA, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: With increasing QA demands of medical physicists in clinical radiation oncology, the need for an effective method of tracking clinical data has become paramount. A tool was produced which scans through data automatically recorded by a 2D chamber array and extracts relevant information recommended by TG-142. Using this extracted information a timely and comprehensive analysis of QA parameters can be easily performed enabling efficient monthly checks on multiple linear accelerators simultaneously. Methods: A PTW STARCHECK chamber array was used to record several months of beam outputs from two Varian 2100 series linear accelerators and a Varian NovalisTx−. In conjunction with the chamber array, a beam quality phantom was used to simultaneously to determine beam quality. A minimalist GUI was created in MatLab that allows a user to set the file path of the data for each modality to be analyzed. These file paths are recorded to a MatLab structure and then subsequently accessed by a script written in Python (version 3.5.1) which then extracts values required to perform monthly checks as outlined by recommendations from TG-142. The script incorporates calculations to determine if the values recorded by the chamber array fall within an acceptable threshold. Results: Values obtained by the script are written to a spreadsheet where results can be easily viewed and annotated with a “pass” or “fail” and saved for further analysis. In addition to creating a new scheme for reviewing monthly checks, this application allows for able to succinctly store data for follow up analysis. Conclusion: By utilizing this tool, parameters recommended by TG-142 for multiple linear accelerators can be rapidly obtained and analyzed which can be used for evaluation of monthly checks.

  8. Análise TG-ROC de testes de imunofluorescência no diagnóstico de leishmaniose visceral canina Análisis TG-ROC de pruebas de inmunofluorescencia en el diagnóstico de leishmaniasis visceral canina TG-ROC analysis of immunofluorescence assays in canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria da Silva

    2009-12-01

    costo-beneficio.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the accuracy of the diagnosis of two protocols of indirect immunofluorescence assays for canine visceral leishmaniasis. METHODS: Dogs from the seroepidemiological survey conducted in an endemic area of the cities of Araçatuba and Andradina, in Northwestern São Paulo state, in 2003, and in a non-endemic area of the metropolitan region of São Paulo, were used to assess two protocols of indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA for leishmaniasis: one using a Leishmania major heterologous antigen (IFA-BM and another using a Leishmania chagasi homologous antigen (IFA-CH. Two-graph receiver operating characteristic (TG-ROC analysis was used to estimate accuracy. TG-ROC analysis compared 1:20 dilution readings of the homologous antigen (IFA-CH, considered as reference test, with IFA-BM dilutions (heterologous antigen. RESULTS: The 1:20 dilution used in the IFA-CH test showed the best contingency coefficient (0.755 and the highest strength of association between the two variables studied (chi-square=124.3. Thus, it was considered the test reference dilution in comparisons with different IFA-BM test dilutions. The best IFA-BM results were obtained from 1:40 dilutions with the best contingency coefficient (0.680 and highest strength of association (chi-square=80.8. With the change in the cut-off point, recommended for the IFA-BM 1:40 dilution in this analysis, the specificity parameter value rose from 57.5% to 97.7%, even though the 1:80 dilution showed the best sensitivity estimate (80.2%, with the new cut-off point. CONCLUSIONS: TG-ROC analysis can provide important information about diagnostic tests, in addition to offering suggestions on cut-off points that can improve test sensitivity and specificity estimates and assessing these tests in terms of the best cost-benefit ratio.

  9. Sub-Tg enthalpy relaxation in an unstable oxide glass former: insights into the structural heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yuanzheng; Zhang, Yanfei

    Structural heterogeneity plays a crucial role in determining functionality of glasses. In this work we have found that the sub-Tg enthalpy relaxation pattern in a hyperquenched glass is highly sensitive to structural heterogeneity. As a consequence, the former can be used as an effective approach...... to detect and quantify the structural heterogeneity in glass-forming liquids. However, the chemical nature of structural heterogeneity should be revealed by other means such as high resolution microscopic and spectroscopic methods. To study the impact of the structural heterogeneity on the sub-Tg relaxation...... chemical features and degrees of structural heterogeneity in glass-forming liquids. This finding contributes to the microscopic origin of both the primary and secondary relaxation in terms of structural heterogeneity. Finally the results provide insights into the relation between structural heterogeneity...

  10. Compositional characterization of carbon electrode material: A study using simultaneous TG-DTA-FTIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raje, Naina; Aacherekar, Darshana A.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2009-01-01

    Present work describes the application of thermal methods, especially the evolved gas analysis (EGA) for the compositional characterization of carbon electrode material with respect to its organic, amorphous and graphitic carbon content. Trace levels of organic carbon present in the amorphous carbon samples were determined qualitatively by using FTIR absorption spectroscopy. Amorphous and graphitic carbon content in synthetic mixture samples were determined quantitatively using simultaneous TG-DTA-FTIR measurements. FTIR system was calibrated using the measured absorption signal of the evolved carbon dioxide due to the decomposition of cadmium carbonate. Inter-comparison studies using TG-FTIR measurements show that simultaneous FTIR spectroscopy is an effective complementary quantitative measurement technique for thermogravimetric analysis involving the complex decomposition reaction processes.

  11. TH-A-BRC-01: AAPM TG-135U1 QA for Robotic Radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieterich, S.

    2016-01-01

    AAPM TG-135U1 QA for Robotic Radiosurgery - Sonja Dieterich Since the publication of AAPM TG-135 in 2011, the technology of robotic radiosurgery has rapidly developed. AAPM TG-135U1 will provide recommendations on the clinical practice for using the IRIS collimator, fiducial-less real-time motion tracking, and Monte Carlo based treatment planning. In addition, it will summarize currently available literature about uncertainties. Learning Objectives: Understand the progression of technology since the first TG publication Learn which new QA procedures should be implemented for new technologies Be familiar with updates to clinical practice guidelines AAPM TG-178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance - Steven Goetsch Purpose: AAPM Task Group 178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance was formed in August, 2008. The Task Group has 12 medical physicists, two physicians and two consultants. Methods: A round robin dosimetry intercomparison of proposed ionization chambers, electrometer and dosimetry phantoms was conducted over a 15 month period in 2011 and 2012 (Med Phys 42, 11, Nov, 2015). The data obtained at 9 institutions (with ten different Elekta Gamma Knife units) was analyzed by the lead author using several protocols. Results: The most consistent results were obtained using the Elekta ABS 16cm diameter phantom, with the TG-51 protocol modified as recommended by Alfonso et al (Med Phys 35, 11, Nov 2008). A key white paper (Med Phys, in press) sponsored by Elekta Corporation, was used to obtain correction factors for the ionization chambers and phantoms used in this intercomparison. Consistent results were obtained for both Elekta Gamma Knife Model 4C and Gamma Knife Perfexion units as measured with each of two miniature ionization chambers. Conclusion: The full report gives clinical history and background of gamma stereotactic radiosurgery, clinical examples and history, quality assurance recommendations and outline

  12. Abnormal three-steplike sub-Tg enthalpy relaxation pattern in hyperquenched metallic glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Lina; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Our recent work observed a quite different relaxation pattern, i.e., the abnormal three-steplike sub-Tg relaxation in CuZrAl GRs[1]. However, the generality and the origin of this remarkable thermodynamic anomaly remain enigmatic. By hyperquenching strategy, the present work investigated the depe......Our recent work observed a quite different relaxation pattern, i.e., the abnormal three-steplike sub-Tg relaxation in CuZrAl GRs[1]. However, the generality and the origin of this remarkable thermodynamic anomaly remain enigmatic. By hyperquenching strategy, the present work investigated...... in La55Al25Ni20 GRs. However, the correlation between Tf and the activation energy for initiating the energy releasing during thermal scanning is three-steplike for La55Al25Ni20, revealing the similar phenomenon with the abnormal ERP of Cu46Zr46Al8. These unexpected phenomena have been well explained...

  13. TH-A-BRC-01: AAPM TG-135U1 QA for Robotic Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieterich, S. [UC Davis Medical Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    AAPM TG-135U1 QA for Robotic Radiosurgery - Sonja Dieterich Since the publication of AAPM TG-135 in 2011, the technology of robotic radiosurgery has rapidly developed. AAPM TG-135U1 will provide recommendations on the clinical practice for using the IRIS collimator, fiducial-less real-time motion tracking, and Monte Carlo based treatment planning. In addition, it will summarize currently available literature about uncertainties. Learning Objectives: Understand the progression of technology since the first TG publication Learn which new QA procedures should be implemented for new technologies Be familiar with updates to clinical practice guidelines AAPM TG-178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance - Steven Goetsch Purpose: AAPM Task Group 178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance was formed in August, 2008. The Task Group has 12 medical physicists, two physicians and two consultants. Methods: A round robin dosimetry intercomparison of proposed ionization chambers, electrometer and dosimetry phantoms was conducted over a 15 month period in 2011 and 2012 (Med Phys 42, 11, Nov, 2015). The data obtained at 9 institutions (with ten different Elekta Gamma Knife units) was analyzed by the lead author using several protocols. Results: The most consistent results were obtained using the Elekta ABS 16cm diameter phantom, with the TG-51 protocol modified as recommended by Alfonso et al (Med Phys 35, 11, Nov 2008). A key white paper (Med Phys, in press) sponsored by Elekta Corporation, was used to obtain correction factors for the ionization chambers and phantoms used in this intercomparison. Consistent results were obtained for both Elekta Gamma Knife Model 4C and Gamma Knife Perfexion units as measured with each of two miniature ionization chambers. Conclusion: The full report gives clinical history and background of gamma stereotactic radiosurgery, clinical examples and history, quality assurance recommendations and outline

  14. TH-A-BRC-02: AAPM TG-178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetsch, S. [San Diego Medical Physics (United States)

    2016-06-15

    AAPM TG-135U1 QA for Robotic Radiosurgery - Sonja Dieterich Since the publication of AAPM TG-135 in 2011, the technology of robotic radiosurgery has rapidly developed. AAPM TG-135U1 will provide recommendations on the clinical practice for using the IRIS collimator, fiducial-less real-time motion tracking, and Monte Carlo based treatment planning. In addition, it will summarize currently available literature about uncertainties. Learning Objectives: Understand the progression of technology since the first TG publication Learn which new QA procedures should be implemented for new technologies Be familiar with updates to clinical practice guidelines AAPM TG-178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance - Steven Goetsch Purpose: AAPM Task Group 178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance was formed in August, 2008. The Task Group has 12 medical physicists, two physicians and two consultants. Methods: A round robin dosimetry intercomparison of proposed ionization chambers, electrometer and dosimetry phantoms was conducted over a 15 month period in 2011 and 2012 (Med Phys 42, 11, Nov, 2015). The data obtained at 9 institutions (with ten different Elekta Gamma Knife units) was analyzed by the lead author using several protocols. Results: The most consistent results were obtained using the Elekta ABS 16cm diameter phantom, with the TG-51 protocol modified as recommended by Alfonso et al (Med Phys 35, 11, Nov 2008). A key white paper (Med Phys, in press) sponsored by Elekta Corporation, was used to obtain correction factors for the ionization chambers and phantoms used in this intercomparison. Consistent results were obtained for both Elekta Gamma Knife Model 4C and Gamma Knife Perfexion units as measured with each of two miniature ionization chambers. Conclusion: The full report gives clinical history and background of gamma stereotactic radiosurgery, clinical examples and history, quality assurance recommendations and outline

  15. TH-A-BRC-02: AAPM TG-178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetsch, S.

    2016-01-01

    AAPM TG-135U1 QA for Robotic Radiosurgery - Sonja Dieterich Since the publication of AAPM TG-135 in 2011, the technology of robotic radiosurgery has rapidly developed. AAPM TG-135U1 will provide recommendations on the clinical practice for using the IRIS collimator, fiducial-less real-time motion tracking, and Monte Carlo based treatment planning. In addition, it will summarize currently available literature about uncertainties. Learning Objectives: Understand the progression of technology since the first TG publication Learn which new QA procedures should be implemented for new technologies Be familiar with updates to clinical practice guidelines AAPM TG-178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance - Steven Goetsch Purpose: AAPM Task Group 178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance was formed in August, 2008. The Task Group has 12 medical physicists, two physicians and two consultants. Methods: A round robin dosimetry intercomparison of proposed ionization chambers, electrometer and dosimetry phantoms was conducted over a 15 month period in 2011 and 2012 (Med Phys 42, 11, Nov, 2015). The data obtained at 9 institutions (with ten different Elekta Gamma Knife units) was analyzed by the lead author using several protocols. Results: The most consistent results were obtained using the Elekta ABS 16cm diameter phantom, with the TG-51 protocol modified as recommended by Alfonso et al (Med Phys 35, 11, Nov 2008). A key white paper (Med Phys, in press) sponsored by Elekta Corporation, was used to obtain correction factors for the ionization chambers and phantoms used in this intercomparison. Consistent results were obtained for both Elekta Gamma Knife Model 4C and Gamma Knife Perfexion units as measured with each of two miniature ionization chambers. Conclusion: The full report gives clinical history and background of gamma stereotactic radiosurgery, clinical examples and history, quality assurance recommendations and outline

  16. Role of humidity and other correction factors in the AAPM TG-21 dosimetry protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, D.W.; Ross, C.K.

    1988-01-01

    A detailed derivation is presented of the formulas required to determine Ngas and Dmed in the AAPM TG-21 dosimetry protocol. This protocol specifies how to determine the absorbed dose in an electron or photon beam when using exposure or absorbed dose calibrated ion chambers. It is shown that the expression given in TG-21's recent letter of clarification is incorrect. Accounting for humidity correctly increases, by 0.4%, all absorbed dose determinations using an exposure calibrated ion chamber. Taking into account other correction factors in the equation for exposure could also have varying, but significant effects (possibly over 1%). These are the stem scatter correction, the axial nonuniformity correction and the electrode correction for electrodes made of different materials from the wall. Attention is drawn to differences in the definitions of the exposure and absorbed dose calibration factors, Nx and ND, respectively, as supplied by the NBS and the NRCC

  17. Helhetsorienterad utvärdering av kollektivtrafikåtgärder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiselius, Lena Winslott; Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Leleur, Steen

    Under hösten 2008 och våren 2009 har forskare vid Avd. Trafik och väg vid Lunds Tekniska Högskola, DTU Transport vid Danmarks Tekniska Universitet samt National-ekonomiska institutionen vid Lunds Universitet genomfört ett forskningsprojekt med syfte att studera tillämpningen av en sammansatt...... (helhetsorienterad) analys av kollektiv-trafikåtgärder....

  18. Delta Electroproduction in 12-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLauchlan, Steven [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2003-01-01

    The Δ-nucleus potential is a crucial element in the understanding of the nuclear system. Previous electroexcitation measurements in the delta region reported a Q2 dependence of the Δ mass indicating that this potential is dependent on the momentum of the Δ. Such a dependence is not observed for protons and neutrons in the nuclear medium. This thesis presents the experimental study of the electroexcitation of the Δ resonance in 12C, performed using the high energy electron beam at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, and the near 4π acceptance detector CLAS that enables the detection of the full reaction final state. Inclusive, semi inclusive, and exclusive cross sections were measured with an incident electron beam energy of 1.162GeV over the Q2 range 0.175-0.475 (GeV/c)2. A Q2 dependence of the Δ mass was only observed in the exclusive measurements indicating that the Δ-nucleus potential is affected by the momentum of the Δ.

  19. TgICMAP1 is a novel microtubule binding protein in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife T Heaslip

    Full Text Available The microtubule cytoskeleton provides essential structural support for all eukaryotic cells and can be assembled into various higher order structures that perform drastically different functions. Understanding how microtubule-containing assemblies are built in a spatially and temporally controlled manner is therefore fundamental to understanding cell physiology. Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan parasite, contains at least five distinct tubulin-containing structures, the spindle pole, centrioles, cortical microtubules, the conoid, and the intra-conoid microtubules. How these five structurally and functionally distinct sets of tubulin containing structures are constructed and maintained in the same cell is an intriguing problem. Previously, we performed a proteomic analysis of the T. gondii apical complex, a cytoskeletal complex located at the apical end of the parasite that is composed of the conoid, three ring-like structures, and the two short intra-conoid microtubules. Here we report the characterization of one of the proteins identified in that analysis, TgICMAP1. We show that TgICMAP1 is a novel microtubule binding protein that can directly bind to microtubules in vitro and stabilizes microtubules when ectopically expressed in mammalian cells. Interestingly, in T. gondii, TgICMAP1 preferentially binds to the intra-conoid microtubules, providing us the first molecular tool to investigate the intra-conoid microtubule assembly process during daughter construction.

  20. Cotinine improves visual recognition memory and decreases cortical Tau phosphorylation in the Tg6799 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizzell, J Alex; Patel, Sagar; Barreto, George E; Echeverria, Valentina

    2017-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with the progressive aggregation of hyperphosphorylated forms of the microtubule associated protein Tau in the central nervous system. Cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, reduced working memory deficits, synaptic loss, and amyloid β peptide aggregation into oligomers and plaques as well as inhibited the cerebral Tau kinase, glycogen synthase 3β (GSK3β) in the transgenic (Tg)6799 (5XFAD) mice. In this study, the effect of cotinine on visual recognition memory and cortical Tau phosphorylation at the GSK3β sites Serine (Ser)-396/Ser-404 and phospho-CREB were investigated in the Tg6799 and non-transgenic (NT) littermate mice. Tg mice showed short-term visual recognition memory impairment in the novel object recognition test, and higher levels of Tau phosphorylation when compared to NT mice. Cotinine significantly improved visual recognition memory performance increased CREB phosphorylation and reduced cortical Tau phosphorylation. Potential mechanisms underlying theses beneficial effects are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Textural properties of low-fat set-type yoghurt depending on mTG addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Darnay

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to determine how 0.5-2 U/g non-inactivated mTG affects the pH development and apparent viscosity during fermentation. Furthermore we wished to examine how the enzyme addition could change protein structure, gel strength and sensory characteristics by healthy low-fat set-type yoghurt product. Therefore commercial mTG enzyme preparation was added in different concentrations (0.5-2.0 U/g, in 0.5 U/g steps to 1.5 % bovine milk simultaneously with DVS starter culture. Our study revealed that enzyme dosage (0.5-2 U/g protein had no impact on pH development and apparent viscosity during fermentation when manufacturing low-fat (1.5 % set-type yoghurt. The addition of mTG contributed to 38 % more whey retention with incorporation of β-casein, and caused 44 % higher gel strength up to a level of 1 U/g protein.

  2. Legal Delta Boundary, 2001, DWR [ds586

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The original topographic maps containing the drawn delta border were scanned from the Department of Water Resources. Images were registered to 1:24,000 USGS DRG's in...

  3. sheltered creeks in Niger Delta, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-03-18

    Mar 18, 2015 ... 273 and 115,000 barrels, respectively, making the delta. *Corresponding author. .... content was transferred to savillex digestion bombs and concen- trated hydrochloric ... metals (Zn, Pb and Cu) by flame atomic absorption.

  4. South Local Government Area, Delta S

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    environs, Aniocha- South Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria was carried out with a view to determining the ... supply for physical industrial development to achieve maximum human .... the Schlumberger O' Neil software package.

  5. Delta-nucleus dynamics: proceedings of symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.S.H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Schiffer, J.P. (eds.)

    1983-10-01

    The appreciation of the role in nuclear physics of the first excited state of the nucleon, the delta ..delta..(1232), has grown rapidly in the past decade. The delta resonance dominates nuclear reactions induced by intermediate energy pions, nucleons, and electromagnetic probes. It is also the most important non-nucleonic degree of freedom needed to resolve many fundamental problems encountered in the study of low-energy nuclear phenomena. Clearly, a new phase of nuclear physics has emerged and conventional thinking must be extended to account for this new dimension of nuclear dynamics. The most challenging problem we are facing is how a unified theory can be developed to describe ..delta..-nucleus dynamics at all energies. In exploring this new direction, it is important to have direct discussions among researchers with different viewpoints. Separate entries were prepared for the 49 papers presented. (WHK)

  6. Damped Oscillator with Delta-Kicked Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manko, O. V.

    1996-01-01

    Exact solutions of the Schrodinger equation for quantum damped oscillator subject to frequency delta-kick describing squeezed states are obtained. The cases of strong, intermediate, and weak damping are investigated.

  7. On the origin of delta spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.

    1983-01-01

    Mount Wilson sunspot drawings from 1966 through 1980 were used in conjunction with Hα filtergrams from Big Bear Solar Observatory to examine the origin of delta spots, spots with bipolar umbrae within one penumbra. Of the six cases we studied, five were formed by the union of non-paired spots. They are either shoved into one another by two neighboring growing bipoles or by a new spot born piggy-back style on an existing spot of opposite polarity. Proper motions of the growing spots take on curvilinear paths around one another to avoid a collision. This is the shear motion observed in delta spots (Tanaka, 1979). In the remaining case, the delta spot was formed by spots that emerged as a pair. Our findings indicate no intrinsic differences in the formation or the behavior between delta spots of normal magnetic configuration. (orig.)

  8. 2016 Rose Ojowhoh Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OJOHWOH ROSE

    The study examined staff development and library services in academic libraries in Bayelsa and Delta States. ... academic libraries, whose responsibility will be to cater for the development of staff in all ramifications. ..... Human resource.

  9. AMNESTY IN THE NIGER DELTA: VERTICAL MOVEMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLAWUYI

    federal government, the Niger Delta communities claim that they are entitled to ... instability, macroeconomic challenges, inconsistent policy regimes to ..... continues they cannot threaten the stability of the country nor affect its continued.

  10. Astrobee Periodic Technical Review (PTR) Delta 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Christopher; Smith, Marion F.; Smith, Ernest Everett; Bualat, Maria Gabriele; Barlow, Jonathan Spencer

    2017-01-01

    Astrobee is a free flying robot for the inside of the International Space Station (ISS). The Periodic Technical Review (PTR) delta 3 is the final design review of the system presented to stakeholders.

  11. {delta}{sup 15}N of seagrass leaves for monitoring anthropogenic nutrient increases in coral reef ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamuro, M.; Kayanne, H.; Yamano, H

    2003-04-01

    In a coral reef environment, a slight increase in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN;{>=}1.0 {mu}M) can alter the ecosystem via macroalgal blooms. We collected seagrass leaves from the tropical and subtropical Pacific Ocean in five countries and examined the interactions between nutrient concentrations (C, N, P), molar ratios of nutrients, and {delta}{sup 15}N to find a possible indicator of the DIN conditions. Within most sites, the concentrations of nutrients and their molar ratios showed large variations owing to species-specific values. On the other hand, almost identical {delta}{sup 15}N values were found in seagrass leaves of several species at each site. The correlations between {delta}{sup 15}N and nutrient concentrations and between {delta}{sup 15}N and molar ratios of nutrients suggested that nutrient availability did not affect the {delta}{sup 15}N value of seagrass leaves by altering the physiological condition of the plants. Increases in {delta}{sup 15}N of seagrass leaves mostly matched increases in DIN concentrations in the bottom water. We suggest that {delta}{sup 15}N in seagrass leaves can be a good tool to monitor time-integrated decrease/increase of DIN concentrations at a site, both in the water column and the interstitial water.

  12. Succession after fire: variation in \\delta13C of organic tissues and respired CO2 in boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessenden, J. E.; Li, H.; Mack, M.; Schuur, T.; Warren, S.; Randerson, J. T.

    2001-12-01

    Isotope ratios of carbon dioxide and leaf organic matter were measured in 5 neighboring forests of varying ages: 7, 14, 45, 140, and 160 years. These forests are composed primarily of black spruce (Picea Mariana) and quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) with a shift in species dominance from aspen to spruce 50 years after fire disturbance. Research on the carbon isotope ratios of leaf material and CO2 was conducted to look for influences from species composition, forest age, and time after most recent burn. Samples of organic \\delta13C in whole leaf tissue were collected from the dominant species of each forest. Concurrent aboveground NPP measurements allowed us to estimate total ecosystem \\delta13C by providing a method for weighting \\delta13C of individual species and plant tissues. \\delta13CO2 and [CO2] were measured on canopy CO2 to determine the isotopic ratio of ecosystem respiration. The atmospheric results indicated that the \\delta13C of ecosystem respiration changes with successional stage. Specifically, the aspen dominating forests showed 13C depleted values relative to the spruce dominated forests. Organic results showed more 13C-enriched values with increased forest age and vegetation functional type. Specifically, oldest trees within the coniferous species had the most 13C-enriched values in leaf tissues. These results suggest that increases in the disturbance regime of northern boreal forests will lead to a decrease in the \\delta13C of ecosystem carbon with consequences for the atmospheric \\delta13C budget.

  13. Recombinant TgHSP70 Immunization Protects against Toxoplasma gondii Brain Cyst Formation by Enhancing Inducible Nitric Oxide Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide M. Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is known to cause congenital infection in humans and animals and severe disease in immunocompromised individuals; consequently development of vaccines against the parasite is highly necessary. Under stress conditions, T. gondii expresses the highly immunogenic heat shock protein 70 (TgHSP70. Here, we assessed the protective efficacy of rTgHSP70 immunization combined with Alum in oral ME-49 T. gondii infection and the mechanisms involved on it. It was observed that immunized mice with rTgHSP70 or rTgHSP70 adsorbed in Alum presented a significantly reduced number of cysts in the brain that was associated with increased iNOS+ cell numbers in the organ, irrespective the use of the adjuvant. Indeed, ex vivo experiments showed that peritoneal macrophages pre-stimulated with rTgHSP70 presented increased NO production and enhanced parasite killing, and the protein was able to directly stimulate B cells toward antibody producing profile. In addition, rTgHSP70 immunization leads to high specific antibody titters systemically and a mixed IgG1/IgG2a response, with predominance of IgG1 production. Nonetheless, it was observed that the pretreatment of the parasite with rTgHSP70 immune sera was not able to control T. gondii internalization and replication by NIH fibroblast neither peritoneal murine macrophages, nor anti-rTgHSP70 antibodies were able to kill T. gondii by complement-mediated lysis, suggesting that these mechanisms are not crucial to resistance. Interestingly, when in combination with Alum, rTgHSP70 immunization was able to reduce inflammation in the brain of infected mice and in parallel anti-rTgHSP70 immune complexes in the serum. In conclusion, immunization with rTgHSP70 induces massive amounts of iNOS expression and reduced brain parasitism, suggesting that iNOS expression and consequently NO production in the brain is a protective mechanism induced by TgHSP70 immunization, therefore rTgHSP70 can be a good candidate for

  14. Migration in Vulnerable Deltas: A Research Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, C.; Nicholls, R. J.; Allan, A.

    2015-12-01

    C. Hutton1, & R. J. Nicholls1, , 1 University of Southampton, University Road, Southampton, Hampshire, United Kingdom, SO17 1BJ. cwh@geodata. soton.ac.ukAbstractGlobally, deltas contain 500 million people and with rising sea levels often linked to large number of forced migrants are expected in the coming century. However, migration is already a major process in deltas, such as the growth of major cities such as Dhaka and Kolkata. Climate and environmental change interacts with a range of catchment and delta level drivers, which encompass a nexus of sea-level rise, storms, freshwater and sediment supply from the catchment, land degradation, subsidence, agricultural loss and socio-economic stresses. DECCMA (Deltas, Vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation/CARRIA) is investigating migration in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM), Mahanadi and Volta Deltas, including the influence of climate change. The research will explore migration from a range of perspectives including governance and stakeholder analysis, demographic analysis, household surveys of sending and receiving areas, macro-economic analysis, and hazards and hotspot analysis both historically and into the future. Migration under climate change will depend on other adaptation in the deltas and this will be examined. Collectively, integrated analysis will be developed to examine migration, other adaptation and development pathways with a particular focus on the implications for the poorest. This will require the development of input scenarios, including expert-derived exogenous scenarios (e.g., climate change) and endogenous scenarios of the delta developed in a participatory manner. This applied research will facilitate decision support methods for the development of deltas under climate change, with a focus on migration and other adaptation strategies.

  15. Multi-Shell Hybrid Diffusion Imaging (HYDI at 7 Tesla in TgF344-AD Transgenic Alzheimer Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelaine Daianu

    Full Text Available Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI is widely used to study microstructural characteristics of the brain. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and high-angular resolution imaging (HARDI are frequently used in radiology and neuroscience research but can be limited in describing the signal behavior in composite nerve fiber structures. Here, we developed and assessed the benefit of a comprehensive diffusion encoding scheme, known as hybrid diffusion imaging (HYDI, composed of 300 DWI volumes acquired at 7-Tesla with diffusion weightings at b = 1000, 3000, 4000, 8000 and 12000 s/mm2 and applied it in transgenic Alzheimer rats (line TgF344-AD that model the full clinico-pathological spectrum of the human disease. We studied and visualized the effects of the multiple concentric "shells" when computing three distinct anisotropy maps-fractional anisotropy (FA, generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA and normalized quantitative anisotropy (NQA. We tested the added value of the multi-shell q-space sampling scheme, when reconstructing neural pathways using mathematical frameworks from DTI and q-ball imaging (QBI. We show a range of properties of HYDI, including lower apparent anisotropy when using high b-value shells in DTI-based reconstructions, and increases in apparent anisotropy in QBI-based reconstructions. Regardless of the reconstruction scheme, HYDI improves FA-, GFA- and NQA-aided tractography. HYDI may be valuable in human connectome projects and clinical research, as well as magnetic resonance research in experimental animals.

  16. Multi-Shell Hybrid Diffusion Imaging (HYDI) at 7 Tesla in TgF344-AD Transgenic Alzheimer Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daianu, Madelaine; Jacobs, Russell E; Weitz, Tara M; Town, Terrence C; Thompson, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is widely used to study microstructural characteristics of the brain. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and high-angular resolution imaging (HARDI) are frequently used in radiology and neuroscience research but can be limited in describing the signal behavior in composite nerve fiber structures. Here, we developed and assessed the benefit of a comprehensive diffusion encoding scheme, known as hybrid diffusion imaging (HYDI), composed of 300 DWI volumes acquired at 7-Tesla with diffusion weightings at b = 1000, 3000, 4000, 8000 and 12000 s/mm2 and applied it in transgenic Alzheimer rats (line TgF344-AD) that model the full clinico-pathological spectrum of the human disease. We studied and visualized the effects of the multiple concentric "shells" when computing three distinct anisotropy maps-fractional anisotropy (FA), generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) and normalized quantitative anisotropy (NQA). We tested the added value of the multi-shell q-space sampling scheme, when reconstructing neural pathways using mathematical frameworks from DTI and q-ball imaging (QBI). We show a range of properties of HYDI, including lower apparent anisotropy when using high b-value shells in DTI-based reconstructions, and increases in apparent anisotropy in QBI-based reconstructions. Regardless of the reconstruction scheme, HYDI improves FA-, GFA- and NQA-aided tractography. HYDI may be valuable in human connectome projects and clinical research, as well as magnetic resonance research in experimental animals.

  17. Evaluation of the Accuracy of NASS/CDS Delta-V Estimates from the Enhanced WinSmash Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Carolyn E.; Gabler, Hampton C.

    2010-01-01

    The National Automotive Sampling System / Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) uses the WinSmash program to reconstruct changes in vehicle velocity for real world crashes. Vehicle change in velocity, or delta-V, is a measure of crash severity and a predictor of injury risk. Earlier studies have demonstrated that WinSmash 2.42 underestimated the delta-V by 23% on average with the use of categorical stiffness values for vehicles identified as a source of error. An enhanced version of WinSmash, WinSmash 2008, was developed to employ vehicle specific stiffness values whenever possible. A total of 478 General Motors vehicles equipped with event data recorders (EDRs) and involved in real-world crashes were collected from years 2000 – 2008 of the NASS/CDS database and the delta-V was computed using the enhanced WinSmash. All vehicles were involved in frontal impacts. The enhanced reconstruction algorithm reduced the underestimation of delta-V from 23% to 13% on average for all vehicles. Delta-V estimates for cars only were greatly improved but still understated by 16% on average. Less than 5% error in delta-V was observed for pickup trucks and utility vehicles. The amount of structural overlap for the vehicle and investigator confidence in the reconstruction continued to have an effect on accuracy. No difference in average delta-V was observed when using either updated categorical stiffness values or vehicle specific stiffness values. The changes in WinSmash delta-Vs have important policy implications for NHTSA as the NASS/CDS delta-Vs are the basis for traffic and safety regulations as well as the speeds for vehicular crash testing and costs/benefits analyses. PMID:21050607

  18. Controls of {delta}{sup 34}S and {delta}{sup 18}O in dissolved sulphate: Learning from a detailed survey in the Llobregat River (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otero, Neus [Departament Cristal . lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Grup d' Hidrogeoquimica, Departament de Geologia Ambiental, Institut de Ciencies de la Terra ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC, Lluis Sole i Sabaris, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: notero@ub.edu; Soler, Albert; Canals, Angels [Departament Cristal . lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    The S and O isotopic composition of dissolved SO{sub 4}, used as a tracer for SO{sub 4} sources, was applied to the water of the Llobregat River system (NE Spain). The survey was carried out at 30 sites where surface water was sampled on a monthly basis over a period of 2a. The concentration of dissolved SO{sub 4} varied from 20 to 1575 mg L{sup -1}. Sulphur isotopic compositions clustered in two populations: one - 93% of the samples - had positive values with a mode of +9 per mille ; the other had negative values and a mode of -5 per mille . Data for {delta}{sup 18}O{sub SO{sub 4}} showed a mean value of +11 per mille , with no bi-modal distribution, though lower values of {delta}{sup 18}O corresponded to samples with negative {delta}{sup 34}S. These values can not be explained solely by the contribution of bedrock SO{sub 4} sources: that is, sulphide oxidation and the weathering of outcrops of sulphates, though numerous chemical sediments exist in the basin. Even in a river with a high concentration of natural sources of dissolved SO{sub 4}, such as the Llobregat River, the {delta}{sup 34}S values suggest that dissolved SO{sub 4} is controlled by a complex mix of both natural and anthropogenic sources. The main anthropogenic sources in this basin are fertilizers, sewage, potash mine effluent and power plant emissions. Detailed river water sampling, together with the chemical and isotopic characterisation of the main anthropogenic inputs, allowed determination of the influence of redox processes, as well as identification of the contribution of natural and anthropogenic SO{sub 4} sources and detection of spatial variations and seasonal changes among these sources. For instance, in the Llobregat River the input of fertilisers is well marked seasonally. Minimum values of {delta}{sup 34}S are reported during fertilization periods - from January to March - indicating a higher contribution of this source. The dual isotope approach, {delta}{sup 34}S and {delta}{sup 18}O

  19. Isotopic variations ({delta}{sup 13} C and {delta}{sup 18} O) in Siderastrea stellata (Cnidaria-Anthozoa), Itamaraca island, State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Valderez P.; Sial, Alcides N. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Lab. de Isotopos Estaveis; Mayeal, Elga M.; Exner, Marco Antonio [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia. Lab. de Macro e Megabentos

    1998-12-01

    Isotopic determinations for O and C were performed in coral skeletons collected in beach rocks from two localities (Orange and Catuama), Itamaraca Island, north littoral of the State of pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. Large variations of {delta}{sup 18} O and {delta}{sup 13} C in corals from both localities are found, the largest ones being observed at the Orange locality {delta}{sup 13} C in this locality varies from -0.8 to +1.8% PDB and {delta}{sup 1.8} O from -5.3 to -1.8% PDB, while at the Catuama locality, they vary from -1.8 to 0.1% PDB and -3.8 to -2.7% PDB, respectively. Large variations in {delta}{sup 18} O (up to 2.5%) coupled with weakly defined positive correlation between {delta}{sup 18} O and {delta}{sup 13} C, can be attributed to temperature variations as consequence of climatic perturbations. Temperature estimates, calculated from {delta}{sup 18} O values, assuming isotopic equilibrium with seawater, yield values between 24.9 deg C and 43.1 deg C at Orange, and from 28.4 deg C to 35 deg C at Catuama, all of them (expect one growth band from one sample) are high enough for the full development of the coral colony. Temperature average is 31.4 deg C at Orange, which is a little bit higher than that at Catuama, but both of them indicate thermal stress conditions. In all analyzed specimens, expect for one, at Orange, T increases was accompanied by decreasing in the organic activity, as suggested by corresponding negative {delta}{sup 13} C anomaly. Therefore, the observed bleaching is possibly related to thermal stress and the high T may be related to the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) warning event. On the other hand, anthropogenic action at Orange, local of intense tourism throughout the year, coupled with high rate of sedimentation in the region, may contribute to the observed coral bleaching. (author)

  20. A novel mouse PKC{delta} splice variant, PKC{delta}IX, inhibits etoposide-induced apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung D. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Kwang W. [Department of Internal Medicines, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun A.; Quang, Nguyen N. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hong R. [Department of Surgery, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Center, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Byungsuk, E-mail: bskwon@mail.ulsan.as.kr [School of Biological Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Center, Ulsan University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: {yields} A novel PKC{delta} isoform, named PKC{delta}IX, that lacks the C1 domain and the ATP-binding site is ubiquitously expressed. {yields} PKC{delta}IX inhibits etoposide-induced apoptosis. {yields} PKC{delta}IX may function as an endogenous dominant negative isoform for PKC{delta}. -- Abstract: Protein kinase C (PKC) {delta} plays an important role in cellular proliferation and apoptosis. The catalytic fragment of PKC{delta} generated by caspase-dependent cleavage is essential for the initiation of etoposide-induced apoptosis. In this study, we identified a novel mouse PKC{delta} isoform named PKC{delta}IX (Genebank Accession No. (HQ840432)). PKC{delta}IX is generated by alternative splicing and is ubiquitously expressed, as seen in its full-length PKC{delta}. PKC{delta}IX lacks the C1 domain, the caspase 3 cleavage site, and the ATP binding site but preserves an almost intact c-terminal catalytic domain and a nuclear localization signal (NLS). The structural characteristics of PKC{delta}IX provided a possibility that this PKC{delta} isozyme functions as a novel dominant-negative form for PKC{delta} due to its lack of the ATP-binding domain that is required for the kinase activity of PKC{delta}. Indeed, overexpression of PKC{delta}IX significantly inhibited etoposide-induced apoptosis in NIH3T3 cells. In addition, an in vitro kinase assay showed that recombinant PKC{delta}IX protein could competitively inhibit the kinase activity of PKC{delta}. We conclude that PKC{delta}IX can function as a natural dominant-negative inhibitor of PKC{delta}in vivo.

  1. Prognostic value of postoperative stimulated thyroglobulin levels on 131I ablation therapy in papillary thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zairong; Chang Wei; Cui Kunwei; Chang Guoxiang; Huang Daijuan; Zhang Yongxue

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Stimulated thyroglobulin (Tg) levels postablation was associated with disease recurrence in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of postoperative stimulated Tg level on future Tg positivity after 131 I ablation therapy in PTC. Methods: One hundred and thirty-eight patients (28 men, 110 women; age range 6-70 years, mean age 39.4 years) with PTC were included in this study. All patients underwent total or near-total thyroidectomy, and 102 of these patients had lymphadenectomy. All patients had a documented PTC. 131 I ablation was performed in 3- 4 weeks after thyroidectomy. Sera levels of thyroid hormones (FT 3 , FT 4 ), thyrotropin (TSH), anti-Tg anti-body (TgAb), and Tg were measured before and after 13I ablation. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 13.0 software, and correlation analysis and t-test were used. Results: Postoperative stimulated Tg lev-el had a significantly positive association with postablation stimulated Tg level (r = 0. 960, P 131 I ablation therapy. Total or near-total thyroidectomy simultaneously conjugated with lymphadenectomy might have a better result in lower postablation stimulated Tg positivity in patients with PTC. (authors)

  2. Reconstruction of past variations of (delta)13C in atmospheric CO2 from i vertical distribution observed in the firn at Dome Fuji, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, S.

    2003-01-01

    Temporal variations of (delta) 13 C of atmospheric CO 2 in the past have been reconstructed from the (delta) 13 C values of CO 2 observed in firn at Dome Fuji, Antarctica. The effective diffusivities of CO 2 in firn were estimated for Dome Fuji and another Antarctic site, H72. The age distributions of 13 CO 2 in firn were first calculated by using a one-dimensional diffusion model, and then the past values of the atmospheric (delta) 13 C were derived by using an iterative procedure so that the calculated and observed vertical profiles of (delta) 13 C of CO 2 in firn agreed with each other. This reconstruction method was also applied to the CH 4 concentration to confirm its validity. The values of the atmospheric (delta) 13 C thus estimated were in good agreement with those from direct atmospheric measurements at Syowa Station, Antarctica, even for the levelling off of the secular decrease observed in the first half of the 1990s. The statistical uncertainty of the iterative procedure was examined by adding normal pseudo-random numbers to the observed (delta) 13 C values in firn. We also calculated the (delta) 13 C values for firn at H72 using the reconstructed history of the atmospheric (delta) 13 C, and its vertical profile was found to be in close agreement with the observational result

  3. Delta infection evidenced by radioimmunoanalysis in selected collectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kselikova, M; Horejsi, J; Urbankova, J

    1987-01-01

    The presence of the Delta agent within the population was tested by means of the Delta-antibody radioimmunoassay using competitive kits of the firms ABBOTT (ABBOTT-ANTI-DELTA) and SORIN (AB-DELTAK). The Delta-antibody was found in 3.2% HBV patients, 5% HBsAg carriers, and in 20.8% of specific anti-Hbs-immunoglobulin. In hemophiliacs and blood donors no Delta-antibody was seen.

  4. Delta infection evidenced by radioimmunoanalysis in selected collectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kselikova, M.; Horejsi, J.; Urbankova, J.

    1987-01-01

    The presence of the Delta agent within the population was tested by means of the Delta-antibody radioimmunoassay using competitive kits of the firms ABBOTT (ABBOTT-ANTI-DELTA) and SORIN (AB-DELTAK). The Delta-antibody was found in 3.2% HBV patients, 5% HBsAg carriers, and in 20.8% of specific anti-Hbs-immunoglobulin. In hemophiliacs and blood donors no Delta-antibody was seen. (author)

  5. Growth laws for sub-delta crevasses in the Mississippi River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yocum, T. A.; Georgiou, I. Y.; Straub, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    River deltas are threatened by environmental change, including subsidence, global sea level rise, reduced sediment inputs and other local factors. In the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) these impacts are exemplified, and have led to proposed solutions to build land that include sediment diversions to reinitiate the delta cycle. Deltas were studied extensively using numerical models, theoretical and conceptual frameworks, empirical scaling relationships, laboratory models and field observations. But predicting the future of deltas relies on field observations where for most deltas data are still lacking. Moreover, empirical and theoretical scaling laws may be influenced by the data used to develop them, while laboratory deltas may be influenced by scaling issues. Anthropogenic crevasses in the MRD are large enough to overcome limitations of laboratory deltas, and small enough to allow for rapid channel and wetland development, providing an ideal setting to investigate delta development mechanics. Here we assessed growth laws of sub-delta crevasses (SDC) in the MRD, in two experimental laboratory deltas (LD - weakly and strongly cohesive) and compared them to river dominated deltas worldwide. Channel and delta geometry metrics for each system were obtained using geospatial tools, bathymetric datasets, sediment size, and hydrodynamic observations. Results show that SDC follow growth laws similar to large river dominated deltas, with the exception of some that exhibit anomalous behavior with respect to the frequency and distance to a bifurcation and the fraction of wetted delta shoreline (allometry metrics). Most SDC exhibit a systematic decrease of non-dimensional channel geometries with increased bifurcation order, indicating that channels are adjusting to decreased flow after bifurcations occur, and exhibit linear trends for land allometry and width-depth ratio, although geometries decrease more rapidly per bifurcation order. Measured distance to bifurcations in SDC

  6. Carbon Stocks in Permafrost-Affected Soils of the Lena River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycki, S.; Kutzbach, L.; Grosse, G.; Desyatkin, A.; Pfeiffer, E.

    2012-12-01

    additionally corrected the extent of the first terrace's land area by reducing it by the percentage of small water ponds and cracks by 14% detected by high-resolution aerial photography for Samoylov Island. We scaled the area-weighted SSOC averages estimated for the two geomorphological units of Samoylov Island across the corrected total land areas of the Lena River Delta's first terrace (9,430 km2) and the active floodplains (3,470 km2) leading to total organic soil carbon storage estimates for a depth of 1 m of ~278 ± 98 Tg C and ~47 ± 26 Tg C, respectively [2]. References [1] Tarnocai, C., Canadell, J.G., Schuur, E.A.G., Kuhry, P. Mazhitova, G. & Zimov, S., 2009. Soil organic carbon pools in the northern circumpolar permafrost region. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 23, GB2023: 11p. [2] Zubrzycki, S., Kutzbach, L., Grosse, G., A. R. Desyatkin & E.-M. Pfeiffer (in prep.). Soil Organic Carbon Stocks in the Lena River Delta. In preparation for BGS.

  7. Authenticity assessment of gamma- and delta-decalactone from prunus fruits by gas chromatography combustion/pyrolysis isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C/P-IRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hirotoshi; Appel, Markus; Richling, Elke; Schreier, Peter

    2005-06-29

    Authenticity assessment of gamma-decalactone (1) and delta-decalactone (2) from peach (Prunus persica var. persica), apricot (Prunus armeniaca), and nectarine (Prunus persica var. nectarina) was performed using gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) in the combustion (C) and pyrolysis (P) mode. In addition, commercially available synthetic (nature-identical) 1 and 2 as well as biotechnologically produced samples (declared to be "natural") were characterized by their delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW) and delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) values. For the Prunus fruits under study, rather narrow ranges of delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) and delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW) data of 1, varying from - 34.6 per thousand to - 38.4 per thousand and -160 per thousand to -206 per thousand, respectively, were obtained. Synthetic references of 1 showed delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) and delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW) data ranging from -27.4 per thousand to -28.3 per thousand and -151 per thousand to -184 per thousand, respectively. Samples of 1 declared to be "natural" exhibited ranges from -28.1 per thousand to -29.2 per thousand and -192 per thousand to -286 per thousand for delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) and delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW), respectively. For 2 from peach, apricot, and nectarine, delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) values ranging from -34.0 per thousand to -37.9 per thousand were determined; the delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW) values ranged from -171 per thousand to -228 per thousand. The delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) and delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW) data for synthetic 2 were -28.2 per thousand and -171 per thousand, respectively, that is, similar to those of 2 from "natural" origin, ranging from -27.7 per thousand to -30.1 per thousand and -185 per thousand to -230 per thousand for delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) and delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW), respectively. GC-C/P-IRMS allowed clear-cut analytical differentiation of the synthetic and "ex-plant" origin of 1 and 2, whereas narrow ranges of delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) and delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW) data were found for samples of

  8. Challenges Facing the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta: Complex, Chaotic, or Simply Cantankerous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel N. Luoma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2015v13iss3art7Freshwater is a scarce and precious resource in California; its overall value is being made clear by the current severe drought. The Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta is a critical node in a complex water supply system that extends throughout much of the western U.S. wherein demand is exceeding supply. The Delta also underpins a major component of the U.S. economy, helps feed a substantial part of the country, is a unique and valuable ecological resource, and is a place with a rich cultural heritage. Sustaining the Delta is a problem that manifests itself in many dimensions including the physical structure of the Delta, the conflicting demands for water, changing water quality, rapidly evolving ecological character, and high institutional complexity. The problems of the California Delta are increasingly complex, sometimes chaotic, and always contentious. There is general agreement that current management will sustain neither the Delta ecosystem nor high-quality water exports, as required under the Delta Reform Act, so there is a renewed urgency to address all dimensions of the problem aggressively. Sustainable management of the Delta ecosystem and California’s highly variable water supply, in the face of global climate change, will require bold political decisions that include adjustments to the infrastructure but give equal emphasis to chronic overuse and misuse of water, promote enhanced efficiency of water use, and facilitate new initiatives for ecosystem recovery. This new approach will need to be underpinned by collaborative science that supports ongoing evaluation and re-adjustment of actions. Problems like the Delta are formally “wicked" problems that cannot be “solved” in the traditional sense, but they can be managed with appropriate knowledge and flexible institutions. Where possible, it is advisable to approach major actions incrementally, with an eye toward avoiding

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light chain as a biomarker of neurodegeneration in the Tg4510 and MitoPark mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Amalie; Mitchelmore, Cathy; Andersson, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    examined whether changes in NF-L levels in brain, plasma, and CSF reflect the changing disease status of preclinical models of neurodegeneration. Using Western Blot and ELISA we characterized NF-L and disease-related proteins in brain, CSF and plasma samples from Tg4510 mice (tauopathy/AD), MitoPark mice...... (PD), and their age-matched control littermates. We found that CSF NF-L clearly discriminates Tg4510 from control littermates, which was not observed for the MitoPark model. However, both Tg4510 and MitoPark showed altered expression and solubilization of NFs compared to control littermates. We found...

  10. FXIIIA and TGF-beta over-expression produces normal musculo-skeletal phenotype in TG2-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, U; Oliva, F; Taurisano, G; Orlandi, A; Pietroni, V; Candi, E; Melino, G; Maffulli, N

    2009-04-01

    Transglutaminase (TGs) enzymes and proteins crosslinking have for long time been implicated in the formation of hard tissue development, matrix maturation and mineralization. Among the TGs family members, in the context of connective tissue formation, TG2 and Factor XIII are expressed in cartilage by hypertrophic chondrocytes. Here, we analyse the morphological consequences of TG2 deficiency, during the development of skeletal elements. When TG2 is absent, there are not gross abnormalities in the development of the skeletal system, probably from compensatory mechanisms resulting in increased expression of FXIIIA and TGF-beta 1. In vivo other TGs may be involved in promoting chondrocytes and osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralisation.

  11. Free radical-scavenging delta-lactones from Boletus calopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Woo; Yoo, Ick-Dong; Kim, Won-Gon

    2006-12-01

    The methanol extracts from the fruiting body of the mushroom Boletus calopus showed free radical-scavenging activity. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the methanol extracts led to a new hydroxylated calopin named calopin B, along with the known delta-lactones calopin and cyclocalopin A. The structure of the new calopin analogue was elucidated by spectroscopic methods. All compounds showed potent free radical-scavenging activity against superoxide, DPPH, and ABTS radicals with IC (50) values of 1.2 - 5.4 microg/mL.

  12. Preparing the Dutch delta for future droughts: model based support in the national Delta Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Maat, Judith; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; van der Vat, Marnix; Hunink, Joachim; Prinsen, Geert; Visser, Martijn

    2014-05-01

    changing conditions. The plan commits to short term actions, and identifies signpost indicators and trigger values to assess if next actions of the identified policy pathways need to be implemented or if reassessment of the plan is needed. For example, river discharges could be measured to monitor changes in low discharges as a result of climate change, and assess whether policy options such as diverting more water the main fresh water lake (IJsselmeer) need to be implemented sooner or later or not at all. The adaptive plan of the Delta Programme will be presented in 2014. First lessons of this part of the Delta Programme can already be drawn: Both the complex and meta-model had its own purpose in each phase. The meta-model was particularly useful for identifying promising policy options and for consultation of stakeholders due to the instant response. The complex model had much more opportunities to assess impacts of regional policy actions, and was supported by regional stakeholders that recognized their areas better in this model. Different sector impact assessment modules are also included in the workflow of the complex model. However, the complex model has a long runtime (i.e. three days for 1 year simulation or more than 100 days for 35 year time series simulation), which makes it less suitable to support the dynamic policy process on instant demand and interactively.

  13. Structural and superconducting properties of oxygen-deficient NdBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 minus. delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaked, H. (Nuclear Research Center-Negev, Post Office Box 9001, Beer Sheva, Israel (IL) Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Post Office Box 653, Beer Sheva, Israel (IL)); Veal, B.W.; Faber, J. Jr.; Hitterman, R.L.; Balachandran, U.; Tomlins, G.; Shi, H.; Morss, L.; Paulikas, A.P. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Neutron diffraction was used to determine the structural properties of oxygen deficient NdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} for 0.09{lt}{delta}{lt}0.74. It was found that superconductivity disappears at the orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition which occurs at {delta}{sub {ital O}{ital T}}=0.45. Structural parameters vary smoothly with {delta} but exhibit a change in slope at the orthorhombic-to-tetragonal transition. The structural properties exhibit the same features found in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} where {delta}{sub {ital O}{ital T}}=0.65. It is shown that the repulsion energy of oxygen atoms in the O(1) and O(5) sites in NdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} is smaller than in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}}. This lower repulsion energy stabilizes the orthorhombic phase at lower values of {delta}. It is argued that the disappearance of superconductivity at the orthorhombic-to-tetragonal transition is an inherent property of the {ital R}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} ({ital R} denotes rare earth) system.

  14. Houtman Abrolhos Isotope (delta 18O, delta 13C) Data for 1795 to 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — DESCRIPTION: VARIABLES AND UNITS: Column #1: core depth in mm Column #2: delta C-13 vs V-PDB Column #3: delta O-18 vs V-PDB Column #4: assigned date in years A.D....

  15. The Enabling Delta Life Initiative - Global Programme of Action on Deltas - Programme description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, van W.F.; Skyllerstedt, S.; Wosten, J.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Being ‘hotspots’ of human activity with generally high population densities, deltas are vulnerable to changes induced by a range of driving forces, both natural and anthropogenic. In addition to already existing challenges, uncertainty of the possible impacts of climate change, low lying deltas

  16. Tg.rasH2 Mice and not CByB6F1 Mice Should Be Used for 28-Day Dose Range Finding Studies Prior to 26-Week Tg.rasH2 Carcinogenicity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjpe, Madhav G; Belich, Jessica; Vidmar, Tom J; Elbekai, Reem H; McKeon, Marie; Brown, Caren

    Our recent retrospective analysis of data, collected from 29 Tg.rasH2 mouse carcinogenicity studies, determined how successful the strategy of choosing the high dose for the 26-week studies was based on the estimated maximum tolerated dose (EMTD) derived from earlier 28-day dose range finding (DRF) studies conducted in CByB6F1 mice. Our analysis demonstrated that the high doses applied at EMTD in the 26-week Tg.rasH2 studies failed to detect carcinogenic effects. To investigate why the dose selection process failed in the 26-week carcinogenicity studies, the initial body weights, terminal body weights, body weight gains, food consumption, and mortality from the first 4 weeks of 26-week studies with Tg.rasH2 mice were compared with 28-day DRF studies conducted with CByB6F1 mice. Both the 26-week and the earlier respective 28-day studies were conducted with the exact same vehicle, test article, and similar dose levels. The analysis of our results further emphasizes that the EMTD and subsequent lower doses, determined on the basis of the 28-day studies in CByB6F1 mice, may not be an accurate strategy for selecting appropriate dose levels for the 26-week carcinogenicity studies in Tg.rasH2 mice. Based on the analysis presented in this article, we propose that the Tg.rasH2 mice and not the CByB6F1 mice should be used in future DRF studies. The Tg.rasH2 mice demonstrate more toxicity than the CByB6F1 mice, possibly because of their smaller size compared to CByB6F1 mice. Also, the Tg.rasH2 males appear to be more sensitive than the female Tg.rasH2 mice.

  17. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  18. Holocene evolution of a wave-dominated fan-delta: Godavari delta, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Y.; Nageswara Rao, K.; Nagakumar, K.; Demudu, G.; Rajawat, A.; Kubo, S.; Li, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The Godavari delta is one of the world's largest wave-dominated deltas. The Godavari River arises in the Western Ghats near the west coast of India and drains an area of about 3.1x10^5 km^2, flowing about 1465 km southeast across the Indian peninsula to the Bay of Bengal. The Godavari delta consists of a gentle seaward slope from its apex (12 m elevation) at Rajahmundry and a coastal beach-ridge plain over a distance of about 75 km and covers ~5200 km^2 as a delta plain. The river splits into two major distributary channels, the Gautami and the Vasishta, at a barrage constructed in the mid-1800s. The coastal environment of the deltaic coast is microtidal (~1 m mean tidal range) and wave-dominated (~1.5 m mean wave height in the June-September SW monsoon season, ~0.8 m in the NE monsoon season). Models of the Holocene evolution of the Godavari delta have changed from a zonal progradation model (e.g. Nageswara Rao & Sadakata, 1993) to a truncated cuspate delta model (Nageswara Rao et al., 2005, 2012). Twelve borehole cores (340 m total length), taken in the coastal delta plain during 2010-2013, yielded more than 100 C-14 dates. Sediment facies and C-14 dates from these and previous cores and remote-sensing data support a new delta evolution model. The Holocene coastal delta plain is divided into two parts by a set of linear beach ridges 12-14 km landward from the present shoreline in the central part of the delta. The location of the main depocenter (lobe) has shifted during the Holocene from 1) the center to 2) the west, 3) east, 4) center, 5) west, and 6) east. The linear beach ridges separate the first three from the last three stages. These lobe shifts are controlled by river channel shifts near the apex. Just as the current linear shoreline of the central part of the delta and the concave-up nearshore topography are the result of coastal erosion of a cuspate delta, the linear beach ridges indicate a former eroded shoreline. An unconformity within the deltaic

  19. Stable computation of generalized singular values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drmac, Z.; Jessup, E.R. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We study floating-point computation of the generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD) of a general matrix pair (A, B), where A and B are real matrices with the same numbers of columns. The GSVD is a powerful analytical and computational tool. For instance, the GSVD is an implicit way to solve the generalized symmetric eigenvalue problem Kx = {lambda}Mx, where K = A{sup {tau}}A and M = B{sup {tau}}B. Our goal is to develop stable numerical algorithms for the GSVD that are capable of computing the singular value approximations with the high relative accuracy that the perturbation theory says is possible. We assume that the singular values are well-determined by the data, i.e., that small relative perturbations {delta}A and {delta}B (pointwise rounding errors, for example) cause in each singular value {sigma} of (A, B) only a small relative perturbation {vert_bar}{delta}{sigma}{vert_bar}/{sigma}.

  20. delta 13C analyses of vegetable oil fatty acid components, determined by gas chromatography--combustion--isotope ratio mass spectrometry, after saponification or regiospecific hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, S E; Evershed, R P; Rossell, J B

    1998-05-01

    The delta 13C values of the major fatty acids of several different commercially important vegetable oils were measured by gas chromatography--combustion--isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The delta 13C values obtained were found to fall into two distinct groups, representing the C3 and C4 plants classes from which the oils were derived. The delta 13C values of the oils were measured by continuous flow elemental isotope ratio mass spectrometry and were found to be similar to their fatty acids, with slight differences between individual fatty acids. Investigations were then made into the influence on the delta 13C values of fatty acids of the position occupied on the glycerol backbone. Pancreatic lipase was employed to selectively hydrolyse fatty acids from the 1- and 3-positions with the progress of the reaction being followed by high-temperature gas chromatography in order to determine the optimum incubation time. The 2-monoacylglycerols were then isolated by thin-layer chromatography and fatty acid methyl esters prepared. The delta 13C values obtained indicate that fatty acids from any position on the glycerol backbone are isotopically identical. Thus, whilst quantification of fatty acid composition at the 2-position and measurement of delta 13C values of oils and their major fatty acids are useful criteria in edible oil purity assessment, measurement of delta 13C values of fatty acids from the 2-position does not assist with oil purity assignments.

  1. Influence of processing parameters on microstructure and tensile properties of TG6 titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tao; Guo Hongzhen; Wang Yanwei; Yao Zekun

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → This paper highlights the relationships among processing parameters, microstructure and tensile properties of TG6 high temperature titanium alloy. → The microstructural evolutions under different processing parameters were studied by the quantitative metallography, and the effects of microstructure on room and high temperature tensile properties of TG6 alloy were analysed by SEM and TEM. → Linear relationships of elongation vs. volume fraction of primary α phase and ultimate tensile strength vs. thickness of lamellar α phase were determined. - Abstract: Near-isothermal forging of the TG6 titanium alloy was conducted on microprocessor-controlled 630 ton hydraulic press at the deformation temperatures ranging from 850 deg. C to 1045 deg. C, the strain rates of 0.0008 s -1 , 0.003 s -1 and 0.008 s -1 and the deformation degree from 10% to 70%, and then different double heat treatments were applied to the forged specimens. The microstructural evolutions were researched by optical microscope and the microstructural features, i.e. volume fraction of primary α phase and thickness of lamellar α phase, were measured by means of the image analysis software. The room and high temperature tensile properties were obtained for all the specimens. Effects of microstructure on the properties were analysed by scanning electronic microscope. It was found that tenslie properties depended on microstructural features strongly. The plots of ultimate tensile strength vs. thickness of α lamellae and elongation vs. volume fraction of primary α phase produced straight lines. The liner equations were determined by fitting the experimental date, respectively. Compared to other parameters, heat treatment had more influence on the tensile strength and the tensile plasticity was more sensitive to the forging temperature.

  2. How useful are delta checks in the 21st century? A stochastic-dynamic model of specimen mix-up and detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Ovens

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Delta checks use two specimen test results taken in succession in order to detect test result changes greater than expected physiological variation. One of the most common and serious errors detected by delta checks is specimen mix-up errors. The positive and negative predictive values of delta checks for detecting specimen mix-up errors, however, are largely unknown. Materials and Methods: We addressed this question by first constructing a stochastic dynamic model using repeat test values for five analytes from approximately 8000 inpatients in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. The analytes examined were sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, and creatinine. The model simulated specimen mix-up errors by randomly switching a set number of pairs of second test results. Sensitivities and specificities were then calculated for each analyte for six combinations of delta check equations and cut-off values from the published literature. Results: Delta check specificities obtained from this model ranged from 50% to 99%; however the sensitivities were generally below 20% with the exception of creatinine for which the best performing delta check had a sensitivity of 82.8%. Within a plausible incidence range of specimen mix-ups the positive predictive values of even the best performing delta check equation and analyte became negligible. Conclusion: This finding casts doubt on the ongoing clinical utility of delta checks in the setting of low rates of specimen mix-ups.

  3. C4 plant isotopic composition ((delta)13C) evidence for urban CO2 pollution in the city of Cotonou, Benin (West Africa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelome, Nelly C.; Leveque, Jean; Andreux, Francis; Milloux, Marie-Jeanne; Oyede, Lucien-Marc

    2006-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition ((delta) 13 C) of plants can reveal the isotopic carbon content of the atmosphere in which they develop. The (delta) 13 C values of air and plants depend on the amount of atmospheric fossil fuel CO 2 , which is chiefly emitted in urban areas. A new indicator of CO 2 pollution is tested using the (delta) 13 C variation in a C 4 grass: Eleusine indica. A range of about 4%% delta units was observed at different sites in Cotonou, the largest city in the Republic of Benin. The highest (delta) 13 C values, from -12%% to -14%%, were found in low traffic zones; low (delta) 13 C values, from -14%% to -16%%, were found in high traffic zones. The amount of fossil fuel carbon assimilated by plants represented about 20% of the total plant carbon content. An overall decrease in plant (delta) 13 C values was observed over a four-year monitoring period. This decrease was correlated with increasing vehicle traffic. The (delta) 13 C dataset and the corresponding geographical database were used to map and define zones of high and low 13 C-depleted CO 2 emissions in urban and sub-urban areas. The spatial distribution follows dominant wind directions, with the lowest emission zones found in the southwest of Cotonou. High CO 2 emissions occurred in the north, the east and the center, providing evidence of intense anthropogenic activity related to industry and transportation. (author)

  4. C4 plant isotopic composition (delta13C) evidence for urban CO2 pollution in the city of Cotonou, Benin (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kèlomé, Nelly C; Lévêque, Jean; Andreux, Francis; Milloux, Marie-Jeanne; Oyédé, Lucien-Marc

    2006-08-01

    The carbon isotopic composition (delta13C) of plants can reveal the isotopic carbon content of the atmosphere in which they develop. The delta13C values of air and plants depend on the amount of atmospheric fossil fuel CO2, which is chiefly emitted in urban areas. A new indicator of CO2 pollution is tested using the delta13C variation in a C4 grass: Eleusine indica. A range of about 4 per thousand delta units was observed at different sites in Cotonou, the largest city in the Republic of Benin. The highest delta13C values, from -12 per thousand to -14 per thousand, were found in low traffic zones; low delta13C values, from -14 per thousand to -16 per thousand, were found in high traffic zones. The amount of fossil fuel carbon assimilated by plants represented about 20% of the total plant carbon content. An overall decrease in plant delta13C values was observed over a four-year monitoring period. This decrease was correlated with increasing vehicle traffic. The delta13C dataset and the corresponding geographical database were used to map and define zones of high and low 13C-depleted CO2 emissions in urban and sub-urban areas. The spatial distribution follows dominant wind directions, with the lowest emission zones found in the southwest of Cotonou. High CO2 emissions occurred in the north, the east and the center, providing evidence of intense anthropogenic activity related to industry and transportation.

  5. License - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Open TG-GATEs License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2012/05/24 You may use this database...scribed below. The Standard License specifies the license terms regarding the use of this database and the r...equirements you must follow in using this database. The Additional License specif...icense. Standard License The Standard License for this database is the license specified in the Creative Com...mons Attribution-Share Alike 2.1 Japan . If you use data from this database, plea

  6. Total skin high-dose-rate electron therapy dosimetry using TG-51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossman, Michael S.; Sharma, Subhash C.

    2004-01-01

    An approach to dosimetry for total skin electron therapy (TSET) is discussed using the currently accepted TG-51 high-energy calibration protocol. The methodology incorporates water phantom data for absolute calibration and plastic phantom data for efficient reference dosimetry. The scheme is simplified to include the high-dose-rate mode conversion and provides support for its use, as it becomes more available on newer linear accelerators. Using a 6-field, modified Stanford technique, one may follow the process for accurate determination of absorbed dose

  7. Open source integrated modeling environment Delta Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchyts, G.; Baart, F.; Jagers, B.; van Putten, H.

    2012-04-01

    In the last decade, integrated modelling has become a very popular topic in environmental modelling since it helps solving problems, which is difficult to model using a single model. However, managing complexity of integrated models and minimizing time required for their setup remains a challenging task. The integrated modelling environment Delta Shell simplifies this task. The software components of Delta Shell are easy to reuse separately from each other as well as a part of integrated environment that can run in a command-line or a graphical user interface mode. The most components of the Delta Shell are developed using C# programming language and include libraries used to define, save and visualize various scientific data structures as well as coupled model configurations. Here we present two examples showing how Delta Shell simplifies process of setting up integrated models from the end user and developer perspectives. The first example shows coupling of a rainfall-runoff, a river flow and a run-time control models. The second example shows how coastal morphological database integrates with the coastal morphological model (XBeach) and a custom nourishment designer. Delta Shell is also available as open-source software released under LGPL license and accessible via http://oss.deltares.nl.

  8. The Inconvenient Truth of Fresh Sediment: Insights from a New Method for Quantifying Subsidence in the Mississippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, E. L.; Shen, Z.; Tornqvist, T. E.; Kim, W.

    2017-12-01

    Knowing the rates and drivers of subsidence in deltas is essential to coastal management. There is a growing consensus that relatively shallow processes such as compaction and artificial drainage are primary contributors to subsidence, although deeper processes such as faulting may be locally important. Here we present a new method to quantify subsidence of a 6000 km2 relict bayhead delta of the Mississippi Delta, using the depth of the mouthbar-overbank stratigraphic boundary that formed near the low tide level in combination with OSL chronology. The contributions of isostatic processes are removed by subtracting a relative sea-level rise term previously obtained from basal peat. We find that displacement rates of the boundary, averaged over 750 to 1500 years, are on the order of a few mm/yr. Cumulative displacement is strongly correlated to overburden thickness, decreases coastward coincident with thinning of the bayhead delta deposit, and appears unrelated to the thickness of underlying Holocene strata or the occurrence of previously mapped faults. This supports compaction of shallow strata as a dominant driver of subsidence in the Mississippi Delta. We find that at least 50% of elevation gained through overbank deposition is ultimately lost to subsidence, significantly greater than the 35% loss previously estimated for inland localities underlain by peat. Our results demonstrate that bayhead deltas are especially vulnerable to subsidence. This finding has major relevance to coastal restoration in the Mississippi Delta through engineered river-sediment diversions. While inactive regions of the delta may be fairly stable if not perturbed by humans, the introduction of fresh sediment to the delta plain will inevitably accelerate subsidence. Values obtained with our method will be applied to a delta growth model that predicts the land-building potential of river-sediment diversions discharging into open bays under realistic scenarios of load-driven subsidence.

  9. Biomechanical assays amniotic membrane preserved in glycerol correlating with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Fernando Augusto N.; Santin, Stefany P.; Martino Junior, Antonio C.; Machado, Luci Diva B.; Freitas, Anderson Z.; Mathor, Monica B.

    2013-01-01

    Young's modulus, the OCT technique, to generate high-resolution images in real time being a non-destructive technique, thermogravimetry (TG) assessing the amount of water and rate of water output membranes after treatment with ionizing radiation, relating the possible changes with non-irradiated tissue. However the results of the tensile test had the same behavior compared to the values of total attenuation coefficient by OCT, in addition the dehydration rate analyzed by TG had no statistically significant variation to some radiation doses. (author)

  10. Biomechanical assays amniotic membrane preserved in glycerol correlating with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Fernando Augusto N.; Santin, Stefany P.; Martino Junior, Antonio C.; Machado, Luci Diva B.; Freitas, Anderson Z.; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: fernandonevessoares@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energetias Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Young's modulus, the OCT technique, to generate high-resolution images in real time being a non-destructive technique, thermogravimetry (TG) assessing the amount of water and rate of water output membranes after treatment with ionizing radiation, relating the possible changes with non-irradiated tissue. However the results of the tensile test had the same behavior compared to the values of total attenuation coefficient by OCT, in addition the dehydration rate analyzed by TG had no statistically significant variation to some radiation doses. (author)

  11. Increased hippocampal excitability in the 3xTgAD mouse model for Alzheimer's disease in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Davis

    Full Text Available Mouse Alzheimer's disease (AD models develop age- and region-specific pathology throughout the hippocampal formation. One recently established pathological correlate is an increase in hippocampal excitability in vivo. Hippocampal pathology also produces episodic memory decline in human AD and we have shown a similar episodic deficit in 3xTg AD model mice aged 3-6 months. Here, we tested whether hippocampal synaptic dysfunction accompanies this cognitive deficit by probing dorsal CA1 and DG synaptic responses in anaesthetized, 4-6 month-old 3xTgAD mice. As our previous reports highlighted a decline in episodic performance in aged control mice, we included aged cohorts for comparison. CA1 and DG responses to low-frequency perforant path stimulation were comparable between 3xTgAD and controls at both age ranges. As expected, DG recordings in controls showed paired-pulse depression; however, paired-pulse facilitation was observed in DG and CA1 of young and old 3xTgAD mice. During stimulus trains both short-latency (presumably monosynaptic: 'direct' and long-latency (presumably polysynaptic: 're-entrant' responses were observed. Facilitation of direct responses was modest in 3xTgAD animals. However, re-entrant responses in DG and CA1 of young 3xTgAD mice developed earlier in the stimulus train and with larger amplitude when compared to controls. Old mice showed less DG paired-pulse depression and no evidence for re-entrance. In summary, DG and CA1 responses to low-frequency stimulation in all groups were comparable, suggesting no loss of synaptic connectivity in 3xTgAD mice. However, higher-frequency activation revealed complex change in synaptic excitability in DG and CA1 of 3xTgAD mice. In particular, short-term plasticity in DG and CA1 was facilitated in 3xTgAD mice, most evidently in younger animals. In addition, re-entrance was facilitated in young 3xTgAD mice. Overall, these data suggest that the episodic-like memory deficit in 3xTgAD mice

  12. Follow-up of patients with thyroglobulin-antibodies : Rising Tg-Ab trend is a risk factor for recurrence of differentiated thyroid cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meer, Siegrid G A; Vorselaars, Wessel M C M; Kist, Jakob W; Stokkel, Marcel P M; de Keizer, Bart; Valk, Gerlof D; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M; Vriens, Menno R

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Differentiated thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. Recurrences (5-20%) are the main reason for follow-up. Thyroglobulin (Tg) has proven to be an excellent disease marker, but thyroglobulin-antibodies (Tg-Ab) may interfere with Tg measurement, leading to over or

  13. SU-F-T-54: Determination of the AAPM TG-43 Brachytherapy Dosimetry Parameters for A New Titanium-Encapsulated Yb-169 Source by Monte Carlo Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynoso, F [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Munro, J [Source Production & Equipment Co., Inc., St. Rose, LA (United States); Cho, S [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the AAPM TG-43 brachytherapy dosimetry parameters of a new titanium-encapsulated Yb-169 source designed to maximize the dose enhancement during gold nanoparticle-aided radiation therapy (GNRT). Methods: An existing Monte Carlo (MC) model of the titanium-encapsulated Yb-169 source, which was described in the current investigators’ published MC optimization study, was modified based on the source manufacturer’s detailed specifications, resulting in an accurate model of the titanium-encapsulated Yb-169 source that was actually manufactured. MC calculations were then performed using the MCNP5 code system and the modified source model, in order to obtain a complete set of the AAPM TG-43 parameters for the new Yb-169 source. Results: The MC-calculated dose rate constant for the new titanium-encapsulated Yb-169 source was 1.05 ± 0.03 cGy per hr U, indicating about 10% decrease from the values reported for the conventional stainless steel-encapsulated Yb-169 sources. The source anisotropy and radial dose function for the new source were found similar to those reported for the conventional Yb-169 sources. Conclusion: In this study, the AAPM TG-43 brachytherapy dosimetry parameters of a new titanium-encapsulated Yb-169 source were determined by MC calculations. The current results suggested that the use of titanium, instead of stainless steel, to encapsulate the Yb-169 core would not lead to any major change in the dosimetric characteristics of the Yb-169 source, while it would allow more low energy photons being transmitted through the source filter thereby leading to an increased dose enhancement during GNRT. Supported by DOD/PCRP grant W81XWH-12-1-0198 This investigation was supported by DOD/PCRP grant W81XWH-12-1- 0198.

  14. Inter-Annual Variability of Area-Scaled Gaseous Carbon Emissions from Wetland Soils in the Liaohe Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Siyuan; Krauss, Ken W; Brix, Hans; Wei, Mengjie; Olsson, Linda; Yu, Xueyang; Ma, Xueying; Wang, Jin; Yuan, Hongming; Zhao, Guangming; Ding, Xigui; Moss, Rebecca F

    2016-01-01

    Global management of wetlands to suppress greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, facilitate carbon (C) sequestration, and reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations while simultaneously promoting agricultural gains is paramount. However, studies that relate variability in CO2 and CH4 emissions at large spatial scales are limited. We investigated three-year emissions of soil CO2 and CH4 from the primary wetland types of the Liaohe Delta, China, by focusing on a total wetland area of 3287 km2. One percent is Suaeda salsa, 24% is Phragmites australis, and 75% is rice. While S. salsa wetlands are under somewhat natural tidal influence, P. australis and rice are managed hydrologically for paper and food, respectively. Total C emissions from CO2 and CH4 from these wetland soils were 2.9 Tg C/year, ranging from 2.5 to 3.3 Tg C/year depending on the year assessed. Primary emissions were from CO2 (~98%). Photosynthetic uptake of CO2 would mitigate most of the soil CO2 emissions, but CH4 emissions would persist. Overall, CH4 fluxes were high when soil temperatures were >18°C and pore water salinity emissions from rice habitat alone in the Liaohe Delta represent 0.2% of CH4 carbon emissions globally from rice. With such a large area and interannual sensitivity in soil GHG fluxes, management practices in the Delta and similar wetlands around the world have the potential not only to influence local C budgeting, but also to influence global biogeochemical cycling.

  15. TG2 regulates the heat-shock response by the post-translational modification of HSF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin, Federica; Villella, Valeria Rachela; D'Eletto, Manuela; Farrace, Maria Grazia; Esposito, Speranza; Ferrari, Eleonora; Monzani, Romina; Occhigrossi, Luca; Pagliarini, Vittoria; Sette, Claudio; Cozza, Giorgio; Barlev, Nikolai A; Falasca, Laura; Fimia, Gian Maria; Kroemer, Guido; Raia, Valeria; Maiuri, Luigi; Piacentini, Mauro

    2018-05-11

    Heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1) is the master transcription factor that regulates the response to proteotoxic stress by controlling the transcription of many stress-responsive genes including the heat-shock proteins. Here, we show a novel molecular mechanism controlling the activation of HSF1. We demonstrate that transglutaminase type 2 (TG2), dependent on its protein disulphide isomerase activity, triggers the trimerization and activation of HSF1 regulating adaptation to stress and proteostasis impairment. In particular, we find that TG2 loss of function correlates with a defect in the nuclear translocation of HSF1 and in its DNA-binding ability to the HSP70 promoter. We show that the inhibition of TG2 restores the unbalance in HSF1-HSP70 pathway in cystic fibrosis (CF), a human disorder characterized by deregulation of proteostasis. The absence of TG2 leads to an increase of about 40% in CFTR function in a new experimental CF mouse model lacking TG2. Altogether, these results indicate that TG2 plays a key role in the regulation of cellular proteostasis under stressful cellular conditions through the modulation of the heat-shock response. © 2018 The Authors.

  16. El plan del delta - Holanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1963-09-01

    Full Text Available Holland is very poor in land resources. Hence its development has been directed towards intensive industrialization and maximum agricultural exploitation. The western part of the country is below sea level and is occupied by 65 percent of the population. Originally the coast consisted of a number of islands, estuaries and slight elevations. Man has transformed this coastline, first making a number of artificial lakes, or polders, and then converting these into fertile districts. These projects protect the soil by means of dykes, which require careful conservation, but even so violent floods are not infrequent. One of the difficult problems involved in this vast enterprise is the complex system of water supply, lines of communication and flow of the rivers into the sea along the estuary zone. This zone is on the south west, and to protect it a National Commission has been set up. After careful study, it was decided that the best defense against the violence of the sea would consist in closing off the inroads of the sea into the continental coastline. The set of hydraulic projects which constitutes this plan for the improvement of the sea defences will take 25 years to fulfil. The general project is highly ambitious and includes both maritime, road and structural works, in which there is a variety of stonework constructions. This paper describes, in brief outline, the main contents of the 11 headings into which the general construction project has been subdivided. In addition, this is supplemented with information on the projects which are already initiated and on the constructional procedure that is being adopted. Of these latter projects, the Nabla bridge is of particular interest. It is situated on the delta. It is made in prestressed concrete, and consists of 17 spans, of 60 length each. This enormous structure, in addition to its great length, and supporting a 22.8 ms wide roadway, is subjected to the tremendous forces 11» of the sea on one

  17. Is there a delta-delta-pi problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicus, D.A.; Teplitz, V.L.

    1984-10-01

    Chew's dedication to the goal of solving the problem of strong interaction dynamics and his attention to all aspects of the problem are recalled. It is then pointed out that deduction of g/sub ΔΔπ/ from P33 πN inelastically appears to give a value significantly less than almost all theoretical calculations and review efforts to data to resolve this apparent discrepancy

  18. Long-term phenylbutyrate administration prevents memory deficits in Tg2576 mice by decreasing Abeta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricobaraza, Ana; Cuadrado-Tejedor, Mar; Garcia-Osta, Ana

    2011-06-01

    Aberrations in protein folding, processing, and/or degradation are common features of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) is a well-known histone deacetylase inhibitor, which increases gene transcription of a number of genes, and also exerts neuroprotective effects. PBA acts as a chemical chaperone reducing the load of mutant or unfolded proteins during cellular stress. Previously, we reported that 5-week administration of PBA reinstated memory loss and dendritic spine densities in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. In this study we reported that chronic administration of PBA, starting before the onset of disease symptoms (6 month-old) prevents age-related memory deficits in Tg2576 mice. The amelioration of the memory impairment is associated to a decrease in amyloid beta pathology and the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), suggesting that inflammation was reduced in PBA-treated animals. Together, the beneficial effects of PBA make it a promising agent for the prevention of AD.

  19. Investigation on caloric requirement of biomass pyrolysis using TG-DSC analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Fang [Institute of Utilization of Biomass, Shandong University of Technology, No. 12, Zhangzhou Road, Zibo, Shandong 255049 (China)]. E-mail: hf@sdut.edu.cn; Yi Weiming [Institute of Utilization of Biomass, Shandong University of Technology, No. 12, Zhangzhou Road, Zibo, Shandong 255049 (China); Bai Xueyuan [Institute of Utilization of Biomass, Shandong University of Technology, No. 12, Zhangzhou Road, Zibo, Shandong 255049 (China)

    2006-09-15

    The caloric requirement of biomass pyrolysis has an important influence on the course of the thermal conversion. However, precise data are difficult to achieve by the current calculation method because of the complexity of the process. A new method for achieving the caloric requirement of the process by integrating the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves was proposed after the simultaneous thermal analyzer (TG-DSC) and DSC curves were investigated. Experiments were conducted for wheat straw, cotton stalk, pine and peanut shell on a Netsch STA 449C analyzer. Powder samples were put into a platinum crucible with a lid on a high accuracy DSC-cp sample holder in the furnace and then heated from ambient temperature up to the maximum temperature of 973 K at the heating rate of 10 K/min in the analyzer. The product gases were swept away by 25 ml/min nitrogen. Mass changes (TG) and calorimetric effects (DSC) were recorded and analyzed. The process was investigated in detail through comparison of the DTG (differential thermogravimetric) and DSC curves of wheat straw. After the water influence in the DSC was eliminated, the relationship of the caloric requirement with the temperature of the aforementioned dry biomass was obtained by integrating the DSC curve. The results showed that 523 kJ, 459 kJ, 646 kJ and 385 kJ were required, respectively, to increase the temperature of 1 kg of dried wheat straw, cotton stalk, pine and peanut from 303 K to 673 K.

  20. Cheese whey protein recovery by ultrafiltration through transglutaminase (TG) catalysis whey protein cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-Qiong, Wang; Lan-Wei, Zhang; Xue, Han; Yi, Lu

    2017-01-15

    In whey ultrafiltration (UF) production, two main problems are whey protein recovery and membrane fouling. In this study, membrane coupling protein transglutaminase (TG) catalysis protein cross-linking was investigated under different conditions to find out the best treatment. We found that the optimal conditions for protein recovery involved catalyzing whey protein cross-linking with TG (40U/g whey proteins) at 40°C for 60min at pH 5.0. Under these conditions, the recovery rate was increased 15-20%, lactose rejection rate was decreased by 10%, and relative permeate flux was increase 30-40% compared to the sample without enzyme treatment (control). It was noticeable that the total resistance and cake resistance were decreased after enzyme catalysis. This was mainly due to the increased particle size and decreased zeta potential. Therefore, membrane coupling enzyme catalysis protein cross-linking is a potential means for further use. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. SU-F-P-15: Report On AAPM TG 178 Gamma Knife Dosimetry and Quality Assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetsch, S [San Diego Medical Physics, Solana Beach, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: AAPM Task Group 178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance was formed in August, 2008. The Task Group has 12 medical physicists, two physicians and two consultants. Methods: A round robin dosimetry intercomparison of proposed ionization chambers, electrometer and dosimetry phantoms was conducted over a 15 month period in 2011 and 2012 (Med Phys 42, 11, Nov, 2015). The data obtained at 9 institutions (with ten different Elekta Gamma Knife units) was analyzed by the lead author using several protocols. Results: The most consistent results were obtained using the Elekta ABS 16cm diameter phantom, with the TG-51 protocol modified as recommended by Alfonso et al (Med Phys 35, 11, Nov 2008). A key white paper (Med Phys, in press) sponsored by Elekta Corporation, was used to obtain correction factors for the ionization chambers and phantoms used in this intercomparison. Consistent results were obtained for both Elekta Gamma Knife Model 4C and Gamma Knife Perfexion units as measured with each of two miniature ionization chambers Conclusion: The full TG 178 report gives clinical history and background of gamma stereotactic radiosurgery, clinical examples and history, quality assurance recommendations and outline of possible dosimetry protocols. The report will be reviewed by the AAPM Working Group on Recommendations for Radiotherapy External Beam Quality Assurance and then by the AAPM Science Council before publication in Medical Physics. Consultant to Elekta, Inc.

  2. Tissue Transglutaminase (TG2)-Induced Inflammation in Initiation, Progression, and Pathogenesis of Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, Kapil, E-mail: kmehta@mdanderson.org; Han, Amy [Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2011-02-25

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is among the deadliest cancers, with a median survival of six months. It is generally believed that infiltrating PC arises through the progression of early grade pancreatic intraepithelial lesions (PanINs). In one model of the disease, the K-ras mutation is an early molecular event during progression of pancreatic cancer; it is followed by the accumulation of additional genetic abnormalities. This model has been supported by animal studies in which activated K-ras and p53 mutations produced metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in mice. According to this model, oncogenic K-ras induces PanIN formation but fails to promote the invasive stage. However, when these mice are subjected to caerulein treatment, which induces a chronic pancreatitis-like state and inflammatory response, PanINs rapidly progress to invasive carcinoma. These results are consistent with epidemiologic studies showing that patients with chronic pancreatitis have a much higher risk of developing PC. In line with these observations, recent studies have revealed elevated expression of the pro-inflammatory protein tissue transglutaminase (TG2) in early PanINs, and its expression increases even more as the disease progresses. In this review we discuss the implications of increased TG2 expression in initiation, progression, and pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer.

  3. TU-E-BRB-03: Overview of Proposed TG-132 Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, K. [University of Michigan (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Deformable image registration (DIR) is developing rapidly and is poised to substantially improve dose fusion accuracy for adaptive and retreatment planning and motion management and PET fusion to enhance contour delineation for treatment planning. However, DIR dose warping accuracy is difficult to quantify, in general, and particularly difficult to do so on a patient-specific basis. As clinical DIR options become more widely available, there is an increased need to understand the implications of incorporating DIR into clinical workflow. Several groups have assessed DIR accuracy in clinically relevant scenarios, but no comprehensive review material is yet available. This session will also discuss aspects of the AAPM Task Group 132 on the Use of Image Registration and Data Fusion Algorithms and Techniques in Radiotherapy Treatment Planning official report, which provides recommendations for DIR clinical use. We will summarize and compare various commercial DIR software options, outline successful clinical techniques, show specific examples with discussion of appropriate and inappropriate applications of DIR, discuss the clinical implications of DIR, provide an overview of current DIR error analysis research, review QA options and research phantom development and present TG-132 recommendations. Learning Objectives: Compare/contrast commercial DIR software and QA options Overview clinical DIR workflow for retreatment To understand uncertainties introduced by DIR Review TG-132 proposed recommendations.

  4. High Tg and fast curing epoxy-based anisotropic conductive paste for electronic packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeratitham, Waralee; Somwangthanaroj, Anongnat

    2016-03-01

    Herein, our main objective is to prepare the fast curing epoxy system with high glass transition temperature (Tg) by incorporating the multifunctional epoxy resin into the mixture of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) as a major epoxy component and aromatic diamine as a hardener. Furthermore, the curing behavior as well as thermal and thermomechanical properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermomechanical analysis (TMA). It was found that Tg obtained from tan δ of DGEBA/aromatic diamine system increased from 100 °C to 205 °C with the presence of 30 percentage by weight of multifunctional epoxy resin. Additionally, the isothermal DSC results showed that the multifunctional epoxy resin can accelerate the curing reaction of DGEBA/aromatic diamine system. Namely, a high degree of curing (˜90%) was achieved after a few minutes of curing at low temperature of 130 °C, owing to a large number of epoxy ring of multifunctional epoxy resin towards the active hydrogen atoms of aromatic diamine.

  5. Gender-Specific Neuroimmunoendocrine Response to Treadmill Exercise in 3xTg-AD Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Giménez-Llort

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The 3xTg-AD mouse develops a progressive Alzheimer's disease- (AD- like brain pathology that causes cognitive- and neuropsychiatric-like symptoms of dementia. Since its neuroimmunoendocrine axis is likewise impaired, this mouse is also useful for modelling complex age-related neurodegeneration. This study analyzed behavioral, physiological, neurochemical, pathological and immunoendocrine alterations in male and female 3xTg-AD mice and assayed the effects of a short therapy of forced physical exercise at the moderate pathology stage of 6 months of age. Gender effects were observed in most AD-related pathology and dysfunctions. Five weeks of treadmill training produced beneficial effects, such as the reduction of brain oxidative stress and GABA-A receptor dysfunction in males and improvement of sensorimotor function in females. In both sexes, exercise decreased the brain amyloid 42/40 ratio levels. The results highlight the importance of analyzing experimental therapies in both mouse model genders in order to improve our understanding of the disease and develop more appropriate therapies.

  6. SU-F-P-15: Report On AAPM TG 178 Gamma Knife Dosimetry and Quality Assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetsch, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: AAPM Task Group 178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance was formed in August, 2008. The Task Group has 12 medical physicists, two physicians and two consultants. Methods: A round robin dosimetry intercomparison of proposed ionization chambers, electrometer and dosimetry phantoms was conducted over a 15 month period in 2011 and 2012 (Med Phys 42, 11, Nov, 2015). The data obtained at 9 institutions (with ten different Elekta Gamma Knife units) was analyzed by the lead author using several protocols. Results: The most consistent results were obtained using the Elekta ABS 16cm diameter phantom, with the TG-51 protocol modified as recommended by Alfonso et al (Med Phys 35, 11, Nov 2008). A key white paper (Med Phys, in press) sponsored by Elekta Corporation, was used to obtain correction factors for the ionization chambers and phantoms used in this intercomparison. Consistent results were obtained for both Elekta Gamma Knife Model 4C and Gamma Knife Perfexion units as measured with each of two miniature ionization chambers Conclusion: The full TG 178 report gives clinical history and background of gamma stereotactic radiosurgery, clinical examples and history, quality assurance recommendations and outline of possible dosimetry protocols. The report will be reviewed by the AAPM Working Group on Recommendations for Radiotherapy External Beam Quality Assurance and then by the AAPM Science Council before publication in Medical Physics. Consultant to Elekta, Inc

  7. Cystatin C, CRP, log TG/HDLc and metabolic syndrome are associated with microalbuminuria in hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Rafaela do Socorro Souza e Silva [Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Daniel França [Área de Cardiologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Freitas, Eduardo [Departamento de Estatística, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Moura, Flavio José Dutra de; Rosa, Tânia Torres; Veiga, Joel Paulo Russomano, E-mail: joelprv@unb.br [Área de Clínica Médica, Nefrologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    In patients with systemic hypertension, microalbuminuria is a marker of endothelial damage and is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. To determine the factors that may lead to the occurrence of microalbuminuria in hypertensive patients with serum creatinine lower than 1.5 mg/dL. This cross-sectional study included 133 Brazilians with essential hypertension followed up at a hypertension outpatient clinic. Those with serum creatinine higher than 1.5 mg/dL, as well as those with diabetes mellitus, were excluded. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and GFR estimated by using the CKD-EPI formula were calculated. The serum levels of the following were assessed: CysC, creatinine, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP) and fasting glucose. Microalbuminuria was determined in 24-hour urine. Hypertensive patients were classified according to the presence of one or more criteria for metabolic syndrome. In a multiple regression analysis, the serum levels of CysC and CRP, the atherogenic index log TG/HDLc and the presence of three or more criteria for metabolic syndrome were positively correlated with microalbuminuria (r{sup 2}: 0.277, p < 0.05). CysC, CRP, log TG/HDLc, and the presence of three or more criteria for metabolic syndrome, regardless of serum creatinine, were associated with microalbuminuria, an early marker of kidney damage and cardiovascular risk in patients with essential hypertension.

  8. Cystatin C, CRP, log TG/HDLc and metabolic syndrome are associated with microalbuminuria in hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Rafaela do Socorro Souza e Silva; Vasconcelos, Daniel França; Freitas, Eduardo; Moura, Flavio José Dutra de; Rosa, Tânia Torres; Veiga, Joel Paulo Russomano

    2014-01-01

    In patients with systemic hypertension, microalbuminuria is a marker of endothelial damage and is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. To determine the factors that may lead to the occurrence of microalbuminuria in hypertensive patients with serum creatinine lower than 1.5 mg/dL. This cross-sectional study included 133 Brazilians with essential hypertension followed up at a hypertension outpatient clinic. Those with serum creatinine higher than 1.5 mg/dL, as well as those with diabetes mellitus, were excluded. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and GFR estimated by using the CKD-EPI formula were calculated. The serum levels of the following were assessed: CysC, creatinine, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP) and fasting glucose. Microalbuminuria was determined in 24-hour urine. Hypertensive patients were classified according to the presence of one or more criteria for metabolic syndrome. In a multiple regression analysis, the serum levels of CysC and CRP, the atherogenic index log TG/HDLc and the presence of three or more criteria for metabolic syndrome were positively correlated with microalbuminuria (r 2 : 0.277, p < 0.05). CysC, CRP, log TG/HDLc, and the presence of three or more criteria for metabolic syndrome, regardless of serum creatinine, were associated with microalbuminuria, an early marker of kidney damage and cardiovascular risk in patients with essential hypertension

  9. Thermal Phenomena in the Friction Process of the TG15 - Hard Anodic Coating Couple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Służałek G.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a one-dimensional model of heat conduction in a couple consisting of a cylinder made of a sliding plastic material, TG15, and a cuboid made of alloy AW 6061 coated with a hard anodic coating, where the couple is heated with the heat generated during friction. TG15 is a composite material based on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE with a 15% graphite filler, used for piston rings in oil-free air-compressors. Measurement of temperature in the friction zone is extremely important for the understanding and analysis of the phenomena occurring therein. It is practically impossible to introduce a temperature sensor in such a place. Therefore, the interaction taking place in such a couple was modelled using numerical methods. In order to simplify and accelerate the calculations, a one-dimensional model and constant thermophysical parameters of the materials participating in friction were adopted. To solve the proposed model, the finite difference method was used (FDM. The resultant system of equations was solved by means of an explicit scheme.

  10. Holocene Flexural Deformation over the Nile Delta: Evidence from Radar Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremichael, E.; Sultan, M.; Becker, R.

    2017-12-01

    Isostatic adjustment and subsequent subsidence and uplift due to sediment and water loading and unloading mechanisms is one of the major factors that produce regional deformational patterns across river deltas. Using 84 Envisat ASAR scenes that were acquired (2004 - 2010) along three tracks and applying Persistent scatterer (PS) radar interferometric techniques, we documented flexural deformational patterns over the entire Nile Delta (length: 186 km; width: 240 km) of Egypt. The passive continental margin of Africa subsided from Jurassic time onwards due to isostatic loading creating an accommodation space and consequently, the deposition of relatively younger sediments on the oceanic crust. In river deltas, the flexural isostasy model dictates that a subsidence in the oceanic crust side should be balanced by a bulge (uplift) in the flanking regions. Using radar interferometry, we were able to identify the flexural deformation pattern and map its spatial extent over the northern and central Nile Delta region. Findings include: (1) the northern Nile Delta region (block) is separated from the southern delta region by an east-west trending, extensively faulted, hinge line that signifies the boundary between two deformational patterns (subsidence and uplift). It separates the highly subsiding (up to 9.8 mm/yr) northern delta block (up to 85 km long) from the nearly stable (0.4 mm/yr; averaged) southern delta block (up to 91 km long). The hinge line marks the end of the passive continental margin of Africa and the beginning of the oceanic crust of the Mediterranean. (2) We mapped the extent of a 20-40 km wide flexural uplift zone to the south of the hinge line. Within the flexural uplift zone (2.5 mm/yr; averaged), there is a gradual increase in uplift rate reaching peak value (up to 7 mm/yr) near the midpoint of the zone. (3) The uplift rate gradually decreases south of the flexure boundary reaching 0.3 mm/yr at the southern periphery of the delta. (4) The flexural

  11. Attitudes and beliefs affect frequency of eating out in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attitudes and beliefs reflecting cultural values can have a positive or negative influence on eating behaviors. Eating out may negatively affect diet quality through increased fat intake and larger portion sizes. In a representative sample of the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) consisting of 1601 Af...

  12. Adulteration of honey : relation between microscopic analysis and delta C-13 measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkvliet, JD; Meijer, HAJ

    2000-01-01

    Upon routine microscopic analysis of some honey samples, parenchyma cells, single rings of ring vessels and epidermal cells are found. These cells originate from the sugar cane stem. We investigated whether there was a relation between these plant fragments and the delta C-13 value of honey. 17

  13. Large old trees influence patterns of delta13C and delta15N in forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Pascale; Bol, Roland; Dixon, Liz; Bardgett, Richard D

    2008-06-01

    Large old trees are the dominant primary producers of native pine forest, but their influence on spatial patterns of soil properties and potential feedback to tree regeneration in their neighbourhood is poorly understood. We measured stable isotopes of carbon (delta(13)C) and nitrogen (delta(15)N) in soil and litter taken from three zones of influence (inner, middle and outer zone) around the trunk of freestanding old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees, to determine the trees' influence on below-ground properties. We also measured delta(15)N and delta(13)C in wood cores extracted from the old trees and from regenerating trees growing within their three zones of influence. We found a significant and positive gradient in soil delta(15)N from the inner zone, nearest to the tree centre, to the outer zone beyond the tree crown. This was probably caused by the higher input of (15)N-depleted litter below the tree crown. In contrast, the soil delta(13)C did not change along the gradient of tree influence. Distance-related trends, although weak, were visible in the wood delta(15)N and delta(13)C of regenerating trees. Moreover, the wood delta(15)N of small trees showed a weak negative relationship with soil N content in the relevant zone of influence. Our results indicate that large old trees control below-ground conditions in their immediate surroundings, and that stable isotopes might act as markers for the spatial and temporal extent of these below-ground effects. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  14. Hepatitis delta genotypes in chronic delta infection in the northeast of Spain (Catalonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrina, M; Buti, M; Jardi, R; Quer, J; Rodriguez, F; Pascual, C; Esteban, R; Guardia, J

    1998-06-01

    Based on genetic analysis of variants obtained around the world, three genotypes of the hepatitis delta virus have been defined. Hepatitis delta virus variants have been associated with different disease patterns and geographic distributions. To determine the prevalence of hepatitis delta virus genotypes in the northeast of Spain (Catalonia) and the correlation with transmission routes and clinical disease, we studied the nucleotide divergence of the consensus sequence of HDV RNA obtained from 33 patients with chronic delta hepatitis (24 were intravenous drug users and nine had no risk factors), and four patients with acute self-limited delta infection. Serum HDV RNA was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction technique and a fragment of 350 nucleotides (nt 910 to 1259) was directly sequenced. Genetic analysis of the nucleotide consensus sequence obtained showed a high degree of conservation among sequences (93% of mean). Comparison of these sequences with those derived from different geographic areas and pertaining to genotypes I, II and III, showed a mean sequence identity of 92% with genotype I, 73% with genotype II and 61% with genotype III. At the amino acid level (aa 115 to 214), the mean identity was 87% with genotype I, 63% with genotype II and 56% with genotype III. Conserved regions included the RNA editing domain, the carboxyl terminal 19 amino acids of the hepatitis delta antigen and the polyadenylation signal of the viral mRNA. Hepatitis delta virus isolates in the northeast of Spain are exclusively genotype I, independently of the transmission route and the type of infection. No hepatitis delta virus subgenotypes were found, suggesting that the origin of hepatitis delta virus infection in our geographical area is homogeneous.

  15. Abraham Reef Stable Isotope Data (delta 13C, delta 18O, delta 14C) for 1635-1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site: Abraham Reef, 22ó 06'S, 153ó 00'E, Porites australiensus, Radiocarbon (delta 14C) and Stable Isotope (del 18O and del 13C) results from bi-annual samples from...

  16. A generic high-dose rate {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source for evaluation of model-based dose calculations beyond the TG-43 formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballester, Facundo, E-mail: Facundo.Ballester@uv.es [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain); Carlsson Tedgren, Åsa [Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH), Radiation Physics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping SE-581 85, Sweden and Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm SE-171 76 (Sweden); Granero, Domingo [Department of Radiation Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia E-46014 (Spain); Haworth, Annette [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria 3000 (Australia); Mourtada, Firas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Helen F. Graham Cancer Center, Christiana Care Health System, Newark, Delaware 19713 (United States); Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares – IPEN-CNEN/SP, São Paulo 05508-000, Brazil and Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW, School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Zourari, Kyveli; Papagiannis, Panagiotis [Medical Physics Laboratory, Medical School, University of Athens, 75 MikrasAsias, Athens 115 27 (Greece); Rivard, Mark J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States); Siebert, Frank-André [Clinic of Radiotherapy, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel 24105 (Germany); Sloboda, Ron S. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2, Canada and Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada); and others

    2015-06-15

    different investigators. MC results were then compared against dose calculated using TG-43 and MBDCA methods. Results: TG-43 and PSS datasets were generated for the generic source, the PSS data for use with the ACE algorithm. The dose-rate constant values obtained from seven MC simulations, performed independently using different codes, were in excellent agreement, yielding an average of 1.1109 ± 0.0004 cGy/(h U) (k = 1, Type A uncertainty). MC calculated dose-rate distributions for the two plans were also found to be in excellent agreement, with differences within type A uncertainties. Differences between commercial MBDCA and MC results were test, position, and calculation parameter dependent. On average, however, these differences were within 1% for ACUROS and 2% for ACE at clinically relevant distances. Conclusions: A hypothetical, generic HDR {sup 192}Ir source was designed and implemented in two commercially available TPSs employing different MBDCAs. Reference dose distributions for this source were benchmarked and used for the evaluation of MBDCA calculations employing a virtual, cubic water phantom in the form of a CT DICOM image series. The implementation of a generic source of identical design in all TPSs using MBDCAs is an important step toward supporting univocal commissioning procedures and direct comparisons between TPSs.

  17. Association of ADIPOQ +45T>G polymorphism with body fat mass and blood levels of soluble adiponectin and inflammation markers in a Mexican-Mestizo population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzman-Ornelas MO

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Milton-Omar Guzman-Ornelas,1 Efrain Chavarria-Avila,1 Jose-Francisco Munoz-Valle,1,2 Laura-Elizabeth Armas-Ramos,3 Jorge Castro-Albarran,3,4 Maria Elena Aguilar Aldrete,1,5 Edith Oregon-Romero,2 Monica Vazquez-Del Mercado,2 Rosa-Elena Navarro-Hernandez1–31Biomedical Sciences Doctorate Program, 2Department of Molecular Biology and Genomics, 3Master of Human Nutrition Program, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México; 4HMIELM, Secretaria de Salud Jalisco, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico; 5Department of Public Health, University of Guadalajara, Jalisco, MéxicoPurpose: Obesity is a disease with genetic susceptibility characterized by an increase in storage and irregular distribution of body fat. In obese patients, the decrease in the Adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ expression has been associated with a systemic low-grade inflammatory state. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between ADIPOQ +45T>G gene simple nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs2241766 with serum adiponectin (sAdiponectin, distribution of body fat storage, and inflammation markers.Subjects and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 242 individuals from Western Mexico characterized as Mexican-Mestizo and classified by body mass index (BMI, were included. Anthropometrics, body composition, body fat distribution, and inflammation markers were measured by routine methods. Genotypes were characterized using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP technique and sAdiponectin by the ELISA method. A P-value <0.05 was considered the statistically significant threshold.Results: sAdiponectin is associated with BMI (P < 0.001 and the genotypes (P < 0.001 to 0.0046 GG (8169 ± 1162 ng/mL, TG (5189 ± 501 ng/mL, and TT (3741 ± 323 ng/mL, but the SNP ADIPOQ +45T.G is not associated with BMI. However, the detailed analysis showed association of this SNP with a pattern of fat distribution and correlations (P < 0.05 with inflammation markers and

  18. Deltas on the move. Making deltas cope with the effects of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reker, J.; Van Winden, A.; Braakhekke, W.; Vermaat, J.; Eleveld, M.; Janssen, R.; De Reus, N.; Omzigt, N.

    2006-01-01

    This scoping study is the first phase of a study aimed at: (a) providing knowledge on the potential of a system-based approach to deal with the effects of climate change as an alternative for the more traditional technical measures such as dams, dikes and surge barriers. This should be shown for both rich and poor countries and should address hydrological, ecological as well as socio-economic aspects; and (b) identifying the potential to market these results worldwide. To reach these objectives four research steps are defined: (1) to make an inventory of deltas: their vulnerability to the effects of climate change; (2) development of indicators for successful use of a system-based approach; (3) to provide an overview of the potential of soft measures for these deltas; (4) to select a number of deltas with potential for marketing system-based measures and the development of strategies to link economic and ecological objectives. This scoping study addresses step 1 only. The results from step 1 will be used as a starting point for steps 2 and 3. The outputs of this scoping study are threefold: a background report (this report); a flyer with a brief description of the findings; a website with information on delta's and how these may be affected by climate change. The scoping study will roughly outline which deltas are still functioning in a more or less natural manner - or could be (re)developed in that direction - and thus would be good candidates for a system-based approach. Chapter 2 gives a description of the geomorphological and ecological processes in a delta. In addition, those aspects of climate change that can have an effect on deltas are described. The third chapter deals with human interventions in deltas and whether or not they fit within a system-based approach. In a system-based approach, as presented in Chapter 4, natural processes are given free reign where possible. Chapter 5 shows how available data on deltas could be used in such a system

  19. Extended trigonometric Cherednik algebras and nonstationary Schrödinger equations with delta-potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwig, J. T.; Stokman, J. V.

    2013-01-01

    We realize an extended version of the trigonometric Cherednik algebra as affine Dunkl operators involving Heaviside functions. We use the quadratic Casimir element of the extended trigonometric Cherednik algebra to define an explicit nonstationary Schrödinger equation with delta-potential. We use coordinate Bethe ansatz methods to construct solutions of the nonstationary Schrödinger equation in terms of generalized Bethe wave functions. It is shown that the generalized Bethe wave functions satisfy affine difference Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations as functions of the momenta. The relation to the vector valued root system analogs of the quantum Bose gas on the circle with delta-function interactions is indicated.

  20. The MACHO Project Sample of Galactic Bulge High-Amplitude {delta} Scuti Stars: Pulsation Behavior and Stellar Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, C.; Allsman, R. A.; Alves, D. R.; Axelrod, T. S.; Becker, A. C.; Bennett, D. P.; Cook, K. H.; Freeman, K. C.; Geha, M.; Griest, K. (and others)

    2000-06-20

    We have detected 90 objects with periods and light-curve structures similar to those of field {delta} Scuti stars using the Massive Compact Halo Object (MACHO) Project database of Galactic bulge photometry. If we assume similar extinction values for all candidates and absolute magnitudes similar to those of other field high-amplitude {delta} Scuti stars (HADS), the majority of these objects lie in or near the Galactic bulge. At least two of these objects are likely foreground {delta} Scuti stars, one of which may be an evolved nonradial pulsator, similar to other evolved, disk-population {delta} Scuti stars. We have analyzed the light curves of these objects and find that they are similar to the light curves of field {delta} Scuti stars and the {delta} Scuti stars found by the Optical Gravitational Lens Experiment (OGLE). However, the amplitude distribution of these sources lies between those of low- and high-amplitude {delta} Scuti stars, which suggests that they may be an intermediate population. We have found nine double-mode HADS with frequency ratios ranging from 0.75 to 0.79, four probable double- and multiple-mode objects, and another four objects with marginal detections of secondary modes. The low frequencies (5-14 cycles day-1) and the observed period ratios of {approx}0.77 suggest that the majority of these objects are evolved stars pulsating in fundamental or first overtone radial modes. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society.

  1. A Novel Form of Compensation in the Tg2576 Amyloid Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Attila; Katonai, Zoltán; Alpár, Alán; Wolf, Ervin

    2016-01-01

    One century after its first description, pathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is still poorly understood. Amyloid-related dendritic atrophy and membrane alterations of susceptible brain neurons in AD, and in animal models of AD are widely recognized. However, little effort has been made to study the potential effects of combined morphological and membrane alterations on signal transfer and synaptic integration in neurons that build up affected neural networks in AD. In this study spatial reconstructions and electrophysiological measurements of layer II/III pyramidal neurons of the somatosensory cortex from wild-type (WT) and transgenic (TG) human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) overexpressing Tg2576 mice were used to build faithful segmental cable models of these neurons. Local synaptic activities were simulated in various points of the dendritic arbors and properties of subthreshold dendritic impulse propagation and predictors of synaptic input pattern recognition ability were quantified and compared in modeled WT and TG neurons. Despite the widespread dendritic degeneration and membrane alterations in mutant mouse neurons, surprisingly little, or no change was detected in steady-state and 50 Hz sinusoidal voltage transfers, current transfers, and local and propagation delays of PSPs traveling along dendrites of TG neurons. Synaptic input pattern recognition ability was also predicted to be unaltered in TG neurons in two different soma-dendritic membrane models investigated. Our simulations predict the way how subthreshold dendritic signaling and pattern recognition are preserved in TG neurons: amyloid-related membrane alterations compensate for the pathological effects that dendritic atrophy has on subthreshold dendritic signal transfer and integration in layer II/III somatosensory neurons of this hAPP mouse model for AD. Since neither propagation of single PSPs nor integration of multiple PSPs (pattern recognition) changes in TG neurons, we conclude that AD

  2. N* and {delta}* decays into N{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoma, U. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn (Germany); II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Fuchs, M. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Anisovich, A.V. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Anton, G. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Erlangen (Germany); Bantes, R. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Bartholomy, O.; Beck, R. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Beloglazov, Yu. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Crede, V. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Department of Physics, Florida State University (United States); Ehmanns, A.; Ernst, J.; Fabry, I. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Flemming, H. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Foesel, A. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Erlangen (Germany); Funke, Chr. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Gothe, R. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Gridnev, A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Gutz, E. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Hoeffgen, St. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Horn, I. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn (Germany)] (and others)

    2008-01-17

    Decays of baryon resonances in the second and the third resonance region into N{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} are studied by photoproduction of two neutral pions off protons. Partial decay widths of N* and {delta}* resonances decaying into {delta}(1232){pi}, N({pi}{pi}){sub S}, N(1440)P{sub 11}{pi}, and N(1520)D{sub 13}{pi} are determined in a partial wave analysis of this data and of data from other reactions. Several partial decay widths were not known before. Interesting decay patterns are observed which are not even qualitatively reproduced by quark model calculations. In the second resonance region, decays into {delta}(1232){pi} dominate clearly. The N({pi}{pi}){sub S}-wave provides a significant contribution to the cross section, especially in the third resonance region. The P{sub 13}(1720) properties found here are at clear variance to PDG values.

  3. Impurity-related nonlinear optical properties in delta-doped quantum rings: Electric field effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restrepo, R.L., E-mail: rrestre@gmail.com [Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia-EIA, Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Morales, A.L. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Martínez-Orozco, J.C. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, CP 98060, Zacatecas (Mexico); Baghramyan, H.M.; Barseghyan, M.G. [Department of Solid State Physics, Yerevan State University, Al. Manookian 1, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-11-15

    Using a variational procedure within the effective mass approximation, we have calculated the donor impurity binding energy for the ground (1s-like) and the excited (2p{sub z}-like) states as well as the impurity-related nonlinear optical absorption and relative changes in the refraction index in a GaAs single quantum ring with axial n-type delta-doping. The delta-like potential along the z-direction is an approximate model analytically described using a Lorentzian function with two parameters. Additionally we consider the application of an electric field along the z-direction. It is found that the changes in the geometry of the quantum ring, the change in the 2D impurity density of the delta-like doping, and different values of the electric field lead to a shifting of the resonant peaks of the optical responses spectrum.

  4. Impurity-related nonlinear optical properties in delta-doped quantum rings: Electric field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, R.L.; Morales, A.L.; Martínez-Orozco, J.C.; Baghramyan, H.M.; Barseghyan, M.G.; Mora-Ramos, M.E.; Duque, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Using a variational procedure within the effective mass approximation, we have calculated the donor impurity binding energy for the ground (1s-like) and the excited (2p z -like) states as well as the impurity-related nonlinear optical absorption and relative changes in the refraction index in a GaAs single quantum ring with axial n-type delta-doping. The delta-like potential along the z-direction is an approximate model analytically described using a Lorentzian function with two parameters. Additionally we consider the application of an electric field along the z-direction. It is found that the changes in the geometry of the quantum ring, the change in the 2D impurity density of the delta-like doping, and different values of the electric field lead to a shifting of the resonant peaks of the optical responses spectrum

  5. The Economic Dimensions of the Niger Delta Ethnic Conflicts (Pp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    1970, the price of international oil stepped upwards following the Middle. Eastern Yom Kippur .... Over the years, the pleas of the Niger Delta people for accommodation are ignored or .... In a labour surplus region like the Niger Delta, budget.

  6. Conceptualizing delta forms and processes in Arctic coastal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette; Kroon, Aart

    2017-01-01

    Climate warming in the Arctic directly causes two opposite changes in Arctic coastal systems: increased melt-water discharge through rivers induces extra influx of sediments and extended open water season increases wave impact which reworks and erodes the shores. A shoreline change analysis along...... and popped up as hotspots. The Tuapaat delta and Skansen delta showed large progradation rates (1.5 and 7m/yr) and migration of the adjacent barriers and spits. The dynamic behavior at the delta mouths was mainly caused by classic delta channel lobe switching at one delta (Tuapaat), and by a breach...... of the fringing spit at the other delta (Skansen). The longshore and cross-shore transports are responsible for reworking the sediment with a result of migrating delta mouths and adjacent subaqueous mouth bars. Seaward progradation of the deltas is limited due to the steep nature of the bathymetry in Disko Bay...

  7. Isotopic composition of Danube water in the pre-delta section from the years 2009 - 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RANK Dieter

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The isotopic composition of river water in the Danube Basin is mainly governed by the isotopic composition of precipitation in the catchment area, evaporation effects play only a minor role. Short-term and long-term isotope signals from precipitation are thus transmitted through the whole catchment. The isotopic composition of Danube water in the Delta region so provides an integrated isotope signal for climatic/hydrological conditions and changes in the whole catchment. The aim of this investigation was to establish a representative isotope monitoring near the Danube Delta. The results showed that the Danube River is regarding isotope content fully mixed at the bifurcation of the Danube Delta arms. Therefore routine sampling at only one location in the pre-delta region should be sufficient to obtain a representative isotope record for the whole Danube Basin. The δ 18 O time series from November 2009 to May 2012 (sampling twice a month shows seasonal variations in the range of -9.8 ‰ ± 0.7 ‰ with a minimum in spring and a maximum in autumn. The tritium results exhibit the influence of short term contaminations due to human activities. The expected “environmental” tritium content of river water in Central Europe would be about 10 TU. During this investigation 3 H values up to 100 TU were observed in the pre-delta section. This indicates short terms releases of tritium from local sources such as nuclear power plants in the Danube river system.

  8. Detritus fuels ecosystem metabolism but not metazoan food webs in San Francisco estuary's freshwater delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczak, W.V.; Cloern, J.E.; Jassby, A.D.; Cole, B.E.; Schraga, T.S.; Arnsberg, A.

    2005-01-01

    Detritus from terrestrial ecosystems is the major source of organic matter in many streams, rivers, and estuaries, yet the role of detritus in supporting pelagic food webs is debated. We examined the importance of detritus to secondary productivity in the Sacramento and San Joaquin River Delta (California, United States), a large complex of tidal freshwater habitats. The Delta ecosystem has low primary productivity but large detrital inputs, so we hypothesized that detritus is the primary energy source fueling production in pelagic food webs. We assessed the sources, quantity, composition, and bioavailability of organic matter among a diversity of habitats (e.g., marsh sloughs, floodplains, tidal lakes, and deep river channels) over two years to test this hypothesis. Our results support the emerging principle that detritus dominates riverine and estuarine organic matter supply and supports the majority of ecosystem metabolism. Yet in contrast to prevailing ideas, we found that detritus was weakly coupled to the Delta's pelagic food web. Results from independent approaches showed that phytoplankton production was the dominant source of organic matter for the Delta's pelagic food web, even though primary production accounts for a small fraction of the Delta's organic matter supply. If these results are general, they suggest that the value of organic matter to higher trophic levels, including species targeted by programs of ecosystem restoration, is a function of phytoplankton production. ?? 2005 Estuarine Research Federation.

  9. Binding energies of two deltas bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Saito, Koichi.

    1982-06-01

    Bound states of the two-deltas system are investigated by employing the realistic one boson exchange potential. It is found that there exist many bound states in each isospin channel and also found that the tensor interaction plays important role in producing these bound states. Relationship between these bound states and dibaryon resonances is discussed. (J.P.N.)

  10. Applications of Dirac's Delta Function in Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuri, Andre

    2004-01-01

    The Dirac delta function has been used successfully in mathematical physics for many years. The purpose of this article is to bring attention to several useful applications of this function in mathematical statistics. Some of these applications include a unified representation of the distribution of a function (or functions) of one or several…

  11. Managing flood risks in the Mekong Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, Long Phi; Biesbroek, Robbert; Tri, Van Pham Dang; Kummu, Matti; Vliet, van Michelle T.H.; Leemans, Rik; Kabat, Pavel; Ludwig, Fulco

    2018-01-01

    Climate change and accelerating socioeconomic developments increasingly challenge flood-risk management in the Vietnamese Mekong River Delta—a typical large, economically dynamic and highly vulnerable delta. This study identifies and addresses the emerging challenges for flood-risk management.

  12. Bioluminescent hydrocarbonclastic bacteria of the Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of three petroleum hydrocarbons (Mobil SAE 40 Engine Oil, Diesel and Bonny light Crude Oil) by four bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio harveyi, V. fisheri, Photobacterium leiognathi and P. Phosphoreum isolated from the Bonny estuary in the Niger Delta, Nigeria was investigated. Microbial utilization was monitored ...

  13. The Delta Team: Empowering Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Marian White

    1994-01-01

    In response to adolescent girls' concerns about teen violence, rumors, grooming, careers, and equity, four women teachers and a woman administrator at a Maryland middle school developed the Delta Program. The program provides positive learning experiences, teaches social skills and conflict management techniques, empowers girls through mentoring…

  14. delta. -isobars and photodisintegration at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzumura, Jun-ichi; Futami, Yasuhiko [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Noda, Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    1982-12-01

    The dynamics of the peak considered to be due to the two-nucleon process in the reaction /sup 9/Be(gamma, p) anything is investigated with the quasi-deuteron model. We show that the process is dominated by a two-nucleon mechanism with pion and rho-meson exchange through virtual delta-isobar formation (author).

  15. Numerical Solutions of Fifth Order Boundary Value Problems Using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    1Department of Mathematics Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria. 2Department of ..... International Journal of Computational. Mathematics and ... Value Problems using Power Series Approximation Method.Applied. Mathematics,. 7,. 1215-.

  16. U.S. Army RDECOM-ARDEC's results of the TG-53 experiment and field test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sachi V.; Morcos, Amir

    2009-05-01

    Herein is described the U.S. Army RDECOM-ARDEC's purpose and series of activities conducted at the 2008 NATO SET-093 TG-53 experiment and field test. The overall purpose of the field test as stated by SET-093 panel was to provide a baseline test capable of providing relevant scenarios and data regarding a variety of impulsive generated acoustic events. As organized, the field experiment also allowed the room o study sensor interoperability across multiple platforms and multi-national users via the spider communication framework/reporting structure. This multinational network maintained by the host ETBS with a standardized messaging format with specific goals for each participating organization. ARDEC's role and purpose for the test was to provide situational awareness via the Spider and associated messaging format to the ETBS command center while continuing to gather unique acoustic data from various vantage points. ARDEC had several deliverables for the TG-53 field experiment derived from the mission and spirit of the field test. The most relevant deliverable was to demonstrate sensor interoperability via the Spider network and provide situational awareness by describing the said mortar/artillery events. The second purpose revolved around a relevant environment algorithm validation of the muzzle blast discrimination for future UGS transition in particular the UTAMS II. The algorithm validation information remained internal to the specific data acquisition system and not broadcasted out on the Spider network. The TG-53 field experiments provided the added opportunity to further test and refine the algorithm based on the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and multiresolution analysis. These techniques are used to classify and reliably discriminates between launch and impact artillery and/or mortar events via acoustic signals produced during detonation. Distinct characteristics are found within the acoustic signatures since impact events emphasize concussive and

  17. The Value of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What......As a social scientist of ethics and morality, Luhmann has noticed the ethical wave that has recently swept across the western world, and states that this particular kind of wave seems to have a wavelength of about one hundred years (cf. Luhmann 1989: 9 ff.). Even though the frequency...... and the regularity of such a phenomenon is both hard to verify and, if true, difficult to explain, it seems fair to say that since the Enlightenment, an approaching fin-de-siecle has brought an increased interest in matters concerning morality and ethics.1 The present peak has in public-political discourse and some...

  18. Phase transformation in delta Pu alloys at low temperature: in situ dilatometric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Texier, G.; Oudot, B.; Platteau, C.; Ravat, B.; Delaunay, F. [CEA Valduc, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to precisely study the martensitic transformation in a plutonium-gallium alloy. Thus, the thermodynamics and kinetics of the {delta} {yields} {alpha}' + {delta} transformation in a Pu-Ga alloy were studied under isochronal and isothermal conditions. The activation energy of the {delta} {yields} {alpha}' + {delta} phase transformation at a constant cooling rate (0.5 K. min{sup -1}) was determined by using Kissinger and Ozawa models. The average value of the activation energy was found to be at -56 kJ.mol{sup -1}. Dilatometry measurement was also used to trace 'in situ' the entire transformation for several temperatures. The kinetics of the {delta} {yields} {alpha}' + {delta} transformation were modelled under isothermal conditions in the theoretical frame of the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) theory. It is proposed that the transformation consists of three stages. The {alpha}' transformation begins with a nucleation of pre-existing embryos. Then, both nucleation and rapid growth of {alpha}' occurs simultaneously and finally, the plates width expend. Apparent activation energies for nucleation and growth transformation were determined from the temperature dependence of the constant K at respectively -34 kJ.mol{sup -1} and -60 kJ.mol{sup -1}. Dler et al. [1] investigated also the thermodynamics and the kinetics of the martensitic transformation in Pu alloys. These nucleation energies were found by modelling of heterogeneous martensitic nucleation via strain interaction with observed superdislocation-like nucleation sites in PuGa alloys. The values obtain by this model was very close to those we find. Investigations in steels alloys indicate that these energies are of the same order for nucleation near dislocation. Then, it could be indicating a strong relationship between these dislocations and martensitic nucleation sites. (authors)

  19. Phase transformation in {delta} Pu alloys at low temperature: In situ dilatometric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Texier, G; Oudot, B; Platteau, C; Ravat, B; Delaunay, F, E-mail: gwenael.texier@cea.fr, E-mail: benoit.oudot@cea.fr [CEA, DAM, Valduc, Is sur Tille 21120 (France)

    2010-03-15

    The purpose of this work is to precisely study the martensitic transformation in a plutonium-gallium alloy. Thus, the thermodynamics and kinetics of the {delta}{yields}{alpha}'+{delta} phase transformation in a Pu-Ga alloy were studied under isochronal and isothermal conditions. The activation energy of the {delta}{yields}{alpha}'+{delta} phase transformation at a constant cooling rate (0.5 K.min{sup -1}) was determined by using Kissinger and Ozawa models. The average value of the activation energy was found to be at -56 kJ.mol{sup -1}. Dilatometry measurement was also used to trace 'in situ' the entire transformation for several temperatures. The kinetics of the {delta}{yields}{alpha}'+{delta} transformation were modelled under isothermal conditions in the theoretical frame of the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) theory. It is proposed that the transformation consists of three stages. The {alpha}' transformation begins with a nucleation of pre-existing embryos. Then, both nucleation and rapid growth of {alpha}' occurs simultaneously and finally, the plates width expend. Apparent activation energies for nucleation and growth transformation were determined from the temperature dependence of the constant K at respectively -34 kJ.mol{sup -1} and -60 kJ.mol{sup -1}. Adler et al. [1] investigated also the thermodynamics and the kinetics of the martensitic transformation in Pu alloys. These nucleation energies were found by modelling of heterogeneous martensitic nucleation via strain interaction with observed superdislocation-like nucleation sites in PuGa alloys. The values obtain by this model was very close to those we find. Investigations in steels alloys indicate that these energies are of the same order for nucleation near dislocation. Then, it could be indicating a strong relationship between these dislocations and martensitic nucleation sites.

  20. Study of 4f hybridization in CeNiX with X=Sn{sub d}eltaGe{sub 1-d}elta, 0<=delta<=1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuente, C. de la, E-mail: cesar@unizar.e [Depto. Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Universidad de Zaragoza and ICMA-CSIC (Spain); Moral, A. del [Depto. Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Universidad de Zaragoza and ICMA-CSIC (Spain); Adroja, D.T. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Fraile, A. [Depto. Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Universidad de Zaragoza and ICMA-CSIC (Spain); Arnaudas, J.I. [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    We report inelastic neutron scattering and core-level X-ray photoemission spectroscopy experiments for studying the Kondo problem in the CeNiX, X=Sn{sub d}eltaGe{sub 1-d}elta 0<=delta<=1 series. The neutron results confirm that they behave like a Kondo lattice for delta>=0.85, showing broad maxima at around 30 meV, typical of a crystal field magnetic scattering. So, the Ge doping could produce the suppression of the cerium magnetism observed for delta<=0.25. To open a more deep sight on this point, we have analyzed the 3d core-level XPS spectra by using the well-known Gunnarsson-Schoenhammer model. From this analysis, we have obtained the 'on-site' Coulomb bare repulsion for f states, U, and hybridization parameter, DELTA, related with the hopping from the f states to the conduction ones. These U values are very similar for all compounds, about 7 eV, but the hybridization parameter slightly changes from 0.2 to 0.16 eV on increasing the Sn concentration. In Sn-rich compounds, the 4f occupation is close to spin limit fluctuation, which allows us to obtain an estimation of the Kondo temperatures, approx1200 K, and the static 0 K susceptibility, approx1.1x10{sup -3} emu/mol. Finally, we have done 'ab-initio' calculations based on the LDA+U+SO which confirm the existence of a small electronic gap opening in the DOS of Ge-rich compounds for U values lower than 7 eV.

  1. Structure investigations on zirconium phosphate preparates by means of DTA, ETA, and TG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbell, J.D.; Specht, S.; Born, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    The simultanous DTA, ETA and TG inorganic ion exchanger based on zirconium phosphate enables the clear interpretation of the effects occuring. In particular it can be seen that the fast transition in amorphous preparates at high temperature of a badly defined form of pyrophosphate into the cubic crystalline substances, however a measurable energy release by means of DTA is not observed due to the slight mobility of the atoms in the crystal lattice. This effect on the other hand may be seen using ETA. In addition, an exothermal reaction occuring in some preparates, especially in cation charged ones, was traced back to the forming of part-crystalline structures which could be especially fast and sensitively characterized using DTA. (orig.) [de

  2. Solid-phase microextraction for bioconcentration studies according to OECD TG 305

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duering, Rolf-Alexander; Boehm, Leonard [Land Use and Nutrition (IFZ) Justus Liebig University Giessen, Institute of Soil Science and Soil Conservation, Research Centre for BioSystems, Giessen (Germany); Schlechtriem, Christian [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME), Schmallenberg (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    An important aim of the European Community Regulation on chemicals and their safe use is the identification of (very) persistent, (very) bioaccumulative, and toxic substances. In other regulatory chemical safety assessments (pharmaceuticals, biocides, pesticides), the identification of such (very) persistent, (very) bioaccumulative, and toxic substances is of increasing importance. Solid-phase microextraction is especially capable of extracting total water concentrations as well as the freely dissolved fraction of analytes in the water phase, which is available for bioconcentration in fish. However, although already well established in environmental analyses to determine and quantify analytes mainly in aqueous matrices, solid-phase microextraction is still a rather unusual method in regulatory ecotoxicological research. Here, the potential benefits and drawbacks of solid-phase microextraction are discussed as an analytical routine approach for aquatic bioconcentration studies according to OECD TG 305, with a special focus on the testing of hydrophobic organic compounds characterized by log K{sub OW}> 5. (orig.)

  3. Investigation of hydropyrolysis behaviour of Shenmu macerals by TG-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Q.; Li, W.; Chen, H.; Li, B. [Analysis and Test Center, Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan (China)

    2004-12-01

    The hydropyrolysis characteristics of Shenmu coal and its macerals were investigated using TG-151 thermo balance, and the evolved gases were on-line analyzed by mass spectroscopy. The results show that vitrinite has higher volatile yield, maximum weight loss rate and lower peak temperature. Vitrinite produces more C{sub 1} - C{sub 4} lighter hydrocarbons and C{sub 5} - C{sub 8} aromatic hydrocarbons than inertinite. Vitrinite has a higher water yield, which is consistent with that the vitrinite has higher phenolic-OH content. The difference in the evolved gases and water between pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis shows the effect of hydrogenation and hydrocracking during hydropyolysis. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Dynamic traffic grooming with Spectrum Engineering (TG-SE) in flexible grid optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaosong; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jiawei; Wang, Jianping; Zhang, Guoying; Chen, Xue; Zhang, Jie

    2015-12-01

    Flexible grid has emerged as an evolutionary technology to satisfy the ever increasing demand for higher spectrum efficiency and operational flexibility. To optimize the spectrum resource utilization, this paper introduces the concept of Spectrum Engineering in flex-grid optical networks. The sliceable optical transponder has been proposed to offload IP traffic to the optical layer and reduce the number of IP router ports and transponders. We discuss the impact of sliceable transponder in traffic grooming and propose several traffic-grooming schemes with Spectrum Engineering (TG-SE). Our results show that there is a tradeoff among different traffic grooming policies, which should be adopted based on the network operator's objectives. The proposed traffic grooming with Spectrum Engineering schemes can reduce OPEX as well as increase spectrum efficiency by efficiently utilizing the bandwidth variability and capability of sliceable optical transponders.

  5. Morphodynamics of a cyclic prograding delta: the Red River, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maren, D.S. van

    2004-01-01

    River deltas are inhabited by over 60% of the world population, and are, consequently, of paramount agricultural and economical importance. They constitute unique wetland envi ronments which gives river deltas ecological importance as well. Additionally, many deltas contain large accumulations of

  6. Environmental challenges in Nigeria's Delta Region and Agriculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discussed the environmental challenges in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria with emphasis on the impacts on agricultural production. It thus discussed the concepts of Niger-Delta, Environmental pollution, Niger-Delta crises and Agriculture. The paper posits that there are positive relationships between these ...

  7. Appraisal of within- and between-laboratory reproducibility of non-radioisotopic local lymph node assay using flow cytometry, LLNA:BrdU-FCM: comparison of OECD TG429 performance standard and statistical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyeri; Na, Jihye; Jang, Won-Hee; Jung, Mi-Sook; Jeon, Jun-Young; Heo, Yong; Yeo, Kyung-Wook; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Lim, Kyung-Min; Bae, SeungJin

    2015-05-05

    Mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA, OECD TG429) is an alternative test replacing conventional guinea pig tests (OECD TG406) for the skin sensitization test but the use of a radioisotopic agent, (3)H-thymidine, deters its active dissemination. New non-radioisotopic LLNA, LLNA:BrdU-FCM employs a non-radioisotopic analog, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and flow cytometry. For an analogous method, OECD TG429 performance standard (PS) advises that two reference compounds be tested repeatedly and ECt(threshold) values obtained must fall within acceptable ranges to prove within- and between-laboratory reproducibility. However, this criteria is somewhat arbitrary and sample size of ECt is less than 5, raising concerns about insufficient reliability. Here, we explored various statistical methods to evaluate the reproducibility of LLNA:BrdU-FCM with stimulation index (SI), the raw data for ECt calculation, produced from 3 laboratories. Descriptive statistics along with graphical representation of SI was presented. For inferential statistics, parametric and non-parametric methods were applied to test the reproducibility of SI of a concurrent positive control and the robustness of results were investigated. Descriptive statistics and graphical representation of SI alone could illustrate the within- and between-laboratory reproducibility. Inferential statistics employing parametric and nonparametric methods drew similar conclusion. While all labs passed within- and between-laboratory reproducibility criteria given by OECD TG429 PS based on ECt values, statistical evaluation based on SI values showed that only two labs succeeded in achieving within-laboratory reproducibility. For those two labs that satisfied the within-lab reproducibility, between-laboratory reproducibility could be also attained based on inferential as well as descriptive statistics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A meta-analysis of adiponectin gene rs22411766 T>G polymorphism and ischemic stroke susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuju Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated the correlation between adiponectin gene rs22411766 T>G polymorphism and ischemic stroke risk. However, the results were not conclusive with each other. Therefore, to overcome this obstacle, we performed this meta-analysis to further explicate the adiponectin gene rs22411766 T>G polymorphism and ischemic stroke susceptibility. Case-control or cohort studies focused on adiponectin gene rs22411766 T>G polymorphism and ischemic stroke risk were electronic searched in the databases of Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane library, Excerpta Medica database(EMBASE and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI. All the potentially relevant studies were included in this meta-analysis. The association between adiponectin gene rs22411766 T>G polymorphism and ischemic stroke was expressed by odds ratio with its confidence interval. Publication bias has been assessed by begg’s funnel plot. All the analyses have been performed by Revman 5.1 statistical software. Finally, a total of six studies with 1,345 cases and 1,421 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Our results demonstrated that there was a significant association between adiponectin gene rs22411766 T>G polymorphism and ischemic stroke risk (p<0.05. People with G single nucleotide of adiponectin gene have the increased risk of developing ischemic stroke compared to T single nucleotide.

  9. Thermochemical study of 2,4-, 2,6- and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acids in the liquid phase using a TG apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecchio, Stefano; Brunetti, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Vapor pressures of solid and liquid 2,4- 2,6- and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acids, that don't decompose appreciably in the temperature range considered, were determined by torsion-effusion technique and thermogravimetry, respectively. → Agreement between the experimental sublimation vapor pressures and literature data recently published is good for all the three isomers. → From the temperature dependence of vapor pressure the molar enthalpies of sublimation and vaporization were determined at the middle of the respective experimental temperature intervals. → For validation of TG pressure data, the TG vapor pressures of solid ferrocene and 1,2-dihydroxybenzoic acid were successfully compared with the corresponding literature values. → The following increasing-order of volatility can be established: 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid l g H m o ( ) were determined, respectively, at the middle of the respective temperature intervals. The melting temperatures and the molar enthalpies of fusion of these compounds were measured by d.s.c. The vapor pressures of these compounds in the solid state, measured by torsion-effusion technique, were compared with recently published data, while the corresponding molar sublimation enthalpies were determined. In order to validate the vapor pressure results determined by TG, the experimental vapor pressure data regarding solid ferrocene and 1,2-dihydroxybenzoic acid were successfully compared with literature values in the range 20-200 Pa. In addition, the experimental molar enthalpies of fusion were compared with those calculated by subtracting the molar vaporization enthalpies to the sublimation ones, both adjusted to their respective melting temperatures. Finally, the standard (p o = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies, entropies and Gibbs energies of sublimation, corrected at the reference temperature of 298.15 K, have been calculated using the estimated heat capacity differences between gas and liquid for vaporization

  10. Technical Report: TG-142 compliant and comprehensive quality assurance tests for respiratory gating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Kyle [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Rong, Yi, E-mail: yrong@ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To develop and establish a comprehensive gating commissioning and quality assurance procedure in compliance with TG-142. Methods: Eight Varian TrueBeam Linacs were used for this study. Gating commissioning included an end-to-end test and baseline establishment. The end-to-end test was performed using a CIRS dynamic thoracic phantom with a moving cylinder inside the lung, which was used for carrying both optically simulated luminescence detectors (OSLDs) and Gafchromic EBT2 films while the target is moving, for a point dose check and 2D profile check. In addition, baselines were established for beam-on temporal delay and calibration of the surrogate, for both megavoltage (MV) and kilovoltage (kV) beams. A motion simulation device (MotionSim) was used to provide periodic motion on a platform, in synchronizing with a surrogate motion. The overall accuracy and uncertainties were analyzed and compared. Results: The OSLD readings were within 5% compared to the planned dose (within measurement uncertainty) for both phase and amplitude gated deliveries. Film results showed less than 3% agreement to the predicted dose with a standard sinusoid motion. The gate-on temporal accuracy was averaged at 139 ± 10 ms for MV beams and 92 ± 11 ms for kV beams. The temporal delay of the surrogate motion depends on the motion speed and was averaged at 54.6 ± 3.1 ms for slow, 24.9 ± 2.9 ms for intermediate, and 23.0 ± 20.1 ms for fast speed. Conclusions: A comprehensive gating commissioning procedure was introduced for verifying the output accuracy and establishing the temporal accuracy baselines with respiratory gating. The baselines are needed for routine quality assurance tests, as suggested by TG-142.

  11. AbetaPP induces cdk5-dependent tau hyperphosphorylation in transgenic mice Tg2576.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otth, Carola; Concha, Ilona I; Arendt, Thomas; Stieler, Jens; Schliebs, Reinhard; González-Billault, Christian; Maccioni, Ricardo B

    2002-10-01

    Previous studies of Abeta-induced neuronal damage of hippocampal cells in culture have provided strong evidence that deregulation of the Cdk5/p35 kinase system is involved in the neurodegeneration pathway. Cdk5 inhibitors and antisense probes neuroprotected hippocampal cells against the neurotoxic action of Abeta. To further investigate the mechanisms underlying the participation of Cdk5 in neuronal degeneration, the transgenic mouse containing the Swedish mutations, Tg2576, was used as an animal model. Immunocytochemical studies using anti-Abeta(1-17) antibody evidenced the presence of labeled small-clustered core plaques in the hippocampus and cortex of 18-month-old transgenic mice brains. The loss of granular cells without a compressed appearance was detected in the vicinity of the cores in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Immunostaining of Tg2576 brain sections with antibodies AT8, PHF1 and GFAP labeled punctuate dystrophic neurites in and around the amyloid core. Reactive astrogliosis around the plaques in the hippocampus was also observed. Studies at the molecular level showed differences in the expression of the truncated Cdk5 activator p25 in the transgenic animal, as compared with wild type controls. However no differences in Cdk5 levels were detected, thus corroborating previous cellular findings. Interestingly, hyperphosphorylated tau epitopes were substantially increased as assessed with the AT8 and PHF1 antibodies, in agreement with the observation of a p25 increase in the transgenic animal. These observations strongly suggest that the increased exposure of Alzheimer's type tau phosphoepitopes in the transgenic mice correlated with deregulation of Cdk5 leading to an increase in p25 levels. These studies also provide further evidence on the links between extraneuronal amyloid deposition and tau pathology.

  12. The polyphenol oleuropein aglycone protects TgCRND8 mice against Aß plaque pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Grossi

    Full Text Available The claimed beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet include prevention of several age-related dysfunctions including neurodegenerative diseases and Alzheimer-like pathology. These effects have been related to the protection against cognitive decline associated with aging and disease by a number of polyphenols found in red wine and extra virgin olive oil. The double transgenic TgCRND8 mice (overexpressing the Swedish and Indiana mutations in the human amyloid precursor protein, aged 1.5 and 4, and age-matched wild type control mice were used to examine in vivo the effects of 8 weeks dietary supplementation of oleuropein aglycone (50 mg/kg of diet, the main polyphenol found in extra virgin olive oil. We report here that dietary supplementation of oleuropein aglycone strongly improves the cognitive performance of young/middle-aged TgCRND8 mice, a model of amyloid-ß deposition, respect to age-matched littermates with un-supplemented diet. Immunofluorescence analysis of cerebral tissue in oleuropein aglycone-fed transgenic mice showed remarkably reduced ß-amyloid levels and plaque deposits, which appeared less compact and "fluffy"; moreover, microglia migration to the plaques for phagocytosis and a remarkable reduction of the astrocyte reaction were evident. Finally, oleuropein aglycone-fed mice brain displayed an astonishingly intense autophagic reaction, as shown by the increase of autophagic markers expression and of lysosomal activity. Data obtained with cultured cells confirmed the latter evidence, suggesting mTOR regulation by oleuropein aglycone. Our results support, and provide mechanistic insights into, the beneficial effects against Alzheimer-associated neurodegeneration of a polyphenol enriched in the extra virgin olive oil, a major component of the Mediterranean diet.

  13. TH-B-204-03: TG-199: Implanted Markers for Radiation Treatment Verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Implanted markers as target surrogates have been widely used for treatment verification, as they provide safe and reliable monitoring of the inter- and intra-fractional target motion. The rapid advancement of technology requires a critical review and recommendation for the usage of implanted surrogates in current field. The symposium, also reporting an update of AAPM TG 199 - Implanted Target Surrogates for Radiation Treatment Verification, will be focusing on all clinical aspects of using the implanted target surrogates for treatment verification and related issues. A wide variety of markers available in the market will be first reviewed, including radiopaque markers, MRI compatible makers, non-migrating coils, surgical clips and electromagnetic transponders etc. The pros and cons of each kind will be discussed. The clinical applications of implanted surrogates will be presented based on different anatomical sites. For the lung, we will discuss gated treatments and 2D or 3D real-time fiducial tracking techniques. For the prostate, we will be focusing on 2D-3D, 3D-3D matching and electromagnetic transponder based localization techniques. For the liver, we will review techniques when patients are under gating, shallow or free breathing condition. We will review techniques when treating challenging breast cancer as deformation may occur. Finally, we will summarize potential issues related to the usage of implanted target surrogates with TG 199 recommendations. A review of fiducial migration and fiducial derived target rotation in different disease sites will be provided. The issue of target deformation, especially near the diaphragm, and related suggestions will be also presented and discussed. Learning Objectives: Knowledge of a wide variety of markers Knowledge of their application for different disease sites Understand of issues related to these applications Z. Wang: Research funding support from Brainlab AG Q. Xu: Consultant for Accuray; Q. Xu, I am a consultant

  14. TH-B-204-00: Implanted Markers for Radiation Therapy and TG 199 Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Implanted markers as target surrogates have been widely used for treatment verification, as they provide safe and reliable monitoring of the inter- and intra-fractional target motion. The rapid advancement of technology requires a critical review and recommendation for the usage of implanted surrogates in current field. The symposium, also reporting an update of AAPM TG 199 - Implanted Target Surrogates for Radiation Treatment Verification, will be focusing on all clinical aspects of using the implanted target surrogates for treatment verification and related issues. A wide variety of markers available in the market will be first reviewed, including radiopaque markers, MRI compatible makers, non-migrating coils, surgical clips and electromagnetic transponders etc. The pros and cons of each kind will be discussed. The clinical applications of implanted surrogates will be presented based on different anatomical sites. For the lung, we will discuss gated treatments and 2D or 3D real-time fiducial tracking techniques. For the prostate, we will be focusing on 2D-3D, 3D-3D matching and electromagnetic transponder based localization techniques. For the liver, we will review techniques when patients are under gating, shallow or free breathing condition. We will review techniques when treating challenging breast cancer as deformation may occur. Finally, we will summarize potential issues related to the usage of implanted target surrogates with TG 199 recommendations. A review of fiducial migration and fiducial derived target rotation in different disease sites will be provided. The issue of target deformation, especially near the diaphragm, and related suggestions will be also presented and discussed. Learning Objectives: Knowledge of a wide variety of markers Knowledge of their application for different disease sites Understand of issues related to these applications Z. Wang: Research funding support from Brainlab AG Q. Xu: Consultant for Accuray; Q. Xu, I am a consultant

  15. Re-examining TG-142 recommendations in light of modern techniques for linear accelerator based radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Austin M; Trager, Michael; Yin, Fang-Fang; Kirkpatrick, John; Adamson, Justus

    2016-10-01

    The recent development of multifocal stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) using a single isocenter volumetric modulated arc theory (VMAT) technique warrants a re-examination of the quality assurance (QA) tolerances for routine mechanical QA recommended by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group Report Number 142. Multifocal SRS can result in targets with small volumes being at a large off-axis distance from the treatment isocenter. Consequently, angular errors in the collimator, patient support assembly (PSA), or gantry could have an increased impact on target coverage. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of dose deviations caused by systematic errors in PSA, collimator, and gantry angle at the tolerance level for routine linear accelerator QA as recommended by TG-142. Dosimetric deviations from multifocal SRS plans (N = 10) were compared to traditional single target SRS using dynamic conformal arcs (N = 10). The chief dosimetric quantities used in determining clinical impact were V 100% and D 99% of the individual planning target volumes and V 12Gy of the healthy brain. Induced errors at tolerance levels showed the greatest change in multifocal SRS target coverage for collimator rotations (±1.0°) with the average changes to V 100% and D 99% being 5% and 6%, respectively, with maximum changes of 33% and 20%. A reduction in the induced error to half the TG-142 tolerance (±0.5°) demonstrated similar changes in coverage loss to traditional single target SRS assessed at the recommended tolerance level. The observed change in coverage for multifocal SRS was reduced for gantry errors (±1.0°) at 2% and 4.5% for V 100% and D 99% , respectively, with maximum changes of 18% and 12%. Minimal change in coverage was noted for errors in PSA rotation. This study indicates that institutions utilizing a single isocenter VMAT technique for multifocal disease should pay careful attention to the angular mechanical tolerances in designing a robust and

  16. Technical Report: TG-142 compliant and comprehensive quality assurance tests for respiratory gating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, Kyle; Rong, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and establish a comprehensive gating commissioning and quality assurance procedure in compliance with TG-142. Methods: Eight Varian TrueBeam Linacs were used for this study. Gating commissioning included an end-to-end test and baseline establishment. The end-to-end test was performed using a CIRS dynamic thoracic phantom with a moving cylinder inside the lung, which was used for carrying both optically simulated luminescence detectors (OSLDs) and Gafchromic EBT2 films while the target is moving, for a point dose check and 2D profile check. In addition, baselines were established for beam-on temporal delay and calibration of the surrogate, for both megavoltage (MV) and kilovoltage (kV) beams. A motion simulation device (MotionSim) was used to provide periodic motion on a platform, in synchronizing with a surrogate motion. The overall accuracy and uncertainties were analyzed and compared. Results: The OSLD readings were within 5% compared to the planned dose (within measurement uncertainty) for both phase and amplitude gated deliveries. Film results showed less than 3% agreement to the predicted dose with a standard sinusoid motion. The gate-on temporal accuracy was averaged at 139 ± 10 ms for MV beams and 92 ± 11 ms for kV beams. The temporal delay of the surrogate motion depends on the motion speed and was averaged at 54.6 ± 3.1 ms for slow, 24.9 ± 2.9 ms for intermediate, and 23.0 ± 20.1 ms for fast speed. Conclusions: A comprehensive gating commissioning procedure was introduced for verifying the output accuracy and establishing the temporal accuracy baselines with respiratory gating. The baselines are needed for routine quality assurance tests, as suggested by TG-142

  17. TH-B-204-03: TG-199: Implanted Markers for Radiation Treatment Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z. [Duke University Medical Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Implanted markers as target surrogates have been widely used for treatment verification, as they provide safe and reliable monitoring of the inter- and intra-fractional target motion. The rapid advancement of technology requires a critical review and recommendation for the usage of implanted surrogates in current field. The symposium, also reporting an update of AAPM TG 199 - Implanted Target Surrogates for Radiation Treatment Verification, will be focusing on all clinical aspects of using the implanted target surrogates for treatment verification and related issues. A wide variety of markers available in the market will be first reviewed, including radiopaque markers, MRI compatible makers, non-migrating coils, surgical clips and electromagnetic transponders etc. The pros and cons of each kind will be discussed. The clinical applications of implanted surrogates will be presented based on different anatomical sites. For the lung, we will discuss gated treatments and 2D or 3D real-time fiducial tracking techniques. For the prostate, we will be focusing on 2D-3D, 3D-3D matching and electromagnetic transponder based localization techniques. For the liver, we will review techniques when patients are under gating, shallow or free breathing condition. We will review techniques when treating challenging breast cancer as deformation may occur. Finally, we will summarize potential issues related to the usage of implanted target surrogates with TG 199 recommendations. A review of fiducial migration and fiducial derived target rotation in different disease sites will be provided. The issue of target deformation, especially near the diaphragm, and related suggestions will be also presented and discussed. Learning Objectives: Knowledge of a wide variety of markers Knowledge of their application for different disease sites Understand of issues related to these applications Z. Wang: Research funding support from Brainlab AG Q. Xu: Consultant for Accuray; Q. Xu, I am a consultant

  18. TH-B-204-00: Implanted Markers for Radiation Therapy and TG 199 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    Implanted markers as target surrogates have been widely used for treatment verification, as they provide safe and reliable monitoring of the inter- and intra-fractional target motion. The rapid advancement of technology requires a critical review and recommendation for the usage of implanted surrogates in current field. The symposium, also reporting an update of AAPM TG 199 - Implanted Target Surrogates for Radiation Treatment Verification, will be focusing on all clinical aspects of using the implanted target surrogates for treatment verification and related issues. A wide variety of markers available in the market will be first reviewed, including radiopaque markers, MRI compatible makers, non-migrating coils, surgical clips and electromagnetic transponders etc. The pros and cons of each kind will be discussed. The clinical applications of implanted surrogates will be presented based on different anatomical sites. For the lung, we will discuss gated treatments and 2D or 3D real-time fiducial tracking techniques. For the prostate, we will be focusing on 2D-3D, 3D-3D matching and electromagnetic transponder based localization techniques. For the liver, we will review techniques when patients are under gating, shallow or free breathing condition. We will review techniques when treating challenging breast cancer as deformation may occur. Finally, we will summarize potential issues related to the usage of implanted target surrogates with TG 199 recommendations. A review of fiducial migration and fiducial derived target rotation in different disease sites will be provided. The issue of target deformation, especially near the diaphragm, and related suggestions will be also presented and discussed. Learning Objectives: Knowledge of a wide variety of markers Knowledge of their application for different disease sites Understand of issues related to these applications Z. Wang: Research funding support from Brainlab AG Q. Xu: Consultant for Accuray; Q. Xu, I am a consultant

  19. What fish and how many there are in Danube Delta?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NĂVODARU Ion

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The real figure of fish fauna and fishery of the Danube delta is difficult to be estimated due to the limitation in fish sampling and underreporting of catch. This paper proposes to compare output of fish sampling with commercial catch statistics. Fish fauna from Danube delta complex lakes was sampled in 2006-2008 period and catchstatistics represent a long time series data recording. For fish sampling was used two complementary methods: electric fishing for shallow border zone and Nordic gillnet fishing for deep open water. The frequency of occurrence and the dominance in abundance analysis was based on 267 samples including 57158 individuals from both sampling methods since the dominance in biomass was based on 640 kg of fish only from gillnet sampling. In total was sampled 40 fish species, while catch statistics recorded 10 commercial species plus more 3 categories that include more other different species. In the sampling analysis, the most frequent species (very frequent were perch, bleak, roach, rudd and white bream. The most abundant(eudominant and dominant species were bleak, roach, rudd, perch, and white bream. In biomass dominate (eudominant and dominant roach, rudd, perch, white bream, bleak, gibel carp and pike. This analysis shows that Danube delta lakes are dominate by small eurytopic and opportunistic species, favoured by eutrophication of lakes. However, this figure is expression of sampling methods that are limited in estimation of real fish population status. Nevertheless, when this structure is compared to commercial statistics, it is noticed completely other figure. The difference in fish structure may be explained by targeting fishing to large size and high market value fish species. It is not neglected that commercial statistics is deformed by unreported catch sold on black market. According with recorded statistics from 1920 until 2010 the catch trend continuously decrease and species composition was well balanced before

  20. {Delta}r in the Two-Higgs-Doublet Model at full one loop level - and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Val, David [Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Heidelberg (Germany); Sola, Joan [Universitat de Barcelona, Dept. Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2013-04-15

    After the recent discovery of a Higgs-like boson particle at the CERN LHC-collider, it becomes more necessary than ever to prepare ourselves for identifying its standard or non-standard nature. The fundamental parameter {Delta}r, relating the values of the electroweak gauge boson masses and the Fermi constant, is the traditional observable encoding high precision information of the quantum effects. In this work we present a complete quantitative study of {Delta}r in the framework of the general Two-Higgs-Doublet Model (2HDM). While the one-loop analysis of {Delta}r in this model was carried out long ago, in the first part of our work we consistently incorporate the higher order effects that have been computed since then for the SM part of {Delta}r. Within the on-shell scheme, we find typical corrections leading to shifts of {proportional_to}20-40 MeV on the W mass, resulting in a better agreement with its experimentally measured value and in a degree no less significant than in the MSSM case. In the second part of our study we devise a set of effective couplings that capture the dominant higher order genuine 2HDM quantum effects on the {delta}{rho} part of {Delta}r in the limit of large Higgs boson self-interactions. This limit constitutes a telltale property of the general 2HDM which is unmatched by e.g. the MSSM. (orig.)

  1. deltaPlotR: An R Package for Di?erential Item Functioning Analysis with Ango? s Delta Plot

    OpenAIRE

    David Magis; Bruno Facon

    2014-01-01

    Angoff's delta plot is a straightforward and not computationally intensive method to identify differential item functioning (DIF) among dichotomously scored items. This approach was recently improved by proposing an optimal threshold selection and by considering several item purification processes. Moreover, to support practical DIF analyses with the delta plot and these improvements, the R package deltaPlotR was also developed. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to outline the delta plot ...

  2. Thermal Models of the Niger Delta: Implications for Charge Modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejedawe, J.

    2002-01-01

    There are generally three main sources of temperature data-BHT data from log headers, production temperature data, and continuo's temperature logs. Analysis of continuous temperature profiles of over 100 wells in the Niger Delta two main thermal models (single leg and dogleg) are defined with occasional occurrence of a modified dogleg model.The dogleg model is characterised by a shallow interval of low geothermal gradient ( 3.0.C/100m). This is characteristically developed onshore area is simple, requiring only consideration of heat transients, modelling in the onshore require modelling programmes with built in modules to handle convective heat flow dissipation in the shallow layer. Current work around methods would involve tweaking of thermal conductivity values to mimic the underlying heat flow process effects, or heat flow mapping above and below the depth of gradient change. These methods allow for more realistic thermal modelling, hydrocarbon type prediction, and also more accurate prediction of temperature prior to drilling and for reservoir rock properties. The regional distribution of the models also impact on regional hydrocarbon distribution pattern in the Niger Delta

  3. Cerebral correlates of delta waves during non-REM sleep revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Desseilles, Martin; Laureys, Steven; Degueldre, Christian; Perrin, Fabien; Phillips, Christophe; Maquet, Pierre; Peigneux, Philippe

    2005-10-15

    We aimed at characterizing the neural correlates of delta activity during Non Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep in non-sleep-deprived normal young adults, based on the statistical analysis of a positron emission tomography (PET) sleep data set. One hundred fifteen PET scans were obtained using H(2)(15)O under continuous polygraphic monitoring during stages 2-4 of NREM sleep. Correlations between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and delta power (1.5-4 Hz) spectral density were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2). Delta power values obtained at central scalp locations negatively correlated during NREM sleep with rCBF in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the basal forebrain, the striatum, the anterior insula, and the precuneus. These regions embrace the set of brain areas in which rCBF decreases during slow wave sleep (SWS) as compared to Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep and wakefulness (Maquet, P., Degueldre, C., Delfiore, G., Aerts, J., Peters, J.M., Luxen, A., Franck, G., 1997. Functional neuroanatomy of human slow wave sleep. J. Neurosci. 17, 2807-S2812), supporting the notion that delta activity is a valuable prominent feature of NREM sleep. A strong association was observed between rCBF in the ventromedial prefrontal regions and delta power, in agreement with electrophysiological studies. In contrast to the results of a previous PET study investigating the brain correlates of delta activity (Hofle, N., Paus, T., Reutens, D., Fiset, P., Gotman, J., Evans, A.C., Jones, B.E., 1997. Regional cerebral blood flow changes as a function of delta and spindle activity during slow wave sleep in humans. J. Neurosci. 17, 4800-4808), in which waking scans were mixed with NREM sleep scans, no correlation was found with thalamus activity. This latter result stresses the importance of an extra-thalamic delta rhythm among the synchronous NREM sleep oscillations. Consequently, this rCBF distribution might preferentially reflect a particular modulation of the

  4. Characteristics of miniature electronic brachytherapy x-ray sources based on TG-43U1 formalism using Monte Carlo simulation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safigholi, Habib; Faghihi, Reza; Jashni, Somaye Karimi; Meigooni, Ali S.

    2012-01-01

    is less sensitive to the shape of the conical-hemisphere anode than the hemispherical anode. However, the optimized apex angle of conical-hemisphere anode was determined to be 60 deg. For the hemispherical targets, calculated radial dose function values at a distance of 5 cm were 0.137, 0.191, 0.247, and 0.331 for 40, 50, 60, and 80 keV electrons, respectively. These values for the conical-hemisphere targets are 0.165, 0.239, 0.305, and 0.412, respectively. Calculated 2D anisotropy functions values for the hemispherical target shape were F(1 cm, 0 deg.) = 1.438 and F(1 cm, 0 deg.) = 1.465 for 30 and 80 keV electrons, respectively. The corresponding values for conical-hemisphere targets are 1.091 and 1.241, respectively. Conclusions: A method for the characterizations of MEBXS using TG-43U1 dosimetric data using the MC MCNP4C has been presented. The effects of target geometry, thicknesses, and electron source geometry have been investigated. The final choices of MEBXS design are conical-hemisphere target shapes having an apex angle of 60 deg. Tungsten material having an optimized thickness versus electron energy and a 0.9 mm radius of uniform cylinder as a cathode produces optimal electron source characteristics.

  5. Characteristics of miniature electronic brachytherapy x-ray sources based on TG-43U1 formalism using Monte Carlo simulation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safigholi, Habib; Faghihi, Reza; Jashni, Somaye Karimi; Meigooni, Ali S. [Faculty of Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, 73481-13111, Persepolis (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Research Center, Shiraz University, 71936-16548, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, 71348-14336, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Radiation therapy, Comprehensive Cancer Center of Nevada, 3730 South Eastern Avenue, Las Vegas, Nevada 89169 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    distribution is less sensitive to the shape of the conical-hemisphere anode than the hemispherical anode. However, the optimized apex angle of conical-hemisphere anode was determined to be 60 deg. For the hemispherical targets, calculated radial dose function values at a distance of 5 cm were 0.137, 0.191, 0.247, and 0.331 for 40, 50, 60, and 80 keV electrons, respectively. These values for the conical-hemisphere targets are 0.165, 0.239, 0.305, and 0.412, respectively. Calculated 2D anisotropy functions values for the hemispherical target shape were F(1 cm, 0 deg.) = 1.438 and F(1 cm, 0 deg.) = 1.465 for 30 and 80 keV electrons, respectively. The corresponding values for conical-hemisphere targets are 1.091 and 1.241, respectively. Conclusions: A method for the characterizations of MEBXS using TG-43U1 dosimetric data using the MC MCNP4C has been presented. The effects of target geometry, thicknesses, and electron source geometry have been investigated. The final choices of MEBXS design are conical-hemisphere target shapes having an apex angle of 60 deg. Tungsten material having an optimized thickness versus electron energy and a 0.9 mm radius of uniform cylinder as a cathode produces optimal electron source characteristics.

  6. Three New Offset {delta}{sup 11}B Isotope Reference Materials for Environmental Boron Isotope Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, M. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin (Germany); IsoAnalysis UG, Berlin (Germany); Vogl, J. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    The isotopic composition of boron is a well established tool in various areas of science and industry. Boron isotope compositions are typically reported as {delta}{sup 11}B values which indicate the isotopic difference of a sample relative to the isotope reference material NIST SRM 951. A significant drawback of all of the available boron isotope reference materials is that none of them covers a natural boron isotope composition apart from NIST SRM 951. To fill this gap of required {delta}{sup 11}B reference materials three new solution boric acid reference materials were produced, which cover 60 per mille of the natural boron isotope variation (-20 to 40 per mille {delta}{sup 11}B) of about 100 per mille . The new reference materials are certified for their {delta}{sup 11}B values and are commercially available through European Reference Materials (http://www.erm-crm.org). The newly produced and certified boron isotope reference materials will allow straightforward method validation and quality control of boron isotope data. (author)

  7. An Implementation Of Elias Delta Code And ElGamal Algorithm In Image Compression And Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, Dian; Andri Budiman, Mohammad; Saffiera, Cut Amalia

    2018-01-01

    In data transmission such as transferring an image, confidentiality, integrity, and efficiency of data storage aspects are highly needed. To maintain the confidentiality and integrity of data, one of the techniques used is ElGamal. The strength of this algorithm is found on the difficulty of calculating discrete logs in a large prime modulus. ElGamal belongs to the class of Asymmetric Key Algorithm and resulted in enlargement of the file size, therefore data compression is required. Elias Delta Code is one of the compression algorithms that use delta code table. The image was first compressed using Elias Delta Code Algorithm, then the result of the compression was encrypted by using ElGamal algorithm. Prime test was implemented using Agrawal Biswas Algorithm. The result showed that ElGamal method could maintain the confidentiality and integrity of data with MSE and PSNR values 0 and infinity. The Elias Delta Code method generated compression ratio and space-saving each with average values of 62.49%, and 37.51%.

  8. Delta-nucleus dynamics: proceedings of symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.S.H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Schiffer, J.P.

    1983-10-01

    The appreciation of the role in nuclear physics of the first excited state of the nucleon, the delta Δ(1232), has grown rapidly in the past decade. The delta resonance dominates nuclear reactions induced by intermediate energy pions, nucleons, and electromagnetic probes. It is also the most important non-nucleonic degree of freedom needed to resolve many fundamental problems encountered in the study of low-energy nuclear phenomena. Clearly, a new phase of nuclear physics has emerged and conventional thinking must be extended to account for this new dimension of nuclear dynamics. The most challenging problem we are facing is how a unified theory can be developed to describe Δ-nucleus dynamics at all energies. In exploring this new direction, it is important to have direct discussions among researchers with different viewpoints. Separate entries were prepared for the 49 papers presented

  9. SU-D-19A-05: The Dosimetric Impact of Using Xoft Axxent® Electronic Brachytherapy Source TG-43 Dosimetry Parameters for Treatment with the Xoft 30 Mm Diameter Vaginal Applicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simiele, S; Micka, J; Culberson, W; DeWerd, L [University of WI-Madison/ADCL, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A full TG-43 dosimetric characterization has not been performed for the Xoft Axxent ® electronic brachytherapy source (Xoft, a subsidiary of iCAD, San Jose, CA) within the Xoft 30 mm diameter vaginal applicator. Currently, dose calculations are performed using the bare-source TG-43 parameters and do not account for the presence of the applicator. This work focuses on determining the difference between the bare-source and sourcein- applicator TG-43 parameters. Both the radial dose function (RDF) and polar anisotropy function (PAF) were computationally determined for the source-in-applicator and bare-source models to determine the impact of using the bare-source dosimetry data. Methods: MCNP5 was used to model the source and the Xoft 30 mm diameter vaginal applicator. All simulations were performed using 0.84p and 0.03e cross section libraries. All models were developed based on specifications provided by Xoft. The applicator is made of a proprietary polymer material and simulations were performed using the most conservative chemical composition. An F6 collision-kerma tally was used to determine the RDF and PAF values in water at various dwell positions. The RDF values were normalized to 2.0 cm from the source to accommodate the applicator radius. Source-in-applicator results were compared with bare-source results from this work as well as published baresource results. Results: For a 0 mm source pullback distance, the updated bare-source model and source-in-applicator RDF values differ by 2% at 3 cm and 4% at 5 cm. The largest PAF disagreements were observed at the distal end of the source and applicator with up to 17% disagreement at 2 cm and 8% at 8 cm. The bare-source model had RDF values within 2.6% of the published TG-43 data and PAF results within 7.2% at 2 cm. Conclusion: Results indicate that notable differences exist between the bare-source and source-in-applicator TG-43 simulated parameters. Xoft Inc. provided partial funding for this work.

  10. Inhibition of cortiocosteroidogenesis by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, W; Harris, L S; Carchman, R A

    1977-12-01

    ACTH, cholera toxin, cyclic AMP but not pregnenolone-induced steroidogenesis in Y-1 functional mouse adrenal tumor cells was significantly inhibited by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, and cannabinol. The inhibition of steroidogenesis could not be correlated with a general depression in cell function or viability. The data suggest that cannabinoids inhibit corticosteroidogenesis at a site between the synthesis of cAMP and of pregnenolone.

  11. Determination of the positions and residues of the. delta. /sup + +/ and. delta. /sup 0/ poles. [Phase shifts,coulomb corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasan, S S [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1976-04-19

    The poles and the associated residues in the ..pi..N P/sub 33/ amplitude corresponding to the resonances ..delta../sup + +/ and ..delta../sup 0/ are determined by fitting the ..pi../sup +/p and ..pi../sup -/p hadronic phase shifts from the Carter 73 analysis. The ..delta../sup + +/ and ..delta../sup 0/ pole positions are determined also from the nuclear phase shifts, these being the phase shifts made up of the hadronic phase shifts plus the Coulomb corrections. The pole positions obtained from the two sets of phase shifts are different, the differences being larger in the case of the ..delta../sup + +/.

  12. Coral skeletal {delta}{sup 15}N reveals isotopic traces of an agricultural revolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, Guy S. [Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)]. E-mail: g.marion@uq.edu.au; Dunbar, Robert B. [Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Mucciarone, David A. [Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kremer, James N. [Department of Marine Sciences, University of Connecticut at Avery Point, Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Lansing, J. Stephen [Department of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Arthawiguna, Alit [Installation for Agricultural Research (IP 2TP), Kotak Pos 3480, Denpasar, Bali (Indonesia)

    2005-09-01

    This study introduces a new method of tracing the history of nutrient loading in coastal oceans via {delta}{sup 15}N analysis of organic nitrogen preserved in the skeleton of the massive Porites coral. Four coral cores were collected in Bali, Indonesia, from reefs exposed to high levels of fertilizers in agricultural run-off, from lagoonal corals impacted by sewage, and from a reef located 30 km offshore. Skeletal {delta}{sup 15}N in the agriculturally exposed coral declined from 10.7 {+-} 0.4 per mille in 1970-1971, when synthetic fertilizers (-0.8 per mille {+-} 0.2 per mille ) were introduced to Bali, to a depleted 'anthropogenic' baseline of 3.5 per mille {+-} 0.4% in the mid-1990s. {delta}{sup 15}N values were negatively correlated with rainfall, suggesting that marine {delta}{sup 15}N lowers during flood-born influxes of waste fertilizers. Reef cores exposed to untreated sewage in terrestrial discharge were enriched (7.8 and 7.3 {+-} 0.4 per mille ), while the offshore core reflected background oceanic signals (6.2 {+-} 0.4 per mille). {delta}{sup 15}N, N concentration, and C:N systematics indicate that the N isotopic composition of skeletal organic matter was generally well preserved over 30 years. We suggest that skeletal organic {delta}{sup 15}N can serve as a recorder of past nitrogen sources. In Bali, this tracer suggests that the intensification of Western style agricultural practices since 1970 are contributing to the degradation of coastal coral reefs.

  13. A dynamic soil chamber system coupled with a tunable diode laser for online measurements of delta-13C, delta-18O, and efflux rate of soil respired CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Heath H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcdowell, Nate [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hanson, David [UNM; Hunt, John [LANDCARE RESEARCH

    2009-01-01

    High frequency observations of the stable isotopic composition of CO(2) effluxes from soil have been sparse due in part to measurement challenges. We have developed an open-system method that utilizes a flow-through chamber coupled to a tunable diode laser (TDL) to quantify the rate of soil CO(2) efflux and its delta(13)C and delta(18)O values (delta(13)C(R) and delta(18)O(R), respectively). We tested the method first in the laboratory using an artificial soil test column and then in a semi-arid woodland. We found that the CO(2) efflux rates of 1.2 to 7.3 micromol m(-2) s(-1) measured by the chamber-TDL system were similar to measurements made using the chamber and an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) (R(2) = 0.99) and compared well with efflux rates generated from the soil test column (R(2) = 0.94). Measured delta(13)C and delta(18)O values of CO(2) efflux using the chamber-TDL system at 2 min intervals were not significantly different from source air values across all efflux rates after accounting for diffusive enrichment. Field measurements during drought demonstrated a strong dependency of CO(2) efflux and isotopic composition on soil water content. Addition of water to the soil beneath the chamber resulted in average changes of +6.9 micromol m(-2) s(-1), -5.0 per thousand, and -55.0 per thousand for soil CO(2) efflux, delta(13)C(R) and delta(18)O(R), respectively. All three variables initiated responses within 2 min of water addition, with peak responses observed within 10 min for isotopes and 20 min for efflux. The observed delta(18)O(R) was more enriched than predicted from temperature-dependent H(2)O-CO(2) equilibration theory, similar to other recent observations of delta(18)O(R) from dry soils (Wingate L, Seibt U, Maseyk K, Ogee J, Almeida P, Yakir D, Pereira JS, Mencuccini M. Global Change Biol. 2008; 14: 2178). The soil chamber coupled with the TDL was found to be an effective method for capturing soil CO(2) efflux and its stable isotope composition at high

  14. Adaptive Delta Management: cultural aspects of dealing with uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Jos; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Hermans, Leon; Kwakkel, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Deltas are generally recognized as vulnerable to climate change and therefore a salient topic in adaptation science. Deltas are also highly dynamic systems viewed from physical (erosion, sedimentation, subsidence), social (demographic), economic (trade), infrastructures (transport, energy, metropolization) and cultural (multi-ethnic) perspectives. This multi-faceted dynamic character of delta areas warrants the emergence of a branch of applied adaptation science, Adaptive Delta Management, which explicitly focuses on climate adaptation of such highly dynamic and deeply uncertain systems. The application of Adaptive Delta Management in the Dutch Delta Program and its active international dissemination by Dutch professionals results in the rapid dissemination of Adaptive Delta Management to deltas worldwide. This global dissemination raises concerns among professionals in delta management on its applicability in deltas with cultural conditions and historical developments quite different from those found in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom where the practices now labelled as Adaptive Delta Management first emerged. This research develops an approach and gives a first analysis of the interaction between the characteristics of different approaches in Adaptive Delta Management and their alignment with the cultural conditions encountered in various delta's globally. In this analysis, first different management theories underlying approaches to Adaptive Delta Management as encountered in both scientific and professional publications are identified and characterized on three dimensions: The characteristics dimensions used are: orientation on today, orientation on the future, and decision making (Timmermans, 2015). The different underlying management theories encountered are policy analysis, strategic management, transition management, and adaptive management. These four management theories underlying different approaches in Adaptive Delta Management are connected to

  15. Spring-Summer Temperatures Since AD 1780 Reconstructed from Stable Oxygen Isotope Ratios in White Spruce Tree-Rings from the Mackenzie Delta, Northwestern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Trevor J.; Pisaric, Michael F. J.; Field, Robert D.; Kokelj, Steven V.; Edwards, Thomas W. D.; deMontigny, Peter; Healy, Richard; LeGrande, Allegra N.

    2013-01-01

    High-latitude delta(exp 18)O archives deriving from meteoric water (e.g., tree-rings and ice-cores) can provide valuable information on past temperature variability, but stationarity of temperature signals in these archives depends on the stability of moisture source/trajectory and precipitation seasonality, both of which can be affected by atmospheric circulation changes. A tree-ring delta(exp 18)O record (AD 1780-2003) from the Mackenzie Delta is evaluated as a temperature proxy based on linear regression diagnostics. The primary source of moisture for this region is the North Pacific and, thus, North Pacific atmospheric circulation variability could potentially affect the tree-ring delta(exp 18)O-temperature signal. Over the instrumental period (AD 1892-2003), tree-ring delta(exp 18)O explained 29% of interannual variability in April-July minimum temperatures, and the explained variability increases substantially at lower-frequencies. A split-period calibration/verification analysis found the delta(exp 18)O-temperature relation was time-stable, which supported a temperature reconstruction back to AD 1780. The stability of the delta(exp 18)O-temperature signal indirectly implies the study region is insensitive to North Pacific circulation effects, since North Pacific circulation was not constant over the calibration period. Simulations from the NASA-GISS ModelE isotope-enabled general circulation model confirm that meteoric delta(exp 18)O and precipitation seasonality in the study region are likely insensitive to North Pacific circulation effects, highlighting the paleoclimatic value of tree-ring and possibly other delta(exp 18)O records from this region. Our delta(exp 18)O-based temperature reconstruction is the first of its kind in northwestern North America, and one of few worldwide, and provides a long-term context for evaluating recent climate warming in the Mackenzie Delta region.

  16. Delta count-rate monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Etten, D.; Olsen, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    A need for a more effective way to rapidly search for gamma-ray contamination over large areas led to the design and construction of a very sensitive gamma detection system. The delta count-rate monitoring system was installed in a four-wheel-drive van instrumented for environmental surveillance and accident response. The system consists of four main sections: (1) two scintillation detectors, (2) high-voltage power supply amplifier and single-channel analyzer, (3) delta count-rate monitor, and (4) count-rate meter and recorder. The van's 6.5-kW generator powers the standard nuclear instrument modular design system. The two detectors are mounted in the rear corners of the van and can be run singly or jointly. A solid-state bar-graph count-rate meter mounted on the dashboard can be read easily by both the driver and passenger. A solid-state strip chart recorder shows trends and provides a permanent record of the data. An audible alarm is sounded at the delta monitor and at the dashboard count-rate meter if a detected radiation level exceeds the set background level by a predetermined amount

  17. The sensitivity of the ESA DELTA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C.; Walker, R.; Klinkrad, H.

    Long-term debris environment models play a vital role in furthering our understanding of the future debris environment, and in aiding the determination of a strategy to preserve the Earth orbital environment for future use. By their very nature these models have to make certain assumptions to enable informative future projections to be made. Examples of these assumptions include the projection of future traffic, including launch and explosion rates, and the methodology used to simulate break-up events. To ensure a sound basis for future projections, and consequently for assessing the effectiveness of various mitigation measures, it is essential that the sensitivity of these models to variations in key assumptions is examined. The DELTA (Debris Environment Long Term Analysis) model, developed by QinetiQ for the European Space Agency, allows the future projection of the debris environment throughout Earth orbit. Extensive analyses with this model have been performed under the auspices of the ESA Space Debris Mitigation Handbook and following the recent upgrade of the model to DELTA 3.0. This paper draws on these analyses to present the sensitivity of the DELTA model to changes in key model parameters and assumptions. Specifically the paper will address the variation in future traffic rates, including the deployment of satellite constellations, and the variation in the break-up model and criteria used to simulate future explosion and collision events.

  18. Understanding delta-sigma data converters

    CERN Document Server

    Pavan, Shanti; Temes, Gabor C

    2017-01-01

    This new edition introduces novel analysis and design techniques for delta-sigma (ΔΣ) converters in physical and conceptual terms, and includes new chapters that explore developments in the field over the last decade. This book explains the principles and operation of delta-sigma analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) in physical and conceptual terms in accordance with the most recent developments in the field. The interest of ΔΣ converter designers has shifted significantly over the past decade, due to many new applications for data converters at the far ends of the frequency spectrum. Continuous-time delta-sigma A/D converters with GHz clocks, of both lowpass and bandpass types, are required for wireless applications. At the other extreme, multiplexed ADCs with very narrow (sometimes 10 Hz wide) signal bandwidths, but very high accuracy are needed in the interfaces of biomedical and environmental sensors. To reflect the changing eeds of designers, the second edition includes significant new material on bo...

  19. A reexamination of cellulose carbon-bound hydrogen deltaD measurements and some factors affecting plant-water D/H relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yapp, C.J.; Epstein, S.

    1982-01-01

    The method of Epstein et al. (1976) for analysis of D/H ratios of cellulose carbon-bound hydrogen has been modified. This modified 'renitration' method yields deltaD values which are in agreement with those obtained by the sodium chlorite delignification method. Comparison of results obtained by the renitration method with the published results of Epstein et al. indicate some differences in the deltaD values of individual samples. However, the overall plant-water deltaD relationship determined by Epstein et al., is not greatly changed upon redetermination by the renitration method. Additional data from a variety of plants representing a wide geographical range reveal that relative humidity is an important variable in determining the deltaD value of cellulose C-H hydrogen on this inter-regional scale. The role of relative humidity can be reasonably explained by a leaf water model that assumes an isotopic steady-state during transpiration. These results reaffirm the conclusion of Epstein et al., that the deltaD variations of the source water are the dominant control of the deltaD variations of cellulose C-H hydrogen from naturally grown plants. Thus, there is an expectation that these cellulose deltaD variations can have climate significance. (author)

  20. Cistatina C, PCR, Log TG/HDLc e Sindrome Metabolica estao Relacionados a Microalbuminuria na Hipertensao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela do Socorro Souza e Silva Moura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Em pacientes com hipertensão arterial sistêmica, a microalbuminúria é um marcador de lesão endotelial e está associada a um risco aumentado de doença cardiovascular. Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar os fatores que influenciam a ocorrência de microalbumiúria em pacientes hipertensos com creatinina sérica menor que 1,5 mg/dL. Métodos: Foram incluídos no estudo 133 pacientes brasileiros atendidos em um ambulatório multidisciplinar para hipertensos. Pacientes com creatinina sérica maior do que 1,5 mg/dL e aqueles com diabete mellitus foram excluídos do estudo. A pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica foi aferida. O índice de massa corporal (IMC e a taxa de filtração glomerular estimada pela fórmula CKD-EPI foram calculados. Em um estudo transversal, creatinina, cistatina C, colesterol total, HDL colesterol, LDL colesterol, triglicerídeos, proteína C-reativa (PCR e glicose foram mensurados em amostra de sangue. A microalbuminúria foi determinada na urina colhida em 24 horas. Os hipertensos foram classificados pela presença de um ou mais critérios para síndrome metabólica. Resultados: Em análise de regressão múltipla, os níveis séricos de cistatina C, PCR, o índice aterogênico log TG/HDLc e a presença de três ou mais critérios para síndrome metabólica foram positivamente correlacionados com a microalbuminuria (r2: 0,277; p < 0,05. Conclusão: Cistatina C, PCR, log TG/HDLc e presença de três ou mais critérios para síndrome metabólica, independentemente da creatinina sérica, foram associados com a microalbuminúria, um marcador precoce de lesão renal e de risco cardiovascular em pacientes com hipertensão arterial essencial.

  1. Large eddy simulation of vortex breakdown behind a delta wing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary, I.

    2003-01-01

    A large eddy simulation (LES) of a turbulent flow past a 70 deg. sweep angle delta wing is performed and compared with wind tunnel experiments. The angle of attack and the Reynolds number based on the root chord are equal to 27 deg. and 1.6x10 6 , respectively. Due to the high value of the Reynolds number and the three-dimensional geometry, the mesh resolution usually required by LES cannot be reached. Therefore a local mesh refinement technique based on semi-structured grids is proposed, whereas different wall functions are assessed in this paper. The goal is to evaluate if these techniques are sufficient to provide an accurate solution of such flow on available supercomputers. An implicit Miles model is retained for the subgrid scale (SGS) modelling because the resolution is too coarse to take advantage of more sophisticated SGS models. The solution sensitivity to grid refinement in the streamwise and wall normal direction is investigated

  2. Delta-function potential with a complex coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafazadeh, Ali

    2006-01-01

    We explore the Hamiltonian operator H = -d 2 /dx 2 + zδ(x), where x element of R, δ(x) is the Dirac delta function and z is an arbitrary complex coupling constant. For a purely imaginary z, H has a spectral singularity at E = -z 2 /4 element of R + . For Re(z) 2 /4. For the case that Re(z) > 0, H has a real, positive, continuous spectrum that is free from spectral singularities. For this latter case, we construct an associated biorthonormal system and use it to perform a perturbative calculation of a positive-definite inner product that renders H self-adjoint. This allows us to address the intriguing question of the nonlocal aspects of the equivalent Hermitian Hamiltonian for the system. In particular, we compute the energy expectation values for various Gaussian wave packets to show that the non-Hermiticity effect diminishes rapidly outside an effective interaction region

  3. Variation in MERRA-2 aerosol optical depth over the Yangtze River Delta from 1980 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Enwei; Che, Huizheng; Xu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Zhenzhu; Lu, Chunsong; Gui, Ke; Zhao, Hujia; Zheng, Yu; Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Hong; Sun, Tianze; Liang, Yuanxin; Li, Xiaopan; Sheng, Zhizhong; An, Linchang; Zhang, Xiaoye; Shi, Guangyu

    2018-05-01

    In this study, 765 instantaneous MERRA-2 (second Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications) aerosol optical depth (AOD) values at 550 nm were compared with those of a sky radiometer in Hefei (31.90° N, 117.17° E) for the different seasons from March 2007 to February 2010. The correlation coefficients (R) were 0.88, 0.83, 0.88, and 0.80 in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. The MERRA-2 AOD is also compared with MODIS Aqua AOD in the entire Yangtze River Delta, and good agreement has been obtained. The MERRA-2 AOD product was used to analyze the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the annual, seasonal and monthly means of the AOD over the Yangtze River Delta region from 1980 to 2016 (37 years). The mean values of the MERRA-2 AOD during the study period show that the AOD (between 0.45 and 0.55) in the northern area of the Yangtze River Delta was higher than that (between 0.30 and 0.45) of the southern area. The northwest part of the Yangtze River Delta had the highest mean AOD values (between 0.50 and 0.55). The AOD increased slowly in the 1980s and 1990s, followed by a rapid increase between 2001 and 2010. An AOD decrease can be seen from 2011 to 2016. The mean AOD in each month is discussed. High AOD was observed in March, April, and June, while low AOD could be seen in September, October, November, and December. Three different area types (large cities, medium-sized cities, and remote areas) had nearly the same annual AOD variation. Large cities had the highest AOD (about 0.48), while remote areas had the lowest (about 0.42). In summer, the AOD in remote areas was much lower than that in cities. The AOD variational trend over the Yangtze River Delta was studied during two periods. The increasing trend could be seen over the entire Yangtze River Delta in each month from 1980 to 2009. A decreasing trend was found all over the Yangtze River Delta in January, February, March, July, October, and November, whereas in

  4. Formation of conjugated delta8,delta10-double bonds by delta12-oleic-acid desaturase-related enzymes: biosynthetic origin of calendic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, E B; Ripp, K G; Hall, S E; Kinney, A J

    2001-01-26

    Divergent forms of the plant Delta(12)-oleic-acid desaturase (FAD2) have previously been shown to catalyze the formation of acetylenic bonds, epoxy groups, and conjugated Delta(11),Delta(13)-double bonds by modification of an existing Delta(12)-double bond in C(18) fatty acids. Here, we report a class of FAD2-related enzymes that modifies a Delta(9)-double bond to produce the conjugated trans-Delta(8),trans-Delta(10)-double bonds found in calendic acid (18:3Delta(8trans,10trans,12cis)), the major component of the seed oil of Calendula officinalis. Using an expressed sequence tag approach, cDNAs for two closely related FAD2-like enzymes, designated CoFADX-1 and CoFADX-2, were identified from a C. officinalis developing seed cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequences of these polypeptides share 40-50% identity with those of other FAD2 and FAD2-related enzymes. Expression of either CoFADX-1 or CoFADX-2 in somatic soybean embryos resulted in the production of calendic acid. In embryos expressing CoFADX-2, calendic acid accumulated to as high as 22% (w/w) of the total fatty acids. In addition, expression of CoFADX-1 and CoFADX-2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was accompanied by calendic acid accumulation when induced cells were supplied exogenous linoleic acid (18:2Delta(9cis,12cis)). These results are thus consistent with a route of calendic acid synthesis involving modification of the Delta(9)-double bond of linoleic acid. Regiospecificity for Delta(9)-double bonds is unprecedented among FAD2-related enzymes and further expands the functional diversity found in this family of enzymes.

  5. The relationship between the Tg depression and the speeding up of physical aging in polystyrene/gold nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Virginie M.; Cangialosi, Daniele; Alegria, Angel; Colmenero, Juan

    2011-03-01

    The effect of gold nanoparticles on the segmental dynamics, glass transition (Tg) and physical aging of polystyrene (PS) was studied in PS/Gold nanocomposites samples containing 5 and 15 wt.% of 60 nm spherical gold nanoparticles, surface-treated with thiolated-PS. While the segmental dynamics of PS, as assessed by broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS), was found to be unchanged in presence of gold nanoparticles, the calorimetric Tg of PS was shown to decrease with increasing the amount of nanoparticles in the samples. Furthermore, the physical aging of PS, monitored by measuring the enthalpy relaxation below Tg by means of DSC, was shown to speed up with increasing the nanoparticles weight fraction, i.e. the amount of PS/Gold interface in the hybrid material. Thus, the main conclusion of our work is that PS molecular mobility and out-of-equilibrium dynamics are decoupled in these nanocomposites. The significant effect of the amount of PS/Gold interface on both the physical aging rate of PS and the calorimetric Tg depression are quantitatively accounted for by a model based on the diffusion of free volume holes towards polymer interfaces, with a diffusion coefficient depending only on the molecular mobility.

  6. No Effect of Resveratrol on VLDL-TG Kinetics and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Men with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Marianne K; Nellemann, Birgitte; Bibby, Bo Martin

    2018-01-01

    The present study assess long-term effects of high-dose Resveratrol (RSV) on basal and insulin-mediated very low-desity lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDL-TG), palmitate and glucose kinetics, and liver fat content in men with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Participants (n=16) were non...

  7. Anxiety-like behavior as an early endophenotype in the TgF344-AD rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentkowski, Nathan S; Berkowitz, Laura E; Thompson, Shannon M; Drake, Emma N; Olguin, Carlos R; Clark, Benjamin J

    2018-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive cognitive decline and the presence of aggregates of amyloid beta (plaques) and hyperphosphorylated tau (tangles). Early diagnosis through neuropsychological testing is difficult due to comorbidity of symptoms between AD and other types of dementia. As a result, there is a need to identify the range of behavioral phenotypes expressed in AD. In the present study, we utilized a transgenic rat (TgF344-AD) model that bears the mutated amyloid precursor protein as well as presenilin-1 genes, resulting in progressive plaque and tangle pathogenesis throughout the cortex. We tested young adult male and female TgF344-AD rats in a spatial memory task in the Morris water maze and for anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze. Results indicated that regardless of sex, TgF344-AD rats exhibited increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze, which occurred without significant deficits in the spatial memory. Together, these results indicate that enhanced anxiety-like behavior represents an early-stage behavioral marker in the TgF344-AD rat model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular structure of virgin and Tg cycled (Ag2Se)x (AsSe)1-x bulk glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtman, Jacob; Chen, Ping; Boochand, P.

    2009-03-01

    AsSe, the base glass (x = 0) in the titled ternary, is an interesting example of a chalcogenide that is partially de-mixed into As4Se4 molecules segregated from a connected AsSe network, with the latter determining glass network properties. Raman scattering reveals sharp modes of the Realgar molecules that are superimposed on broad modes coming from of the backbone. Upon Tg cycling virgin samples (as quenched melts), the concentration of de-mixed As4Se4 molecules decreases, suggesting that thermally induced polymerization occurs; molecules break up to form part of the connective tissue. Modulated DSC experiments reveal a broad exotherm near 140 ^oC in virgin samples, which becomes nearly extinct in Tg cycled samples. The exotherm may represent Realgar molecules nano-crystallizing as the temperature approaches Tg. Compositional trends in thermal parameters such as Tg(x), δCp(x), and the δHnr(x) as a function of Ag2Se content `x' of the glasses will be reported.

  9. TG-FTIR measurement of CO2-H2O co-adsorption for CO2 air capture sorbent screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smal, I.M.; Yu, Qian; Veneman, Rens; Fränzel-Luiten, B.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2014-01-01

    Capturing atmospheric CO2 using solid sorbents is gaining interest. As ambient air normally contains much more (up to 100 times) water than CO2, a selective sorbent is desirable as co-adsorption will most likely occur. In this study, a convenient method based on an TG-FTIR analysis system is

  10. Citalopram Ameliorates Impairments in Spatial Memory and Synaptic Plasticity in Female 3xTgAD Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the primary cause of dementia. There is no effective treatment. Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ plays an important role in the pathogenesis and thus strategies suppressing Aβ production and accumulation seem promising. Citalopram is an antidepressant drug and can decrease Aβ production and amyloid plaques in transgenic mice of AD and humans. Whether citalopram can ameliorate memory deficit was not known yet. We tested the effects of citalopram on behavioral performance and synaptic plasticity in female 3xTgAD mice, a well-characterized model of AD. Mice were treated with citalopram or water from 5 months of age for 3 months. Citalopram treatment at approximately 10 mg/kg/day significantly improved spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM test, while not affecting anxiety-like and depression-like behavior in 3xTgAD mice. Further, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP impairment in 3xTgAD mice was reversed by citalopram treatment. Citalopram treatment also significantly decreased the levels of insoluble Aβ40 in hippocampal and cortical tissues in 3xTgAD mice, accompanied with a reduced amyloid precursor protein (APP. Together, citalopram treatment may be a promising strategy for AD and further clinical trials should be conducted to verify the effect of citalopram on cognition in patients with AD or mild cognitive impairment.

  11. Value of the Serum Thyroglobulin Level Alteration at the First High Dose Radioiodine Treatment in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Hyun Yeol; Kim, In Joo; Kim, Yong Ki; Kim, Seong Jang; Jun, Sung Min; Kim, Bum Soo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if short-term serum thyroglobulin (Tg) elevation after radioiodine administration can predict successful radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) and whether comparable RRA effectiveness is exhibited between a group administered with recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) and a group experiencing thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW), in preparation for RRA. A retrospective chart review was performed on 39 patients in the rhTSH group and 46 patients in the THW group. They were treated for differentiated thyroid carcinoma by total or near total thyroidectomy, and referred for RRA between 2003 and 2006 (the rhTSH group) and between January and June of 2006 (the THW group). They were assessed for serum Tg levels just before I-131 administration (TgD0), reassessed 9 days later (TgD9), and again 6-12 months later. RRA was successful in 64 (37 from the THW group and 27 from the rhTSH group) of the total 85 patients. The success rates of RRA had no statistically significant differences between the two groups. In both groups, TgD9/TgD0 values were significantly higher in the RRA success group (the rhTSH group; P=0.03, the THW group; P=0.04). By combining cutoff values of TgD0 and TgD9/TgD0, the successful RRA value was determined to be 96.7% (29/30) with TgD0≤5.28 ng/mL and TgD9/TgD0>4.37 in both groups (the rhTSH group; 100% (16/16), the THW group; 92.9% (13/14)). Using logistic multivariate analysis, only TgD0 was independently associated with successful RRA. We may predict successful ablation by evaluating short-term serum Tg elevation after I-131 administration for RRA, in both rhTSH and THW patients

  12. Characteristic Study of Shenmu Bituminous Coal Combustion with Online TG-MS-FTIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Guanfu

    2018-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of Shenmu bituminous pulverized coal (SBC) were comprehensively investigated with a combined TG-MS-FTIR system by considering the effect of particle size, heating rate and total flowrate. The combustion products were accurately quantified by normalization and numerical analysis of MS results. The results indicate that the decrease of the particle size, heating rate and total flowrate result in lower ignition and burnout temperatures. The activation energy tends to be lower with smaller particle size, lower heating rate and total flowrate. The MS and FTIR results demonstrate that lower concentrations of different products, such as NO, NO2, HCN, CH4 and SO2 were produced with smaller particle size, slower heating rate and lower total flowrate. The decrease of particle size would lead to more contact area with oxygen and slower heating rate could provide more sufficient time for the diffusion. High total flowrate would reduce the oxygen adsorbability on the coal particle surface and shorten the residence time of oxygen, which makes the ignition difficult to occur. This work will guide to understand the combustion kinetics of pulverized coals and be beneficial to control the formation of pollutants.

  13. STUDY ON THE CONTENT OF SEDIMENT PARTICLES IN THE AIR AROUND TG. JIU TOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Violeta Cazalbașu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems of the modern era is the air pollution. This phenomenon, highly complex, has become the focus of several international organizations since the consequences of air pollution are felt outside the country borders. By and large wecan speak of a regional pollution, which consists of atmospheric contamination by waste or by products liquids, solids gas, threatening the health of people, plants and animals or which can attack materials, reduce visibility and cause unpleasant odors. On a planetary scale, the elimination or accumulation in the atmosphere of certain products, leads to irreparable consequences on the planet's natural balance: ozone depletion and global warming of the atmosphere. This paper presents the study on the sedimentparticles in the air in Tg-Jiu. Determination of particulate matter from the air was done according to Standard no. 10195 / 75.Air purity.Determination of settled particles. In 2014 no exceeding of the maximum allowable concentration of sediment particles has been found in the four sampling points and in2015, out of a total of 60 measurements in four sampling points only one was above the maximum permissible concentration

  14. High-Tg Polynorbornene-Based Block and Random Copolymers for Butanol Pervaporation Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Register, Richard A.; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Takigawa, Tamami; Kashino, Tomomasa; Burtovyy, Oleksandr; Bell, Andrew

    Vinyl addition polymers of substituted norbornene (NB) monomers possess desirably high glass transition temperatures (Tg); however, until very recently, the lack of an applicable living polymerization chemistry has precluded the synthesis of such polymers with controlled architecture, or copolymers with controlled sequence distribution. We have recently synthesized block and random copolymers of NB monomers bearing hydroxyhexafluoroisopropyl and n-butyl substituents (HFANB and BuNB) via living vinyl addition polymerization with Pd-based catalysts. Both series of polymers were cast into the selective skin layers of thin film composite (TFC) membranes, and these organophilic membranes investigated for the isolation of n-butanol from dilute aqueous solution (model fermentation broth) via pervaporation. The block copolymers show well-defined microphase-separated morphologies, both in bulk and as the selective skin layers on TFC membranes, while the random copolymers are homogeneous. Both block and random vinyl addition copolymers are effective as n-butanol pervaporation membranes, with the block copolymers showing a better flux-selectivity balance. While polyHFANB has much higher permeability and n-butanol selectivity than polyBuNB, incorporating BuNB units into the polymer (in either a block or random sequence) limits the swelling of the polyHFANB and thereby improves the n-butanol pervaporation selectivity.

  15. A comparative Tg-Ms study of the carbonization behaviour of different pitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, R.; Arenillas, A.; Crespo, J.L.; Pis, J.J.; Moinelo, S.R. [CSIC, Oviedo (Spain). Inst. Nacional del Carbon

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the formation of mesophase spherules from a low-temperature coal tar pitch under carbonization conditions. For comparison, the carbonization of a high-temperature coal tar pitch and a petroleum pitch were also considered. Different degrees of mesophase formation and development for each pitch. The results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), elemental analysis, and the thermogravimetric analyzer mass spectrometer (TG-MS) tests were compared with the different extents of mesophase formation, checked by optical microscopy. According to the results, several stages can be distinguished as temperature increases in the carbonization process of the pitches. In the low-temperature coal tar pitch, the devolatilization of light components, especially phenols, accounts for the most significant weight loss. Moreover, cross-linking contributes greatly to the formation and development of mesophase, resulting in the predominance of bulk mesophase in a relatively short time in the case of the low-temperature coal tar pitch. 19 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. MO-A-BRB-00: TG191: Clinical Use of Luminescent Dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    This presentation will highlight the upcoming TG-191 report: Clinical Use of Luminescent Dosimeters. Luminescent dosimetry based on TLD and OSLD is a practical, accurate, and precise technique for point dosimetry in medical physics applications. The charges of Task Group 191 were to detail the methodologies for practical and optimal luminescent dosimetry in a clinical setting. This includes (1) To review the variety of TLD/OSL materials available, including features and limitations of each. (2) To outline the optimal steps to achieve accurate and precise dosimetry with luminescent detectors and to evaluate the uncertainty induced when less rigorous procedures are used. (3) To develop consensus guidelines on the optimal use of luminescent dosimeters for clinical practice. (4) To develop guidelines for special medically relevant uses of TLDs/OSLs (e.g., mixed field i.e. photon/neutron dosimetry, particle beam dosimetry, skin dosimetry). While this report provides general guidelines for arbitrary TLD and OSLD processes, the report, and therefore this presentation, provide specific guidance for TLD-100 (LiF:Ti,Mg) and nanoDot (Al2O3:C) dosimeters because of their prevalence in clinical practice. Learning Objectives: Understand the available dosimetry systems, and basic theory of their operation Understand the range of dose determination methodologies and the uncertainties associated with them Become familiar with special considerations for TLD/OSLD relevant for special clinical situations Learn recommended commissioning and QA procedures for these dosimetry systems.

  17. MO-A-BRB-01: TG191: Clinical Use of Luminescent Dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kry, S. [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    This presentation will highlight the upcoming TG-191 report: Clinical Use of Luminescent Dosimeters. Luminescent dosimetry based on TLD and OSLD is a practical, accurate, and precise technique for point dosimetry in medical physics applications. The charges of Task Group 191 were to detail the methodologies for practical and optimal luminescent dosimetry in a clinical setting. This includes (1) To review the variety of TLD/OSL materials available, including features and limitations of each. (2) To outline the optimal steps to achieve accurate and precise dosimetry with luminescent detectors and to evaluate the uncertainty induced when less rigorous procedures are used. (3) To develop consensus guidelines on the optimal use of luminescent dosimeters for clinical practice. (4) To develop guidelines for special medically relevant uses of TLDs/OSLs (e.g., mixed field i.e. photon/neutron dosimetry, particle beam dosimetry, skin dosimetry). While this report provides general guidelines for arbitrary TLD and OSLD processes, the report, and therefore this presentation, provide specific guidance for TLD-100 (LiF:Ti,Mg) and nanoDot (Al2O3:C) dosimeters because of their prevalence in clinical practice. Learning Objectives: Understand the available dosimetry systems, and basic theory of their operation Understand the range of dose determination methodologies and the uncertainties associated with them Become familiar with special considerations for TLD/OSLD relevant for special clinical situations Learn recommended commissioning and QA procedures for these dosimetry systems.

  18. Studies concerning recycling by composting organic waste in Tg-Mureş

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recycling organic waste has become a matter of utmost importance for overall healthiness of the Earth, its volume largely interacting with the economic development. The problem tends to become a vital matter of survival for an entire society. In this context, recovery, recycling, physical-chemical treatment, composting or incineration are methods of waste processing, commonly used in most countries of the world. These measures are intended to both environmental protection and rational use and economically efficient. Based on the data regarding the municipal waste generated in Mures County, in previous years, and in Tg-Mures city, in 2007 were calculated the quantities expected to generate by the year 2038. Also, concerning the cleaning recovery it is proposed the pile composting method, being, from our point of view, more Beneficial in the area. In conclusion, at county level but at city level too, there is still working to do, primarily in terms of awareness, not only the population but also the relevant, local bodies, of what means the cleaning recovery of the municipal waste.

  19. MO-A-BRB-01: TG191: Clinical Use of Luminescent Dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kry, S.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will highlight the upcoming TG-191 report: Clinical Use of Luminescent Dosimeters. Luminescent dosimetry based on TLD and OSLD is a practical, accurate, and precise technique for point dosimetry in medical physics applications. The charges of Task Group 191 were to detail the methodologies for practical and optimal luminescent dosimetry in a clinical setting. This includes (1) To review the variety of TLD/OSL materials available, including features and limitations of each. (2) To outline the optimal steps to achieve accurate and precise dosimetry with luminescent detectors and to evaluate the uncertainty induced when less rigorous procedures are used. (3) To develop consensus guidelines on the optimal use of luminescent dosimeters for clinical practice. (4) To develop guidelines for special medically relevant uses of TLDs/OSLs (e.g., mixed field i.e. photon/neutron dosimetry, particle beam dosimetry, skin dosimetry). While this report provides general guidelines for arbitrary TLD and OSLD processes, the report, and therefore this presentation, provide specific guidance for TLD-100 (LiF:Ti,Mg) and nanoDot (Al2O3:C) dosimeters because of their prevalence in clinical practice. Learning Objectives: Understand the available dosimetry systems, and basic theory of their operation Understand the range of dose determination methodologies and the uncertainties associated with them Become familiar with special considerations for TLD/OSLD relevant for special clinical situations Learn recommended commissioning and QA procedures for these dosimetry systems.

  20. MO-A-BRB-00: TG191: Clinical Use of Luminescent Dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will highlight the upcoming TG-191 report: Clinical Use of Luminescent Dosimeters. Luminescent dosimetry based on TLD and OSLD is a practical, accurate, and precise technique for point dosimetry in medical physics applications. The charges of Task Group 191 were to detail the methodologies for practical and optimal luminescent dosimetry in a clinical setting. This includes (1) To review the variety of TLD/OSL materials available, including features and limitations of each. (2) To outline the optimal steps to achieve accurate and precise dosimetry with luminescent detectors and to evaluate the uncertainty induced when less rigorous procedures are used. (3) To develop consensus guidelines on the optimal use of luminescent dosimeters for clinical practice. (4) To develop guidelines for special medically relevant uses of TLDs/OSLs (e.g., mixed field i.e. photon/neutron dosimetry, particle beam dosimetry, skin dosimetry). While this report provides general guidelines for arbitrary TLD and OSLD processes, the report, and therefore this presentation, provide specific guidance for TLD-100 (LiF:Ti,Mg) and nanoDot (Al2O3:C) dosimeters because of their prevalence in clinical practice. Learning Objectives: Understand the available dosimetry systems, and basic theory of their operation Understand the range of dose determination methodologies and the uncertainties associated with them Become familiar with special considerations for TLD/OSLD relevant for special clinical situations Learn recommended commissioning and QA procedures for these dosimetry systems.

  1. SU-G-201-06: Directional Low-Dose Rate Brachytherapy: Determination of the TG-43 Dose-Rate Constant Analog for a New Pd-103 Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aima, M; Culberson, W; Hammer, C; Micka, J; DeWerd, L [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to determine the TG-43 dose-rate constant analog for a new directional low-dose rate brachytherapy source based on experimental methods and comparison to Monte Carlo simulations. The CivaSheet™ is a new commercially available planar source array comprised of a variable number of discrete directional source elements called “CivaDots”. Given the directional nature and non-conventional design of the source, modifications to the AAPM TG-43 protocol for dosimetry are required. As a result, various parameters of the TG-43 dosimetric formalism have to be adapted to accommodate this source. This work focuses on the dose-rate constant analog determination for a CivaDot. Methods: Dose to water measurements of the CivaDot were performed in a polymethyl methacrylate phantom (20×20×12 cm{sup 3}) using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and Gafchromic EBT3 film. The source was placed in the center of the phantom, and nine TLD micro-cubes were irradiated along its central axis at a distance of 1 cm. For the film measurements, the TLDs were substituted by a (3×3) cm{sup 2} EBT3 film. Primary air-kerma strength measurements of the source were performed using a variable-aperture free-air chamber. Finally, the source was modeled using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code 6. Results: Dose-rate constant analog observed for a total of eight CivaDots using TLDs and five CivaDots using EBT3 film was within ±7.0% and ±2.9% of the Monte Carlo predicted value respectively. The average difference observed was −4.8% and −0.1% with a standard deviation of 1.7% and 2.1% for the TLD and the film measurements respectively, which are both within the comparison uncertainty. Conclusion: A preliminary investigation to determine the doserate constant analog for a CivaDot was conducted successfully with good agreement between experimental and Monte Carlo based methods. This work will aid in the eventual realization of a clinically-viable dosimetric

  2. SU-E-J-52: Decreasing Frequency of Performing TG-142 Imaging QA – 5 Year Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, T; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose This study is an update to check if the frequency of imaging QA suggested by AAPM Task Group Report 142 (TG142) is necessary with our 5 year experience. TG142 presents recommendations for QA criteria of IGRT treatment. ACR has adopted it to be the requirements for any radiatiotherapy practices; however, we propose to reduce the frequency on image quality QA according to this 5 year study.Method and Materials: This study uses VarianIX2100 and Siemens Artiste Linacs to perform QAs on KV, MV, CBCT modalities. The QA was designed following under the recommendations of TG142. This study reports the daily imaging positioning/repositioning and imaging and treatment coordinate coincidence. QA results on kV, MV and CBCT from 4/7/2010∼3/11/15 are analyzed. KV, MV, CBCT images are taken with the Varian isocube localized at the isocenter. Digital graticule is used in the software to verify the isocenter position. CBCT images are taken with the cube placed at 1cm superior, lateral and anterior of the isocenter. In-line fusion software is used to verify the contrived shift. Digital ruler provided at the on-board-imaging software or adaptive-targeting software was used to measure the position differences. The position differences were recorded at AP,LR,SI directions. Results 5 year records on kV, MV, CBCT show the shifts in all three directions are within the tolerance of 1mm suggested in TG142 for stereotactic radiation treatment(SRS/SRT). There is no occasion where shifts are outside 1mm tolerance. Conclusions The daily imaging QA suggested in TG142 is useful in ensuring the accuracy needed for SRS/SRT in IGRT. 5 year measurements presented suggest that decreasing the frequency of imaging QA may be acceptable, in particular for institutions reporting no violation of tolerance over periods of few years.

  3. SU-E-J-52: Decreasing Frequency of Performing TG-142 Imaging QA – 5 Year Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, T; Ma, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study is an update to check if the frequency of imaging QA suggested by AAPM Task Group Report 142 (TG142) is necessary with our 5 year experience. TG142 presents recommendations for QA criteria of IGRT treatment. ACR has adopted it to be the requirements for any radiatiotherapy practices; however, we propose to reduce the frequency on image quality QA according to this 5 year study.Method and Materials: This study uses VarianIX2100 and Siemens Artiste Linacs to perform QAs on KV, MV, CBCT modalities. The QA was designed following under the recommendations of TG142. This study reports the daily imaging positioning/repositioning and imaging and treatment coordinate coincidence. QA results on kV, MV and CBCT from 4/7/2010∼3/11/15 are analyzed. KV, MV, CBCT images are taken with the Varian isocube localized at the isocenter. Digital graticule is used in the software to verify the isocenter position. CBCT images are taken with the cube placed at 1cm superior, lateral and anterior of the isocenter. In-line fusion software is used to verify the contrived shift. Digital ruler provided at the on-board-imaging software or adaptive-targeting software was used to measure the position differences. The position differences were recorded at AP,LR,SI directions. Results 5 year records on kV, MV, CBCT show the shifts in all three directions are within the tolerance of 1mm suggested in TG142 for stereotactic radiation treatment(SRS/SRT). There is no occasion where shifts are outside 1mm tolerance. Conclusions The daily imaging QA suggested in TG142 is useful in ensuring the accuracy needed for SRS/SRT in IGRT. 5 year measurements presented suggest that decreasing the frequency of imaging QA may be acceptable, in particular for institutions reporting no violation of tolerance over periods of few years

  4. Dosimetric and radiobiological comparison of TG-43 and Monte Carlo calculations in 192Ir breast brachytherapy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppa, V; Pappas, E P; Karaiskos, P; Major, T; Polgár, C; Papagiannis, P

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the clinical significance of introducing model based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs) as an alternative to TG-43 in 192 Ir interstitial breast brachytherapy. A 57 patient cohort was used in a retrospective comparison between TG-43 based dosimetry data exported from a treatment planning system and Monte Carlo (MC) dosimetry performed using MCNP v. 6.1 with plan and anatomy information in DICOM-RT format. Comparison was performed for the target, ipsilateral lung, heart, skin, breast and ribs, using dose distributions, dose-volume histograms (DVH) and plan quality indices clinically used for plan evaluation, as well as radiobiological parameters. TG-43 overestimation of target DVH parameters is statistically significant but small (less than 2% for the target coverage indices and 4% for homogeneity indices, on average). Significant dose differences (>5%) were observed close to the skin and at relatively large distances from the implant leading to a TG-43 dose overestimation for the organs at risk. These differences correspond to low dose regions (<50% of the prescribed dose), being less than 2% of the prescribed dose. Detected dosimetric differences did not induce clinically significant differences in calculated tumor control probabilities (mean absolute difference <0.2%) and normal tissue complication probabilities. While TG-43 shows a statistically significant overestimation of most indices used for plan evaluation, differences are small and therefore not clinically significant. Improved MBDCA dosimetry could be important for re-irradiation, technique inter-comparison and/or the assessment of secondary cancer induction risk, where accurate dosimetry in the whole patient anatomy is of the essence. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Correlations of serum levels of TG with leptin and other related factors (L-1, NPY adiponectin) in patients with hyperlipidaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Donghong; Yu Ping; Wei Jingjun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes and correlations of serum levels of triglyeride (TG), leptin, L -1, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and adiponectin in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG). Methods: Serum levels of TG, leptin, L-1, NPY and adiponectin in 54 patients with HTG and 55 controls were measured with radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results: The serum levels of TG, Leptin, L -1 and NPY in patients with HTG [ (3.46 ± 1.14) mmol/L, (10.56 ±3.79) μg/L, (0.40 ± 0.18) μg/L, (115.89 ± 24.56) μg/L, respectively] were significantly higher than those in controls [ (1.26 ± 0.30) mmol/L, (5.66 ± 2.01) μg/L, (0.22 ± 0.09) μg/L, (95.21 ± 16.85) μg/L, respectively] P < 0.01 in all. But serum levels of adiponectin in patients with HTG (8.98 ± 3.51μg/L) was significantly lower than those in controls [(13.21 ± 9.46) μg/L, P < 0.01]. There were significantly positive correlations between serum TG levels and serum levels of leptin (r = 0.576, P < 0.05). There were also significantly positive correlations between serum leptin levels and serum levels of L-1 and NPY (r = 0.582; r = 0.479, respectively, P < 0.05). Conclusion: There was close relationship between increase in serum TG level and changes of serum levels of leptin, L-1, NPY, adiponectin. Neural-endocrine-immune system participated in fatty metabolism and could result in HTG. (authors)

  6. Oil, migration, and the political economy of HIV/AIDS prevention in Nigeria's Niger Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Isidore A

    2013-01-01

    In most of sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS is driven by endemic structural problems such as unemployment, poverty, forced migration, sexual exploitation, and concurrent sexual partnerships. In the Niger Delta of Nigeria, the epidemic is exacerbated by recurring regional conflict and negative environmental externalities resulting from 50 years of oil exploration. This article seeks to identify and analyze potential barriers to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment from oil pollution and other environmental stressors in Nigeria's Niger Delta. We develop a conceptual framework to understand how oil politics and economic systems affect HIV risks in Nigeria. We then evaluate evidence of how environmental exposures can amplify risks. Using 10 semi-structured interviews, with 85 focus group participants, we test the argument that HIV transmission in the Niger Delta is related to a manipulative "divide and rule" power dynamic that characterizes multinational oil companies' role in shaping conflict contours in oil communities. Oil exploration destroys livelihoods, institutions, and values and forces impoverished and illiterate girls and women to migrate or be trafficked to urban centers as child laborers and sex workers. The elevated HIV/AIDS risk in the Niger Delta brings into focus the political economy of resource extraction, globalization, and indigenous, minority rights and struggles.

  7. Real And Reactive Power Saving In Three Phase Induction Machine Using Star-Delta Switching Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Daravath

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Induction machines are the most commonly used industrial drives for variety of applications. It has been estimated that induction motors consumes approximately 50 of all the electric energy generated. Further in the area of renewable energy sources such as wind or bio-mass energy induction machines have been found suitable for functioning as generators. In this context it may be mentioned that a star-delta switching is common for the starting of three-phase induction motor. Now it is proposed to use this star-delta switching for energy conservation of induction machines i.e. at times of reduced loads the machine switched back to star connection. Using a three-phase 400 V 50 Hz 4-pole induction machine it has been demonstrated that the star-delta switching of stator winding of three-phase induction machine motor generator operations reconnected in star at suitable reduced loads with a switching arrangement can result in improved efficiency and power factor as compared to a fixed delta or star connection. The predetermined values along with the experimental results have also been presented in this report. A simulation program has been developed for the predetermination of performance of the three-phase induction machine using exact equivalent circuit. A case study on a 250 kW 400 V 4-pole three-phase induction machine operated with different load cycles reveals the significant real and reactive power savings that could be obtained in the present proposal.

  8. Transgenic fluorescent zebrafish Tg(fli1:EGFP)y¹ for the identification of vasotoxicity within the zFET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delov, Vera; Muth-Köhne, Elke; Schäfers, Christoph; Fenske, Martina

    2014-05-01

    The fish embryo toxicity test (FET) is currently one of the most advocated animal alternative tests in ecotoxicology. To date, the application of the FET with zebrafish (zFET) has focused on acute toxicity assessment, where only lethal morphological effects are accounted for. An application of the zFET beyond acute toxicity, however, necessitates the establishment of more refined and quantifiable toxicological endpoints. A valuable tool in this context is the use of gene expression-dependent fluorescent markers that can even be measured in vivo. We investigated the application of embryos of Tg(fli1:EGFP)(y1) for the identification of vasotoxic substances within the zFET. Tg(fli1:EGFP)(y1) fish express enhanced GFP in the entire vasculature under the control of the fli1 promoter, and thus enable the visualization of vascular defects in live zebrafish embryos. We assessed the fli1 driven EGFP-expression in the intersegmental blood vessels (ISVs) qualitatively and quantitatively, and found an exposure concentration related increase in vascular damage for chemicals like triclosan, cartap and genistein. The fluorescence endpoint ISV-length allowed an earlier and more sensitive detection of vasotoxins than the bright field assessment method. In combination with the standard bright field morphological effect assessment, an increase in significance and value of the zFET for a mechanism-specific toxicity evaluation was achieved. This study highlights the benefits of using transgenic zebrafish as convenient tools for identifying toxicity in vivo and to increase sensitivity and specificity of the zFET. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Synoptic Lithostratigraphy of The Niger Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwajide, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    The Tertiary Niger Delta is stratigraphically framed by the Dahomey, Anambra, Abakaliki, Afikpo and Calabar Flank basins. From the apex at Onitsha a fluvial plain splays southwards and translates progressively into a freshwater swamp, succeeded by a mangrove swamp belt. Along the coast is a strip of wave-washed barrier bars indented by large estuaries, fronted by submerged moth bars. Habitation in the delta is on levees, point bars, and barrier bars. These landforms provided the firm salients for buildings the ports that facilitated international trade from the pre-colonial times.There are four lithofacies-clean, pebbly, and muddy sandstones, and mudstones. Their subdivision, based on sedimentary structures, textures and fossil content yields twenty reservoir and seven nonreservoir classes. Their environments of deposition, identified using facies associations, fall into fluvial, wave-and tide-dominated, marginal, and shallow marine, with localised canyons incised into the delta front and filled with deeper marine facies.The reservoirs are composed of 70 90% quartz, 4 15% feldspar, and 3 13% clay matrix, with minor mica, bioclasts, carbonaceous debris, glauconite, and heavy minerals. Grain size varies from very fine to coarse and pebbly, implying the presence of sands of varying textural and compositional maturities. Silica, K-feldspar, and carbonates constitute the cements.Porosity in the reservoirs has remained about the same as at deposition due to low mechanical compaction occasioned by shallow burial. Meteoric water-flushed progradational sequence are characterised by cementation with quartz and kaolinite. In contrast, marine water-flushed transgressive sands show grain coating illite-smectite, chlorite and K-feldspar overgrowths

  10. Stratigraphy and Evolution of Delta Channel Deposits, Jezero Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudge, T. A.; Mohrig, D.; Cardenas, B. T.; Hughes, C. M.; Fassett, C. I.

    2017-01-01

    The Jezero impact crater hosted an open-basin lake that was active during the valley network forming era on early Mars. This basin contains a well exposed delta deposit at the mouth of the western inlet valley. The fluvial stratigraphy of this deposit provides a record of the channels that built the delta over time. Here we describe observations of the stratigraphy of the channel deposits of the Jezero western delta to help reconstruct its evolution.

  11. Tracks, spurs, blobs and delta-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, J.L.; Chatterjee, A.

    1983-01-01

    The track of a high-energy particle is the collection of all transient species created by the particle in the total degradation of its energy. Visible electron tracks are called delta rays. A microscopic description of the track with all its knocked-out electrons leads to spurs, blobs, and short tracks. Energy deposition criteria for these three track entities are 6 to 100 eV, 100 to 500 eV, and 500 eV to 5 keV, respectively

  12. The situation in the Niger Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitalis, E.

    2007-01-01

    An energy issue for the United States and a political challenge for Europe, Nigeria is experiencing growing instability and is on the verge of civil war; the ecosystem and the population of the Niger Delta are the main victims. The State, corrupt, is powerless to contain the rising violence and redistribute the proceeds of oil sales. It is high time for oil-consuming countries, starting with the United States, to concern themselves with stabilizing the region. Europe must contribute to the lasting development of this country. (author)

  13. Non-HDL Cholesterol is a More Superior Predictor of Small-Dense LDL Cholesterol than LDL Cholesterol in Japanese Subjects with TG Levels <400 mg/dL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Kengo; Takahashi, Eiko

    2016-09-01

    The Japan Atherosclerosis Society (JAS) guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hyperlipidemia in Japanese adults recommend using low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) calculated by Friedewald formula (F_LDL-C) for subjects with triglyceride (TG) levels <400 mg/dL and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels for subjects with TG levels ≥400 mg/dL. Because small-dense LDL particles are more atherogenic than large LDL particles, we sought the better lipid parameter which was more reflective of the high small-dense LDL-C (sdLDL-C) levels in subjects with TG levels <400 mg/dL. This study included 769 Japanese subjects who met our inclusion criteria and underwent an annual health examination, including sdLDL-C analyses. The correlation coefficient of non-HDL-C for sdLDL-C (r=0.760) was significantly higher than that of F_LDL-C (r=0.601). The area under the curve (95% confidence interval) was 0.771 (0.731, 0.811) for F_LDL-C and 0.871 (0.842, 0.901) for non HDL-C, which showed significantly higher predictive value for more than fourth quartile value of sdLDL-C (46 mg/dL). The optimal cut-off point of non-HDL-C was 158 mg/dL. Even in subjects stratified by waist circumstance, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, TG, and F_LDL-C levels and non-HDL-C showed stronger relationships with sdLDL-C than F_LDL-C. Moreover, non-HDL-C showed a better relationship with sdLDL-C than total cholesterol (TC), TC/HDL-C, and non-HDL-C/HDL-C. Our data suggested that non-HDL-C is superior to F_LDL-C and one of the reliable surrogate lipid markers of sdLDL-C in Japanese subjects with TG levels <400 mg/dL.

  14. Influence of metal additives on pyrolysis behavior of bituminous coal by TG-FTIR analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Wenjuan; Fang, Mengxiang; Cen, Jianmeng; Li, Chao; Luo, Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). State Key Lab. of Clean Energy Utilization

    2013-07-01

    To study the catalytic effects of alkali, alkaline earth and transition metal additives on coal pyrolysis behavior, bituminous coal loaded NaCl, KCl, CaCl{sub 2}, MgCl{sub 2}, FeCl{sub 3} and NiCl{sub 2} was respectively investigated using Thermogravimetry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (TG-FTIR). Results indicated that the maximum mass loss rate decreased under the metal additives in the primary pyrolysis stage. The total mass loss of pyrolysis was reduced in metals catalyzed pyrolysis except for Na loaded sample. Kinetic analysis was taken for all samples adopting the method of Coats-Redfern. Activation energy of raw coal in the primary pyrolysis stage was 92.15vkJ.mol{sup -1}, which was lowered to 44.59-73.42 kJ.mol{sup -1} under metal additives. The orders of catalytic effect for this bituminous coal were Mg > Fe > Ca > Ni > K > Na according to their activation energies. Several investigated volatiles including CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, CO, toluene, phenol and formic acid were identified from FTIR spectra. The yields of CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, toluene, phenol and formic acid were decreased, but the evolution of CO was increased. The presence of metals in the coal samples have been involved in a repeated bond-forming and bond-breaking process, which greatly hindered the release of tars during pyrolysis as the tar precursors were connected to coal/char matrix and were thermally cracked, becoming a part of char.

  15. SU-E-T-87: A TG-100 Approach for Quality Improvement of Associated Dosimetry Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manger, R; Pawlicki, T; Kim, G [UCSD Medical Center, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Dosimetry protocols devote so much time to the discussion of ionization chamber choice, use and performance that is easy to forget about the importance of the associated dosimetry equipment (ADE) in radiation dosimetry - barometer, thermometer, electrometer, phantoms, triaxial cables, etc. Improper use and inaccuracy of these devices may significantly affect the accuracy of radiation dosimetry. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the risk factors in the monthly output dosimetry procedure and recommend corrective actions using a TG-100 approach. Methods: A failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) of the monthly linac output check procedure was performed to determine which steps and failure modes carried the greatest risk. In addition, a fault tree analysis (FTA) was performed to expand the initial list of failure modes making sure that none were overlooked. After determining the failure modes with the highest risk priority numbers (RPNs), 11 physicists were asked to score corrective actions based on their ease of implementation and potential impact. The results were aggregated into an impact map to determine the implementable corrective actions. Results: Three of the top five failure modes were related to the thermometer and barometer. The two highest RPN-ranked failure modes were related to barometric pressure inaccuracy due to their high lack-of-detectability scores. Six corrective actions were proposed to address barometric pressure inaccuracy, and the survey results found the following two corrective actions to be implementable: 1) send the barometer for recalibration at a calibration laboratory and 2) check the barometer accuracy against the local airport and correct for elevation. Conclusion: An FMEA on monthly output measurements displayed the importance of ADE for accurate radiation dosimetry. When brainstorming for corrective actions, an impact map is helpful for visualizing the overall impact versus the ease of implementation.

  16. Adaptive delta management: a comparison between the Netherlands and Bangladesh Delta Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zevenbergen, Chris; Khan, Shah Alam; Alphen, van Jos; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Catharien; Veerbeek, William

    2018-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the central government, water authorities, provinces and municipalities are working together on a new Delta Program on Flood Risk Management and Fresh Water Supply (DP). Its primary goal is to protect the Netherlands against floods and ensure the availability of fresh water, now

  17. Tidal modulated flow and sediment flux through Wax Lake Delta distributary channels: Implications for delta development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hanegan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a Delft3D model of the Wax Lake Delta was developed to simulate flow and sediment flux through delta distributary channels. The model was calibrated for tidal constituents as well as velocity and sediment concentration across channel transects. The calibrated model was then used to simulate full spring–neap tidal cycles under constant low flow upstream boundary conditions, with grain size variation in suspended load represented using two sediment fractions. Flow and sediment flux results through distributary channel cross-sections were examined for spatial and temporal variability with the goal of characterizing the role of tides in sediment reworking and delta development. The Wax Lake Delta has prograded through channel extension, river mouth bar deposition, and channel bifurcation. Here we show that tidal modulation of currents influences suspended sand transport, and spatial acceleration through distributary channels at low tides is sufficient to suspend sand in distal reaches during lower flows. The basinward-increasing transport capacity in distributary channels indicates that erosive channel extension could be an important process, even during non-flood events.

  18. Delta Plaza kohvik = The Delta Plaza Café / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt. 141 asuva kohviku Delta Plaza sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tiiu Truus ja Marja Viltrop (Stuudio Truus OÜ). Hoone arhitektid Jüri Okas ja Marika Lõoke (AB J. Okas & M. Lõoke). Žürii liikme Mait Summataveti arvamus kohvikust

  19. Groundwater recharge ages in the eastern nile delta based on environmental tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, M.S.; Aly, A.I.M.; Swailem, F.M.; Nada, A.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the tritium composition of groundwater from eastern Nile delta is presented and compared with the tritium content of the nile according to a given model. A contour map of isoline of tritium in the area was drawn. The decrease of tritium content values in the direction from southwest to northeast was attributed to salt water intrusion. The clustered tritium isoline could be due to local geophysical structures or mixing with other water of older recharge (paleowater).2 fig.,1 tab

  20. Studying medium effects with the optimized {delta} expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krein, G [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Menezes, D P [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Nielsen, M [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Pinto, M B [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Lab. de Physique Mathematique

    1995-04-01

    The possibility of using the optimized {delta} expansion for studying medium effects on hadronic properties in quark or nuclear matter is investigated. The {delta} expansion is employed to study density effects with two commonly used models in hadron and nuclear physics, the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model for the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and the Walecka model for the equation of state of nuclear matter. The results obtained with the {delta} expansion are compared to those obtained with the traditional Hartree-Fock approximation. Perspectives for using the {delta} expansion in other field theoretic models in hadron and nuclear physics are discussed. (author). 17 refs, 9 figs.

  1. Optimality and self-organization in river deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, A.; Longjas, A.; Edmonds, D. A.; Zaliapin, I. V.; Georgiou, T. T.; Rinaldo, A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2017-12-01

    Deltas are nourished by channel networks, whose connectivity constrains, if not drives, the evolution, functionality and resilience of these systems. Understanding the coevolution of deltaic channels and their flux organization is crucial for guiding maintenance strategies of these highly stressed systems from a range of anthropogenic activities. However, in contrast to tributary channel networks, to date, no theory has been proposed to explain how deltas self-organize to distribute water and sediment to the delta top and the shoreline. Here, we hypothesize the existence of an optimality principle underlying the self-organized partition of fluxes in delta channel networks. Specifically, we hypothesize that deltas distribute water and sediment fluxes on a given delta topology such as to maximize the diversity of flux delivery to the shoreline. By introducing the concept of nonlocal Entropy Rate (nER) and analyzing ten field deltas in diverse environments, we present evidence that supports our hypothesis, suggesting that delta networks achieve dynamically accessible maxima of their nER. Furthermore, by analyzing six simulated deltas using the Delf3D model and following their topologic and flux re-organization before and after major avulsions, we further study the evolution of nER and confirm our hypothesis. We discuss how optimal flux distributions in terms of nER, when interpreted in terms of resilience, are configurations that reflect an increased ability to withstand perturbations.

  2. Upper-division student difficulties with the Dirac delta function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany R. Wilcox

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Dirac delta function is a standard mathematical tool that appears repeatedly in the undergraduate physics curriculum in multiple topical areas including electrostatics, and quantum mechanics. While Dirac delta functions are often introduced in order to simplify a problem mathematically, students still struggle to manipulate and interpret them. To characterize student difficulties with the delta function at the upper-division level, we examined students’ responses to traditional exam questions and a standardized conceptual assessment, and conducted think-aloud interviews. Our analysis was guided by an analytical framework that focuses on how students activate, construct, execute, and reflect on the Dirac delta function in the context of problem solving in physics. Here, we focus on student difficulties using the delta function to express charge distributions in the context of junior-level electrostatics. Common challenges included invoking the delta function spontaneously, translating a description of a charge distribution into a mathematical expression using delta functions, integrating 3D or non-Cartesian delta function expressions, and recognizing that the delta function can have units. We also briefly discuss implications of these difficulties for instruction.

  3. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  4. Island forming processes in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, T. S.; Humphries, M. S.; Mahomed, I.; Le Roux, P.; Verhagen, B. Th.

    2012-12-01

    The Okavango Delta in Botswana is a large (40,000 km2) alluvial fan that is characterised by the presence of numerous tree-covered islands. Thought to originate from the mound-building activities of termites or through fluvial processes associated with development of scroll bars and inverted channels, islands have been shown to play an important role in the structure and functioning of the Delta through the creation of habitat diversity, focusing of nutrients, and disposal of toxic salts. This study investigates the processes responsible for the maintenance and growth of two such islands in the seasonal swamps. Transpiration by vegetation is shown to result in substantial increases in groundwater salinity beneath the islands, contributing to their growth through chemical precipitation. Detailed chemical analyses revealed that the precipitation of magnesian calcite and silica within the island soils contributes 30-40% of the total island volume. Isotopic analyses of carbonate samples show that vegetation plays an important role in providing carbon for carbonate precipitation. Variations in δ13C carbonate values appear to reflect the relative proportion of C3 to C4 plants on the island, with C4 species becoming more dominant toward island centres in response to increases in groundwater salinity. The study suggests that continued island growth is also related to the deposition of aerosols and the accumulation of dust preferentially on islands and possibly to ongoing termite activity. Tall trees that characterise the island margins trap dust carried from the floodplains, resulting particularly in the lateral growth of islands. Islands in the Okavango are considered to be the product of long-term aggradation processes, with the two islands studied estimated to be in the order of tens of thousands of years old.

  5. KAJIAN PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN DI TAMBAK UDANG DELTA MAHAKAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahuddin, Chafid Fandeli, dan Eko Sugiharto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available well-managed, it will contribute to the improvement of both regional and national economy. However, MahakamRiver gets liquid waste pollution that has significant impact on water quality and results in conflicts betweenthe local societies, especially the shrimp pond farmers and the fishermen and the oil and gas industrial company.This research uses descriptive-comparative analysis with ANOVA test to compare samples (water, soil/sediment,shrimp, and mangrove of the shrimp fishpond (many mangrove, moderate mangrove, few mangrove, and withoutany mangrove. The pollution load which is analyzed includes: cadmium content (Cd, lead (Pb, oil and grease (O& G, mercury (Hg, and arsenic (As. The significance level is 90% with error of 5% (0.05.The water of Mahakam Delta is still in the normality limit as seen from the maximum pollution load in the Decreeof the Minister of Living Environment No. 51 of 2004 on Ocean Water Standard seen from chemical, physical,and biological parameters. The presence of mangrove contributes positive value to the balance of the quality of thewaters and to the neutralizing of heavy metals contents of Mahakam Delta as shown in the average difference inthe Pb, Cd, O & G, As and Hg of the samples of water, soils/sediment, shrimp and mangrove which are drawnfrom the of shrimp pond with many mangrove, moderate mangrove, few mangrove and without any mangrove,which is significantly different (p < 0.05. Shrimp pond with many mangrove has less average levels of Pb, Cd, M& L, As and Hg compared with the pond with less and without mangrove. The shrimp pond with many mangrovescontributes significantly and positively to the prevention of the pollution of Pb, Cd, O and G, As and Hg at low level

  6. Solution matching for a three-point boundary-value problem on atime scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Eggensperger

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Let $mathbb{T}$ be a time scale such that $t_1, t_2, t_3 in mathbb{T}$. We show the existence of a unique solution for the three-point boundary value problem $$displaylines{ y^{DeltaDeltaDelta}(t = f(t, y(t, y^Delta(t, y^{DeltaDelta}(t, quad t in [t_1, t_3] cap mathbb{T},cr y(t_1 = y_1, quad y(t_2 = y_2, quad y(t_3 = y_3,. }$$ We do this by matching a solution to the first equation satisfying a two-point boundary conditions on $[t_1, t_2] cap mathbb{T}$ with a solution satisfying a two-point boundary conditions on $[t_2, t_3] cap mathbb{T}$.

  7. Catalyzing action towards the sustainability of deltas: deltas as integrated socio-ecological systems and sentinels of regional and global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Tessler, Z. D.; Brondizio, E.; Overeem, I.; Renaud, F.; Sebesvari, Z.; Nicholls, R. J.; Anthony, E.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas are highly dynamic and productive environments: they are food baskets of the world, home to biodiverse and rich ecosystems, and they play a central role in food and water security. However, they are becoming increasingly vulnerable to risks arising from human activities, land subsidence, regional water management, global sea-level rise, and climate extremes. Our Belmont Forum DELTAS project (BF-DELTAS: Catalyzing actions towards delta sustainability) encompasses an international network of interdisciplinary research collaborators with focal areas in the Mekong, Ganges Brahmaputra, and the Amazon deltas. The project is organized around five main modules: (1) developing an analytical framework for assessing delta vulnerability and scenarios of change (Delta-SRES), (2) developing an open-acess, science-based integrative modeling framework for risk assessment and decision support (Delta-RADS), (3) developing tools to support quantitative mapping of the bio-physical and socio-economic environments of deltas and consolidate bio-physical and social data within shared data repositories (Delta-DAT), (4) developing Global Delta Vulnerability Indices (Delta-GDVI) that capture current and projected scenarios for major deltas around the world , and (5) collaborating with regional stakeholders to put the science, modeling, and data into action (Delta-ACT). In this talk, a research summary will be presented on three research domains around which significant collaborative work was developed: advancing biophysical classification of deltas, understanding deltas as coupled socio-ecological systems, and analyzing and informing social and environmental vulnerabilities in delta regions.

  8. In vivo determination of triglyceride (TG) secretion in rats fed different dietary saturated fats using [2-3H]-glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, H.C.; Yang, H.; Lasekan, J.; Clayton, M.; Ney, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Male, Sprague-Dawley rats (154±1 g) were fed diets containing 2% corn oil (CO) + 14% butterfat (BF), beef tallow (BT), olive oil (OO) or coconut oil (CN) vs a 16% CO control diet for 5 weeks. Changes in plasma TG specific activity (dpm/mg TG) were determined in individual unanesthetized rats after injection of 100 μCi [2- 3 H]-glycerol via a carotid cannula. Fractional rate constants were obtained using a 2-compartment model and nonlinear regression analysis. Results demonstrated no difference in the fractional rate constants among dietary groups; but, differences in the rates of hepatic TG secretion were noted. Rats fed BT showed a higher rate of hepatic TG secretion than rats fed CO. Rats fed BF, OO or CN showed somewhat higher rates of hepatic TG secretion than CO. VLDL TG, phospholipid, and apolipoprotein B and E levels were higher with saturated fats vs CO. The data suggest that the higher plasma TG levels noted in response to feeding saturated fats vs corn oil can be explained, in part, by an increased flux of hepatic TG secretion

  9. La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} ceramic powders prepared by combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colomer, M.T.; Chinarro, E.; Jurado, J.R. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain). Ist. de Ceramica y Vidrio

    2002-07-01

    Combustion synthesis provides an attractive method of producing ceramic powders because of its low cost, process simplicity and fastness. Materials based on La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} can be successfully prepared by combustion synthesis. La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} (x = 0, 0.1) accommodates oxygen excess by oxygen interstitials rather than by the more usual cation vacancies. A high concentration of oxygen interstitials offers the possibility of rapid oxygen transport through the ceramic material and thus provide a new type of mixed ionic-electronic conductor. The fast oxide ion diffusion combined with its thermal stability indicate that these materials would be good candidates for use in ceramic oxygen generators (COGs) and intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). The present work discusses a combustion synthesis technique to prepare La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} (x = 0, 0.1) powders using the corresponding metal nitrates-urea mixtures, at low temperature and short reaction times. The as-prepared combustion powders were characterized by XRD, DTA-TG, SEM/TEM-EDX and BET. La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}NiO{sub 4} (x = 0, 0.1) powders with a good compositional control and homogeneity are attained. The as-prepared powders obtained at 300 C (ignition temperature) showed much higher specific surface area than powders obtained via alternative routes and contained La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}NiO{sub 4+{delta}}, as the major phase present, together with La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and a small amount of NiO. La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} single phase is achieved, respectively at 950 C for x =0.1 and at 975 C for x = 0. (orig.)

  10. Superconducting bandpass delta-sigma modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulzacchelli, J.F.; Lee, H.-S.; Misewich, J.A.; Ketchen, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Bandpass delta-sigma modulators digitize narrowband signals with high dynamic range and linearity. The required sampling rate is only a few times higher than the centre frequency of the input. This paper presents a superconducting bandpass delta-sigma modulator for direct analogue-to-digital conversion of RF signals in the GHz range. The input signal is capacitively coupled to one end of a microstrip transmission line, and a single flux quantum balanced comparator quantizes the current flowing out of the other end. Quantization noise is suppressed at the quarter-wave resonance of the transmission line (about 2 GHz in our design). Circuit performance at a 20 GHz sampling rate has been studied with several long JSIM simulations. Full-scale (FS) input sensitivity is 20 mV (rms), and in-band noise is -53 dBFS and -57 dBFS over bandwidths of 39 MHz and 19.5 MHz, respectively. In-band intermodulation distortion is better than -69 dBFS. (author)

  11. In vivo metabolism of the methyl homologues of delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and abn-delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N K; Harvey, D J

    1988-04-01

    Methyl-delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (methyl-delta-8-THC), methyl-delta-9-THC and abn-methyl-delta-8-THC were synthesized by condensation of orcinol and (1S)-cis-verbenol and were administered to male Charles River CD-1 mice. Extracted hepatic metabolites were isolated by chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and examined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as trimethylsilyl (TMS), (2H9)TMS and methyl ester/TMS derivatives. In addition, metabolic fractions were reduced with lithium aluminium deuteride to convert carboxylic acids to alcohols for structural correlation. Metabolites from methyl-delta-8-THC were similar with respect to the positions substituted to those produced by higher homologues; the major metabolite was methyl-delta-8-THC-11-oic acid. abn-Methyl-delta-8-THC was metabolized in a different manner. The location of the aromatic methyl group at the position adjacent to ring fusion appeared to inhibit metabolism at C(11) to a considerable extent and also to reduce the amount of the resulting alcohol from being oxidized to a carboxylic acid. This caused other metabolic pathways to become dominant, with the result that a compound containing a hydroxy group at the gem-methyl position was the major metabolite. Hydroxylation at this position has not been confirmed with any other cannabinoid, although it is thought to result in trace concentrations of hydroxy metabolites from some compounds. Metabolism of methyl-delta-9-THC was also similar to that of the higher homologues, with the exception that less metabolism occurred at C(8) and a higher percentage of the total metabolic fraction was accounted for by the 11-oic acid metabolite. Minor metabolites were mainly dihydroxy compounds and hydroxylated derivatives of delta-9-THC-11-oic acid.

  12. C{sub 4} plant isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 13}C) evidence for urban CO{sub 2} pollution in the city of Cotonou, Benin (West Africa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelome, Nelly C.; Leveque, Jean; Andreux, Francis; Milloux, Marie-Jeanne [UMR Microbiologie et Geochimie des Sols INRA, Universite de Bourgogne, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France); Oyede, Lucien-Marc [Departement des Sciences de la Terre, Universite d' Abomey-Calavi, 01 B.P. 526, Cotonou (Benin)

    2006-08-01

    The carbon isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 13}C) of plants can reveal the isotopic carbon content of the atmosphere in which they develop. The {delta}{sup 13}C values of air and plants depend on the amount of atmospheric fossil fuel CO{sub 2}, which is chiefly emitted in urban areas. A new indicator of CO{sub 2} pollution is tested using the {delta}{sup 13}C variation in a C{sub 4} grass: Eleusine indica. A range of about 4%% delta units was observed at different sites in Cotonou, the largest city in the Republic of Benin. The highest {delta}{sup 13}C values, from -12%% to -14%%, were found in low traffic zones; low {delta}{sup 13}C values, from -14%% to -16%%, were found in high traffic zones. The amount of fossil fuel carbon assimilated by plants represented about 20% of the total plant carbon content. An overall decrease in plant {delta}{sup 13}C values was observed over a four-year monitoring period. This decrease was correlated with increasing vehicle traffic. The {delta}{sup 13}C dataset and the corresponding geographical database were used to map and define zones of high and low {sup 13}C-depleted CO{sub 2} emissions in urban and sub-urban areas. The spatial distribution follows dominant wind directions, with the lowest emission zones found in the southwest of Cotonou. High CO{sub 2} emissions occurred in the north, the east and the center, providing evidence of intense anthropogenic activity related to industry and transportation. (author)

  13. C{sub 4} plant isotopic composition ((delta){sup 13}C) evidence for urban CO{sub 2} pollution in the city of Cotonou, Benin (West Africa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelome, Nelly C.; Leveque, Jean; Andreux, Francis; Milloux, Marie-Jeanne [UMR Microbiologie et Geochimie des Sols INRA, Universite de Bourgogne, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France); Oyede, Lucien-Marc [Departement des Sciences de la Terre, Universite d' Abomey-Calavi, 01 B.P. 526, Cotonou (Benin)

    2006-08-01

    The carbon isotopic composition ((delta){sup 13}C) of plants can reveal the isotopic carbon content of the atmosphere in which they develop. The (delta){sup 13}C values of air and plants depend on the amount of atmospheric fossil fuel CO{sub 2}, which is chiefly emitted in urban areas. A new indicator of CO{sub 2} pollution is tested using the (delta){sup 13}C variation in a C{sub 4} grass: Eleusine indica. A range of about 4%% delta units was observed at different sites in Cotonou, the largest city in the Republic of Benin. The highest (delta){sup 13}C values, from -12%% to -14%%, were found in low traffic zones; low (delta){sup 13}C values, from -14%% to -16%%, were found in high traffic zones. The amount of fossil fuel carbon assimilated by plants represented about 20% of the total plant carbon content. An overall decrease in plant (delta){sup 13}C values was observed over a four-year monitoring period. This decrease was correlated with increasing vehicle traffic. The (delta){sup 13}C dataset and the corresponding geographical database were used to map and define zones of high and low {sup 13}C-depleted CO{sub 2} emissions in urban and sub-urban areas. The spatial distribution follows dominant wind directions, with the lowest emission zones found in the southwest of Cotonou. High CO{sub 2} emissions occurred in the north, the east and the center, providing evidence of intense anthropogenic activity related to industry and transportation. (author)

  14. C{sub 4} plant isotopic composition ({delta} {sup 13}C) evidence for urban CO{sub 2} pollution in the city of Cotonou, Benin (West Africa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelome, Nelly C. [UMR Microbiologie et Geochimie des Sols INRA, Universite de Bourgogne, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France); Departement des Sciences de la Terre, Universite d' Abomey-Calavi, 01 B.P. 526, Cotonou (Benin); Leveque, Jean [UMR Microbiologie et Geochimie des Sols INRA, Universite de Bourgogne, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France)]. E-mail: jleveque@ubourgogne.fr; Andreux, Francis [UMR Microbiologie et Geochimie des Sols INRA, Universite de Bourgogne, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France); Milloux, Marie-Jeanne [UMR Microbiologie et Geochimie des Sols INRA, Universite de Bourgogne, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France); Oyede, Lucien-Marc [Departement des Sciences de la Terre, Universite d' Abomey-Calavi, 01 B.P. 526, Cotonou (Benin)

    2006-08-01

    The carbon isotopic composition ({delta} {sup 13}C) of plants can reveal the isotopic carbon content of the atmosphere in which they develop. The {delta} {sup 13}C values of air and plants depend on the amount of atmospheric fossil fuel CO{sub 2}, which is chiefly emitted in urban areas. A new indicator of CO{sub 2} pollution is tested using the {delta} {sup 13}C variation in a C{sub 4} grass: Eleusine indica. A range of about 4 per mille delta units was observed at different sites in Cotonou, the largest city in the Republic of Benin. The highest {delta} {sup 13}C values, from - 12 per mille to - 14 per mille , were found in low traffic zones; low {delta} {sup 13}C values, from - 14 per mille to - 16 per mille , were found in high traffic zones. The amount of fossil fuel carbon assimilated by plants represented about 20% of the total plant carbon content. An overall decrease in plant {delta} {sup 13}C values was observed over a four-year monitoring period. This decrease was correlated with increasing vehicle traffic. The {delta} {sup 13}C dataset and the corresponding geographical database were used to map and define zones of high and low {sup 13}C-depleted CO{sub 2} emissions in urban and sub-urban areas. The spatial distribution follows dominant wind directions, with the lowest emission zones found in the southwest of Cotonou. High CO{sub 2} emissions occurred in the north, the east and the center, providing evidence of intense anthropogenic activity related to industry and transportation.

  15. Sediment and Vegetation Controls on Delta Channel Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzon, R.; Murray, A. B.; Piliouras, A.; Kim, W.

    2016-12-01

    Numerous factors control the patterns of distributary channels formed on a delta, including water and sediment discharge, grain size, sea level rise rates, and vegetation type. In turn, these channel networks influence the shape and evolution of a delta, including what types of plant and animal life - such as humans - it can support. Previous fluvial modeling and flume experiments, outside of the delta context, have addressed how interactions between sediment and vegetation, through their influence on lateral transport of sediment, determine what type of channel networks develops. Similar interactions likely also shape delta flow patterns. Vegetation introduces cohesion, tending to reduce channel migration rates and strengthen existing channel banks, reinforcing existing channels and resulting in localized, relatively stable flow patterns. On the other hand, sediment transport processes can result in lateral migration and frequent switching of active channels, resulting in flow resembling that of a braided stream. While previous studies of deltas have indirectly explored the effects of vegetation through the introduction of cohesive sediment, we directly incorporate key effects of vegetation on flow and sediment transport into the delta-building model DeltaRCM to explore how these effects influence delta channel network formation. Model development is informed by laboratory flume experiments at UT Austin. Here we present initial results of experiments exploring the effects of sea level rise rate, sediment grain size, vegetation type, and vegetation growth rate on delta channel network morphology. These results support the hypothesis that the ability for lateral transport of sediment to occur plays a key role in determining the evolution of delta channel networks and delta morphology.

  16. Gender-Specific Differences in Baseline, Peak, and Delta Serum Creatinine: The NACSELD Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Jacqueline G; Wong, Florence; Reddy, K Rajender; Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe; Kamath, Patrick S; Biggins, Scott W; Fallon, Michael B; Subramanian, Ram M; Maliakkal, B; Thacker, Leroy; Bajaj, Jasmohan S

    2017-03-01

    Women have lower serum creatinine values than men for similar renal function. We aimed to determine the differential effect of baseline, peak, and delta creatinine between genders on outcomes in infected hospitalized cirrhotic patients. North American Consortium for the Study of End-Stage Liver Disease is a 15-center consortium of tertiary care hepatology centers prospectively enrolling infected cirrhotic inpatients. Baseline, peak, and delta creatinine during hospitalization were compared between genders, and their impact on overall survival, transplant-free survival, probability of transplantation, and need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) was analyzed. In total, 532 patients with cirrhosis (males = 59% median admission MELD = 20) had significantly lower median baseline (1.07 vs. 1.30 mg/dL, p creatinine (1.47 vs. 1.59 mg/dL, p = 0.024) in women than men during hospitalization for an infection, but both genders had similar delta creatinine levels (0.30 vs. 0.30 mg/dL, p = 0.957). Thirty-day mortality was similar between genders. RRT was not used more often in women (19 vs. 12%, p = 0.050), and women were 1.8 times more likely than men to receive RRT at the same creatinine (p = 0.028). Both peak and delta creatinine significantly predicted 6-month overall and transplant-free survival (p creatinine. Infected hospitalized cirrhotic women are significantly more likely than men to receive RRT at similar creatinine levels. Gender-specific differences in baseline, peak, and delta creatinine need further investigation to determine whether women need acute kidney injury treatment at lower creatinine thresholds than men.

  17. Facilitating Adaptive Management in California’s Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Wiens

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2017v15iss2art3Uncertainties in understanding ecosystems increase the risk that management will fail to achieve desired results. Adaptive management is a structured, iterative application of science-based knowledge to reduce uncertainties and build flexibility into decision-making. However, adaptive management is more easily planned than implemented, and it is only beginning to be applied in the California’s Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta. We draw from two assessments of adaptive management in the Delta and examples of its use elsewhere to suggest how the process can be facilitated. Although a highly structured adaptive-management process may not always be needed, several elements are essential. Adaptive management should begin by clearly identifying the problem, goals, and objectives; recognizing uncertainties; identifying decision points and alternative approaches; recognizing when adjustments are needed and having the flexibility to make them; and considering societal and political constraints. Model complexity should be matched to that of the system and management needs; experiments can help unravel causal relationships. Monitoring, analyses, and syntheses require comprehensive data-management systems. More frequent and organized communications among scientists, managers, stakeholders, and decision-makers are necessary. We propose the establishment of an “Adaptive Management Team” to coordinate efforts across the management spectrum of the Delta and to provide guidance and link individual projects to shared approaches and experiences. Reliable long-term support will be needed to assess results of management actions, adjust approaches where improvement is likely, and strive toward the legislated goals of enhancing the Delta ecosystem while also providing reliable water supplies to much of California, and doing both these things in a manner that protects values of the Delta as a place where people live and

  18. Comparison between AAPM TG-51 and IAEA TRS-398 for plane parallel ionization chambers irradiated by clinical electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    We compared the results of absorbed dose determined at reference conditions according to AAPM T G-51 and IAEA TRS-398 using plane parallel ionization chambers. The study showed agreement between the two protocols for Holt ,Exradin P11, NACP, Attix RMI 449 and Roos ionization chambers. For Markus ionization chambers the absorbed dose calculated using AAPM TG-51 is higher than that calculated using IAEA TRS-398 by 1.8 % for R 5 0 =2 cm and decrease with increased R 5 0 to reach 1.2 % for R 5 0 =20 cm. For Capintec PS-033 ionization chambers the absorbed dose calculated using AAPM TG-51 is constantly higher than that calculated by IAEA TRS-398 by 1.5 %. A theoretical explanation was introduced for these results

  19. High-Tg TOPAS microstructured polymer optical fiber for fiber Bragg grating strain sensing at 110 degrees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markos, Christos; Stefani, Alessio; Nielsen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    We present the fabrication and characterization of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) in an endlessly single-mode microstructured polymer optical fiber (mPOF) made of humidity-insensitive high-Tg TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer. The mPOF is the first made from grade 5013 TOPAS with a glass transition...... temperature of Tg = 135°C and we experimentally demonstrate high strain operation (2.5%) of the FBG at 98°C and stable operation up to a record high temperature of 110°C. The Bragg wavelengths of the FBGs are around 860 nm, where the propagation loss is 5.1dB/m, close to the fiber loss minimum of 3.67d...

  20. TH-A-BRC-03: AAPM TG218: Measurement Methods and Tolerance Levels for Patient-Specific IMRT Verification QA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miften, M. [University of Colorado School of Medicine (United States)

    2016-06-15

    AAPM TG-135U1 QA for Robotic Radiosurgery - Sonja Dieterich Since the publication of AAPM TG-135 in 2011, the technology of robotic radiosurgery has rapidly developed. AAPM TG-135U1 will provide recommendations on the clinical practice for using the IRIS collimator, fiducial-less real-time motion tracking, and Monte Carlo based treatment planning. In addition, it will summarize currently available literature about uncertainties. Learning Objectives: Understand the progression of technology since the first TG publication Learn which new QA procedures should be implemented for new technologies Be familiar with updates to clinical practice guidelines AAPM TG-178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance - Steven Goetsch Purpose: AAPM Task Group 178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance was formed in August, 2008. The Task Group has 12 medical physicists, two physicians and two consultants. Methods: A round robin dosimetry intercomparison of proposed ionization chambers, electrometer and dosimetry phantoms was conducted over a 15 month period in 2011 and 2012 (Med Phys 42, 11, Nov, 2015). The data obtained at 9 institutions (with ten different Elekta Gamma Knife units) was analyzed by the lead author using several protocols. Results: The most consistent results were obtained using the Elekta ABS 16cm diameter phantom, with the TG-51 protocol modified as recommended by Alfonso et al (Med Phys 35, 11, Nov 2008). A key white paper (Med Phys, in press) sponsored by Elekta Corporation, was used to obtain correction factors for the ionization chambers and phantoms used in this intercomparison. Consistent results were obtained for both Elekta Gamma Knife Model 4C and Gamma Knife Perfexion units as measured with each of two miniature ionization chambers. Conclusion: The full report gives clinical history and background of gamma stereotactic radiosurgery, clinical examples and history, quality assurance recommendations and outline

  1. TH-A-BRC-03: AAPM TG218: Measurement Methods and Tolerance Levels for Patient-Specific IMRT Verification QA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miften, M.

    2016-01-01

    AAPM TG-135U1 QA for Robotic Radiosurgery - Sonja Dieterich Since the publication of AAPM TG-135 in 2011, the technology of robotic radiosurgery has rapidly developed. AAPM TG-135U1 will provide recommendations on the clinical practice for using the IRIS collimator, fiducial-less real-time motion tracking, and Monte Carlo based treatment planning. In addition, it will summarize currently available literature about uncertainties. Learning Objectives: Understand the progression of technology since the first TG publication Learn which new QA procedures should be implemented for new technologies Be familiar with updates to clinical practice guidelines AAPM TG-178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance - Steven Goetsch Purpose: AAPM Task Group 178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance was formed in August, 2008. The Task Group has 12 medical physicists, two physicians and two consultants. Methods: A round robin dosimetry intercomparison of proposed ionization chambers, electrometer and dosimetry phantoms was conducted over a 15 month period in 2011 and 2012 (Med Phys 42, 11, Nov, 2015). The data obtained at 9 institutions (with ten different Elekta Gamma Knife units) was analyzed by the lead author using several protocols. Results: The most consistent results were obtained using the Elekta ABS 16cm diameter phantom, with the TG-51 protocol modified as recommended by Alfonso et al (Med Phys 35, 11, Nov 2008). A key white paper (Med Phys, in press) sponsored by Elekta Corporation, was used to obtain correction factors for the ionization chambers and phantoms used in this intercomparison. Consistent results were obtained for both Elekta Gamma Knife Model 4C and Gamma Knife Perfexion units as measured with each of two miniature ionization chambers. Conclusion: The full report gives clinical history and background of gamma stereotactic radiosurgery, clinical examples and history, quality assurance recommendations and outline

  2. DELTA-5-ANDROSTENEDIOL AND ITS SULFATE IN SERUM AND URINE OF NORMAL ADULTS AND PATIENTS WITH ENDOCRINE DISEASES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DIKKESCHEI, LD; WILLEMSE, PHB; WOLTHERS, BG; DERUYTERBUITENHUIS, AW; NAGEL, GT

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We evaluated the role of delta-5-androstenediol (adiol) and its sulphates in health and endocrine diseases. DESIGN Serum and urine samples from healthy adult men and pre and post-menopausal women were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to establish reference values. In

  3. Evaluating farmers' knowledge, perceptions and practices: a case study of pest management by fruit farmers in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mele, Van P.

    2000-01-01

    After the Doi moi policy reform of Vietnam in 1986, the government has increasingly emphasized diversification of agricultural production into high value crops. Over the period 1985-1995, fruit production in the Mekong Delta increased from 92,100 to 175,700 ha mainly

  4. MO-E-17A-06: Organ Dose in Abdomen-Pelvis CT: Does TG 111 Equilibrium Dose Concept Better Accounts for KVp Dependence Than Conventional CTDI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X; Morgan, A; Davros, W; Dong, F; Primak, A; Segars, W

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In CT imaging, a desirable quality assurance (QA) dose quantity should account for the dose variability across scan parameters and scanner models. Recently, AAPM TG 111 proposed to use equilibrium dose-pitch product, in place of CT dose index (CTDI100), for scan modes involving table translation. The purpose of this work is to investigate whether this new concept better accounts for the kVp dependence of organ dose than the conventional CTDI concept. Methods: The adult reference female extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom was used for this study. A Monte Carlo program developed and validated for a 128-slice CT system (Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare) was used to simulate organ dose for abdomenpelvis scans at five tube voltages (70, 80, 100, 120, 140 kVp) with a pitch of 0.8 and a detector configuration of 2x64x0.6 mm. The same Monte Carlo program was used to simulate CTDI100 and equilibrium dose-pitch product. For both metrics, the central and peripheral values were used together with helical pitch to calculate a volume-weighted average, i.e., CTDIvol and (Deq)vol, respectively. Results: While other scan parameters were kept constant, organ dose depended strongly on kVp; the coefficient of variation (COV) across the five kVp values ranged between 70–75% for liver, spleen, stomach, pancreas, kidneys, colon, small intestine, bladder, and ovaries, all of which were inside the primary radiation beam. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the effect of kVp was highly significant (p=3e−30). When organ dose was normalized by CTDIvol, the COV across the five kVp values reduced to 7–16%. The effect of kVp was still highly significant (p=4e−4). When organ dose was normalized by (Deq)vol, the COV further reduced to 4−12%. The effect of kVp was borderline significant (p=0.04). Conclusion: In abdomen-pelvis CT, TG 111 equilibrium dose concept better accounts for kVp dependence than the conventional CTDI. This work is supported by a faculty startup

  5. MO-E-17A-06: Organ Dose in Abdomen-Pelvis CT: Does TG 111 Equilibrium Dose Concept Better Accounts for KVp Dependence Than Conventional CTDI?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X [Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Morgan, A; Davros, W [Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Dong, F [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Primak, A [Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc. (United States); Segars, W [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In CT imaging, a desirable quality assurance (QA) dose quantity should account for the dose variability across scan parameters and scanner models. Recently, AAPM TG 111 proposed to use equilibrium dose-pitch product, in place of CT dose index (CTDI100), for scan modes involving table translation. The purpose of this work is to investigate whether this new concept better accounts for the kVp dependence of organ dose than the conventional CTDI concept. Methods: The adult reference female extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom was used for this study. A Monte Carlo program developed and validated for a 128-slice CT system (Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare) was used to simulate organ dose for abdomenpelvis scans at five tube voltages (70, 80, 100, 120, 140 kVp) with a pitch of 0.8 and a detector configuration of 2x64x0.6 mm. The same Monte Carlo program was used to simulate CTDI100 and equilibrium dose-pitch product. For both metrics, the central and peripheral values were used together with helical pitch to calculate a volume-weighted average, i.e., CTDIvol and (Deq)vol, respectively. Results: While other scan parameters were kept constant, organ dose depended strongly on kVp; the coefficient of variation (COV) across the five kVp values ranged between 70–75% for liver, spleen, stomach, pancreas, kidneys, colon, small intestine, bladder, and ovaries, all of which were inside the primary radiation beam. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the effect of kVp was highly significant (p=3e−30). When organ dose was normalized by CTDIvol, the COV across the five kVp values reduced to 7–16%. The effect of kVp was still highly significant (p=4e−4). When organ dose was normalized by (Deq)vol, the COV further reduced to 4−12%. The effect of kVp was borderline significant (p=0.04). Conclusion: In abdomen-pelvis CT, TG 111 equilibrium dose concept better accounts for kVp dependence than the conventional CTDI. This work is supported by a faculty startup

  6. Progressive impairment of directional and spatially precise trajectories by TgF344-AD Rats in the Morris Water Task

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Shannon; Harvey, Ryan; Clark, Benjamin; Drake, Emma; Berkowitz, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Spatial navigation is impaired in early stages of Alzheimers disease (AD), and may be a defining behavioral marker of preclinical AD. Nevertheless, limitations of diagnostic criteria for AD and within animal models of AD make characterization of preclinical AD difficult. A new rat model (TgF344-AD) of AD overcomes many of these limitations, though spatial navigation has not been comprehensively assessed. Using the hidden and cued platform variants of the Morris water task, a longitudinal asse...

  7. Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Traumatic Grief (BEP-TG): toward integrated treatment of symptoms related to traumatic loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Geert E; Kleber, Rolf J; de la Rie, Simone M; Bos, Jannetta B A; Gersons, Berthold P R; Boelen, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic events such as disasters, accidents, war, or criminal violence are often accompanied by the loss of loved ones, and may then give rise to traumatic grief. Traumatic grief refers to a clinical diagnosis of persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) with comorbid (symptoms of) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or major depressive disorder (MDD) following confrontation with a traumatic loss. Trauma survivors, who are frequently from different cultural backgrounds, have often experienced multiple losses and ambiguous loss (missing family members or friends). Current evidence-based treatments for PTSD do not focus on traumatic grief. To develop a treatment for traumatic grief combining treatment interventions for PTSD and PCBD that may accommodate cultural aspects of grief. To provide a rationale for treatment, we propose a cognitive stress model of traumatic grief. Based on this model and on existing evidence-based treatments for PTSD and complicated grief, we developed Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Traumatic Grief (BEP-TG) for the treatment of patients with traumatic grief. The treatment is presented along with a case vignette. Processes contributing to traumatic grief include inadequately integrating the memory of the traumatic loss, negative appraisal of the traumatic loss, sensitivity to matching triggers and new stressors, and attempting to avoid distress. BEP-TG targets these processes. The BEP-TG protocol consists of five parts with proven effectiveness in the treatment of PCBD, PTSD, and MDD: information and motivation, grief-focused exposure, memorabilia and writing assignments, finding meaning and activation, and a farewell ritual. Tailored to fit the needs of trauma survivors, BEP-TG can be used to address traumatic grief symptoms related to multiple losses and ambiguous loss, as well as cultural aspects of bereavement through its different components.

  8. Developing a Treatment Planning Software Based on TG-43U1 Formalism for Cs-137 LDR Brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sina, Sedigheh; Faghihi, Reza; Soleimani Meigooni, Ali; Siavashpour, Zahra; Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin

    2013-08-01

    The old Treatment Planning Systems (TPSs) used for intracavitary brachytherapy with Cs-137 Selectron source utilize traditional dose calculation methods, considering each source as a point source. Using such methods introduces significant errors in dose estimation. As of 1995, TG-43 is used as the main dose calculation formalism in treatment TPSs. The purpose of this study is to design and establish a treatment planning software for Cs-137 Solectron brachytherapy source, based on TG-43U1 formalism by applying the effects of the applicator and dummy spacers. Two softwares used for treatment planning of Cs-137 sources in Iran (STPS and PLATO), are based on old formalisms. The purpose of this work is to establish and develop a TPS for Selectron source based on TG-43 formalism. In this planning system, the dosimetry parameters of each pellet in different places inside applicators were obtained by MCNP4c code. Then the dose distribution around every combination of active and inactive pellets was obtained by summing the doses. The accuracy of this algorithm was checked by comparing its results for special combination of active and inactive pellets with MC simulations. Finally, the uncertainty of old dose calculation formalism was investigated by comparing the results of STPS and PLATO softwares with those obtained by the new algorithm. For a typical arrangement of 10 active pellets in the applicator, the percentage difference between doses obtained by the new algorithm at 1cm distance from the tip of the applicator and those obtained by old formalisms is about 30%, while the difference between the results of MCNP and the new algorithm is less than 5%. According to the results, the old dosimetry formalisms, overestimate the dose especially towards the applicator's tip. While the TG-43U1 based software perform the calculations more accurately.

  9. Role of Tulipa gesneriana TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 (TgTB1) in the control of axillary bud outgrowth in bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Pachon, Natalia M; Mutimawurugo, Marie-Chantal; Heynen, Eveline; Sergeeva, Lidiya; Benders, Anne; Blilou, Ikram; Hilhorst, Henk W M; Immink, Richard G H

    2018-06-01

    Tulip vegetative reproduction. Tulips reproduce asexually by the outgrowth of their axillary meristems located in the axil of each bulb scale. The number of axillary meristems in one bulb is low, and not all of them grow out during the yearly growth cycle of the bulb. Since the degree of axillary bud outgrowth in tulip determines the success of their vegetative propagation, this study aimed at understanding the mechanism controlling the differential axillary bud activity. We used a combined physiological and "bottom-up" molecular approach to shed light on this process and found that first two inner located buds do not seem to experience dormancy during the growth cycle, while mid-located buds enter dormancy by the end of the growing season. Dormancy was assessed by weight increase and TgTB1 expression levels, a conserved TCP transcription factor and well-known master integrator of environmental and endogenous signals influencing axillary meristem outgrowth in plants. We showed that TgTB1 expression in tulip bulbs can be modulated by sucrose, cytokinin and strigolactone, just as it has been reported for other species. However, the limited growth of mid-located buds, even when their TgTB1 expression is downregulated, points at other factors, probably physical, inhibiting their growth. We conclude that the time of axillary bud initiation determines the degree of dormancy and the sink strength of the bud. Thus, development, apical dominance, sink strength, hormonal cross-talk, expression of TgTB1 and other possibly physical but unidentified players, all converge to determine the growth capacity of tulip axillary buds.

  10. MO-E-9A-01: Risk Based Quality Management: TG100 In Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, M [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Palta, J [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Dunscombe, P [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada); Thomadsen, B [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-06-15

    One of the goals of quality management in radiation therapy is to gain high confidence that patients will receive the prescribed treatment correctly. To accomplish these goals professional societies such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) has published many quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC), and quality management (QM) guidance documents. In general, the recommendations provided in these documents have emphasized on performing device-specific QA at the expense of process flow and protection of the patient against catastrophic errors. Analyses of radiation therapy incidents find that they are most often caused by flaws in the overall therapy process, from initial consult through final treatment, than by isolated hardware or computer failures detectable by traditional physics QA. This challenge is shared by many intrinsically hazardous industries. Risk assessment tools and analysis techniques have been developed to define, identify, and eliminate known and/or potential failures, problems, or errors, from a system, process and/or service before they reach the customer. These include, but are not limited to, process mapping, failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), fault tree analysis (FTA), and establishment of a quality management program that best avoids the faults and risks that have been identified in the overall process. These tools can be easily adapted to radiation therapy practices because of their simplicity and effectiveness to provide efficient ways to enhance the safety and quality of treatment processes. Task group 100 (TG100) of AAPM has developed a risk-based quality management program that uses these tools. This session will be devoted to a discussion of these tools and how these tools can be used in a given radiotherapy clinic to develop a risk based QM program. Learning Objectives: Learn how to design a process map for a radiotherapy process. Learn how to perform a FMEA analysis for a given process. Learn what

  11. MO-AB-206-02: Testing Gamma Cameras Based On TG177 WG Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halama, J. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    This education session will cover the physics and operation principles of gamma cameras and PET scanners. The first talk will focus on PET imaging. An overview of the principles of PET imaging will be provided, including positron decay physics, and the transition from 2D to 3D imaging. More recent advances in hardware and software will be discussed, such as time-of-flight imaging, and improvements in reconstruction algorithms that provide for options such as depth-of-interaction corrections. Quantitative applications of PET will be discussed, as well as the requirements for doing accurate quantitation. Relevant performance tests will also be described. Learning Objectives: Be able to describe basic physics principles of PET and operation of PET scanners. Learn about recent advances in PET scanner hardware technology. Be able to describe advances in reconstruction techniques and improvements Be able to list relevant performance tests. The second talk will focus on gamma cameras. The Nuclear Medicine subcommittee has charged a task group (TG177) to develop a report on the current state of physics testing of gamma cameras, SPECT, and SPECT/CT systems. The report makes recommendations for performance tests to be done for routine quality assurance, annual physics testing, and acceptance tests, and identifies those needed satisfy the ACR accreditation program and The Joint Commission imaging standards. The report is also intended to be used as a manual with detailed instructions on how to perform tests under widely varying conditions. Learning Objectives: At the end of the presentation members of the audience will: Be familiar with the tests recommended for routine quality assurance, annual physics testing, and acceptance tests of gamma cameras for planar imaging. Be familiar with the tests recommended for routine quality assurance, annual physics testing, and acceptance tests of SPECT systems. Be familiar with the tests of a SPECT/CT system that include the CT images

  12. TG/DTG, FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry, and NMR Spectroscopy Study of Heavy Fuel Oil

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2015-11-12

    There is an increasing interest in the comprehensive study of heavy fuel oil (HFO) due to its growing use in furnaces, boilers, marines, and recently in gas turbines. In this work, the thermal combustion characteristics and chemical composition of HFO were investigated using a range of techniques. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was conducted to study the nonisothermal HFO combustion behavior. Chemical characterization of HFO was accomplished using various standard methods in addition to direct infusion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (APCI-FTICR MS), high resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C NMR, and two-dimensional heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC) spectroscopy. By analyzing thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) results, three different reaction regions were identified in the combustion of HFO with air, specifically, low temperature oxidation region (LTO), fuel deposition (FD), and high temperature oxidation (HTO) region. At the high end of the LTO region, a mass transfer resistance (skin effect) was evident. Kinetic analysis in LTO and HTO regions was conducted using two different kinetic models to calculate the apparent activation energy. In both models, HTO activation energies are higher than those for LTO. The FT-ICR MS technique resolved thousands of aromatic and sulfur containing compounds in the HFO sample and provided compositional details for individual molecules of three major class species. The major classes of compounds included species with one sulfur atom (S1), with two sulfur atoms (S2), and purely hydrocarbons (HC). The DBE (double bond equivalent) abundance plots established for S1 and HC provided additional information on their distributions in the HFO sample. The 1H NMR and 13C NMR results revealed that nearly 59% of the 1H nuclei were distributed as paraffinic CH2 and 5% were in aromatic groups. Nearly 21% of 13C nuclei were

  13. MO-AB-206-02: Testing Gamma Cameras Based On TG177 WG Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halama, J.

    2016-01-01

    This education session will cover the physics and operation principles of gamma cameras and PET scanners. The first talk will focus on PET imaging. An overview of the principles of PET imaging will be provided, including positron decay physics, and the transition from 2D to 3D imaging. More recent advances in hardware and software will be discussed, such as time-of-flight imaging, and improvements in reconstruction algorithms that provide for options such as depth-of-interaction corrections. Quantitative applications of PET will be discussed, as well as the requirements for doing accurate quantitation. Relevant performance tests will also be described. Learning Objectives: Be able to describe basic physics principles of PET and operation of PET scanners. Learn about recent advances in PET scanner hardware technology. Be able to describe advances in reconstruction techniques and improvements Be able to list relevant performance tests. The second talk will focus on gamma cameras. The Nuclear Medicine subcommittee has charged a task group (TG177) to develop a report on the current state of physics testing of gamma cameras, SPECT, and SPECT/CT systems. The report makes recommendations for performance tests to be done for routine quality assurance, annual physics testing, and acceptance tests, and identifies those needed satisfy the ACR accreditation program and The Joint Commission imaging standards. The report is also intended to be used as a manual with detailed instructions on how to perform tests under widely varying conditions. Learning Objectives: At the end of the presentation members of the audience will: Be familiar with the tests recommended for routine quality assurance, annual physics testing, and acceptance tests of gamma cameras for planar imaging. Be familiar with the tests recommended for routine quality assurance, annual physics testing, and acceptance tests of SPECT systems. Be familiar with the tests of a SPECT/CT system that include the CT images

  14. MO-E-9A-01: Risk Based Quality Management: TG100 In Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huq, M; Palta, J; Dunscombe, P; Thomadsen, B

    2014-01-01

    One of the goals of quality management in radiation therapy is to gain high confidence that patients will receive the prescribed treatment correctly. To accomplish these goals professional societies such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) has published many quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC), and quality management (QM) guidance documents. In general, the recommendations provided in these documents have emphasized on performing device-specific QA at the expense of process flow and protection of the patient against catastrophic errors. Analyses of radiation therapy incidents find that they are most often caused by flaws in the overall therapy process, from initial consult through final treatment, than by isolated hardware or computer failures detectable by traditional physics QA. This challenge is shared by many intrinsically hazardous industries. Risk assessment tools and analysis techniques have been developed to define, identify, and eliminate known and/or potential failures, problems, or errors, from a system, process and/or service before they reach the customer. These include, but are not limited to, process mapping, failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), fault tree analysis (FTA), and establishment of a quality management program that best avoids the faults and risks that have been identified in the overall process. These tools can be easily adapted to radiation therapy practices because of their simplicity and effectiveness to provide efficient ways to enhance the safety and quality of treatment processes. Task group 100 (TG100) of AAPM has developed a risk-based quality management program that uses these tools. This session will be devoted to a discussion of these tools and how these tools can be used in a given radiotherapy clinic to develop a risk based QM program. Learning Objectives: Learn how to design a process map for a radiotherapy process. Learn how to perform a FMEA analysis for a given process. Learn what

  15. Reactivity, structure and physical properties of SrCo{sub 2.5+{delta}} and La{sub 2}CoO{sub 4.0+{delta}}. In situ X-ray diffraction and neutrons study; Reactivite, structure et proprietes physiques de SrCoO{sub 2.5+{delta}} et La{sub 2}CoO{sub 4.0+{delta}}. Etude par diffraction des rayons X et des neutrons in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Toquin, R.

    2003-11-15

    This work was devoted to the study of the reactivity and more specifically the influence of the intercalated oxygen amount {delta} on the structure and physical properties of SrCoO{sub 2.5+{delta}} et La{sub 2}CoO{sub 4.0+{delta}} We controlled the oxidation level by means of reversible electrochemical red ox reaction at room temperature. Structural modifications, especially disorder, and electronic properties were studied for the first time on large orientated single crystal. In the SrCoO{sub 2.5+{delta}} system, after structural and electronic characterisation of the end phases, we studied the real structure of the brownmillerite SrCoO{sub 2.5} phase using single crystal. Moreover, we investigated structural and magnetic evolution upon red ox cycle using X-ray diffraction on 6 times twinned single crystal and in situ neutron powder diffraction. Two intermediate SrCoO{sub 2.75} and SrCoO{sub 2.82} phases have been observed. The reaction on single crystal has evidenced the evolution of domain structure. For the La{sub 2}CoO{sub 4+{delta}} system, we synthesised a large variety of single crystal with stoichiometry {delta} 0.0, 0.09, 0.12, 0.16, 0.20 and 0.25. Using single crystal X-ray and neutron diffraction, we showed a disorder-order transition of the apical and interstitial oxygen for the higher {delta} values. (author)

  16. Assessment and potential sources of metals in the surface sediments of the Yellow River Delta, Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qingli; Lou, Guangyan; Huang, Wenhai; Li, Xudong

    2017-07-01

    The Yellow River Delta is the most intact estuary wetland in China and suffers from great pressure of metals. Seventy-seven surface sediment samples were collected in the delta, and contents of Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, Ni, and Mn were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry and those of Hg and As by atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The results showed that means of metal contents (ppm, dry weight) were as follows: Hg, 0.04; Cr, 61.72; Cu, 20.97; Zn, 60.73; As, 9.47; Pb, 21.91; Cd, 0.12; Ni, 27.24; and Mn, 540.48. 43.8% of Hg and 14.3% of Cd were from the allogenic source while others from the authigenic source. The results of the geoaccumulation indexes appeared that 6.5% of sites from the estuarine and the Gudao areas were moderately polluted by Hg. All ecological risk index values of Hg and 37.7% of Cd were more than 40, which were the main factors of strongly and moderately potential ecological risks of 37.7% of sites in the delta. High Cd contents may be due to the alkaline conditions of the delta and the unreasonable management of the farmland, while the abnormal distribution of Hg to the wet or dry deposition and the erosion of the seawater. It was suggested to monitor Hg content in the atmosphere of the Yellow River Delta. The results were expected to update the pollution status of metals in the delta and created awareness of preserving the sound condition of the Yellow River Delta.

  17. A poliomyelitis model through mucosal infection in transgenic mice bearing human poliovirus receptor, TgPVR21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Noriyo; Iwasaki, Takuya; Ami, Yasushi; Sato, Yuko; Hatano, Ikuyoshi; Harashima, Ayako; Suzaki, Yuriko; Yoshii, Takao; Hashikawa, Tsutomu; Sata, Tetsutaro; Horiuchi, Yoshinobu; Koike, Satoshi; Kurata, Takeshi; Nomoto, Akio

    2004-01-01

    Transgenic mice bearing the human poliovirus receptor (TgPVR) are less susceptible to oral inoculation, although they are susceptible to parenteral inoculation. We investigated the susceptibility of TgPVR 21 line [Arch. Virol. 130 (1994) 351] to poliovirus through various mucosal routes. Intranasal inoculation of a neurovirulent Mahoney strain (OM1) caused flaccid paralysis with viral replication in the central nervous system at a dose of 10 6 cell culture infectious dose (CCID 50 ), in contrast, no paralysis following oral or intragastric inoculation of the same dose. Intranasal inoculation of a vaccine strain, Sabin 1, at 10 6 CCID 50 , resulted in no paralysis. Initial replication of poliovirus in the nasal cavity was confirmed by virus isolation and detection of negative-stranded replicative intermediates by RT-PCR and viral antigens using a high-sensitive immunohistochemistry and genome/transcripts by in situ hybridization. Poliovirus-specific IgG antibodies were elevated in the sera of surviving TgPVR21. This model can be used as a mucosal infection model and for differentiation of neurovirulent and attenuated poliovirus strains

  18. Role of protein glycosylation on the expression of muscarinic receptors of N4TG1 neuroblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, A.; Chiang, P.K.

    1986-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) are glycoproteins. Experiments were conducted to determine whether active glycosylation of proteins in N4TG1 neuroblastoma cells could affect the expression of muscarinic receptors on the cell surface. The binding of radioactive N-methylscopolamine, a membrane impermeable ligand, to intact cells was used as a measure of mAChR. In the presence of the inhibitors of glycosylation, such as tunicamycin, monensin and amphomycin, N-linked glycosylation of proteins in the N4TG1 cells was inhibited, as measured by the incorporation of radioactive glucosamine or mannose in proteins. At the concentrations of tunicamycin and monensin used, the glycosylation of proteins after 3 hours were drastically reduced, but the number of mAChR in the cells was not altered. The apparent lack of effect within a short incubation period could be attributed to the presence of preformed oligosaccharide dolichol readily available for N-glycosylation. However, after 24 hours, tunicamycin (0.05 μg/ml) caused a decrease in the number of mAChR by 17% without having any effect on protein synthesis. Therefore, de novo glycosylation of proteins may be required for the expression of mAChR receptors in the N4TG1 neuroblastoma cell surface

  19. Cytokine-producing microglia have an altered beta-amyloid load in aged APP/PS1 Tg mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babcock, Alicia A; Ilkjær, Laura; Clausen, Bettina H

    2015-01-01

    of CD11b, TNF, and IL-1Ra. Cytokine production and Aβ load were assessed in neocortical CD11b(+)(CD45(+)) microglia by flow cytometry. Whereas most microglia in aged mice produced IL-1Ra, relatively low proportions of microglia produced TNF, IL-1α, and IL-1β. However, microglial production......, however the inter-relationship between these processes is poorly understood. Here we show that % Aβ plaque load followed a sigmoidal trajectory with age in the neocortex of APPswe/PS1ΔE9 Tg mice, and correlated positively with soluble Aβ40 and Aβ42. Aβ measures were moderately correlated with mRNA levels...... of these latter cytokines was generally increased in APP/PS1 Tg mice. Microglia that phagocytosed endogenously-produced Aβ were only observed in APP/PS1 Tg mice. Differences in phagocytic index and total Aβ load were observed in microglia with specific cytokine profiles. Both phagocytic index and total Aβ load...

  20. Yeast three-hybrid screen identifies TgBRADIN/GRA24 as a negative regulator of Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoite differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahi V Odell

    Full Text Available Differentiation of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii into its latent bradyzoite stage is a key event in the parasite's life cycle. Compound 2 is an imidazopyridine that was previously shown to inhibit the parasite lytic cycle, in part through inhibition of parasite cGMP-dependent protein kinase. We show here that Compound 2 can also enhance parasite differentiation, and we use yeast three-hybrid analysis to identify TgBRADIN/GRA24 as a parasite protein that interacts directly or indirectly with the compound. Disruption of the TgBRADIN/GRA24 gene leads to enhanced differentiation of the parasite, and the TgBRADIN/GRA24 knockout parasites show decreased susceptibility to the differentiation-enhancing effects of Compound 2. This study represents the first use of yeast three-hybrid analysis to study small-molecule mechanism of action in any pathogenic microorganism, and it identifies a previously unrecognized inhibitor of differentiation in T. gondii. A better understanding of the proteins and mechanisms regulating T. gondii differentiation will enable new approaches to preventing the establishment of chronic infection in this important human pathogen.

  1. Trend analysis of body weight parameters, mortality, and incidence of spontaneous tumors in Tg.rasH2 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjpe, Madhav G; Denton, Melissa D; Vidmar, Tom; Elbekai, Reem H

    2014-01-01

    Carcinogenicity studies have been performed in conventional 2-year rodent studies for at least 3 decades, whereas the short-term carcinogenicity studies in transgenic mice, such as Tg.rasH2, have only been performed over the last decade. In the 2-year conventional rodent studies, interlinked problems, such as increasing trends in the initial body weights, increased body weight gains, high incidence of spontaneous tumors, and low survival, that complicate the interpretation of findings have been well established. However, these end points have not been evaluated in the short-term carcinogenicity studies involving the Tg.rasH2 mice. In this article, we present retrospective analysis of data obtained from control groups in 26-week carcinogenicity studies conducted in Tg.rasH2 mice since 2004. Our analysis showed statistically significant decreasing trends in initial body weights of both sexes. Although the terminal body weights did not show any significant trends, there was a statistically significant increasing trend toward body weight gains, more so in males than in females, which correlated with increasing trends in the food consumption. There were no statistically significant alterations in mortality trends. In addition, the incidence of all common spontaneous tumors remained fairly constant with no statistically significant differences in trends. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Measurements of Gasification Characteristics of Coal and Char in CO2-Rich Gas Flow by TG-DTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification properties of pulverized coal and char in CO2-rich gas flow were investigated by using gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA with changing O2%, heating temperature gradient, and flow rate of CO2-rich gases provided. Together with TG-DTA, flue gas generated from the heated coal, such as CO, CO2, and hydrocarbons (HCs, was analyzed simultaneously on the heating process. The optimum O2% in CO2-rich gas for combustion and gasification of coal or char was discussed by analyzing flue gas with changing O2 from 0 to 5%. The experimental results indicate that O2% has an especially large effect on carbon oxidation at temperature less than 1100°C, and lower O2 concentration promotes gasification reaction by producing CO gas over 1100°C in temperature. The TG-DTA results with gas analyses have presented basic reference data that show the effects of O2 concentration and heating rate on coal physical and chemical behaviors for the expected technologies on coal gasification in CO2-rich gas and oxygen combustion and underground coal gasification.

  3. Primary motor cortex alterations in Alzheimer disease: A study in the 3xTg-AD model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta-Salazar, E; Feria-Velasco, A I; Díaz-Cintra, S

    2017-04-19

    In humans and animal models, Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterised by accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau protein, neuronal degeneration, and astrocytic gliosis, especially in vulnerable brain regions (hippocampus and cortex). These alterations are associated with cognitive impairment (loss of memory) and non-cognitive impairment (motor impairment). The purpose of this study was to identify cell changes (neurons and glial cells) and aggregation of Aβ and hyperphosphorylated tau protein in the primary motor cortex (M1) in 3xTg-AD mouse models at an intermediate stage of AD. We used female 3xTg-AD mice aged 11 months and compared them to non-transgenic mice of the same age. In both groups, we assessed motor performance (open field test) and neuronal damage in M1 using specific markers: BAM10 (extracellular Aβ aggregates), tau 499 (hyperphosphorylated tau protein), GFAP (astrocytes), and Klüver-Barrera staining (neurons). Female 3xTg-AD mice in intermediate stages of the disease displayed motor and cellular alterations associated with Aβ and hyperphosphorylated tau protein deposition in M1. Patients with AD display signs and symptoms of functional impairment from early stages. According to our results, M1 cell damage in intermediate-stage AD affects motor function, which is linked to progression of the disease. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. The Concentration Dependence of the (Delta)s Term in the Gibbs Free Energy Function: Application to Reversible Reactions in Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Ronald K.

    2004-01-01

    The concentration dependence of (delta)S term in the Gibbs free energy function is described in relation to its application to reversible reactions in biochemistry. An intuitive and non-mathematical argument for the concentration dependence of the (delta)S term in the Gibbs free energy equation is derived and the applicability of the equation to…

  5. Complex rearrangements within the human J delta-C delta/J alpha-C alpha locus and aberrant recombination between J alpha segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baer, R.; Boehm, T.; Yssel, H.; Spits, H.; Rabbitts, T. H.

    1988-01-01

    We have examined DNA rearrangements within a 120 kb cloned region of the human T cell receptor J delta-C delta/J alpha-C alpha locus. Three types of pattern emerge from an analysis of T cell lines and clones. Firstly, cells with two rearrangements within J delta-C delta; secondly, cells with one

  6. Spatio-temporal distributions of delta18O, delta D and salinity in the Arabian Sea: Identifying processes and controls

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshpande, R.D; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Singh, R.L.; Kumar, B.; Rao, M.S.; Dave, M.; Sivakumar, K.U.; Gupta, S.K.

    the geographic distributions of the delta18O and S; (2) in spite of a large scatter, a statistically significant delta18O–S relationship can be identified in much of the investigated part of the AS; (3) the delta18Odelta...

  7. 78 FR 21491 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [License No. 02/02-0662, 02/02-0661] DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P. and DeltaPoint...

  8. Changes to subaqueous delta bathymetry following a high river flow event, Wax Lake Delta, LA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaling, A. R.; Shaw, J.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment transport capacity is increased during high river flow (flood) events which are characterized by discharges that exceed the 15 year median daily statistic. The Wax Lake Delta (WLD) in coastal Louisiana has experienced 19 of these high flow events in the past 20 years, yet the depositional patterns of single floods are rarely measured in a field-scale deltaic setting. We characterize flood deposition and erosion patterns on the subaqueous portion of the WLD by differencing two Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) constructed from bathymetric surveys before and after the third largest flood in the WLD's recorded history. The total suspended sediment discharge for the 496 day inter-survey period was 2.14x107 cubic meters measured 21 km upstream of the delta apex. The difference map showed 1.06x107 cubic meters of sediment was deposited and 8.2x106 cubic meters was eroded, yielding 2.40x106 cubic meters of net deposition in the survey area ( 79.7 km2 ). Therefore the average deposition rate was 0.061 mm/day. Channel planform remained relatively unchanged for five out of six distributary passes however Gadwall Pass experienced a maximum channel displacement of 166 m ( 1 channel width) measured from the thalweg centerline. Channel tip extension was negligible. In addition, channel displacement was not concentrated at any portion along the channel centerline. Maximum erosion occurred within channel margins and increased upstream whereas maximum deposition occurred immediately outside the channel margins. Sediment eroded from the survey area was either subsequently re-deposited or transported out of the system. Our results show that up to 77.4% of deposition in the survey area originated from sediment eroded during the flood. Surprisingly, only 11.2% of the total suspended sediment discharge was retained in the subaqueous portion of the delta after the flood. We conclude that a high flow event does not produce channel progradation. Rather, high flow causes delta

  9. Niger Delta Crisis and Security Implications for the Nation State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Niger Delta is the nation's treasure base, the Niger Delta provides over 80 percent of government revenue, 95 percent of export receipts, and 90 percent of ... The government should tackle the fundamental issue of basic necessities – provision of good motorable roads, pipe borne water, electricity, good hospitals, good ...

  10. Morphodynamics of the Manyema tidal delta 1 LIST OF TABLES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kheira Kortenbout

    Morphodynamics of the Manyema tidal delta. 1. LIST OF ... Location of Manyema Creek and its associated tidal delta platform at Kunduchi. Fig. 2. ... platform. Beachcomber. Hotel. Whitesands. Hotel. Kunduchi. Beach Hotel. Giraffe. Hotel. INDIAN. OCEAN. Mombasa. Dar es. Salaam. KUNDUCHI. KENYA. TANZANIA.

  11. Towards a Comprehensive Framework for Adaptive Delta Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchand, M.; Ludwig, F.

    2014-01-01

    Deltas are dynamic landforms at the boundary of land and sea, involving intricate mazes of rivers and small waterways, wetlands, estuaries and coastal barrier islands. They are home to over half a billion people. Deltas are also home to rich ecosystems, such as mangroves and marshes. They are

  12. Conflict resolution among Niger delta communities: A historical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conflict related issues have assumed endemic proportion in the Niger Delta. A proper assessment of the critical factors in motion must take cognizance of their historical underpinnings. Peaceful co-existence, the hallmark of conflict resolution, can be feasible in the Niger Delta, through sustainable dialogue. These, among

  13. Upper-Division Student Difficulties with the Dirac Delta Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    The Dirac delta function is a standard mathematical tool that appears repeatedly in the undergraduate physics curriculum in multiple topical areas including electrostatics, and quantum mechanics. While Dirac delta functions are often introduced in order to simplify a problem mathematically, students still struggle to manipulate and interpret them.…

  14. Caribbean piracy and youth restiveness in Niger delta: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our aim in this paper is to make a comparative analysis of Caribbean piracy and youth restiveness in Niger Delta of Nigeria. It will not be out of place to carry out such an analysis having seen, heard or read of the ongoing chaos, insecurity in the. Niger Delta Zone in Nigeria. We have to look at the past to find out such similar

  15. 78 FR 45592 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ..., Suite 160, Pittsford, NY 14534. The financing was contemplated for working capital. The financing is... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [License No. 02/02-0662] DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP; Notice Seeking... given that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., 45 East Avenue, 6th Floor, Rochester, NY 14604, Federal...

  16. Central Delta languages: An overview | Kari | Stellenbosch Papers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an overview of the phonology, morphology and syntax of Central Delta languages. It also provides information on the geo-linguistic, demographic and sociolinguistic situation of these languages. It notes that Central Delta languages have a 20-vowel system, which divides into two sets of 10 vowels ...

  17. Downstream hydraulic geometry of a tidally influenced river delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassi, M.G.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Brye, de B.; Deleersnijder, E.

    2012-01-01

    Channel geometry in tidally influenced river deltas can show a mixed scaling behavior between that of river and tidal channel networks, as the channel forming discharge is both of river and tidal origin. We present a method of analysis to quantify the tidal signature on delta morphology, by

  18. Delta: the first pion nucleon resonance - its discovery and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagle, D.E.

    1984-07-01

    It is attempted to recapture some of the fun and excitement of the pion-scattering work that led to the discovery of what is now called the delta particle. How significant this discovery was became apparent only gradually. That the delta is alive today and thriving at Los Alamos (as well as other places) is described

  19. Wastewater disposal at safari lodges in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater disposal at safari lodges in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. TS McCarthy, T Gumbricht, RG Stewart, D Brandt, PJ Hancox, J McCarthy, AG Duse. Abstract. Many safari lodges in the Okavango Delta obtain their water supply from boreholes in near-surface aquifers while disposing of their wastewater via ...

  20. Remote stereocontrol by sulfinyl groups: reduction of delta-ketosulfoxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ruano, José L; Fernández-Ibáñez, M Angeles; Maestro, M Carmen; Rodríguez-Fernández, M Mercedes

    2005-03-04

    The reduction of delta-ketosulfoxides constitutes the first evidence of the efficiency of the sulfinyl group to control the stereoselectivity of 1,5-asymmetric induction processes. The use of DIBAL/Yb(OTf)3 or L-Selectride as the reducing agents provides delta-hydroxysulfoxides with the opposite configuration at the hydroxylic carbon in a highly stereoselective way.

  1. Quark sea and the. delta. I=1/2 rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, J F [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Physics; Golowich, E [Massachusetts Univ., Amherst (USA)

    1977-08-29

    The effect on nonleptonic processes of quark-antiquark pairs due to quantum chromodynamics is studied. Their presence improves agreement between theory and experiment for hyperon decays. In kaon decays a new ..delta..I=1/2 contribution is found, but ..delta..I=3/2 effects are still too large to be in agreement.

  2. Antinociceptive activity of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol non-ionic microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, P; Fadda, P; Marchese, G; Casu, G L; Pani, L

    2010-06-30

    Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), the major psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa L., has been widely studied for its potential pharmaceutical application in the treatment of various diseases and disturbs. This sparingly soluble terpeno-phenolic compound is not easy to handle and to be formulated in pharmaceutical preparations. The aim of this work was to develop a stable aqueous Delta(9)-THC formulation acceptable for different ways of administration, and to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the new Delta(9)-THC based preparation for pain treatment. Due to the thermodynamic stability and advantages of microemulsion based systems, the study was focused on the identification of aqueous microemulsion based systems containing Delta(9)-THC. Oil in water Delta(9)-THC microemulsions were individuated through phase diagrams construction, using the non-ionic surfactant Solutol HS15, being this surfactant acceptable for parenteral administration in human. A selected microemulsion samples containing 0.2 wt% of Delta(9)-THC, stable up to 52 degrees C, was successfully assayed on animal models of pain. Significant antinociceptive activity has been detected by both intraperitoneal and intragastric administration of the new Delta(9)-THC pharmaceutical preparation. The effect has been highlighted in shorter time if compared to a preparation of the same active principle based on previously reported conventional preparation. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An annotated list of Fishes from the Niger Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeseman, M.

    1963-01-01

    At the end of November 1960, the Leiden Museum received an interesting collection of animals, mostly fishes, from the Niger delta. All specimens were collected by Mr. H. J. G. Beets, at the time employed by Shell B.P. — Delta Investigations, during the period May to August 1960, and in the region

  4. Topological Mappings via B&delta;g-Closed Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Maruthamuthu, Raja; Narayanasamy, Seenivasagan; Otchanathevar, Ravi

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new class of functions called  B&delta;g-continuous functions. We obtain several characterizations and some their properties. Also we investigate its relationship with other types of functions. Further we introduce and study a new class of functions namely B&delta;g-irresolute.

  5. Estimation of Thermal Conductivity in the North- Western Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal conductivity estimates are computed from nineteen petroleum wells in the north-western Niger Delta, Nigeria, using a geometric mean model. Sonic and gamma-ray logs were digitised and used in the estimation of in situ conductivity. The Niger Delta is composed of three major diachronous lithostratigraphic units of ...

  6. How to deal with subsidence in the Dutch delta?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouthamer, E.; Erkens, G.

    2017-01-01

    In many deltas worldwide subsidence still is an underestimated problem, while the threat posed by land subsidence low-lying urbanizing and urbanized deltas exceeds the threat of sea-level rise induced by climate change. Human-induced subsidence is driven by the extraction of hydrocarbons and

  7. Dousing the tension in the Niger delta through administrative agency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dousing the tension in the Niger delta through administrative agency: A programme evaluation of Niger delta development commission as an intervention regime. ... the study concludes that because of systemic constraints arising from the hegemonic interests of the dominant coalitions in the Nigerian Social formation, ...

  8. Drones on the delta | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    25 nov. 2016 ... Waves wash ashore at Fuvemeh, a town in Ghana's Volta River delta that's threatened by coastal erosion and flooding. Brian Owens, Canadian Geographic. Ghana's Volta River delta is an area vulnerable to climate change, with rising seas and increasingly powerful storms driving flooding and erosion, ...

  9. Homosexuality amongst migrant oil workers in the Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: To determine the prevalence of homosexuality among migrant oil workers in Niger Delta. Methods: A prospective questionnaire – based study was conducted among migrant oil workers in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The design was to determine the prevalence of homosexuality in the workers in oil workers.

  10. T gamma/delta lymphocytes in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raasveld, M. H.; Bloemena, E.; Surachno, S.; ten Berge, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    T gamma/delta lymphocytes are able to perform allospecific cytotoxicity and natural killer cytotoxicity in vitro. However, very little is known about their function in vivo. To investigate the possible involvement of T gamma/delta lymphocytes in the immune response to renal allografts, fine-needle

  11. The evolution of a subaqueous delta in the Anthropocene: A stratigraphic investigation of the Brazos River delta, TX USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Joseph A.; Dellapenna, Timothy M.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, deltas are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic activities. As a result, deltas now evolve through the combined effects of natural and human-induced processes occurring throughout the fluvial-deltaic system. The Brazos River delta, located along the Texas coast in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, and its watershed have been impacted by direct and indirect human activities since the late 19th century. This provides an opportunity to investigate how such alterations have shaped the evolution of a delta in the Anthropocene, a time when humans are drivers of geological change. Historic alteration to the delta and watershed include extensive agricultural activity, jetty construction at the mouth in the late 1890s, mouth diversion ~10 km to the southwest in 1929, and reservoir construction throughout the early and mid 20th Century. Three subaerial deltaic geometries provided the framework to connect subaerial deltaic responses, to the anthropogenic alterations, to the resulting stratigraphic characteristics observed in the subaqueous delta. This study utilized high-resolution geophysical data (swath bathymetry, side scan sonar, CHIRP subbottom profiling) on the subaqueous delta to investigate the subaqueous delta stratigraphy and infer the processes that shaped the deltaic record over time. The results showed distinct areas across the subaqueous delta that were dominated by erosion and deposition. Erosional areas corresponded to earlier growth phase depocenters being exposed at the surface, while the depositional areas corresponded to areas with the most recent growth phase depocenter overlying the earlier depocenters. These results highlight that the subaqueous depocenter has migrated westward over time, consistent with the observed changes to the subaerial delta. Additionally, the data showed that evidence for these past growth phases and depocenters may be preserved within the subaqueous delta, even after subaerial portions of the delta returned to pre