WorldWideScience

Sample records for tfr tokamak

  1. Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meglicki, Z

    1995-09-19

    We describe in detail the implementation of a weighted differences code, which is used to simulate a tokamak using the Maschke-Perrin solution as an initial condition. The document covers the mainlines of the program and the most important problem-specific functions used in the initialization, static tests, and dynamic evolution of the system. The mathematics of the Maschke-Perrin solution is discussed in parallel with its realisation within the code. The results of static and dynamic tests are presented in sections discussing their implementation.The code can also be obtained by ftp -anonymous from cisr.anu.edu.au Directory /pub/papers/meglicki/src/tokamak. This code is copyrighted. (author). 13 refs.

  2. Transferrin receptor (TfR) trafficking determines brain uptake of TfR antibody affinity variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien-Ly, Nga; Yu, Y Joy; Bumbaca, Daniela; Elstrott, Justin; Boswell, C Andrew; Zhang, Yin; Luk, Wilman; Lu, Yanmei; Dennis, Mark S; Weimer, Robby M; Chung, Inhee; Watts, Ryan J

    2014-02-10

    Antibodies to transferrin receptor (TfR) have potential use for therapeutic entry into the brain. We have shown that bispecific antibodies against TfR and β-secretase (BACE1 [β-amyloid cleaving enzyme-1]) traverse the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and effectively reduce brain amyloid β levels. We found that optimizing anti-TfR affinity improves brain exposure and BACE1 inhibition. Here we probe the cellular basis of this improvement and explore whether TfR antibody affinity alters the intracellular trafficking of TfR. Comparing high- and low-affinity TfR bispecific antibodies in vivo, we found that high-affinity binding to TfR caused a dose-dependent reduction of brain TfR levels. In vitro live imaging and colocalization experiments revealed that high-affinity TfR bispecific antibodies facilitated the trafficking of TfR to lysosomes and thus induced the degradation of TfR, an observation which was further confirmed in vivo. Importantly, high-affinity anti-TfR dosing induced reductions in brain TfR levels, which significantly decreased brain exposure to a second dose of low-affinity anti-TfR bispecific. Thus, high-affinity anti-TfR alters TfR trafficking, which dramatically impacts the capacity for TfR to mediate BBB transcytosis.

  3. The extrahepatic role of TFR2 in iron homeostasis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silvestri, Laura; Nai, Antonella; Pagani, Alessia; Camaschella, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2), a protein homologous to the cell iron importer TFR1, is expressed in the liver and erythroid cells and is reported to bind diferric transferrin, although at lower affinity than TFR1...

  4. Comparison of 3 Tfr2-deficient murine models suggests distinct functions for Tfr2-alpha and Tfr2-beta isoforms in different tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roetto, Antonella; Di Cunto, Ferdinando; Pellegrino, Rosa Maria; Hirsch, Emilio; Azzolino, Ornella; Bondi, Alessandro; Defilippi, Ilaria; Carturan, Sonia; Miniscalco, Barbara; Riondato, Fulvio; Cilloni, Daniela; Silengo, Lorenzo; Altruda, Fiorella; Camaschella, Clara; Saglio, Giuseppe

    2010-04-22

    Transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) is a transmembrane protein that is mutated in hemochromatosis type 3. The TFR2 gene is transcribed in 2 main isoforms: the full-length (alpha) and a shorter form (beta). alpha-Tfr2 is the sensor of diferric transferrin, implicated in the modulation of hepcidin, the main regulator of iron homeostasis. The function of the putative beta-Tfr2 protein is unknown. We have developed a new mouse model (KI) lacking beta-Tfr2 compared with Tfr2 knockout mice (KO). Adult Tfr2 KO mice show liver iron overload and inadequate hepcidin levels relative to body iron stores, even though they increase Bmp6 production. KI mice have normal transferrin saturation, liver iron concentration, hepcidin and Bmp6 levels but show a transient anemia at young age and severe spleen iron accumulation in adult animals. Fpn1 is strikingly decreased in the spleen of these animals. These findings and the expression of beta-Tfr2 in wild-type mice spleen suggest a role for beta-Tfr2 in Fpn1 transcriptional control. Selective inactivation of liver alpha-Tfr2 in KI mice (LCKO-KI) returned the phenotype to liver iron overload. Our results strengthen the function of hepatic alpha-Tfr2 in hepcidin activation, suggest a role for extrahepatic Tfr2 and indicate that beta-Tfr2 may specifically control spleen iron efflux.

  5. Hepcidin is decreased in TFR2 hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Elizabeta; Roetto, Antonella; Garozzo, Giovanni; Ganz, Tomas; Camaschella, Clara

    2005-02-15

    The hepatic peptide hepcidin is the key regulator of iron metabolism in mammals. Recent evidence indicates that certain forms of hereditary hemochromatosis are caused by hepcidin deficiency. Juvenile hemochromatosis is associated with hepcidin or hemojuvelin mutations, and these patients have low or absent urinary hepcidin. Patients with C282Y HFE hemochromatosis also have inappropriately low hepcidin levels for the degree of iron loading. The relationship between the hemochromatosis due to transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) mutations and hepcidin was unknown. We measured urinary hepcidin levels in 10 patients homozygous for TFR2 mutations, all with increased transferrin saturation. Urinary hepcidin was low or undetectable in 8 of 10 cases irrespective of the previous phlebotomy treatments. The only 2 cases with normal hepcidin values had concomitant inflammatory conditions. Our data indicate that TFR2 is a modulator of hepcidin production in response to iron.

  6. TfR Binding Peptide Screened by Phage Display Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gain entry via the endocytic pathway. Conclusion: BP9 can bind to TfR and inhibit the proliferation of the tumour cells over-expressing TfR. The DNA sequence coding for BP9 was able to target the macromolecule to combine with TfR. BP9 may possess potential applications in cancer therapy. Keywords: Peptide, hTfR ...

  7. The extrahepatic role of TFR2 in iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Laura; Nai, Antonella; Pagani, Alessia; Camaschella, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2), a protein homologous to the cell iron importer TFR1, is expressed in the liver and erythroid cells and is reported to bind diferric transferrin, although at lower affinity than TFR1. TFR2 gene is mutated in type 3 hemochromatosis, a disorder characterized by iron overload and inability to upregulate hepcidin in response to iron. Liver TFR2 is considered a sensor of diferric transferrin, possibly in a complex with hemochromatosis protein. In erythroid cells TFR2 is a partner of erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) and stabilizes the receptor on the cell surface. However, Tfr2 null mice as well as TFR2 hemochromatosis patients do not show defective erythropoiesis and tolerate repeated phlebotomy. The iron deficient Tfr2-Tmprss6 double knock out mice have higher red cells count and more severe microcytosis than the liver-specific Tfr2 and Tmprss6 double knock out mice. TFR2 in the bone marrow might be a sensor of iron deficiency that protects against excessive microcytosis in a way that involves EPOR, although the mechanisms remain to be worked out.

  8. The extrahepatic role of TFR2 in iron homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eSilvestri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2, a protein homologous to the cell iron importer transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1, is expressed in the liver and erythroid cells and is reported to bind diferric transferrin, although at lower affinity than TFR1. TFR2 gene is mutated in type 3 hemochromatosis, a disorder characterized by iron overload and inability to upregulate hepcidin in response to iron. Liver TFR2 is considered a sensor of diferric transferrin, possibly in a complex with HFE. In erythroid cells TFR2 is a partner of erythropoietin receptor (EPOR and stabilizes the receptor on the cell surface. However, Tfr2 null mice as well as TFR2 hemochromatosis patients do not show defective erythropoiesis and tolerate repeated phlebotomy. The iron deficient Tfr2-Tmprss6 double knock out mice have higher red cells count and more severe microcytosis than the liver specific Tfr2 and Tmprss6 double knock out mice. TFR2 in the bone marrow might be a sensor of iron deficiency that protects against excessive microcytosis in a way that involves EPOR, although the mechanisms remain to be worked out.

  9. TfR2 expression in human colon carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolari, Alessia; Deaglio, Silvia; Maldi, Elena; Cassoni, Paola; Malavasi, Fabio; Testa, Ugo

    2009-01-01

    Different proteins regulate iron metabolism at the level of various tissues. Among these is a second transferrin receptor (TfR2) that seems to play a key role in the regulation of iron homeostasis. Although TfR2 expression in normal tissues is restricted at the level of the liver, we observed that TfR2 is frequently expressed in cancer cell lines. Taking advantage of this observation we investigated TfR2 expression in primary colon cancers, and showed that this receptor is expressed in about 26% of cases. TfR2 expression in colon cancer is not related to histological grade, but is preferentially associated with mucinous tumors. In colon cancer cell lines, TfR2 is localized in membrane lipid rafts, induces ERK1/ERK2 phosphorylation, when activated by its ligand transferring, and is preferentially expressed during S-M phases of the cell cycle. The presence of TfR2 on the membrane of colon cancer cells may contribute the growth advantage to these cells.

  10. Measurement of electron density profile by microwave reflectometry on tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonet, F.

    1985-05-01

    A new method for measuring the electron density spatial profile has been successfully tested on the tokamak of Fontenay aux Roses (TFR). This method is based on the total reflection experienced by a wave of frequency F on the layer where F = F/sub p/e(r). The experimental results show that the maximum electron density in the discharge is also easily measured and that accurate determination of a density profile can be obtained with a time resolution of 5 ms. This diagnostic is well adapted to all fusion devices where access to the total plasma cross section is limited, particularly for large tokamaks.

  11. CD81 Promotes Both the Degradation of Transferrin Receptor 2 (TfR2) and the Tfr2-mediated Maintenance of Hepcidin Expression*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juxing; Enns, Caroline A.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) cause a rare form of the hereditary hemochromatosis, resulting in iron overload predominantly in the liver. TfR2 is primarily expressed in hepatocytes and is hypothesized to sense iron levels in the blood to positively regulate the expression of hepcidin through activation of the BMP signaling pathway. Hepcidin is a peptide hormone that negatively regulates iron egress from cells and thus limits intestinal iron uptake. In this study, a yeast two-hybrid approach using the cytoplasmic domain of TfR2 identified CD81 as an interacting protein. CD81 is an abundant tetraspanin in the liver. Co-precipitations of CD81 with different TfR2 constructs demonstrated that both the cytoplasmic and ecto-transmembrane domains of TfR2 interact with CD81. Knockdown of CD81 using siRNA significantly increased TfR2 levels by increasing the half-life of TfR2, indicating that CD81 promotes degradation of TfR2. Previous studies showed that CD81 is targeted for degradation by GRAIL, an ubiquitin E3 ligase. Knockdown of GRAIL in Hep3B-TfR2 cells increased TfR2 levels, consistent with inhibition of CD81 ubiquitination. These results suggest that down-regulation of CD81 by GRAIL targets TfR2 for degradation. Surprisingly, knockdown of CD81 decreased hepcidin expression, implying that the TfR2/CD81 complex is involved in the maintenance of hepcidin mRNA. Moreover, knockdown of CD81 did not affect the stimulation of hepcidin expression by BMP6 but increased both the expression of ID1 and SMAD7, direct targets of BMP signaling pathway, and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, indicating that the CD81 regulates hepcidin expression differently from the BMP and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. PMID:25635054

  12. Hepatocyte-targeted HFE and TFR2 control hepcidin expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junwei; Chen, Juxing; De Domenico, Ivana; Koeller, David M; Harding, Cary O; Fleming, Robert E; Koeberl, Dwight D; Enns, Caroline A

    2010-04-22

    Hereditary hemochromatosis is caused by mutations in the hereditary hemochromatosis protein (HFE), transferrin-receptor 2 (TfR2), hemojuvelin, hepcidin, or ferroportin genes. Hepcidin is a key iron regulator, which is secreted by the liver, and decreases serum iron levels by causing the down-regulation of the iron transporter, ferroportin. Mutations in either HFE or TfR2 lower hepcidin levels, implying that both HFE and TfR2 are necessary for regulation of hepcidin expression. In this study, we used a recombinant adeno-associated virus, AAV2/8, for hepatocyte-specific expression of either Hfe or Tfr2 in mice. Expression of Hfe in Hfe-null mice both increased Hfe and hepcidin mRNA and lowered hepatic iron and Tf saturation. Expression of Tfr2 in Tfr2-deficient mice had a similar effect, whereas expression of Hfe in Tfr2-deficient mice or of Tfr2 in Hfe-null mice had no effect on liver or serum iron levels. Expression of Hfe in wild-type mice increased hepcidin mRNA and lowered iron levels. In contrast, expression of Tfr2 had no effect on wild-type mice. These findings suggest that Hfe is limiting in formation of the Hfe/Tfr2 complex that regulates hepcidin expression. In addition, these studies show that the use of recombinant AAV vector to deliver genes is a promising approach for studying physiologic consequences of protein complexes.

  13. CD81 promotes both the degradation of transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) and the Tfr2-mediated maintenance of hepcidin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juxing; Enns, Caroline A

    2015-03-20

    Mutations in transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) cause a rare form of the hereditary hemochromatosis, resulting in iron overload predominantly in the liver. TfR2 is primarily expressed in hepatocytes and is hypothesized to sense iron levels in the blood to positively regulate the expression of hepcidin through activation of the BMP signaling pathway. Hepcidin is a peptide hormone that negatively regulates iron egress from cells and thus limits intestinal iron uptake. In this study, a yeast two-hybrid approach using the cytoplasmic domain of TfR2 identified CD81 as an interacting protein. CD81 is an abundant tetraspanin in the liver. Co-precipitations of CD81 with different TfR2 constructs demonstrated that both the cytoplasmic and ecto-transmembrane domains of TfR2 interact with CD81. Knockdown of CD81 using siRNA significantly increased TfR2 levels by increasing the half-life of TfR2, indicating that CD81 promotes degradation of TfR2. Previous studies showed that CD81 is targeted for degradation by GRAIL, an ubiquitin E3 ligase. Knockdown of GRAIL in Hep3B-TfR2 cells increased TfR2 levels, consistent with inhibition of CD81 ubiquitination. These results suggest that down-regulation of CD81 by GRAIL targets TfR2 for degradation. Surprisingly, knockdown of CD81 decreased hepcidin expression, implying that the TfR2/CD81 complex is involved in the maintenance of hepcidin mRNA. Moreover, knockdown of CD81 did not affect the stimulation of hepcidin expression by BMP6 but increased both the expression of ID1 and SMAD7, direct targets of BMP signaling pathway, and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, indicating that the CD81 regulates hepcidin expression differently from the BMP and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. In situ proximity ligation assays indicate that hemochromatosis proteins Hfe and transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2) do not interact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishi, Gautam; Crampton, Emily M; Wallace, Daniel F; Subramaniam, V Nathan

    2013-01-01

    The hemochromatosis associated proteins HFE and Transferrin Receptor 2 (TFR2) have been shown to be important for the proper regulation of hepcidin. A number of in vitro studies using transient overexpression systems have suggested that an interaction between HFE and TFR2 is required for the regulation of hepcidin. This model of iron sensing which centers upon the requirement for an interaction between HFE and TFR2 has recently been questioned with in vivo studies in mice from our laboratory and others which suggest that Hfe and Tfr2 can regulate hepcidin independently of each other. To re-examine the postulated interaction between Hfe and Tfr2 we developed a novel expression system in which both proteins are stably co-expressed and used the proximity ligation assay to examine the interactions between Hfe, Tfr1 and Tfr2 at a cellular level. We were able to detect the previously described interaction between Hfe and Tfr1, and heterodimers between Tfr1 and Tfr2; however no interaction between Hfe and Tfr2 was observed in our system. The results from this study indicate that Hfe and Tfr2 do not interact with each other when they are stably expressed at similar levels. Furthermore, these results support in vivo studies which suggest that Hfe and Tfr2 can independently regulate hepcidin.

  15. In situ proximity ligation assays indicate that hemochromatosis proteins Hfe and transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2 do not interact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Rishi

    Full Text Available The hemochromatosis associated proteins HFE and Transferrin Receptor 2 (TFR2 have been shown to be important for the proper regulation of hepcidin. A number of in vitro studies using transient overexpression systems have suggested that an interaction between HFE and TFR2 is required for the regulation of hepcidin. This model of iron sensing which centers upon the requirement for an interaction between HFE and TFR2 has recently been questioned with in vivo studies in mice from our laboratory and others which suggest that Hfe and Tfr2 can regulate hepcidin independently of each other. To re-examine the postulated interaction between Hfe and Tfr2 we developed a novel expression system in which both proteins are stably co-expressed and used the proximity ligation assay to examine the interactions between Hfe, Tfr1 and Tfr2 at a cellular level. We were able to detect the previously described interaction between Hfe and Tfr1, and heterodimers between Tfr1 and Tfr2; however no interaction between Hfe and Tfr2 was observed in our system. The results from this study indicate that Hfe and Tfr2 do not interact with each other when they are stably expressed at similar levels. Furthermore, these results support in vivo studies which suggest that Hfe and Tfr2 can independently regulate hepcidin.

  16. TFR2-related haemochromatosis in the Netherlands: a cause of arthralgia in young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, T.M.; Meulders, A.F.; Redert, K.; Cuijpers, M.L.; Rennings, A.J.; Janssen, M.C.H.; Blijlevens, N.M.A.; Swinkels, D.W.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 3 hereditary haemochromatosis (HH) is a rare iron overload disorder caused by variants in the transferrin 2 receptor (TFR2) gene. We aim to present characteristics of patients diagnosed with TFR2-HH in the Netherlands, in order to increase knowledge and awareness of this disease.

  17. Severe microcytic anemia but increased erythropoiesis in mice lacking Hfe or Tfr2 and Tmprss6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pauline; Hsu, Mei-Hui; Welser-Alves, Jennifer; Peng, Hongfan

    2012-03-15

    Cell surface proteins Hfe, Tfr2, hemojuvelin and Tmprss6 play key roles in iron homeostasis. Hfe and Tfr2 induce transcription of hepcidin, a small peptide that promotes the degradation of the iron transporter ferroportin. Hemojuvelin, a co-receptor for bone morphogenic proteins, induces hepcidin transcription through a Smad signaling pathway. Tmprss6 (also known as matriptase-2), a membrane serine protease that has been found to bind and degrade hemojuvelin in vitro, is a potent suppressor of hepcidin expression. In order to examine if Hfe and Tfr2 are substrates for Tmprss6, we generated mice lacking functional Hfe or Tfr2 and Tmprss6. We found that double mutant mice lacking functional Hfe or Tfr2 and Tmprss6 exhibited a severe iron deficiency microcytic anemia phenotype mimicking the phenotype of single mutant mice lacking functional Tmprss6 (Tmprss6msk/msk mutant) demonstrating that Hfe and Tfr2 are not substrates for Tmprss6. Nevertheless, the phenotype of the mice lacking Hfe or Tfr2 and Tmprss6 differed from Tmprss6 deficient mice alone, in that the double mutant mice exhibited much greater erythropoiesis. Hfe and Tfr2 have been shown to play important roles in the erythron, independent of their role in regulating liver hepcidin transcription. We demonstrate that lack of functional Tfr2 and Hfe allows for increased erythropoiesis even in the presence of high hepcidin expression, but the high levels of hepcidin levels significantly limit the availability of iron to the erythron, resulting in ineffective erythropoiesis. Furthermore, repression of hepcidin expression by hypoxia was unaffected by the loss of functional Hfe, Tfr2 and Tmprss6. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. TFR for males in Denmark: Calculation and tempo-correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Nordfalk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of trends and tempo corrections of fertility have focused on female rather than male fertility; one reason being that the necessary detailed data are more widely available for mothers than for fathers. Objective: The objective is to present a demographic overview of the fertility trends of Danish men and women from 1980 to 2010. We review the differences in male and female fertility and perform separate tempo corrections for fathers and mothers. Methods: The material for this study consisted of basic data on male and female fertility. The data included all children born in the period, specified by birth year of the child and age and parity of the mother and father, respectively. We used standard demographic measurements of fertility, primarily the total fertility rate (TFR and the tempo-corrections as proposed by Bongaarts and Feeney (1998. Results: The female fertility rates were generally higher than those for males, but the TFRs of both Danish men and women generally increased over the period. The unadjusted and the adjusted fertility rates had similar patterns for men and women. A negative tempo-effect was more evident for women than for men, and a vanishing effect for men at the end of the period was not similarly observed for women. Conclusions: We have exemplified tempo corrections for male as well as female fertility, and have discussed specific problems in this context. Our study indicates that the postponement of childbearing is about to end for Danish men.

  19. Transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) and HFE mutational analysis in non‐C282Y iron overload: identification of a novel TfR2 mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Mattman, A.; Huntsman, D; Lockitch, G; Langlois, S.; Buskard, N; RALSTON, D.; BUTTERFIELD, Y.; Rodrigues, P; Jones, S.; Porto, G; Marra, M.; Sousa, M; VATCHER, G.

    2002-01-01

    Blood. 2002 Aug 1;100(3):1075-7. Transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) and HFE mutational analysis in non-C282Y iron overload: identification of a novel TfR2 mutation. Mattman A, Huntsman D, Lockitch G, Langlois S, Buskard N, Ralston D, Butterfield Y, Rodrigues P, Jones S, Porto G, Marra M, De Sousa M, Vatcher G. SourceGenes, Elements, and Metabolism Program, Children and Women's Hospital of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Abstract Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH...

  20. Transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) and HFE mutational analysis in non-C282Y iron overload: identification of a novel TfR2 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattman, Andre; Huntsman, David; Lockitch, Gillian; Langlois, Sylvie; Buskard, Noel; Ralston, Diana; Butterfield, Yaron; Rodrigues, Pedro; Jones, Steven; Porto, Graça; Marra, Marco; De Sousa, Maria; Vatcher, Greg

    2002-08-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is classically associated with a Cys282Tyr (C282Y) mutation of the HFE gene. Non-C282Y HH is a heterogeneous group accounting for 15% of HH in Northern Europe. Pathogenic mutations of the transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) gene have been identified in 4 Italian pedigrees with the latter syndrome. The goal of this study was to perform a mutational analysis of the TfR2 and HFE genes in a cohort of non-C282Y iron overload patients of mixed ethnic backgrounds. Several sequence variants were identified within the TfR2 gene, including a homozygous missense change in exon 17, c2069 A-->C, which changes a glutamine to a proline residue at position 690. This putative mutation was found in a severely affected Portuguese man and 2 family members with the same genotype. In summary, pathologic TfR2 mutations are present outside of Italy, accounting for a small proportion of non-C282Y HH.

  1. A comparative study of myocardial molecular phenotypes of two tfr2β null mice: role in ischemia/reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boero, Martina; Pagliaro, Pasquale; Tullio, Francesca; Pellegrino, Rosa M; Palmieri, Antonietta; Ferbo, Ludovica; Saglio, Giuseppe; De Gobbi, Marco; Penna, Claudia; Roetto, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2) is an iron-modulator transcribed in two isoforms, Tfr2α and Tfr2β. The latter is expressed in the heart. We obtained two mouse models with silencing of Tfr2β: one with a normal systemic iron amount (SIA), i.e., Tfr2-KI, and the other, i.e., LCKO-KI, with high SIA due to hepatic Tfr2α silencing. We aimed to assess whether Tfr2β might play a role in myocardial injury and whether Tfr2β silencing might modify proteins of iron metabolism, antioxidant, apoptotic, and survival enzyme activities in the heart undergoing ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Isolated hearts of wild-type (WT) and Tfr2-null mice were studied before or after an I/R protocol, and proteins/RNA analyzed by Western blot and/or quantitative PCR. Tfr2β increased in WT hearts subject to I/R, and both Tfr2β null mice hearts were protected against I/R injury (about 40% smaller infarct-size compared to WT hearts). RISK kinases (ERK1/2-AKT-PKCε) were found up-regulated after I/R in Tfr2-KI, whereas SAFE enzyme (Stat3) and GSK3β resulted phosphorylated during I/R in LCKO-KI hearts. While HO-1 and HIF-2a were high in both Tfr2β-null mice, Catalase, and proapoptotic factors were upregulated only in LCKO-KI. Finally, Tfr2-KI hearts presented an increased Ferritin-H and a decreased Ferroportin1, whereas LCKO-KI hearts displayed an upregulation of Ferritin-L chain and DMT1/Hamp-RNA. In conclusion, Tfr2β isoform is involved in cardiac iron metabolism and its silencing leads to a protected phenotype (antioxidants, RISK, and/or SAFE upregulation) against I/R challenging. Iron-dependent signals involved in cardioprotection seem to be positively affected by Tfr2β downregulation and subsequent Ferritins upregulation. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  2. Expression of hepcidin is down-regulated in TfR2 mutant mice manifesting a phenotype of hereditary hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Hiroshi; Fleming, Robert E; Gui, Dorina; Moon, Seo Y; Saitoh, Takayuki; O'Kelly, James; Umehara, Yutaka; Wano, Yuji; Said, Jonathan W; Koeffler, H Phillip

    2005-01-01

    Transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) is a membrane glycoprotein that mediates cellular iron uptake from holotransferrin. Homozygous mutations of this gene cause one form of hereditary hemochromatosis in humans. We recently reported that homozygous TfR2(Y245X) mutant mice, which correspond to the TfR2(Y250X) mutation in humans, showed a phenotype similar to hereditary hemochromatosis. In this study, we further analyzed the phenotype as well as iron-related gene expression in these mice by comparing the TfR2-mutant and wild-type siblings. Northern blot analyses showed that the levels of expression of hepcidin mRNA in the liver were generally lower, whereas those of duodenal DMT1, the main transporter for uptake of dietary iron, were higher in the TfR2-mutant mice as compared to the wild-type siblings. Expression of hepcidin mRNA in the TfR2 mutant mice remained low even after intraperitoneal iron loading. In isolated hepatocytes from both wild-type and TfR2 mutant mice, interleukin-6 and lipopolysaccharide each induced expression of hepcidin mRNA. These results suggest that up-regulation of hepcidin expression by inflammatory stimuli is independent of TfR2 and that TfR2 is upstream of hepcidin in the regulatory pathway of body iron homeostasis.

  3. Tokamak engineering mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yuntao; Du, Shijun

    2013-01-01

    Tokamak Engineering Mechanics offers concise and thorough coverage of engineering mechanics theory and application for tokamaks, and the material is reinforced by numerous examples. Chapter topics include general principles, static mechanics, dynamic mechanics, thermal fluid mechanics and multiphysics structural mechanics of tokamak structure analysis. The theoretical principle of the design and the methods of the analysis for various components and load conditions are presented, while the latest engineering technologies are also introduced. The book will provide readers involved in the study

  4. The hemochromatosis proteins HFE, TfR2, and HJV form a membrane-associated protein complex for hepcidin regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessio, Flavia; Hentze, Matthias W; Muckenthaler, Martina U

    2012-11-01

    The hereditary hemochromatosis-associated membrane proteins HFE, TfR2, and HJV are required for adequate hepatic expression of the iron hormone hepcidin. While the genetic interactions are clear, it remains elusive how bone morphogenetic protein co-receptor HJV functions together with HFE and TfR2 to activate hepcidin transcription via the BMP-SMAD signaling pathway. Here, we investigate whether HFE, TfR2, and HJV physically interact on the surface of hepatocytes. We explore protein-protein interactions by glycerol gradient sedimentation assays and co-immunoprecipitation analyses in transfected HuH7 hepatoma-derived cells. Our data demonstrate that HFE and TfR2 bind HJV in a non-competitive manner. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses provide direct experimental evidence that HFE, TfR2, and HJV form a multi-protein membrane complex. Our experiments show that like TfR2, HJV competes with TfR1 for binding to HFE, indicating that the expression of TfR2 and HJV may be critical for iron sensing. We identify residues 120-139 of the TfR2 extra-cellular domain as the critical amino acids required for the binding of both HFE and HJV. Interestingly, RGMA, a central nervous system homolog, can substitute for HJV in the complex and promote hepcidin transcription, implicating RGMA in the local control of hepcidin in the CNS. Taken together, our findings provide a biochemical basis for hepcidin control by HFE, TfR2, and HJV. Copyright © 2012 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hepatocyte-targeted HFE and TFR2 control hepcidin expression in mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gao, Junwei; Chen, Juxing; De Domenico, Ivana; Koeller, David M; Harding, Cary O; Fleming, Robert E; Koeberl, Dwight D; Enns, Caroline A

    2010-01-01

    ...), transferrin-receptor 2 (TfR2), hemojuvelin, hepcidin, or ferroportin genes. Hepcidin is a key iron regulator, which is secreted by the liver, and decreases serum iron levels by causing the down-regulation of the iron transporter, ferroportin...

  6. High speed cine film studies of plasma behaviour and plasma surface interactions in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodall, D.H.J. (Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Abingdon (UK). Culham Lab.)

    High speed cine photography is a useful diagnostic aid for studying plasma behaviour and plasma surface interactions. Several workers have filmed discharges in tokamaks including ASDEX, DITE, DIVA, ISX, JFT2, TFR and PLT. These films are discussed and examples given of the observed phenomena which include plasma limiter interactions, diverted discharges, disruptions, magnetic islands and moving glowing objects often known as 'UFOs'. Examples of plasma structures in ASDEX and DITE not previously published are also given. The paper also reports experiments in DITE to determine the origin of UFOs.

  7. Hemochromatosis and severe iron overload associated with compound heterozygosity for TFR2 R455Q and two novel mutations TFR2 R396X and G792R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pauline L; Barton, James C

    2006-01-01

    We report three mutations of transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2)--R396X (exon 9; nt 1186C-->T), R455Q (exon 10; nt 1364G-->A) and G792R (exon 18; nt 2374G-->A)--in a man of Scottish descent with hemochromatosis and severe iron overload. He was also heterozygous for the common HFE H63D polymorphism. The patient did not have coding region mutations in HAMP, FPN1, HJV or ALAS2. We conclude that this patient represents another example of hemochromatosis due to mutations of the gene encoding transferrin receptor 2. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. A Stata module for computing fertility rates and TFRs from birth histories: tfr2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Schoumaker

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Since the 1970s, birth history data have become widely available, thanks to the World Fertility survey and the Demographic and Health Surveys programs. Despite their wide availability, these data remain under-exploited. Computation, even of simple indicators (fertility rates, total fertility rates, mean age at childbearing and their standard errors, is not direct with such data, and other types of analysis (fertility differentials, reconstruction of fertility trends et cetera may also involve reorganization of data sets and statistical modeling that present a barrier to the use of birth history data. OBJECTIVE This paper presents a Stata software module (tfr2 that was prepared to analyze birth history data in a user-friendly and flexible way. It is designed to be used primarily with DHS data, but can also be used easily with birth histories from other sources. Three types of analysis are performed by tfr2: (1 the computation of age-specific fertility rates and TFRs, as well as their standard errors, (2 the reconstruction of fertility trends, and (3 the estimation of fertility differentials (rate ratios. METHODS The tfr2 module is composed of two parts: (1 a Stata command to transform birth history data into a table of births and exposure (tabexp, and (2 a Poisson regression model to compute fertility rates, fertility trends and fertility differentials from a table of births and exposure (produced by tabexp. COMMENTS One can obtain tfr2 free of charge. It will work with Stata 10 and more recent versions of Stata.

  9. TFR2-related haemochromatosis in the Netherlands: a cause of arthralgia in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, T M A; Meulders, A F M; Redert, K; Cuijpers, M L H; Rennings, A J M; Janssen, M C H; Blijlevens, N M A; Swinkels, D W

    2017-03-01

    Type 3 hereditary haemochromatosis (HH) is a rare iron overload disorder caused by variants in the transferrin 2 receptor (TFR2) gene. We aim to present characteristics of patients diagnosed with TFR2-HH in the Netherlands, in order to increase knowledge and awareness of this disease. We collected clinical, biochemical and genetic data from four patients from three families diagnosed with HH type 3 in the Netherlands between 2009 and 2016. Three women and one man diagnosed with HH type 3 presented with arthralgia and elevated ferritin levels and transferrin saturation (TSAT) at ages 25-41 years. The hepcidin/ferritin ratio as measured in three patients was low. Liver iron content in two patients as assessed by MRI or liver biopsy was highly increased (250 and 362.7 μmol iron/g dry weight, respectively, reference TFR2 pathogenic variants: one nonsense, one splicing and two missense variants, of which three are novel. Phlebotomy decreased the serum iron parameters but did not relieve the arthralgia. In patients with a combination of elevated TSAT and ferritin in the absence of anaemia, and after exclusion of HFE-related HH, rare forms of HH should be considered. In these cases, presentation with arthralgia in young adulthood, low hepcidin/ferritin ratio and/or liver iron content > 100 μmol/g form an indication for analysis of the TFR2 gene. Although type 3 HH is extremely rare, awareness of the disease among physicians is important in order to achieve an early diagnosis and prevent complications, such as liver damage.

  10. Changes in TFR2 in gene expression in gastric adenocarcinoma and its relationship with simultaneous helicobacter pylori infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nazanin Talebabadi; Amirnader Emami-Razavi; Raheleh Safaei-Javan; Hadis Mohammadpour; Alireza Abdollahi

    2017-01-01

    Background: As far as the role and amount of Transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2), which is the transferrin receptor gene, studies have been conducted, some of which confirming its relationship with gastric adenocarcinoma...

  11. TFR2-related hereditary hemochromatosis as a frequent cause of primary iron overload in patients from Central-Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radio, Francesca Clementina; Majore, Silvia; Binni, Francesco; Valiante, Michele; Ricerca, Bianca Maria; De Bernardo, Carmelilia; Morrone, Aldo; Grammatico, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a common Mendelian disorder of iron metabolism. Eighty percent of northern Europeans descendant HH patients carry the same mutation (p.C282Y) in the HFE gene. Simultaneously, due to a founder effect, its frequency varies considerably between different populations. In Central-Southern Italy the prevalence of p.C282Y mutation is low and in several patients the disease has different causes. Four additional rarer forms have been described. Type 3 HH has been reported in about 50 families and no more than 30 TFR2 pathogenic mutations have been globally identified. The aim of this study is to assess the TFR2 role in non-HFE HH pathogenesis. TFR2 sequence analysis was performed on 45 Italian patients without HFE mutations. This study revealed TFR2 biallelic pathogenic mutations in 7/45 (15.6%) individuals. Moreover monoallelic TFR2 deleterious defects (18%) or polymorphisms with unclear meaning (36%) were identified. Besides, we recognized 10 novel variants and 9 described changes. We believe this to be the largest series of type 3 HH patients described so far. Present findings support the hypothesis of a main role of the TFR2 gene in HH pathogenesis in those regions, such as Central-Southern Italy, where the p.C282Y frequency is low. © 2013.

  12. Parenteral vs. oral iron: influence on hepcidin signaling pathways through analysis of Hfe/Tfr2-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Cameron J; Wallace, Daniel F; Ostini, Lesa; Subramaniam, V Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Treatment for iron deficiency anemia can involve iron supplementation via dietary or parenteral routes that result in different cellular iron distributions. The effect of the administered iron on the iron regulatory system and hepcidin in the liver has not been well studied. Hepcidin, the liver-expressed central iron-regulatory peptide, is itself regulated through the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/SMAD signaling pathway. Specifically, Bmp6 expression is upregulated in response to iron and induces hepcidin through phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8. The hemochromatosis-associated proteins Hfe and transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2) are known upstream regulators of hepcidin, although their precise roles are still unclear. To investigate the mechanisms of this regulation and the roles of the Hfe and Tfr2, we subjected wild-type, Hfe(-/-), Tfr2(-/-), and Hfe(-/-)/Tfr2(-/-) mice to iron loading via dietary or parenteral routes. Systematic analysis demonstrated that Tfr2 is required for effective upregulation of Bmp6 in response to hepatocyte iron, but not nonparenchymal iron. Hfe is not required for Bmp6 upregulation, regardless of iron localization, but rather, is required for efficient downstream transmission of the regulatory signal. Our results demonstrate that Hfe and Tfr2 play separate roles in the regulatory responses to iron compartmentalized in different cell types and further elucidates the regulatory mechanisms controlling iron homeostasis.

  13. Mutations in the HFE, TFR2, and SLC40A1 genes in patients with hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Castillo-Rueda, Alejandro; Moreno-Carralero, María-Isabel; Cuadrado-Grande, Nuria; Alvarez-Sala-Walther, Luis-Antonio; Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Rafael; Méndez, Manuel; Morán-Jiménez, María-Josefa

    2012-10-15

    Hereditary hemochromatosis causes iron overload and is associated with a variety of genetic and phenotypic conditions. Early diagnosis is important so that effective treatment can be administered and the risk of tissue damage avoided. Most patients are homozygous for the c.845G>A (p.C282Y) mutation in the HFE gene; however, rare forms of genetic iron overload must be diagnosed using a specific genetic analysis. We studied the genotype of 5 patients who had hyperferritinemia and an iron overload phenotype, but not classic mutations in the HFE gene. Two patients were undergoing phlebotomy and had no iron overload, 1 with metabolic syndrome and no phlebotomy had mild iron overload, and 2 patients had severe iron overload despite phlebotomy. The patients' first-degree relatives also underwent the analysis. We found 5 not previously published mutations: c.-408_-406delCAA in HFE, c.1118G>A (p.G373D), c.1473G>A (p.E491E) and c.2085G>C (p.S695S) in TFR2; and c.-428_-427GG>TT in SLC40A1. Moreover, we found 3 previously published mutations: c.221C>T (p.R71X) in HFE; c.1127C>A (p.A376D) in TFR2; and c.539T>C (p.I180T) in SLC40A1. Four patients were double heterozygous or compound heterozygous for the mutations mentioned above, and the patient with metabolic syndrome was heterozygous for a mutation in the TFR2 gene. Our findings show that hereditary hemochromatosis is clinically and genetically heterogeneous and that acquired factors may modify or determine the phenotype. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Advanced commercial tokamak study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, S.L.; Dabiri, A.E.; Keeton, D.C.; Brown, T.G.; Bussell, G.T.

    1985-12-01

    Advanced commercial tokamak studies were performed by the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) as a participant in the Tokamak Power Systems Studies (TPSS) project coordinated by the Office of Fusion Energy. The FEDC studies addressed the issues of tokamak reactor cost, size, and complexity. A scoping study model was developed to determine the effect of beta on tokamak economics, and it was found that a competitive cost of electricity could be achieved at a beta of 10 to 15%. The implications of operating at a beta of up to 25% were also addressed. It was found that the economics of fusion, like those of fission, improve as unit size increases. However, small units were found to be competitive as elements of a multiplex plant, provided that unit cost and maintenance time reductions are realized for the small units. The modular tokamak configuration combined several new approaches to develop a less complex and lower cost reactor. The modular design combines the toroidal field coil with the reactor structure, locates the primary vacuum boundary at the reactor cell wall, and uses a vertical assembly and maintenance approach. 12 refs., 19 figs.

  15. Association between genetic variations in TFR2 gene and coronary heart disease in Chinese: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Lian, Yitian; Zhou, Li; Huang, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaomin; Guo, Huan; Wu, Tangchun; Cheng, Longxian; He, Mei'an

    2014-05-01

    Studies indicated that body iron stores were associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). Type 2 transferrin receptor (TFR2) participates in cellular iron overload and is related to cardiovascular disease. No studies investigated the associations between variants in TFR2 gene and CHD risk. We sought to investigate this association in a Chinese Han population and performed a case-control study recruiting 1264 CHD patients and 1264 age and sex frequency matched controls. TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) allelic discrimination was used to examine genotypes of the tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) of TFR2. The plasma ferritin levels were measured by ELISA. We did not find significant associations between variants of TFR2 gene (including tagSNPs rs2075674 and rs7385804) and the risk of CHD. After adjustment for the conventional risk factors of CHD, such as smoking and age, the results did not materially alter. Interaction analyses indicated that there were no significant interactions between conventional risk factors of CHD and these two tagSNPs on CHD risk. Among different genotypes of these two tagSNPs, no significant differences in plasma ferritin levels were found. In summary, the variants of rs2075674 and rs7385804 in TFR2 gene were not associated with CHD risk in a Chinese Han population.

  16. Co-localization of the mammalian hemochromatosis gene product (HFE) and a newly identified transferrin receptor (TfR2) in intestinal tissue and cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, William J H; Cox, Timothy M

    2003-05-01

    Mutations in the HFE gene and a newly identified second transferrin receptor gene, TfR2, cause hemochromatosis. The cognate proteins, HFE and TfR2, are therefore of key importance in human iron homeostasis. HFE is expressed in small intestinal crypt cells where transferrin-iron entry may determine subsequent iron absorption by mature enterocytes, but the physiological function of TfR2 is unknown. Using specific peptide antisera, we examined the duodenal localization of HFE and TfR2 in humans and mice, with and without HFE deficiency, by confocal microscopy. We also investigated potential interactions of these proteins in human intestinal cells in situ. Duodenal expression of HFE and TfR2 (but not TfR1) in wild-type mice and humans was restricted to crypt cells, in which they co-localized. HFE deficiency disrupted this interaction, altering the cellular distribution of TfR2 in human crypts. In human Caco-2 cells, HFE and TfR2 co-localized to a distinct CD63-negative vesicular compartment showing marked signal enhancement on exposure to iron-saturated transferrin ligand, indicating that HFE preferentially interacts with TfR2 in a specialized early endosomal transport pathway for transferrin-iron. This interaction occurs specifically in small intestinal crypt cells that differentiate to become iron-absorbing enterocytes. Our immunohistochemical findings provide evidence for a novel mechanism for the regulation of iron balance in mammals.

  17. Texas Experimental Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, A.J.

    1993-04-01

    This progress report covers the period from November 1, 1990 to April 30, 1993. During that period, TEXT was operated as a circular tokamak with a material limiter. It was devoted to the study of basic plasma physics, in particular to study of fluctuations, turbulence, and transport. The purpose is to operate and maintain TEXT Upgrade as a complete facility for applied tokamak physics, specifically to conduct a research program under the following main headings: (1) to elucidate the mechanisms of working gas, impurity, and thermal transport in tokamaks, in particular to understand the role of turbulence; (2) to study physics of the edge plasma, in particular the turbulence; (3) to study the physics or resonant magnetic fields (ergodic magnetic divertors, intra island pumping); and (4) to study the physics of electron cyclotron heating (ECRH). Results of studies in each of these areas are reported.

  18. Changes in TFR2 in gene expression in gastric adenocarcinoma and its relationship with simultaneous helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Talebabadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: As far as the role and amount of Transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2, which is the transferrin receptor gene, studies have been conducted, some of which confirming its relationship with gastric adenocarcinoma. The idea behind this study was to examine changes in the TFR2 gene expression in the tumor cells of gastric adenocarcinoma and comparing with gene expression in the normal tissue adjoining the tumor. Methods: This case-control study was conducted at the Pathology Section of Cancer Institute of Imam Khomeini University Hospital in Tehran from September 2015 to September 2016. In this study, 30 fresh samples from tumor tissues of patients diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma, 30 fresh samples of normal tissue adjoining the tumor and 30 samples of frozen plasma from the same patients were taken. The patients' plasma was examined in terms of existence of helicobacter pylori antibody by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA method and TFR2 gene expression in the tumor tissue and the adjoining normal tissue by applying real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-Time PCR. Results: Gene expression (by applying real time polymerase chain reaction in the tumor tissue was meaningfully higher than in the normal tissue (P= 0.125. The TFR2 expression in patients with stomach cancer, who were at the same time infected with helicobacter pylori, indicated that the gene expression had increased in those with this contamination (P= 0.077. Examining the relationship between this gene expression and the stage of disease showed that the TFR2 gene expression increased significantly in the more advanced stages of the disease (P= 0.396. Conclusion: The TFR2 gene expression increases in the stomach's tumor tissue. This gene expression is higher in people infected with helicobacter pylori or in those at an advanced stage of the disease. These findings may confirm the direct relationship between gene expression and the occurrence or metastasis of gastric

  19. Mutations in HFE and TFR2 genes in a Spanish patient with hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Alejandro del Castillo; Grande, Nuria Cuadrado; Fernández, Emilio Alvarez; Enríquez de Salamanca, Rafael; Sala, Luis Antonio Alvarez; Jiménez, María Josefa Morán

    2011-07-01

    Iron overload disease has a wide variety of genotypes. The genetic study of this disease confirms its hereditary nature and enables us to provide genetic counseling for first-degree relatives. We performed magnetic resonance imaging and liver biopsy in an asymptomatic patient with more than 1,000 µg/L of serum ferritin and studied the genes involved in this condition. The phenotype of iron overload is confirmed by a predominantly periportal pattern of iron deposits in the liver suggestive of genetic disease. In the case we present the molecular study revealed a double heterozygosity for the mutations c.187C>G (p.H63D) and c.840C>G (p.F280L) in the HFE and transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) genes, respectively.

  20. Rapid, Low-Cost, and Ecofriendly Approach for Iron Nanoparticle Synthesis Using Aspergillus oryzae TFR9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadish Chandra Tarafdar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of reliable and ecofriendly green approach for synthesis of metallic nanoparticles biologically is an important step in the field of application of nanoscience and nanotechnology. The present paper reports the green approach for iron nanoparticle synthesis using Aspergillus oryzae TFR9 using FeCl3 as a precursor metal salt. Valid characterization techniques employed for biosynthesized iron nanoparticles including dynamic light scattering (DLS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM for morphological study. X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS spectrum confirmed the presence of elemental iron signal in high percentage. Apart from ecofriendliness and easy availability, low-cost biomass production will be more advantageous when compared to other chemical methods. Biosynthesis of iron nanoparticles using fungus has greater commercial viability that it may be used in agriculture, biomedicals and engineering sector.

  1. Analysis of HFE and TFR2 mutations in selected blood donors with biochemical parameters of iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gobbi, Marco; Daraio, Filomena; Oberkanins, Christian; Moritz, Anne; Kury, Fritz; Fiorelli, Gemino; Camaschella, Clara

    2003-04-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis is a recessive condition characterized by iron accumulation in several organs, followed by organ damage and failure. The disorder is prevalently due to C282Y and H63D mutations in the HFE gene, but additional HFE and TFR2 mutations have been reported. Early iron overload may be assessed by biochemical parameters such as increased transferrin saturation and serum ferritin. Taking advantage of the collection of 178 DNA samples selected for increased transferrin saturation (>50% in males and >45% in females) from a previous large scale screening of Italian blood donors, we simultaneously assessed the presence of 14 hemochromatosis-associated molecular defects (11 of HFE and 3 of TFR2) by a reverse hybridization-based strip assay. In the series studied the overall C282Y allele frequency was 9% and that of the H63D and S65C was 22.2% and 1.4%, respectively. One rare HFE allele (E168Q), but no TFR2 mutation was detected. When checked at a second examination, transferrin saturation was significantly higher in C282Y homozygotes, H63D/ C282Y compound heterozygotes and H63D homozygotes as compared to wild-type subjects (pTFR2 mutations was identified in this series confirming the preliminary indication of their rare occurrence. Subjects with hemochromatosis-associated genotypes show a persistently higher mean transferrin saturation than do those with wild type genotypes.

  2. TfR2 localizes in lipid raft domains and is released in exosomes to activate signal transduction along the MAPK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolari, Alessia; Raggi, Carla; Deaglio, Silvia; Sposi, Nadia Maria; Stafsnes, Marit; Fecchi, Katia; Parolini, Isabella; Malavasi, Fabio; Peschle, Cesare; Sargiacomo, Massimo; Testa, Ugo

    2006-11-01

    Transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) possesses a YQRV motif similar to the YTRF motif of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) responsible for the internalization and secretion through the endosomal pathway. Raft biochemical dissection showed that TfR2 is a component of the low-density Triton-insoluble (LDTI) plasma membrane domain, able to co-immunoprecipitate with caveolin-1 and CD81, two structural raft proteins. In addition, subcellular fractionation experiments showed that TfR1, which spontaneously undergoes endocytosis and recycling, largely distributed to intracellular organelles, whereas TfR2 was mainly associated with the plasma membrane. Given the TfR2 localization in lipid rafts, we tested its capability to activate cell signalling. Interaction with an anti-TfR2 antibody or with human or bovine holotransferrin showed that it activated ERK1/ERK2 and p38 MAP kinases. Integrity of lipid rafts was required for MAPK activation. Co-localization of TfR2 with CD81, a raft tetraspanin exported through exosomes, prompted us to investigate exosomes released by HepG2 and K562 cells into culture medium. TfR2, CD81 and to a lesser extent caveolin-1, were found to be part of the exosomal budding vesicles. In conclusion, the present study indicates that TfR2 localizes in LDTI microdomains, where it promotes cell signalling, and is exported out of the cells through the exosome pathway, where it acts as an intercellular messenger.

  3. Analysis of HFE and TFR2 gene mutations in patients with acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneri, Dino; Franchini, Massimo; Krampera, Mauro; de Matteis, Giovanna; Solero, Pietro; Pizzolo, Giovanni

    2005-06-01

    There are increasing evidences regarding the association between iron overload and extra-hepatic malignancies. We studied the prevalence of 12 hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) gene mutations (C282Y, V53M, V59M, H63D, H63H, S56C, Q127H, E168Q, E168X, W169X and Q283P in the HFE gene and Y250X in the TFR2 gene) and its correlation with the iron status in 82 adult patients with acute leukemia (AL); 48 patients (58.5%) were affected by acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 34 patients (41.5%) by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL); 27 patients (32.9%) had at least one HH gene mutation (6 heterozygous for C282Y, 6 homozygous for H63D, 13 heterozygous for H63D and 2 heterozygous for S56C). Mean serum ferritin levels at diagnosis were increased (822.5+/-811.4 microg/L). However, there was no difference between patients positive or negative for the HH gene mutations. Similarly, we did not observe any statistically significant difference as far as iron status between AML and ALL patients. Our study does not support the evidence of an association between hemochromatosis gene mutations and iron overload in AL patients.

  4. AVAQ 594-597 deletion of the TfR2 gene in a Japanese family with hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Ai; Wakusawa, Shinnya; Hayashi, Hisao; Harashima, Ai; Sanae, Fujiko; Kawanaka, Miwa; Yamada, Gohtaro; Yano, Motoyashi; Yoshioka, Kenntaro

    2003-06-01

    The majority of Caucasian patients with hemochromatosis are homozygous for C282Y mutation of the HFE gene. In contrast to its high prevalence in Caucasians, hemochromatosis is a rare disorder in Japan. This may be due to the low prevalence of the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene in Japanese. Recent reports suggest that the mutations of transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) gene may be involved in non-HFE hemochromatosis. Therefore, we investigated the TfR2 gene of 6 sporadic and 5 familiar cases of Japanese hemochromatosis. Three siblings in one family were found to be homozygous for an AVAQ 594-597 deletion. All three had severe iron deposits in the hepatocytes and bile ducts, but none was affected by diabetes mellitus. This mutation was not detected in 100 control individuals. Further study was undertaken to investigate whether the large deletion of the TfR2 gene is the mutation responsible for some of the Japanese hemochromatosis cases.

  5. ATRA alters humoral responses associated with amelioration of EAMG symptoms by balancing Tfh/Tfr helper cell profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoli; Mu, Lili; Yao, Xiuhua; Li, Na; Sun, Bo; Li, Ying; Zhan, Xiaoxia; Wang, Xinyue; Kang, Xiaoying; Wang, Jinghua; Liu, Yumei; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Guangyou; Wang, Dandan; Liu, Xijun; Kong, Qingfei; Li, Hulun

    2013-08-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a vitamin A metabolite with diverse immunomodulatory actions used therapeutically in the treatment of some autoimmune diseases. However, the effects that ATRA may have on diminishing myasthenia gravis (MG) symptoms remain undefined. This study investigated the effect of ATRA on experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) in vivo and in vitro. Data presented in this study demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection of ATRA ameliorated EAMG pathology in rats associated with reduced total anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) serum IgG levels. We observed that EAMG development was accompanied by an increase in follicular helper T cells (Tfh, defined as CD4(+)CXCR5(+)ICOS(high)) and a decrease of follicular regulatory T cells (Tfr, defined as CD4(+)Foxp3(+)CXCR5(+)ICOS(median)) and that the Tfh:Tfr ratio was altered following ATRA administration. In addition, ATRA treatment restored the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg balance. In vitro, ATRA inhibited AChR-specific cell proliferation and eliciting apoptosis in these cells without affecting the cell cycle. ATRA also altered the Th distribution in animals presenting with EAMG resulting in a reduction in Th1/Th17/Tfh cells and increasing the number of Th2/Treg/Tfr cell types. These results suggested that ATRA reduced EAMG severity by regulating Th cell profiles thereby providing new insights into the development of novel MG (or related) therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Alcator C-Mod Tokamak

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Alcator C-Mod at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is operated as a DOE national user facility. Alcator C-Mod is a unique, compact tokamak facility that uses...

  7. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, G.O.; Del Bosco, E.; Ferreira, J.G.; Berni, L.A.; Oliveira, R.M.; Andrade, M.C.R.; Shibata, C.S.; Ueda, M.; Barroso, J.J.; Castro, P.J. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma; Barbosa, L.F.W. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Patire Junior, H. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Mecanica Espacial e Controle; The high-power microwave sources group

    2003-12-01

    This paper describes the general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief overview of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esferico) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 at the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  8. The ETE spherical Tokamak project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto; Andrade, Maria Celia Ramos de; Barbosa, Luis Filipe Wiltgen [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma] [and others]. E-mail: ludwig@plasma.inpe.br

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, with a brief overview of work in the area of spherical torus already performed or in progress at several institutions. The paper presents also the historical development of the ETE (Spherical Tokamak Experiment) project, its research program, technical characteristics and status of construction in September, 1998 at the Associated plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Institute for Space Research (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  9. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto; Bosco, Edson Del; Ferreira, Julio Guimaraes [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma] (and others)

    2003-07-01

    The general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief view of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide are described. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experiment Tokamak spheric) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 a the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  10. The ARIES tokamak reactor study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-10-01

    The ARIES study is a community effort to develop several visions of tokamaks as fusion power reactors. The aims are to determine the potential economics, safety, and environmental features of a range of possible tokamak reactors, and to identify physics and technology areas with the highest leverage for achieving the best tokamak reactor. Three ARIES visions are planned, each having a different degree of extrapolation from the present data base in physics and technology. The ARIES-I design assumes a minimum extrapolation from current tokamak physics (e.g., 1st stability) and incorporates technological advances that can be available in the next 20 to 30 years. ARIES-II is a DT-burning tokamak which would operate at a higher beta in the 2nd MHD stability regime. It employs both potential advances in the physics and expected advances in technology and engineering. ARIES-II will examine the potential of the tokamak and the D{sup 3}He fuel cycle. This report is a collection of 14 papers on the results of the ARIES study which were presented at the IEEE 13th Symposium on Fusion Engineering (October 2-6, 1989, Knoxville, TN). This collection describes the ARIES research effort, with emphasis on the ARIES-I design, summarizing the major results, the key technical issues, and the central conclusions.

  11. Bibliography of fusion product physics in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hively, L. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sigmar, D. J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Almost 700 citations have been compiled as the first step in reviewing the recent research on tokamak fusion product effects in tokamaks. The publications are listed alphabetically by the last name of the first author and by subject category.

  12. [TfR2 mRNA expression in bone marrow mononuclear cells of children with hyperplastic anemia and its implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting-Ting; Yuan, Li-Xing; Pan, Ling-Li; Ma, Zhi-Gui; Gu, Ling; Zhu, Yi-Ping; Gao, Ju

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) mRNA in bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNC) of children with hyperplastic anemia (HA), to analyze the correlation of TfR2 mRNA expression level with Hb level, bone marrow erythroid hyperplasia, iron status in body and underlying diseases, and to evaluate the role of TfR2 in erythroid hemopoiesis and the useful value in diagnosis of HA. The experiment was divided into 2 groups: test group, in which 40 patients with HA were enrolled, and control group in which 10 patients without erythroid disorders and hematological malignancies confirmed by bone marrow examination were enrolled. The bone marrow samples of patients in mentioned above 2 groups were collected, the TfR2 mRNA expression in BMMNC of patients with HA was detected by fluorescence-quantitative PCR, the correlation of HA with bone marrow erythroid hyperplasia, iron status of body and underlying diseases was analyzed. The results showed that the relative level of TfR2 mRNA expression in HA patients was significantly higher than that in control patients. The TfR2 mRNA expression level negatively correlated with Hb level in peripheral blood (r = -0.715), while it positively correlated with ratio of bone marrow erythroblasts (r = 0.533). It is concluded that TfR2 mRNA expression in HA patients increases and closely correlates with hyperplasia status of bone marrow and anemia level in peripheral blood.

  13. Moving Divertor Plates in a Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.J. Zweben, H. Zhang

    2009-02-12

    Moving divertor plates could help solve some of the problems of the tokamak divertor through mechanical ingenuity rather than plasma physics. These plates would be passively heated on each pass through the tokamak and cooled and reprocessed outside the tokamak. There are many design options using varying plate shapes, orientations, motions, coatings, and compositions.

  14. Fusion potential for spherical and compact tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandzelius, Mikael

    2003-02-01

    The tokamak is the most successful fusion experiment today. Despite this, the conventional tokamak has a long way to go before being realized into an economically viable power plant. In this master thesis work, two alternative tokamak configurations to the conventional tokamak has been studied, both of which could be realized to a lower cost. The fusion potential of the spherical and the compact tokamak have been examined with a comparison of the conventional tokamak in mind. The difficulties arising in the two configurations have been treated from a physical point of view concerning the fusion plasma and from a technological standpoint evolving around design, materials and engineering. Both advantages and drawbacks of either configuration have been treated relative to the conventional tokamak. The spherical tokamak shows promising plasma characteristics, notably a high {beta}-value but have troubles with high heat loads and marginal tritium breeding. The compact tokamak operates at a high plasma density and a high magnetic field enabling it to be built considerably smaller than any other tokamak. The most notable down-side being high heat loads and neutron transport problems. With the help of theoretical reactor studies, extrapolating from where we stand today, it is conceivable that the spherical tokamak is closer of being realized of the two. But, as this study shows, the compact tokamak power plant concept offers the most appealing prospect.

  15. A time course of hepcidin response to iron challenge in patients with HFE and TFR2 hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girelli, Domenico; Trombini, Paola; Busti, Fabiana; Campostrini, Natascia; Sandri, Marco; Pelucchi, Sara; Westerman, Mark; Ganz, Tomas; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Piperno, Alberto; Camaschella, Clara

    2011-04-01

    Inadequate hepcidin production leads to iron overload in nearly all types of hemochromatosis. We explored the acute response of hepcidin to iron challenge in 25 patients with HFE-hemochromatosis, in two with TFR2-hemochromatosis and in 13 controls. Sixteen patients (10 C282Y/C282Y homozygotes, 6 C282Y/H63D compound heterozygotes) had increased iron stores, while nine (6 C282Y/C282Y homozygotes, 3 C282Y/H63D compound heterozygotes) were studied after phlebotomy-induced normalization of iron stores. We analyzed serum iron, transferrin saturation, and serum hepcidin by both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and mass-spectrometry at baseline, and 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours after a single 65-mg dose of oral iron. Serum iron and transferrin saturation significantly increased at 4 hours and returned to baseline values at 8-12 hours in all groups, except in the iron-normalized patients who showed the highest and longest increase of both parameters. The level of hepcidin increased significantly at 4 hours and returned to baseline at 24 hours in controls and in the C282Y/H63D compound heterozygotes at diagnosis. The hepcidin response was smaller in C282Y-homozygotes than in controls, barely detectable in the patients with iron-depleted HFE-hemochromatosis and absent in those with TFR2-hemochromatosis. Conclusions Our results are consistent with a scenario in which TFR2 plays a prominent and HFE a contributory role in the hepcidin response to a dose of oral iron. In iron-normalized patients with HFE hemochromatosis, both the low baseline hepcidin level and the weak response to iron contribute to hyperabsorption of iron.

  16. Iron overload in hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 induces liver injury through the Sp1/Tfr2/hepcidin axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Wen-Dai; Fan, Yao; Deng, Yue-Zhen; Long, Ling-Yun; Wang, Jing-Jing; Guan, Dong-Xian; Qian, Zhen-Yu; An, Peng; Feng, Yuan-Yuan; He, Zhi-Ying; Wang, Xiao-Fan; Phillip Koeffler, H; Hu, Ronggui; Wang, Jianshe; Wang, Xin; Wang, Fudi; Li, Jing-Jing; Xie, Dong

    2016-07-01

    Iron is an essential metal for fundamental metabolic processes, but little is known regarding the involvement of iron in other nutritional disorders. In the present study, we investigated disordered iron metabolism in a murine model of hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HT1), a disease of the tyrosine degradation pathway. We analysed the status of iron accumulation following NTBC withdrawal from Fah(-/-) mice, a murine model for HT1. Liver histology and serum parameters were used to assess the extent of liver injury and iron deposition. To determine the physiological significance of iron accumulation, mice were subjected to a low-iron food intake to reduce the iron accumulation. Mechanistic studies were performed on tissues and cells using immunoblotting, qRT-PCR, adenovirus transfection and other assays. Severe iron overload was observed in the murine model of HT1 with dramatically elevated hepatic and serum iron levels. Mechanistic studies revealed that downregulation and dysfunction of Tfr2 decreased hepcidin, leading to iron overload. The Fah(-/-) hepatocytes lost the ability of transferrin-sensitive induction of hepcidin. Forced expression of Tfr2 in the murine liver reduced the iron accumulation. Moreover, transcription factor Sp1 was downregulated and identified as a new regulator of Tfr2 here. Additionally, low-iron food intake effectively reduced the iron deposits, protected the liver and prolonged the survival in these mice. Iron was severely overloaded in the HT1 mice via the Sp1/Tfr2/Hepcidin axis. The iron overload induced liver injury in the HT1 mice, and reduction of the iron accumulation ameliorated liver injury. Primary and secondary iron overload is an abnormal status affecting millions of people worldwide. Here, we reported severe iron overload in a murine model of HT1, a disease of the tyrosine degradation pathway, and elucidated the mechanistic basis and the physiological significance of iron overload in HT1. These studies are of general interest

  17. The gene TFR2 is mutated in a new type of haemochromatosis mapping to 7q22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camaschella, C; Roetto, A; Calì, A; De Gobbi, M; Garozzo, G; Carella, M; Majorano, N; Totaro, A; Gasparini, P

    2000-05-01

    Haemochromatosis is a common recessive disorder characterized by progressive iron overload, which may lead to severe clinical complications. Most patients are homozygous for the C282Y mutation in HFE on 6p (refs 1-5). A locus for juvenile haemochromatosis (HFE2) maps to 1q (ref. 7). Here we report a new locus (HFE3) on 7q22 and show that a homozygous nonsense mutation in the gene encoding transferrin receptor-2 (TFR2) is found in people with haemochromatosis that maps to HFE3.

  18. STARFIRE: a commercial tokamak reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an interim status report on the STARFIRE project for the period of May to September 1979. The basic objective of the STARFIRE project is to develop a design concept for a commercial tokamak fusion electric power plant based on the deuterium/tritium/lithium fuel cycle. The key technical objective is to develop the best embodiment of the tokamak as a power reactor consistent with credible engineering solutions to design problems. Another key goal of the project is to give careful attention to the safety and environmental features of a commercial fusion reactor.

  19. Tokamak Plasmas: Mirnov coil data analysis for tokamak ADITYA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The spatial and temporal structures of magnetic signal in the tokamak ADITYA is analysed using recently developed singular value decomposition (SVD) technique. The analysis technique is first tested with simulated data and then applied to the ADITYA Mirnov coil data to determine the structure of current peturbation as ...

  20. Tokamak Plasmas: Internal magnetic field measurement in tokamak ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The theory of the measurement and a detailed design of the Zeeman polarimeter constructed to measure the poloidal field profile in the ADITYA tokamak are presented. The Fabry-Perot which we have employed in our design, with photodiode arrays followed by lock-in detection of the polarization signal, allows the ...

  1. Homozygous p.M172K mutation of the TFR2 gene in an Italian family with type 3 hereditary hemochromatosis and early onset iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majore, S; Milano, F; Binni, F; Stuppia, L; Cerrone, A; Tafuri, A; De Bernardo, C; Palka, G; Grammatico, P

    2006-08-01

    The p.M172K TFR2 mutation was identified in two Italian siblings aged 32 and 40 years old with primary iron overload. The two patients showed a severe increase in serum iron indices. From the age of 25, the male sib also revealed abnormal levels of hepatic enzymes, presumably in relation to iron induced liver damage. Clinical findings seem to evidence that type 3 hemochromatosis can be more serious than classic hemochromatosis. This report adds two more type 3 hereditary hemochromatosis cases which suggest that TFR2 mutations could be more frequently involved in non-HFE hemochromatosis than has been actually thought.

  2. Degraded Confinement in Tokamak Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schüller, F. C.

    1994-01-01

    After a review on the state of tokamak transport theory, the methodology to derive experimental results will be described. Examples of confinement in ohmic plasmas and the deterioration with additional heating will be given. Some examples of improved confinement modes will be discussed. Fluctuation

  3. An enhanced tokamak startup model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Rajiv; Artaud, Jean-François

    2017-01-01

    The startup of tokamaks has been examined in the past in varying degree of detail. This phase typically involves the burnthrough of impurities and the subsequent rampup of plasma current. A zero-dimensional (0D) model is most widely used where the time evolution of volume averaged quantities determines the detailed balance between the input and loss of particle and power. But, being a 0D setup, these studies do not take into consideration the co-evolution of plasma size and shape, and instead assume an unchanging minor and major radius. However, it is known that the plasma position and its minor radius can change appreciably as the plasma evolves in time to fill in the entire available volume. In this paper, an enhanced model for the tokamak startup is introduced, which for the first time takes into account the evolution of plasma geometry during this brief but highly dynamic period by including realistic one-dimensional (1D) effects within the broad 0D framework. In addition the effect of runaway electrons (REs) has also been incorporated. The paper demonstrates that the inclusion of plasma cross section evolution in conjunction with REs plays an important role in the formation and development of tokamak startup. The model is benchmarked against experimental results from ADITYA tokamak.

  4. Prospects for Tokamak Fusion Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, J.; Galambos, J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper first reviews briefly the status and plans for research in magnetic fusion energy and discusses the prospects for the tokamak magnetic configuration to be the basis for a fusion power plant. Good progress has been made in achieving fusion reactor-level, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas with the production of significant fusion power in the Joint European Torus (up to 2 MW) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (up to 10 MW) tokamaks. Advances on the technologies of heating, fueling, diagnostics, and materials supported these achievements. The successes have led to the initiation of the design phases of two tokamaks, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the US Toroidal Physics Experiment (TPX). ITER will demonstrate the controlled ignition and extended bum of D-T plasmas with steady state as an ultimate goal. ITER will further demonstrate technologies essential to a power plant in an integrated system and perform integrated testing of the high heat flux and nuclear components required to use fusion energy for practical purposes. TPX will complement ITER by testing advanced modes of steady-state plasma operation that, coupled with the developments in ITER, will lead to an optimized demonstration power plant.

  5. Follicular regulatory T (Tfr) cells with dual Foxp3 and Bcl6 expression suppress germinal center reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yeonseok; Tanaka, Shinya; Chu, Fuliang; Nurieva, Roza; Martinez, Gustavo J.; Rawal, Seema; Wang, Yi-Hong; Lim, Ho Yong; Reynolds, Joseph M.; Zhou, Xiao-hui; Fan, Hui-min; Liu, Zhong-ming; Neelapu, Sattva S.; Dong, Chen

    2011-01-01

    Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells suppress different types of immune responses to help maintain homeostasis in the body. How Treg cells regulate humoral immunity, including germinal center reactions, is unclear. Here we identify a subset of Treg cells expressing CXCR5 and Bcl6, and localized in the germinal centers in mouse as well as human. The expression of CXCR5 on Treg cells depends on Bcl6. These CXCR5+Bcl6+ Treg cells are absent in thymus but can be de novo generated from CXCR5-Foxp3+ natural Treg precursors. Lack of CXCR5+ Treg cells leads to greater germinal center reactions. These results unveil a Bcl6-CXCR5 axis in Treg cells that undermines the development of follicular regulatory T (Tfr) cells that function to inhibit the germinal center reaction. PMID:21785430

  6. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Current Treatments and Potential New Therapeutic Options with Emphasis on TfR1/CD71

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba Parenti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is one of the most aggressive human cancers. Actually, ATC is refractory to conventional therapies, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and radioiodine (131I therapy. Accordingly, genetic and molecular characterizations of ATC have been frequently and periodically reviewed in order to identify potential biological markers exploitable for target therapy. This review briefly focuses on main molecular events that characterize ATC and provides an update about preclinical studies. In addition, the overexpression of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1/CD71 by neoplastic cells of ATC is emphasized in that it could represent a potential therapeutic target. In this regard, new therapeutic approaches based on the use of monoclonal or recombinant antibodies, or transferrin-gallium-TfR1/CD71 molecular complexes, or lastly small interfering RNAs (siRNAs are proposed.

  7. Transport of dust particles in tokamak devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigarov, A.Yu. [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)]. E-mail: apigarov@uscd.edu; Smirnov, R.D. [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Krasheninnikov, S.I. [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Rognlien, T.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Rosenberg, M. [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Soboleva, T.K. [UNAM, Mexico, DistritoFederal (Mexico)

    2007-06-15

    Recent advances in the dust transport modeling in tokamak devices are discussed. Topics include: (1) physical model for dust transport; (2) modeling results on dynamics of dust particles in plasma; (3) conditions necessary for particle growth in plasma; (4) dust spreading over the tokamak; (5) density profiles for dust particles and impurity atoms associated with dust ablation in tokamak plasma; and (6) roles of dust in material/tritium migration.

  8. Community-based IEC campaign. TFR has dropped to 2.15 in Binh Thanh District, Ho Chi Minh City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Ngoc Lich

    1995-01-01

    Binh Thanh District of Ho Chin Minh City in 1989 had a crude birth rate (CBR) of 20.3 per 1000 population and an average of 5.5 persons per household. The rate of total fertility (TFR) in the district was one of the highest among the city's 18 districts in 1990. Concerned about these demographics, the Binh Thanh District Committee for Population and Family Planning reviewed the family planning program with the goal of developing a special information, education, and communication (IEC) campaign. The following incentive scheme for sterilization was developed: each poor entrepreneur in need of seed money for new business ventures who allows himself to be sterilized receives dong 120,000 (US$11) from the National Committee for Population and Family Planning and dong 220,000 from the District Committee for Population and Family Planning to buy medicine and supplementary food. An IEC room was established in each commune health center to disseminate the relevant information. The results of the campaign have been positive, with 910 people requesting sterilization in 1994, 34% of whom were male. Over the period January-April 1995, the proportion of male sterilization increased dramatically, such that men accounted for 68% of the 153 people who underwent sterilization. The district now ranks the lowest among the 18 districts with regard to the percentage of couples with three children, the CBR is 15.3/1000, TFR is 2.15, the contraceptive prevalence rate is 68%, and sterilization is the fourth most popular method of contraception (13%) behind the IUD (37%), condom (30%), and oral pill (18.5%).

  9. Early onset hereditary hemochromatosis resulting from a novel TFR2 gene nonsense mutation (R105X) in two siblings of north French descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gac, G; Mons, F; Jacolot, S; Scotet, V; Férec, C; Frébourg, T

    2004-06-01

    The molecular basis of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is more complex than previously expected. More than 80% of hemochromatosis probands of Northern European descent are homozygous for the C282Y HFE gene mutation. However, five novel non-related-HFE HH forms have now been identified. The transferrin receptor(TFR2)-linked form is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern and is considered to be an adult-onset syndrome. Until now, it has been associated with five mutations that have only been detected in Japanese and southern European patients. Here, we report the identification of a novel TFR2 nonsense mutation in two related French adolescents. We discuss the phenotype of this sibling pair from precedent biological and clinical findings as well as the expected role of TFR2 in iron homeostasis. Finally, we suggest that iron overload phenotypes associated with mutations in TFR2 may be intermediate between those related to mutations in HFE and those related to mutations in juvenile hemochromatosis genes.

  10. Mutations in HFE and TFR2 genes in a Spanish patient with hemochromatosis Mutaciones en los genes HFE y TFR2 en un paciente español con hemocromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro del-Castillo-Rueda

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Iron overload disease has a wide variety of genotypes. The genetic study of this disease confirms its hereditary nature and enables us to provide genetic counseling for first-degree relatives. We performed magnetic resonance imaging and liver biopsy in an asymptomatic patient with more than 1,000 µg/L of serum ferritin and studied the genes involved in this condition. The phenotype of iron overload is confirmed by a predominantly periportal pattern of iron deposits in the liver suggestive of genetic disease. In the case we present the molecular study revealed a double heterozygosity for the mutations c.187C>G (p.H63D and c.840C>G (p.F280L in the HFE and transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2 genes, respectively.La enfermedad por sobrecarga de hierro está originada por diversas anomalías genéticas. El estudio genético de esta enfermedad confirma su carácter hereditario y nos permite ofrecer consejo genético a los familiares en primer grado. Hemos realizado resonancia magnética y biopsia de hígado en un paciente asintomático con más de 1.000 µg/l de ferritina en suero, y hemos analizado los genes implicados en el metabolismo del hierro. El fenotipo de sobrecarga de hierro se confirmó por la presencia de un patrón de depósito de hierro en el hígado con predominio periportal que sugiere la existencia de una enfermedad genética. En el caso que presentamos, el estudio genético reveló que el paciente es doble heterocigoto para las mutaciones c.187C>G (p.H63D y c.840C>G (p.F280L en los genes HFE y receptor 2 de transferrina (TFR2, respectivamente.

  11. Diagnostics for the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donne, A. J. H.

    1994-01-01

    The research program of the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project is concentrated on the study of plasma transport processes. The RTP tokamak is therefore equipped with an extensive set of multichannel diagnostics, including a 19-channel FIR interferometer, a 20-channel heterodyne ECE system, an 80-channel

  12. The disruptive instability in Tokamak plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salzedas, F.J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Studies performed in RTP (Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project) of the most violent and dangerous instability in tokamak plasmas, the major disruption, are presented. A particular class of disruptions is analyzed, namely the density limit disruption, which occur in high density plasmas. The radiative

  13. Natural current profiles in a tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.B.

    1990-08-01

    In this paper I show how one may arrive at a universal, or natural, family of Tokamak profiles using only accepted physical principles. These particular profiles are similar to ones proposed previously on the basis of ad hoc variational principles and the point of the present paper is to provide a justification for them. However in addition, the present work provides an interesting view of Tokamak fluctuations and leads to a new result -- a relationship between the inward particle pinch velocity, the diffusion coefficient and the current profile. The basic Tokamak model is described in this paper. Then an analogy is developed between Tokamak profiles and the equilibrium of a realisable dynamical system. Then the equations governing the natural Tokamak profiles are derived by applying standard statistical mechanics to this analog. The profiles themselves are calculated and some other results of the theory are described.

  14. Cluster storage for COMPASS tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Písačka, Jan; Hron, Martin; Janky, Filip; Pánek, Radomír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 12 (2012), s. 2238-2241 ISSN 0920-3796. [IAEA Technical Meeting on Control, Data Acquisition, and Remote Participation for Fusion Research/8./. San Francisco, 20.06.2011-24.06.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2470; GA MŠk 7G10072; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : COMPASS * Tokamak * Codac * Cluster * GlusterFS * Storage Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.842, year: 2012 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2012.09.006

  15. Identification of novel mutations in HFE, HFE2, TfR2, and SLC40A1 genes in Chinese patients affected by hereditary hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongwei; Du, Yali; Liu, Gang; Guo, Shanshan; Hou, Bo; Jiang, Xianyong; Han, Bing; Chang, Yanzhong; Nie, Guangjun

    2017-04-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a group of inherited iron-overload disorders associated with pathogenic defects in the genes encoding hemochromatosis (HFE), hemojuvelin (HJV/HFE2), hepcidin (HAMP), transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2), and ferroportin (FPN1/SLC40A1) proteins, and the clinical features are well described. However, there have been only a few detailed reports of HH in Chinese populations. Thus, there is insufficient patient information for population-based analyses in Chinese populations or comparative studies among different ethical groups. In the current work, we describe eight Chinese cases of hereditary hemochromatosis. Gene sequencing results revealed eight mutations (five novel mutations) in HFE, HFE2, TfR2, and SLC40A1 genes in these Chinese HH patients. In addition, we used Polymorphism Phenotyping v2 (Polyphen), Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant (SIFT), and a sequence alignment program to predict the molecular consequences of missense mutations.

  16. TMPRSS6, but not TF, TFR2 or BMP2 variants are associated with increased risk of iron-deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Peng; Wu, Qian; Wang, Hao; Guan, Yu; Mu, Mingdao; Liao, Yijun; Zhou, Daizhan; Song, Pengkun; Wang, Chunrong; Meng, Liping; Man, Qingqing; Li, Lixiang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Fudi

    2012-05-01

    A variety of conditions lead to anemia, which affects one-quarter of the world's population. Previous genome-wide association studies revealed a number of genetic polymorphisms significantly associated with plasma iron status. To evaluate the association of genetic variants in genes involved in iron delivery and hepcidin regulation pathways with the risk of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), the following single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in 2139 unrelated elderly Chinese women: rs3811647 (TF), rs7385804 (TFR2), rs235756 (BMP2), and rs855791(V736A) and rs4820268 (TMPRSS6, encoding matriptase-2). We identified common variants in TMPRSS6 as being genetic risk factors for both iron deficiency (OR(rs855791) = 1.55, P = 4.96 × 10(-8)) and IDA (OR(rs855791) = 1.78, P = 8.43 × 10(-9)). TMPRSS6 polymorphisms were also associated with lower serum iron (SI) and hemoglobin levels, consistent with their associations to increased iron deficiency and anemia risk. Variants rs3811647 in TF and rs7385804 in TFR2 were associated with reduced SI, serum transferrin and transferrin saturation levels; however, these variants were not associated with iron deficiency or anemia risk. Our findings suggest that TF, TFR2 and TMPRSS6 polymorphisms are significantly associated with decreased iron status, but only variants in TMPRSS6 are genetic risk factors for iron deficiency and IDA.

  17. Bone morphogenetic proteins 2, 4, and 9 stimulate murine hepcidin 1 expression independently of Hfe, transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2), and IL-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truksa, Jaroslav; Peng, Hongfan; Lee, Pauline; Beutler, Ernest

    2006-07-05

    Recently, it has been suggested that hepcidin, a peptide involved in iron homeostasis, is regulated by bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), apparently by binding to hemojuvelin (Hjv) as a coreceptor and signaling through Smad4. We investigate the role of Hfe, Tfr2 (transferrin receptor 2), and IL-6 in BMP2-, BMP4-, and BMP9-stimulated up-regulation of murine hepcidin, because these molecules, like Hjv, are known to be involved in hepcidin signaling. We show that the BMP signaling pathway acts independently of Hfe, Tfr2, and IL-6: The response to BMP2, BMP4, and BMP9 is similar in isolated hepatocytes of wild-type, Hfe(-/-), IL-6(-/-), and Tfr2(m) mutant mice. The potency of different human BMPs in stimulating hepcidin transcription by murine primary hepatocytes is BMP9 > BMP4 > BMP2. However, in human HepG2 cells, BMP4 and BMP9 are equally potent, whereas BMP2 requires a higher dose to become an effective hepcidin activator. Moreover, all of the tested BMPs are more potent regulators of hepcidin than IL-6 and thus are the most potent known stimulators of hepcidin transcription.

  18. Robust Sliding Mode Control for Tokamaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Garrido

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear fusion has arisen as an alternative energy to avoid carbon dioxide emissions, being the tokamak a promising nuclear fusion reactor that uses a magnetic field to confine plasma in the shape of a torus. However, different kinds of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities may affect tokamak plasma equilibrium, causing severe reduction of particle confinement and leading to plasma disruptions. In this sense, numerous efforts and resources have been devoted to seeking solutions for the different plasma control problems so as to avoid energy confinement time decrements in these devices. In particular, since the growth rate of the vertical instability increases with the internal inductance, lowering the internal inductance is a fundamental issue to address for the elongated plasmas employed within the advanced tokamaks currently under development. In this sense, this paper introduces a lumped parameter numerical model of the tokamak in order to design a novel robust sliding mode controller for the internal inductance using the transformer primary coil as actuator.

  19. The ETE spherical Tokamak project. IAEA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto; Del Bosco, E.; Berni, L.A.; Ferreira, J.G.; Oliveira, R.M.; Andrade, M.C.R.; Shibata, C.S.; Barroso, J.J.; Castro, P.J.; Patire Junior, H. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma]. E-mail: ludwig@plasma.inpe.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes the general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief overview of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide. The paper presents also the historical development of the ETE (Spherical Tokamak Experiment) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of October, 2002 at the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  20. Identification of a common variant in the TFR2 gene implicated in the physiological regulation of serum iron levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Irene; Minelli, Cosetta; Sanna, Serena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Schwienbacher, Christine; Naitza, Silvia; Porcu, Eleonora; Pattaro, Cristian; Busonero, Fabio; Zanon, Alessandra; Maschio, Andrea; Melville, Scott A; Grazia Piras, Maria; Longo, Dan L; Guralnik, Jack; Hernandez, Dena; Bandinelli, Stefania; Aigner, Elmar; Murphy, Anthony T; Wroblewski, Victor; Marroni, Fabio; Theurl, Igor; Gnewuch, Carsten; Schadt, Eric; Mitterer, Manfred; Schlessinger, David; Ferrucci, Luigi; Witcher, Derrick R; Hicks, Andrew A; Weiss, Günter; Uda, Manuela; Pramstaller, Peter P

    2011-03-15

    The genetic determinants of variation in iron status are actively sought, but remain incompletely understood. Meta-analysis of two genome-wide association (GWA) studies and replication in three independent cohorts was performed to identify genetic loci associated in the general population with serum levels of iron and markers of iron status, including transferrin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and sTfR-ferritin index. We identified and replicated a novel association of a common variant in the type-2 transferrin receptor (TFR2) gene with iron levels, with effect sizes highly consistent across samples. In addition, we identified and replicated an association between the HFE locus and ferritin and confirmed previously reported associations with the TF, TMPRSS6 and HFE genes. The five replicated variants were tested for association with expression levels of the corresponding genes in a publicly available data set of human liver samples, and nominally statistically significant expression differences by genotype were observed for all genes, although only rs3811647 in the TF gene survived the Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. In addition, we measured for the first time the effects of the common variant in TMPRSS6, rs4820268, on hepcidin mRNA in peripheral blood (n = 83 individuals) and on hepcidin levels in urine (n = 529) and observed an association in the same direction, though only borderline significant. These functional findings require confirmation in further studies with larger sample sizes, but they suggest that common variants in TMPRSS6 could modify the hepcidin-iron feedback loop in clinically unaffected individuals, thus making them more susceptible to imbalances of iron homeostasis.

  1. Benchmarking Tokamak edge modelling codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contributors To The Efda-Jet Work Programme; Coster, D. P.; Bonnin, X.; Corrigan, G.; Kirnev, G. S.; Matthews, G.; Spence, J.; Contributors to the EFDA-JET work programme

    2005-03-01

    Tokamak edge modelling codes are in widespread use to interpret and understand existing experiments, and to make predictions for future machines. Little direct benchmarking has been done between the codes, and the users of the codes have tended to concentrate on different experimental machines. An important validation step is to compare the codes for identical scenarios. In this paper, two of the major edge codes, SOLPS (B2.5-Eirene) and EDGE2D-NIMBUS are benchmarked against each other. A set of boundary conditions, transport coefficients, etc. for a JET plasma were chosen, and the two codes were run on the same grid. Initially, large differences were seen in the resulting plasmas. These differences were traced to differing physics assumptions with respect to the parallel heat flux limits. Once these were switched off in SOLPS, or implemented and switched on in EDGE2D-NIMBUS, the remaining differences were small.

  2. Economic considerations of commercial tokamak options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabiri, A.E.

    1986-05-01

    Systems studies have been performed to assess commercial tokamak options. Superconducting, as well as normal, magnet coils in either first or second stability regimes have been considered. A spherical torus (ST), as well as an elongated tokamak (ET), is included in the study. The cost of electricity (COE) is selected as the figure of merit, and beta and first-wall neutron wall loads are selected to represent the physics and technology characteristics of various options. The results indicate that an economical optimum for tokamaks is predicted to require a beta of around 10%, as predicted to be achieved in the second stability regime, and a wall load of about 5 MW/m/sup 2/, which is assumed to be optimum technologically. This tokamak is expected to be competitive with fission plants if efficient, noninductive current drive is developed. However, if this regime cannot be attained, all other tokamaks operating in the first stability regime, including spherical torus and elongated tokamak and assuming a limiting wall load of 5 MW/m/sup 2/, will compete with one another with a COE of about 50 mill/kWh. This 40% higher than the COE for the optimum reactor in the second stability regime with fast-wave current drive. The above conclusions pertain to a 1200-MW(e) net electric power plant. A comparison was also made between ST, ET, and superconducting magnets in the second stability regime with fast-wave current drive at 600 MW(e).

  3. Electron thermal transport in tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konings, J.A.

    1994-11-30

    The process of fusion of small nuclei thereby releasing energy, as it occurs continuously in the sun, is essential for the existence of mankind. The same process applied in a controlled way on earth would provide a clean and an abundant energy source, and be the long term solution of the energy problem. Nuclear fusion requires an extremely hot (10{sup 8} K) ionized gas, a plasma, that can only be maintained if it is kept insulated from any material wall. In the so called `tokamak` this is achieved by using magnetic fields. The termal insulation, which is essential if one wants to keep the plasma at the high `fusion` temperature, can be predicted using basic plasma therory. A comparison with experiments in tokamaks, however, showed that the electron enery losses are ten to hundred times larger than this theory predicts. This `anomalous transport` of thermal energy implies that, to reach the condition for nuclear fusion, a fusion reactor must have very large dimensions. This may put the economic feasibility of fusion power in jeopardy. Therefore, in a worldwide collaboration, physicists study tokamak plasmas in an attempt to understand and control the energy losses. From a scientific point of view, the mechanisms driving anomalous transport are one of the challenges in fudamental plasma physics. In Nieuwegein, a tokamak experiment (the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project, RTP) is dedicated to the study of anomalous transport, in an international collaboration with other laboratories. (orig./WL).

  4. Up-down asymmetric tokamaks

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Bulk toroidal rotation has proven capable of stabilising both dangerous MHD modes and turbulence. In this thesis, we explore a method to drive rotation in large tokamaks: up-down asymmetry in the magnetic equilibrium. We seek to maximise this rotation by finding optimal up-down asymmetric flux surface shapes. First, we use the ideal MHD model to show that low order external shaping (e.g. elongation) is best for creating up-down asymmetric flux surfaces throughout the device. Then, we calculate realistic up-down asymmetric equilibria for input into nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence analysis. Analytic gyrokinetics shows that, in the limit of fast shaping effects, a poloidal tilt of the flux surface shaping has little effect on turbulent transport. Since up-down symmetric surfaces do not transport momentum, this invariance to tilt implies that devices with mirror symmetry about any line in the poloidal plane will drive minimal rotation. Accordingly, further analytic investigation suggests that non-mirror symmetri...

  5. Tokamak power systems studies, FY 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, C.C.; Brooks, J.N.; Ehst, D.A.; Smith, D.L.; Sze, D.K.

    1985-12-01

    The Tokamak Power System Studies (TPSS) at ANL in FY-1985 were devoted to exploring innovative design concepts which have the potential for making substantial improvements in the tokamak as a commercial power reactor. Major objectives of this work included improved reactor economics, improved environmental and safety features, and the exploration of a wide range of reactor plant outputs with emphasis on reduced plant sizes compared to STARFIRE. The activities concentrated on three areas: plasma engineering, impurity control, and blanket/first wall/shield technology. 205 refs., 125 figs., 107 tabs.

  6. Overview of spherical tokamak research in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Y.; Ejiri, A.; Fujita, T.; Fukumoto, N.; Fukuyama, A.; Hanada, K.; Idei, H.; Nagata, M.; Ono, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Uchida, M.; Horiuchi, R.; Kamada, Y.; Kasahara, H.; Masuzaki, S.; Nagayama, Y.; Oishi, T.; Saito, K.; Takeiri, Y.; Tsuji-Iio, S.

    2017-10-01

    Nationally coordinated research on spherical tokamak is being conducted in Japan. Recent achievements include: (i) plasma current start-up and ramp-up without the use of the central solenoid by RF waves (in electron cyclotron and lower hybrid frequency ranges), (ii) plasma current start-up by AC Ohmic operation and by coaxial helicity injection, (iii) development of an advanced fuelling technique by compact toroid injection, (iv) ultra-long-pulse operation and particle control using a high temperature metal wall, (v) access to the ultra-high-β regime by high-power reconnection heating, and (vi) improvement of spherical tokamak plasma stability by externally applied helical field.

  7. Electron cyclotron emission diagnostics on KSTAR tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, S H; Lee, K D; Kogi, Y; Kawahata, K; Nagayama, Y; Mase, A; Kwon, M

    2010-10-01

    A new electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostics system was installed for the Second Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) campaign. The new ECE system consists of an ECE collecting optics system, an overmode circular corrugated waveguide system, and 48 channel heterodyne radiometer with the frequency range of 110-162 GHz. During the 2 T operation of the KSTAR tokamak, the electron temperatures as well as its radial profiles at the high field side were measured and sawtooth phenomena were also observed. We also discuss the effect of a window on in situ calibration.

  8. A Fast Shutdown Technique for Large Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Fredrickson; G.L. Schmidt; K. Hill; S.C. Jardin; et al

    1999-09-01

    A practical method is proposed for the fast shutdown of a large ignited tokamak. The method consists of injecting a rapid series of 30-50 deuterium pellets doped with a small ( 0.0005%) concentration of Krypton impurity, and simultaneously ramping the plasma current and shaping fields down over a period of several seconds using the poloidal field system. Detailed modeling with the Tokamak Simulation Code using a newly developed pellet mass deposition model shows that this method should terminate the discharge in a controlled and stable way without producing significant numbers of runaway electrons. A partial prototyping of this technique was accomplished in TFTR.

  9. UCLA Tokamak Program Close Out Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Robert John [UCLA/retired

    2014-02-04

    The results of UCLA experimental fusion program are summarized. Starting with smaller devices like Microtor, Macrotor, CCT and ending the research on the large (5 m) Electric Tokamak. CCT was the most diagnosed device for H-mode like physics and the effects of rotation induced radial fields. ICRF heating was also studied but plasma heating of University Type Tokamaks did not produce useful results due to plasma edge disturbances of the antennae. The Electric Tokamak produced better confinement in the seconds range. However, it presented very good particle confinement due to an "electric particle pinch". This effect prevented us from reaching a quasi steady state. This particle accumulation effect was numerically explained by Shaing's enhanced neoclassical theory. The PI believes that ITER will have a good energy confinement time but deleteriously large particle confinement time and it will disrupt on particle pinching at nominal average densities. The US fusion research program did not study particle transport effects due to its undue focus on the physics of energy confinement time. Energy confinement time is not an issue for energy producing tokamaks. Controlling the ash flow will be very expensive.

  10. Spontaneous generation of rotation in tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra Diaz, Felix [Oxford University

    2013-12-24

    Three different aspects of intrinsic rotation have been treated. i) A new, first principles model for intrinsic rotation [F.I. Parra, M. Barnes and P.J. Catto, Nucl. Fusion 51, 113001 (2011)] has been implemented in the gyrokinetic code GS2. The results obtained with the code are consistent with several experimental observations, namely the rotation peaking observed after an L-H transition, the rotation reversal observed in Ohmic plasmas, and the change in rotation that follows Lower Hybrid wave injection. ii) The model in [F.I. Parra, M. Barnes and P.J. Catto, Nucl. Fusion 51, 113001 (2011)] has several simplifying assumptions that seem to be satisfied in most tokamaks. To check the importance of these hypotheses, first principles equations that do not rely on these simplifying assumptions have been derived, and a version of these new equations has been implemented in GS2 as well. iii) A tokamak cross-section that drives large intrinsic rotation has been proposed for future large tokamaks. In large tokamaks, intrinsic rotation is expected to be very small unless some up-down asymmetry is introduced. The research conducted under this contract indicates that tilted ellipticity is the most efficient way to drive intrinsic rotation.

  11. Detachment evolution on the TCV tokamak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrison, J. R.; Vijvers, W. A. J.; Theiler, C.; Duval, B. P.; Elmore, S.; Labit, B.; Lipschultz, B.; van Limpt, S. H. M.; Lisgo, S. W.; Tsui, C. K.; Reimerdes, H.; Sheikh, U.; Verhaegh, K. H. A.; Wischmeier, M.

    2017-01-01

    Divertor detachment in the TCV tokamak has been investigated through experiments and modelling. Density ramp experiments were carried out in ohmic heated L-mode pulses with the ion ∇B drift directed away from the primary X-point, similar to previous studies [1]. Before the roll-over in the ion

  12. Tokamak Plasmas: Electron temperature $(T_ {e}) $ measurements ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thomson scattering technique based on high power laser has already proved its superoirity in measuring the electron temperature (e) and density (e) in fusion plasma devices like tokamaks. The method is a direct and unambiguous one, widely used for the localised and simultaneous measurements of the above ...

  13. Degraded confinement and turbulence in tokamak experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schüller, F. C.

    1996-01-01

    After a review on the state of tokamak transport theory, the methodology to derive experimental results will be described. Examples of confinement in ohmic plasmas and the deterioration with additional heating will be given. Some examples of improved confinement modes will be discussed. Fluctuation

  14. Degraded confinement and turbulence in tokamak experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweij, G. M. D.

    2012-01-01

    After a review on the state of tokamak transport theory, the methodology to derive experimental results will be described. Examples of confinement in ohmic plasmas and the deterioration with additional healing will be given. Some examples of improved confinement; modes will be discussed.

  15. Tokamak Transport Studies Using Perturbation Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardozo, N. J. L.; Dehaas, J. C. M.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Orourke, J.; Sips, A.C.C.; Tubbing, B. J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Studies of the transport properties of tokamak plasmas using perturbation analysis are discussed. The focus is on experiments with not too large perturbations, such as sawtooth induced heat and density pulse propagation, power modulation and oscillatory gas-puff experiments. The approximations made

  16. On dust in tokamak edge plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasheninnikov, S.I. [Jacobs School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California at San Diego, Engineering Building II, room 474, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0411 (United States)]. E-mail: skrash@mae.ucsd.edu; Soboleva, T.K. [UNAM, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tomita, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Smirnov, R.D. [Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Janev, R.K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2005-03-01

    We study the dust particle dynamics in tokamak edge plasmas, with special emphasis on dust particle transport in the sheath and plasma recycling regions. The characteristics of this transport have been examined for both smooth and corrugated wall surfaces. The implications of dust particle transport in the divertor region on the core plasma contamination with impurities have also been examined.

  17. Tokamak startup with electron cyclotron heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holly, D J; Prager, S C; Shepard, D A; Sprott, J C

    1980-04-01

    Experiments are described in which the startup voltage in a tokamak is reduced by approx. 60% by the use of a modest amount of electron cyclotron resonance heating power for preionization. A 50% reduction in volt-second requirement and impurity reflux are also observed.

  18. Advanced Tokamak Scenarios for the FIRE Burning Plasma Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.E. Kessel; D. Ignat; T.K. Mau

    2001-10-12

    The advanced tokamak (AT) capability of the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) burning plasma experiment is examined with 0-D systems analysis, equilibrium and ideal-MHD stability, radio-frequency current-drive analysis, and full discharge dynamic simulations. These analyses have identified the required parameters for attractive burning advanced tokamak plasmas, and indicate that these are feasible with the present progress on existing experimental tokamaks.

  19. Simulations of burn dynamics in tokamak fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantsinen, M.J.; Salomaa, R.R.E.

    1997-10-01

    The global dynamics of tokamak reactors is investigated with the time-dependent, volume-averaged (0D) particle and power balance code FRESCO (Fusion REactor Simulation COde). The main emphasis is on studies of reactivity transients during tokamak start-up and shut down, as well as after sudden changes in plasma and tokamak parameters. In particular, the plasma responses to changes in the confinement, fuelling rates and impurity concentrations are considered. 76 refs.

  20. Characterization of the Tokamak Novillo in cleaning regime; Caracterizacion del Tokamak Novillo en regimen de limpieza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez C, R.; Melendez L, L.; Valencia A, R.; Chavez A, E.; Colunga S, S.; Gaytan G, E

    1992-02-15

    In this work the obtained results of the investigation about the experimental characterization of those low energy pulsed discharges of the Tokamak Novillo are reported. With this it is possible to fix the one operation point but appropriate of the Tokamak to condition the chamber in the smallest possible time for the cleaning discharges regime before beginning the main discharge. The characterization of the cleaning discharges in those Tokamaks is an unique process and characteristic of each device, since the good points of operation are consequence of those particularities of the design of the machine. In the case of the Tokamak Novillo, besides characterizing it a contribution is made to the cleaning discharges regime which consists on the one product of the current peak to peak of plasma by the duration of the discharge Ip{sub t} like reference parameter for the optimization of the operation of the device in the cleaning discharge regime. The maximum value of the parameter I{sub (p)}t, under different work conditions, allowed to find the good operation point to condition the discharges chamber of the Tokamak Novillo in short time and to arrive to a regime in which is not necessary the preionization for the obtaining of the cleaning discharges. (Author)

  1. Module description of TOKAMAK equilibrium code MEUDAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Masaei; Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Matsumoto, Taro; Ozeki, Takahisa [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2002-01-01

    The analysis of an axisymmetric MHD equilibrium serves as a foundation of TOKAMAK researches, such as a design of devices and theoretical research, the analysis of experiment result. For this reason, also in JAERI, an efficient MHD analysis code has been developed from start of TOKAMAK research. The free boundary equilibrium code ''MEUDAS'' which uses both the DCR method (Double-Cyclic-Reduction Method) and a Green's function can specify the pressure and the current distribution arbitrarily, and has been applied to the analysis of a broad physical subject as a code having rapidity and high precision. Also the MHD convergence calculation technique in ''MEUDAS'' has been built into various newly developed codes. This report explains in detail each module in ''MEUDAS'' for performing convergence calculation in solving the MHD equilibrium. (author)

  2. Rapidly Moving Divertor Plates In A Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Zweben

    2011-05-16

    It may be possible to replace conventional actively cooled tokamak divertor plates with a set of rapidly moving, passively cooled divertor plates on rails. These plates would absorb the plasma heat flux with their thermal inertia for ~10-30 sec, and would then be removed from the vessel for processing. When outside the tokamak, these plates could be cooled, cleaned, recoated, inspected, and then returned to the vessel in an automated loop. This scheme could provide nearoptimal divertor surfaces at all times, and avoid the need to stop machine operation for repair of damaged or eroded plates. We describe various possible divertor plate designs and access geometries, and discuss an initial design for a movable and removable divertor module for NSTX-U.

  3. MHD stable regime of the tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, C.Z.; Furth, H.P.; Boozer, A.H.

    1986-10-01

    A broad family of tokamak current profiles is found to be stable against ideal and resistive MHD kink modes for 1 less than or equal to q(0), with q(a) as low 2. For 0.5 less than or equal to q(0) < and q(a) > 1, current profiles can be found that are unstable only to the m = 1, n = 1 mode. A specific ''optimal'' tokamak profile can be selected from the range of stable solutions, by imposing a common upper limit on dj/dr - corresponding in ohmic equilibrium to a limitation of dT/sub e//dr by anomalous transport.

  4. Boundary Plasma Turbulence Simulations for Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, X; Umansky, M; Dudson, B; Snyder, P

    2008-05-15

    The boundary plasma turbulence code BOUT models tokamak boundary-plasma turbulence in a realistic divertor geometry using modified Braginskii equations for plasma vorticity, density (ni), electron and ion temperature (T{sub e}; T{sub i}) and parallel momenta. The BOUT code solves for the plasma fluid equations in a three dimensional (3D) toroidal segment (or a toroidal wedge), including the region somewhat inside the separatrix and extending into the scrape-off layer; the private flux region is also included. In this paper, a description is given of the sophisticated physical models, innovative numerical algorithms, and modern software design used to simulate edge-plasmas in magnetic fusion energy devices. The BOUT code's unique capabilities and functionality are exemplified via simulations of the impact of plasma density on tokamak edge turbulence and blob dynamics.

  5. Magnetic sensor for steady state tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neyatani, Yuzuru; Mori, Katsuharu; Oguri, Shigeru; Kikuchi, Mitsuru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1996-06-01

    A new type of magnetic sensor has been developed for the measurement of steady state magnetic fields without DC-drift such as integration circuit. The electromagnetic force induced to the current which leads to the sensor was used for the measurement. For the high frequency component which exceeds higher than the vibration frequency of sensor, pick-up coil was used through the high pass filter. From the results using tokamak discharges, this sensor can measure the magnetic field in the tokamak discharge. During {approx}2 hours measurement, no DC drift was observed. The sensor can respond {approx}10ms of fast change of magnetic field during disruptions. We confirm the extension of measured range to control the current which leads to the sensor. (author).

  6. Tokamaks: from A D Sakharov to the present (the 60-year history of tokamaks)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizov, E. A.

    2012-02-01

    The paper is prepared on the basis of the report presented at the session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) at the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS on 25 May 2011, devoted to the 90-year jubilee of Academician Andrei D Sakharov - the initiator of controlled nuclear fusion research in the USSR. The 60-year history of plasma research work in toroidal devices with a longitudinal magnetic field suggested by Andrei D Sakharov and Igor E Tamm in 1950 for the confinement of fusion plasma and known at present as tokamaks is described in brief. The recent (2006) agreement among Russia, the EU, the USA, Japan, China, the Republic of Korea, and India on the joint construction of the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) in France based on the tokamak concept is discussed. Prospects for using the tokamak as a thermonuclear (14 MeV) neutron source are examined.

  7. Tokamak turbulence with stochastic field lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, P.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, Ph

    1998-03-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations of ballooning turbulence in a tokamak plasma with stochastic magnetic field lines are presented. Three main features are observed. First, the level of pressure fluctuations decreases in the ergodic layer. Secondly, this is essentially due to a suppression of large scale structures. Finally, the turbulent heat diffusivity does not decrease in the stochastic are due to an increase of electric fluctuations. These observations are in agreement with turbulence measurements on Tore Supra. (author) 27 refs.

  8. Microinstabilities in weak density gradient tokamak systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.; Chen, L.

    1986-04-01

    A prominent characteristic of auxiliary-heated tokamak discharges which exhibit improved (''H-mode type'') confinement properties is that their density profiles tend to be much flatter over most of the plasma radius. Depsite this favorable trend, it is emphasized here that, even in the limit of zero density gradient, low-frequency microinstabilities can persist due to the nonzero temperature gradient.

  9. Initial DEMO tokamak design configuration studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, Christian, E-mail: christian.bachmann@efda.org [EFDA, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Aiello, G. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R. [ENEA/CREATE, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Naples (Italy); Arbeiter, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Aubert, J. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Boccaccini, L.; Carloni, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Federici, G. [EFDA, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Fischer, U. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Kovari, M. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Li Puma, A. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Loving, A. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Maione, I. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Mattei, M. [ENEA/CREATE, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Naples (Italy); Mazzone, G. [ENEA C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Meszaros, B. [EFDA, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Palermo, I. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Riccardo, V. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A definition of main DEMO requirements. • A description of the DEMO tokamak design configuration. • A description of issues yet to be solved. - Abstract: To prepare the DEMO conceptual design phase a number of physics and engineering assessments were carried out in recent years in the frame of EFDA concluding in an initial design configuration of a DEMO tokamak. This paper gives an insight into the identified engineering requirements and constraints and describes their impact on the selection of the technologies and design principles of the main tokamak components. The EU DEMO program aims at making best use of the technologies developed for ITER (e.g., magnets, vessel, cryostat, and to some degree also the divertor). However, other systems in particular the breeding blanket require design solutions and advanced technologies that will only partially be tested in ITER. The main differences from ITER include the requirement to breed, to extract, to process and to recycle the tritium needed for plasma operation, the two orders of magnitude larger lifetime neutron fluence, the consequent radiation dose levels, which limit remote maintenance options, and the requirement to use low-activation steel for in-vessel components that also must operate at high temperature for efficient energy conversion.

  10. The electron cyclotron absorption diagnostic at the Rijnhuizen tokamak project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelder, J. F. M.; Miedema, H. S.; Donne, A. J. H.; Oomens, A. A. M.; Schüller, F. C.

    1997-01-01

    A new 20-channel electron cyclotron absorption diagnostic has been developed at the Rijnhuizen tokamak project. It is the first time the electron pressure profile in a tokamak plasma can be measured directly with a time resolution of 1 ms. The diagnostic measures simultaneously the emission and

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic Waves and Instabilities in Rotating Tokamak Plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Haverkort (Willem)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractOne of the most promising ways to achieve controlled nuclear fusion for the commercial production of energy is the tokamak design. In such a device, a hot plasma is confined in a toroidal geometry using magnetic fields. The present generation of tokamaks shows significant plasma

  12. Soft-X-Ray Tomography Diagnostic at the Rtp Tokamak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Cruz, D. F.; Donne, A. J. H.

    1994-01-01

    An 80-channel soft x-ray tomography system has been constructed for diagnosing the RTP (Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project) tokamak plasma. Five pinhole cameras, each with arrays of 16 detectors are distributed more or less homogeneously around a poloidal plasma cross section. The cameras are positioned

  13. Tokamak plasma self-organization-synergetics of magnetic trap plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Razumova, K. A.; Andreev, V. F.; Eliseev, L. G.; Kislov, A. Y.; La Haye, R. J.; Lysenko, S. E.; Melnikov, A. V.; Notkin, G. E.; Pavlov, Y. D.; Kantor, M. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of a wide range of experimental results in plasma magnetic confinement investigations shows that in most cases, plasmas are self-organized. In the tokamak case, it is realized in the self-consistent pressure profile, which permits the tokamak plasma to be macroscopically MHD stable.

  14. Stability-transport modeling of the SINP tokamak discharges

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... The code has been applied to follow the evolution of tokamak plasma discharges obtained in the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP) tokamak. From these simulations, we have been able to identify the possible models of thermal conductivity, diffusion and impurity contents in these discharges. Effects ...

  15. Equilibrium and stability of tokamak plasmas and accretion disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokland, J.W.S.

    2007-01-01

    In both fusion research as well in astrophysics, plasmas are widely studied. These plasmas can be found in different geometric configurations, such as in a tokamak, stellarator or in astrophysical jets, accretion disks, etc. In this thesis we focus on plasmas found in tokamaks or accretion disks. In

  16. ICPP: Results from the MAST Spherical Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Alan

    2000-10-01

    The MAST (Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak) experiment is now fully operational, producing 1MA plasmas with MW level auxiliary heating from Neutral Beam Injection and 60GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating. Central electron and ion temperatures are both of order 1keV (measured by 30-point Thomson Scattering, Neutral Particle Analyzer and Charge-Exchange spectroscopy respectively). Following boronisation, the Greenwald density limit has been exceeded in double-null divertor discharges by 50operation has been achieved in both Ohmic and NBI heated plasmas. In addition to conventional plasma induction, MAST can employ the `merging-compression' scheme (pioneered on START) producing initial spherical tokamak plasmas of up to 0.5MA without use of flux from the central solenoid. The central solenoid can then be applied to further increase the current at ramp rates of up to 13MA/s; plasma current of 1MA is reached at only one-half of the full solenoid swing. Studies of strike point power loading in both Ohmic and beam heated plasmas have confirmed the result from START that the fraction of power loading on the inboard strike point is lower than predicted from simple models. Comprehensive arrays of halo detectors indicate tolerable levels of halo currents with low asymmetries; an encouraging result for the ST concept, and providing key data to test models. Results from MAST will be used both to extend the conventional tokamak database, and to determine the potential of the ST as a route to fusion power in its own right. Acknowledgement: this work is funded jointly by the UK Department of Trade and Industry and EURATOM. The NBI equipment is on loan from ORNL, the NPA from PPPL.

  17. Digital controlled pulsed electric system of the ETE tokamak. First report; Sistema eletrico pulsado com controle digital do Tokamak ETE (experimento Tokamak esferico). Primeiro relatorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Luis Felipe de F.P.W.; Del Bosco, Edson

    1997-12-31

    This reports presents a summary on the thermonuclear fusion and application for energy supply purposes. The tokamak device operation and the magnetic field production systems are described. The ETE tokamak is a small aspect ratio device designed for plasma physics and thermonuclear fusion studies, which presently is under construction at the Laboratorio Associado de Plasma (LAP), Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) - S.J. dos Campos - S. Paulo. (author) 55 refs., 40 figs.

  18. Energetic particles in spherical tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, K. G.; Fredrickson, E. D.

    2017-05-01

    Spherical tokamaks (STs) typically have lower magnetic fields than conventional tokamaks, but similar mass densities. Suprathermal ions with relatively modest energies, in particular beam-injected ions, consequently have speeds close to or exceeding the Alfvén velocity, and can therefore excite a range of Alfvénic instabilities which could be driven by (and affect the behaviour of) fusion α-particles in a burning plasma. STs heated with neutral beams, including the small tight aspect ratio tokamak (START), the mega amp spherical tokamak (MAST), the national spherical torus experiment (NSTX) and Globus-M, have thus provided an opportunity to study toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAEs), together with higher frequency global Alfvén eigenmodes (GAEs) and compressional Alfvén eigenmodes (CAEs), which could affect beam current drive and channel fast ion energy into bulk ions in future devices. In NSTX GAEs were correlated with a degradation of core electron energy confinement. In MAST pulses with reduced magnetic field, CAEs were excited across a wide range of frequencies, extending to the ion cyclotron range, but were suppressed when hydrogen was introduced to the deuterium plasma, apparently due to mode conversion at ion-ion hybrid resonances. At lower frequencies fishbone instabilities caused fast particle redistribution in some MAST and NSTX pulses, but this could be avoided by moving the neutral beam line away from the magnetic axis or by operating the plasma at either high density or elevated safety factor. Fast ion redistribution has been observed during GAE avalanches on NSTX, while in both NSTX and MAST fast ions were transported by saturated kink modes, sawtooth crashes, resonant magnetic perturbations and TAEs. The energy dependence of fast ion redistribution due to both sawteeth and TAEs has been studied in Globus-M. High energy charged fusion products are unconfined in present-day STs, but have been shown in MAST to provide a useful diagnostic of beam ion

  19. Differential and Integral Models of TOKAMAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Dolezel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of 3D electromagnetic phenomena in TOKAMAK with typically distributed main and additional coils is not an easy business. Evaluated must be not only distribution of the magnetic field, but also forces acting in particular coils. Use of differential methods (such as FDM or FEM for this purpose may be complicated because of geometrical incommensurability of particular subregions in the investigated area or problems with the boundary conditions. That is why integral formulation of the problem may sometimes be an advantages. The theoretical analysis is illustrated on an example processed by both methods, whose results are compared and discussed.

  20. [Hyperferritinemia, ferropenia and metabolic syndrome in a patient with a new mutation of gene TFR2 and another in gene FTL. A family study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo-Rueda, Alejandro; Moreno-Carralero, María Isabel; Cuadrado-Grande, Nuria; Méndez, Manuel; Morán-Jiménez, María Josefa

    2011-06-11

    Hyperferritinemia is a common finding in clinical practice. This condition can be congenital or acquired, although it is not always associated with iron overload. Genetic hyperferritinemia is associated with iron overload, hereditary hemochromatosis, or cataracts that progress without iron overload (hereditary hyperferritinemia-cataract syndrome). Metabolic syndrome is associated with hyperferritinemia and mild iron overload, with no increase in transferrin saturation. We report a family with hyperferritinemia. We present the study of a family with dual hyperferritinemia (congenital and acquired) and an analysis of the genes involved in iron metabolism. Patients with hereditary hyperferritinemia-cataract syndrome have the mutation c.-167C>T in the FTL gene; patients with metabolic syndrome present a new mutation in the TFR2 gene (c.1259G>A, p.Arg420His). The phenotypic and genotypic diversity of hyperferritinemia makes it a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. Basic research and clinical research should be combined to ensure better patient care. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic polymorphisms in bovine transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) and solute carrier family 40 (iron-regulated transporter), member 1 (SLC40A1) genes and their association with beef iron content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Q; Tait, R G; Mayes, M S; Garrick, D J; Liu, Q; Van Eenennaam, A L; Mateescu, R G; Van Overbeke, D L; Garmyn, A J; Beitz, D C; Reecy, J M

    2012-04-01

    Beef is considered to be an excellent source of dietary iron. However, little is known about the genetic control of beef iron content. We hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms in transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) and solute carrier family 40 (iron-regulated transporter), member 1 (SLC40A1) could influence skeletal muscle iron content. The objective of this study was to use Angus cattle to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the exons and flanking regions of the bovine TFR2 and SLC40A1 genes and to evaluate the extent to which genetic variation in them was associated with bovine longissimus dorsi muscle iron content. Ten novel SNPs were identified in TFR2, of which one SNP tended to be associated (P  0.99), from which two haplotypes, TGC and CAT, were defined. Beef from individuals that were homozygous for the TGC haplotype had significantly (P < 0.001) higher iron content than did beef from CAT homozygous or heterozygous individuals. The estimated size of effect of the identified haplotypes was 0.3% of the phenotypic variance. In conclusion, our study provides evidence for genetic control of beef iron concentration. Moreover, SNPs identified in SLC40A1, rs134388440, rs136347850 and rs137555693 might be useful markers for the selection of Angus cattle for altered iron content. © 2011 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2011 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  2. Development of atomic beam probe for tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berta, M., E-mail: bertam@sze.hu [Széchenyi István University, EURATOM Association, Győr (Hungary); Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Prague (Czech Republic); Anda, G.; Aradi, M.; Bencze, A.; Buday, Cs.; Kiss, I.G.; Tulipán, Sz.; Veres, G.; Zoletnik, S. [Wigner – RCP, HAS, EURATOM Association, Budapest (Hungary); Havlícek, J.; Háček, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Prague (Czech Republic); Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics (Czech Republic)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • ABP is newly developed diagnostic. • Unique measurement method for the determination of plasma edge current variations caused by different transient events such as ELMs. • The design process has been fruitfully supported by the physically motivated computer simulations. • Li-BES system has been modified accordingly to the needs of the ABP. -- Abstract: The concept and development of a new detection method for light alkali ions stemming from diagnostic beams installed on medium size tokamak is described. The method allows us the simultaneous measurement of plasma density fluctuations and fast variations in poloidal magnetic field, therefore one can infer the fast changes in edge plasma current. The concept has been worked out and the whole design process has been done at Wigner RCP. The test detector with appropriate mechanics and electronics is already installed on COMPASS tokamak. General ion trajectory calculation code (ABPIons) has also been developed. Detailed calculations show the possibility of reconstruction of edge plasma current density profile changes with high temporal resolution, and the possibility of density profile reconstruction with better spatial resolution compared to standard Li-BES measurement, this is important for pedestal studies.

  3. MDSplus integration at TCABR tokamak: Current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sá, W.P. de, E-mail: pires@if.usp.br; Ronchi, G., E-mail: gronchi@if.usp.br

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The implementation of MDSplus in TCABR tokamak, current status. • Interfaces between the system already installed and the MDSplus. • Web MDSplus interface. - Abstract: Experimental data for the TCABR tokamak is currently stored in MDSplus (Model Driven System Plus) database. The access to the data recorded during the experiments is performed using tools and libraries available by MDSplus system. The MDSplus system is widely used in different physics experiments, especially in plasmas physics and nuclear fusion. This standardized environment enables easy interaction among scientists of different experiments in different countries without the need to understand the particular characteristics of control, data acquisition and analysis, and remote access (CODAS) customized in each laboratory. In the first phase of implementation, intermediate interfaces had been developed between the legacy proprietary system and the MDSplus. In a second phase, the new diagnostic systems had been directly included in the created MDSplus system in the laboratory. After three years of use, the system installed on TCABR proved extremely efficient and significantly increased productivity in data analysis by involved scientists, regardless of whether they are locally at the TCABR, or accessing the system remotely from their home laboratories. The third phase, and subject of this article, are the development and implementation of the following systems: (i) web tools for the visualization of data, integrated with the experiment logbook, (ii) integration of MDSplus with applications (LabVIEW + MDSplus) and newer data acquisition hardware.

  4. System studies of compact ignition tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galambos, J.D.; Blackfield, D.T.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Reid, R.L.; Strickler, D.J.; Selcow, E.

    1987-08-01

    The new Tokamak Systems Code, used to investigate Compact Ignition Tokamaks (CITs), can simultaneously vary many parameters, satisfy many constraints, and minimize or maximize a figure of merit. It is useful in comparing different CIT design configurations over wide regions of parameter space and determining a desired design point for more detailed physics and engineering analysis, as well as for performing sensitivity studies for physics or engineering issues. Operational windows in major radius (R) and toroidal field (B) space for fixed ignition margin are calculated for the Ignifed and Inconel candidate CITs. The minimum R bounds are predominantly physics limited, and the maximum R portions of the windows are engineering limited. For a modified Kaye-Goldston plasma-energy-confinement scaling, the minimum size is 1.15 m for the Ignifed device and 1.25 m for the Inconel device. With the Ignition Technical Oversight Committee (ITOC) physics guidance of B/sup 2/a/q and I/sub p/ >10 MA, the Ignifed and Base-line Inconel devices have a minimum size of 1.2 and 1.25 m and a toroidal field of 11 and 10.4 T, respectively. Sensitivity studies show Ignifed to be more sensitive to coil temperature changes than the Inconel device, whereas the Inconel device is more sensitive to stress perturbations.

  5. The Spherical Tokamak MEDUSA for Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Celso; Vargas, Ivan; Guadamuz, Saul; Mora, Jaime; Ansejo, Jose; Zamora, Esteban; Herrera, Julio; Chaves, Esteban; Romero, Carlos

    2012-10-01

    The former spherical tokamak (ST) MEDUSA (Madison EDUcation Small Aspect.ratio tokamak, Rphysics /technical related issues which will help all tasks of the very low aspect ratio stellarator SCR-1(A≡R/>=3.6, under design[2]) and also the ongoing activities in low temperature plasmas. Courses in plasma physics at undergraduate and post-graduate joint programme levels are regularly conducted. The scientific programme is intend to clarify several issues in relevant physics for conventional and mainly STs, including transport, heating and current drive via Alfv'en wave, and natural divertor STs with ergodic magnetic limiter[3,4]. [1] G.D.Garstka, PhD thesis, University of Wisconsin at Madison, 1997 [2] L.Barillas et al., Proc. 19^th Int. Conf. Nucl. Eng., Japan, 2011 [3] C.Ribeiro et al., IEEJ Trans. Electrical and Electronic Eng., 2012(accepted) [4] C.Ribeiro et al., Proc. 39^th EPS Conf. Contr. Fusion and Plasma Phys., Sweden, 2012

  6. Equilibrium reconstruction in the TCA/Br tokamak; Reconstrucao do equilibrio no tokamak TCA/BR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa, Wanderley Pires de

    1996-12-31

    The accurate and rapid determination of the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium configuration in tokamaks is a subject for the magnetic confinement of the plasma. With the knowledge of characteristic plasma MHD equilibrium parameters it is possible to control the plasma position during its formation using feed-back techniques. It is also necessary an on-line analysis between successive discharges to program external parameters for the subsequent discharges. In this work it is investigated the MHD equilibrium configuration reconstruction of the TCA/BR tokamak from external magnetic measurements, using a method that is able to fast determine the main parameters of discharge. The thesis has two parts. Firstly it is presented the development of an equilibrium code that solves de Grad-Shafranov equation for the TCA/BR tokamak geometry. Secondly it is presented the MHD equilibrium reconstruction process from external magnetic field and flux measurements using the Function Parametrization FP method. this method. This method is based on the statistical analysis of a database of simulated equilibrium configurations, with the goal of obtaining a simple relationship between the parameters that characterize the equilibrium and the measurements. The results from FP are compared with conventional methods. (author) 68 refs., 31 figs., 16 tabs.

  7. Neutral beam injector performance on the PLT and PDX tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, G.; Ashcroft, D.L.; Eubank, H.P.; Grisham, L.R.; Kozub, T.A.; Kugel, H.W.; Rossmassler, J.; Williams, M.D.

    1981-02-01

    An overall injector system description is presented first, and this will be followed by a detailed discussion of those problems unique to multiple injector operation on the tokamaks, i.e., power transmission, conditioning, reliability, and failures.

  8. Tokamak reactor cost model based on STARFIRE/WILDCAT costing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, K. Jr.

    1983-03-01

    A cost model is presented which is useful for survey and comparative studies of tokamak reactors. The model is heavily based on STARFIRE and WILDCAT costing guidelines, philosophies, and procedures and reproduces the costing for these devices quite accurately.

  9. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Tokamaks and Stellarators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul R. Garabedian

    2008-01-01

    The NSTAB equilibrium and stability code and the TRAN Monte Carlo transport code furnish a simple but effective numerical simulation of essential features of present tokamak and stellarator experiments...

  10. Transferrin receptor-2 (TFR2) mutation Y250X in Alabama Caucasian and African American subjects with and without primary iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, E H; West, P A; Rivers, C A; Barton, J C; Acton, R T

    2001-01-01

    Most cases of hemochromatosis are associated with mutations of the HFE gene on Ch6p. In southern Italy and central Alabama, the percentages of patients with hemochromatosis who have "atypical" HFE genotypes (defined as lack of C282Y homozygosity, C282Y/H63D compound heterozygosity, or H63D homozygosity) are relatively great. A mutation of the transferrin receptor-2 gene (TFR2; exon 6, nt 750 C --> G, replaces TAC with stop signal TAG; Y250X) on Ch7q22 was recently identified in two Sicilian families with HFE mutation-negative hemochromatosis. We wanted to estimate the frequency of this mutation in persons from central Alabama. We evaluated Caucasian hemochromatosis probands with atypical HFE genotypes and African Americans with primary iron overload. We also studied control Caucasians, including persons of southern Italian/Sicilian heritage, and control African Americans. Analysis of genomic DNA was performed using a PCR-sequence-specific priming assay and positive control specimens from Sicilian hemochromatosis subjects heterozygous and homozygous for Y250X. Among Alabama subjects, this allele was not detected in 113 Caucasians, including 21 hemochromatosis probands with atypical HFE genotypes and 92 normal control subjects (including 27 of southern Italian/Sicilian descent). In African Americans, Y250X was not detected in 20 index cases with primary iron overload or in 274 unrelated control subjects. We conclude that Y250X is uncommon in Caucasians with hemochromatosis associated with atypical HFE genotypes, in African Americans with primary iron overload, and in the general Caucasian and African American population subgroups in central Alabama. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  11. Comparative analysis of the gene-dense ACHE/TFR2 region on human chromosome 7q22 with the orthologous region on mouse chromosome 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M D; Riemer, C; Martindale, D W; Schnupf, P; Boright, A P; Cheung, T L; Hardy, D M; Schwartz, S; Scherer, S W; Tsui, L C; Miller, W; Koop, B F

    2001-03-15

    Chromosome 7q22 has been the focus of many cytogenetic and molecular studies aimed at delineating regions commonly deleted in myeloid leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes. We have compared a gene-dense, GC-rich sub-region of 7q22 with the orthologous region on mouse chromosome 5. A physical map of 640 kb of genomic DNA from mouse chromosome 5 was derived from a series of overlapping bacterial artificial chromosomes. A 296 kb segment from the physical map, spanning ACHE: to Tfr2, was compared with 267 kb of human sequence. We identified a conserved linkage of 12 genes including an open reading frame flanked by ACHE: and Asr2, a novel cation-chloride cotransporter interacting protein Cip1, Ephb4, Zan and Perq1. While some of these genes have been previously described, in each case we present new data derived from our comparative sequence analysis. Adjacent unfinished sequence data from the mouse contains an orthologous block of 10 additional genes including three novel cDNA sequences that we subsequently mapped to human 7q22. Methods for displaying comparative genomic information, including unfinished sequence data, are becoming increasingly important. We supplement our printed comparative analysis with a new, Web-based program called Laj (local alignments with java). Laj provides interactive access to archived pairwise sequence alignments via the WWW. It displays synchronized views of a dot-plot, a percent identity plot, a nucleotide-level local alignment and a variety of relevant annotations. Our mouse-human comparison can be viewed at http://web.uvic.ca/~bioweb/laj.html. Laj is available at http://bio.cse.psu.edu/, along with online documentation and additional examples of annotated genomic regions.

  12. Plasma Current Start-up in a Spherical Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitarai, Osamu; Kessel, Charles; Hirose, Akira

    The various plasma current start-up techniques and related topics in a spherical tokamak (ST) device are described. The Ohmic heating coil current clamp experiments in NSTX are described and discussed, and the plasma current start-up experiments in the STOR-M tokamak with iron core and the outer vertical field coil is presented as one of technique for a plasma current start-up in a ST.

  13. Cooldown of the Compact Ignition Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeton, D.C.

    1987-08-01

    Cooldown of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) with the baseline liquid nitrogen cooling system was analyzed. On the basis of this analysis and present knowledge of the two-phase heat transfer, the current baseline CIT can be cooled down in about 1.5 h. An extensive heat transfer test program is recommended to reduce uncertainty in the heat transfer performance and to explore methods for minimizing the cooldown time. An alternate CIT cooldown system is described which uses a pressurized gaseous helium coolant in a closed-loop system. It is shown analytically that this system will cool down the CIT well within 1 h. Confidence in this analysis is sufficiently high that a heat transfer test program would not be necessary. The added cost of this alternate system is estimated to be about $5.3 million. This helium cooling system represents a reasonable backup approach to liquid nitrogen cooling of the CIT. 3 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Safety factor profile control in a tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Bribiesca Argomedo, Federico; Prieur, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Control of the Safety Factor Profile in a Tokamak uses Lyapunov techniques to address a challenging problem for which even the simplest physically relevant models are represented by nonlinear, time-dependent, partial differential equations (PDEs). This is because of the  spatiotemporal dynamics of transport phenomena (magnetic flux, heat, densities, etc.) in the anisotropic plasma medium. Robustness considerations are ubiquitous in the analysis and control design since direct measurements on the magnetic flux are impossible (its estimation relies on virtual sensors) and large uncertainties remain in the coupling between the plasma particles and the radio-frequency waves (distributed inputs). The Brief begins with a presentation of the reference dynamical model and continues by developing a Lyapunov function for the discretized system (in a polytopic linear-parameter-varying formulation). The limitations of this finite-dimensional approach motivate new developments in the infinite-dimensional framework. The t...

  15. Decommissioning of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Perry; J. Chrzanowski; C. Gentile; R. Parsells; K. Rule; R. Strykowsky; M. Viola

    2003-10-28

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory was operated from 1982 until 1997. The last several years included operations with mixtures of deuterium and tritium. In September 2002, the three year Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Project for TFTR was successfully completed. The need to deal with tritium contamination as well as activated materials led to the adaptation of many techniques from the maintenance work during TFTR operations to the D&D effort. In addition, techniques from the decommissioning of fission reactors were adapted to the D&D of TFTR and several new technologies, most notably the development of a diamond wire cutting process for complex metal structures, were developed. These techniques, along with a project management system that closely linked the field crews to the engineering staff who developed the techniques and procedures via a Work Control Center, resulted in a project that was completed safely, on time, and well below budget.

  16. Sliding Mode Control of a Tokamak Transformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, J. A.; Coda, S.; Felici, F.; Moret, J. M.; Paley, J.; Sevillano, G.; Garrido, I.; Le, H. B.

    2012-06-08

    A novel inductive control system for a tokamak transformer is described. The system uses the flux change provided by the transformer primary coil to control the electric current and the internal inductance of the secondary plasma circuit load. The internal inductance control is used to regulate the slow flux penetration in the highly conductive plasma due to the skin effect, providing first-order control over the shape of the plasma current density profile. Inferred loop voltages at specific locations inside the plasma are included in a state feedback structure to improve controller performance. Experimental tests have shown that the plasma internal inductance can be controlled inductively for a whole pulse starting just 30ms after plasma breakdown. The details of the control system design are presented, including the transformer model, observer algorithms and controller design. (Author) 67 refs.

  17. Tokamak foundation in USSR/Russia 1950-1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V. P.

    2010-01-01

    In the USSR, nuclear fusion research began in 1950 with the work of I.E. Tamm, A.D. Sakharov and colleagues. They formulated the principles of magnetic confinement of high temperature plasmas, that would allow the development of a thermonuclear reactor. Following this, experimental research on plasma initiation and heating in toroidal systems began in 1951 at the Kurchatov Institute. From the very first devices with vessels made of glass, porcelain or metal with insulating inserts, work progressed to the operation of the first tokamak, T-1, in 1958. More machines followed and the first international collaboration in nuclear fusion, on the T-3 tokamak, established the tokamak as a promising option for magnetic confinement. Experiments continued and specialized machines were developed to test separately improvements to the tokamak concept needed for the production of energy. At the same time, research into plasma physics and tokamak theory was being undertaken which provides the basis for modern theoretical work. Since then, the tokamak concept has been refined by a world-wide effort and today we look forward to the successful operation of ITER.

  18. Self-organized stationary states of tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    We report here on a nonlinear mechanism that forms and maintains a self-organized stationary (sawtooth free) state in tokamaks. This process was discovered by way of extensive long-time simulations using the M3D-C1 3D extended MHD code in which new physics diagnostics have been added. It is well known that most high-performance modes of tokamak operation undergo ``sawtooth'' cycles, in which the peaking of the toroidal current density triggers a periodic core instability which redistributes the current density. However, certain modes of operation are known, such as the ``hybrid'' mode in DIII-D, ASDEX-U, JT-60U and JET, and the long-lived modes in NSTX and MAST, which do not experience this cycle of instability. Empirically, it is observed that these modes maintain a non-axisymmetric equilibrium which somehow limits the peaking of the toroidal current density. The physical mechanism responsible for this has not previously been understood, but is often referred to as ``flux-pumping,'' in which poloidal flux is redistributed in order to maintain q0 >1. In this talk, we show that in long-time simulations of inductively driven plasmas, a steady-state magnetic equilibrium may be obtained in which the condition q0 >1 is maintained by a dynamo driven by a stationary marginal core interchange mode. This interchange mode, unstable because of the pressure gradient in the ultra-low shear region in the center region, causes a (1,1) perturbation in both the electrostatic potential and the magnetic field, which nonlinearly cause a (0,0) component in the loop voltage that acts to sustain the configuration. This hybrid mode may be a preferred mode of operation for ITER. We present parameter scans that indicate when this sawtooth-free operation can be expected.

  19. Transport Barriers in Bootstrap Driven Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staebler, Gary

    2017-10-01

    Maximizing the bootstrap current in a tokamak, so that it drives a high fraction of the total current, reduces the external power required to drive current by other means. Improved energy confinement, relative to empirical scaling laws, enables a reactor to more fully take advantage of the bootstrap driven tokamak. Experiments have demonstrated improved energy confinement due to the spontaneous formation of an internal transport barrier in high bootstrap fraction discharges. Gyrokinetic analysis, and quasilinear predictive modeling, demonstrates that the observed transport barrier is due to the suppression of turbulence primarily due to the large Shafranov shift. ExB velocity shear does not play a significant role in the transport barrier due to the high safety factor. It will be shown, that the Shafranov shift can produce a bifurcation to improved confinement in regions of positive magnetic shear or a continuous reduction in transport for weak or negative magnetic shear. Operation at high safety factor lowers the pressure gradient threshold for the Shafranov shift driven barrier formation. The ion energy transport is reduced to neoclassical and electron energy and particle transport is reduced, but still turbulent, within the barrier. Deeper into the plasma, very large levels of electron transport are observed. The observed electron temperature profile is shown to be close to the threshold for the electron temperature gradient (ETG) mode. A large ETG driven energy transport is qualitatively consistent with recent multi-scale gyrokinetic simulations showing that reducing the ion scale turbulence can lead to large increase in the electron scale transport. A new saturation model for the quasilinear TGLF transport code, that fits these multi-scale gyrokinetic simulations, can match the data if the impact of zonal flow mixing on the ETG modes is reduced at high safety factor. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under DE-FG02-95ER54309 and DE-FC02

  20. Vertical compact torus injection into the STOR-M tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dazhi

    Central fuelling is a fundamental issue in the next generation tokamak-ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). It is essential for optimization of the bootstrap current which is proportional to the pressure gradient of trapped particles. The conventional fusion reactor fuelling techniques, such as gas puffing and cryogenic pellet injection, are considered inadequate to fulfill this goal due to premature ionization caused by high plasma temperature and density. Compact Torus (CT) injection is a promising fuelling technique for central fuelling a reactor-grade tokamak. An accelerated CT is expected to penetrate into the core region and deposit fuel there provided the CT kinetic energy density exceeds the magnetic energy density in a target plasma. This process is complicated and involves CT penetration into an external magnetic field, a CT stopping mechanism, magnetic reconnection, and excitation of plasma waves. CTs can be injected at different angles with respect to the tokamak toroidal magnetic field, either horizontally or vertically. Normally, CTs are injected radially in the mid-plane of a tokamak. In this configuration, CTs will undergo a decelerating force due to the gradient of the tokamak toroidal magnetic field. CTs will stop inside the tokamak chamber or bunce back depending on the relation between kinetic energy density of injected CTs and the tokamak toroidal magnetic field energy density. In the case of vertical injection, deeper penetration is expected due to the absence of the gradient of the tokamak toroidal field in that direction. Experimental investigations on vertical CT injection into a tokamak will be of great significance. The aim of this thesis is to experimentally investigate the feasibility of vertical CT injection into a tokamak and effects of CTs on tokamak plasma confinements. The Saskatchewan Torus-Modified (STOR-M) tokamak is currently the only tokamak equipped with a CT injector in the world. Vertical CT injection

  1. MHD stability limits in the TCV Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimerdes, H. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities can limit the performance and degrade the confinement of tokamak plasmas. The Tokamak a Configuration Variable (TCV), unique for its capability to produce a variety of poloidal plasma shapes, has been used to analyse various instabilities and compare their behaviour with theoretical predictions. These instabilities are perturbations of the magnetic field, which usually extend to the plasma edge where they can be detected with magnetic pick-up coils as magnetic fluctuations. A spatially dense set of magnetic probes, installed inside the TCV vacuum vessel, allows for a fast observation of these fluctuations. The structure and temporal evolution of coherent modes is extracted using several numerical methods. In addition to the setup of the magnetic diagnostic and the implementation of analysis methods, the subject matter of this thesis focuses on four instabilities, which impose local and global stability limits. All of these instabilities are relevant for the operation of a fusion reactor and a profound understanding of their behaviour is required in order to optimise the performance of such a reactor. Sawteeth, which are central relaxation oscillations common to most standard tokamak scenarios, have a significant effect on central plasma parameters. In TCV, systematic scans of the plasma shape have revealed a strong dependence of their behaviour on elongation {kappa} and triangularity {delta}, with high {kappa}, and low {delta} leading to shorter sawteeth with smaller crashes. This shape dependence is increased by applying central electron cyclotron heating. The response to additional heating power is determined by the role of ideal or resistive MHD in triggering the sawtooth crash. For plasma shapes where additional heating and consequently, a faster increase of the central pressure shortens the sawteeth, the low experimental limit of the pressure gradient within the q = 1 surface is consistent with ideal MHD predictions. The

  2. Basic Physics of Tokamak Transport Final Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Amiya K.

    2014-05-12

    The goal of this grant has been to study the basic physics of various sources of anomalous transport in tokamaks. Anomalous transport in tokamaks continues to be one of the major problems in magnetic fusion research. As a tokamak is not a physics device by design, direct experimental observation and identification of the instabilities responsible for transport, as well as physics studies of the transport in tokamaks, have been difficult and of limited value. It is noted that direct experimental observation, identification and physics study of microinstabilities including ITG, ETG, and trapped electron/ion modes in tokamaks has been very difficult and nearly impossible. The primary reasons are co-existence of many instabilities, their broadband fluctuation spectra, lack of flexibility for parameter scans and absence of good local diagnostics. This has motivated us to study the suspected tokamak instabilities and their transport consequences in a simpler, steady state Columbia Linear Machine (CLM) with collisionless plasma and the flexibility of wide parameter variations. Earlier work as part of this grant was focused on both ITG turbulence, widely believed to be a primary source of ion thermal transport in tokamaks, and the effects of isotope scaling on transport levels. Prior work from our research team has produced and definitively identified both the slab and toroidal branches of this instability and determined the physics criteria for their existence. All the experimentally observed linear physics corroborate well with theoretical predictions. However, one of the large areas of research dealt with turbulent transport results that indicate some significant differences between our experimental results and most theoretical predictions. Latter years of this proposal were focused on anomalous electron transport with a special focus on ETG. There are several advanced tokamak scenarios with internal transport barriers (ITB), when the ion transport is reduced to

  3. Power supplies and quench protection for the Tokamak Physics Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumeyer, C.L. [Raytheon Engineers & Constructors, Princeton, NJ (United States). EBASCO Div.

    1994-07-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) is an advanced tokamak project aimed at the production of quasi-steady state plasmas with advanced shape, heating, and particle control. TPX is to be built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) using many of the facilities from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). First plasma is scheduled for the year 2000. TPX will be the first tokamak to utilize superconducting (SC) magnets in both the toroidal field (TF) and poloidal field (PF) systems. This is a new feature which requires not only a departure from the traditional tokamak power supply schemes but also that ultra-reliable quench protection devices be used to rapidly discharge the stored energy from the magnets in the event of a quench. This paper describes the plan and basis for the adaptation and augmentation of the PPPL/TFTR power system facilities to supply TPX. Following a description of the basic operational requirements, four major areas are addressed, namely the AC power system, the TF power supply, the PF power supply, and quench protection for the TF and PF systems.

  4. Aspects of Tokamak toroidal magnet protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, R.W.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1979-07-01

    Simple but conservative geometric models are used to estimate the potential for damage to a Tokamak reactor inner wall and blanket due to a toroidal magnet field collapse. The only potential hazard found to exist is due to the MHD pressure rise in a lithium blanket. A survey is made of proposed protection methods for superconducting toroidal magnets. It is found that the two general classifications of protection methods are thermal and electrical. Computer programs were developed which allow the toroidal magnet set to be modeled as a set of circular filaments. A simple thermal model of the conductor was used which allows heat transfer to the magnet structure and which includes the effect of temperature dependent properties. To be effective in large magnets an electrical protection system should remove at least 50% of the stored energy in the protection circuit assuming that all of the superconductor in the circuit quenches when the circuit is activated. A protection system design procedure based on this criterion was developed.

  5. Tokamak blanket design study, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    A cylindrical module concept was developed, analyzed, and incorporated in a tokamak blanket system that includes piping systems, vacuum boundary sealing, and support structures. The design is based on the use of state-of-the-art structural materials (20% cold-worked type 316 stainless steel), lithium as the breeding material, and pressurized helium as the coolant. The module design consists of nested concentric cylinders (with an outer diameter of 10 cm) and features direct wall cooling by helium flowing between the outer (first-wall) cylinder and the inner (lithium-containing) cylinder. Each cylinder can withstand full coolant pressure, thus enhancing reliability. Results show that stainless steel is a viable material for a first wall subjected to a neutron wall loading of 4 MW/m/sup 2/ and a particle heat flux of 1 MW/m/sup 2/. Lifetime analysis shows that the first-wall design meets the goal of operating at 20-min cycles with 95% duty for 100,000 cycles. To reduce system complexity, a larger 20-cm-diam module also was analyzed for incorporation in the blanket assembly. Reliability assessment indicates that it may be possible to double the module in size from 10 to 20 cm in diameter. With a modest increase in coolant pumping power, a blanket assembly comprising 20-cm-diam modules can still achieve 100,000 operating cycles - equivalent to a 3.6-year design lifetime - with only one or two helium coolant leaks into the plasma.

  6. Lower hybrid current drive in tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushigusa, Kenkichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    Past ten years progress on Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) experiments have demonstrated the largest non-inductive current (3.6 MA, JT-60U), the longest current sustainment (2 hours, TRIAM-1M), non-inductive current drive at the highest density (n-bar{sub e} - 10{sup 20}m{sup -3}, ALCATOR-C) and the highest current drive efficiency ({eta}{sub CD} = 3.5x10{sup 19} m{sup -2}A/W, JT-60). These results indicate that LHCD is one of the most promising methods to drive non-inductive current in the present tokamak plasmas. This paper presents recent experimental results on LHCD experiments. Basic theories of LH waves, the wave propagation and the current drive are briefly summarized. The main part of this paper describes several important results and their physical pictures on recent LHCD experiments; 1) the experimental set-up, 2) the current drive efficiency, 3) the control of current profile and MHD activities, 4) the global energy confinement, 5) the global power flow, 6) fast electron behavior, 7) interaction between LH waves and thermal/fast ions, 8) combination with other CD method. (author)

  7. Fast scanning probe for tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedo, J.; Gray, D.; Chousal, L.; Conn, R.; Hiller, B.; Finken, K. H.

    1998-07-01

    We describe a fast reciprocating probe drive, which has three main new features: (1) a detachable and modular probe head for easy maintenance, (2) a combination of high heat flux capability, high bandwidth, and low-Z materials construction, and (3) low weight, compact, inexpensive construction. The probe is mounted in a fast pneumatic drive in order to reach plasma regions of interest and remain inserted long enough to obtain good statistics while minimizing the heat flux to the tips and head. The drive is pneumatic and has been designed to be compact and reliable to comply with space and maintenance requirements of tokamaks. The probe described here has five tips which obtain a full spectrum of plasma parameters: electron temperature profile Te(r), electron density profile ne(r), floating potential profile Vf(r), poloidal electric field profile Eθ(r), saturation current profile Isat(r), and their fluctuations up to 3 MHz. We describe the probe show radial profiles of various parameters. We compare the density and temperature data to that obtained with a helium beam. We also discuss the techniques to process the data optimally, particularly double probe data and profile fits.

  8. Exploration of turbulent optimization in stellarators & tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mynick, H.; Pomphrey, N.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Lucia, M.

    2012-03-01

    A methodfootnotetextH.E. Mynick, N. Pomphrey, P. Xanthopoulos, Phys. Rev. Letters, 105, 095004 (2010).^,footnotetextH.E. Mynick, N. Pomphrey, P. Xanthopoulos, Phys. Plasmas, 18, 056101 (2011). recently developed for evolving toroidal configurations to ones with reduced turbulent transport, using the STELLOPT optimization codes and the GENE gyrokinetic code, is being applied and extended. The growing body of results has found that the effectiveness of the current proxy measure Qprox used by STELLOPT to estimate transport levels depends on the class of toroidal device considered. The present proxy works well for quasi-axisymmetric stellarators and tokamaks, modestly for quasi-helically symmetric designs, but not for the W7X quasi-omnigenous/quasi-isodynamic design. We are exploring the origin of this variation, and improving the dependence of the proxy on key geometric factors, extending the proxy to apply to transport channels other than the ITG turbulence it was originally developed for, and are also examining the relative effectiveness of different search algorithms. To help in these efforts, we have adapted STELLOPT to provide a new capability for mapping the topography of the cost function in the search space.

  9. Detachment evolution on the TCV tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Harrison

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Divertor detachment in the TCV tokamak has been investigated through experiments and modelling. Density ramp experiments were carried out in ohmic heated L-mode pulses with the ion ∇B drift directed away from the primary X-point, similar to previous studies [1]. Before the roll-over in the ion current to the outer strike point, C III and Dα emission from the outer leg recede slowly from the strike point toward the X-point, at a rate of ∼2.0 × 10−19m/m−3 along the magnetic field as the electron temperature along the leg reduces with increasing density. Around the onset of detachment, the upstream density profile and outer target Dα profiles broaden, possibly leading to an increase in radiation in the SOL by increased interaction between the SOL and the carbon tiles lining the outer wall. The plasma conditions upstream and at various locations along the detached outer divertor leg have been characterised, and the consistency of this data has been checked with the interpretive OSM-EIRENE-DIVIMP suite of codes [2] and are broadly found to be consistent with measured Dγ/Dα emissivity profiles along the detached outer divertor leg.

  10. Modelling and control of a tokamak plasma; Modelisation et commande d`un plasma de tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremond, S.

    1995-10-18

    Vertically elongated tokamak plasmas, while attractive as regards Lawson criteria, are intrinsically instable. It is found that the open-loop instability dynamics is characterised by the relative value of two dimensionless parameters: the coefficient of inductive coupling between the vessel and the coils, and the coil damping efficiency on the plasma displacement relative to that of the vessel. Applications to Tore Supra -where the instability is due to the iron core attraction- and DIII-D are given. A counter-effect of the vessel, which temporarily reverses the effect of coil control on the plasma displacement, is seen when the inductive coupling is higher than the damping ratio. Precise control of the plasma boundary is necessary if plasma-wall interaction and/or coupling to heating antennas are to be monitored. A positional drift, of a few mm/s, which had been observed in the Tore Supra tokamak, is explained and corrected. A linear plasma shape response model is then derived from magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium calculation, and proved to be in good agreement with experimental data. An optimal control law is derived, which minimizes an integral quadratic criteria on tracking errors and energy expenditure. This scheme avoids compensating coil currents, and could render local plasma shaping more precise. (authors). 123 refs., 77 figs., 6 tabs., 4 annexes.

  11. Prospects for pilot plants based on the tokamak, spherical tokamak and stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, J. E.; Bromberg, L.; Brown, T.; Burgess, T.; Dix, D.; El-Guebaly, L.; Gerrity, T.; Goldston, R. J.; Hawryluk, R. J.; Kastner, R.; Kessel, C.; Malang, S.; Minervini, J.; Neilson, G. H.; Neumeyer, C. L.; Prager, S.; Sawan, M.; Sheffield, J.; Sternlieb, A.; Waganer, L.; Whyte, D.; Zarnstorff, M.

    2011-10-01

    A potentially attractive next-step towards fusion commercialization is a pilot plant, i.e. a device ultimately capable of small net electricity production in as compact a facility as possible and in a configuration scalable to a full-size power plant. A key capability for a pilot-plant programme is the production of high neutron fluence enabling fusion nuclear science and technology (FNST) research. It is found that for physics and technology assumptions between those assumed for ITER and nth-of-a-kind fusion power plant, it is possible to provide FNST-relevant neutron wall loading in pilot devices. Thus, it may be possible to utilize a single facility to perform FNST research utilizing reactor-relevant plasma, blanket, coil and auxiliary systems and maintenance schemes while also targeting net electricity production. In this paper three configurations for a pilot plant are considered: the advanced tokamak, spherical tokamak and compact stellarator. A range of configuration issues is considered including: radial build and blanket design, magnet systems, maintenance schemes, tritium consumption and self-sufficiency, physics scenarios and a brief assessment of research needs for the configurations.

  12. Development of frequency modulation reflectometer for Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seong-Heon; Park, Jinhyung; Wi, H M; Lee, W R; Kim, H S; Lee, T G; Kim, Y S; Kang, Jin-Seob; Bog, M G; Yokota, Y; Mase, A

    2013-08-01

    Frequency modulation reflectometer has been developed to measure the plasma density profile of the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak. Three reflectometers are operating in extraordinary polarization mode in the frequency range of Q band (33.6-54 GHz), V band (48-72 GHz), and W band (72-108 GHz) to measure the density up to 7 × 10(19) m(-3) when the toroidal magnetic field is 2 T on axis. The antenna is installed inside of the vacuum vessel. A new vacuum window is developed by using 50 μm thick mica film and 0.1 mm thick gold gasket. The filter bank of low pass filter, notch filter, and Faraday isolator is used to reject the electron cyclotron heating high power at attenuation of 60 dB. The full frequency band is swept in 20 μs. The mixer output is directly digitized with sampling rate of 100 MSamples/s. The phase is obtained by using wavelet transform. The whole hardware and software system is described in detail and the measured density profile is presented as a result.

  13. Deposit of thin films for Tokamaks conditioning; Deposito de peliculas delgadas para acondicionar Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valencia A, R

    2006-07-01

    As a main objective of this work, we present some experimental results obtained from studying the process of extracting those impurities created by the interaction plasma with its vessel wall in the case of Novillo tokamak. Likewise, we describe the main cleaning and conditioning techniques applied to it, fundamentally that of glow discharge cleaning at a low electron temperature (<10 eV), both in noble and reactive gases, as well as the conditioning by thin film deposits of hydrogen rich amorphous carbon (carbonization) leading to a reduction in the plasma resistivity from 8.99 x 10{sup -6} to 4.5 x 10{sup -6} {omega}-m, thus taking the Z{sub ef} value from 3.46 to 2.07 which considerably improved the operational parameters of the machine. With a view to justifying the fact that controlled nuclear fusion is a feasible alternative for the energy demand that humanity will face in the future, we review in Chapter 1 some fundamentals of the energy production by nuclear fusion reactions while, in Chapter 2, we examine two relevant plasma wall interaction processes. Our experimental array used to produce both cleaning and intense plasma discharges is described in Chapter 3 along with the associated diagnostics equipment. Chapter 4 contains a description of the vessel conditioning techniques followed in the process. Finally, we report our results in Chapter 5 while, in Chapter 6, some conclusions and remarks are presented. It is widely known that tokamak impurities are generated mainly by the plasma-wall interaction, particularly in the presence of high potentials between the plasma sheath and the limiter or wall. Given that impurities affect most adversely the plasma behaviour, understanding and controlling the impurity extraction mechanisms is crucial for optimizing the cleaning and wall conditioning discharge processes. Our study of one impurity extraction mechanism for both low and high Z in Novillo tokamak was carried out though mass spectrometry, optical emission

  14. Preliminary conceptual design of a medium sized tokamak (IST-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagerpour, M.; Alinejad, N.; Sobhanian, S.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper an attempt is made to estimate the main parameters of the Iranian superconducting tokamak as a medium sized tokamak. In the first stage, the production and confinement of ohmically heated plasma is considered. Considering the aim of the design and the kink stability limit, three main parameters are assumed to be known. Using the known theoretical, empirical scale laws and numerical solution of Grad-Shafranov equation for a D-shaped plasmas and also considering the correction terms due to triangularity of the torus cross section, other physical and geometrical parameters have been estimated. The magnetic flux surfaces, plasma pressure and toroidal current density profiles are found by solving of Grad-Shafranov equation as an eigenvalue problem using finite element method. The preliminary results are compared with some recent tokamaks now in operation in different research centers.

  15. Particle transport in tokamak plasmas, theory and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angioni, C [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, IPP-EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Fable, E; Maslov, M; Weisen, H [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Greenwald, M [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Peeters, A G [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL, Coventry (United Kingdom); Takenaga, H [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukouyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    The physical processes producing electron particle transport in the core of tokamak plasmas are described. Starting from the gyrokinetic equation, a simple analytical derivation is used as guidance to illustrate the main mechanisms driving turbulent particle convection. A review of the experimental observations on particle transport in tokamaks is presented and the consistency with the theoretical predictions is discussed. An overall qualitative agreement, and in some cases even a specific quantitative agreement, emerges between complex theoretical predictions and equally complex experimental observations, exhibiting different dependences on plasma parameters under different regimes. By these results, the direct connection between macroscopic transport properties and the character of microscopic turbulence is pointed out, and an important confirmation of the paradigm of microinstabilities and turbulence as the main cause of transport in the core of tokamaks is obtained. Finally, the impact of these results on the prediction of the peaking of the electron density profile in a fusion reactor is illustrated.

  16. A control approach for plasma density in tokamak machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boncagni, Luca, E-mail: luca.boncagni@enea.it [EURATOM – ENEA Fusion Association, Frascati Research Center, Division of Fusion Physics, Rome, Frascati (Italy); Pucci, Daniele; Piesco, F.; Zarfati, Emanuele [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica, Automatica e Gestionale ' ' Antonio Ruberti' ' , Sapienza Università di Roma (Italy); Mazzitelli, G. [EURATOM – ENEA Fusion Association, Frascati Research Center, Division of Fusion Physics, Rome, Frascati (Italy); Monaco, S. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica, Automatica e Gestionale ' ' Antonio Ruberti' ' , Sapienza Università di Roma (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •We show a control approach for line plasma density in tokamak. •We show a control approach for pressure in a tokamak chamber. •We show experimental results using one valve. -- Abstract: In tokamak machines, chamber pre-fill is crucial to attain plasma breakdown, while plasma density control is instrumental for several tasks such as machine protection and achievement of desired plasma performances. This paper sets the principles of a new control strategy for attaining both chamber pre-fill and plasma density regulation. Assuming that the actuation mean is a piezoelectric valve driven by a varying voltage, the proposed control laws ensure convergence to reference values of chamber pressure during pre-fill, and of plasma density during plasma discharge. Experimental results at FTU are presented to discuss weaknesses and strengths of the proposed control strategy. The whole system has been implemented by using the MARTe framework [1].

  17. Texas Experimental Tokamak. Technical progress report, April 1990--April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, A.J.

    1993-04-01

    This progress report covers the period from November 1, 1990 to April 30, 1993. During that period, TEXT was operated as a circular tokamak with a material limiter. It was devoted to the study of basic plasma physics, in particular to study of fluctuations, turbulence, and transport. The purpose is to operate and maintain TEXT Upgrade as a complete facility for applied tokamak physics, specifically to conduct a research program under the following main headings: (1) to elucidate the mechanisms of working gas, impurity, and thermal transport in tokamaks, in particular to understand the role of turbulence; (2) to study physics of the edge plasma, in particular the turbulence; (3) to study the physics or resonant magnetic fields (ergodic magnetic divertors, intra island pumping); and (4) to study the physics of electron cyclotron heating (ECRH). Results of studies in each of these areas are reported.

  18. Impurity control in near-term tokamak reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.; Smith, D.L.; Brooks, J.N.

    1976-10-01

    Several methods for reducing impurity contamination in near-term tokamak reactors by modifying the first-wall surface with a low-Z or low-sputter material are examined. A review of the sputtering data and an assessment of the technological feasibility of various wall modification schemes are presented. The power performance of a near-term tokamak reactor is simulated for various first-wall surface materials, with and without a divertor, in order to evaluate the likely effect of plasma contamination associated with these surface materials.

  19. Geodesic acoustic modes in noncircular cross section tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorokina, E. A., E-mail: sorokina.ekaterina@gmail.com; Lakhin, V. P. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute,” (Russian Federation); Konovaltseva, L. V. [People’s Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation); Ilgisonis, V. I. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute,” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The influence of the shape of the plasma cross section on the continuous spectrum of geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in a tokamak is analyzed in the framework of the MHD model. An expression for the frequency of a local GAM for a model noncircular cross section plasma equilibrium is derived. Amendments to the oscillation frequency due to the plasma elongation and triangularity and finite tokamak aspect ratio are calculated. It is shown that the main factor affecting the GAM spectrum is the plasma elongation, resulting in a significant decrease in the mode frequency.

  20. TIBER: Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Research. Final design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Barr, W.L.; Bulmer, R.H.; Doggett, J.N.; Johnson, B.M.; Lee, J.D.; Hoard, R.W.; Miller, J.R.; Slack, D.S.

    1985-11-01

    The Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Research (TIBER) device is the smallest superconductivity tokamak designed to date. In the design plasma shaping is used to achieve a high plasma beta. Neutron shielding is minimized to achieve the desired small device size, but the superconducting magnets must be shielded sufficiently to reduce the neutron heat load and the gamma-ray dose to various components of the device. Specifications of the plasma-shaping coil, the shielding, coaling, requirements, and heating modes are given. 61 refs., 92 figs., 30 tabs. (WRF)

  1. Advanced tokamak physics scenarios in Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porkolab, M.; Bonoli, P.T.; Golovato, S.; Ramos, J.; Sugiyama, L.; Takase, Y. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Kessel, C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Nevins, W.M. [LLNL, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Several advanced tokamak modes of operation have been identified in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. Of particular interest are (i) Reversed shear mode with high bootstrap fraction using on-axis FW current drive and off-axis mode-conversion current drive and/or lower hybrid current drive; (ii) High performance plasmas ({ital Q}{approximately}0.1{endash}1) which may be accessed by the PEP (pellet enhanced performance) mode of operation with intense ICRF heating. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Parasitic momentum flux in the tokamak core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.

    2017-10-01

    Tokamak plasmas rotate spontaneously without applied torque. This intrinsic rotation is important for future low-torque devices such as ITER, since rotation stabilizes certain instabilities. In the mid-radius `gradient region,' which reaches from the sawtooth inversion radius out to the pedestal top, intrinsic rotation profiles may be either flat or hollow, and can transition suddenly between these two states, an unexplained phenomenon referred to as rotation reversal. Theoretical efforts to explain the mid-radius rotation shear have largely focused on quasilinear models, in which the phase relationships of some selected instability result in a nondiffusive momentum flux (``residual stress''). In contrast, the present work demonstrates the existence of a robust, fully nonlinear symmetry-breaking momentum flux that follows from the free-energy flow in phase space and does not depend on any assumed linear eigenmode structure. The physical origin is an often-neglected portion of the radial ExB drift, which is shown to drive a symmetry-breaking outward flux of co-current momentum whenever free energy is transferred from the electrostatic potential to ion parallel flows. The fully nonlinear derivation relies only on conservation properties and symmetry, thus retaining the important contribution of damped modes. The resulting rotation peaking is counter-current and scales as temperature over plasma current. As first demonstrated by Landau, this free-energy transfer (thus also the corresponding residual stress) becomes inactive when frequencies are much higher than the ion transit frequency, which allows sudden transitions between hollow and flat profiles. Simple estimates suggest that this mechanism may be consistent with experimental observations. This work was funded in part by the Max-Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics and in part by the U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Science, Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  3. Magnetic flux reconstruction methods for shaped tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsui, Chi-Wa [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The use of a variational method permits the Grad-Shafranov (GS) equation to be solved by reducing the problem of solving the 2D non-linear partial differential equation to the problem of minimizing a function of several variables. This high speed algorithm approximately solves the GS equation given a parameterization of the plasma boundary and the current profile (p` and FF` functions). The author treats the current profile parameters as unknowns. The goal is to reconstruct the internal magnetic flux surfaces of a tokamak plasma and the toroidal current density profile from the external magnetic measurements. This is a classic problem of inverse equilibrium determination. The current profile parameters can be evaluated by several different matching procedures. Matching of magnetic flux and field at the probe locations using the Biot-Savart law and magnetic Green`s function provides a robust method of magnetic reconstruction. The matching of poloidal magnetic field on the plasma surface provides a unique method of identifying the plasma current profile. However, the power of this method is greatly compromised by the experimental errors of the magnetic signals. The Casing Principle provides a very fast way to evaluate the plasma contribution to the magnetic signals. It has the potential of being a fast matching method. The performance of this method is hindered by the accuracy of the poloidal magnetic field computed from the equilibrium solver. A flux reconstruction package has been implemented which integrates a vacuum field solver using a filament model for the plasma, a multi-layer perception neural network as an interface, and the volume integration of plasma current density using Green`s functions as a matching method for the current profile parameters. The flux reconstruction package is applied to compare with the ASEQ and EFIT data. The results are promising.

  4. Data processing system for spectroscopy at Novillo Tokamak; Sistema de procesamiento de datos para espectroscopia en el Tokamak Novillo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega C, G.; Gaytan G, E. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Instituto nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    Taking as basis some proposed methodologies by software engineering it was designed and developed a data processing system coming from the diagnostic equipment by spectroscopy, for the study of plasma impurities, during the cleaning discharges. the data acquisition is realized through an electronic interface which communicates the computer with the spectroscopy system of Novillo Tokamak. The data were obtained starting from files type text and processed for their subsequently graphic presentation. For development of this system named PRODATN (Processing of Data for Spectroscopy in Novillo Tokamak) was used the LabVIEW graphic programming language. (Author)

  5. Ion cyclotron emission in tokamak plasmas; Emission cyclotronique ionique dans les plasmas de tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraboulet, D.

    1996-09-17

    Detection of {alpha}(3.5 MeV) fusion products will be of major importance for the achievement of self sustained discharges in fusion thermonuclear reactors. Due to their cyclotronic gyration in the confining magnetic field of a tokamak, {alpha} particles are suspected to radiate in the radio-frequency band [RF: 10-500 MHz]. Our aim is to determine whether detection of RF emission radiated from a reactor plasma can provide information concerning those fusion products. We observed experimentally that the RF emission radiated from fast ions situated in the core of the discharge is detectable with a probe located at the plasma edge. For that purpose, fast temporal acquisition of spectral power was achieved in a narrow frequency band. We also propose two complementary models for this emission. In the first one, we describe locally the energy transfer between the photon population and the plasma and we compute the radiation equilibrium taking place in the tokamak. {alpha} particles are not the unique species involved in the equilibrium and it is necessary to take into account all other species present in the plasma (Deuterium, Tritium, electrons,...). Our second model consists in the numerical resolution of the Maxwell-Vlasov with the use of a variational formulation, in which all polarizations are considered and the 4 first cyclotronic harmonics are included in a 1-D slab geometry. The development of this second model leads to the proposal for an experimental set up aiming to the feasibility demonstration of a routine diagnostic providing the central {alpha} density in a reactor. (author). 166 refs.

  6. Analysis of tokamak plasma confinement modes using the fast ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-10-20

    Oct 20, 2016 ... absence of the outer field, and then compared with each other. The number of plasma modes and the safety factor q were determined using the FFT method in the presence and absence of the outer field. The safety factor q plays a significant role in determin- ing the stability of tokamak plasma and seems to.

  7. Microtearing mode (MTM) turbulence in JIPPT-IIU tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Y.; Watari, T.; Nishizawa, A.; Yamagishi, O.; Narihara, K.; Ida, K.; Kawasumi, Y.; Ido, T.; Kojima, M.; Toi, K.; the JIPPT-IIU Group

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic, density and potential fluctuations up to 500 kHz at several spatial points have been observed in the core region of JIPPT-IIU tokamak plasmas using a heavy ion beam probe. The frequency spectra of the density and magnetic oscillations are found to be similar, whereas there are large differences in the phase, coherence and frequency dependences deduced from signals at adjacent sample volumes. These differences allow us to ascribe the detected magnetic fluctuations to the microtearing mode (MTM) by simple dispersion relations of the MTM in collisionless and intermediate regimes. The frequency-integrated level of magnetic fluctuations around 150 kHz (100-200 kHz) is \\tilde{{B}}r /Bt ≈ 1× 10-4 , a level high enough for the ergodization of the magnetic surface and enhanced electron heat loss as derived by Rechester and Rosenbluth (1978 Phys. Rev. Lett. 40 38). This level is consistent with the measurements performed using cross-polarization scattering of microwaves in the Tore Supra tokamak. Our results are the first direct experimental verification of the MTM in the core region of tokamak plasmas, which has been recently observed in gyrokinetic simulations using a very fine mesh in tokamak and ST plasmas.

  8. Electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic system for Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, B.H.; Hsia, R. P.; Domier, C.W.; Burns, S. R.; Hillyer, T. R.; N C Luhmann Jr.,; Oyevaar, T.; Donne, A. J. H.; R. T. P. Team,

    1999-01-01

    A 16-channel electron cyclotron emission (ECE) imaging diagnostic system has been developed and installed on the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project for measuring plasma electron cyclotron emission with a temporal resolution of 2 mu s. The high spatial resolution of the system is achieved by utilizing a low

  9. Bulk Ion Heating with ICRF Waves in Tokamaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantsinen, M. J.; Bilato, R.; Bobkov, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    Heating with ICRF waves is a well-established method on present-day tokamaks and one of the heating systems foreseen for ITER. However, further work is still needed to test and optimize its performance in fusion devices with metallic high-Z plasma facing components (PFCs) in preparation of ITER a...

  10. High-pressure, flux-conserving tokamak equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dory, R.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.

    1976-08-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) tokamak equilibria are found with values of ..beta.. up to 20 percent and prescribed MHD safety factor values (e.g., q(axis) = 1 and q(edge) = 4.8) for tokamaks with aspect ratio A = 4 and D-shaped cross section. If such equilibria could be attained experimentally, they would be very attractive for decreasing the projected costs of tokamak power reactors substantially. In the flux-conserving tokamak (FCT) model, where rapid heating is applied to an already relatively hot plasma, these high ..beta.. equilibria are achievable. We study the quasi-static evolution of FCT equilibria as ..beta.. increases. An operating window is found in the pressure profile width w/sub p/: for high ..beta.. the values of w/sub p/ must lie between 0.40 and 0.55 of the plasma minor width. Within this window, plasma current and poloidal ..beta.. increase monotonically with ..beta... For fixed plasma boundary, significant poloidal surface currents are induced, but these can be eliminated by small increases in the plasma minor radius, the pressure profile width, and the vacuum toroidal field.

  11. Conceptual design of Remote Control System for EAST tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, X.Y., E-mail: xysun@ipp.ac.cn; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Li, S.

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • A new design conception for remote control for EAST tokamak is proposed. • Rich Internet application (RIA) was selected to implement the user interface. • Some security mechanism was used to fulfill security requirement. - Abstract: The international collaboration becomes popular in tokamak research like in many other fields of science, because the experiment facilities become larger and more expensive. The traditional On-site collaboration Model that has to spend much money and time on international travel is not fit for the more frequent international collaboration. The Remote Control System (RCS), as an extension of the Central Control System for the EAST tokamak, is designed to provide an efficient and economical way to international collaboration. As a remote user interface, the RCS must integrate with the Central Control System for EAST tokamak to perform discharge control function. This paper presents a design concept delineating a few key technical issues and addressing all significant details in the system architecture design. With the aim of satisfying system requirements, the RCS will select rich Internet application (RIA) as a user interface, Java as a back-end service and Secure Socket Layer Virtual Private Network (SSL VPN) for securable Internet communication.

  12. Internal magnetic field measurement in tokamak plasmas using a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There is a growing interest in developing a reliable method for the measurement of the in- ternal magnetic field in high ... This information is essential for understanding confinement, stability and energy balance of the tokamak plasma. .... The instrument measures the difference between the left-hand and right-hand circularly ...

  13. Evidence of Inward Toroidal Momentum Convection in the JET Tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tala, T.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Ferreira, J.

    2009-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out on the Joint European Torus tokamak to determine the diffusive and convective momentum transport. Torque, injected by neutral beams, was modulated to create a periodic perturbation in the toroidal rotation velocity. Novel transport analysis shows the magnitude...

  14. Sensitivity of transient synchrotron radiation to tokamak plasma parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, N.J.; Kritz, A.H.

    1988-12-01

    Synchrotron radiation from a hot plasma can inform on certain plasma parameters. The dependence on plasma parameters is particularly sensitive for the transient radiation response to a brief, deliberate, perturbation of hot plasma electrons. We investigate how such a radiation response can be used to diagnose a variety of plasma parameters in a tokamak. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  15. Loop-voltage tomography in tokamaks using transient synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, N.J.; Kritz, A.H. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.; Hunter Coll., New York, NY (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1989-07-01

    The loop voltage in tokamaks is particularly difficult to measure anywhere but at the plasma periphery. A brief, deliberate, perturbation of hot plasma electrons, however, produces a transient radiation response that is sensitive to this voltage. We investigate how such a radiation response can be used to diagnose the loop voltage. 24 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Recording non-local temperature rise in the RTP tokamak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Mantica, P.; Gorini, G.; de Kloe, J.; Cardozo, N. J. L.; R. T. P. Team,

    2000-01-01

    In the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project (RTP) plasmas with electron cyclotron heating (ECH), a transient rise of the core T-e is observed when hydrogen pellets are injected tangentially to induce fast cooling of the peripheral region. The core T-e rise is a sharp function of the normalized power

  17. Stability of localized modes in rotating tokamak plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Haverkort (Willem); H.J. de Blank

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe ideal magnetohydrodynamic stability is investigated of localized interchange modes in a large-aspect ratio tokamak plasma. The resulting stability criterion includes the effects of toroidal rotation and rotation shear and contains various well-known limiting cases. The analysis

  18. Concept definition of KT-2, a large-aspect-ratio diverter tokamak with FWCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Kyoo; Chang, In Soon; Chung, Moon Kyoo; Hwang, Chul Kyoo; Lee, Kwang Won; In, Sang Ryul; Choi, Byung Ho; Hong, Bong Keun; Oh, Byung Hoon; Chung, Seung Ho; Yoon, Byung Joo; Yoon, Jae Sung; Song, Woo Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Choong Suk; Chang, Hong Yung; Choi, Duk In; Nam, Chang Heui [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Kyoo Sun [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sang Heui [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Heui Dong [Kyungpook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Koo [Pohang Inst. of Science and Technology, Kyungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-11-01

    A concept definition of the KT-2 tokamak is made. The research goal of the machine is to study the `advanced tokamak` physics and engineering issues on the mid size large-aspect-ratio diverter tokamak with intense RF heating (>5 MW). Survey of the status of the research fields, the physics basis for the concept, operation scenarios, as well as machine design concept are presented. (Author) 86 refs., 17 figs., 22 tabs.

  19. Stability analysis of tokamak plasmas; Analyse de stabilite de plasmas de tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdelle, C

    2000-10-01

    In a tokamak plasma, the energy transport is mainly turbulent. In order to increase the fusion reactions rate, it is needed to improve the energy confinement. The present work is dedicated to the identification of the key parameters leading to plasmas with a better confined energy in order to guide the future experiments. For this purpose, a numerical code has been developed. It calculates the growth rates characterizing the instabilities onset. The stability analysis is completed by the evaluation of the shearing rate of the rotation due to the radial electric field. When this shearing rate is greater than the growth rate the ion turbulence is fully stabilised. The shearing rate and the growth rate are determined from the density, temperature and security factor profiles of a given plasma. Three types of plasmas have been analysed. In the Radiative Improved modes of TEXTOR, high charge number ions seeding lowers the growth rates. In Tore Supra-high density plasmas, a strong magnetic shear and/or a more efficient ion heating linked to a bifurcation of the toroidal rotation direction (which is not understood) trigger the improvement of the confinement. In other Tore Supra plasmas, locally steep electron pressure gradients have been obtained following magnetic shear reversal. This locally negative magnetic shear has a stabilizing effect. In these three families of plasmas, the growth rates decrease, the confinement improves, the density and temperature profiles are steeper. This steepening induces an increase of the rotation shearing rate, which then maintains the confinement high quality. (author)

  20. Features of self-organized plasma physics in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumova, K. A.

    2018-01-01

    The history of investigations the role of self-organization processes in tokamak plasma confinement is presented. It was experimentally shown that the normalized pressure profile is the same for different tokamaks. Instead of the conventional Fick equation, where the thermal flux is proportional to a pressure gradient, processes in the plasma are well described by the Dyabilanin’s energy balance equation, in which the heat flux is proportional to the difference of normalized gradients for self-consistent and real pressure profiles. The transport coefficient depends on the values of heat flux, which compensates distortion of the pressure profile with external impacts. Radiative cooling of the plasma edge decreases the heat flux and improves the confinement.

  1. Statistical study of density fluctuations in the tore supra tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devynck, P.; Fenzi, C.; Garbet, X.; Laviron, C. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Antar, G.; Gervais, F.; Hennequin, P.; Quemeneur, A.; Sabot, R.; Truc, A. [LPMI, CNRS UPR-287, Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France)

    1998-03-01

    It is believed that the radial anomalous transport in tokamaks is caused by plasma turbulence. Using infra-red laser scattering technique on the Tore Supra tokamak, statistical properties of the density fluctuations are studied as a function of the scales in ohmic as well as additional heating regimes using the lower hybrid or the ion cyclotron frequencies. The probability distributions are compared to a Gaussian in order to estimate the role of intermittency which is found to be negligible. The temporal behaviour of the three-dimensional spectrum is thoroughly discussed; its multifractal character is reflected in the singularity spectrum. The autocorrelation coefficient as well as their long-time incoherence and statistical independence. We also put forward the existence of fluctuations transfer between two distinct but close wavenumbers. A rather clearer image is thus obtained about the way energy is transferred through the turbulent scales. (author) 28 refs.

  2. Abel inversion of asymmetric plasma density profile at Aditya tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, N. Y.; Atrey, P. K.; Pathak, S. K.

    2010-02-01

    In Aditya tokamak, at Institute for Plasma Research, till now, multi-channel microwave interferometer system is used to measure the cord averaged plasma density at predefined radial position. An inversion code is developed to determine the local density profile from the chord average density measurement of radially asymmetric plasma. The radial density profile is interpolated using Spline interpolation analytical technique for symmetric plasma density profile. Code implements the Slice and Stack method to determine localized density from asymmetric averaged plasma density measurement from interferometer. Inverted results are tested with various monotonically varying asymmetric radial density profiles of the plasma shots. It also provides the poloidal picture of plasma density distribution with circular constant density surfaces. Localized density measurements, which is very important for successful operation of tokamak, is in agreement with observation of other diagnostics.

  3. The simple map for a single-null divertor tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punjabi, A.; Verma, A.; Boozer, A. [Hampton Univ. (Vatican City State, Holy See). Center for Fusion Research and Training

    1996-12-01

    We present the simple map for a single-null divertor tokamak. The simple map is an area-preserving map based on the idea that magnetic field lines are a single-degree-of-freedom time-dependent Hamiltonian system, and that the basic features of such systems near the X-point are generic. We obtain the properties of this map and the resulting footprints of field lines on the divertor plate. These include the width of the stochastic layer, the edge safety factor, the area of the footprint and the amount of magnetic flux diverted. We give the safety factor profile, the average and median values of strike angles, lengths and the Liapunov exponents. We describe how the effects of magnetic perturbations can be included in the simple map. We show how the map can be applied to the problem of the determination of heat flux on the divertor plate in tokamaks. (Author).

  4. Phase Contrast Imaging on the HL-2A Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Gong, Shaobo; Xu, Min; Jiang, Wei; Zhong, Wulv; Shi, Zhongbin; Wang, Huajie; Wu, Yifan; Yuan, Boda; Lan, Tao; Ye, Minyou; Duan, Xuru; HL-2A Team

    2016-10-01

    In this article we present the design of a phase contrast imaging (PCI) system on the HL-2A tokamak. This diagnostic is developed to infer line integrated plasma density fluctuations by measuring the phase shift of an expanded CO2 laser beam passing through magnetically confined high temperature plasmas. This system is designed to diagnose plasma density fluctuations with the maximum wavenumber of 66 cm-1. The designed wavenumber resolution is 2.09cm-1, and the time resolution is higher than 0.2 μs. The broad kρs ranging from 0.34 to 13.37 makes it suitable for turbulence measurement. An upgraded PCI system is also discussed, which is designed for the HL-2M tokamak. Supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Energy Research Project (Grant No. 2015GB120002), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11375053, 11105144, 10905057, 11535013).

  5. Stability and heating of a poloidal divertor tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddle, A. P.; Dexter, R. N.; Holly, D. T.; Lipschultz, B.; Osborne, T. H.; Prager, S. C.; Shepard, D.A., Sprott, J.C.; Witherspoon, F. D.

    1980-06-01

    Five experimental studies - two stability and three heating investigations - have been carried out on Tokapole II, a Tokamak with a four node poloidal divertor. First, discharges have been attained with safety factor q as low as 0.6 over most of the column without degradation of confinement, and correlation of helical instability onset with current profile shape is being studied. Second, the axisymmetric instability has been investigated in detail for various noncircular cross-sectional shapes, and results have been compared with a numerical stability code adapted to the Tokapole machine. Third, application of high power fast wave ion cyclotron resonance heating doubles the ion temperature and permits observation of heating as a function of harmonic number and spatial location of the resonance. Fourth, low power shear Alfven wave propagation is underway to test the applicability of this heating method to tokamaks. Fifth, preionization by electron cyclotron heating has been employed to reduce the startup loop voltage by approx. 60%.

  6. Remote operation of the GOLEM tokamak for Fusion Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, O.; Kocman, J. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering CTU Prague, CZ-115 19 (Czech Republic); Odstrcil, M. [University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Odstrcil, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Matusu, M. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering CTU Prague, CZ-115 19 (Czech Republic); Stöckel, J. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering CTU Prague, CZ-115 19 (Czech Republic); Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague CZ-182 21 (Czech Republic); Svoboda, V., E-mail: svoboda@fjfi.cvut.cz [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering CTU Prague, CZ-115 19 (Czech Republic); Vondrasek, G. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering CTU Prague, CZ-115 19 (Czech Republic); Zara, J. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering CTU Prague, CZ-166 27 (Czech Republic)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The remote operation of the tokamak GOLEM for educational purposes. - Abstract: Practically oriented education in the field of thermonuclear fusion is highly requested. However, the high complexity of appropriate experiments makes it difficult to develop and maintain laboratories where students can take part in hands-on experiments in this field of study. One possible solution is to establish centres with specific high temperature plasma experiments where students can visit such a laboratory and perform their experiments in-situ. With the advancements of IT technologies it naturally follows to make a step forward and connect these with necessary plasma physics technologies and thus allow to access even sophisticated experiments remotely. Tokamak GOLEM is a small, modest device with its infrastructure linked to web technologies allowing students to set-up necessary discharge parameters, submit them into a queue and within minutes obtain the results in the form of a discharge homepage.

  7. Gyrokinetic Simulation of Global Turbulent Transport Properties in Tokamak Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.X.; Lin, Z.; Tang, W.M.; Lee, W.W.; Ethier, S.; Lewandowski, J.L.V.; Rewoldt, G.; Hahm, T.S.; Manickam, J.

    2006-01-01

    A general geometry gyro-kinetic model for particle simulation of plasma turbulence in tokamak experiments is described. It incorporates the comprehensive influence of noncircular cross section, realistic plasma profiles, plasma rotation, neoclassical (equilibrium) electric fields, and Coulomb collisions. An interesting result of global turbulence development in a shaped tokamak plasma is presented with regard to nonlinear turbulence spreading into the linearly stable region. The mutual interaction between turbulence and zonal flows in collisionless plasmas is studied with a focus on identifying possible nonlinear saturation mechanisms for zonal flows. A bursting temporal behavior with a period longer than the geodesic acoustic oscillation period is observed even in a collisionless system. Our simulation results suggest that the zonal flows can drive turbulence. However, this process is too weak to be an effective zonal flow saturation mechanism.

  8. Ageing of structural materials in tokamaks: TEXTOR liner study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckmann, A.; Petersson, P.; Rubel, M.; Fortuna-Zaleśna, E.; Zielinski, W.; Romelczyk-Baishya, B.; Grigore, E.; Ruset, C.; Kreter, A.

    2017-12-01

    After the final shut-down of the tokamak TEXTOR, all of its machine parts became accessible for comprehensive studies. This unique opportunity enabled the study of the Inconel 625 liner by a wide range of methods. The aim was to evaluate eventual alteration of surface and bulk characteristics from recessed wall elements that may influence the machine performance. The surface was covered with stratified layers consisting mainly of boron, carbon, oxygen, and in some cases also silicon. Wall conditioning and limiter materials hence predominantly define deposition on the liner. Deposited layers on recessed wall elements reach micrometre thickness within decades, peel off and may contribute to the dust inventory in tokamaks. Deuterium content was about 4,7 at% on average most probably due to wall conditioning with deuterated gas, and very low concentration in the Inconel substrate. Inconel 625 retained its mechanical strength despite 26 years of cyclic heating, stresses and particle bombardment.

  9. Analytical solutions for Tokamak equilibria with reversed toroidal current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Caroline G. L.; Roberto, M.; Braga, F. L. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo 12228-900 (Brazil); Caldas, I. L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-08-15

    In tokamaks, an advanced plasma confinement regime has been investigated with a central hollow electric current with negative density which gives rise to non-nested magnetic surfaces. We present analytical solutions for the magnetohydrodynamic equilibria of this regime in terms of non-orthogonal toroidal polar coordinates. These solutions are obtained for large aspect ratio tokamaks and they are valid for any kind of reversed hollow current density profiles. The zero order solution of the poloidal magnetic flux function describes nested toroidal magnetic surfaces with a magnetic axis displaced due to the toroidal geometry. The first order correction introduces a poloidal field asymmetry and, consequently, magnetic islands arise around the zero order surface with null poloidal magnetic flux gradient. An analytic expression for the magnetic island width is deduced in terms of the equilibrium parameters. We give examples of the equilibrium plasma profiles and islands obtained for a class of current density profile.

  10. Three-dimensional analysis of tokamaks and stellarators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabedian, Paul R

    2008-09-16

    The NSTAB equilibrium and stability code and the TRAN Monte Carlo transport code furnish a simple but effective numerical simulation of essential features of present tokamak and stellarator experiments. When the mesh size is comparable to the island width, an accurate radial difference scheme in conservation form captures magnetic islands successfully despite a nested surface hypothesis imposed by the mathematics. Three-dimensional asymmetries in bifurcated numerical solutions of the axially symmetric tokamak problem are relevant to the observation of unstable neoclassical tearing modes and edge localized modes in experiments. Islands in compact stellarators with quasiaxial symmetry are easier to control, so these configurations will become good candidates for magnetic fusion if difficulties with safety and stability are encountered in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project.

  11. Three-dimensional analysis of tokamaks and stellarators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabedian, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    The NSTAB equilibrium and stability code and the TRAN Monte Carlo transport code furnish a simple but effective numerical simulation of essential features of present tokamak and stellarator experiments. When the mesh size is comparable to the island width, an accurate radial difference scheme in conservation form captures magnetic islands successfully despite a nested surface hypothesis imposed by the mathematics. Three-dimensional asymmetries in bifurcated numerical solutions of the axially symmetric tokamak problem are relevant to the observation of unstable neoclassical tearing modes and edge localized modes in experiments. Islands in compact stellarators with quasiaxial symmetry are easier to control, so these configurations will become good candidates for magnetic fusion if difficulties with safety and stability are encountered in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project. PMID:18768807

  12. Three-dimensional equilibria in axially symmetric tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabedian, Paul R.

    2006-01-01

    The NSTAB and TRAN computer codes have been developed to study equilibrium, stability, and transport in fusion plasmas with three-dimensional (3D) geometry. The numerical method that is applied calculates islands in tokamaks like the Doublet III-D at General Atomic and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. When bifurcated 3D solutions are used in Monte Carlo computations of the energy confinement time, a realistic simulation of transport is obtained. The significance of finding many 3D magnetohydrodynamic equilibria in axially symmetric tokamaks needs attention because their cumulative effect may contribute to the prompt loss of α particles or to crashes and disruptions that are observed. The 3D theory predicts good performance for stellarators. PMID:17159158

  13. Progress in application of high temperature superconductor in tokamak magnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryaznevich, M.; Svoboda, V.; Stöckel, Jan; Sykes, A.; Sykes, N.; Kingham, D.; Hammond, G.; Apte, P.; Todd, T.N.; Ball, S.; Chappell, S.; Melhem, D.; Ďuran, Ivan; Kovařík, Karel; Grover, O.; Markovič, T.; Odstrčil, M.; Odstrčil, T.; Šindlery, A.; Vondrášek, G.; Kocman, J.; Lilley, M.K.; de Grouchy, P.; Kim, H.-T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 88, 9-10 (2013), s. 1593-1596 ISSN 0920-3796. [Symposium on Fusion Technology (SOFT-27)/27./. Liège, 24.09.2012-28.09.2012] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tokamaks * HTS * magnet s Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.149, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379613001117#

  14. Advanced Tokamak Plasmas in the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.E. Kessel; D. Meade; D.W. Swain; P. Titus; M.A. Ulrickson

    2003-10-13

    The Advanced Tokamak (AT) capability of the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) burning plasma experiment is examined with 0-D systems analysis, equilibrium and ideal-MHD stability, radio-frequency current-drive analysis, and full discharge dynamic simulations. These analyses have identified the required parameters for attractive burning AT plasmas, and indicate that these are feasible within the engineering constraints of the device.

  15. (Injection of compact toroids for tokamak fueling and current drive)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, D.Q.; Rogers, J.H.; Thomas, J.C.; Evans, R.; Foley, R.; Hillyer, T.

    1991-01-01

    The experimental goals for the 1990--1991 period were the operation of the Davis Diverted Tokamak(DDT), the beat wave experiment, and the construction of the compact toroid injection experiment(CTIX). The experiment results from these areas are summarized in the posters given in the APS meeting past November. Here we shall describe the technical progress of the development of the diagnostic system for beat wave experiment, and CT injection especially in relation to the up coming injection experiments into DDT tokamak. The tokamak operation of DDT over the past year has been focused in two parameter ranges. The long pulse discharges (over 100 msec), and the low q short pulse discharges (about 10 msec). We found that the long pulse discharges required a position feedback more sophisticated than the simple passive program that we have. We are in the process of assembling this system. We also found an interesting low q(a) operating regime. Here an equilibrium can be established for a toroidal field between .5 and 1 kG. The typical plasma current is > 5kA. The density of the plasma is between 10{sup 12} and 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3}. The plasma condition in these discharge are sufficiently mild that diagnostic probes can be used to measure various plasma fluctuations. We believe that this will be the regime best suited to study the interaction between the tokamak plasma and the compact toroid. A sophisticated probe system of both electrostatic and electromagnetic types similar to those used in the beat wave experiment has been designed for the up coming experiments.

  16. Structural materials for large superconducting magnets for tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, C.J.

    1976-12-01

    The selection of structural materials for large superconducting magnets for tokamak-type fusion reactors is considered. The important criteria are working stress, radiation resistance, electromagnetic interaction, and general feasibility. The most advantageous materials appear to be face-centered-cubic alloys in the Fe-Ni-Cr system, but high-modulus composites may be necessary where severe pulsed magnetic fields are present. Special-purpose structural materials are considered briefly.

  17. A moving finite element model of the tokamak scrapeoff layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasser, A.H.; Kuprat, A.P.

    1993-10-01

    Most numerical simulations of the tokamak scrapeoff layer use a mapping to flux coordinates and a piecewise equidistributed grid in those coordinates to resolve the multiple length scales and anisotropy characteristic of this problem. We have developed an alternative numerical method using simple cylindrical coordinates with a complex adaptive grid scheme. It is based on an understructured grid of traingles which move adaptively, aligning themselves with the magnetic field and concentrating in regions of sharp gradients.

  18. Application of advanced composites in tokamak magnet systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, C. J.

    1977-11-01

    The use of advanced (high-modulus) composites in superconducting magnets for tokamak fusion reactors is discussed. The most prominent potential application is as the structure in the pulsed poloidal-field coil system, where a significant reduction in eddy currents could be achieved. Present low-temperature data on the advanced composites are reviewed briefly; they are too meager to do more than suggest a broad class of composites for a particular application.

  19. Implementation of rapid imaging system on the COMPASS tokamak.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havránek, Aleš; Weinzettl, Vladimír; Fridrich, David; Cavalier, Jordan; Urban, Jakub; Komm, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 123, November (2017), s. 857-860 ISSN 0920-3796. [SOFT 2016: Symposium on Fusion Technology /29./. Prague, 05.09.2016-09.09.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015045 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Camera * Data acquisition * Video processing * Tokamak Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.319, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S092037961730354X

  20. Remote operation of the GOLEM tokamak for Fusion Education

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grover, O.; Kocman, J.; Odstrčil, M.; Odstrčil, T.; Matušů, M.; Stöckel, Jan; Svoboda, V.; Vondrášek, G.; Žára, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 112, November (2016), s. 1038-1044 ISSN 0920-3796. [Technical Meeting on Control, Data Acquisition, and Remote Participation for Fusion Research IAEA /10./. Ahmedabad, 20.04.2015-24.04.2015] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Tokamak technology * Remote participation * Education * Nuclear fusion Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.319, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379616303441

  1. Automation of Aditya tokamak plasma position control DC power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arambhadiya, Bharat, E-mail: bharat@ipr.res.in; Raj, Harshita; Tanna, R.L.; Edappala, Praveenlal; Rajpal, Rachana; Ghosh, Joydeep; Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Kalal, M.B.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Plasma position control is very essential for obtaining repeatable high temperature, high-density discharges of longer durations in tokomak. • The present capacitor bank has limitations of maximum current capacity and position control beyond 200 ms. • The installation of a separate set of coils and a DC power supply can control the plasma position beyond 200 ms. • A high power thyristor (T588N1200) triggers for DC current pulse of 300 A fires precisely at required positions to modify plasma position. • The commissioning is done for the automated in-house, quick and reliable solution. - Abstract: Plasma position control is essential for obtaining repeatable high temperature, high-density discharges of longer duration in tokamaks. Recently, a set of external coils is installed in the vertical field mode configuration to control the radial plasma position in ADITYA tokamak. The existing capacitor bank cannot provide the required current pulse beyond 200 ms for position control. This motivated to have a DC power supply of 500 A to provide current pulse beyond 200 ms for the position control. The automatization of the DC power supply mandated interfaces with the plasma control system, Aditya Pulse Power supply, and Data acquisition system for coordinated discharge operation. A high current thyristor circuit and a timer circuit have been developed for controlling the power supply automatically for charging vertical field coils of Aditya tokamak. Key protection interlocks implemented in the development ensure machine and occupational safety. Fiber-optic trans-receiver isolates the power supply with other subsystems, while analog channel is optically isolated. Commissioning and testing established proper synchronization of the power supply with tokamak operation. The paper discusses the automation of the DC power supply with main circuit components, timing control, and testing results.

  2. Tokamak startup using point-source dc helicity injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, D J; Bongard, M W; Fonck, R J; Redd, A J; Sontag, A C

    2009-06-05

    Startup of a 0.1 MA tokamak plasma is demonstrated on the ultralow aspect ratio Pegasus Toroidal Experiment using three localized, high-current density sources mounted near the outboard midplane. The injected open field current relaxes via helicity-conserving magnetic turbulence into a tokamaklike magnetic topology where the maximum sustained plasma current is determined by helicity balance and the requirements for magnetic relaxation.

  3. Viscous damping of toroidal angular momentum in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stacey, W. M. [Georgia Tech Fusion Research Center, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    The Braginskii viscous stress tensor formalism was generalized to accommodate non-axisymmetric 3D magnetic fields in general toroidal flux surface geometry in order to provide a representation for the viscous damping of toroidal rotation in tokamaks arising from various “neoclassical toroidal viscosity” mechanisms. In the process, it was verified that the parallel viscosity contribution to damping toroidal angular momentum still vanishes even in the presence of toroidal asymmetries, unless there are 3D radial magnetic fields.

  4. Heavy Neutral Beam Probe for Edge Plasma Analysis in Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castracane, J.

    2001-01-04

    The Heavy Neutral Beam Probe (HNBP) developed initially with DOE funding under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program was installed on the Tokamak de Varennes (TdeV) at the CCFM. This diagnostic was designed to perform fundamental measurements of edge plasma properties. The hardware was capable of measuring electron density and potential profiles with high spatial and temporal resolution. Fluctuation spectra for these parameters were obtained with HNBP for transport studies.

  5. Multi-field plasma sandpile model in tokamaks and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, X. D.; Xu, J. Q.

    2016-08-01

    A multi-field sandpile model of tokamak plasmas is formulated for the first time to simulate the dynamic process with interaction between avalanche events on the fast/micro time-scale and diffusive transports on the slow/macro time-scale. The main characteristics of the model are that both particle and energy avalanches of sand grains are taken into account simultaneously. New redistribution rules of a sand-relaxing process are defined according to the transport properties of special turbulence which allows the uphill particle transport. Applying the model, we first simulate the steady-state plasma profile self-sustained by drift wave turbulences in the Ohmic discharge of a tokamak. A scaling law as f = a q0 b + c for the relation of both center-density n ( 0 ) and electron (ion) temperatures T e ( 0 ) ( T i ( 0 ) ) with the center-safety-factor q 0 is found. Then interesting work about the nonlocal transport phenomenon observed in tokamak experiments proceeds. It is found that the core electron temperature increases rapidly in response to the edge cold pulse and inversely it decreases in response to the edge heat pulse. The results show that the nonlocal response of core electron temperature depending on the amplitudes of background plasma density and temperature is more remarkable in a range of gas injection rate. Analyses indicate that the avalanche transport caused by plasma drift instabilities with thresholds is a possible physical mechanism for the nonlocal transport in tokamaks. It is believed that the model is capable of being applied to more extensive questions occurring in the transport field.

  6. Tokamak operation with safety factor q95 MHD stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, P; Hanson, J M; Martin, P; Navratil, G A; Turco, F; Bialek, J; Ferraro, N M; La Haye, R J; Lanctot, M J; Okabayashi, M; Paz-Soldan, C; Strait, E J; Turnbull, A D; Zanca, P; Baruzzo, M; Bolzonella, T; Hyatt, A W; Jackson, G L; Marrelli, L; Piron, L; Shiraki, D

    2014-07-25

    Magnetic feedback control of the resistive-wall mode has enabled the DIII-D tokamak to access stable operation at safety factor q(95) = 1.9 in divertor plasmas for 150 instability growth times. Magnetohydrodynamic stability sets a hard, disruptive limit on the minimum edge safety factor achievable in a tokamak, or on the maximum plasma current at a given toroidal magnetic field. In tokamaks with a divertor, the limit occurs at q(95) = 2, as confirmed in DIII-D. Since the energy confinement time scales linearly with current, this also bounds the performance of a fusion reactor. DIII-D has overcome this limit, opening a whole new high-current regime not accessible before. This result brings significant possible benefits in terms of fusion performance, but it also extends resistive-wall mode physics and its control to conditions never explored before. In present experiments, the q(95) < 2 operation is eventually halted by voltage limits reached in the feedback power supplies, not by intrinsic physics issues. Improvements to power supplies and to control algorithms have the potential to further extend this regime.

  7. Optimization study of normal conductor tokamak for commercial neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T.; Sakai, R.; Okamoto, A.

    2017-05-01

    The optimum conceptual design of tokamak with normal conductor coils was studied for minimizing the cost for producing a given neutron flux by using a system code, PEC. It is assumed that the fusion neutrons are used for burning transuranics from the fission reactor spent fuel in the blanket and a fraction of the generated electric power is circulated to opearate the tokamak with moderate plasma fusion gain. The plasma performance was assumed to be moderate ones; {β\\text{N}}~∼ ~3{--}4 in the aspect ratio A~=~2{--}3 and {{H}98y2}~=~1 . The circulating power is an important factor affecting the cost. Though decreasing the aspect ratio is useful to raise the plasma beta and decrease the toroidal field, the maximum field in the coil starts to rise in the very low aspect ratio range and then the circulating power increases with decrease in the plasma aspect ratio A below A~∼ ~2 , while the construction cost increases with A . As a result, the cost per neutron has its minimum around A~∼ ~2.2 , namely, between ST and the conventional tokamak. The average circulating power fraction is expected to be ~51%.

  8. TOKAMAK EQUILIBRIA WITH CENTRAL CURRENT HOLES AND NEGATIVE CURRENT DRIVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHU, M.S.; PARKS, P.B.

    2002-06-01

    OAK B202 TOKAMAK EQUILIBRIA WITH CENTRAL CURRENT HOLES AND NEGATIVE CURRENT DRIVE. Several tokamak experiments have reported the development of a central region with vanishing currents (the current hole). Straightforward application of results from the work of Greene, Johnson and Weimer [Phys. Fluids, 3, 67 (1971)] on tokamak equilibrium to these plasmas leads to apparent singularities in several physical quantities including the Shafranov shift and casts doubts on the existence of this type of equilibria. In this paper, the above quoted equilibrium theory is re-examined and extended to include equilibria with a current hole. It is shown that singularities can be circumvented and that equilibria with a central current hole do satisfy the magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium condition with regular behavior for all the physical quantities and do not lead to infinitely large Shafranov shifts. Isolated equilibria with negative current in the central region could exist. But equilibria with negative currents in general do not have neighboring equilibria and thus cannot have experimental realization, i.e. no negative currents can be driven in the central region.

  9. Non-Axisymmetric Shaping of Tokamaks Preserving Quasi-Axisymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long-Poe Ku and Allen H. Boozer

    2009-06-05

    If quasi-axisymmetry is preserved, non-axisymmetric shaping can be used to design tokamaks that do not require current drive, are resilient to disruptions, and have robust plasma stability without feedback. Suggestions for addressing the critical issues of tokamaks can only be validated when presented with sufficient specificity that validating experiments can be designed. The purpose of this paper is provide that specificity for non-axisymmetric shaping. To our knowledge, no other suggestions for the solution of a number of tokamak issues, such as disruptions, have reached this level of specificity. Sequences of three-field-period quasi-axisymmetric plasmas are studied. These sequences address the questions: (1) What can be achieved at various levels of non-axisymmetric shaping? (2) What simplifications to the coils can be achieved by going to a larger aspect ratio? (3) What range of shaping can be achieved in a single experimental facility? The sequences of plasmas found in this study provide a set of interesting and potentially important configurations.

  10. Toroidal flow measurement in CT injected STOR-M tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Tomohiko; Morelli, Jordan; Singh, Ajay; Xiao, Chijin; Hirose, Akira; Nagata, Masayoshi; Uyama, Tadao

    2002-11-01

    Compact Torus (CT) injection is a technology being developed for fueling of large tokamak reactors. It has been demonstrated in the STOR-M tokamak that tangential CT injection is capable of inducing an improved confinement mode (H-mode). It has been conjectured that tangential CT injection may enhance the toroidal rotation of the bulk tokamak plasma which is responsible for the H-mode by preventing or reducing microinstabilities[1]. In order to investigate the mechanisms of the L-H transition induced by enhanced toroidal flow (particularly that caused by CT injection), an Ion Doppler Spectroscope (IDS) has been developed. The IDS employs a 0.75 m focal length Czerny-Turner spectrometer with a resolution of 0.1 Åand a 16-channel PMT array. Data of plasma flow measurements will be presented with and without CT injection. Also, the results will be compared with toroidal flow measurement obtained using a 4-sided Mach probe in the plasma edge region. [1] S. Sen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 185001 (2002).

  11. Compact Torus Fueling of the STOR-M Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, C.; Hirose, A.; Zawalski, W.; White, D.; Raman, R.; Decoste, R.; Gregory, B. C.; Martin, F.

    1996-11-01

    Tangential injection of accelerated compact torus (CT) has been performed on the STOR-M tokamak (R/a=46/12 cm, B_t<1 T, I_p<= 50 kA, barn_e=(0.5 - 1)×10^13 cm-3) using the University of Saskatchewan Compact Torus Injector (USCTI). The CT parameters are: m~=1 μg, v=120 km/sec, B=0.1 T and n=(2 - 4)×10^15 cm-3. After CT injection, the electron density in tokamak doubles and the poloidal β-value increases. Indications of reduction in the loop voltage and H_α emission level have also been observed. Currently, following efforts are being made: (a) to coat chromium on the electrode surface, (b) to increase the on-line baking temperature, and (c) to reduce the neutral gas load which follows the CT plasma. In addition, numerical calculation of CT motion in a tokamak magnetic field has been carried out. For horizontal injection, the initial CT magnetic dipole direction should be aligned with the CT velocity for deeper penetration. In the case of vertical injection, the CT trajectory is independent of the initial magnetic dipole direction and central penetration is facilitated by off-axis injection.

  12. Dust-Particle Transport in Tokamak Edge Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigarov, A Y; Krasheninnikov, S I; Soboleva, T K; Rognlien, T D

    2005-09-12

    Dust particulates in the size range of 10nm-100{micro}m are found in all fusion devices. Such dust can be generated during tokamak operation due to strong plasma/material-surface interactions. Some recent experiments and theoretical estimates indicate that dust particles can provide an important source of impurities in the tokamak plasma. Moreover, dust can be a serious threat to the safety of next-step fusion devices. In this paper, recent experimental observations on dust in fusion devices are reviewed. A physical model for dust transport simulation, and a newly developed code DUSTT, are discussed. The DUSTT code incorporates both dust dynamics due to comprehensive dust-plasma interactions as well as the effects of dust heating, charging, and evaporation. The code tracks test dust particles in realistic plasma backgrounds as provided by edge-plasma transport codes. Results are presented for dust transport in current and next-step tokamaks. The effect of dust on divertor plasma profiles and core plasma contamination is examined.

  13. Disruption-induced poloidal currents in the tokamak wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pustovitov, V.D., E-mail: Pustovitov_VD@nrcki.ru [National Research Centre ‘Kurchatov Institute’, Pl. Kurchatova 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Kashirskoe sh. 31, Moscow 115409, Russia (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Induction effects during disruptions and rapid transient events in tokamaks. • Plasma-wall electromagnetic interaction. • Flux-conserving evolution of plasma equilibrium. • Poloidal current induced in the vacuum vessel wall in a tokamak. • Complete analytical derivations and estimates. - Abstract: The poloidal current induced in the tokamak wall during fast transient events is analytically evaluated. The analysis is based on the electromagnetic relations coupled with plasma equilibrium equations. The derived formulas describe the consequences of both thermal and current quenches. In the final form, they give explicit dependence of the wall current on the plasma pressure and current. A comparison with numerical results of Villone et al. [F. Villone, G. Ramogida, G. Rubinacci, Fusion Eng. Des. 93, 57 (2015)] for IGNITOR is performed. Our analysis confirms the importance of the effects described there. The estimates show that the disruption-induced poloidal currents in the wall should be necessarily taken into account in the studies of disruptions and disruption mitigation in ITER.

  14. Intrinsic momentum transport in up-down asymmetric tokamaks

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Justin; Barnes, Michael; Dorland, William; Hammett, Gregory W; Rodrigues, Paulo; Loureiro, Nuno F

    2014-01-01

    Recent work demonstrated that breaking the up-down symmetry of tokamak flux surfaces removes a constraint that limits intrinsic momentum transport, and hence toroidal rotation, to be small. We show, through MHD analysis, that ellipticity is most effective at introducing up-down asymmetry throughout the plasma. We detail an extension to GS2, a local $\\delta f$ gyrokinetic code that self-consistently calculates momentum transport, to permit up-down asymmetric configurations. Tokamaks with tilted elliptical poloidal cross-sections were simulated to determine nonlinear momentum transport. The results, which are consistent with experiment in magnitude, suggest that a toroidal velocity gradient, $\\left( \\partial u_{\\zeta i} / \\partial \\rho \\right) / v_{th i}$, of 5% of the temperature gradient, $\\left(\\partial T_{i} / \\partial \\rho \\right) / T_{i}$, is sustainable. Here $v_{th i}$ is the ion thermal speed, $u_{\\zeta i}$ is the ion toroidal mean flow, $\\rho$ is the minor radial coordinate normalized to the tokamak m...

  15. On the computation of the disruption forces in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustovitov, V. D.; Rubinacci, G.; Villone, F.

    2017-12-01

    The currents and forces induced in the tokamak vacuum vessel (wall) during the disruption are calculated for different values of wall resistivity. Several consequences and new developments are derived from the general result that the global disruption force acting on the perfectly conducting wall must be exactly opposite to the similar force acting on the plasma, which is inherently small in tokamaks. This theoretical prediction is tested and confirmed here for the ITER tokamak with disruption modelled as the fast thermal quench followed by slower current quench that develops into the vertical displacement event. The plasma is simulated by the evolutionary equilibrium code CarMa0NL. One of the results is that the computed integral force on a perfectly conducting wall is zero at each instant during a disruption. This in turn highlights the importance of having good models for the plasma (in which the equilibrium constraint is explicitly imposed) and for the structures (able to correctly describe the induced currents and the resistive effects). The dependence of the disruption force on the magnetic field penetration through the wall is demonstrated. Also the concept of a disruption force damper is proposed, able to ‘absorb’ a significant part of the force that would arise on a resistive wall during a disruption.

  16. Core fueling to produce peaked density profiles in large tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.; McGuire, K.M.; Schmidt, G.L.; Zweben, S.J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Attenberger, S.E.; Houlberg, W.A.; Milora, S.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Peaking the density profile increases the usable bootstrap current and the average fusion power density; this could reduce the current drive power and increase the net output of power producing tokamaks. The use of neutral beams and pellet injection to produce peaked density profiles is assessed. We show that with radially ``hollow`` diffusivity profiles (and no particle pinch) moderately peaked density profiles can be produced by particle source profiles which are peaked off-axis. The fueling penetration requirements can therefore be relaxed and this greatly improves the feasibility of generating peaked density profiles in large tokamaks. In particular, neutral beam fueling does not require MeV particle energy. Even with beam voltages of {approximately}200 keV, however, exceptionally good particle confinement, {tau}{sub p} {much_gt} {tau}{sub E} is required to achieve net electrical power generation. In system with no power production requirement (e.g., neutron sources) neutral beam fueling should be capable of producing peaked density profiles in devices as large as ITER. Fueling systems with low energy cost per particle (such as cryogenic pellet injection) must be used in power producing tokamaks when {tau}{sub p} {approximately} {tau}{sub E}. Simulations with pellet injection speeds of 7 km/sec show the peaking factor, n{sub eo}/{l_angle}n{sub e}{r_angle}, approaching 2.

  17. Effect of Magnetic Islands on Divertors in Tokamaks and Stellarators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punjabi, Alkesh; Boozer, Allen

    2017-10-01

    Divertors are required for handling the plasma particle and heat exhausts on the walls in fusion plasmas. Relatively simple methods, models, and maps from field line Hamiltonian are developed to better understand the interaction of strong plasma shaping and magnetic islands on the size and behavior of the magnetic flux tubes that go from the plasma edge to the wall in non-axisymmetric system. This approach is applicable not only in tokamaks but also in stellarators. Stellarator diverters in which magnetic islands are dominant are called resonant and when shaping is dominant are called non-resonant. Optimized stellarators generally have sharp edges on their surface, but unlike the case for tokamaks these edges do not encircle the entire plasma, so they do not define an edge value for the rotational transform. The approach is used in the DIII-D tokamak. Computation results are consistent with the predictions of the models. Further simulations are being done to understand why the transition from an effective cubic to a linear increase in loss time and area of footprint occurs and whether this increase is discontinuous or not. This work is supported by the US DOE Grants DE-FG02-01ER54624 and DE-FG02-04ER54793 to Hampton University and DE-FG02-95ER54333 to Columbia University. This research used resources of the NERSC, supported by the Office of Science, US DOE, under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  18. Energy and particle core transport in tokamaks and stellarators compared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beurskens, Marc; Angioni, Clemente; Beidler, Craig; Dinklage, Andreas; Fuchert, Golo; Hirsch, Matthias; Puetterich, Thomas; Wolf, Robert [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald/Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The paper discusses expectations for core transport in the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator (W7-X) and presents a comparison to tokamaks. In tokamaks, the neoclassical trapped-particle-driven losses are small and turbulence dominates the energy and particle transport. At reactor relevant low collisionality, the heat transport is limited by ion temperature gradient limited turbulence, clamping the temperature gradient. The particle transport is set by an anomalous inward pinch, yielding peaked profiles. A strong edge pedestal adds to the good confinement properties. In traditional stellarators the 3D geometry cause increased trapped orbit losses. At reactor relevant low collisionality and high temperatures, these neoclassical losses would be well above the turbulent transport losses. The W7-X design minimizes neoclassical losses and turbulent transport can become dominant. Moreover, the separation of regions of bad curvature and that of trapped particle orbits in W7-X may have favourable implications on the turbulent electron heat transport. The neoclassical particle thermodiffusion is outward. Without core particle sources the density profile is flat or even hollow. The presence of a turbulence driven inward anomalous particle pinch in W7-X (like in tokamaks) is an open topic of research.

  19. Statistical analysis of first period of operation of FTU Tokamak; Analisi statistica del primo periodo di operazioni del Tokamak FTU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisanti, F.; Apruzzese, G.; Frigione, D.; Kroegler, H.; Lovisetto, L.; Mazzitelli, G.; Podda, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1996-09-01

    On the FTU Tokamak the plasma physics operations started on the 20/4/90. The first plasma had a plasma current Ip=0.75 MA for about a second. The experimental phase lasted until 7/7/94, when a long shut-down begun for installing the toroidal limiter in the inner side of the vacuum vessel. In these four years of operations plasma experiments have been successfully exploited, e.g. experiments of single and multiple pellet injections; full current drive up to Ip=300 KA was obtained by using waves at the frequency of the Lower Hybrid; analysis of ohmic plasma parameters with different materials (from the low Z silicon to high Z tungsten) as plasma facing element was performed. In this work a statistical analysis of the full period of operation is presented. Moreover, a comparison with the statistical data from other Tokamaks is attempted.

  20. Improvement of system code importing evaluation of Life Cycle Analysis of tokamak fusion power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobori, Hikaru [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kasada, Ryuta, E-mail: r-kasada@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Hiwatari, Ryoji [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Konishi, Satoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We incorporated the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of tokamak type DEMO reactor and following commercial reactors as an extension of a system code. • We calculated CO{sub 2} emissions from reactor construction, operation and decommissioning that is considered as a major environmental cost. • We found that the objective of conceptual design of the tokamak fusion power reactor is moved by changing evaluation index. • The tokamak fusion reactor can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the life cycle effectively by reduction of the amount involved in the replacement of internal components. • The tokamak fusion reactor achieves under 0.174$/kWh electricity cost, the tokamak fusion reactor is contestable with 1500 degrees-class LNG-fired combined cycle power plant. - Abstract: This study incorporate the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of tokamak type DEMO reactor and following commercial reactors as an extension of a system code to calculate CO{sub 2} emissions from reactor construction, operation and decommissioning that is considered as a major environmental cost. Competitiveness of tokamak fusion power reactors is expected to be evaluated by the cost and environmental impact represented by the CO{sub 2} emissions, compared with present and future power generating systems such as fossil, nuclear and renewables. Result indicated that (1) The objective of conceptual design of the tokamak fusion power reactor is moved by changing evaluation index. (2) The tokamak fusion reactor can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the life cycle effectively by reduction of the amount involved in the replacement of internal components. (3) The tokamak fusion reactor achieves under 0.174$/kWh electricity cost, the tokamak fusion reactor is contestable with 1500 degrees-class LNG-fired combined cycle power plant.

  1. Characterization of the Novillo Tokamak in main discharge regime; Caracterizacion del Tokamak Novillo en regimen de descarga principal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez C, R.; Melendez L, L.; Chavez A, E.; Colunga S, S.; Valencia A, R.; Gaytan G, E

    1992-07-15

    The analytical procedure to carry out the establishment of the discharge in a Tokamak including: a) Ionization, b) Diffusion losses, recombination, union, drift speed, spurious fields, and c) Electric field is presented. In an experimental way a procedure settles down by means of which it is characterized the plasma, specially a new characteristic discharge parameter is settled down and it is the plasma current by the duration of the (I{sub p}t) discharge. (Author)

  2. Calculation about a modification to the toroidal magnetic field of the Tokamak Novillo. Part I; Calculo sobre una modificacion al campo magnetico toroidal del Tokamak Novillo. Parte I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez A, E.; Melendez L, L.; Colunga S, S.; Valencia A, R.; Lopez C, R.; Gaytan G, E

    1991-07-15

    The charged particles that constitute the plasma in the tokamaks are located in magnetic fields that determine its behavior. The poloidal magnetic field of the plasma current and the toroidal magnetic field of the tokamak possess relatively big gradients, which produce drifts on these particles. These drifts are largely the cause of the continuous lost of particles and of energy of the confinement region. In this work the results of numerical calculations of a modification to the 'traditional' toroidal magnetic field that one waits it diminishes the drifts by gradient and improve the confinement properties of the tokamaks. (Author)

  3. Including collisions in gyrokinetic tokamak and stellarator simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffmann, Karla

    2012-04-10

    Particle and heat transport in fusion devices often exceed the neoclassical prediction. This anomalous transport is thought to be produced by turbulence caused by microinstabilities such as ion and electron-temperature-gradient (ITG/ETG) and trapped-electron-mode (TEM) instabilities, the latter ones known for being strongly influenced by collisions. Additionally, in stellarators, the neoclassical transport can be important in the core, and therefore investigation of the effects of collisions is an important field of study. Prior to this thesis, however, no gyrokinetic simulations retaining collisions had been performed in stellarator geometry. In this work, collisional effects were added to EUTERPE, a previously collisionless gyrokinetic code which utilizes the {delta}f method. To simulate the collisions, a pitch-angle scattering operator was employed, and its implementation was carried out following the methods proposed in [Takizuka and Abe 1977, Vernay Master's thesis 2008]. To test this implementation, the evolution of the distribution function in a homogeneous plasma was first simulated, where Legendre polynomials constitute eigenfunctions of the collision operator. Also, the solution of the Spitzer problem was reproduced for a cylinder and a tokamak. Both these tests showed that collisions were correctly implemented and that the code is suited for more complex simulations. As a next step, the code was used to calculate the neoclassical radial particle flux by neglecting any turbulent fluctuations in the distribution function and the electric field. Particle fluxes in the neoclassical analytical regimes were simulated for tokamak and stellarator (LHD) configurations. In addition to the comparison with analytical fluxes, a successful benchmark with the DKES code was presented for the tokamak case, which further validates the code for neoclassical simulations. In the final part of the work, the effects of collisions were investigated for slab and toroidal

  4. Effect of limiter currents on plasma equilibrium and stability in a tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belashov, V. I.; Gribov, Yu. V.; Putvinskij, S. V.; Brevnov, N. N.

    The results of theoretical and experimental research of currents between diaphragms limiting plasma cord in tokamak on plasma equilibrium and stability with an arbitrary form of transverse cross section are presented. It is shown that plasma cord behaviour depends on applied voltage polarity. The phenomena considered can be important for tokamaks in which fast plasma compression in a big radius is invisaged.

  5. Systematic design and simulation of a tearing mode suppression feedback control system for the TEXTOR tokamak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennen, B.A.; Westerhof, E.; Nuij, Pwjm; M.R. de Baar,; Steinbuch, M.

    2012-01-01

    Suppression of tearing modes is essential for the operation of tokamaks. This paper describes the design and simulation of a tearing mode suppression feedback control system for the TEXTOR tokamak. The two main control tasks of this feedback control system are the radial alignment of electron

  6. Tokamak plasma self-organization and the possibility to have the peaked density profile in ITER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Razumova, K. A.; Andreev, V. F.; Kislov, A. Y.; Kirneva, N. A.; Lysenko, S. E.; Pavlov, Y. D.; Shafranov, T. V.; Donne, A. J. H.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Spakman, G. W.; R. Jaspers,; Kantor, M.; Walsh, M.

    2009-01-01

    The self-organization of a tokamak plasma is a fundamental turbulent plasma phenomenon, which leads to the formation of a self-consistent pressure profile. This phenomenon has been investigated in several tokamaks with different methods of heating. It is shown that the normalized pressure profile

  7. Transport and turbulence in a magnetized plasma (application to tokamak plasmas); Transport et turbulence dans un plasma magnetise (application aux plasmas de tokamaks)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarazin, Y

    2004-03-01

    This document gathers the lectures made in the framework of a Ph.D level physics class dedicated to plasma physics. This course is made up of 3 parts : 1) collisions and transport, 2) transport and turbulence, and 3) study of a few exchange instabilities. More precisely the first part deals with the following issues: thermonuclear fusion, Coulomb collisions, particles trajectories in a tokamak, neo-classical transport in tokamaks, the bootstrap current, and ware pinch. The second part involves: particle transport in tokamaks, quasi-linear transport, resonance islands, resonance in tokamaks, from quasi to non-linear transport, and non-linear saturation of turbulence. The third part deals with: shift velocities in fluid theory, a model for inter-change instabilities, Rayleigh-Benard instability, Hasegawa-Wakatani model, and Hasegawa-Mima model. This document ends with a series of appendices dealing with: particle-wave interaction, determination of the curvature parameter G, Rossby waves.

  8. A charged fusion product diagnostic for a spherical tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Ramona Leticia Valenzuela

    Designs for future nuclear fusion power reactors rely on the ability to create a stable plasma (hot ionized gas of hydrogen isotopes) as a medium with which to sustain nuclear fusion reactions. My dissertation work involves designing, constructing, testing, installing, operating, and validating a new diagnostic for spherical tokamaks, a type of reactor test facility. Through detecting charged particles emitted from the plasma, this instrument can be used to study fusion reaction rates within the plasma and how they are affected by plasma perturbations. Quantitatively assessing nuclear fusion reaction rates at specific locations inside the plasma and as a function of time can provide valuable data that can be used to evaluate theory-based simulations related to energy transport and plasma stability. The Proton Detector (PD), installed in the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) at the Culham Centre for Fusion Energy (CCFE) in Abingdon, England, was the first instrument to experimentally detect 3 MeV Protons and 1 MeV Tritons created from deuterium- deuterium (hydrogen isotopes) nuclear fusion reactions inside a spherical tokamak's plasma. The PD consists of an array of particle detectors with a protective housing and the necessary signal conditioning electronics and readout. After several years of designing (which included simulations for detector orientations), fabricating, and testing the PD, it was installed in MAST and data were collected over a period of two months in the summer of 2013. Proton and triton rates as high as 200 kHz were measured and an initial radial profile of these fusion reaction rates inside the plasma was extracted. These results will be compared to a complementary instrument at MAST as well as theory-based simulations and form the knowledge basis for developing a larger future instrument. The design and performance of all instrument components (electrical, computational, mechanical), and subsequent data analysis methods and results are

  9. Magneto-hydro-dynamic limits in spherical tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hender, T. C.; Allfrey, S. J.; Akers, R.; Appel, L. C.; Bevir, M. K.; Buttery, R. J.; Gryaznevich, M.; Jenkins, I.; Kwon, O. J.; McClements, K. G.; Martin, R.; Medvedev, S.; Nightingale, M. P. S.; Ribeiro, C.; Roach, C. M.; Robinson, D. C.; Sharapov, S. E.; Sykes, A.; Villard, L.; Walsh, M. J.

    1999-05-01

    The operational limits observed in spherical tokamaks, notably the small tight aspect ratio tokamak (START) device [A. Sykes et al., Nucl. Fusion 32, 694 (1992)], are consistent with those found in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. In particular the highest β achieved (˜40%) is consistent with an ideal magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) Troyon type limit, the upper limit on density is well described by the Greenwald density (πa2n¯e/Ip˜1) and the normalized current (Ip/aBt) is limited such that q95≳2. Stability calculations indicate scope for increasing both normalized β and normalized current beyond the values so far achieved, although wall stabilization is generally needed for low-n modes. In double null configurations current terminating disruptions occur at each of the operational boundaries, though the current quench tends to be slow at the density limit and disruptions at high β may be due to the low q. In early limiter START discharges, before the divertor coils were installed, disruptions rarely occurred. Instead internal reconnection events which have all the characteristics of a disruption except the current quench occurred. These various disruptive behaviors are explained in terms of a model in which helicity is conserved during the disruption. Due to the low toroidal field beam ions in START, and α particles in a ST power plant, are super-Alfvénic. This gives the possibility for toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAEs) to occur and such modes are frequently observed in START neutral beam injection (NBI) discharges, but seem to be benign. The features of these observed TAEs are shown to be in agreement with MHD calculations.

  10. Integrated tokamak modeling: when physics informs engineering and research planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Francesca

    2017-10-01

    Simulations that integrate virtually all the relevant engineering and physics aspects of a real tokamak experiment are a power tool for experimental interpretation, model validation and planning for both present and future devices. This tutorial will guide through the building blocks of an ``integrated'' tokamak simulation, such as magnetic flux diffusion, thermal, momentum and particle transport, external heating and current drive sources, wall particle sources and sinks. Emphasis is given to the connection and interplay between external actuators and plasma response, between the slow time scales of the current diffusion and the fast time scales of transport, and how reduced and high-fidelity models can contribute to simulate a whole device. To illustrate the potential and limitations of integrated tokamak modeling for discharge prediction, a helium plasma scenario for the ITER pre-nuclear phase is taken as an example. This scenario presents challenges because it requires core-edge integration and advanced models for interaction between waves and fast-ions, which are subject to a limited experimental database for validation and guidance. Starting from a scenario obtained by re-scaling parameters from the demonstration inductive ``ITER baseline'', it is shown how self-consistent simulations that encompass both core and edge plasma regions, as well as high-fidelity heating and current drive source models are needed to set constraints on the density, magnetic field and heating scheme. This tutorial aims at demonstrating how integrated modeling, when used with adequate level of criticism, can not only support design of operational scenarios, but also help to asses the limitations and gaps in the available models, thus indicating where improved modeling tools are required and how present experiments can help their validation and inform research planning. Work supported by DOE under DE-AC02-09CH1146.

  11. MHD Effects of a Ferritic Wall on Tokamak Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Paul E.

    It has been recognized for some time that the very high fluence of fast (14.1MeV) neutrons produced by deuterium-tritium fusion will represent a major materials challenge for the development of next-generation fusion energy projects such as a fusion component test facility and demonstration fusion power reactor. The best-understood and most promising solutions presently available are a family of low-activation steels originally developed for use in fission reactors, but the ferromagnetic properties of these steels represent a danger to plasma confinement through enhancement of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities and increased susceptibility to error fields. At present, experimental research into the effects of ferromagnetic materials on MHD stability in toroidal geometry has been confined to demonstrating that it is still possible to operate an advanced tokamak in the presence of ferromagnetic components. In order to better quantify the effects of ferromagnetic materials on tokamak plasma stability, a new ferritic wall has been installated in the High Beta Tokamak---Extended Pulse (HBT-EP) device. The development, assembly, installation, and testing of this wall as a modular upgrade is described, and the effect of the wall on machine performance is characterized. Comparative studies of plasma dynamics with the ferritic wall close-fitting against similar plasmas with the ferritic wall retracted demonstrate substantial effects on plasma stability. Resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) are applied, demonstrating a 50% increase in n = 1 plasma response amplitude when the ferritic wall is near the plasma. Susceptibility of plasmas to disruption events increases by a factor of 2 or more with the ferritic wall inserted, as disruptions are observed earlier with greater frequency. Growth rates of external kink instabilities are observed to be twice as large in the presence of a close-fitting ferritic wall. Initial studies are made of the influence of mode rotation frequency

  12. On the minimum circulating power of steady state tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.; Fukuyama, A.; Yagi, M.

    1995-07-01

    Circulating power for the sustenance and profile control of the steady state tokamak plasmas is discussed. The simultaneous fulfillment of the MHD stability at high beta value, the improved confinement and the stationary equilibrium requires the rotation drive as well as the current drive. In addition to the current drive efficiency, the efficiency for the rotation drive is investigated. The direct rotation drive by the external torque, such as the case of beam injection, is not efficient enough. The mechanism and the magnitude of the spontaneous plasma rotation are studied. (author).

  13. Hall effect on tearing mode instabilities in tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Ma, Z. W.; Wang, S.

    2017-10-01

    The tearing mode instability is one of the most important dynamic processes in space and laboratory plasmas. Hall effects, resulting from the decoupling of electron and ion motions, can cause fast development and rotation of the perturbation structure of the tearing mode. A high-accuracy nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics code is developed to study Hall effects on the evolution of tearing modes in the Tokamak geometry. It is found that the linear growth rate increases with the increase in the ion skin depth and the self-consistently generated rotation can greatly alter the dynamic behavior of the double tearing mode.

  14. System design of toroidal field power supply of CDD tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zheng Zhi

    1996-12-01

    This report deals with system design of Toroidal Field Power Supply of CDD tokamak (CDD-TFPS). The general design philosophy and design variations are introduced. After the outline of CDD-TFPS, the short-circuit calculation, the evaluation of converter parameters, the compatibility of converter and line are carried out. the specifications of major components, semi-conductor devices and accessories are given. High attention is paid to protection system. The design of sub-control and grounding system are described too. Some more general material for power supply design are attached in appendices for reference. (author). 30 tabs., 21 figs.

  15. Dynamic modeling of transport and positional control of tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardin, S.C.; Pomphrey, N.; DeLucia, J.

    1985-10-01

    We describe here a numerical model of a free boundary axisymmetric tokamak plasma and its associated control systems. The plasma is modeled with a hybrid method using two-dimensional velocity and flux functions with surface-averaged MHD equations describing the evolution of the adiabatic invariants. Equations are solved for the external circuits and for the effects of eddy currents in nearby conductors. The method is verified by application to several test problems and used to simulate the formation of a bean-shaped plasma in the PBX experiment.

  16. Plasma facing components design of KT-2 tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    In, Sang Ryul; Yoon, Byung Joo; Song, Woo Soeb [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Xu, Chao Yin [China Univ. of Science and Technology, Hefei, AH (China)

    1997-04-01

    The vacuum vessel of KT-2 tokamak is protected from high thermal loads by various kinds of plasma facing components (PFC): outer and inner divertors, neutral baffle, inboard limiter, poloidal limiter, movable limiter and passive plate, installed on the inner wall of the vessel. In this report the pre-engineering design of the plasma facing components, including design requirements and function, structures of PFC assemblies, configuration of cooling systems, calculations of some mechanical and hydraulic parameters, is presented. Pumping systems for the movable limiter and the divertor are also discussed briefly. (author). 49 figs.

  17. Liquid nitrogen cooling considerations of the Compact Ignition Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabiri, A.E.

    1986-10-01

    A simple model was developed to estimate the cooldown time between pulses of toroidal field (TF) coils of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) using liquid nitrogen. Good agreement was obtained between the analysis results and those measured in the early fusion experimental devices. A cooldown time of about 1 h would reduce the TF coil temperature to about 80 K. An R and D experimental program is required to determine the actual cooldown time between pulses, an issue in the conceptual design of the CIT.

  18. Spectral measurements of runway electrons in the TEXTOR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudyakov, Timur

    2009-07-22

    The generation of multi-MeV runaway electrons is a well known effect related to the plasma disruptions in tokamaks. The runaway electrons can substantially reduce the lifetime of the future tokamak ITER. In this thesis physical properties of runaway electrons and their possible negative effects on ITER have been studied in the TEXTOR tokamak. A new diagnostic, a scanning probe, has been developed to provide direct measurements of the absolute number of runaway electrons coming from the plasma, its energy distribution and the related energy load in the material during low density (runaway) discharges and during disruptions. The basic elements of the probe are YSO crystals which transform the energy of runaway electrons into visible light which is guided via optical fibres to photomultipliers. In order to obtain the energy distribution of runaways, the crystals are covered with layers of stainless steel (or tungsten in two earlier test versions) of different thicknesses. The final probe design has 9 crystals and can temporally and spectrally resolve electrons with energies between 4 MeV and 30 MeV. The probe is tested and absolutely calibrated at the linear electron accelerator ELBE in Rossendorf. The measurements are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations using the Geant4 code. The runaway transport in the presence of the internal and externally applied magnetic perturbations has been studied. The diffusion coefficient and the value of the magnetic fluctuation for runaways were derived as a function of B{sub t}. It was found that an increase of runaway losses from the plasma with the decreasing toroidal magnetic field is accompanied with a growth of the magnetic fluctuation in the plasma. The magnetic shielding picture could be confirmed which predicts that the runaway loss occurs predominantly for low energy runaways (few MeV) and considerably less for the high energy ones. In the case of the externally applied magnetic perturbations by means of the dynamic

  19. Alpha Particle Physics Experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budny, R.V.; Darrow, D.S.; Medley, S.S.; Nazikian, R.; Zweben, S.J.; et al.

    1998-12-14

    Alpha particle physics experiments were done on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during its deuterium-tritium (DT) run from 1993-1997. These experiments utilized several new alpha particle diagnostics and hundreds of DT discharges to characterize the alpha particle confinement and wave-particle interactions. In general, the results from the alpha particle diagnostics agreed with the classical single-particle confinement model in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) quiescent discharges. Also, the observed alpha particle interactions with sawteeth, toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE), and ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) waves were roughly consistent with theoretical modeling. This paper reviews what was learned and identifies what remains to be understood.

  20. Dynamics of nano-dust in tokamak edge plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasheninnikov, S.I., E-mail: skrash@mae.ucsd.edu [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Soboleva, T.K. [ICN, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico DF (Mexico); Mendis, D.A. [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2011-08-01

    The dynamics of nano-scale dust for tokamak edge conditions is reviewed. It is shown that unlike micron-scale grains, where the ion-grain friction is the dominant force acting on the grain, nano-dust dynamics is the subject of both friction and Lorentz forces. Possible impact of nano-dust on MARFE is investigated and it is found that dust, providing plasma particle sink and thus causing plasma flow, can play a dominant role in the localization of impurity in low temperature region. It is also shown that dust can significantly reduce the growth rate of flute instability.

  1. Steady-state current drive in tokamaks workshop summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to identify the most promising techniques and to outline the expectations for tokamak reactor concepts. The group which included beam and rf specialists were asked to assist in the preparation of specific recommendations for the establishment of a program directed at demonstrating current drive. This report includes the recommendations and conclusions as prepared by A. Bers, D. Jassby, and T. Hsu and the summary papers submitted by the participants describing the various experiments and studies presented at the workshop.

  2. Nonlinear saturation of ballooning modes in tokamaks and stellarators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F.; Garabedian, P.; Betancourt, O.

    1988-01-01

    The spectral code BETAS computes plasma equilibrium in a toroidal magnetic field B = [unk]s × [unk]Ψ with remarkable accuracy because the finite difference scheme employed in the radial direction allows for discontinuities of the flux function Ψ across the nested surfaces s = const. Instability of higher modes in stellarators like the Heliotron E can be detected in roughly an hour on the best supercomputers by calculating bifurcated equilibria that are defined over just one field period. The method has been validated by comparing results about nonlinear saturation of ballooning modes in tokamaks with numerical data from the PEST code. PMID:16593984

  3. Magnetic field threshold for runaway generation in tokamak disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    F"Ul"Op, T.; Pokol, G.; Smith, H. M.; Helander, P.

    2009-05-01

    Due to a sudden cooling of the plasma in tokamak disruptions a beam of relativistic runaway electrons is sometimes generated, which may cause damage on plasma facing components. Experimental observations on large tokamaks show that the number of runaway electrons produced in disruptions depends on the magnetic field strength. In this work, two possible reasons for this threshold are studied. The first possible explanation for these observations is that the runaway beam excites whistler waves that scatter the electrons in velocity space and prevents the beam from growing. The growth rates of the most unstable whistler waves are inversely proportional to the magnetic field strength and it is possible to derive a magnetic field threshold below which no runaways are expected. The second possible explanation is the magnetic field dependence of the criterion for substantial runaway production determined by the induced electric field available and by the efficiency of the generation mechanisms. It is shown, that even in rapidly cooling plasmas, where hot-tail generation is expected to give rise to substantial runaway population, the whistler waves can stop the runaway formation below a certain magnetic field unless the post-disruption temperature is very low.

  4. Hand-eye coordinative remote maintenance in a tokamak vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Qiang, E-mail: qiu6401@sjtu.edu.cn; Gu, Kai, E-mail: gukai0707@sjtu.edu.cn; Wang, Pengfei, E-mail: wpf790714@163.com; Bai, Weibang, E-mail: 654253204@qq.com; Cao, Qixin, E-mail: qxcao@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • If there is not rotation between the visual coordinate frame (O{sub e}X{sub e}Y{sub e}) and hand coordinate frame (O{sub h}X{sub h}Y{sub h}), a person can coordinate the movement between hand and eye easily. • We establish an alignment between the movement of the operator's hand and the visual scene of the end-effector as displayed on the monitor. • A potential function is set up in a simplified vacuum vessel model to provide a fast collision checking, and the alignment between repulsive force and Omega 7 feedback force is accomplished. • We carry out an experiment to evaluate its performance in a remote handling task. - Abstract: The reliability is vitally important for the remote maintenance in a tokamak vessel. In order to establish a more accurate and safer remote handling system, a hand-eye coordination method and an artificial potential function based collision avoidance method were proposed in this paper. At the end of this paper, these methods were implemented to a bolts tightening maintenance task, which was carried out in our 1/10 scale tokamak model. Experiment results have verified the value of the hand-eye coordination method and the collision avoidance method.

  5. Lithium beam diagnostic system on the COMPASS tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anda, G.; Bencze, A. [Wigner – RCP, HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Berta, M., E-mail: bertam@sze.hu [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Széchenyi István University, Győr (Hungary); Dunai, D. [Wigner – RCP, HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Hacek, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Krbec, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Réfy, D.; Krizsanóczi, T.; Bató, S.; Ilkei, T.; Kiss, I.G.; Veres, G.; Zoletnik, S. [Wigner – RCP, HAS, Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Li-beam diagnostic system on the COMPASS tokamak is an improved and compact system to allow testing of Atomic Beam Probe. • The possibility to measure background corrected density profiles on the few microseconds time scale. • First Li-beam diagnostic system with recirculating neutralizer. • The system includes the redesigned ion source with longer lifetime. - Abstract: An improved lithium beam based beam emission spectroscopy system – installed on COMPASS tokamak – is described. The beam energy enhanced up to 120 keV for Atomic Beam Probe measurement. The size of the ion source is doubled, using a newly developed thermionic heater instead of the conventionally used heating (tungsten or molybdenum) filament. The neutralizer is also improved. It produces the same sodium vapor in a cell but minimize the loss condensing the vapor on a cold surface which is led back (in fluid state) into the sodium oven. This way we call it recirculating neutralizer. The observation system consists of a CCD camera and an avalanche photodiode array.

  6. Active cooling system for Tokamak in-vessel operation manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Jianjun, E-mail: yuanjj@sjtu.edu.cn; Chen, Tan; Li, Fashe; Zhang, Weijun; Du, Liang

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We summarized most of the challenges of fusion devices to robot systems. • Propose an active cooling system to protect all of the necessary components. • Trial design test and theoretical analysis were conducted. • Overall implementation of the active cooling system was demonstrated. - Abstract: In-vessel operation/inspection is an indispensable task for Tokamak experimental reactor, for a robot/manipulator is more capable in doing this than human being with more precise motion and less risk of damaging the ambient equipment. Considering the demanding conditions of Tokamak, the manipulator should be adaptable to rapid response in the extreme conditions such as high temperature, vacuum and so on. In this paper, we propose an active cooling system embedded into such manipulator. Cameras, motors, gearboxes, sensors, and other mechanical/electrical components could then be designed under ordinary conditions. The cooling system cannot only be a thermal shield since the components are also heat sources in dynamics. We carry out a trial test to verify our proposal, and analyze the active cooling system theoretically, which gives a direction on the optimization by varying design parameters, components and distribution. And based on thermal sensors monitoring and water flow adjusting a closed-loop feedback control of temperature is added to the system. With the preliminary results, we believe that the proposal gives a way to robust and inexpensive design in extreme environment. Further work will concentrate on overall implementation and evaluation of this cooling system with the whole inspection manipulator.

  7. ADVANCES IN DUST DETECTION AND REMOVAL FOR TOKAMAKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, A.; Skinner, C.H.

    2009-01-01

    Dust diagnostics and removal techniques are vital for the safe operation of next step fusion devices such as ITER. In the tokamak environment, large particles or fi bers can fall on the electrostatic detector potentially causing a permanent short. An electrostatic dust detector developed in the laboratory is being applied to the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). We report on the development of a gas puff system that uses helium to clear such particles from the detector. Experiments at atmospheric pressure with varying nozzle designs, backing pressures, puff durations and exit fl ow orientations have given an optimal confi guration that effectively removes particles from a 25 cm² area. Similar removal effi ciencies were observed under a vacuum base pressure of 1 mTorr. Dust removal from next step tokamaks will be required to meet regulatory dust limits. A tri-polar grid of fi ne interdigitated traces has been designed that generates an electrostatic traveling wave for conveying dust particles to a “drain.” First trials with only two working electrodes have shown particle motion in optical microscope images.

  8. SLPX: superconducting long-pulse tokamak experiment. [NbTi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jassby, D.L.; File, J.; Bronner, G.

    1978-09-25

    The principal objectives of the SLPX (Superconducting Long-Pulse Experiment) are: (1) to demonstrate quasi-steady operation of 3 to 5 MA hydrogen and deuterium tokamak plasmas at high temperature and high thermal wall loading, and (2) to develop reliable operation of prototypical tokamak reactor magnetics systems featuring a toroidal assembly of high-field niobium-tin coils, and a system of pulsed niobium-titanium superconducting poloidal-field coils. This paper describes the status of the engineering design features of the SLPX, with emphasis on the magnetics systems. The toroidal-field coils have an aperture of 3.1 x 4.8 m and can operate with a maximum field at the conductor of 12 T. The superconducting poloidal field magnetics system consists of a pulsed NbTi central solenoid and a set of dc NbTi equilibrium-field coils. The entire machine is enclosed in an outer vacuum container equipped with re-entrant ports that provide ambient access to the room-temperature plasma vessel.

  9. Equilibrium, confinement and stability of runaway electrons in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spong, D A

    1976-03-01

    Some of the ramifications of the runaway population in tokamak experiments are investigated. Consideration is given both to the normal operating regime of tokamaks where only a small fraction of high energy runaways are present and to the strong runaway regime where runaways are thought to carry a significant portion of the toroidal current. In particular, the areas to be examined are the modeling of strong runaway discharges, single particle orbit characteristics of runaways, macroscopic beam-plasma equilibria, and stability against kink modes. A simple one-dimensional, time-dependent model has been constructed in relation to strong runaway discharges. Single particle orbits are analyzed in relation to both the strong runaway regime and the weak regime. The effects of vector E x vector B drifts are first considered in strong runaway discharges and are found to lead to a slow inward shrinkage of the beam. Macroscopic beam-plasma equilibria are treated assuming a pressureless relativistic beam with inertia and using an ideal MHD approximation for the plasma. The stability of a toroidal relativistic beam against kink perturbations is examined using several models. (MOW)

  10. Alternating current plasma operation in the STOR-M tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitarai, O.; Xiao, Chijin; Zhang, Liyan; McColl, D.; Zhang, Wei; Conway, G.; Hirose, A.; Skarsgard, H. M.

    1996-10-01

    One cycle alternating current (AC) plasma operation without a dwell time has been achieved in the STOR-M tokamak with good reproducibility using a newly developed ohmic heating circuit. The plasma current of +24 kA is smoothly ramped down in 10 ms with a rampdown rate of around 2.0 kA/ms and then ramped up to between -20 and -24 kA directly without a dwell time. The plasma density of up to (3.7+or-0.6)*1018 m-3 remains at the current reversal as observed in recent soft landing experiments. The key to a successful, reproducible and direct transition in AC tokamak operations on STOR-M is to control both the total vertical field by a feedback control system and the plasma density by careful gas puffing during the current reversal phase. This experiment has demonstrated that the initial loop voltage for the second negative current is minimized when the dwell time approaches zero, and the AC operation without dwelling is possible whenever the plasma current can be softly terminated with a finite residual plasma density

  11. Recent Results from the STOR-M Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, A.; Dreval, M.; Elgriw, S.; Mitarai, O.; Pant, A.; Peng, M.; Rohraff, D.; Singh, A. K.; Trembach, D.; Xiao, C.

    2008-04-01

    This paper reports on two recent experiments carried out on the STOR-M tokamak. The first experiment studied the nature of MHD activities based on singular value decomposition algorithm during the improved confinement phase induced by compact torus injection. The typical MHD modes with mode numbers m = 2, 3, and 4 are suppressed during the improved confinement phase. Shortly before the termination of the improved confinement phase, MHD activities reemerge, starting with a gong-mode-like burst followed by oscillations of a rotating m = 2. The second experiment was successful current start-up with a simulated spherical tokamak configuration where the inner Ohmic heating coils surrounding the iron core are deactivated in STOR-M. Current start-up was also achieved with all the vertical equilibrium field coils deactivated. In the latter case, the vertical equilibrium field was provided solely by the image vertical field produced by the magnetization current in the iron core and compensated for by the current through the feedback control vertical field windings. The observed waveforms agree well with numerical simulations.

  12. Tokamak active laser pyrometry for tungsten deposited layer characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semerok, A., E-mail: alexandre.semerok@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN/DENS/DPC/SCP/LILM, P.C. 56, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, Cedex (France); Jaubert, F.; Fomichev, S.V.; Thro, P.-Y. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DENS/DPC/SCP/LILM, P.C. 56, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, Cedex (France); Grisolia, C. [CEA Cadarache, IRFM, 13108, Saint Paul-lez-Durance, Cedex (France)

    2012-03-15

    In modern fusion reactors, the erosion of plasma facing surface results in layers deposition on tokamak 'cold' surfaces. To provide efficient operation of tokamaks, it is essential to characterise the deposited layer with high tritium content. In situ rapid surface characterisation without reactor components disassembly is required. Active laser pyrometry together with a repetition rate Nd-YAG laser (1 Hz-1 kHz repetition rate frequency) applied for surface heating can be used to characterise some thermo-physical properties (thermal capacity, thermal contact, and conductivity) of a micrometric layer. The pyrometer system was developed and applied to characterise some properties of a W-layer (140 {mu}m) on a CFC-substrate. The numerical code developed for 3-D simulation of LH of a surface with the deposited layer was applied to simulate the experimental heating temperatures. The experimental and simulation results were compared. W-layer characterisation was performed by fitting the experimental and theoretical heating temperatures.

  13. Impurity seeding in ASDEX upgrade tokamak modeled by COREDIV code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galazka, K.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Czarnecka, A.; Zagoerski, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Bernert, M.; Kallenbach, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-08-15

    The self-consistent COREDIV code is used to simulate discharges in a tokamak plasma, especially the influence of impurities during nitrogen and argon seeding on the key plasma parameters. The calculations are performed with and without taking into account the W prompt redeposition in the divertor area and are compared to the experimental results acquired on ASDEX Upgrade tokamak (shots 29254 and 29257). For both impurities the modeling shows a better agreement with the experiment in the case without prompt redeposition. It is attributed to higher average tungsten concentration, which on the other hand seriously exceeds the experimental value. By turning the prompt redeposition process on, the W concentration is lowered, what, in turn, results in underestimation of the radiative power losses. By analyzing the influence of the transport coefficients on the radiative power loss and average W concentration it is concluded that the way to compromise the opposing tendencies is to include the edge-localized mode flushing mechanism into the code, which dominates the experimental particle and energy balance. Also performing the calculations with both anomalous and neoclassical diffusion transport mechanisms included is suggested. (copyright 2016 The Authors. Contributions to Plasma Physics published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA Weinheim. This)

  14. Impact of magnetic perturbation fields on tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fietz, Sina; Maraschek, Marc; Suttrop, Wolfgang; Zohm, Hartmut [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Classen, Ivo [FOM-Institute DIFFER, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Collaboration: the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2015-05-01

    Non-axisymmetric external magnetic perturbation (MP) fields arise in every tokamak e.g. due to not perfectly positioned external coils. Additionally many tokamaks, like ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), are equipped with a set of external coils, which produce a 3D MP field in addition to the equilibrium field. This field is used to either compensate for the intrinsic MP field or to influence MHD instabilities such as Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) or Neoclassical Tearing Modes (NTMs). But these MP fields can also give rise to a more global plasma response. The resonant components can penetrate the plasma and influence the stability of existing NTMs or even lead to their formation via magnetic reconnection. In addition they exert a local torque on the plasma. These effects are less pronounced at high plasma rotation where the resonant field components are screened. The non-resonant components do not influence NTMs directly but slow down the plasma rotation globally via the neoclassical toroidal viscous torque. The island formation caused by the MP field as well as the interaction of pre-existing islands with the MP field at AUG is presented. It is shown that these effects can be modelled using a simple forced reconnection theory. Also the effect of resonant and non-resonant MPs on the plasma rotation at AUG is discussed.

  15. Overview of the EUROfusion Medium Size Tokamak program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Piero; Beurskens, Marc; Coda, Stefano; Eich, Thomas; Meyer, Hendrik; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2015-11-01

    As a result of the new organization of the European fusion programme, now under the umbrella of the EUROfusion Consortium, the MST (Medium Size Tokamaks) task force is in charge of executing the European science programme in the ASDEX Upgrade, TCV and MAST-U tokamaks. This paper will present an overview of the main results obtained in the 2014 campaign-where only ASDEX upgrade was operating-and the preliminary achievements of the recently started 2015/16 campaign, where also TCV will contribute. The main subjects of the experimental campaigns are (i) the development of scenarios relevant for the ITER Q=10 goal, in an all metal wall device (ii) the understanding of ELM mitigation/suppression with pellets and resonant magnetic perturbations, and in particular the effect of density versus collisionality, (iii) the understanding and optimization of methods for disruption mitigation or avoidance and runaway electrons control and (iv) the exploration of ITER and DEMO relevant scenarios with high normalized separatrix power flux, Psep / R , (Psep is the power through the separatrix, R the major radius) and tolerable target heat loads. The overview of the future programs in MST will be given. http://www.euro-fusionscipub.org/mst1

  16. Dynamics and transport of dust particles in tokamak edge plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasheninnikov, S I [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Soboleva, T K [UNAM, Mexico D.F., Mexico and Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2005-05-01

    We discuss the dust particle dynamics in tokamak edge plasmas, with special emphasis on dust particle transport in the sheath and plasma recycling regions. We demonstrate that being dragged by plasma flows in the vicinity of the material surface, dust particles can be accelerated to speeds of {approx}10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} cm s{sup -1}. The opposite direction of plasma recycling flow as well as the frictional forces at the inner and outer divertor legs, propel the dust particles in opposite toroidal directions depending on their location. The interactions of a dust particle with a corrugated surface or plasma turbulence can cause it to exit the recycling region and fly through the scrape-off layer plasma towards the tokamak core. It is conceivable that dust formation in and transport from the divertor region can play an important role in core plasma contamination. However, even then, the dust particle density around the separatrix is {approx}10{sup -2} cm{sup -3}, which makes it difficult to detect.

  17. Observation of MHD phenomenon for SST-1 superconducting tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandarkar, Manisha; Dhongde, Jasraj; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-04-01

    Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is a medium size Tokamak (major radius = 1.1 m, minor radius = 0.2 m) and is operational at the Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India. In the last few experimental campaigns SST-1 has successfully achieved plasma current in order of 60-70kA and plasma duration in excess of ∼ 500 ms at a central magnetic field of 1.5T. An attempt has made to study the behavior of the magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) activity during different phases of plasma pulse which leads to major/minor disruptions, its present modes (poloidal/toroidal mode number i.e. m = 2, n = 1) impact on plasma confinement and signature of lock mode and its frequency in the SST-1 plasma using experimental data from Mirnov signals. Observed MHD phenomenon has also been correlated with other diagnostics (i.e. ECE, Density, Soft X-Ray etc.) and heating system (ECRH) for the recent campaigns of SST-1.

  18. Configuration and operation of detritiation systems for ITER Tokamak Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beloglazov, S., E-mail: sergey.beloglazov@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Camp, P. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Hayashi, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-2-2 Uchisaiwai-cho, Chiyoda, Tokyo 100-0011 (Japan); Lepetit, L.; Perevezentsev, A. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Yamanishi, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-2-2 Uchisaiwai-cho, Chiyoda, Tokyo 100-0011 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    The ventilation systems design for the ITER nuclear buildings ensures radioactive contamination is confined so that workers, the public and the environment are protected. Nuclear buildings are divided into confinement sectors which connect to the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system and detritiation system (DS). The Tokamak Complex DS provides centralized air purification for the building confinement sectors. A distributed arrangement of ventilation piping provides networks necessary for two key functions, these being Vent Detritiation (VD), to maintain sub-atmospheric pressure, and Air Detritiation (AD) to collect tritium released into the confinement sector. For the VD function, air extracted from the particular confinement sector is directed to the DS for processing prior to exhaust to the environment. This paper presents the configuration of the DS of the Tokamak Complex and addresses details of the design of the distributed piping network. Dynamic flow and pressure drop modelling has been applied to support the development of the system configuration and provide data for sizing the system and selecting components. Further design development is discussed in view of the safety requirements for operation of the system during design basis events such as earthquake or fire.

  19. Nuclear shielding of openings in ITER Tokamak building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammann, A., E-mail: alexis.dammann@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Arumugam, A.P.; Beaudoin, V.; Beltran, D.; Benchikhoune, M.; Berruyer, F.; Cortes, P.; Gandini, F. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Ghirelli, N. [ASSYSTEM E.O.S, ZAC Saint Martin, 23, rue Benjamin Franklin, 84120 Pertuis (France); Gray, A.; Hurzlmeier, H.; Le Page, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Lemée, A. [SOGETI High Tech, 180 Rue René Descartes, 13851 Aix en Provence (France); Lentini, G.; Loughlin, M.; Mita, Y.; Patisson, L.; Rigoni, G.; Rathi, D.; Song, I. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Establishment of a methodology to design shielded opening in external wall of the Tokamak building. ► Analysis of the shielding requirement, case by case, depending on the localization and the context. ► Implementation of an integrated solution for shielded opening. -- Abstract: The external walls of the Tokamak building, made of thick concrete, provide the nuclear shielding for operators working in adjacent buildings and for the environment. There are a series of openings to these external walls, devoted to ducts or pipes for ventilation, waveguides and transmission lines for heating systems and diagnostics, cooling pipes, cable trays or busbars. The shielding properties of the wall shall be preserved by adequate design of the openings in order not to affect the radiological zoning in adjacent areas. For some of them, shielding properties of the wall are not affected because the size of the network is quite small or the source is far from the opening. But for most of the openings, specific features shall be considered. Even if the approach is the same and the ways to shield can be standardized, specific analysis is requested in any case because the constraints are different.

  20. Finite pressure effects on the tokamak sawtooth crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Yasutaro

    1998-07-01

    The sawtooth crash is a hazardous, disruptive phenomenon that is observed in tokamaks whenever the safety factor at the magnetic axis is below unity. Recently, Tokamak Test Fusion Reactor (TFTR) experimental data has revealed interesting features of the dynamical pressure evolution during the crash phase. Motivated by the experimental results, this dissertation focuses on theoretical modeling of the finite pressure effects on the nonlinear stage of the sawtooth crash. The crash phase has been studied numerically employed a toroidal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) initial value code deduced from the FAR code. For the first time, by starting from a concentric equilibrium, it has been shown that the evolution through an m/n = 1/1 magnetic island induces secondary high-n ballooning instabilities. The magnetic island evolution gives rise to convection of the pressure inside the inversion radius and builds up a steep pressure gradient across the island separatrix, or current sheet, and thereby triggers ballooning instabilities below the threshold for the axisymmetric equilibrium. Due to the onset of secondary ballooning modes, concomitant fine scale vortices and magnetic stochasticity are generated. These effects produce strong flows across the current sheet, and thereby significant modify the m = 1 driven magnetic reconnection process. The resultant interaction of the high-n ballooning modes with the magnetic reconnection process is discussed.

  1. Development of 3D ferromagnetic model of tokamak core with strong toroidal asymmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovič, Tomáš; Gryaznevich, Mikhail; Ďuran, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Fully 3D model of strongly asymmetric tokamak core, based on boundary integral method approach (i.e. characterization of ferromagnet by its surface) is presented. The model is benchmarked on measurements on tokamak GOLEM, as well as compared to 2D axisymmetric core equivalent for this tokamak......, presented in previous work. Linearized model well describes quantitative characteristics of BR field, generated by poloidal field coils located close to core central column, and distorted by ferromagnet. A discrepancy is seen between linearized form of model for BR field generated by coils under...

  2. Project and analysis of the toroidal magnetic field production circuits and the plasma formation of the ETE (Spherical Tokamak Experiment) tokamak; Projeto e analise dos circuitos de producao de campo magnetico toroidal e de formacao do plasma do Tokamak ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esferico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Luis Filipe F.P.W.; Bosco, Edson del

    1994-12-31

    This report presents the project and analysis of the circuit for production of the toroidal magnetic field in the Tokamak ETE (Spherical Tokamak Experiment). The ETE is a Tokamak with a small-aspect-ratio parameter to be used for studying the plasma physics for the research on thermonuclear fusion. This machine is being constructed at the Laboratorio Associado de Plasma (LAP) of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) in Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Brazil. (author). 20 refs., 39 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Pellet injection and confinement in the tore supra tokamak; Injection de glacons et confinement dans le tokamak tore supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maget, P

    1998-09-23

    Pellet injection in the centre of tokamak plasmas can lead to an improved confinement regime called PEP (Pellet Enhanced Performance). The present work is dedicated to the mechanisms involved in the PEP regimes obtained in the tokamak Tore Supra. A neoclassical approach of transport shows that it is the anomalous transport, due to plasma turbulence, that causes the enhanced confinement. A linear model describing electrostatic instabilities has been developed in order to study the roles of density profile and current profile during the PEP, in the limit of large growth rates. The effect ofradial shear in flows is taken into account by removing the ExB shear flow rate from the linear growth rate, as suggested by non-linear numerical simulations of turbulence. A local transport coefficient is estimated from the knowledge of the linear growth rate and the mode width. We find that the peaked density profile in PEP regime lowers the diffusion coefficient, and that the velocity shear amplifies this effect. The evolution of the current profile is also stabilizing, but this parameter is not known with sufficient accuracy, so that its role in Tore Supra PEP experiments remains uncertain. (author)

  4. Study of energy transport in Tore Supra Tokamak; Etude du transport de l`energie sur le Tokamak Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiziou, L.

    1995-12-18

    The goal of this thesis is to characterize the energy confinement and the heat transport in Tore Supra tokamak. The first chapter is an introduction to the different plasma confinement regimes: ohmic, low confinement and improved confinement regimes. The second chapter is devoted to the presentation of the different theoretical and empirical approaches about energy confinement and heat transport. In the third chapter an attempt of explanations for non-local transport phenomenons is given. A turbulence correlation length greater than the ionic Larmor radius seams to be a reasonable explanation. This theoretical study focusses on the possibility for modes coupling in a tokamak. This study tries to determine a radial correlation length considering the two principal coupling modes: toroidal and non-linear. Different transport regimes are discussed using an analytical model and considering the influence of one coupling with respect to the other. In chapter four, the measurements of current profiles and transport coefficients are presented. The codes used for the reconstruction of equilibrium and for the experimental determination of the diffusivity are briefly presented. In chapter five, experimental results of energy transport studies for Tore Supra plasmas are presented. The different modes are analysed in detail and the study focusses on the influence of magnetic shear in the improved confinement regime. Finally, the different parametric dependences of the electronic thermal diffusivity are compared to local transport models. 165 refs., 57 figs., 2 tabs., 2 appendix.

  5. Geodesic acoustic eigenmode for tokamak equilibrium with maximum of local GAM frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakhin, V.P. [NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sorokina, E.A., E-mail: sorokina.ekaterina@gmail.com [NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-01-24

    The geodesic acoustic eigenmode for tokamak equilibrium with the maximum of local GAM frequency is found analytically in the frame of MHD model. The analysis is based on the asymptotic matching technique.

  6. Overview of the ITER Tokamak complex building and integration of plant systems toward construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordier, Jean-Jacques, E-mail: jean-jacques.cordier@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Bak, Joo-Shik [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Baudry, Alain [Engage Consortium, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Benchikhoune, Magali [Fusion For Energy (F4E), c/ Josep Pla, n.2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Carafa, Leontin; Chiocchio, Stefano [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Darbour, Romaric [Fusion For Energy (F4E), c/ Josep Pla, n.2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Elbez, Joelle; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Iwata, Yasuhiro; Jeannoutot, Thomas; Kotamaki, Miikka; Kuehn, Ingo; Lee, Andreas; Levesy, Bruno; Orlandi, Sergio [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Packer, Rachel [Engage Consortium, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Patisson, Laurent; Reich, Jens; Rigoni, Giuliano [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); and others

    2015-10-15

    The ITER Tokamak complex consists of Tokamak, diagnostic and tritium buildings. The Tokamak machine is located in the bioshield pit of the Tokamak building. Plant systems are implemented in the three buildings and are strongly interfacing with the Tokamak. The reference baseline (3D) configuration is a set of over 1000 models that today defines in an exhaustive way the overall layout of Tokamak and plant systems, needed for fixing the interfaces and to complete the construction design of the buildings. During the last two years, one of the main ITER challenges was to improve the maturity of the plant systems layout in order to confirm their integration in the building final design and freeze the interface definitions in-between the systems and to the buildings. The propagation of safety requirements in the design of the nuclear building like confinement, fire zoning and radiation shielding is of first priority. A major effort was placed by ITER Organization together with the European Domestic Agency (F4E) and the Architect Engineer as a joint team to fix the interfaces and the loading conditions to buildings. The most demanding systems in terms of interface definition are water cooling, cryogenic, detritiation, vacuum, cable trays and building services. All penetrations through the walls for piping, cables and other equipment have been defined, as well as all temporary openings needed for the installation phase. Project change requests (PCR) impacting the Tokamak complex buildings have been implemented in a tight allocated time schedule. The most demanding change was to implement a new design of the Tokamak basic machine supporting system. The 18 supporting columns of the cryostat (2001 baseline) were replaced at the end of 2012 by a concrete crown and radial concrete ribs linked to the basemat and to the bioshield surrounding the Tokamak. The change was implemented successfully in the building construction design to allow basemat construction phase being performed

  7. Emission in the 50-80 A region from highly ionized silver in PLT tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwob, J.L.; Wouters, A.; Suckewer, S.; Cohen, S.A.; Finkenthal, M.

    1985-09-01

    The spectrum of silver emitted by Princeton Large Torus (PLT) tokamak plasmas has been recorded in the 25 to 150 A region by a multichannel time-resolving grazing-incidence spectrometer. Silver atoms have been introduced in the tokamak plasma using the laser blow-off technique. For the first time, lines emitted within the 3p-3d transitions of Ag XXIX, Ag XXX, and Ag XXXI ions, between 50 and 80 A, have been identified.

  8. Fractional variational problems and particle in cell gyrokinetic simulations with fuzzy logic approach for tokamaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastović Danilo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In earlier Rastovic's papers [1] and [2], the effort was given to analyze the stochastic control of tokamaks. In this paper, the deterministic control of tokamak turbulence is investigated via fractional variational calculus, particle in cell simulations, and fuzzy logic methods. Fractional integrals can be considered as approximations of integrals on fractals. The turbulent media could be of the fractal structure and the corresponding equations should be changed to include the fractal features of the media.

  9. Plasma position control in the STOR-M tokamak: A fuzzy logic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Jordan Edwin

    Adequate control of the position of the plasma column within the STOR-M tokamak is a chief requirement in order for experimental quality discharges to be obtained. Optimal control over tokamak discharge parameters, including the plasma position, is very difficult to achieve. This is due in large part to the difficulty in modelling the tokamak discharge parameters, as they are highly nonlinear and time varying in nature. The difficulty of modelling the tokamak discharge parameters suggests that a control system, such as a fuzzy logic based controller, which does not require a system model may be well suited to the control of fusion plasma. In order to improve the quality of control over the plasma position within the STOR-M tokamak, the existing analog PID controller was modified. These modifications facilitate the application of a digital controller by a personal computer via the Advantech PCL-711B data acquisition card. The performance of the modified plasma position controller and an Arbitrary Signal Generator developed by the author was evaluated. This modified plasma position controller was applied successfully to the STOR-M tokamak during both normal mode and A.C. mode operation. In both cases, the modified controller provided adequate control over the position of the plasma column within the discharge chamber. Furthermore, the modified controller was more convenient to optimize than the original, existing analog PID controller. By taking advantage of the modifications that were made to the plasma position controller, a fuzzy logic controller was developed by the author. The fuzzy logic based plasma position controller was also successfully applied to the STOR-M tokamak during both normal mode and A.C. operation. The fuzzy controller was demonstrated to reliably provide a higher degree of control over the position of the plasma column within the STOR-M tokamak than the modified PID controller.

  10. Transport of fast electrons in lower hybrid current drive plasmas in the HT-7 tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z Y [Institute of Plasma Physics, College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Fang, D; Dai, F; Duan, Z Q; Zhu, J X; Sun, W M [Department of Physics, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China); Wan, B N; Shi, Y J, E-mail: chenzy1003@163.com [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefe 230031 (China)

    2011-04-15

    The transport of fast electrons in lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) plasmas in the HT-7 tokamak was investigated in this work. The evolution of fast electron bremsstrahlung emission profiles after switching off the lower hybrid power was analyzed. We found that the dynamics of the fast electrons is governed by the slowing-down process, and the current density profile can be controlled by LHCD in the HT-7 tokamak.

  11. Electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic system for Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, B.H.; Hsia, R.P.; Domier, C.W.; Burns, S.R.; Hillyer, T.R.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr. [University of California at Davis, 228 Walker Hall, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Oyevaar, T.; Donne, A.J. [FOM-Inst. voor Plasmafysica Rijnhuizen, Association Euratom-FOM (International organizations without location); RTP team

    1999-01-01

    A 16-channel electron cyclotron emission (ECE) imaging diagnostic system has been developed and installed on the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project for measuring plasma electron cyclotron emission with a temporal resolution of 2 {mu}s. The high spatial resolution of the system is achieved by utilizing a low cost linear mixer/receiver array. Unlike conventional ECE diagnostics, the sample volumes of the ECE imaging system are aligned vertically, and can be shifted across the plasma cross-section by varying the local oscillator frequency, making possible 2D measurements of electron temperature profiles and fluctuations. The poloidal/radial wavenumber spectra and correlation lengths of T{sub e} fluctuations in the plasma core can also be obtained by properly positioning the focal plane of the imaging system. Due to these unique features, ECE imaging is an ideal tool for plasma transport study. Technical details of the system are described, together with preliminary experimental results. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. GPEC, a real-time capable Tokamak equilibrium code

    CERN Document Server

    Rampp, Markus; Fischer, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    A new parallel equilibrium reconstruction code for tokamak plasmas is presented. GPEC allows to compute equilibrium flux distributions sufficiently accurate to derive parameters for plasma control within 1 ms of runtime which enables real-time applications at the ASDEX Upgrade experiment (AUG) and other machines with a control cycle of at least this size. The underlying algorithms are based on the well-established offline-analysis code CLISTE, following the classical concept of iteratively solving the Grad-Shafranov equation and feeding in diagnostic signals from the experiment. The new code adopts a hybrid parallelization scheme for computing the equilibrium flux distribution and extends the fast, shared-memory-parallel Poisson solver which we have described previously by a distributed computation of the individual Poisson problems corresponding to different basis functions. The code is based entirely on open-source software components and runs on standard server hardware and software environments. The real-...

  13. Tokamak fusion reactors with less than full tritium breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, K. Jr.; Gilligan, J.G.; Jung, J.

    1983-05-01

    A study of commercial, tokamak fusion reactors with tritium concentrations and tritium breeding ratios ranging from full deuterium-tritium operation to operation with no tritium breeding is presented. The design basis for these reactors is similar to those of STARFIRE and WILDCAT. Optimum operating temperatures, sizes, toroidal field strengths, and blanket/shield configurations are determined for a sequence of reactor designs spanning the range of tritium breeding, each having the same values of beta, thermal power, and first-wall heat load. Additional reactor parameters, tritium inventories and throughputs, and detailed costs are calculated for each reactor design. The disadvantages, advantages, implications, and ramifications of tritium-depleted operation are presented and discussed.

  14. Fast temperature fluctuation measurements in SOL of tokamak TCV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horacek, J.; Nielsen, Anders Henry; Pitts, R.A.

    coupling both across the plasma sheath and in the probe circuit itself. Comparisons are also made between the results from higher frequency sweeping and the standard values derived from a slower sweep to show that the fast measurement is reliable. Considerable effort has been expended in recent years......A fast scanning assembly has been widely used on the TCV tokamak to insert a probe head equipped with an array of single Langmuir probe tips up to the separatrix at the plasma midplane. Using fast voltage sweeping, we obtain IV-characteristics every 8 μs, allowing an estimate of the electron......-characteristics, some effort is required to demonstrate the credibility of the Te derived from the characteristics. Following the methodology proposed in [3], we use both numerical (5spice code) and lab simulations of the equivalent probe circuit, together with a simplified plasma circuit to study the capacitative...

  15. WILDCAT: a catalyzed D-D tokamak reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, K. Jr.; Baker, C.C.; Brooks, J.N.

    1981-11-01

    WILDCAT is a conceptual design of a catalyzed D-D, tokamak, commercial, fusion reactor. WILDCAT utilizes the beneficial features of no tritium breeding, while not extrapolating unnecessarily from existing D-T designs. The reactor is larger and has higher magnetic fields and plasma pressures than typical D-T devices. It is more costly, but eliminates problems associated with tritium breeding and has tritium inventories and throughputs approximately two orders of magnitude less than typical D-T reactors. There are both a steady-state version with Alfven-wave current drive and a pulsed version. Extensive comparison with D-T devices has been made, and cost and safety analyses have been included. All of the major reactor systems have been worked out to a level of detail appropriate to a complete, conceptual design.

  16. First results from gamma ray diagnostics in EAST Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, R. J.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhong, G. Q., E-mail: gqzhong@ipp.ac.cn; Cao, H. R.; Liu, G. Z.; Li, K.; Zhang, Y.; Lin, S. Y.; Zhang, J. Z. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Gamma ray diagnostics has been developed in the EAST tokamak recently. Six BGO scintillator detectors are arranged on the down-half cross-section and pointed at the up-half cross-section of plasma, with space resolution about 15 cm and energy range from 0.3 MeV to 6 MeV. Three main gamma ray peaks in the energy spectra have been observed and are identified as the results of nuclear reactions {sup 207}Pb(n, n′){sup 207m}Pb, H(n, γ) D, and D(p, γ){sup 3}He, respectively. Upgrading of the system is in progress by using LaBr3(Ce) scintillator, fast photo-multiplier tubes, and a fully digital data acquisition system based on high sample frequency digitizers with digital pulse processing algorithms.

  17. Poloidal magnetics of a divertor compact ignition tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickler, D.J.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Jardin, S.C.

    1987-10-01

    A technique is presented for calculating bounds on the poloidal field (PF) coil currents required to constrain critical plasma shape parameters when plasma pressure and current density profiles are changed. Such considerations are important in the conceptual design of the PF coils for the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) and their electrical power systems in view of the uncertainty in plasma profiles and operating scenarios. Four relatively independent coil groups are sufficient to find a coil current distribution and equilibrium satisfying a prescribed plasma major radius, minor radius, and divertor strike point coordinates. The variation in the coil current distribution with plasma profiles tends to be large for external PF systems and provides a measure by which coil configurations may be compared. 6 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Neutral beam optimisation for the spherical tokamak ST40

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmi, A., E-mail: antti.salmi@vtt.fi [VTT, P.O. Box 1000, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland); Gryaznevich, M.; Buxton, P.; Nightingale, M. [Tokamak Energy Ltd., Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX143DB (United Kingdom); Tala, T. [VTT, P.O. Box 1000, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2017-04-15

    Orbit following Monte Carlo code (ASCOT) calculations of neutral beam (NB) induced torque, current and heating have been performed for a selected set of plasma scenarios to optimise the neutral beam injection system for the proposed high magnetic field spherical tokamak ST40. It is found that there are strong variations especially in the current drive efficiency and in the toroidal torque depending on the NB alignment and injection energy. The optimal alignments as well as the optimal injection energy depend both on the scenario and whether the current drive or the toroidal torque is to be maximised. Due to the relatively small calculated current drive efficiency (0.05–0.2 MA/MW) we find that for the studied scenarios a relatively central low field side (LFS) deposition below midplane provides the best overall performance still at a tolerable shine through power.

  19. Transport properties of interacting magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianakon, T.A.; Callen, J.D.; Hegna, C.C.

    1993-10-01

    This paper explores the equilibrium and transient transport properties of a mixed magnetic topology model for tokamak equilibria. The magnetic topology is composed of a discrete set of mostly non-overlapping magnetic islands centered on the low-order rational surfaces. Transport across the island regions is fast due to parallel transport along the stochastic magnetic field lines about the separatrix of each island. Transport between island regions is assumed to be slow due to a low residual cross-field transport. In equilibrium, such a model leads to: a nonlinear dependence of the heat flux on the pressure gradient; a power balance diffusion coefficient which increases from core to edge; and profile resiliency. Transiently, such a model also exhibits a heat pulse diffusion coefficient larger than the power balance diffusion coefficient.

  20. Maintenance features of the Compact Ignition Tokamak fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spampinato, P.T.; Hager, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) is envisaged to be the next experimental machine in the US Fusion Program. Its use of deuterium/tritium fuel requires the implementation of remote handling technology for maintenance and disassembly operations. The reactor is surrounded by a close-proximity nuclear shield which is designed to permit personnel access within the test cell, one day after shutdown. With the shield in place, certain maintenance activities in the cell may be done hands-on. Maintenance on the reactor is accomplished remotely using a boom-mounted manipulator after disassembling the shield. Maintenance within the plasma chamber is accomplished with two articulated boom manipulators that are capable of operating in a vacuum environment. They are stored in a vacuum enclosure behind movable shield plugs.

  1. STARFIRE: a commercial tokamak fusion power plant study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    STARFIRE is a 1200 MWe central station fusion electric power plant that utilizes a deuterium-tritium fueled tokamak reactor as a heat source. Emphasis has been placed on developing design features which will provide for simpler assembly and maintenance, and improved safety and environmental characteristics. The major features of STARFIRE include a steady-state operating mode based on continuous rf lower-hybrid current drive and auxiliary heating, solid tritium breeder material, pressurized water cooling, limiter/vacuum system for impurity control and exhaust, high tritium burnup and low vulnerable tritium inventories, superconducting EF coils outside the superconducting TF coils, fully remote maintenance, and a low-activation shield. A comprehensive conceptual design has been developed including reactor features, support facilities and a complete balance of plant. A construction schedule and cost estimate are presented, as well as study conclusions and recommendations.

  2. Anomalous Transport in Tokamaks: Examples of Its Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, A.; Ding, W.; Elia, M.; Xiao, C.; Yamagiwa, M.

    Studies conducted towards an understanding of improved plasma confinement in small and large tokamaks are presented. In STOR-M, Ohmic H-modes can be induced by various means. The most recent finding is that injection of a high density compact torus triggers a sustained H-mode. For bias induced H-mode, direct evaluation of fluctuation induced particle flux has been made for Ohmic H-modes. The particle flux is intermittent and the average changes its sign from radially outward in L-mode to radially inward in H-mode. The direction and magnitude of the flux are predominantly determined by the phase difference between the density and potential fluctuations. Nonlinear correlation studies have also been made between two radial positions. In L-mode, the inner region behaves as a master and outer region as slave. In H-mode, the relationship is reversed.

  3. On q dependence of thermal transport in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, A.; Livingstone, S.; Singh, A. K.

    2005-12-01

    Analysis based on a gyro-kinetic ballooning stability code predicts that both the ion and electron thermal diffusivities, due to the ion temperature gradient (ITG) and electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes, respectively, increase with the safety factor q almost linearly. In the case of ITG driven ion thermal diffusivity, the q dependence originates from the coupling to the ion acoustic mode, and in the case of the electron thermal diffusivity due to the ETG mode, it emerges from the coupling to the skin size drift mode. In the ETG mode, charge neutrality does not hold for typical tokamak discharges, and mixing length estimates yield a thermal diffusivity large enough to be relevant to experiments.

  4. A Distributed Synchronization and Timing System on the EAST Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiarong; Wu, Yichun; Shu, Yantai

    2008-08-01

    A key requirement for the EAST distributed control system (EASTDCS) is time synchronization to an accuracy of AVR microcontroller and the Nut/OS embedded Real Time Operating System (RTOS). The DSTS provides the control and the data acquisition systems with reference clocks (0.01 Hz 10 MHz) and delayed trigger times ( 1 mus 4294 s). These are produced by a Core Module Unit (CMU) connected by optical fibres to many Local Synchronized Node Units (LSNU). The fibres provide immunity from electrical noise and are of equal length to match clock and trigger delays between systems. This paper describes the architecture of the DSTS on the EAST tokamak and provides an overview of the characteristics of the main and local units.

  5. Gyrokinetic modelling of stationary electron and impurity profiles in tokamaks

    CERN Document Server

    Skyman, Andreas; Tegnered, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Particle transport due to Ion Temperature Gradient/Trapped Electron (ITG/TE) mode turbulence is investigated using the gyrokinetic code GENE. Both a reduced quasilinear (QL) treatment and nonlinear (NL) simulations are performed for typical tokamak parameters corresponding to ITG dominated turbulence. A selfconsistent treatment is used, where the stationary local profiles are calculated corresponding to zero particle flux simultaneously for electrons and trace impurities. The scaling of the stationary profiles with magnetic shear, safety factor, electron-to-ion temperature ratio, collisionality, toroidal sheared rotation, triangularity, and elongation is investigated. In addition, the effect of different main ion mass on the zero flux condition is discussed. The electron density gradient can significantly affect the stationary impurity profile scaling. It is therefore expected, that a selfconsistent treatment will yield results more comparable to experimental results for parameter scans where the stationary b...

  6. Plasma recombination in runaway discharges in tokamak TCABR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soboleva, T.K. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares; Galvao, R.M.O.; Kuznetsov, Yu. K.; Nascimento, I.C. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Krasheninnikov, S.I. [University of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2002-03-01

    A new regime of runaway discharges has been observed in the TCABR tokamak. One of the most distinctive features of this regime is the effect of plasma detachment from the limiter. This experimental fact can only be explained by the volume recombination, which requires a low-temperature plasma. The analysis of the energy and particle balance in the system plasma-relativistic runaway beam in TCABR, which takes into account only the collisional mechanism of the heat transfer from runaways to thermal electrons, predicts electron temperatures T{sub e} = 0.1 - 2 eV; the temperature decreases with the neutral density increase. The recombination process with the rate constant around 10{sup -16} m3/s is required for the explanation of plasma density behavior in the experiment. At present, it is difficult to conclude about the mechanism of recombination. More reliable and detailed experimental data, mainly about the plasma temperature, are necessary. (author)

  7. Kinetic effects and reversal flows in the tokamak edge plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Soboleva, T.K. (Russian Scientific Center, Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russia)); Batischev, O.V.; Zmievskaya, G.I.; Levchenko, V.D.; Ovchenkov, P.A.; Sigov, Yu.S.; Silaev, I.I. (M.V. Keldysh Inst. of Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russia))

    1992-12-01

    Preliminary results of the edge tokamak plasma simulation in the frame of 3D kinetic Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations are presented. Currently two versions of the code are developed: One of them is based on a stochastic modeling method, another uses a finite difference approach via split techniques. In both versions, the self-consistent electric field may be calculated from the quasi-neutrality condition, while the sheath potential is obtained from the ambipolarity of plasma flux towards the neutralizing plate. Simplified equations, describing the dense SOL plasma parameters distributions and allowing the analytical solutions are obtained. It is shown, that for the high particle recycling in SOL, the radial scales of the temperature [Delta][sub T] and densities, [Delta][sub n] are close to each other. The reversal flow is formed within a narrow layer near the separatrix magnetic surface. (orig.).

  8. Predicting high harmonic ion cyclotron heating efficiency in Tokamak plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D L; Berry, L A; Chen, G; Ryan, P M; Canik, J M; Jaeger, E F

    2011-09-30

    Observations of improved radio frequency (rf) heating efficiency in ITER relevant high-confinement (H-)mode plasmas on the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment are investigated by whole-device linear simulation. The steady-state rf electric field is calculated for various antenna spectra and the results examined for characteristics that correlate with observations of improved or reduced rf heating efficiency. We find that launching toroidal wave numbers that give fast-wave propagation in the scrape-off plasma excites large amplitude (∼kV m(-1)) coaxial standing modes between the confined plasma density pedestal and conducting vessel wall. Qualitative comparison with measurements of the stored plasma energy suggests that these modes are a probable cause of degraded heating efficiency.

  9. Status of neutron diagnostics on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, G. Q.; Hu, L. Q., E-mail: lqhu@ipp.ac.cn; Pu, N.; Zhou, R. J.; Xiao, M.; Cao, H. R.; Li, K.; Huang, J.; Xu, G. S.; Wan, B. N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Zhu, Y. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-4575 (United States); Fan, T. S.; Peng, X. Y.; Du, T. F.; Ge, L. J. [School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Chengfu Road 201, 100871 Beijing (China)

    2016-11-15

    Neutron diagnostics have become a significant means to study energetic particles in high power auxiliary heating plasmas on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). Several kinds of neutron diagnostic systems have been implemented for time-resolved measurements of D-D neutron flux, fluctuation, emission profile, and spectrum. All detectors have been calibrated in laboratory, and in situ calibration using {sup 252}Cf neutron source in EAST is in preparation. A new technology of digitized pulse signal processing is adopted in a wide dynamic range neutron flux monitor, compact recoil proton spectrometer, and time of flight spectrometer. Improvements will be made continuously to the system to achieve better adaptation to the EAST’s harsh γ-ray and electro-magnetic radiation environment.

  10. Divertor research on the DIII-D tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.N.; Allen, S.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Brooks, N.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-10-01

    In this paper the authors summarize recent progress on DIII-D in developing techniques for divertor power and particle control relevant to next generation tokamaks such as the proposed ITER and TPX devices. Density control and helium removal by divertor pumping have been demonstrated for the first time in high confinement ELMing H-mode discharges ({tau} {approximately} 2 {times} {tau}{sub ITER-89P}) following installation of a divertor cryopumping system. The peak divertor heat flux in similar H-mode discharges has been reduced through production of a radiating mantle with neon or argon puffing (reductions of 3--5). A number of diagnostics have been added to improve the understanding of the physical processes involved. They are now designing modified double-null divertor structures for DIII-D that will provide improved particle control for high-triangularity VH-mode plasmas while at the same time allowing for gas puffing to reduce the divertor heat flux.

  11. Equilibrium system analysis in a tokamak ignition experiment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrera, R.; Weldon, W.F.; Woodson, H.H.

    1989-10-01

    The objective of the IGNITEX Project is to produce and control ignited plasmas for scientific study in the simplest and least expensive way possible. The original concept was proposed by both physics and engineering researchers along the following line of thought. Question: Is there any theoretically simple, compact and reliable way of achieving fusion ignition according to the results of the fusion research program for the last decades? Answer: Yes. An experiment to be carried out in an ohmically heated compact tokamak device with 20 T field on plasma axis. Question: Is there any practical way to carry out that experiment at low cost in the near term? Answer: Yes. Using a single-turn coil magnet system with homopolar power supplies.

  12. Equilibrium system analysis in a tokamak ignition experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrera, R.; Weldon, W.F.; Woodson, H.H.

    1989-10-01

    The objective of the IGNITEX Project is to produce and control ignited plasmas for scientific study in the simplest and least expensive way possible. The original concept was proposed by both physics and engineering researchers along the following line of thought. Question: Is there any theoretically simple, compact and reliable way of achieving fusion ignition according to the results of the fusion research program for the last decades Answer: Yes. An experiment to be carried out in an ohmically heated compact tokamak device with 20 T field on plasma axis. Question: Is there any practical way to carry out that experiment at low cost in the near term Answer: Yes. Using a single-turn coil magnet system with homopolar power supplies.

  13. Micro-tearing modes in the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Applegate, D J; Connor, J W; Cowley, S C; Dorland, W; Hastie, R J; Joiner, N; 10.1088/0741-3335/49/8/001

    2011-01-01

    Recent gyrokinetic stability calculations have revealed that the spherical tokamak is susceptible to tearing parity instabilities with length scales of a few ion Larmor radii perpendicular to the magnetic field lines. Here we investigate this 'micro-tearing' mode in greater detail to uncover its key characteristics, and compare it with existing theoretical models of the phenomenon. This has been accomplished using a full numerical solution of the linear gyrokinetic-Maxwell equations. Importantly, the instability is found to be driven by the free energy in the electron temperature gradient as described in the literature. However, our calculations suggest it is not substantially affected by either of the destabilising mechanisms proposed in previous theoretical models. Instead the instability is destabilised by interactions with magnetic drifts, and the electrostatic potential. Further calculations reveal that the mode is not significantly destabilised by the flux surface shaping or the large trapped particle f...

  14. A general comparison between tokamak and stellarator plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Xu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper generally compares the essential features between tokamaks and stellarators, based on previous review work individually made by authors on several specific topics, such as theories, bulk plasma transport and edge divertor physics, along with some recent results. It aims at summarizing the main results and conclusions with regard to the advantages and disadvantages in these two types of magnetic fusion devices. The comparison includes basic magnetic configurations, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD instabilities, operational limits and disruptions, neoclassical and turbulent transport, confinement scaling and isotopic effects, plasma rotation, and edge and divertor physics. Finally, a concept of quasi-symmetric stellarators is briefly referred along with a comparison of future application for fusion reactors.

  15. Stability and properties of electron-driven fishbones in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    In tokamaks, the stability of magneto-hydrodynamic modes can be modified by populations of energetic particles. In ITER-type fusion reactors, such populations can be generated by fusion reactions or auxiliary heating. The electron-driven fishbone mode results from the resonant interaction of the internal kink mode with the slow toroidal precessional motion of energetic electrons and is frequently observed in present-day tokamaks with Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating or Lower Hybrid Current Drive. In Tore Supra, electron-driven fishbones are observed during LHCD-powered discharges in which a high-energy tail of the electronic distribution function is created. Although the destabilization of those modes is related to the existence of a fast particle population, the modes are observed at a frequency that is lower than expected. The linear stability analysis of electron-driven fishbone modes is the main focus of this thesis. The fishbone dispersion relation is derived in a form that accounts for the contribution of the parallel motion of passing particles to the resonance condition. The MIKE code is developed to compute and solve the dispersion relation of electron-driven fishbones. The code is successfully benchmarked against theory using simple analytical distributions. Using the code MIKE with parametric distributions and equilibria, we show that both barely trapped and barely passing electrons resonate with the mode and can drive it unstable. More deeply trapped and passing electrons have a non-resonant effect on the mode that is, respectively, stabilizing and destabilizing. MIKE simulations using complete ECRH-like distribution functions show that energetic barely passing electrons can contribute to drive a mode unstable at a relatively low frequency. This observation could provide some insight to the understanding of Tore Supra experiments.

  16. Transport in the plateau regime in a tokamak pedestal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, J.; Shaing, K. C.

    2012-07-01

    In a tokamak H-mode, a strong E × B flow shear is generated during the L-H transition. Turbulence in a pedestal is suppressed significantly by this E × B flow shear. In this case, neoclassical transport may become important. The neoclassical fluxes are calculated in the plateau regime with the parallel plasma flow using their kinetic definitions. In an axisymmetric tokamak, the neoclassical particles fluxes can be decomposed into the banana-plateau flux and the Pfirsch-Schlüter flux. The banana-plateau particle flux is driven by the parallel viscous force and the Pfirsch-Schlüter flux by the poloidal variation of the friction force. The combined quantity of the radial electric field and the parallel flow is determined by the flux surface averaged parallel momentum balance equation rather than requiring the ambipolarity of the total particle fluxes. In this process, the Pfirsch-Schlüter flux does not appear in the flux surface averaged parallel momentum equation. Only the banana-plateau flux is used to determine the parallel flow in the form of the flux surface averaged parallel viscosity. The heat flux, obtained using the solution of the parallel momentum balance equation, decreases exponentially in the presence of sonic Mp without any enhancement over that in the standard neoclassical theory. Here, Mp is a combination of the poloidal E × B flow and the parallel mass flow. The neoclassical bootstrap current in the plateau regime is presented. It indicates that the neoclassical bootstrap current also is related only to the banana-plateau fluxes. Finally, transport fluxes are calculated when Mp is large enough to make the parallel electron viscosity comparable with the parallel ion viscosity. It is found that the bootstrap current has a finite value regardless of the magnitude of Mp.

  17. Bulk ion heating with ICRF waves in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantsinen, M. J., E-mail: mervi.mantsinen@bsc.es [Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies, Barcelona (Spain); Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Barcelona (Spain); Bilato, R.; Bobkov, V. V.; Kappatou, A.; McDermott, R. M.; Odstrčil, T.; Tardini, G.; Bernert, M.; Dux, R.; Maraschek, M.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Ryter, F.; Stober, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Nocente, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini”, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola”, CNR, Milano (Italy); Hellsten, T. [Dept. of Fusion Plasma Physics, EES, KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Mantica, P.; Tardocchi, M. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola”, CNR, Milano (Italy); Nielsen, S. K.; Rasmussen, J.; Stejner, M. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Physics, Lyngby (Denmark); and others

    2015-12-10

    Heating with ICRF waves is a well-established method on present-day tokamaks and one of the heating systems foreseen for ITER. However, further work is still needed to test and optimize its performance in fusion devices with metallic high-Z plasma facing components (PFCs) in preparation of ITER and DEMO operation. This is of particular importance for the bulk ion heating capabilities of ICRF waves. Efficient bulk ion heating with the standard ITER ICRF scheme, i.e. the second harmonic heating of tritium with or without {sup 3}He minority, was demonstrated in experiments carried out in deuterium-tritium plasmas on JET and TFTR and is confirmed by ICRF modelling. This paper focuses on recent experiments with {sup 3}He minority heating for bulk ion heating on the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak with ITER-relevant all-tungsten PFCs. An increase of 80% in the central ion temperature T{sub i} from 3 to 5.5 keV was achieved when 3 MW of ICRF power tuned to the central {sup 3}He ion cyclotron resonance was added to 4.5 MW of deuterium NBI. The radial gradient of the T{sub i} profile reached locally values up to about 50 keV/m and the normalized logarithmic ion temperature gradients R/LT{sub i} of about 20, which are unusually large for AUG plasmas. The large changes in the T{sub i} profiles were accompanied by significant changes in measured plasma toroidal rotation, plasma impurity profiles and MHD activity, which indicate concomitant changes in plasma properties with the application of ICRF waves. When the {sup 3}He concentration was increased above the optimum range for bulk ion heating, a weaker peaking of the ion temperature profile was observed, in line with theoretical expectations.

  18. Neutral particle dynamics in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemczewski, Artur P. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This thesis presents an experimental study of neutral particle dynamics in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The primary diagnostic used is a set of six neutral pressure gauges, including special-purpose gauges built for in situ tokamak operation. While a low main chamber neutral pressure coincides with high plasma confinement regimes, high divertor pressure is required for heat and particle flux dispersion in future devices such as ITER. Thus we examine conditions that optimize divertor compression, defined here as a divertor-to-midplane pressure ratio. We find both pressures depend primarily on the edge plasma regimes defined by the scrape-off-layer heat transport. While the maximum divertor pressure is achieved at high core plasma densities corresponding to the detached divertor state, the maximum compression is achieved in the high-recycling regime. Variations in the divertor geometry have a weaker effect on the neutral pressures. For otherwise similar plasmas the divertor pressure and compression are maximum when the strike point is at the bottom of the vertical target plate. We introduce a simple flux balance model, which allows us to explain the divertor neutral pressure across a wide range of plasma densities. In particular, high pressure sustained in the detached divertor (despite a considerable drop in the recycling source) can be explained by scattering of neutrals off the cold plasma plugging the divertor throat. Because neutrals are confined in the divertor through scattering and ionization processes (provided the mean-free-paths are much shorter than a typical escape distance) tight mechanical baffling is unnecessary. The analysis suggests that two simple structural modifications may increase the divertor compression in Alcator C-Mod by a factor of about 5. Widening the divertor throat would increase the divertor recycling source, while closing leaks in the divertor structure would eliminate a significant neutral loss mechanism.

  19. Electron cyclotron resonance heating in the microwave tokamak experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, S.L.; Casper, T.A.; Fenstermacher, M.E. [and others

    1992-09-01

    This paper presents the results from a series of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) experiments on the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX). On-axis heating at B{sub T} = 5T (f{sub ce} = 140 GHz) has been performed at electron densities up to cutoff. We have used both a long-pulse gryotron ({approximately}200 kW, {approximately}0.1s) and a pulsed Free Electron Laser (FEL) as microwave sources. Gyrotron experiments with power densities corresponding to 4 MW m{sup {minus}3}. A far infrared (FIR) polarimeter measured peaking of plasma current profiles in some discharges during the ECRH pulse. During high-power single-pulse FEL experiments, single-pass microwave !transmission measurements show nonlinear effects; i.e., higher transmission than predicted by linear theory. A corrugated-wall duct was used in the tokamak port to increase the gradient of the parallel refractive index n{sub parallel} of the incident wave, and increased absorption was observed. Evidence of electron tail heating during FEL pulses was observed on soft x-ray and ECE diagnostics. These results are in agreement with predictions of nonlinear theory; extrapolation of this theory to reactor-like conditions indicates efficient absorption and heating. A Laser Assisted Particle Probe Spectroscopy (LAPPS) diagnostic provided estimates of the vacuum electric field of the FEL which were consistent with the measured power. Multiple pulse operation of the ETA-II accelerator for the FEL has also been demonstrated, indicating the feasibility of high-average power FEL operation.

  20. Continuous, saturation, and discontinuous tokamak plasma vertical position control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrishkin, Yuri V., E-mail: y_mitrishkin@hotmail.com [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Pavlova, Evgeniia A., E-mail: janerigoler@mail.ru [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, Evgenii A., E-mail: ea.kuznetsov@mail.ru [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Gaydamaka, Kirill I., E-mail: k.gaydamaka@gmail.com [V. A. Trapeznikov Institute of Control Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Robust new linear state feedback control system for tokamak plasma vertical position. • Plasma vertical position relay control system with voltage inverter in sliding mode. • Design of full models of multiphase rectifier and voltage inverter. • First-order unit approximation of full multiphase rectifier model with high accuracy. • Wider range of unstable plant parameters of stable control system with multiphase rectifier. - Abstract: This paper is devoted to the design and comparison of unstable plasma vertical position control systems in the T-15 tokamak with the application of two types of actuators: a multiphase thyristor rectifier and a transistor voltage inverter. An unstable dynamic element obtained by the identification of plasma-physical DINA code was used as the plasma model. The simplest static feedback state space control law was synthesized as a linear combination of signals accessible to physical measurements, namely the plasma vertical displacement, the current, and the voltage in a horizontal field coil, to solve the pole placement problem for a closed-loop system. Only one system distinctive parameter was used to optimize the performance of the feedback system, viz., a multiple real pole. A first-order inertial unit was used as the rectifier model in the feedback. A system with a complete rectifier model was investigated as well. A system with the voltage inverter model and static linear controller was brought into a sliding mode. As this takes place, real time delays were taken into account in the discontinuous voltage inverter model. The comparison of the linear and sliding mode systems showed that the linear system enjoyed an essentially wider range of the plant model parameters where the feedback system was stable.

  1. Conditioning of the vacuum chamber of the Tokamak Novillo; Acondicionamiento de la camara de vacio del Tokamak Novillo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valencia A, R.; Lopez C, R.; Melendez L, L.; Chavez A, E.; Colunga S, S.; Gaytan G, E

    1992-03-15

    The obtained experimental results of the implementation of two techniques of present time for the conditioning of the internal wall of the chamber of discharges of the Tokamak Novillo are presented, which has been designed, built and put in operation in the Laboratory of Plasma Physics of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). These techniques are: the vacuum baking and the low energy pulsed discharges, which were applied after having reached an initial pressure of the order of 10{sup -7} Torr. with a system of turbomolecular pumping previous preparation of surfaces and vacuum seals. The analysis of residual gases was carried out with a mass spectrometer before and after conditioning. The obtained results show that the vacuum baking it was of great effectiveness to reduce the value of the initial pressure in short time, in more of a magnitude order and the low energy discharges reduced the oxygen at worthless levels with regard to the initial values. (Author)

  2. Study of heat flux deposition in the Tore Supra Tokamak; Etude des depots de chaleur dans le tokamak Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, S.

    2009-02-15

    Accurate measurements of heat loads on internal tokamak components is essential for protection of the device during steady state operation. The optimisation of experimental scenarios also requires an in depth understanding of the physical mechanisms governing the heat flux deposition on the walls. The objective of this study is a detailed characterisation of the heat flux to plasma facing components (PFC) of the Tore Supra tokamak. The power deposited onto Tore Supra PFCs is calculated using an inverse method, which is applied to both the temperature maps measured by infrared thermography and to the enthalpy signals from calorimetry. The derived experimental heat flux maps calculated on the toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) are then compared with theoretical heat flux density distributions from a standard SOL-model. They are two experimental observations that are not consistent with the model: significant heat flux outside the theoretical wetted area, and heat load peaking close to the tangency point between the TPL and the last closed field surface (LCFS). An experimental analysis for several discharges with variable security factors q is made. In the area consistent with the theoretical predictions, this parametric study shows a clear dependence between the heat flux length lambda{sub q} (estimated in the SOL (scrape-off layer) from the IR measurements) and the magnetic configuration. We observe that the spreading of heat fluxes on the component is compensated by a reduction of the power decay length lambda{sub q} in the SOL when q decreases. On the other hand, in the area where the derived experimental heat loads are not consistent with the theoretical predictions, we observe that the spreading of heat fluxes outside the theoretical boundary increases when q decreases, and is thus not counterbalanced. (author)

  3. Effect of 3D magnetic perturbations on divertor conditions and detachment in tokamak and stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, J-W; Briesemester, A. R.; Kobayashi, M.; Lore, J. D.; Schmitz, O.; Diallo, A.; Gray, T. K.; Lasnier, C. J.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.; McLean, A. G.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.

    2017-06-22

    Enhanced perpendicular heat and momentum transport induces parallel pressure loss leading to divertor detachment, which can be produced by the increase of density in 2D tokamaks. However, in the 3D configurations such as tokamaks with 3D fields and stellarators, the fraction of perpendicular transport can be higher even in a lower density regime, which could lead to the early transition to detachment without passing through the high-recycling regime. 3D fields applied to the limiter tokamak plasmas produce edge stochastic layers close to the last closed flux surface (LCFS), which can allow for enhanced perpendicular transport and indeed the absence of high recycling regime and early detachment have been observed in TEXTOR and Tore Supra. However, in the X-point divertor tokamaks with the applied 3D fields, the parallel transport is still dominant and the detachment facilitation has not been observed yet. Rather, 3D fields affected detachment adversely under certain conditions, either by preventing detachment onset as seen in DIII-D or by re-attaching the existing detached plasma as shown in NSTX. The possible way for strong 3D effects to induce access to the early detachment in divertor tokamaks appears to be via significant perpendicular loss of parallel momentum by frictional force for the counter-streaming flows between neighboring flow channels in the divertor. In principle, the adjacent lobes in the 3D divertor tokamak may generate the counter-streaming flow channels. However, an EMC3-EIRENE simulation for ITER H-mode plasmas demonstrated that screened RMP leads to significantly reduced counter-flows near the divertor target, therefore the momentum loss effect leading to detachment facilitation is expected to be small. This is consistent with the observation in LHD, which showed screening (amplification) of RMP fields in the attachment (stable detachment) case. Work for optimal parameter window for best divertor operation scenario is needed particularly for

  4. Effect of 3D magnetic perturbations on divertor conditions and detachment in tokamak and stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, J.-W.; Briesemester, A. R.; Kobayashi, M.; Lore, J. D.; Schmitz, O.; Diallo, A.; Gray, T. K.; Lasnier, C. J.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.; McLean, A. G.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.

    2017-08-01

    Enhanced perpendicular heat and momentum transport induces parallel pressure loss leading to divertor detachment, which can be produced by the increase of density in 2D tokamaks. However, in the 3D configurations such as tokamaks with 3D fields and stellarators, the fraction of perpendicular transport can be higher even in a lower density regime, which could lead to the early transition to detachment without passing through the high-recycling regime. 3D fields applied to the limiter tokamak plasmas produce edge stochastic layers close to the last closed flux surface (LCFS), which can allow for enhanced perpendicular transport and indeed the absence of high recycling regime and early detachment have been observed in TEXTOR and Tore Supra. However, in the X-point divertor tokamaks with the applied 3D fields, the parallel transport is still dominant and the detachment facilitation has not been observed yet. Rather, 3D fields affected detachment adversely under certain conditions, either by preventing detachment onset as seen in DIII-D or by re-attaching the existing detached plasma as shown in NSTX. The possible way for strong 3D effects to induce access to the early detachment in divertor tokamaks appears to be via significant perpendicular loss of parallel momentum by frictional force for the counter-streaming flows between neighboring flow channels in the divertor. In principle, the adjacent lobes in the 3D divertor tokamak may generate the counter-streaming flow channels. However, an EMC3-EIRENE simulation for ITER H-mode plasmas demonstrated that screened RMP leads to significantly reduced counter-flows near the divertor target, therefore the momentum loss effect leading to detachment facilitation is expected to be small. This is consistent with the observation in LHD, which showed screening (amplification) of RMP fields in the attachment (stable detachment) case. Work for optimal parameter window for best divertor operation scenario is needed particularly for

  5. HFE, SLC40A1, HAMP, HJV, TFR2, and FTL mutations detected by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography after iron phenotyping and HFE C282Y and H63D genotyping in 785 HEIRS Study participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, James C; Lafreniere, Susie A; Leiendecker-Foster, Catherine; Li, Honggui; Acton, Ronald T; Press, Richard D; Eckfeldt, John H

    2009-11-01

    We sought to identify mutations that could explain iron phenotype heterogeneity in adults with previous HFE genotyping to detect C282Y and H63D. HEIRS Study participants genotyped for C282Y and H63D were designated as high transferrin saturation (TS) and/or serum ferritin (SF) (high TS/SF), low TS/SF, or controls. We grouped 191 C282Y homozygotes as high TS/SF, low TS/SF, or controls, and 594 other participants by race/ethnicity as high TS/SF or controls. Using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC), we screened 20 regions of HFE, SLC40A1, HAMP, HJV, TFR2, and FTL in each participant. DHPLC analyses were successful in 99.3% of 791 participants and detected 117 different mutations. In C282Y homozygotes, 4.0% of high TS/SF participants had SLC40A1 Q248H, HAMP -72C>T, or HAMP R59G heterozygosity (0% Controls; P = 0.1200). In whites, 4.1% with high TS/SF and 1.3% of controls had HFE S65C or E168Q (P = 0.3049). HJV c.-6C>G and FTL L55L frequencies were greater in whites with high TS/SF than controls (0.0811 vs. 0.0200, P = 0.0144; 0.5743 vs. 0.4400, P = 0.0204, respectively). One Hispanic with high TS/SF (1.3%) had HAMP G71D heterozygosity. In blacks, SLC40A1 Q248H frequencies did not differ significantly between high TS/SF and control participants. Among Asians, 2.8% with high TS/SF were HFE V295A heterozygotes. Mutations other than HFE C282Y and H63D reported to be pathogenic were infrequently detected in high TS/SF participants. Genetic regions in linkage disequilibrium with HJV c.-6C>G and FTL L55L could partly explain high TS/SF phenotypes in whites. Am. J. Hematol., 2009. Published 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Preliminary project of s Thomson scattering system for the ETE tokamak; Projeto preliminar de um sistema de espalhamento Thomson para o Tokamak ETE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berni, Luiz Angelo

    1997-12-31

    This report presents the preliminary project of the injection and laser light block system for the Thomson (ET) scattering diagnostic to be implanted at the ETE spheric tokamak of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE/LAP). Also, a scanning system for the optics of scattered light 4 refs., 26 figs.

  7. Electron density and temperature determination in a Tokamak plasma using light scattering; Determinacion de la densidad y temperatura electronicas en un Tokamak mediante difusion luminosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Navarro Gomerz, A.; Zurro Hernandez, B.

    1976-07-01

    A theoretical foundation review for light scattering by plasmas is presented. Furthermore, we have included a review of the experimental methods for electron density and temperature measurements, with spatial and time resolution, in a Tokamak plasma using spectral analysis of the scattered radiation. (Author) 13 refs.

  8. Soft-X Spectroscopy on the Phaedrus-T Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Sean Patrick

    Soft-x-ray spectroscopic techniques were used to estimate the electron temperature, to study the impurity transport in ohmic and H-mode plasmas, and to measure the vertical poloidal asymmetry of the impurity distribution in the central region of the Phaedrus-T tokamak plasma. The spectroscopic measurements were performed with a soft-x -ray polychromator that utilized multilayer mirrors (MLM) as the dispersive elements. This MLM based device, which is referred to as the MLM Polychromator, was designed and constructed at the Johns Hopkins University, and then mounted and operated on the Phaedrus-T tokamak. The purpose of this instrument was to resolve spectrally the soft-x-ray emissions of the intrinsic impurities--carbon, oxygen, and iron--and spatially resolve their distributions in the plasma with a temporal resolution of 1 ms. The MLM Polychromator has four spectral channels, each of which is tuned for a particular soft-x-ray spectral emission line of an intrinsic impurity from the Phaedrus -T tokamak. The selected combinations of emissions defined two spatial scanning modes of operation for the MLM Polychromator: the C-O mode and the C-Fe mode. In the C-O mode the MLM Polychromator simultaneously monitors the Lyman alpha and Lyman beta emissions of H I-like O at 19.0 A and 16.0 A, respectively, the Lyman alpha emission of H I-like C at 33.7 A, and the blended singlet and triplet transitions of He I-like C at 40.3 A and 40.7 A. In the C-Fe mode it simultaneously monitors the Lyman alpha and Lyman beta emissions of H I-like C at 33.7 A and 28.5 A, respectively, as well as the 15.6 A and 94 A emissions of F I-like Fe. The wavelength resolution of the MLM Polychromator varies from 0.3 A at 16.0 A to 3.6 A at 94 A. Calibrated soft-x-ray spectra and emission profiles are presented along with the spectral fitting and the spatial inversion procedures that were developed in order to analyze the impurity emissions. A presentation of the photometric calibrations of the MLM

  9. Internal transport barrier in tokamak and helical plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, K.; Fujita, T.

    2018-03-01

    The differences and similarities between the internal transport barriers (ITBs) of tokamak and helical plasmas are reviewed. By comparing the characteristics of the ITBs in tokamak and helical plasmas, the mechanisms of the physics for the formation and dynamics of the ITB are clarified. The ITB is defined as the appearance of discontinuity of temperature, flow velocity, or density gradient in the radius. From the radial profiles of temperature, flow velocity, and density the ITB is characterized by the three parameters of normalized temperature gradient, R/{L}T, the location, {ρ }{ITB}, and the width, W/a, and can be expressed by ‘weak’ ITB (small R/{L}T) or ‘strong’ (large R/{L}T), ‘small’ ITB (small {ρ }{ITB}) or ‘large’ ITB (large {ρ }{ITB}), and ‘narrow’ (small W/a) or ‘wide’ (large W/a). Three key physics elements for the ITB formation, radial electric field shear, magnetic shear, and rational surface (and/or magnetic island) are described. The characteristics of electron and ion heat transport and electron and impurity transport are reviewed. There are significant differences in ion heat transport and electron heat transport. The dynamics of ITB formation and termination is also discussed. The emergence of the location of the ITB is sometimes far inside the ITB foot in the steady-state phase and the ITB region shows radial propagation during the formation of the ITB. The non-diffusive terms in momentum transport and impurity transport become more dominant in the plasma with the ITB. The reversal of the sign of non-diffusive terms in momentum transport and impurity transport associated with the formation of the ITB reported in helical plasma is described. Non-local transport plays an important role in determining the radial profile of temperature and density. The spontaneous change in temperature curvature (second radial derivative of temperature) in the ITB region is described. In addition, the key parameters of the control of the

  10. Magnetic spires for the detection of the position of the plasma column in a Tokamak (linear approximation); Espiras magneticas para la deteccion de la posicion de la columna de plasma en un Tokamak (aproximacion lineal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colunga S, S

    1990-07-15

    In this report the simplified analysis of a method to detect the movement of the plasma column of a tokamak in the vertical direction and of the biggest radius is given. The peculiar case of the Tokamak Novillo of the Plasma Physics Laboratory of the ININ is studied. (Author)

  11. Simulations of Turbulence in Tokamak Edge and Effects of Self-Consistent Zonal Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bruce; Umansky, Maxim

    2013-10-01

    Progress is reported on simulations of electromagnetic drift-resistive ballooning turbulence in the tokamak edge. This extends previous work to include self-consistent zonal flows and their effects. The previous work addressed simulation of L-mode tokamak edge turbulence using the turbulence code BOUT that solves Braginskii-based plasma fluid equations in tokamak edge domain. The calculations use realistic single-null geometry and plasma parameters of the DIII-D tokamak and produce fluctuation amplitudes, fluctuation spectra, and particle and thermal fluxes that compare favorably to experimental data. In the effect of sheared ExB poloidal rotation is included with an imposed static radial electric field fitted to experimental data. In the new work here we include the radial electric field self-consistently driven by the microturbulence, which contributes to the sheared ExB poloidal rotation (zonal flow generation). We present simulations with/without zonal flows for both cylindrical geometry, as in the UCLA Large Plasma Device, and for the DIII-D tokamak L-mode cases in to quantify the influence of self-consistent zonal flows on the microturbulence and the concomitant transport. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  12. Optimization of magnetic field system for glass spherical tokamak GLAST-III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zahoor; Ahmad, S.; Naveed, M. A.; Deeba, F.; Aqib Javeed, M.; Batool, S.; Hussain, S.; Vorobyov, G. M.

    2017-04-01

    GLAST-III (Glass Spherical Tokamak) is a spherical tokamak with aspect ratio A = 2. The mapping of its magnetic system is performed to optimize the GLAST-III tokamak for plasma initiation using a Hall probe. Magnetic field from toroidal coils shows 1/R dependence which is typical with spherical tokamaks. Toroidal field (TF) coils can produce 875 Gauss field, an essential requirement for electron cyclotron resonance assisted discharge. The central solenoid (CS) of GLAST-III is an air core solenoid and requires compensation coils to reduce unnecessary magnetic flux inside the vessel region. The vertical component of magnetic field from the CS in the vacuum vessel region is reduced to 1.15 Gauss kA-1 with the help of a differential loop. The CS of GLAST can produce flux change up to 68 mVs. Theoretical and experimental results are compared for the current waveform of TF coils using a combination of fast and slow capacitor banks. Also the magnetic field produced by poloidal field (PF) coils is compared with theoretically predicted values. It is found that calculated results are in good agreement with experimental measurement. Consequently magnetic field measurements are validated. A tokamak discharge with 2 kA plasma current and pulse length 1 ms is successfully produced using different sets of coils.

  13. Remote operation of the vertical plasma stabilization @ the GOLEM tokamak for the plasma physics education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svoboda, V., E-mail: svoboda@fjfi.cvut.cz [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering CTU Prague, CZ-115 19 (Czech Republic); Kocman, J.; Grover, O. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering CTU Prague, CZ-115 19 (Czech Republic); Krbec, J.; Stöckel, J. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering CTU Prague, CZ-115 19 (Czech Republic); Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, CZ-182 21 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: * Understandable remote operation of a vertical plasma position control system in the tokamak GOLEM for educational purposes.* Two combinable modes of real-time plasma position control: position based feedback and a pre-defined waveform.* More than 20% plasma life prolongation with plasma position control in feedback mode. - Highlights: • Understandable remote operation of a vertical plasma position control system in the tokamak GOLEM for educational purposes. • Two combinable modes of real-time plasma position control: position based feedback and a pre-defined waveform. • More than 20% plasma life prolongation with plasma position control in feedback mode. - Abstract: The GOLEM tokamak at the Czech Technical University has been established as an educational tokamak device for domestic and foreign students. Remote participation in the scope of several laboratory practices, plasma physics schools and workshops has been successfully performed from abroad. A new enhancement allowing understandable remote control of vertical plasma position in two modes (i) predefined and (ii) feedback control is presented. It allows to drive the current in the stabilization coils in any time-dependent scenario, which can include as a parameter the actual plasma position measured by magnetic diagnostics. Arbitrary movement of the plasma column in a vertical direction, stabilization of the plasma column in the center of the tokamak vessel as well as prolongation/shortening of plasma life according to the remotely defined request are demonstrated.

  14. Spherical tokamak Globus-M2: design, integration, construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaev, V. B.; Gusev, V. K.; Sakharov, N. V.; Varfolomeev, V. I.; Bakharev, N. N.; Belyakov, V. A.; Bondarchuk, E. N.; Brunkov, P. N.; Chernyshev, F. V.; Davydenko, V. I.; Dyachenko, V. V.; Kavin, A. A.; Khitrov, S. A.; Khromov, N. A.; Kiselev, E. O.; Konovalov, A. N.; Kornev, V. A.; Kurskiev, G. S.; Labusov, A. N.; Melnik, A. D.; Mineev, A. B.; Mironov, M. I.; Miroshnikov, I. V.; Patrov, M. I.; Petrov, Yu. V.; Rozhansky, V. A.; Saveliev, A. N.; Senichenkov, I. Yu.; Shchegolev, P. B.; Shcherbinin, O. N.; Shikhovtsev, I. V.; Sladkomedova, A. D.; Solokha, V. V.; Tanchuk, V. N.; Telnova, A. Yu.; Tokarev, V. A.; Tolstyakov, S. Yu.; Zhilin, E. G.

    2017-06-01

    The Globus-M spherical tokamak has demonstrated practically all of the project objectives during the 15-year period of operation. The main factor limiting further progress in plasma performance is a relatively low toroidal magnetic field. The maximum toroidal magnetic field achieved on Globus-M was 0.4 T with the exception of a limited number of shots with 0.55 T, which led to damage of the toroidal field coil in 2002. The increase of the magnetic field up to 1.0 T together with the plasma current up to 0.5 MA will result in the significant enhancement of the operating parameters in the upgraded Globus-M2 machine. The experimental program will be focused on plasma heating and non-inductive current drive and will contribute to the creation of a physical and technological base for the compact fusion neutron source development. In the article a brief overview of the physical background for the machine upgrade is outlined. The current status of the project implementation is described. First experimental results on moderate magnetic field increase from 0.4 T up to 0.5 T in the existing Globus-M machine are discussed. The improvement of plasma confinement as well as enhancement of efficiency of the beam driven current is observed.

  15. Tritium Removal by Laser Heating and Its Application to Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.H. Skinner; C.A. Gentile; G. Guttadora; A. Carpe; S. Langish; K.M. Young; M. Nishi; W. Shu

    2001-11-16

    A novel laser heating technique has recently been applied to removing tritium from carbon tiles that had been exposed to deuterium-tritium (DT) plasmas in the Tokamak Test Fusion Reactor (TFTR). A continuous wave neodymium laser, of power up to 300 watts, was used to heat the surface of the tiles. The beam was focused to an intensity, typically 8 kW/cm{sup 2}, and rapidly scanned over the tile surface by galvanometer-driven scanning mirrors. Under the laser irradiation, the surface temperature increased dramatically, and temperatures up to 2,300 degrees C were recorded by an optical pyrometer. Tritium was released and circulated in a closed-loop system to an ionization chamber that measured the tritium concentration. Most of the tritium (up to 84%) could be released by the laser scan. This technique appears promising for tritium removal in a next-step DT device as it avoids oxidation, the associated deconditioning of the plasma facing surfaces, and the expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. Some engineering aspects of the implementation of this method in a next-step fusion device will be discussed.

  16. Predicting high harmonic ion cyclotron heating efficiency in Tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, David L [ORNL; Jaeger, E. F. [XCEL; Berry, Lee A [ORNL; Chen, Guangye [ORNL; Ryan, Philip Michael [ORNL; Canik, John [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Observations of improved radio frequency (RF) heating efficiency in high-confinement (H-) mode plasmas on the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX) are investigated by whole-device linear simulation. We present the first full-wave simulation to couple kinetic physics of the well confined core plasma to the poorly confined scrape-off plasma. The new simulation is used to scan the launched fast-wave spectrum and examine the steady-state electric wave field structure for experimental scenarios corresponding to both reduced, and improved RF heating efficiency. We find that launching toroidal wave-numbers that required for fast-wave propagation excites large amplitude (kVm 1 ) coaxial standing modes in the wave electric field between the confined plasma density pedestal and conducting vessel wall. Qualitative comparison with measurements of the stored plasma energy suggest these modes are a probable cause of degraded heating efficiency. Also, the H-mode density pedestal and fast-wave cutoff within the confined plasma allow for the excitation of whispering gallery type eigenmodes localised to the plasma edge.

  17. Overview of experimental results on the HL-2A tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, L. W.; Duan, X. R.; Ding, X. T.; Dong, J. Q.; Yang, Q. W.; Liu, Yi; Zou, X. L.; Liu, D. Q.; Xuan, W. M.; Chen, L. Y.; Rao, J.; Song, X. M.; Huang, Y.; Mao, W. C.; Wang, Q. M.; Li, Q.; Cao, Z.; Li, B.; Cao, J. Y.; Lei, G. J.; Zhang, J. H.; Li, X. D.; Chen, W.; Cheng, J.; Cui, C. H.; Cui, Z. Y.; Deng, Z. C.; Dong, Y. B.; Feng, B. B.; Gao, Q. D.; Han, X. Y.; Hong, W. Y.; Huang, M.; Ji, X. Q.; Kang, Z. H.; Kong, D. F.; Lan, T.; Li, G. S.; Li, H. J.; Li, Qing; Li, W.; Li, Y. G.; Liu, A. D.; Liu, Z. T.; Luo, C. W.; Mao, X. H.; Pan, Y. D.; Peng, J. F.; Shi, Z. B.; Song, S. D.; Song, X. Y.; Sun, H. J.; Wang, A. K.; Wang, M. X.; Wang, Y. Q.; Xiao, W. W.; Xie, Y. F.; Yao, L. H.; Yao, L. Y.; Yu, D. L.; Yuan, B. S.; Zhao, K. J.; Zhong, G. W.; Zhou, J.; Zhou, Y.; Yan, J. C.; Yu, C. X.; Pan, C. H.; Liu, Yong; HL-2A Team

    2011-09-01

    The physics experiments on the HL-2A tokamak have been focused on confinement improvement, particle and thermal transport, zonal flow and turbulence, filament characteristics, energetic particle induced modes and plasma fuelling efficiency since 2008. ELMy H-mode discharges are achieved in a lower density regime using a combination of NBI heating with ECRH. The power threshold is found to increase with a decrease in density, almost independent of the launching order of the ECRH and NBI heating power. The pedestal density profiles in the H-mode discharges are measured. The particle outward convection is observed during the pump-out transient phase with ECRH. The negative density perturbation (pump-out) is observed to propagate much faster than the positive one caused by out-gassing. The core electron thermal transport reduction triggered by far off-axis ECRH switch-off is investigated. The coexistence of low frequency zonal flow (LFZF) and geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) is observed. The dependence of the intensities of LFZFs and GAMs on the safety factor and ECRH power is identified. The 3D spatial structures of plasma filaments are measured in the boundary plasma and large-scale structures along a magnetic field line analysed for the first time. The beta-induced Alfvén eigenmodes (BAEs), excited by large magnetic islands (m-BAE) and by energetic electrons (e-BAE), are observed. The results for the study of fuelling efficiency and penetration characteristics of supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) are described.

  18. Automated Identification of MHD Mode Bifurcation and Locking in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquezes, J. D.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Park, Y. S.; Bell, R. E.; Morton, L. A.

    2017-10-01

    Disruption avoidance is critical in reactor-scale tokamaks such as ITER to maintain steady plasma operation and avoid damage to device components. A key physical event chain that leads to disruptions is the appearance of rotating MHD modes, their slowing by resonant field drag mechanisms, and their locking. An algorithm has been developed that automatically detects bifurcation of the mode toroidal rotation frequency due to loss of torque balance under resonant braking, and mode locking for a set of shots using spectral decomposition. The present research examines data from NSTX, NSTX-U and KSTAR plasmas which differ significantly in aspect ratio (ranging from A = 1.3 - 3.5). The research aims to examine and compare the effectiveness of different algorithms for toroidal mode number discrimination, such as phase matching and singular value decomposition approaches, and to examine potential differences related to machine aspect ratio (e.g. mode eigenfunction shape variation). Simple theoretical models will be compared to the dynamics found. Main goals are to detect or potentially forecast the event chain early during a discharge. This would serve as a cue to engage active mode control or a controlled plasma shutdown. Supported by US DOE Contracts DE-SC0016614 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  19. Experimental observations of driven and intrinsic rotation in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J. E.

    2016-08-01

    Experimental observations of driven and intrinsic rotation in tokamak plasmas are reviewed. For momentum sources, there is direct drive from neutral beam injection, lower hybrid and ion cyclotron range of frequencies waves (including mode conversion flow drive), as well as indirect \\mathbf{j}× \\mathbf{B} forces from fast ion and electron orbit shifts, and toroidal magnetic field ripple loss. Counteracting rotation drive are sinks, such as from neutral drag and toroidal viscosity. Many of these observations are in agreement with the predictions of neo-classical theory while others are not, and some cases of intrinsic rotation remain puzzling. In contrast to particle and heat fluxes which depend on the relevant diffusivity and convection, there is an additional term in the momentum flux, the residual stress, which can act as the momentum source for intrinsic rotation. This term is independent of the velocity or its gradient, and its divergence constitutes an intrinsic torque. The residual stress, which ultimately responds to the underlying turbulence, depends on the confinement regime and is a complicated function of collisionality, plasma shape, and profiles of density, temperature, pressure and current density. This leads to the rich intrinsic rotation phenomenology. Future areas of study include integration of these many effects, advancement of quantitative explanations for intrinsic rotation and development of strategies for velocity profile control.

  20. Tokamak experimental power reactor conceptual design. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    A conceptual design has been developed for a tokamak Experimental Power Reactor to operate at net electrical power conditions with a plant capacity factor of 50 percent for 10 years. The EPR operates in a pulsed mode at a frequency of approximately 1/min., with an approximate 75 percent duty cycle, is capable of producing approximately 72 MWe and requires 42 MWe. The annual tritium consumption is 16 kg. The EPR vacuum chamber is 6.25 m in major radius and 2.4 m in minor radius, is constructed of 2-cm thick stainless steel, and has 2-cm thick detachable, beryllium-coated coolant panels mounted on the interior. An 0.28 m stainless steel blanket and a shield ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 m surround the vacuum vessel. The coolant is H/sub 2/O. Sixteen niobium-titanium superconducting toroidal-field coils provide a field of 10 T at the coil and 4.47 T at the plasma. Superconducting ohmic-heating and equilibrium-field coils provide 135 V-s to drive the plasma current. Plasma heating is accomplished by 12 neutral beam-injectors, which provide 60 MW. The energy transfer and storage system consists of a central superconducting storage ring, a homopolar energy storage unit, and a variety of inductor-converters.

  1. Spectra of heliumlike krypton from tokamak fusion test reactor plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitter, M.; Hsuan, H.; Bush, C.; Cohen, S.; Cummings, C.J.; Grek, B.; Hill, K.W.; Schivell, J.; Zarnstorff, M. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.); Beiersdorfer, P.; Osterheld, A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Smith, A. (Lock Haven Univ., Lock Haven, PA (United States)); Fraenkel, B. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel))

    1993-04-01

    Krypton has been injected into ohmically-heated TFTR plasmas with peak electron temperatures of 6 key to study the effects of krypton on the plasma performance and to investigate the emitted krypton line radiation, which is of interest for future-generation tokamaks such as ITER, both as a diagnostic of the central ion temperature and for the control of energy release from the plasma by radiative cooling. The emitted radiation was monitored with a bolometer array, an X-ray pulse height analysis system, and a high-resolution Johann-type crystal spectrometer; and it was found to depend very sensitively on the electron temperature profile. Satellite spectra of heliumlike krypton, KrXXXV, near 0.95 [Angstrom] including lithiumlike, berylliumlike and boronlike features were recorded in second order Bragg reflection. Radiative cooling and reduced particle recycling at the plasma edge region were observed as a result of the krypton injection for all investigated discharges. The observations are in reasonable agreement with modeling calculations of the krypton ion charge state distribution including radial transport.

  2. Spectra of heliumlike krypton from tokamak fusion test reactor plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitter, M.; Hsuan, H.; Bush, C.; Cohen, S.; Cummings, C.J.; Grek, B.; Hill, K.W.; Schivell, J.; Zarnstorff, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Osterheld, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Smith, A. [Lock Haven Univ., Lock Haven, PA (United States); Fraenkel, B. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)

    1993-04-01

    Krypton has been injected into ohmically-heated TFTR plasmas with peak electron temperatures of 6 key to study the effects of krypton on the plasma performance and to investigate the emitted krypton line radiation, which is of interest for future-generation tokamaks such as ITER, both as a diagnostic of the central ion temperature and for the control of energy release from the plasma by radiative cooling. The emitted radiation was monitored with a bolometer array, an X-ray pulse height analysis system, and a high-resolution Johann-type crystal spectrometer; and it was found to depend very sensitively on the electron temperature profile. Satellite spectra of heliumlike krypton, KrXXXV, near 0.95 {Angstrom} including lithiumlike, berylliumlike and boronlike features were recorded in second order Bragg reflection. Radiative cooling and reduced particle recycling at the plasma edge region were observed as a result of the krypton injection for all investigated discharges. The observations are in reasonable agreement with modeling calculations of the krypton ion charge state distribution including radial transport.

  3. Stabilization of Tokamak Plasmas by the Addition of Nonaxisymmetric Coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiman, Allan

    2008-11-01

    It has been recognized since the early days of the fusion program that stellarator coils can be used to stabilize current carrying, toroidal, magnetically confined plasmas.[1] More recently, it has been shown that the vertical mode in a tokamak can be stabilized by a relatively simple set of parallelogram-shaped, localized, nonaxisymmetric coils.[2] We show that by superposing sets of these parallelogram-shaped, nonaxisymmetric coils at different locations, it is possible to reproduce the coil current patterns for conventional stellarator coils as well as those for Furth-Hartman coils[3]. This allows us to gain insight into the physics of stabilization produced by various sets of nonaxisymmetric coils by analysis of the effect on stability of localized coils at differing locations. In particular, the relationship between the stabilization effect and the rotational transform generated by the nonaxisymmetric coils is clarified. [1] J. L. Johnson, C. R. Oberman, R. M. Kulsrud, and E. A. Frieman, Phys. Fluids 1, 281 (1958) [2] A. Reiman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 135007, (2007). [3] H.P. Furth and C.W. Hartman, Phys. Fluids 11, 408 (1968).

  4. Remote maintenance concepts for the Compact Ignition Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, F.C.; Hager, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    Because deuterium-tritium fuel will be used in the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT), remote handling technology is needed to carry out some maintenance operations on the machine. In keeping with the compact, low-cost nature of CIT, remote maintenance is provided only for systems with the highest probability of failure. Remote operations include removing, repairing (if feasible), and replacing such components as thermal protection tiles on the first wall, radio-frequency (rf) heating modules, and diagnostic modules. For maintenance inside the vacuum vessel, major pieces of equipment under development include an articulated boom manipulator with servomanipulators, an inspection manipulator, and special tooling. For maintenance outside the cryostat, remote equipment includes a bridge-mounted manipulator system, equipment for decontamination and hot cell activities, and for handling and packaging solid radioactive waste. The conceptual design phase of the CIT project is nearing completion; research and development activities in support of the project include demonstrations of remote maintenance operations on full-size partial mock-ups. 9 figs.

  5. Edge Turbulence Imaging in the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.J. Zweben; D.P. Stotler; J.L. Terry; B. LaBombard; M. Greenwald; M. Muterspaugh; C.S. Pitcher; the Alcator C-Mod Group; K. Hallatschek; R.J. Maqueda; B. Rogers; J.L. Lowrance; V.J. Mastrocola; G.F. Renda

    2001-11-26

    The 2-D radial vs. poloidal structure of edge turbulence in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak [I.H. Hutchinson, R. Boivin, P.T. Bonoli et al., Nuclear Fusion 41(2001) 1391] was measured using fast cameras and compared with 3-D numerical simulations of edge plasma turbulence. The main diagnostic is Gas Puff Imaging (GPI), in which the visible D(subscript alpha) emission from a localized D(subscript 2) gas puff is viewed along a local magnetic field line. The observed D(subscript alpha) fluctuations have a typical radial and poloidal scale of approximately 1 cm, and often have strong local maxima (''blobs'') in the scrape-off layer. The motion of this 2-D structure motion has also been measured using an ultra-fast framing camera with 12 frames taken at 250,000 frames/sec. Numerical simulations produce turbulent structures with roughly similar spatial and temporal scales and transport levels as that observed in the experiment; however, some differences are also noted, perhaps requiring diagnostic improvement and/or additional physics in the numerical model.

  6. Control of MHD instabilities in the STOR-M tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chijin; Elgriw, Sayf; Hirose, Akira; STOR-M Team

    2011-10-01

    Experiments to control the MHD activities have been carried out through compact torus injection (CTI) and resonant helical coils (RHC) on the STOR-M tokamak. The MHD instabilities have been measured by Mirnov coil arrays and miniature soft X-ray (SXR) pin-hole cameras. The data have been analyzed by singular value decomposition algorithm and the spatial Fourier harmonic analysis. Injection of a high density compact torus into STOR-M induced a transient phase with reduced m = 2 Mirnov oscillation amplitude. After appearance of an m = 1 gong mode burst the m = 2 oscillation amplitude returned to its nominal level before CTI. In the RHC experiments, an m = 2 helical coil was wound outside the vacuum chamber and powered by a capacitor bank through an IGBT switch. A current pulse of a few milliseconds was applied to RHC during the plasma current plateau. Once the current amplitude reaches a threshold level, the m = 2 MHD oscillation level was significantly reduced. Addition of equilibrium poloidal magnetic field calculated by TOSCA code, an assumed magnetic island perturbation, and the vacuum magnetic field produced by RHC also showed that the island can be eliminated when the RHC current reached a certain level. NSERC and the Canada Research Chair Program

  7. Effects of electrode biasing in STOR-M Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Debjyoti; Nakajima, Masaru; Rohollahi, Akbar; McColl, David; Adegun, Joseph; Xiao, Chijin; Hirose, Akira

    2015-11-01

    STOR-M is an iron-core, limiter based tokamak with major and minor radii of 46cm and 12 cm, respectively. Recently, electrode biasing experiments have been carried to study the improved confinement. For this purpose we have developed a DC power supply which can be gated by a high power SCR. The rectangular SS electrode has a height of 10 cm, a width of 2 cm and a thickness of 0.2 cm. The radial position of the electrode throughout the experiments is kept around 4mm inside the limiter in the plasma edge region. After application of positive bias with voltages between +90 V to +110 V during the plasma discharge current flat top with slightly higher edge-qa (nearly 5 to 6), noticeable increment of average plasma density and soft x-ray intensity along the central chord have been observed. No distinguishable change in H α emission has been measured. These phenomena may be attributed to improved confinement formed at the inner region but not at the edge. In the upcoming experimental campaign, Ion Doppler spectroscopy will be used to measure possible velocity shear inside the inner plasma region. Edge plasma pressure gradient will also be measured using Langmuir probes. Detailed experimental results will be presented.

  8. Understanding L-H transition in tokamak fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guosheng; Wu, Xingquan

    2017-03-01

    This paper reviews the current state of understanding of the L-H transition phenomenon in tokamak plasmas with a focus on two central issues: (a) the mechanism for turbulence quick suppression at the L-H transition; (b) the mechanism for subsequent generation of sheared flow. We briefly review recent advances in the understanding of the fast suppression of edge turbulence across the L-H transition. We uncover a comprehensive physical picture of the L-H transition by piecing together a number of recent experimental observations and insights obtained from 1D and 2D simulation models. Different roles played by diamagnetic mean flow, neoclassical-driven mean flow, turbulence-driven mean flow, and turbulence-driven zonal flows are discussed and clarified. It is found that the L-H transition occurs spontaneously mediated by a shift in the radial wavenumber spectrum of edge turbulence, which provides a critical evidence for the theory of turbulence quench by the flow shear. Remaining questions and some key directions for future investigations are proposed. This work was supported by National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China under Contracts No. 2015GB101000, No. 2013GB106000, and No. 2013GB107000 and National Natural Science Foundation of China under Contracts No. 11575235 and No. 11422546.

  9. Discharge cleaning and wall conditioning in a Novillo Tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Valencia, R; Camps, E; Contreras, G; Muhl, S

    2002-01-01

    Our Novillo Tokamak is a small toroidal device magnetically confined defined by the main design parameters: R sub o =0.23 m, a sub v =0.08 m, a sub p =0.06 m, B sub T =0.05-0.47 T, I sub p =1-12 kA, n sub e =1-2x10 sup 1 sup 3 cm sup - sup 3 , T sub e =150 eV, T sub i =50 eV. For the initial discharge chamber cleaning we have often used vacuum baking up to 100 deg. C and then conditioning using Taylor discharge cleaning (TDC) in H sub 2 and He. In this work we report that vacuum baking is effective for obtaining a final total pressure of the order of 1.6x10 sup - sup 7 Torr. We have found that a single parameter, the performance parameter (PP), can be used to optimize the TDC method. This parameter represents the quantity of electron and ion energy incident on the chamber wall during the Taylor discharge, it is equal to (I sub p tau), where I sub p is the peak-to-peak plasma current and tau is the plasma current duration. In graphs of PP versus the gas pressure for different oscillator powers, the maximum val...

  10. Physical meaning of one-machine and multimachine tokamak scalings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dnestrovskij, Yu. N.; Danilov, A. V.; Dnestrovskij, A. Yu.; Lysenko, S. E.; Ongena, J.

    2013-04-01

    Specific features of energy confinement scalings constructed using different experimental databases for tokamak plasmas are considered. In the multimachine database, some pairs of engineering variables are collinear; e.g., the current I and the input power P both increase with increasing minor radius a. As a result, scalings derived from this database are reliable only for discharges in which such ratios as I/ a 2 or P/ a 2 are close to their values averaged over the database. The collinearity of variables allows one to exclude the normalized Debye radius d* from the scaling expressed in a nondimensional form. In one-machine databases, the dimensionless variables are functionally dependent, which allow one to cast a scaling without d*. In a database combined from two devices, the collinearity may be absent, so the Debye radius cannot generally be excluded from the scaling. It is shown that the experiments performed in support of the absence of d* in the two-machine scaling are unconvincing. Transformation expressions are given that allow one to compare experiments for the determination of scaling in any set of independent variables.

  11. Issues in tokamak/stellarator transport and confinement enhancement mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, F.W.

    1990-08-01

    At present, the mechanism for anomalous energy transport in low-{beta} toroidal plasmas -- tokamaks and stellarators -- remains unclear, although transport by turbulent E {times} B velocities associated with nonlinear, fine-scale microinstabilities is a leading candidate. This article discusses basic theoretical concepts of various transport and confinement enhancement mechanisms as well as experimental ramifications which would enable one to distinguish among them and hence identify a dominant transport mechanism. While many of the predictions of fine-scale turbulence are born out by experiment, notable contradictions exist. Projections of ignition margin rest both on the scaling properties of the confinement mechanism and on the criteria for entering enhanced confinement regimes. At present, the greatest uncertainties lie with the basis for scaling confinement enhancement criteria. A series of questions, to be answered by new experimental/theoretical work, is posed to resolve these outstanding contradictions (or refute the fine-scale turbulence model) and to establish confinement enhancement criteria. 73 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Modelling of electron transport and of sawtooth activity in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angioni, C

    2001-10-01

    Transport phenomena in tokamak plasmas strongly limit the particle and energy confinement and represent a crucial obstacle to controlled thermonuclear fusion. Within the vast framework of transport studies, three topics have been tackled in the present thesis: first, the computation of neoclassical transport coefficients for general axisymmetric equilibria and arbitrary collisionality regime; second, the analysis of the electron temperature behaviour and transport modelling of plasma discharges in the Tokamak a configuration Variable (TCV); third, the modelling and simulation of the sawtooth activity with different plasma heating conditions. The work dedicated to neoclassical theory has been undertaken in order to first analytically identify a set of equations suited for implementation in existing Fokker-Planck codes. Modifications of these codes enabled us to compute the neoclassical transport coefficients considering different realistic magnetic equilibrium configurations and covering a large range of variation of three key parameters: aspect ratio, collisionality, and effective charge number. A comparison of the numerical results with an analytical limit has permitted the identification of two expressions for the trapped particle fraction, capable of encapsulating the geometrical effects and thus enabling each transport coefficient to be fitted with a single analytical function. This has allowed us to provide simple analytical formulae for all the neoclassical transport coefficients valid for arbitrary aspect ratio and collisionality in general realistic geometry. This work is particularly useful for a correct evaluation of the neoclassical contribution in tokamak scenarios with large bootstrap cur- rent fraction, or improved confinement regimes with low anomalous transport and for the determination of the plasma current density profile, since the plasma conductivity is usually assumed neoclassical. These results have been included in the plasma transport code

  13. Neoclassical Simulation of Tokamak Plasmas using Continuum Gyrokinetc Code TEMPEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, X Q

    2007-11-09

    We present gyrokinetic neoclassical simulations of tokamak plasmas with self-consistent electric field for the first time using a fully nonlinear (full-f) continuum code TEMPEST in a circular geometry. A set of gyrokinetic equations are discretized on a five dimensional computational grid in phase space. The present implementation is a Method of Lines approach where the phase-space derivatives are discretized with finite differences and implicit backwards differencing formulas are used to advance the system in time. The fully nonlinear Boltzmann model is used for electrons. The neoclassical electric field is obtained by solving gyrokinetic Poisson equation with self-consistent poloidal variation. With our 4D ({psi}, {theta}, {epsilon}, {mu}) version of the TEMPEST code we compute radial particle and heat flux, the Geodesic-Acoustic Mode (GAM), and the development of neoclassical electric field, which we compare with neoclassical theory with a Lorentz collision model. The present work provides a numerical scheme and a new capability for self-consistently studying important aspects of neoclassical transport and rotations in toroidal magnetic fusion devices.

  14. Identification of Mercier instabilities in Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    In, Y.; Ramos, J. J.; Hastie, R. J.; Catto, P. J.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hutchinson, I. H.; Marmar, E.; Porkolab, M.; Snipes, J.; Wolfe, S. (and others)

    2000-12-01

    During current ramp-up discharges, highly localized magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluctuations were observed on the electron cyclotron emission diagnostics of Alcator C-Mod tokamak [I. H. Hutchinson , Phys. Plasmas 1, 1511 (1994)]. The electron temperature profile was hollow, while the density profile was weakly decreasing. Assuming that the equilibration time was short enough to quickly thermalize ions the pressure profile was also found to be hollow. Using this pressure profile as an additional constraint to the EFIT program, an equilibrium with reversed shear was constructed having a q(0)>>1. The localized MHD activity was observed near the inner q=5 rational surface in this reconstructed equilibrium, where the Mercier criterion for ideal MHD stability was violated because of the reversed pressure gradient (dp/dr>0), q>1 and moderate shear. When kinetic effects were added, the ideal Mercier mode was finite ion Larmor radius stabilized. However, ion Landau damping was found to be strong enough to drive a kinetic Mercier instability.

  15. Divertor research on the DIII-D tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D. N.; Allen, S. L.; Brooks, N. H.; Buchenauer, D.; Cuthbertson, J. W.; Evans, T. E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Hillis, D. L.; Hogan, J. T.

    1994-10-01

    In this paper the authors summarize recent progress on DIII-D in developing techniques for divertor power and particle control relevant to next generation tokamaks such as the proposed ITER and TPX devices. Density control and helium removal by divertor pumping have been demonstrated for the first time in high confinement ELMing H-mode discharges (tau is approximately 2 times tau(sub ITER-89P)) following installation of a divertor cryopumping system. The peak divertor heat flux in similar H-mode discharges has been reduced through production of a radiating mantle with neon or argon puffing (reductions of 3-5). A number of diagnostics have been added to improve the understanding of the physical processes involved. They are now designing modified double-null divertor structures for DIII-D that will provide improved particle control for high-triangularity VH-mode plasmas while at the same time allowing for gas puffing to reduce the divertor heat flux.

  16. Diamagnetic loop measurement in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, J G; Lee, S G; Kim, H S

    2011-06-01

    Diamagnetic loop (DL), which consists of two poloidal loops inside the vacuum vessel, is used to measure the diamagnetic flux during a plasma discharge in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) machine. The vacuum fluxes in the DL signal can be compensated up to 0.1 mWb by using the coefficients, which are obtained from experimental investigations, in the vacuum flux measurements during vacuum shots under same operational conditions of magnetic coils for plasma experiment in the KSTAR machine. The maximum error in the diamagnetic flux measurement due to the errors of the coefficients was estimated as ∼0.22 mWb. From the diamagnetic flux measurements for the ohmically heated circular plasmas in the KSTAR machine, the stored energy agrees well with the estimated kinetic energy within the discrepancy of 25%. When the electron cyclotron heating, the neutral beam injection, and the ion cyclotron resonance heating are added to the ohmically heated limiter plasmas, the additional heating effects can be clearly observed from the increase of the stored energy evaluated in the DL measurement. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  17. Physics objectives of PI3 spherical tokamak program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Stephen; Laberge, Michel; Reynolds, Meritt; O'Shea, Peter; Ivanov, Russ; Young, William; Carle, Patrick; Froese, Aaron; Epp, Kelly

    2017-10-01

    Achieving net energy gain with a Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) system requires the initial plasma state to satisfy a set of performance goals, such as particle inventory (1021 ions), sufficient magnetic flux (0.3 Wb) to confine the plasma without MHD instability, and initial energy confinement time several times longer than the compression time. General Fusion (GF) is now constructing Plasma Injector 3 (PI3) to explore the physics of reactor-scale plasmas. Energy considerations lead us to design around an initial state of Rvessel = 1 m. PI3 will use fast coaxial helicity injection via a Marshall gun to create a spherical tokamak plasma, with no additional heating. MTF requires solenoid-free startup with no vertical field coils, and will rely on flux conservation by a metal wall. PI3 is 5x larger than SPECTOR so is expected to yield magnetic lifetime increase of 25x, while peak temperature of PI3 is expected to be similar (400-500 eV) Physics investigations will study MHD activity and the resistive and convective evolution of current, temperature and density profiles. We seek to understand the confinement physics, radiative loss, thermal and particle transport, recycling and edge physics of PI3.

  18. Parameter exploration for a Compact Advanced Tokamak DEMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, D. B.; Buttery, R. J.; Ferron, J. R.; Garofalo, A. M.; Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D.; Holcomb, C. T.; McClenaghan, J.; Canik, J.; Park, J.-M.

    2017-10-01

    A new parameter study has explored a range of design points to assess the physics feasibility for a compact 200MWe advanced tokamak DEMO that combines high beta (βN neutral beam and helicon powered current drive. This study has identified a range of design solutions in a compact (R0 = 4 m), high-field (BT = 6 - 7 T), strongly-shaped (κ = 2 , δ = 0.6) device. Unlike previous proposals, C-AT DEMO takes advantage of high-beta operation as well as emerging advances in magnet technology to demonstrate net electric production in a moderately sized machine. We present results showing that the large bootstrap fraction and low recirculating power enabled by high normalized beta can achieve tolerable heat and neutron load with good H-mode access. The prediction of operating points with simultaneously achieved high-confinement (H98 < 1.3), high-density (fGW < 1.3), and high-beta warrants additional assessment of this approach towards a cost-attractive DEMO device. Work supported by the US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  19. Progress of Thomson scattering diagnostic on HL-2A tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Z.; Wang, Y. Q.; Hou, Z. P.; Ren, L. L.; Liu, C. H.; Luo, C. W.; Huang, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Some efforts have been made to promote the performance of incoherent Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic on HL-2A tokamak. Motorized stages are used to adjust the reflecting mirrors and focusing lens of the input laser beam optics, by which it is easy to control the laser beam pass through the narrow throats of the lower and upper closed divertors. Spectral calibration has been refined. Hardware of Si-APD detector electronics is improved, which provides two output signal channels. In one channel, only the rapid TS signal is output after deducting the influence of plasma light. In the other, both the rapid TS signal and the background signal of slow-varying plasma light are output. In this 2017 experiment campaign, the new developed electronics are tested and TS signals can be obtained from the two channels, which are digitized by 1GS-12bit transient recorders. In data processing, the TS pulse shape is fitted with different functions output from the two different channels. The statistical estimation of Te data is also optimized. More channels of high-speed digitizers and more positions of Te and ne measurement are planned and are in constructions.

  20. ICRF antenna coupling and wave propagation in a tokamak plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    A variety of experiments are reported pertaining to the excitation, propagation, and damping of waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) in the Caltech Research Tokamak. Complex impedance studies on five different RF antennas addressed the nature of the anomalous density-dependent background loading observed previously in several laboratories. A model proposed successfully explained many of the observed impedance characteristics solely in terms of particle collection and rectification through the plasma sheath surrounding the antenna electrode. The toroidal eigenmodes were studied in detail with magnetic field probes. A surprising result was that all of the antennas, both magnetic and electric in nature, coupled to the eigenmodes with comparable efficiency with respect to the antenna excitation current. Wave damping was investigated and found to be considerably higher than predicted by a variety of physical mechanisms. A numerical model of the wave equations permitting an arbitrary radial density profile was developed, and a possible mechanism for enhanced cyclotron damping due to density perturbations was proposed.

  1. Photo-neutron Production on HT-7 Superconducting Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yubao

    2005-10-01

    Experimental studies of photo-neutron production on HT-7 superconducting tokamak are presented. Time-resolved and spatial-distributed neutron fluxes are obtained using several polyethylene moderated BF3 and ^3He proportional counters as well as ZnS(Ag) scintillator. Comparisons of neutron production between helium and deuterium discharges are performed. Beside the commonly observed photo-neutron at the early times of plasma start-up and the late disruption stage, remarkable photo-neutrons are also observed on the discharges plateau period under low plasma density regime and non-inductively current driven conditions. The magnitude and time-evolution of neutron flux correlate very well with hard X-ray and γ emissions. Photo-neutron flux distribution has a characteristic of toroidal asymmetry, which implies the localization of photonuclear reactions. The analyses confirm that photo-neutron productions are closely related to plasma density, loop voltage, MHD instability, energetic particles, impurity population and plasma-wall interactions.

  2. Neoclassical offset toroidal velocity and auxiliary ion heating in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzaro, E., E-mail: lazzaro@ifp.cnr.it [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma CNR (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    In conditions of ideal axisymmetry, for a magnetized plasma in a generic bounded domain, necessarily toroidal, the uniform absorption of external energy (e.g., RF or any isotropic auxiliary heating) cannot give rise to net forces or torques. Experimental evidence on contemporary tokamaks shows that the near central absorption of RF heating power (ICH and ECH) and current drive in presence of MHD activity drives a bulk plasma rotation in the co-I{sub p} direction, opposite to the initial one. Also the appearance of classical or neoclassical tearing modes provides a nonlinear magnetic braking that tends to clamp the rotation profile at the q-rational surfaces. The physical origin of the torque associated with P{sub RF} absorption could be due the effects of asymmetry in the equilibrium configuration or in power deposition, but here we point out also an effect of the response of the so-called neoclassical offset velocity to the power dependent heat flow increment. The neoclassical toroidal viscosity due to internal magnetic kink or tearing modes tends to relax the plasma rotation to this asymptotic speed, which in absence of auxiliary heating is of the order of the ion diamagnetic velocity. It can be shown by kinetic and fluid calculations, that the absorption of auxiliary power by ions modifies this offset proportionally to the injected power thereby forcing the plasma rotation in a direction opposite to the initial, to large values. The problem is discussed in the frame of the theoretical models of neoclassical toroidal viscosity.

  3. Single Null Negative Triangularity Tokamak for Power Handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Medvedev, S.; Takizuka, T.; Sauter, O.; Merle, A.; Coda, S.; Chen, D.; Li, J. X.

    2017-10-01

    Power and particle control in fusion reactor is challenge and we proposed the negative triangularity tokamak (NTT) to eliminate ELM by operating L-mode edge with improved core confinement. The SN configuration has more flexibility in shaping by adopting rectangular-shaped TF coils. The limiting normalized beta is 3.56 with wall stabilization and 3.14 without wall. The vertical stability is assured under a reasonable control system. The wetted area on the divertor plates becomes wider in proportion to the larger major radius at the divertor strike points due to the NT configuration. In addition to the major-radius effect, the ``Flux Tune Expansion (FTE)'' is adopted to further reduce the heat load on the divertor plate by factor of 2.6 with a coil current 3 MA. L-mode edge also allows further increase in wetted area. The fusion power of 3 GW is deliverable only at normalized beta 2.1. Therefore this reactor may be operable stably against the serious MHD activities. The CD power for SS operation is 175 MW at Q = 17. AC operation is also possible option. A required HH factor is relatively modest H = 1.12.

  4. Computational Investigation of Extended-MHD Effects on Tokamak Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jacob R.; Kruger, Scott E.

    2013-10-01

    We present studies with the extended-MHD NIMROD code of the tearing instability and edge-localized modes (ELMs). In our first study we use analytics and computations to examine tearing in a large-guide field with a nonzero pressure gradient where previous results show drift effects are stabilizing [Coppi, PoF (1964)]. Our work finds three new results: (1) At moderately large ion gyroradius the mode rotates at the electron drift velocity and there is no stabilization. (2) With collision-less drift reconnection, computations must also include electron gyroviscosity and advection. And (3) we derive a dispersion relation that exhibits diamagnetic stabilization and describes the transition between the electron-fluid-mediated regime of (1) and the semi-collisional regime [Drake and Lee, PoF (1977)]. Our second study investigates the transition from an ideal- to an extended-MHD model in an ELM unstable tokamak configuration. With the inclusion of a full generalized Ohm's law the growth rate is enhanced at intermediate wave-numbers and cut-off at large wave-numbers by diamagnetic effects consistent with analytics [Hastie et al., PoP (2003)]. Adding ion gyroviscosity to the model is stabilizing at large wave-numbers consistent with recent results [Xu et al., PoP (2013)]. Support provided by US DOE.

  5. Effect of magnetic perturbations on the 3D MHD self-organization of shaped tokamak plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bonfiglio, D; Veranda, M; Chacón, L; Escande, D F

    2016-01-01

    The effect of magnetic perturbations (MPs) on the helical self-organization of shaped tokamak plasmas is discussed in the framework of the nonlinear 3D MHD model. Numerical simulations performed in toroidal geometry with the \\textsc{pixie3d} code [L. Chac\\'on, Phys. Plasmas {\\bf 15}, 056103 (2008)] show that $n=1$ MPs significantly affect the spontaneous quasi-periodic sawtoothing activity of such plasmas. In particular, the mitigation of sawtooth oscillations is induced by $m/n=1/1$ and $2/1$ MPs. These numerical findings provide a confirmation of previous circular tokamak simulations, and are in agreement with tokamak experiments in the RFX-mod and DIII-D devices. Sawtooth mitigation via MPs has also been observed in reversed-field pinch simulations and experiments. The effect of MPs on the stochastization of the edge magnetic field is also discussed.

  6. Magnetized plasma flow injection into tokamak and high-beta compact torus plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Komoriya, Yuuki; Tazawa, Hiroyasu; Asai, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Steinhauer, Loren; Itagaki, Hirotomo; Onchi, Takumi; Hirose, Akira

    2010-11-01

    As an application of a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), magnetic helicity injection via injection of a highly elongated compact torus (magnetized plasma flow: MPF) has been conducted on both tokamak and field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas. The injected plasmoid has significant amounts of helicity and particle contents and has been proposed as a fueling and a current drive method for various torus systems. In the FRC, MPF is expected to generate partially spherical tokamak like FRC equilibrium by injecting a significant amount of magnetic helicity. As a circumstantial evidence of the modified equilibrium, suppressed rotational instability with toroidal mode number n = 2. MPF injection experiments have also been applied to the STOR-M tokamak as a start-up and current drive method. Differences in the responses of targets especially relation with beta value and the self-organization feature will be studied.

  7. Estimation of the radial force on the tokamak vessel wall during fast transient events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pustovitov, V. D., E-mail: pustovitov-vd@nrcki.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    The radial force balance in a tokamak during fast transient events with a duration much shorter than the resistive time of the vacuum vessel wall is analyzed. The aim of the work is to analytically estimate the resulting integral radial force on the wall. In contrast to the preceding study [Plasma Phys. Rep. 41, 952 (2015)], where a similar problem was considered for thermal quench, simultaneous changes in the profiles and values of the pressure and plasma current are allowed here. Thereby, the current quench and various methods of disruption mitigation used in the existing tokamaks and considered for future applications are also covered. General formulas for the force at an arbitrary sequence or combination of events are derived, and estimates for the standard tokamak model are made. The earlier results and conclusions are confirmed, and it is shown that, in the disruption mitigation scenarios accepted for ITER, the radial forces can be as high as in uncontrolled disruptions.

  8. Nonlinear interaction of tearing modes: a comparison between the tokamak and the reversed field pinch configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, J.A.; Carreras, B.A.; Hender, T.C.; Hicks, H.R.; Lynch, V.E.; An, Z.G.; Diamond, P.H.

    1984-04-01

    The multiple helicity nonlinear interaction of resistive tearing modes is compared for the tokamak and reversed field pinch configurations using the magnetohydrodynamic equations. Unlike the case of the tokamak disruption, for which this interaction is destabilizing when islands overlap, the nonlinear coupling of the dominant helicities is shown to be a stabilizing influence in the reversed field pinch. The behavior of the coupled instabilities in the two configurations can be understood as a consequence of the stability properties of the nonlinearly driven modes. In the case of the tokamak disruption, quasi-linear effects linearly destabilize the dominant driven mode, which then feeds energy to the driving mode. For the reversed field pinch the driven modes remain stable, acting as a brake on the growth of the dominant instabilities than was observed in single helicity studies.

  9. Plasma recombination and molecular effects in tokamak divertors and divertor simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Pigarov, A.Y.; Knoll, D.A.; LaBombard, B.; Lipschultz, B.; Sigmar, D.J.; Soboleva, T.K.; Terry, J.L.; Wising, F. [Plasma Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)]|[Department of Physics, The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187 (United States)]|[Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)]|[Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]|[Institute for Electromagnetic Field Theory, Chalmers University of Technology, S-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    1997-05-01

    Analysis of the experimental data from tokamaks and linear divertor simulators leads to the conclusion that plasma recombination is a crucial element of plasma detachment. Different mechanisms of plasma recombination relevant to the experimental conditions of the tokamak scrape-off layer (SOL) and divertor simulators are considered. The physics of Molecular Activated Recombination (MAR) involving vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen are discussed. Although conventional Electron{endash}Ion Recombination (EIR) alone can strongly alter the plasma parameters, MAR impact can be substantial for both tokamak SOL plasma and divertor simulators. Investigation of the effects of EIR on the plasma flow in divertor simulators shows that due to the balances of (a) energy transport and electron cooling, and (b) the plasma flow and recombination, that EIR extinguishes the simulator plasma at an electron temperature about 0.15 eV. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Macroscopic erosion of divertor and first wall armour in future tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würz, H.; Bazylev, B.; Landman, I.; Pestchanyi, S.; Safronov, V.

    2002-12-01

    Sputtering, evaporation and macroscopic erosion determine the lifetime of the 'in vessel' armour materials CFC, tungsten and beryllium presently under discussion for future tokamaks. For CFC armour macroscopic erosion means brittle destruction and dust formation whereas for metallic armour melt layer erosion by melt motion and droplet splashing. Available results on macroscopic erosion from hot plasma and e-beam simulation experiments and from tokamaks are critically evaluated and a comprehensive discussion of experimental and numerical macroscopic erosion and its extrapolation to future tokamaks is given. Shielding of divertor armour materials by their own vapor exists during plasma disruptions. The evolving plasma shield protects the armour from high heat loads, absorbs the incoming energy and reradiates it volumetrically thus reducing drastically the deposited energy. As a result, vertical target erosion by vaporization turns out to be of the order of a few microns per disruption event and macroscopic erosion becomes the dominant erosion source.

  11. Plasma Position Measurements in a Tokamak with an Iron Core Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Gi-Chung; Choe, W.; Kim, Jayhyun; Yi, Hyo-Suk; Jeon, Sang-Jean; Huh, Songwhe; Chang, Hong-Young; Choi, Duk-In

    2000-07-01

    Two simple methods of estimating the plasma position in a large-aspect-ratio, low-βp tokamak with an iron core transformer are demonstrated: a magnetic diagnostic method and an optical method. The magnetic diagnostic method utilizes an array of magnetic pickup coils to measure the poloidal magnetic field produced by the plasma current. To include the effects of toroidicity and an iron core transformer, the correction factor was calculated with the magnetic material (or iron core) inside the calculation domain and incorporated in the analysis. The evolution of horizontal and vertical displacement of the plasma center obtained in this way is used to control the KAIST-Tokamak plasmas. To compare the plasma position estimated using the magnetic pickup coils, a simple optical method is also demonstrated on KAIST-TOKAMAK using a composite video signal from a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The two results are in good agreement.

  12. Multi-channel H_α Diagnostics for Position Determination of a Tokamak Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jayhyun; Yi, H. S.; Kwon, G. C.; Kim, J. S.; Choe, W.

    1999-11-01

    A multi-channel H_α spectroscopic diagnostic system was developed on KAIST-Tokamak to be utilized for diagnosing the plasma position in the early phase of ohmic discharges. Since the measured intensity is line-integrated along the line of sight, an Abel inversion computer program was developed. Using the inversion program, the vertical (similar to minor-radial) H_α intensity profile was obtained at several different time steps in the start-up phase of KAIST-Tokamak ohmic discharges. The center position of the intensity is an indirect indication of the plasma center. Comparison with the magnetics data shows reasonable agreement. This suggests that the multi-channel H_α diagnostic may be a good candidate to determine the plasma position which can be useful especially for plasma position control in the tokamak start-up phase.

  13. Overview of wall probes for erosion and deposition studies in the TEXTOR tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rubel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An overview of diagnostic tools – test limiters and collector probes – used over the years for material migration studies in the TEXTOR tokamak is presented. Probe transfer systems are shown and their technical capabilities are described. This is accompanied by a brief presentation of selected results and conclusions from the research on material erosion – deposition processes including tests of candidate materials (e.g. W, Mo, carbon-based composites for plasma-facing components in controlled fusion devices. The use of tracer techniques and methods for analysis of materials retrieved from the tokamak are summarized. The impact of research on the reactor wall technology is addressed.

  14. Remote servicing considerations for near term tokamak power reactors (TNS). Final summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spampinato, P.T.

    1977-01-01

    Next generation Tokamaks require special consideration for remote servicing. Three major problems are highlighted: (1) movement of heavy components, (2) remote connection/disconnection of joints, and (3) remote cutting, welding, and leak detection. The first problem is assumed to be handled with existing expertise and is not considered. The remaining problems are thought to be minimized by considering two engineering departures from conventional tokamak design; locating the field shaping coils outside of the toroidal coils and enclosing the total device within an evacuated reactor cell. Five topics under this vacuum building concept are discussed: incremental cost, vacuum pumping, tritium containment, activation topology, and first year operations.

  15. Tangential and Vertical Compact Torus Injection Experiments on the STOR-M Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chijin; D, Liu; S, Livingstone; A, K. Singh; E, Zhang; A, Hirose

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the setup and results of compact torus (CT) injection experiments on the STOR-M tokamak. Tangential CT injection into STOR-M induced H-mode-like phenomena including doubling the electron density, reduction in the Hα radiation level, suppression of the floating potential fluctuations, suppression of the m = 2 Mirnov oscillations, and increase in the global energy confinement time. Experimental setup, bench-test results, and some preliminary injection data for vertical CT injection experiments on STOR-M will be shown. In addition, numerical simulations of the CT trajectories in tokamak discharges for both tangential and vertical injection geometries will be discussed.

  16. Distributed digital real-time control system for TCV tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, H.B. [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Association EURATOM-Confédération Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Felici, F. [Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Paley, J.I.; Duval, B.P.; Moret, J.-M.; Coda, S.; Sauter, O.; Fasel, D.; Marmillod, P. [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Association EURATOM-Confédération Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • A new distributed digital control system for the TCV tokamak has been commissioned. • Data is shared in real-time between all nodes using the reflective memory. • The customised Linux OS allows achieving deterministic and low latency behaviour. • The control algorithm design in Simulink together with the automatic code generation using Embedded Coder allow rapid algorithm development. • Controllers designed outside the TCV environment can be ported easily. • The previous control system functions have been emulated and improved. • New capabilities include MHD control, profile control, equilibrium reconstruction. - Abstract: A new digital feedback control system (named the SCD “Système de Contrôle Distribué”) has been developed, integrated and used successfully to control TCV (Tokamak à Configuration Variable) plasmas. The system is designed to be modular, distributed, and scalable, accommodating hundreds of diagnostic inputs and actuator outputs. With many more inputs and outputs available than previously possible, it offers the possibility to design advanced control algorithms with better knowledge of the plasma state and to coherently control all TCV actuators, including poloidal field (PF) coils, gas valves, the gyrotron powers and launcher angles of the electron cyclotron heating and current drive system (ECRH/ECCD) together with diagnostic triggering signals. The system consists of multiple nodes; each is a customised Linux desktop or embedded PC which may have local ADC and DAC cards. Each node is also connected to a memory network (reflective memory) providing a reliable, deterministic method of sharing memory between all nodes. Control algorithms are programmed as block diagrams in Matlab-Simulink providing a powerful environment for modelling and control design. The C code is generated automatically from the Simulink block diagram and compiled, with the Simulink Embedded Coder (SEC, formerly Real-Time Workshop Embedded

  17. Characterization and scaling of the tokamak edge transport barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Philip Adrian

    2012-04-24

    The high confinement regime (H-mode) in a tokamak plasma displays a remarkable edge region. On a small spatial scale of 1-2 cm the properties of the plasma change significantly. Certain parameters vary 1-2 orders of magnitude in this region, called the pedestal. Currently, there is no complete understanding of how the pedestal forms or how it is sustained. The goal of this thesis is to contribute to the theoretical understanding of the pedestal and provide scalings towards larger machines, like ITER and DEMO. A pedestal database was built with data from different tokamaks: ASDEX Upgrade, DIIID and JET. The pedestal was characterized with the same method for all three machines. This gives the maximum value, gradient and width of the pedestal in n{sub e}, T{sub e} and T{sub i}. These quantities were analysed along with quantities derived from them, such as the pressure or the confinement time. For this purpose two parameter sets were used: normalized parameters (pressure {beta}, time {nu}{sub *}, length {rho}{sub *}, shape f{sub q}) and machine parameters (size a, magnetic field B{sub t}, plasma current I{sub p}, heating P). All results are dependent on the choice of the coordinate system: normalized poloidal flux {Psi}{sub N} and real space r/a. The most significant result, which was obtained with both parameter sets, shows a different scaling of the pedestal width for the electron temperature and the electron density. The presented scalings predict that in ITER and DEMO the temperature pedestal will be appreciably wider than the density pedestal. The pedestal top scaling for the pressure reveals differences between the electron and the ion pressure. In extrapolations this results in values for T{sub e,ped} of 4 keV (ITER) and 10 keV (DEMO), but significantly lower values for the ion temperature. A two-term method was applied to use the pedestal pressure to determine the pedestal contribution to the global confinement time {tau}{sub E}. The dependencies in the

  18. The requirements of a next step large steady state tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeschitz, G.; Barabaschi, P.; Federici, G.; Ioki, K.; Ladd, P.; Mukhovatov, V.; Sugihara, M.; Tivey, R.; ITER-JCT; Home Team

    2000-06-01

    After a decision by the ITER parties to investigate the possibility of designing a reduced cost version of ITER several possible machine layouts with different aspect ratios were studied. Relatively early in this process it became clear that there is no significant cost difference between different aspect ratios and that there is a maximum realistically possible aspect ratio for a machine with 6 m major radius and rather high plasma shaping. Following this study a machine with an intermediate aspect ratio (3.1) called the ITER Fusion Energy Advanced Tokamak (ITER FEAT) was chosen as the basis for the outline design of a reduced cost ITER. Several potential steady state scenarios can be investigated in ITER FEAT, i.e. monotonic or reversed shear at full or reduced minor radius. In addition, so-called hybrid discharges, are feasible where a mixture of inductive and non-inductive current drive as well as bootstrap current allows long pulse discharges of the order of 2500 s. The βN values and H factors required for these discharges are in the same range as those observed on present machines, which provides confidence that such discharges can be studied in ITER FEAT. However, due to uncertainties in physics knowledge, for example the current drive efficiency off-axis, it is impossible at present to generate a completely self-consistent scenario taking all boundary conditions, for example engineering or heating system constraints, into account. In addition, all of these regimes have a potential problem with divertor operation compatibility (low edge density) and with helium exhaust which has to be addressed in existing experiments. For the engineering design of the in-vessel components and for the balance of the plant there is practically no difference between inductive (500 s) and steady state operation. However, the choice of heating systems and the distribution of power between them will be strongly influenced by the envisaged steady state scenarios.

  19. Requirements for tokamak remote operation: Application to JT-60SA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Innocente, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.innocente@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Barbato, Paolo [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Farthing, Jonathan [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Giruzzi, Gerardo [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ide, Shunsuke [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan); Imbeaux, Frédéric; Joffrin, Emmanuel [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Kamada, Yutaka [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan); Kühner, Georg [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Naito, Osamu; Urano, Hajime; Yoshida, Maiko [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We analyzed the data management system (DMS) appropriate for international collaboration. • We define the principal requirements for all components of the DMS. • We evaluated application of DMS requirements to the JT-60SA experiment. • We evaluated the role network bandwidth and time delay between EU and Japan. - Abstract: Remote operation and data analysis are becoming key requirements of any fusion devices. In this framework a well-conceived data management system integrated with a suite of analysis and support tools are essential components for an efficient remote exploitation of any fusion device. The following components must be considered: data archiving data model architecture; remote data and computers access; pulse schedule, data analysis software and support tools; remote control room specifications and security issues. The definition of a device-generic data model plays also important role in improving the ability to share solution and reducing learning time. As for the remote control room, the implementation of an Operation Request Gateway has been identified as an answer to security issues meanwhile remotely proving all the required features to effectively operate a device. Previous requirements have been analyzed for the new JT-60SA tokamak device. Remote exploitation is paramount in the JT-60SA case which is expected to be jointly operated between Japan and Europe. Due to the geographical distance of the two parties an optimal remote operation and remote data-analysis is considered as a key requirement in the development of JT-60SA. It this case the effects of network speed and delay have been also evaluated and tests have confirmed that the performance can vary significantly depending on the technology used.

  20. Nonlinear effects of energetic particle driven instabilities in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruedgam, Michael

    2010-03-25

    In a tokamak plasma, a population of superthermal particles generated by heating methods can lead to a destabilization of various MHD modes. Due to nonlinear wave-particle interactions, a consequential fast particle redistribution reduces the plasma heating and can cause severe damages to the wall of the fusion device. In order to describe the wave-particle interaction, the drift-kinetic perturbative HAGIS code is applied which evolves the particle trajectories and the waves nonlinearly. For a simulation speed-up, the 6-d particle phase-space is reduced by the guiding centre approach to a 5-d description. The eigenfunction of the wave is assumed to be invariant, but its amplitude and phase is altered in time. A sophisticated {delta}/f-method is employed to model the change in the fast particle distribution so that numerical noise and the excessive number of simulated Monte-Carlo points are reduced significantly. The original code can only calculate the particle redistribution inside the plasma region. Therefore, a code extension has been developed during this thesis which enlarges the simulation region up to the vessel wall. By means of numerical simulations, this thesis addresses the problem of nonlinear waveparticle interactions in the presence of multiple MHD modes with significantly different eigenfrequencies and the corresponding fast particle transport inside the plasma. In this context, a new coupling mechanism between resonant particles and waves has been identified that leads to enhanced mode amplitudes and fast particle losses. The extension of the code provides for the first time the possibility of a quantitative and qualitative comparison between simulation results and recent measurements in the experiment. The findings of the comparison serve as a validation of both the theoretical model and the interpretation of the experimental results. Thus, a powerful interface tool has been developed for a deeper insight of nonlinear wave-particle interaction

  1. Generalised ballooning theory of two-dimensional tokamak modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoul, P. A.; Dickinson, D.; Roach, C. M.; Wilson, H. R.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, using solutions from a local gyrokinetic flux-tube code combined with higher order ballooning theory, a new analytical approach is developed to reconstruct the global linear mode structure with associated global mode frequency. In addition to the isolated mode (IM), which usually peaks on the outboard mid-plane, the higher order ballooning theory has also captured other types of less unstable global modes: (a) the weakly asymmetric ballooning theory (WABT) predicts a mixed mode (MM) that undergoes a small poloidal shift away from the outboard mid-plane, (b) a relatively more stable general mode (GM) balloons on the top (or bottom) of the tokamak plasma. In this paper, an analytic approach is developed to combine these disconnected analytical limits into a single generalised ballooning theory. This is used to investigate how an IM behaves under the effect of sheared toroidal flow. For small values of flow an IM initially converts into a MM where the results of WABT are recaptured, and eventually, as the flow increases, the mode asymptotically becomes a GM on the top (or bottom) of the plasma. This may be an ingredient in models for understanding why in some experimental scenarios, instead of large edge localised modes (ELMs), small ELMs are observed. Finally, our theory can have other important consequences, especially for calculations involving Reynolds stress driven intrinsic rotation through the radial asymmetry in the global mode structures. Understanding the intrinsic rotation is significant because external torque in a plasma the size of ITER is expected to be relatively low.

  2. ICRF heating in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovato, S.N.; Porkolab, M.; Takase, Y.; Boivin, R.; Bombarda, F.; Bonoli, P.; Christensen, C.; Fiore, C.; Garnier, D.; Goetz, J.; Graf, M.; Granetz, R.; Greenwald, M.; Horne, S.; Hubbard, A.; Hutchinson, I.; Irby, J.; Jablonski, D.; Kurz, C.; LaBombard, B.; Lipschultz, B.; Marmar, E.; May, M.; Mazurenko, A.; McCracken, G.; Niemczewski, A.; OShea, P.; Reardon, J.; Rice, J.; Rost, C.; Schachter, J.; Snipes, J.A.; Stek, P.; Terry, J.; Watterson, R.; Welch, B.; Wolfe, S. [MIT Plasma Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, (United States)

    1996-02-01

    ICRF heating experiments have been carried out in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at power levels up to 3.5 MW. Features of Alcator C-Mod include high density operation, molybdenum plasma facing components, and a closed divertor configuration. The heating is accomplished with two two-strap antennas each run with dipole phasing at 80 MHz in deuterium plasmas with a hydrogen minority resonant at 5.3 T. Plasmas with {ital T}{sub {ital i}}=4 keV and {ital T}{sub {ital e}}=5 keV at {bar {ital n}}{sub {ital e}}=1{times}10{sup 20} m{sup {minus}3} have been produced with 3.5 MW of heating power. The heating has been shown to be strongest with a low minority concentration (1{endash}5{percent}) and the resonance on axis. For {bar {ital n}}{sub {ital e}}{approx_gt}2{times}10{sup 20} m{sup {minus}3}, the central {ital Z}{sub eff} remains below 1.5 with more than 2.5 MW of applied rf power. L-mode confinement scaling is observed both for ohmic and ICRF-heated plasmas with some deterioration at higher densities. H-mode transitions have been produced with the threshold for ELM-free H-modes at or below the ASDEX/DIII-D scaling. Enhanced confinement with strongly peaked density profiles has been achieved by lithium pellet injection. Applying 3 MW of rf power shortly after pellet penetration produces {ital T}{sub {ital i}0}=4 keV and a factor of five increase in fusion neutron rate (up to 9{times}10{sup 13} s{sup {minus}1}), and an H-mode transition. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Nonlinear burn condition control in tokamaks using isotopic fuel tailoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Mark D.; Schuster, Eugenio

    2015-08-01

    One of the fundamental problems in tokamak fusion reactors is how to control the plasma density and temperature in order to regulate the amount of fusion power produced by the device. Control of these parameters will be critical to the success of burning plasma experiments like ITER. The most previous burn condition control efforts use either non-model based control designs or techniques based on models linearized around particular operating points. Such strategies limit the potential operational space and must be carefully retuned or redesigned to accommodate changes in operating points or plasma parameters. In this work, a nonlinear dynamic model of the spatial averages of energy and ion species densities is used to synthesize a nonlinear feedback controller for stabilizing the burn condition. The nonlinear model-based control strategy guarantees a much larger operational space than previous linear controllers. Because it is not designed around a particular operating point, the controller can be used to move from one burn condition to another. The proposed scheme first attempts to use regulation of the auxiliary heating power to reject temperature perturbations, then, if necessary, uses isotopic fuel tailoring as a way to reduce fusion heating during positive temperature perturbations. A global model of hydrogen recycling is incorporated into the model used for design and simulation, and the proposed control scheme is tested for a range of recycling model parameters. As we find the possibility of changing the isotopic mix can be limited for certain unfavorable recycling conditions, we also consider impurity injection as a back-up method for controlling the system. A simple supervisory control strategy is proposed to switch between the primary and back-up control schemes based on stability and performance criteria. A zero-dimensional simulation study is used to study the performance of the control scheme for several scenarios and model parameters. Finally, a one

  4. Spectroscopic system for impurity measurements in the TJ-1 Tokamak of JEN; Un sistema espectroscopico para medidas de impurezas en el Tokamak TJ-1 de la JEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navas, G.; Zurro, B.

    1982-07-01

    we describe a spectroscopic system with spatial resolution capability that has been configured for plasma diagnostic in the TJ-1 Tokamak of JEN. The experimental system, based on a one meter monochromator, has been absolutely calibrated using a tungsten-halogen lamp. The calibration procedures and the absolute spectral sensitivity are presented as well as its dependence with the polarization. A simplified spectroscopic model of the radiation emitted by the intrinsic plasma impurities (C, 0, . . . ) has been developed. A one dimensional model of the temporal evolution of various ionization stages in coronal equilibrium is used to predict the electron temperature and impurity concentration. This model has been applied to experimental data from several Tokamaks. (Author) 23 refs.

  5. Study of the electron heat transport in Tore-Supra tokamak; Etude du transport de la chaleur electronique dans le Tokamak Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harauchamps, E

    2004-07-01

    This work presents analytical solutions to the electron heat transport equation involving a damping term and a convection term in a cylindrical geometry. These solutions, processed by Matlab, allow the determination of the evolution of the radial profile of electron temperature in tokamaks during heating. The modulated injection of waves around the electron cyclotron frequency is an efficient tool to study heat transport experimentally in tokamaks. The comparison of these analytical solutions with experimental results from Tore-Supra during 2 discharges (30550 and 31165) shows the presence of a sudden change for the diffusion and damping coefficients. The hypothesis of the presence of a pinch spread all along the plasma might explain the shape of the experimental temperature profiles. These analytical solutions could be used to determine the time evolution of plasma density as well or of any parameter whose evolution is governed by a diffusion-convection equation. (A.C.)

  6. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor decontamination and decommissioning project and the Tokamak Physics Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-27

    If the US is to meet the energy needs of the future, it is essential that new technologies emerge to compensate for dwindling supplies of fossil fuels and the eventual depletion of fissionable uranium used in present-day nuclear reactors. Fusion energy has the potential to become a major source of energy for the future. Power from fusion energy would provide a substantially reduced environmental impact as compared with other forms of energy generation. Since fusion utilizes no fossil fuels, there would be no release of chemical combustion products to the atmosphere. Additionally, there are no fission products formed to present handling and disposal problems, and runaway fuel reactions are impossible due to the small amounts of deuterium and tritium present. The purpose of the TPX Project is to support the development of the physics and technology to extend tokamak operation into the continuously operating (steady-state) regime, and to demonstrate advances in fundamental tokamak performance. The purpose of TFTR D&D is to ensure compliance with DOE Order 5820.2A ``Radioactive Waste Management`` and to remove environmental and health hazards posed by the TFTR in a non-operational mode. There are two proposed actions evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA). The actions are related because one must take place before the other can proceed. The proposed actions assessed in this EA are: the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR); to be followed by the construction and operation of the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Both of these proposed actions would take place primarily within the TFTR Test Cell Complex at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The TFTR is located on ``D-site`` at the James Forrestal Campus of Princeton University in Plainsboro Township, Middlesex County, New Jersey, and is operated by PPPL under contract with the United States Department of Energy (DOE).

  7. Method of compensation spires for the detection of the diamagnetic effect in a Tokamak; Metodo de espiras de compensacion para la deteccion del efecto diamagnetico en un Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colunga S, S

    1990-09-15

    In this report the classical detection method of the diamagnetic effect by means of a rolled spire on the discharges chamber in the poloidal direction and the difficulties related with this are analyzed. An alternative method that increases considerably the detection sensibility of the diamagnetic effect and that for its simplicity it is quite attractive for its application to the Tokamak Novillo of the ININ is presented. (Author)

  8. Boundary perturbations coupled to core 3/2 tearing modes on the DIII-D tokamak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobias, B.; Yu, L.; Domier, C.W.; N C Luhmann Jr.,; Austin, M. E.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Turnbull, A. D.; Classen, I.G.J.

    2013-01-01

    High confinement (H-mode) discharges on the DIII-D tokamak are routinely subject to the formation of long-lived, non-disruptive magnetic islands that degrade confinement and limit fusion performance. Simultaneous, 2D measurement of electron temperature fluctuations in the core and edge regions

  9. Measurements of Intrinsic Ion Bernstein Waves in a Tokamak by Collective Thomson Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Bindslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter we report measurements of collective Thomson scattering (CTS) spectra with clear signatures of ion Bernstein waves and ion cyclotron motion in tokamak plasmas. The measured spectra are in accordance with theoretical predictions and show clear sensitivity to variation in the density...

  10. Fast-ion dynamics in the TEXTOR tokamak measured by collective Thomson scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, H.; Nielsen, S.K.; Porte, L.

    2006-01-01

    Here we present the first measurements by collective Thomson scattering of the evolution of fast-ion populations in a magnetically confined fusion plasma. 150 kW and 110 Ghz radiation from a gyrotron were scattered in the TEXTOR tokamak plasma with energetic ions generated by neutral beam injection...

  11. Simulations of Tokamak Edge Turbulence Including Self-Consistent Zonal Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bruce; Umansky, Maxim

    2013-10-01

    Progress on simulations of electromagnetic drift-resistive ballooning turbulence in the tokamak edge is summarized in this mini-conference talk. A more detailed report on this work is presented in a poster at this conference. This work extends our previous work to include self-consistent zonal flows and their effects. The previous work addressed the simulation of L-mode tokamak edge turbulence using the turbulence code BOUT. The calculations used realistic single-null geometry and plasma parameters of the DIII-D tokamak and produced fluctuation amplitudes, fluctuation spectra, and particle and thermal fluxes that compare favorably to experimental data. In the effect of sheared ExB poloidal rotation is included with an imposed static radial electric field fitted to experimental data. In the new work here we include the radial electric field self-consistently driven by the microturbulence, which contributes to the sheared ExB poloidal rotation (zonal flow generation). We present simulations with/without zonal flows for both cylindrical geometry, as in the UCLA Large Plasma Device, and for the DIII-D tokamak L-mode cases in to quantify the influence of self-consistent zonal flows on the microturbulence and the concomitant transport. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  12. Scoping study for compact high-field superconducting net energy tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumgaard, R. T.; Greenwald, M.; Freidberg, J. P.; Wolfe, S. M.; Hartwig, Z. S.; Brunner, D.; Sorbom, B. N.; Whyte, D. G.

    2016-10-01

    The continued development and commercialization of high temperature superconductors (HTS) may enable the construction of compact, net-energy tokamaks. HTS, in contrast to present generation low temperature superconductors, offers improved performance in high magnetic fields, higher current density, stronger materials, higher temperature operation, and simplified assembly. Using HTS along with community-consensus confinement physics (H98 =1) may make it possible to achieve net-energy (Q>1) or burning plasma conditions (Q>5) in DIII-D or ASDEX-U sized, conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. It is shown that, by operating at high plasma current and density enabled by the high magnetic field (B>10T), the required triple products may be achieved at plasma volumes under 20m3, major radii under 2m, with external heating powers under 40MW. This is at the scale of existing devices operated by laboratories, universities and companies. The trade-offs in the core heating, divertor heat exhaust, sustainment, stability, and proximity to known plasma physics limits are discussed in the context of the present tokamak experience base and the requirements for future devices. The resulting HTS-based design space is compared and contrasted to previous studies on high-field copper experiments with similar missions. The physics exploration conducted with such HTS devices could decrease the real and perceived risks of ITER exploitation, and aid in quickly developing commercially-applicable tokamak pilot plants and reactors.

  13. Feasibility of a multi-purpose demonstration neutron source based on a compact superconducting spherical tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillemaut, C., E-mail: christophe.guillemaut@ccfe.ac.uk [Insituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Ciudad Universitaria, 04511 Coyoacán, D.F. (Mexico); Herrera Velázquez, J.J.E. [Insituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Ciudad Universitaria, 04511 Coyoacán, D.F. (Mexico); Suarez, A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Asociación EURATOM-CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    Tokamak neutron sources would allow near term applications of fusion such as fusion–fission hybrid reactors, elimination of nuclear wastes, production of radio-isotopes for nuclear medicine, material testing and tritium production. The generation of neutrons with fusion plasmas does not require energetic efficiency; thus, nowadays tokamak technologies would be sufficient for such purposes. This paper presents some key technical details of a compact (∼1.8 m{sup 3} of plasma) superconducting spherical tokamak neutron source (STNS), which aims to demonstrate the capabilities of such a device for the different possible applications already mentioned. The T-11 transport model was implemented in ASTRA for 1.5 D simulations of heat and particle transport in the STNS core plasma. According to the model predictions, total neutron production rates of the order of ∼10{sup 15} s{sup −1} and ∼10{sup 13} s{sup −1} can be achieved with deuterium/tritium and deuterium/deuterium respectively, with 9 MW of heating power, 1.4 T of toroidal magnetic field and 1.5 MA of plasma current. Engineering estimates indicate that such scenario could be maintained during ∼20 s and repeated every ∼5 min. The viability of most of tokamak neutron source applications could be demonstrated with a few of these cycles and around ∼100 cycles would be required in the worst cases.

  14. Comparison between 2D turbulence model ESEL and experimental data from AUG and COMPASS tokamaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ondac, Peter; Horacek, Jan; Seidl, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    In this article we have used the 2D fluid turbulence numerical model, ESEL, to simulate turbulent transport in edge tokamak plasma. Basic plasma parameters from the ASDEX Upgrade and COMPASS tokamaks are used as input for the model, and the output is compared with experimental observations obtain...... for an extension of the ESEL model from 2D to 3D to fully resolve the parallel dynamics, and the coupling from the plasma to the sheath.......In this article we have used the 2D fluid turbulence numerical model, ESEL, to simulate turbulent transport in edge tokamak plasma. Basic plasma parameters from the ASDEX Upgrade and COMPASS tokamaks are used as input for the model, and the output is compared with experimental observations obtained...... by reciprocating probe measurements from the two machines. Agreements were found in radial profiles of mean plasma potential and temperature, and in a level of density fluctuations. Disagreements, however, were found in the level of plasma potential and temperature fluctuations. This implicates a need...

  15. Overview of the TCV tokamak program: scientific progress and facility upgrades.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coda, S.; Ficker, Ondřej; Horáček, Jan; Papřok, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, October (2017), č. článku 102011. ISSN 0029-5515 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : TCV * tokamak * overview Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016

  16. New dual gas puff imaging system with up-down symmetry on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, S. C.; Shao, L. M.; Zweben, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). The two views are up-down symmetric about the midplane and separated by a toroidal angle of 66.6 degrees. A linear manifold with 16 holes apart by 10 mm is used to form helium gas cloud at the 130x130 mm (radial versus poloidal) objective plane. A fast camera...

  17. Real-time optical plasma boundary reconstruction for plasma position control at the TCV Tokamak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommen, G.; Baar, M. de; Duval, B.P.; Andrebe, Y.; Le, H.B.; Klop, M.A.; Doelman, N.J.; Witvoet, G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    A dual, high speed, real-time visible light camera setup was installed on the TCV tokamak to reconstruct optically and in real-time the plasma boundary shape. Localized light emission from the plasma boundary in tangential view, broadband visible images results in clearly resolved boundary

  18. Fast-ion transport induced by Alfvén eigenmodes in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Munoz, M.; Classen, I.G.J.; Geiger, B.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive suite of diagnostics has allowed detailed measurements of the Alfvén eigenmode (AE) spatial structure and subsequent fast-ion transport in the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak [1]. Reversed shear Alfvén eigenmodes (RSAEs) and toroidal induced Alfvén eigenmodes (TAEs) have been driven u...

  19. Current Challenges in the First Principle Quantitative Modelling of the Lower Hybrid Current Drive in Tokamaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peysson Y.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Hybrid (LH wave is widely used in existing tokamaks for tailoring current density profile or extending pulse duration to steady-state regimes. Its high efficiency makes it particularly attractive for a fusion reactor, leading to consider it for this purpose in ITER tokamak. Nevertheless, if basics of the LH wave in tokamak plasma are well known, quantitative modeling of experimental observations based on first principles remains a highly challenging exercise, despite considerable numerical efforts achieved so far. In this context, a rigorous methodology must be carried out in the simulations to identify the minimum number of physical mechanisms that must be considered to reproduce experimental shot to shot observations and also scalings (density, power spectrum. Based on recent simulations carried out for EAST, Alcator C-Mod and Tore Supra tokamaks, the state of the art in LH modeling is reviewed. The capability of fast electron bremsstrahlung, internal inductance li and LH driven current at zero loop voltage to constrain all together LH simulations is discussed, as well as the needs of further improvements (diagnostics, codes, LH model, for robust interpretative and predictive simulations.

  20. Ignition curves for deuterium/helium-3 fuel in spherical tokamak ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ignition curves for deuterium/helium-3 fuel in spherical tokamak reactor. S M MOTEVALLI1,∗ and F FADAEI2. 1Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Mazandaran,. P.O. Box 47415-416, Babolsar, Iran. 2Department of Physics, Payam Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-3697, Tehran, Iran. ∗. Corresponding ...

  1. Physics of GAM-initiated L-H transition in a tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askinazi, L. G.; Belokurov, A. A.; Bulanin, V. V.; Gurchenko, A. D.; Gusakov, E. Z.; Kiviniemi, T. P.; Lebedev, S. V.; Kornev, V. A.; Korpilo, T.; Krikunov, S. V.; Leerink, S.; Machielsen, M.; Niskala, P.; Petrov, A. V.; Tukachinsky, A. S.; Yashin, A. Yu; Zhubr, N. A.

    2017-01-01

    Based on experimental observations using the TUMAN-3M and FT-2 tokamaks, and the results of gyrokinetic modeling of the interplay between turbulence and the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in these installations, a simple model is proposed for the analysis of the conditions required for L-H transition triggering by a burst of radial electric field oscillations in a tokamak. In the framework of this model, one-dimensional density evolution is considered to be governed by an anomalous diffusion coefficient dependent on radial electric field shear. The radial electric field is taken as the sum of the oscillating term and the quasi-stationary one determined by density and ion temperature gradients through a neoclassical formula. If the oscillating field parameters (amplitude, frequency, etc) are properly adjusted, a transport barrier forms at the plasma periphery and sustains after the oscillations are switched off, manifesting a transition into the high confinement mode with a strong inhomogeneous radial electric field and suppressed transport at the plasma edge. The electric field oscillation parameters required for L-H transition triggering are compared with the GAM parameters observed at the TUMAN-3M (in the discharges with ohmic L-H transition) and FT-2 tokamaks (where no clear L-H transition was observed). It is concluded based on this comparison that the GAM may act as a trigger for the L-H transition, provided that certain conditions for GAM oscillation and tokamak discharge are met.

  2. Overview of progress in European medium sized tokamaks towards an integrated plasma-edge/wall solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, H.; Eich, T.; Beurskens, M.

    2017-01-01

    Integrating the plasma core performance with an edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) that leads to tolerable heat and particle loads on the wall is a major challenge. The new European medium size tokamak task force (EU-MST) coordinates research on ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), MAST and TCV. This multi-machine ...

  3. Stabilization of the Vertical Mode in Tokamaks by Localized Nonaxisymmetric Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Reiman

    2007-10-02

    Vertical instability of a tokamak plasma can be controlled by nonaxisymmetric magnetic fields localized near the plasma edge at the bottom and top of the torus. The required magnetic fields can be produced by a relatively simple set of parallelogram-shaped coils.

  4. Study of runaway electrons with Hard X-ray spectrometry of tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevelev, A.; Chugunov, I.; Khilkevitch, E.; Gin, D.; Doinikov, D.; Naidenov, V. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Polytechnicheskaya 26, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Kiptily, V. [EURATOM / CCFE Fusion Association, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Plyusnin, V. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Associação EURATOM-IST, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Collaboration: EFDA-JET Contributors

    2014-08-21

    Hard-X-ray spectrometry is a tool widely used for diagnostic of runaway electrons in existing tokamaks. In future machines, ITER and DEMO, HXR spectrometry will be useful providing information on runaway electron energy, runaway beam current and its profile during disruption.

  5. Vertical Injection of Compact Torus into the STOR-M Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dazhi; Livingstone, Stephen; Singh, Ajay K.; Xiao, Chijjin; Hirose, Akira

    2004-11-01

    The present central fuelling schemes e.g. pellet injection are considered to be insufficient for fuelling the next step fusion device. Among other schemes injection of compact torus (CT) in the plasma is considered to be one of the promising schemes. Nondisruptive tangential CT injection has been demonstrated in the STOR-M tokamak. H-mode triggered by CT injection has been observed. Numerical simulations have shown that vertical CT injection has some advantages over horizontal injection because in the case of vertical injection, CT does not experience drag caused by the gradient in the toroidal magnetic field. In order to investigate the feasibility of vertical CT injection into the tokamak, the USCTI injector has been modified to allow vertical injection. The modification consists of introduction of a right angle bend drift tube after the acceleration region of the CT injector. Preliminary investigations showed that CT follows the bend with some attenuation. We report the results of experiments conducted to study the CT penetration in the STOR-M tokamak and its effect on the tokamak plasma.

  6. Development of real-time plasma analysis and control algorithms for the TCV tokamak using Simulink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felici, F.; Le, H. B.; J. I. Paley,; Duval, B. P.; Coda, S.; Moret, J. M.; Bortolon, A.; L. Federspiel,; Goodman, T. P.; Hommen, G.; A. Karpushov,; Piras, F.; A. Pitzschke,; J. Romero,; G. Sevillano,; Sauter, O.; Vijvers, W.; TCV team,

    2014-01-01

    One of the key features of the new digital plasma control system installed on the TCV tokamak is the possibility to rapidly design, test and deploy real-time algorithms. With this flexibility the new control system has been used for a large number of new experiments which exploit TCV's powerful

  7. Integrated modeling of temperature profiles in L-mode tokamak discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiq, T.; Kritz, A. H.; Tangri, V. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Pankin, A. Y. [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Voitsekhovitch, I. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Budny, R. V. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Simulations of doublet III-D, the joint European tokamak, and the tokamak fusion test reactor L-mode tokamak plasmas are carried out using the PTRANSP predictive integrated modeling code. The simulation and experimental temperature profiles are compared. The time evolved temperature profiles are computed utilizing the Multi-Mode anomalous transport model version 7.1 (MMM7.1) which includes transport associated with drift-resistive-inertial ballooning modes (the DRIBM model [T. Rafiq et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 082511 (2010)]). The tokamak discharges considered involved a broad range of conditions including scans over gyroradius, ITER like current ramp-up, with and without neon impurity injection, collisionality, and low and high plasma current. The comparison of simulation and experimental temperature profiles for the discharges considered is shown for the radial range from the magnetic axis to the last closed flux surface. The regions where various modes in the Multi-Mode model contribute to transport are illustrated. In the simulations carried out using the MMM7.1 model it is found that: The drift-resistive-inertial ballooning modes contribute to the anomalous transport primarily near the edge of the plasma; transport associated with the ion temperature gradient and trapped electron modes contribute in the core region but decrease in the region of the plasma boundary; and neoclassical ion thermal transport contributes mainly near the center of the discharge.

  8. Identification of the ubiquitous Coriolis momentum pinch in JET tokamak plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weisen, H.; Camenen, Y.; Salmi, A.; Versloot, T. W.; de Vries, P. C.; Maslov, M.; Tala, T.; Beurskens, M.; Giroud, C.

    2012-01-01

    A broad survey of the experimental database of neutral beam heated plasmas in the JET tokamak has established the theoretically expected ubiquity, in rotating plasmas, of a convective transport mechanism which has its origin in the vertical particle drift resulting from the Coriolis force. This

  9. Control oriented modeling and simulation of the sawtooth instability in nuclear fusion tokamak plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvoet, G.; Westerhof, E.; Steinbuch, M.; Doelman, N.J.; Baar, M.R. de

    2009-01-01

    Tokamak plasmas in nuclear fusion are subject to various instabilities. A clear example is the sawtooth instability, which has both positive and negative effects on the plasma. To optimize between these effects control of the sawtooth period is necessary. This paper presents a simple control

  10. First operations with the new Collective Thomson Scattering diagnostic on the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bin, W.; Bruschi, A.; D'Arcangelo, O.

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous emissions were found over the last few years in spectra of Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostics in tokamak devices such as TEXTOR, ASDEX and FTU, in addition to real CTS signals. The signal frequency, down-shifted with respect to the probing one, suggested a possible origin...

  11. Who will save the tokamak - Harry Potter, Arnold Schwarzenegger, or Shaquille O'Neil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidberg, J.; Mangiarotti, F.; Minervini, J.

    2014-10-01

    The tokamak is the current leading contender for a fusion power reactor. The reason for the preeminence of the tokamak is its high quality plasma physics performance relative to other concepts. Even so, it is well known that the tokamak must still overcome two basic physics challenges before becoming viable as a DEMO and ultimately a reactor: (1) the achievement of non-inductive steady state operation, and (2) the achievement of robust disruption free operation. These are in addition to the PMI problems faced by all concepts. The work presented here demonstrates by means of a simple but highly credible analytic calculation that a ``standard'' tokamak cannot lead to a reactor - it is just not possible to simultaneously satisfy all the plasma physics plus engineering constraints. Three possible solutions, some more well-known than others, to the problem are analyzed. These visual image generating solutions are defined as (1) the Harry Potter solution, (2) the Arnold Schwarzenegger solution, and (3) the Shaquille O'Neil solution. Each solution will be described both qualitatively and quantitatively at the meeting.

  12. Core-SOL simulations of L-mode tokamak plasma discharges using BALDUR code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutthapong Pinanroj

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Core-SOL simulations were carried out of plasma in tokamak reactors operating in a low confinement mode (L-mode, for various conditions that match available experimental data. The simulation results were quantitatively compared against experimental data, showing that the average RMS errors for electron temperature, ion temperature, and electron density were lower than 16% or less for 14 L-mode discharges from two tokamaks named DIII-D and TFTR. In the simulations, the core plasma transport was described using a combination of neoclassical transport calculated by NCLASS module and anomalous transport by Multi-Mode-Model version 2001 (MMM2001. The scrape-off-layer (SOL is the small amount of residual plasma that interacts with the tokamak vessel, and was simulated by integrating the fluid equations, including sources, along open field lines. The SOL solution provided the boundary conditions of core plasma region on low confinement mode (L-mode. The experimental data were for 14 L-mode discharges and from two tokamaks, named DIII-D and TFTR.

  13. Proto-CIRCUS Tilted-Coil Tokamak-Torsatron Hybrid: Design and Construction

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, A W; Hammond, K C; Kornbluth, Y; Spong, D A; Sweeney, R; Volpe, F A

    2014-01-01

    We present the field-line modeling, design and construction of a prototype circular-coil tokamak-torsatron hybrid called Proto-CIRCUS. The device has a major radius R = 16 cm and minor radius a < 5 cm. The six "toroidal field" coils are planar as in a tokamak, but they are tilted. This, combined with induced or driven plasma current, is expected to generate rotational transform, as seen in field-line tracing and equilibrium calculations. The device is expected to operate at lower plasma current than a tokamak of comparable size and magnetic field, which might have interesting implications for disruptions and steady-state operation. Additionally, the toroidal magnetic ripple is less pronounced than in an equivalent tokamak in which the coils are not tilted. The tilted coils are interlocked, resulting in a relatively low aspect ratio, and can be moved, both radially and in tilt angle, between discharges. This capability will be exploited for detailed comparisons between calculations and field-line mapping me...

  14. Vaporization Mode and State of the Ablatant of a Deuterium Pellet in Tokamak Discharges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, C. T.

    1983-01-01

    The ablation of a deuterium pellet under prevailing tokamak discharge conditions is shown to be a dynamic phase transition process. An alternative boundary condition at the pellet surface is formulated. Computational results based on the new boundary condition showed that the state of the ablatant...

  15. On L to H-mode transitions of the tokamak and entropy reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastović Danilo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In an ideal case, it is assumed that the models for tokamak and stellarator plasma behaviour lead to the theory of invariant manifolds by Rastović [Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, 2007]. But, at the present state of knowledge a more realistic concept for describing L to H transitions and edge localized modes is the reduction of entropy and appropriate methods.

  16. Structural effects of plasma instabilities on the JET tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzio, M

    1999-07-01

    The subject of this work is a novel approach to the analysis of the mechanical response of the main structural components of the JET Tokamak to the JxB forces generated by MHD plasma instabilities. The proposed method is based on the creation of simplified lumped-parameter models representing the essential mechanical and electromagnetic characteristics of the interacting components and consists basically in fitting their output to experimental measurements in order to infer information on induced currents and related forces by means of statistical parameter estimation techniques. First of all, the general time history and space distribution of disruption loads are described and the path of the reaction forces throughout the machine is analysed in detail, with particular reference to the recently observed non-axisymmetric cases. For this purpose, a magneto-static model of the interaction between a kinked plasma and the coil system has been developed. This is based on semi-analytical integration of Biot-Savart's law and makes use of a representation of the conductors in terms of Bezier curves. The method implemented, which pen-nits efficient and detailed calculation of magnetic load distributions in complex geometries, is used to analyse non-axisymmetric events and to point out the most critical components under this kind of loading. The attention is focused next on lumped-parameter models which have been created to represent the basic response modes of the Vessel. These models are represented by a combination of concentrated masses, springs and dampers and include additional parameters describing the magnetic loads. The output of these models is fitted to experimental measurements of displacements and support forces in order to obtain estimates for the magnitude, position and timing of induced currents and related forces. A general procedure for model-based maximum likelihood parameters estimation has been implemented as an interactive PC-Windows program in

  17. Virtual reality applications in remote handling development for tokamaks in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Pramit, E-mail: pramitd@ipr.res.in; Rastogi, Naveen; Gotewal, Krishan Kumar

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Evaluation of Virtual Reality (VR) in design and operation phases of Remote Handling (RH) equipment for tokamak. • VR based centralized facility, to cater RH development and operation, is setup at Institute for Plasma Research, India. • The VR facility system architecture and components are discussed. • Introduction to various VR applications developed for design and development of tokamak RH equipment. - Abstract: A tokamak is a plasma confinement device that can be used to achieve magnetically confined nuclear fusion within a reactor. Owing to the harsh environment, Remote Handling (RH) systems are used for inspection and maintenance of the tokamak in-vessel components. As the number of in-vessel components requiring RH maintenance is large, physical prototyping of all strategies becomes a major challenge. The operation of RH systems poses further challenge as all equipment have to be controlled remotely within very strict accuracy limits with minimum reliance on the available camera feedback. In both design and operation phases of RH equipment, application of Virtual Reality (VR) becomes imperative. The scope of this paper is to introduce some applications of VR in the design and operation cycle of RH, which are not available commercially. The paper discusses the requirement of VR as a tool for RH equipment design and operation. The details of a comprehensive VR facility that has been established to support the RH development for Indian tokamaks are also presented. Further, various cases studies are provided to highlight the utilization of this VR facility within phases of RH development and operation.

  18. Application of avalanche photodiode for soft X-ray pulse-height analyses in the Ht-7 tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Shi Yue Jiang; Hu Li Qun; Sun Yan Jun; LiuSheng; Ling Bil

    2002-01-01

    An avalanche photodiode (APD) has been used as soft X-ray energy pulse-height analysis system for the measurement of the electron temperature on the HT-7 tokamak. The experimental results obtained with the APD with its inferior energy resolution show a little difference compared to the conventional high energy-resolution Si (Li) detector. Both numerical analysis and experimental results prove that the APD is good enough for application of the electron temperature measurement in tokamaks.

  19. Improved confinement induced by tangential injection of compact torus into the Saskatchewan Torus-Modified (STOR-M) tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, C.; Hirose, A.; Sen, S.

    2004-08-01

    Compact torus injection into the Saskatchewan Torus-Modified [Phys. Fluids B 4, 3277 (1992)] tokamak discharges has triggered improved confinement characterized by an increase in the electron density by more than twofold, 30% reduction in the Hα radiation level, significant suppression of floating potential fluctuations and m=2 Mirnov oscillations. In this paper, we present detailed experimental setup and results, as well as an extended theory explaining the mechanism for triggering improved confinement in a tokamak by compact torus injection.

  20. Statistical description of intermittent events in the plasma edge of the TEXTOR tokamak; Statistische Beschreibung von intermittenten Ereignissen in der Randschicht des Tokamaks TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, D.

    2006-07-15

    Within the scope of this work itermittent events in the plasma edge of the tokamak TEXTOR were characterized. For the data of measurements of the density and the poloidal electrical field were analysed. The data was collected by a reciprocating and a fixed probe as well as by a lithium beam. The intermittent behaviour was quantified by the statistical moments of the data. If intermittency is high, coherent structures (also called blobs) can be detected. The detected blobs were described using the statistical method of conditional averaging. The main results can be summarised as follows: Intermittent behavoiur has been detected in the scrap off layer of the tokamak TEXTOR and it is increasing with the radius from the last closed flux surface (LCFS) on. On the midplane the blobs in the limiter geometry have a radial size of up to 8 cm and move onto the wall with velocities as high as (1-7)% of the ion sound speed. It was found that intermittent transport causes 40% of the total perpendicular transport in the investigated discharges. In the upper part of the tokamak there is less intermittency. This is reasonable if intermittency is caused by interchange instabilities which mainly occur on the low field side of the tokamak. With the Dynamic Ergodic Divertor (DED) and the associated formation of tearing modes intermittency is increasing. This can also be due to the steeper gradient of density in the scrap off layer close to the LCFS which is caused by gas puffing used for the regulation of the density. Outside the LCFS the ergodic field does not have any influence on the characteristics of blobs. Within the LCFS density holes have been found which propagate towards the centre of the plasma. The radial transport due to blobs is still the same. In general the velocity of the detected blobs is proportional to the square root of their poloidal size. That confirms the prediction of the blob model in which the nonlinear development of interchange instabilities causes the

  1. Modelling and analysis of particles transport in a tokamak plasma; Modelisation et analyse du transport des particules dans un plasma de Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laporte Patrice, M.

    1996-02-22

    The results developed in this thesis describe the ions and neutral atoms transport in a tokamak plasma. The effort is especially made on modelling of neutral particles transport. The presentation of the two computer codes Trap and Neli take the first part of the thesis. This study shows that heat and matter transport anomaly present some real characteristics of an electrostatic turbulence. Then, if particles diffusivity stays abnormal on the whole discharge of a tore supra plasma, in revenge in the central part of the discharge, the convective flux value is compatible with neoclassical theory. (N.C.). 67 refs., 67 figs., 6 appends.

  2. Study of neutron generation in the compact tokamak TUMAN-3M in support of a tokamak-based fusion neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornev, V. A.; Askinazi, L. G.; Belokurov, A. A.; Chernyshev, F. V.; Lebedev, S. V.; Melnik, A. D.; Shabelsky, A. A.; Tukachinsky, A. S.; Zhubr, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents DD neutron flux measurements in neutron beam injection (NBI) experiments aimed at the optimization of target plasma and heating beam parameters to achieve maximum neutron flux in the TUMAN-3M compact tokamak. Two ion sources of different design were used, which allowed the separation of the beam’s energy and power influence on the neutron rate. Using the database of experiments performed with the two ion sources, an empirical scaling was derived describing the neutron rate dependence on the target plasma and heating beam parameters. Numerical modeling of the neutron rate in the NBI experiments performed using the ASTRA transport code showed good agreement with the scaling.

  3. Conditioning of the vacuum vessel walls of tokamaks, a preliminary look

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sink, D.A.

    1976-03-01

    The main features and operating characteristics of the primary vacuum system of many of the presently operating tokamak devices are presented. Particular attention is paid to the methods used to condition and clean the vessel walls in situ. For the devices discussed, a combination of a high-temperature bakeout and/or discharge cleaning is employed. In addition, discussions of the vacuum systems and wall conditioning methods anticipated for the next generation of tokamaks are presented. Since this report was written during a limited time period, it should be considered as preliminary and is not intended to be a general review. Much of the information that is presented was obtained by private communication and there is no bibliography. This study was initiated to aid in the design of TFTR. As presently envisioned, the TFTR vacuum system and methods for wall conditioning are consistent with what is presently practiced.

  4. User's manual for COAST 4: a code for costing and sizing tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sink, D. A.; Iwinski, E. M.

    1979-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the computer program COAST 4 for the user/analyst. COAST, COst And Size Tokamak reactors, provides complete and self-consistent size models for the engineering features of D-T burning tokamak reactors and associated facilities involving a continuum of performance including highly beam driven through ignited plasma devices. TNS (The Next Step) devices with no tritium breeding or electrical power production are handled as well as power producing and fissile producing fusion-fission hybrid reactors. The code has been normalized with a TFTR calculation which is consistent with cost, size, and performance data published in the conceptual design report for that device. Information on code development, computer implementation and detailed user instructions are included in the text.

  5. EFFECT OF PROFILES AND SHAPE ON IDEAL STABILITY OF ADVANCED TOKAMAK EQUILIBRIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAKOWSKI,MA; CASPER,TA; FERRON,JR; TAYLOR,TS; TURNBULL,AD

    2003-08-01

    OAK-B135 The pressure profile and plasma shape, parameterized by elongation ({kappa}), triangularity ({delta}), and squareness ({zeta}), strongly influence stability. In this study, ideal stability of single null and symmetric, double-null, advanced tokamak (AT) configurations is examined. All the various shapes are bounded by a common envelope and can be realized in the DIII-D tokamak. The calculated AT equilibria are characterized by P{sub 0}/

    {approx} 2.0-4.5, weak negative central shear, high q{sub min} (> 2.0), high bootstrap fraction, an H-mode pedestal, and varying shape parameters. The pressure profile is modeled by various polynomials together with a hyperbolic tangent pedestal, consistent with experimental observations. Stability is calculated with the DCON code and the resulting stability boundary is corroborated by GATO runs.

  6. Effect of Profiles and Space on Ideal Stability of Advanced Tokamak Equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makowski, M A; Casper, T A; Ferron, J R; Taylor, T S; Turnbull, A D

    2003-07-07

    The pressure profile and plasma shape, parameterized by elongation ({kappa}), triangularity ({delta}), and squareness ({zeta}), strongly influence stability. In this study, ideal stability of single null and symmetric, double-null, advanced tokamak (AT) configurations is examined. All the various shapes are bounded by a common envelope and can be realized in the DIII-D tokamak. The calculated AT equilibria are characterized by P{sub 0}/{l_angle}P{r_brace} {approx} 2.0-4.5, weak negative central shear, high q{sub min} (>2.0), high bootstrap fraction, an H-mode pedestal, and varying shape parameters. The pressure profile is modeled by various polynomials together with a hyperbolic tangent pedestal, consistent with experimental observations. Stability is calculated with the DCON code and the resulting stability boundary is corroborated by GATO runs.

  7. Development of a remotely maintainable radio-frequency module for the Compact Ignition Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, J. D.

    The Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) will require reliable remote handling (RH) systems to overcome failures in diagnostic and operational equipment. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is responsible for the ex-vessel remote maintenance systems for the CIT. Part of this effort is performing remote maintenance demonstrations on replicas of various CIT equipment. To ensure successful RH, the machine must be designed with proven remote maintenance features. In the demonstrations, critical remote maintenance features are tested before actual CIT equipment designs are finalized. Designs and procedures required to remotely remove and install a radio-frequency (RF) module from a modplane port on the tokamak were recently demonstrated at ORNL. This testing identified both successful design features for remote maintenance of the RF module and areas that require further development.

  8. Free-boundary high-beta tokamaks. II. Mathematical intermezzo: Hilbert transforms and conformal mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goedbloed, J.P.

    1982-11-01

    Mathematical techniques are described that facilitate the reduction of the stability problem of a toroidal free-boundary high-..beta.. tokamak equilibrium with skin currents to one that is basically one-dimensional. This includes the conformal mapping of the simply connected plasma region onto a circular disk and the conformal mapping of the doubly connected vacuum region onto an annulus by means of the Theodorsen and Garrick nonlinear integral equations. Henrici's method of constructing the discretized Hilbert transforms for periodic functions on the boundaries of these domains provides both the basis for constructing the mappings and the tool for the study of the perturbations. The methods are applied to problems of two-dimensional potential flow with a discontinuity of which the stability of sharp-boundary high-..beta.. tokamaks is just a special case.

  9. Free-boundary high-beta tokamaks. II. Mathematical intermezzo: Hilbert transforms and conformal mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedbloed, J. P.

    1982-11-01

    Mathematical techniques are described that facilitate the reduction of the stability problem of a toroidal free-boundary high-β tokamak equilibrium with skin currents to one that is basically one-dimensional. This includes the conformal mapping of the simply connected plasma region onto a circular disk and the conformal mapping of the doubly connected vacuum region onto an annulus by means of the Theodorsen and Garrick nonlinear integral equations. Henrici's method of constructing the discretized Hilbert transforms for periodic functions on the boundaries of these domains provides both the basis for constructing the mappings and the tool for the study of the perturbations. The methods are applied to problems of two-dimensional potential flow with a discontinuity of which the stability of sharp-boundary high-β tokamaks is just a special case.

  10. Main Physical Factors Limiting the Accuracy of Polarimetric Measurements in Tokamak Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieg, Bohdan; Chrzanowski, Janusz; Kravtsov, Yury A.; Orsitto, Francesco

    The paper reviews and discusses the main factors, limiting the accuracy of polarimetric measurements in tokamak plasma. Theoretical methods, describing evolution of polarimetry state in tokamak plasma, are demonstrated not to contribute noticeably to inaccuracy at sufficiently short beam wavelengths. Based on the literature data as well as on our preliminary estimates it is possible to conclude that the following factors dominate: i) calibration procedure; ii) refraction in the inhomogeneous plasma; iii) influence of weak relativistic effects on plasma dielectric permittivity. The contribution of these factors to is within the range of several per cent. Other causes of measurement inaccuracies (absorption in plasma, diffraction of sounding beam, ray torsion, nonstationary processes in plasma) seem to be less significant.

  11. R&D on glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin composites for superconducting Tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Nannan; Wang, Ke; Ma, Hongming; Pan, Wanjiang; Chen, Qingqing

    2016-01-01

    The glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin composites play an important role in superconducting Tokamak, which are used to insulate the metal components, such as superconducting winding, cooling pipes, metal electrodes and so on. For the components made of metal and glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin composites, thermal shrinkage leads to non-ignorable thermal stress, therefore, much attention should be paid on the thermal shrinkage rate of glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin composites. The structural design of glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin composites should aim at reducing thermal stress. In this paper, the density, glass fiber content and thermal shrinkage rate of five insulation tubes were tested. The testing results will be applied in structural design and mechanical analysis of isolators for superconducting Tokamak.

  12. Kinetic simulations of scrape-off layer physics in the DIII-D tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Churchill

    2017-08-01

    The XGCa simulation of the DIII-D tokamak in a nominally sheath-limited regime show many noteworthy features in the SOL. The density and ion temperature are higher at the low-field side, indicative of ion orbit loss. The SOL ion Mach flows are at experimentally relevant levels (Mi ∼ 0.5, with similar shapes and poloidal variation as observed in various tokamaks. Surprisingly, the ion Mach flows close to the sheath edge remain subsonic, in contrast to the typical fluid Bohm criterion requiring ion flows to be above sonic at the sheath edge. Related to this are the presence of elevated sheath potentials, eΔΦ/Te∼3−4, over most of the SOL, with regions in the near-SOL close to the separatrix having eΔΦ/Te > 4. These two results at the sheath edge are a consequence of non-Maxwellian features in the ions and electrons there.

  13. COMPARISON BETWEEN 2D TURBULENCE MODEL ESEL AND EXPERIMENTAL DATA FROM AUG AND COMPASS TOKAMAKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ondac

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we have used the 2D fluid turbulence numerical model, ESEL, to simulate turbulent transport in edge tokamak plasma. Basic plasma parameters from the ASDEX Upgrade and COMPASS tokamaks are used as input for the model, and the output is compared with experimental observations obtained by reciprocating probe measurements from the two machines. Agreements were found in radial profiles of mean plasma potential and temperature, and in a level of density fluctuations. Disagreements, however, were found in the level of plasma potential and temperature fluctuations. This implicates a need for an extension of the ESEL model from 2D to 3D to fully resolve the parallel dynamics, and the coupling from the plasma to the sheath.

  14. Runaway Electrons Modeling and Nanoparticle Plasma Jet Penetration into Tokamak Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, S. A.; Bogatu, I. N.

    2017-10-01

    A novel idea to probe runaway electrons (REs) by superfast injection of high velocity nanoparticle plasma jet (NPPJ) from a plasma accelerator needs to be sustained by both RE dynamics modeling and simulation of NPPJ penetration through increasing tokamak magnetic field. We present our recent progress in both areas. RE simulation is based on the model, including Dreicer and ``avalanche'' mechanisms of RE generation, with emphasis on high Zeff effects. The high-density hyper-velocity C60 and BN NPPJ penetration through transversal B-field is conducted with the Hybrid Electro-Magnetic code (HEM-2D) in cylindrical coordinates, with 1/R B-field dependence for both DIII-D and ITER tokamaks. Work is supported in part by US DOE SBIR Grant.

  15. Measurement of high-energy electrons by means of a Cherenkov detector in ISTTOK tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubowski, L., E-mail: lech.Jjakubowski@ipj.gov.p [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Zebrowski, J. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Plyusnin, V.V. [Association Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049 - 001 Lisboa (Portugal); Malinowski, K.; Sadowski, M.J.; Rabinski, M. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Duarte, P. [Association Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049 - 001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-10-15

    The paper concerns detectors of the Cherenkov radiation which can be used to measure high-energy electrons escaping from short-living plasma. Such detectors have high temporal (about 1 ns) and spatial (about 1 mm) resolution. The paper describes a Cherenkov-type detector which was designed, manufactured and installed in the ISTTOK tokamak in order to measure fast runaway electrons. The radiator of that detector was made of an aluminium nitride (AlN) tablet with a light-tight filter on its front surface. Cherenkov signals from the radiator were transmitted through an optical cable to a fast photomultiplier. It made possible to perform direct measurements of the runaway electrons of energy above 80 keV. The measured energy values and spatial characteristics of the recorded electrons appeared to be consistent with results of numerical modelling of the runaway electron generation process in the ISTTOK tokamak.

  16. Observation of suprathermal electrons during magnetic reconnection at the sawtooth instability in DIII-D TOKAMAK

    CERN Document Server

    Savrukhin, R V

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 Observation of suprathermal electrons during magnetic reconnection at the sawtooth instability in DIII-D TOKAMAK. Intense bursts of x-ray and electron cyclotron emission are observed during sawtooth instabilities in high-temperature plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak. The bursts are initiated around the X-point of the m = 1, n = 1 magnetic island at the beginning of the sawtooth crash and are displaced to larger radii later during the temperature collapse. Reconstruction of the magnetic configuration using motional Stark effect (MSE) data and numerical simulations indicates that the bursts can be connected with suprathermal electrons (E sub r approx 30-40 keV) generated during reconnection of the magnetic field around the q = 1 surface.

  17. L-H transition in the mega-Amp spherical tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akers, R.J.; Counsell, G.F.; Sykes, A.

    2002-01-01

    H-mode plasmas have been achieved on the MAST spherical tokamak at input power considerably higher than predicted by conventional threshold scalings. Following L-H transition, a clear improvement in energy confinement is obtained, exceeding recent international scalings even at densities approach......H-mode plasmas have been achieved on the MAST spherical tokamak at input power considerably higher than predicted by conventional threshold scalings. Following L-H transition, a clear improvement in energy confinement is obtained, exceeding recent international scalings even at densities...... approaching the Greenwald density limit. Transition is accompanied by an order-of-magnitude increase in edge-density gradient, a marked decrease in turbulence, the efficient conversion of internal electron Bernstein waves into free space waves, and the onset and saturation of edge poloidal rotation....

  18. A relativistic model of electron cyclotron current drive efficiency in tokamak plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Liu Y.R.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A fully relativistic model of electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD efficiency based on the adjoint function techniques is considered. Numerical calculations of the current drive efficiency in a tokamak by using the variational approach are performed. A fully relativistic extension of the variational principle with the modified basis functions for the Spitzer function with momentum conservation in the electron-electron collision is described in general tokamak geometry. The model developed has generalized that of Marushchenko’s (N.B . Marushchenko, et al. Fusion Sci. & Tech., 2009, which is extended for arbitrary temperatures and covers exactly the asymptotic for u ≫ 1 when Z → ∞, and suitable for ray-tracing calculations.

  19. A novel plasma position and shape controller for advanced configuration development on the TCV tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, H.; Coda, S.; Felici, F.; Galperti, C.; Moret, J.-M.

    2017-12-01

    A novel plasma position and shape controller has been developed for the highly flexible shaping poloidal-field coil set of the TCV tokamak, to aid in the precise control of advanced configurations such as negative-triangularity plasmas, snowflake and super-X divertors, and doublets. This work follows and relies on the deployment of a new, sub-ms, real-time magnetic equilibrium-reconstruction algorithm. The controller formulation ensures flexibility through an ordering of controlled variables from the most easily to the least easily controlled, while respecting the hardware limits on the poloidal-field coil currents. A rigid, linearised plasma response model for the TCV tokamak is used for the verification and determination of the control parameters. The controller has been applied successfully to a variety of TCV plasma discharges.

  20. Spectroscopy and atomic physics of highly ionized Cr, Fe, and Ni for tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, U.; Doschek, G. A.; Cheng, C.-C.; Bhatia, A. K.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers the spectroscopy and atomic physics for some highly ionized Cr, Fe, and Ni ions produced in tokamak plasmas. Forbidden and intersystem wavelengths for Cr and Ni ions are extrapolated and interpolated using the known wavelengths for Fe lines identified in solar-flare plasmas. Tables of transition probabilities for the B I, C I, N I, O I, and F I isoelectronic sequences are presented, and collision strengths and transition probabilities for Cr, Fe, and Ni ions of the Be I sequence are given. Similarities of tokamak and solar spectra are discussed, and it is shown how the atomic data presented may be used to determine ion abundances and electron densities in low-density plasmas.

  1. Laser cleaning of diagnostic mirrors from tokamak-like carbon contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maffini, A., E-mail: alessandro.maffini@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy); Uccello, A. [Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy); Dellasega, D. [Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Milan (Italy); Russo, V. [Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy); Perissinotto, S. [Center for Nano Science and Technology @ Polimi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Milan (Italy); Passoni, M. [Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Milan (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    This paper presents a laboratory-scale experimental investigation of laser cleaning of diagnostic First Mirrors (FMs). Redeposition of contaminants sputtered from tokamak first wall onto FMs surface could dramatically decrease their reflectivity in an unacceptable way for the functioning of the plasma diagnostic systems. Laser cleaning is a promising solution to tackle this issue. In this work, pulsed laser deposition was exploited to produce rhodium films functional as FMs and to deposit onto them carbon contaminants with tailored features, resembling those found in tokamaks. The same laser system was also used to perform laser cleaning experiments by means of a sample handling procedure that allows to clean some cm{sup 2} in few minutes. The cleaning effectiveness was evaluated in terms of specular reflectivity recovery and mirror surface integrity. The effect of different laser wavelengths (λ = 1064, 266 nm) on the cleaning process is also addressed.

  2. First experimental results with the Current Limit Avoidance System at the JET tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Tommasi, G. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Galeani, S. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemi e Produzione, Università di Roma, Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Jachmich, S. [Association EURATOM-Belgian State, Koninklijke Militaire School - Ecole Royale Militaire, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Joffrin, E. [IRFM-CEA, Centre de Cadarache, 13108 Saint-paul-lez-Durance (France); Lennholm, M. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); European Commission, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Lomas, P.J. [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Neto, A.C. [Associazione EURATOM-IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, IST, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Maviglia, F. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); McCullen, P. [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Pironti, A. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Rimini, F.G. [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Sips, A.C.C. [European Commission, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Varano, G.; Vitelli, R. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemi e Produzione, Università di Roma, Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Zaccarian, L. [CNRS, LAAS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Universitè de Toulouse, LAAS, F-31400 Toulouse (France)

    2013-06-15

    The Current Limit Avoidance System (CLA) has been recently deployed at the JET tokamak to avoid current saturations in the poloidal field (PF) coils when the eXtreme Shape Controller is used to control the plasma shape. In order to cope with the current saturation limits, the CLA exploits the redundancy of the PF coils system to automatically obtain almost the same plasma shape using a different combination of currents in the PF coils. In the presence of disturbances it tries to avoid the current saturations by relaxing the constraints on the plasma shape control. The CLA system has been successfully implemented on the JET tokamak and fully commissioned in 2011. This paper presents the first experimental results achieved in 2011–2012 during the restart and the ITER-like wall campaigns at JET.

  3. Observation of Energetic Particle Driven Modes Relevant to Advanced Tokamak Regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Nazikian; B. Alper; H.L. Berk; D. Borba; C. Boswell; R.V. Budny; K.H. Burrell; C.Z. Cheng; E.J. Doyle; E. Edlund; R.J. Fonck; A. Fukuyama; N.N. Gorelenkov; C.M. Greenfield; D.J. Gupta; M. Ishikawa; R.J. Jayakumar; G.J. Kramer; Y. Kusama; R.J. La Haye; G.R. McKee; W.A. Peebles; S.D. Pinches; M. Porkolab; J. Rapp; T.L. Rhodes; S.E. Sharapov; K. Shinohara; J.A. Snipes; W.M. Solomon; E.J. Strait; M. Takechi; M.A. Van Zeeland; W.P. West; K.L. Wong; S. Wukitch; L. Zeng

    2004-10-21

    Measurements of high-frequency oscillations in JET [Joint European Torus], JT-60U, Alcator C-Mod, DIII-D, and TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor] plasmas are contributing to a new understanding of fast ion-driven instabilities relevant to Advanced Tokamak (AT) regimes. A model based on the transition from a cylindrical-like frequency-chirping mode to the Toroidal Alfven Eigenmode (TAE) has successfully encompassed many of the characteristics seen in experiments. In a surprising development, the use of internal density fluctuation diagnostics has revealed many more modes than has been detected on edge magnetic probes. A corollary discovery is the observation of modes excited by fast particles traveling well below the Alfven velocity. These observations open up new opportunities for investigating a ''sea of Alfven Eigenmodes'' in present-scale experiments, and highlight the need for core fluctuation and fast ion measurements in a future burning-plasma experiment.

  4. Characterization of photo-multiplier tube as ex-vessel radiation detector in tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jungmin; Cheon, MunSeong; Kim, Junghee; An, YoungHwa; Park, Seungil; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

    2017-09-01

    Feasibility of using conventional photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs) without a scintillator as an ex-vessel radiation detector in a tokamak environment is studied. Basic irradiation tests using standard gamma ray sources and a d-d neutron generator showed that the PMT is responding both to gamma photons and neutrons, possibly due to the direct generation of secondary electrons inside the PMT by the impingement of high energy photons. Because of the selective sensitivity of the PMT to hard x-ray and neutrons in ohmic and neutral beam injected plasmas, respectively, it is shown that the PMT with certain configuration can be utilized either to monitor the fluctuation in the fusion neutron generation rate or to study the behavior of runaway electrons in tokamaks.

  5. Analysis of higher harmonics on bidirectional heat pulse propagation experiment in helical and tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T.; Ida, K.; Inagaki, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Tamura, N.; Choe, G. H.; Yun, G. S.; Park, H. K.; Ko, W. H.; Evans, T. E.; Austin, M. E.; Shafer, M. W.; Ono, M.; López-bruna, D.; Ochando, M. A.; Estrada, T.; Hidalgo, C.; Moon, C.; Igami, H.; Yoshimura, Y.; Tsujimura, T. Ii.; Itoh, S.-I.; Itoh, K.

    2017-07-01

    In this contribution we analyze modulation electron cyclotron resonance heating (MECH) experiment and discuss higher harmonic frequency dependence of transport coefficients. We use the bidirectional heat pulse propagation method, in which both inward propagating heat pulse and outward propagating heat pulse are analyzed at a radial range, in order to distinguish frequency dependence of transport coefficients due to hysteresis from that due to other reasons, such as radially dependent transport coefficients, a finite damping term, or boundary effects. The method is applied to MECH experiments performed in various helical and tokamak devices, i.e. Large Helical Device (LHD), TJ-II, Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR), and Doublet III-D (DIII-D) with different plasma conditions. The frequency dependence of transport coefficients are clearly observed, showing a possibility of existence of transport hysteresis in flux-gradient relation.

  6. Real-time capable first principle based modelling of tokamak turbulent transport

    CERN Document Server

    Breton, S; Felici, F; Imbeaux, F; Aniel, T; Artaud, J F; Baiocchi, B; Bourdelle, C; Camenen, Y; Garcia, J

    2015-01-01

    A real-time capable core turbulence tokamak transport model is developed. This model is constructed from the regularized nonlinear regression of quasilinear gyrokinetic transport code output. The regression is performed with a multilayer perceptron neural network. The transport code input for the neural network training set consists of five dimensions, and is limited to adiabatic electrons. The neural network model successfully reproduces transport fluxes predicted by the original quasilinear model, while gaining five orders of magnitude in computation time. The model is implemented in a real-time capable tokamak simulator, and simulates a 300s ITER discharge in 10s. This proof-of-principle for regression based transport models anticipates a significant widening of input space dimensionality and physics realism for future training sets. This aims to provide unprecedented computational speed coupled with first-principle based physics for real-time control and integrated modelling applications.

  7. Atomic physics studies of highly charged ions on tokamaks using x-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; von Goeler, S.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K.W.

    1989-07-01

    An overview is given of atomic physics issues which have been studied on tokamaks with the help resolution x-ray spectroscopy. The issues include the testing of model calculations predicting the excitation of line radiation, the determination of rate coefficients, and accurate atomic structure measurements. Recent research has focussed primarily on highly charged heliumlike (22 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 28) and neonlike (34 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 63) ions, and results are presented from measurements on the PLT and TFTR tokamaks. Many of the measurements have been aided by improved instrumental design and new measuring techniques. Remarkable agreement has been found between measurements and theory in most cases. However, in this review those areas are stressed where agreement is worst and where further investigations are needed. 19 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. The time optimal trajectory planning with limitation of operating task for the Tokamak inspecting manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hesheng; Lai, Yinping [Department of Automation,Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China); Chen, Weidong, E-mail: wdchen@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Automation,Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China)

    2016-12-15

    In this paper, a new optimization model of time optimal trajectory planning with limitation of operating task for the Tokamak inspecting manipulator is designed. The task of this manipulator is to inspect the components of Tokamak, the inspecting velocity of manipulator must be limited in the operating space in order to get the clear pictures. With the limitation of joint velocity, acceleration and jerk, this optimization model can not only get the minimum working time along a specific path, but also ensure the imaging quality of camera through the constraint of inspecting velocity. The upper bound of the scanning speed is not a constant but changes according to the observation distance of camera in real time. The relation between scanning velocity and observation distance is estimated by curve-fitting. Experiment has been carried out to verify the feasibility of optimization model, moreover, the Laplace image sharpness evaluation method is adopted to evaluate the quality of images obtained by the proposed method.

  9. Thermodynamic approach to the interpretation of self-consistent pressure profiles in a tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyabilin, K. S.; Razumova, K. A.

    2015-09-01

    The phenomenon of invariable pressure profiles in tokamaks is interpreted in the framework of the thermodynamic approach suggesting that invariable self-consistent states correspond to the minimum of free energy. Solutions qualitatively consistent with the experiment are obtained under the assumption that the mechanism for the formation of self-consistent profiles is directly related to equilibrium diamagnetic currents. The dynamics of the system and specific transport phenomena, such as energy and particle pinching and a decrease in the local density under auxiliary electron cyclotron resonance heating (density pump-out), are analyzed in the vicinity of an equilibrium state characterized by a stable pressure profile. The scaling for the energy confinement time deduced from the transport model agrees qualitatively with the ITER scaling based on the analysis of experimental data obtained in many tokamaks. The possibility of using generalized Tsallis statistics to analyze pressure profiles is considered.

  10. Generation of two-column helicon plasma on KAIST-TOKAMAK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, S. J.; Huh, S. W.; Kim, J.; Lee, T. S.; Moon, S. Y.; Choe, W.; Choi, D. I.

    2000-10-01

    Industrial plasma application studies reveal that helicon waves provide high ionization rate even at modest rf input power. This suggests that helicon waves be effectively used for plasma pre-ionization/startup, and plasma heating in a tokamak. The two-column helicon plasma was produced with a Nagoya type ¥2 antenna which was modified for toroidal geometry of KAIST-TOKAMAK. The observed two columns locate at the same major radius and they move outward as toroidal magnetic field increases. In addition to the 2D image captured by a CCD camera, an 8-channel Langmuir probe array is used to measure the density profile. Parallel wave number is measured by magnetic pickup probes and a phase detector in order to study wave generation and propagation inside the plasma.

  11. Magnetic Propulsion of Intense Lithium Streams in a Tokamak Magnetic Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonid E. Zakharov

    2002-03-13

    The paper gives the theory of magnetic propulsion of liquid lithium streams and their stability in tokamaks. In the approximation of a thin flowing layer the MHD equations are reduced to one integro-differential equation which takes into account the propulsion effect, viscosity and the drag force due to magnetic pumping and other interactions with the magnetic field. A criterion is obtained for the stabilization of the ''sausage'' instability of the streams by centrifugal force.

  12. Full-field drift Hamiltonian particle orbits in axisymmetric tokamak geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, W.A.; Cooper, G.A.; Graves, J P; Isaev, M. Yu

    2011-01-01

    A Hamiltonian/Lagrangian theory to describe guiding center orbit drift motion that is canonical in Boozer magnetic coordinates is developed to include full electrostatic and electromagnetic perturbed fields in axisymmetric tokamak geometry. Furthermore, the radial component of the equilibrium magnetic field in the covariant representation is retained and the background equilibrium state extends to anisotropic plasma pressure conditions. A gauge transformation on the perturbed vector potentia...

  13. [Injection of compact toroids for tokamak fueling and current drive]. Progress report, 1990--1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, D.Q.; Rogers, J.H.; Thomas, J.C.; Evans, R.; Foley, R.; Hillyer, T.

    1991-12-31

    The experimental goals for the 1990--1991 period were the operation of the Davis Diverted Tokamak(DDT), the beat wave experiment, and the construction of the compact toroid injection experiment(CTIX). The experiment results from these areas are summarized in the posters given in the APS meeting past November. Here we shall describe the technical progress of the development of the diagnostic system for beat wave experiment, and CT injection especially in relation to the up coming injection experiments into DDT tokamak. The tokamak operation of DDT over the past year has been focused in two parameter ranges. The long pulse discharges (over 100 msec), and the low q short pulse discharges (about 10 msec). We found that the long pulse discharges required a position feedback more sophisticated than the simple passive program that we have. We are in the process of assembling this system. We also found an interesting low q(a) operating regime. Here an equilibrium can be established for a toroidal field between .5 and 1 kG. The typical plasma current is > 5kA. The density of the plasma is between 10{sup 12} and 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3}. The plasma condition in these discharge are sufficiently mild that diagnostic probes can be used to measure various plasma fluctuations. We believe that this will be the regime best suited to study the interaction between the tokamak plasma and the compact toroid. A sophisticated probe system of both electrostatic and electromagnetic types similar to those used in the beat wave experiment has been designed for the up coming experiments.

  14. Isotope effects on L-H threshold and confinement in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, C. F.; Weisen, H.; Hillesheim, J. C.; Chankin, A.; Delabie, E.; Horvath, L.; Auriemma, F.; Carvalho, I. S.; Corrigan, G.; Flanagan, J.; Garzotti, L.; Keeling, D.; King, D.; Lerche, E.; Lorenzini, R.; Maslov, M.; Menmuir, S.; Saarelma, S.; Sips, A. C. C.; Solano, E. R.; Belonohy, E.; Casson, F. J.; Challis, C.; Giroud, C.; Parail, V.; Silva, C.; Valisa, M.; Contributors, JET

    2018-01-01

    The dependence of plasma transport and confinement on the main hydrogenic ion isotope mass is of fundamental importance for understanding turbulent transport and, therefore, for accurate extrapolations of confinement from present tokamak experiments, which typically use a single hydrogen isotope, to burning plasmas such as ITER, which will operate in deuterium–tritium mixtures. Knowledge of the dependence of plasma properties and edge transport barrier formation on main ion species is critical in view of the initial, low-activation phase of ITER operations in hydrogen or helium and of its implications on the subsequent operation in deuterium–tritium. The favourable scaling of global energy confinement time with isotope mass, which has been observed in many tokamak experiments, remains largely unexplained theoretically. Moreover, the mass scaling observed in experiments varies depending on the plasma edge conditions. In preparation for upcoming deuterium–tritium experiments in the JET tokamak with the ITER-like Be/W Wall (JET-ILW), a thorough experimental investigation of isotope effects in hydrogen, deuterium and tritium plasmas is being carried out, in order to provide stringent tests of plasma energy, particle and momentum transport models. Recent hydrogen and deuterium isotope experiments in JET-ILW on L-H power threshold, L-mode and H-mode confinement are reviewed and discussed in the context of past and more recent isotope experiments in tokamak plasmas, highlighting common elements as well as contrasting observations that have been reported. The experimental findings are discussed in the context of fundamental aspects of plasma transport models.

  15. Effect of electron-to-ion mass ratio on radial electric field generation in tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenqian; Dong, Jiaqi; Sheng, Zhengmao; Yu, M. Y.; Wang, Weixing

    2018-01-01

    Generation of coherent radial electric fields in plasma by drift-wave turbulence driven by plasma inhomogeneities is ab initio studied using gyro-kinetic particle simulation for conditions of operational tokamaks. In particular, the effect of the electron-to-ion mass ratio ɛ on the entire evolution of the plasma is considered. It is found that the electric field can be increased, and the turbulence-induced particle transport reduced, by making ɛ smaller, in agreement with many existing experimental observations.

  16. Overview of the TCV tokamak program: scientific progress and facility upgrades

    OpenAIRE

    Coda, S.; Ahn, J.; Albanese, R.; Alberti, S; Alessi, E.; Citrin, J.; Hogeweij, D.; Vijvers, W. A. J.; EUROfusion MST1 Team; et al.

    2017-01-01

    The TCV tokamak is augmenting its unique historical capabilities (strong shaping, strong electron heating) with ion heating, additional electron heating compatible with high densities, and variable divertor geometry, in a multifaceted upgrade program designed to broaden its operational range without sacrificing its fundamental flexibility. The TCV program is rooted in a three-pronged approach aimed at ITER support, explorations towards DEMO, and fundamental research. A 1 MW, tangential neutra...

  17. Effects of turbulent fluctuations on density measurements with microwave reflectometry in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzucato, E.; Nazikian, R.

    1994-08-01

    The short-scale turbulence of tokamak plasmas has deleterious effects on the measurement of plasma density with microwave reflectometry. Density fluctuations may lead to large amplitude and phase modulations of the reflected wave which can impair the measurement of the wave group delay, and hence the determination of the plasma density. The role played by different types of turbulent fluctuations and the limitations imposed on microwave reflectometry are discussed in this paper.

  18. Plasma density scaling at the current reversal in the STOR-1M tokamak with AC operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitarai, Osamu; Hirose, Akira; Skarsgard, Harvey M.

    1992-02-01

    Plasma density behavior in the STOR-1M tokamak with alternating current operation is described in the Murakami-Hugill diagram. At the current reversal, the density remains finite. Gas puffing before current reversal allows alternating current operation with larger currents, and improves its reproducibility. A qualitative explanation for the finite plasma density at the current reversal is presented, based on a short-circuit effect by the limiter.

  19. Nonlinear Radial Correlation of Electrostatic Fluctuations in the STOR-M Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, W. X.; Xiao, C.; White, D.; Elia, M.; Hirose, A.

    1997-09-01

    A practical algorithm to calculate the nonlinear correlation is developed. This algorithm permits the determination of not only the correlation strength but also the correlation direction. Application of the algorithm to data obtained in the edge plasma in the STOR-M tokamak with Langmuir probes indicates that the direction of fluctuation correlation reverses after L-H transition and that the nonlinear correlation length is 4 times as long as the linear correlation length.

  20. Diagnostics and control for the steady state and pulsed tokamak DEMO

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orsitto, F.P.; Villari, R.; Moro, F.; Todd, T.N.; Lilley, S.; Jenkins, I.; Felton, R.; Biel, W.; Silva, A.; Scholz, M.; Rzadkiewicz, J.; Ďuran, Ivan; Tardocchi, M.; Gorini, G.; Morlock, C.; Federici, G.; Litnovsky, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2016), č. článku 026009. ISSN 0029-5515 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : measurement systems, fusion reactor, fusion plasma diagnostics * fusion reactor * fusion plasma diagnostics * DEMO * Hall sensors * tokamak Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0029-5515/56/2/026009

  1. Signature of Turbulent Zonal Flows Observed in the DIII-D Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coda, S.; Porkolab, M.; Burrell, K. H.

    2001-05-21

    The spectrum of turbulent density fluctuations at long poloidal wavelengths in the edge plasma of the DIII-D tokamak peaks at nonzero radial wave number. The associated electric-potential fluctuations cause sheared {tilde E}xB flows primarily in the poloidal direction. These zonal flows have been predicted by theory and are believed to regulate the overall level of turbulence and anomalous transport. This study provides the first indirect experimental identification of zonal flows.

  2. Signature of turbulent zonal flows observed in the DIII-D tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, S; Porkolab, M; Burrell, K H

    2001-05-21

    The spectrum of turbulent density fluctuations at long poloidal wavelengths in the edge plasma of the DIII-D tokamak peaks at nonzero radial wave number. The associated electric-potential fluctuations cause sheared E x B flows primarily in the poloidal direction. These zonal flows have been predicted by theory and are believed to regulate the overall level of turbulence and anomalous transport. This study provides the first indirect experimental identification of zonal flows.

  3. QUIESCENT DOUBLE BARRIER H-MODE PLASMAS IN THE DIII-D TOKAMAK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.H. BURRELL; M.E. AUSTIN; D.P. BRENNAN; J.C. DeBOO; E.J. DOYLE; C. FENZI; C. FUCHS; P. GOHIL; R.J. GROEBNER; L.L. LAO; T.C. LUCE; M.A. MAKOWSKI; G.R. McKEE; R.A. MOYER; C.C. PETTY; M. PORKOLAB; C.L.RETTIG; T.L. RHODES; J.C. ROST; B.W. STALLARD; E.J. STRAIT; E.J. SYNAKOWSKI; M.R. WADE; J.G. WATKINS; W.P. WEST

    2000-11-01

    High confinement (H-mode) operation is the choice for next-step tokamak devices based either on conventional or advanced tokamak physics. This choice, however, comes at a significant cost for both the conventional and advanced tokamaks because of the effects of edge localized modes (ELMs). ELMs can produce significant erosion in the divertor and can affect the beta limit and reduced core transport regions needed for advanced tokamak operation. Experimental results from DIII-D [J.L. Luxon, et al., Plasma Phys. and Contr. Nucl. Fusion Research 1986 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1987) Vol. I, p. 159] this year have demonstrated a new operating regime, the quiescent H-mode regime, which solves these problems. We have achieved quiescent H-mode operation which is ELM-free and yet has good density and impurity control. In addition, we have demonstrated that an internal transport barrier can be produced and maintained inside the H-mode edge barrier for long periods of time (>3.5 seconds or >25 energy confinement times {tau}{sub E}), yielding a quiescent double barrier regime. By slowly ramping the input power, we have achieved {beta}{sub N} H{sub 89} = 7 for up to 5 times the {tau}{sub E} of 150 ms. The {beta}{sub N} H{sub 89} values of 7 substantially exceed the value of 4 routinely achieved in standard ELMing H-mode. The key factors in creating the quiescent H-mode operation are neutral beam injection in the direction opposite to the plasma current (counter injection) plus cryopumping to reduce the density. Density and impurity control in the quiescent H-mode is possible because of the presence of an edge magnetic hydrodynamic (MHD) oscillation, the edge harmonic oscillation, which enhances the edge particle transport while leaving the energy transport unaffected.

  4. Quiescent Double Barrier H-Mode Plasmas in the DIII-D Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrell, K H; Austin, M E; Brennan, D P; DeBoo, J C; Doyle, E J; Fenzi, C; Fuchs, C; Gohil, P; Greenfield, C M; Groebner, R J; Lao, L L; Luce, T C; Makowski, M A; McKee, G R; Moyer, R A; Petty, C C; Porkolab, M; Rettig, C L; Rhodes, T L; Rost, J C; Stallard, B W; Strait, E J; Synakowski, E J; Wade, M R; Watkins, J G; West, W P

    2000-11-01

    High confinement (H-mode) operation is the choice for next-step tokamak devices based either on conventional or advanced tokamak physics. This choice, however, comes at a significant cost for both the conventional and advanced tokamaks because of the effects of edge localized modes (ELMs). ELMs can produce significant erosion in the divertor and can affect the beta limit and reduced core transport regions needed for advanced tokamak operation. Experimental results from DIII-D this year have demonstrated a new operating regime, the quiescent H-mode regime, which solves these problems. We have achieved quiescent H-mode operation which is ELM-free and yet has good density and impurity control. In addition, we have demonstrated that an internal transport barrier can be produced and maintained inside the H-mode edge barrier for long periods of time (>3.5 seconds or >25 energy confinement times {tau}{sub E}), yielding a quiescent double barrier regime. By slowly ramping the input power, we have achieved {beta}{sub N} H89 = 7 for up to 5 times the {tau}{sub E} of 150 ms. The {beta}{sub N} H89 values of 7 substantially exceed the value of 4 routinely achieved in standard ELMing H-mode. The key factors in creating the quiescent H-mode operation are neutral beam injection in the direction opposite to the plasma current (counter injection) plus cryopumping to reduce the density. Density and impurity control in the quiescent H-mode is possible because of the presence of an edge magnetic hydrodynamic (MHD) oscillation, the edge harmonic oscillation, which enhances the edge particle transport while leaving the energy transport unaffected.

  5. Selected methods of electron-and ion-diagnostics in tokamak scrape-off-layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadowski Marek J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This invited paper considers reasons why exact measurements of fast electron and ion losses in tokamaks, and particularly i n a scrape-off-layer and near a divertor region, are necessary in order to master nuclear fusion energy production. Attention is also paid to direct measurements of escaping fusion products from D-D and D-T reactions, and in particular of fast alphas which might be used for plasma heating. The second part describes the generation of so-called runaway and ripple-born electrons which might induce high energy losses and cause severe damages of internal walls in fusion facilities. Advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic methods applied for studies of such fast electrons are discussed. Particular attention is paid to development of a direct measuring technique based on the Cherenkov effect which might be induced by fast electrons in appropriate radiators. There are presented various versions of Cherenkov-type probes which have been developed by the NCBJ team and applied in different tokamak experiments. The third part is devoted to direct measurements of fast ions (including those produced by the nuclear fusion reactions which can escape from a high-temperature plasma region. Investigation of fast fusion-produced protons from tokamak discharges is reported. New ion probes, which were developed by the NCBJ team, are also presented. For the first time there is given a detailed description of an ion pinhole camera, which enables irradiation of several nuclear track detectors during a single tokamak discharge, and a miniature Thomson-type mass-spectrometer, which can be used for ion measurements at plasma borders.

  6. MHD stability for a class of tokamak equilibria with fixed boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerner, W

    1977-08-01

    The stability behavior with respect to internal modes is discussed for a class of tokamak equilibria with non-circular cross-sections and essentially flat current profiles. The stability analysis is performed numerically with the help of a normal mode code, which extremizes the Lagrangian of the system. It is found that the Mercier criterion is both necessary and sufficient for stability. Strong numerical evidence for this result is given. MHD-stable high-beta equilibria exist in this model.

  7. Interaction of candidate plasma facing materials with tokamak plasma in COMPASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matějíček, Jiří; Weinzettl, Vladimír; Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Havránek, Vladimír; Naydenkova, Diana; Klevarová, Veronika; Petersson, Per; Gasior, Pawel; Hakola, Antti; Rubel, Marek; Fortuna, Elzbieta; Kolehmainen, Jukka; Tervakangas, Sanna

    2017-09-01

    The interaction of tokamak plasma with several materials considered for the plasma facing components of future fusion devices was studied in a small-size COMPASS tokamak. These included mainly tungsten as the prime candidate and chromium steel as an alternative whose suitability was to be assessed. For the experiments, thin coatings of tungsten, P92 steel and nickel on graphite substrates were prepared by arc-discharge sputtering. The samples were exposed to hydrogen and deuterium plasma discharges in the COMPASS tokamak in two modes: a) short exposure (several discharges) on a manipulator in the proximity of the separatrix, close to the central column, and b) long exposure (several months) at the central column, aligned with the other graphite tiles. During the discharges, standard plasma diagnostics were used and a local emission of spectral lines in the visible near ultraviolet regions, corresponding to the material erosion, was monitored. Before and after the plasma exposures, the sample surfaces were observed using scanning electron microscopy, the coatings thickness was measured using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, and the concentration profiles of hydrogen and deuterium were measured by elastic recoil detection analysis. The uniformity of the coatings and their thickness was verified before the exposure. After the exposure, no reduction of the thickness was observed, indicating the absence of 'global' erosion. Erosion was observed only in isolated spots, and attributed to unipolar arcing. Slightly larger erosion was found on the steel coatings compared to the tungsten ones. Incorporation of deuterium in a thin surface layer was observed, in dependence on the exposure mode. Additionally, boron enrichment of the long-exposure samples was observed, as a result of the tokamak chamber boronization.

  8. A fully implicit Newton-Krylov-Schwarz method for tokamak magnetohydrodynamics: Jacobian construction and preconditioner formulation

    KAUST Repository

    Reynolds, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    Single-fluid resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is a fluid description of fusion plasmas which is often used to investigate macroscopic instabilities in tokamaks. In MHD modeling of tokamaks, it is often desirable to compute MHD phenomena to resistive time scales or a combination of resistive-Alfvén time scales, which can render explicit time stepping schemes computationally expensive. We present recent advancements in the development of preconditioners for fully nonlinearly implicit simulations of single-fluid resistive tokamak MHD. Our work focuses on simulations using a structured mesh mapped into a toroidal geometry with a shaped poloidal cross-section, and a finite-volume spatial discretization of the partial differential equation model. We discretize the temporal dimension using a fully implicit or the backwards differentiation formula method, and solve the resulting nonlinear algebraic system using a standard inexact Newton-Krylov approach, provided by the sundials library. The focus of this paper is on the construction and performance of various preconditioning approaches for accelerating the convergence of the iterative solver algorithms. Effective preconditioners require information about the Jacobian entries; however, analytical formulae for these Jacobian entries may be prohibitive to derive/implement without error. We therefore compute these entries using automatic differentiation with OpenAD. We then investigate a variety of preconditioning formulations inspired by standard solution approaches in modern MHD codes, in order to investigate their utility in a preconditioning context. We first describe the code modifications necessary for the use of the OpenAD tool and sundials solver library. We conclude with numerical results for each of our preconditioning approaches in the context of pellet-injection fueling of tokamak plasmas. Of these, our optimal approach results in a speedup of a factor of 3 compared with non-preconditioned implicit tests, with

  9. H-mode achievement and edge features in RFX-mod tokamak operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolaore, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Marrelli, L.; Carraro, L.; Franz, P.; Spagnolo, S.; Zaniol, B.; Zuin, M.; Cordaro, L.; Dal Bello, S.; De Masi, G.; Ferro, A.; Finotti, C.; Grando, L.; Grenfell, G.; Innocente, P.; Kudlacek, O.; Marchiori, G.; Martines, E.; Momo, B.; Paccagnella, R.; Piovesan, P.; Piron, C.; Puiatti, M. E.; Recchia, M.; Scarin, P.; Taliercio, C.; Vianello, N.; Zanotto, L.

    2017-11-01

    The RFX-mod experiment is a fusion device designed to operate as a reversed field pinch (RFP), with a major radius R = 2 m and a minor radius a = 0.459 m. Its high versatility recently allowed operating it also as an ohmic tokamak, allowing comparative studies between the two configurations in the same device. The device is equipped with a state of the art MHD mode feedback control system providing a magnetic boundary effective control, by applying resonant or non-resonant magnetic perturbations (MP), both in RFP and in tokamak configurations. In the fusion community the application of MPs is widely studied as a promising tool to limit the impact of plasma filaments and ELMs (edge localized modes) on plasma facing components. An important new research line is the exploitation of the RFX-mod active control system for ELM mitigation studies. As a first step in this direction, this paper presents the most recent achievements in term of RFX-mod tokamak explored scenarios, which allowed the first investigation of the ohmic and edge biasing induced H-mode. The production of D-shaped tokamak discharges and the design and deployment of an insertable polarized electrode were accomplished. Reproducible H-mode phases were obtained with insertable electrode negative biasing in single null discharges, representing an unexplored scenario with this technique. Important modifications of the edge plasma density and flow properties are observed. During the achieved H-mode ELM-like electromagnetic composite filamentary structures are observed. They are characterized by clear vorticity and parallel current density patterns.

  10. Development of DEMO-FNS tokamak for fusion and hybrid technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Azizov, E. A.; Alexeev, P. N.; Ignatiev, V. V.; Subbotin, S. A.; Tsibulskiy, V. F.

    2015-07-01

    The history of fusion-fission hybrid systems based on a tokamak device as an extremely efficient DT-fusion neutron source has passed through several periods of ample research activity in the world since the very beginning of fusion research in the 1950s. Recently, a new roadmap of the hybrid program has been proposed with the goal to build a pilot hybrid plant (PHP) in Russia by 2030. Development of the DEMO-FNS tokamak for fusion and hybrid technologies, which is planned to be built by 2023, is the key milestone on the path to the PHP. This facility is in the phase of conceptual design aimed at providing feasibility studies for a full set of steady state tokamak technologies at a fusion energy gain factor Q ˜ 1, fusion power of ˜40 MW and opportunities for testing a wide range of hybrid technologies with the emphasis on continuous nuclide processing in molten salts. This paper describes the project motivations, its current status and the key issues of the design.

  11. Fundamental physics behind the divertor heat-flux width in the present tokamaks and ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. S.; Ku, S.; Churchill, R. M.; Hager, R.; Parker, Scott; Myra, Jim

    2017-10-01

    Electrostatic gyrokinetic simulation using XGC1 recovers the empirical scaling for the divertor heat-load width λq in the present tokamaks (λq 1 /Bpγ , with γ 1). λq is dominated by the neoclassical magnetic drift of ions. However, XGC1 predicts that λq in ITER is much larger than the value predicted by the empirical scaling. An in-depth study shows that the edge turbulence characteristics in ITER is highly different from that in the present tokamaks. In the present tokamaks, the edge turbulence in an H-mode plasma is ``blobby,'' with most of the convective blob motion in the poloidal direction yielding little radial transport. Blobby electron radial transport is passive, only keeping the quasi-neutrality with ion magnetic drift. However, in ITER, the edge turbulence is found to be `streamer-like,' giving rise to active radial particle and thermal transport. There appears to be a bifurcation of the edge turbulence characteristics from blobs to streamers between JET and ITER, most likely due to the size effect, in the XGC simulation. Fundamental physics behind this turbulence bifurcation will be discussed, in relation to the sheared ExB flow, and the Kelvin-Helmholtz, TEM and ITG turbulence. Funded by US DOE FES and ASCR. Computing resources provided by ALCC and INCITE programs on Titan.

  12. Calculations of axisymmetric stability of tokamak plasmas with active and passive feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, D.J.; Jardin, S.C.; Cheng, C.Z.

    1991-07-01

    A new linear MHD stability code, NOVA-W, has been developed in order to study feedback stabilization of the axisymmetric mode in deformable tokamak plasmas. The NOVA-W code is a modification of the non-variational MHD stability code NOVA that includes the effects of resistive passive conductors and active feedback circuits. The vacuum calculation has been reformulated in terms of the perturbed poloidal flux to allow the inclusion of perturbed toroidal currents outside the plasma. The boundary condition at the plasma-vacuum interface relates the instability displacement to the perturbed poloidal flux. This allows a solution of the linear MHD stability equations with the feedback effects included. The passive stability predictions of the code have been tested both against a simplified analytic model and against a different numerical calculation for a realistic tokamak configuration. The comparisons demonstrate the accuracy of the NOVA-W results. Active feedback calculations are performed for the CIT tokamak design demonstrating the effect of varying the position of the flux loops that provide the measurements of vertical displacement. The results compare well with those computed earlier using a less efficient nonlinear code. 37 refs., 13 figs.

  13. Effect of the magnetic topology of a tokamak divertor on the power exhaust properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Ambrosino, R.; Calabrò, G.; Crisanti, F.; Lombroni, R.; Mastrostefano, S.; Rubino, G.; Zagórski, R.

    2017-08-01

    The peculiarities of various advanced divertor magnetic configurations that could be adopted for a tokamak reactor are investigated with the 2D edge code TECXY applied to the different divertor options of the projected tokamak DTT (Divertor Test Tokamak). The analysis highlights very interesting features for those configurations that realize a wide region with significantly depressed poloidal field in between the main X point and the target. Here, the energy cross-field diffusion can become so fast to extend up to ≈10 times the width of the power flow channel, in terms of the poloidal flux coordinates. This can spread the power over a long length and then drop the peak heat load below the technologically safe value, even with no help from impurities. Furthermore, the strongly enlarged effective divertor volume can favour the dissipative processes and lead to plasma detachment from the associated target. The driving mechanism appears to rest on the strongly increased connection lengths. This reduces the parallel thermal gradient and then slows down the power streaming, hence forcing the flow channel to widen in order to convey the same amount of power. However, the other target can be significantly penalized by an unbalance in the power sharing between the two divertor plates. Similarly, modifying the topology of this region also could overcome this problem.

  14. From use cases of the Joint European Torus towards integrated commissioning requirements of the ITER tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, A.C. [Fusion for Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Stephen, A. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sartori, F.; Cavinato, M. [Fusion for Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Farthing, J.W. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Ranz, R.; Saibene, G. [Fusion for Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Winter, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Arnoux, G. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Alves, D. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Blackman, T.; Boboc, A.; Card, P.J.; Dalley, S.; Day, I.E. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); De Tommasi, G. [Consorzio CREATE/Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica e delle Tecnologie dell’Informazione, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Drewelow, P.; Elsmore, C.; Ivings, E.; Felton, R. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-10-15

    The Joint European Torus (JET) is the largest tokamak currently in operation in the world. One of the greatest challenges of JET is the integrated commissioning of all its major plant systems. This is driven, partially, by the size and complexity of its operational infrastructure and also by the fact that, being an international environment, it has to address the issues of integrating, commissioning and maintaining plant systems developed by third parties. The ITER tokamak, now in construction, is a fusion device twice the size of JET and, being a joint effort between the European Union, China, India, Japan, South Korea, the Russian Federation and the USA, it will share on a wider scale all of the JET challenges regarding integration and integrated commissioning of very large and complex plant systems. With the scope of taking advantage from the history and experience of JET, Fusion for Energy (F4E) has worked together with the Culham Centre for Fusion Energy (CCFE), the host and operator of JET, for the provision of ITER relevant user experiences related to the integrated commissioning of the tokamak. This work presents and discusses the main results and the methods that were used to extract and translate the commissioning experience information into ITER requirements.

  15. Correlation of electron beams and hard x-ray emissions in ISTTOK Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubowski, L.; Malinowski, K.; Sadowski, M.J.; Zebrowski, J.; Rabinski, M.; Jakubowski, M.J. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), Otwock (Poland); Plyusnin, V.V.; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Duarte, P. [Association Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-11-15

    The paper reports on experimental studies of electron beams in the ISTTOK tokamak, those were performed by means of an improved four-channel detector. The Cherenkov-type detector measuring head was equipped with four radiators made of two types of alumina-nitrate (AlN) poly-crystals: machinable and translucent ones, both of 10 mm in diameter and 2.5 mm in thickness. The movable support that enabled the whole detectors to be placed inside the tokamak vacuum chamber, at chosen positions along the ISTTOK minor radius. Since the electron energy distribution is one of the most important characteristics of tokamak plasmas, the main aim of the study was to perform estimations of an energy spectrum of the recorded electrons. For this purpose the radiators were coated with molybdenum (Mo) layers of different thickness. The technique based on the use of Cherenkov-type detectors enabled the detection of fast electrons (of energy above 66 keV) and determination of their spatial and temporal characteristics in the ISTTOK experiment. Measurements of hard X-rays (HXR), which were emitted during ISTTOK discharges, have also been performed. Particular attention was paid to the correlation measurements of HXR pulses with run-away electron beams. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Improved Confinement Induced by CT Injection in the STOR-M Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, C.; Hirose, A.; Zawalski, W.; Jin, T.; Ding, W.; White, D.; Raman, R.; Decoste, R.; Gregory, B. C.; Martin, F.

    1997-11-01

    Compact torus (CT) injection as a means to centrally fuel a large tokamak is an attractive alternative. The University of Saskatchewan Compact Torus Injector (USCTI) is designed to study the interaction between the compact torus and tokamak plasmas. USCTI has been modified to include chromium coated copper outer electrodes and to allow baking at higher temperatures up to 100 ^circC. As a result of the modification and parameter optimization, CTs can be formed at a lower gas injection throughput (80% lower than before). The CT velocity has also been increased from 120 km/sec to 180 km/sec. Disruption-free tangential CT injection has been achieved. CT injection triggers Ohmic H-mode which lasts for 4 msec. The H-mode triggered by CT injection is characterized by an increase in the line averaged density, sudden drop in H_α emission, sudden increase in floating potential at the edge and SOL, decrease in floating potential and m=2 MHD fluctuations, and steepening of edge density profile. In the next experimental campaign, possibility of momentum transfer from energetic CT to tokamak discharge will be investigated.

  17. REVIEW ARTICLE Tokamak equilibria with nearly zero central current: the current hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Takaaki

    2010-11-01

    The observation of stable sustainment of the 'current hole', namely the nearly zero current density region in the central part of a tokamak plasma, has opened a new class of configurations in tokamak plasmas, and a variety of research from the viewpoints of equilibrium, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) stability, particle orbits and radial transport has been generated. Some theories and codes have been tested and extended by being applied to extreme conditions in the current hole with very weak poloidal field. The current hole is generated due to a transient negative toroidal electric field established when a large off-axis non-inductive current is rapidly formed. It has been observed in high confinement plasmas with a large fraction of bootstrap current in advanced tokamak operation. The current hole is very stiff against current drive, which suggests that it is a saturated or self-organized system. Appearance of the current hole in ITER and DEMO would be expected in some of the operation scenarios, and its influence and its control methods have been studied. Results of experimental and theoretical studies on the current hole are reviewed.

  18. Study on the key technologies of the Transfer Equipment Cask for Tokamak Equator Port Plug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Buyun, E-mail: ayun@iim.ac.cn [Department of Automation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Robot Sensors and Human-Machine Interaction Laboratory, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Gao, Lifu [Department of Automation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Robot Sensors and Human-Machine Interaction Laboratory, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Cao, Huibin; Sun, Jian [Robot Sensors and Human-Machine Interaction Laboratory, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Sun, Yuxiang; Song, Quanjun; Ma, Chengxue; Chang, Li; Shuang, Feng [Department of Automation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Robot Sensors and Human-Machine Interaction Laboratory, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Design on Intelligent Air Transfer System (IATS) for Transfer Equipment Cask (TECA). • A rhombic-like parallel robot for docking with minimum misalignment. • Design on electro-hydraulic servo system of the TECA for Tokamak Equator Port Plug (TEPP) manipulation. • A control architecture with several algorithms and information acquired from sensors could be used by the TECA for Remote Handling (RH). - Abstract: The Transfer Equipment Cask (TECA) is a key solution for Remote Handling (RH) in Tokamak Equator Port Plug (TEPP) operations. From the perspectives of both engineering and technical designs of effective experiments on the TEPP, key technologies on these topics covering the TECA are required. According to conditions in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) and features of the TEPP, this paper introduces the design of an Intelligent Air Transfer System (IATS) with an adaptive attitude and high precision positioning that transports a cask system of more than 30 tons from the Tokamak Building (TB) to the Hot Cell Building (HCB). Additionally, different actuators are discussed, and the hydraulic power drive is eventually selected and designed. A rhombic-like parallel robot is capable of being used for docking with minimum misalignment. Practical mechanisms of the cask system are presented for hostile environments. A control architecture with several algorithms and information acquired from sensors could be used by the TECA. These designs yield realistic and extended applications for the RH of ITER.

  19. Conceptual design study of the moderate size superconducting spherical tokamak power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gi, Keii; Ono, Yasushi; Nakamura, Makoto; Someya, Youji; Utoh, Hiroyasu; Tobita, Kenji; Ono, Masayuki

    2015-06-01

    A new conceptual design of the superconducting spherical tokamak (ST) power plant was proposed as an attractive choice for tokamak fusion reactors. We reassessed a possibility of the ST as a power plant using the conservative reactor engineering constraints often used for the conventional tokamak reactor design. An extensive parameters scan which covers all ranges of feasible superconducting ST reactors was completed, and five constraints which include already achieved plasma magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and confinement parameters in ST experiments were established for the purpose of choosing the optimum operation point. Based on comparison with the estimated future energy costs of electricity (COEs) in Japan, cost-effective ST reactors can be designed if their COEs are smaller than 120 mills kW-1 h-1 (2013). We selected the optimized design point: A = 2.0 and Rp = 5.4 m after considering the maintenance scheme and TF ripple. A self-consistent free-boundary MHD equilibrium and poloidal field coil configuration of the ST reactor were designed by modifying the neutral beam injection system and plasma profiles. The MHD stability of the equilibrium was analysed and a ramp-up scenario was considered for ensuring the new ST design. The optimized moderate-size ST power plant conceptual design realizes realistic plasma and fusion engineering parameters keeping its economic competitiveness against existing energy sources in Japan.

  20. Tungsten coating by ATC plasma spraying on CFC for WEST tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaouss, M.; Desgranges, C.; Hernandez, C.; Mateus, C.; Maier, H.; Böswirth, B.; Greuner, H.; Samaille, F.; Bucalossi, J.; Missirlian, M.

    2017-12-01

    In the field of fusion experiments using a tokamak, the plasma facing components (PFC) are the closest object to the hot plasma. Due to the plasma-wall interaction, the material composing the PFC may enter the plasma and disturb the experiments. In the past, the main material for PFC was carbon (CFC, graphite), while the future reactors like ITER will be fully metallic, in particular tungsten. The Tore Supra tokamak has been transformed in an x-point divertor fusion device within the frame of the WEST (W (tungsten) Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) project in order to have plasma conditions close to those expected in ITER. The PFC other than the divertor has been coated with W to transform Tore Supra into a fully metallic environment. Different coating techniques have been selected for different kind of PFC. This paper gives an overview on the coating process used for the antennae protection limiter, the associated validation programme and concludes on the adequacy of the W coating with the WEST experimental programme requirements and gives perspectives on the development to be pursued.

  1. Coupled two-dimensional edge plasma and neutral gas modeling of tokamak scrape-off-layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maingi, Rajesh [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this study is to devise a detailed description of the tokamak scrape-off-layer (SOL), which includes the best available models of both the plasma and neutral species and the strong coupling between the two in many SOL regimes. A good estimate of both particle flux and heat flux profiles at the limiter/divertor target plates is desired. Peak heat flux is one of the limiting factors in determining the survival probability of plasma-facing-components at high power levels. Plate particle flux affects the neutral flux to the pump, which determines the particle exhaust rate. A technique which couples a two-dimensional (2-D) plasma and a 2-D neutral transport code has been developed (coupled code technique), but this procedure requires large amounts of computer time. Relevant physics has been added to an existing two-neutral-species model which takes the SOL plasma/neutral coupling into account in a simple manner (molecular physics model), and this model is compared with the coupled code technique mentioned above. The molecular physics model is benchmarked against experimental data from a divertor tokamak (DIII-D), and a similar model (single-species model) is benchmarked against data from a pump-limiter tokamak (Tore Supra). The models are then used to examine two key issues: free-streaming-limits (ion energy conduction and momentum flux) and the effects of the non-orthogonal geometry of magnetic flux surfaces and target plates on edge plasma parameter profiles.

  2. On the breakdown modes and parameter space of Ohmic Tokamak startup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yanli; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Ya; Hu, Xiwei; Zhuang, Ge; Innocenti, Maria; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2017-10-01

    Tokamak plasma has to be hot. The process of turning the initial dilute neutral hydrogen gas at room temperature into fully ionized plasma is called tokamak startup. Even with over 40 years of research, the parameter ranges for the successful startup still aren't determined by numerical simulations but by trial and errors. However, in recent years it has drawn much attention due to one of the challenges faced by ITER: the maximum electric field for startup can't exceed 0.3 V/m, which makes the parameter range for successful startup narrower. Besides, this physical mechanism is far from being understood either theoretically or numerically. In this work, we have simulated the plasma breakdown phase driven by pure Ohmic heating using a particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo code, with the aim of giving a predictive parameter range for most tokamaks, even for ITER. We have found three situations during the discharge, as a function of the initial parameters: no breakdown, breakdown and runaway. Moreover, breakdown delay and volt-second consumption under different initial conditions are evaluated. In addition, we have simulated breakdown on ITER and confirmed that when the electric field is 0.3 V/m, the optimal pre-filling pressure is 0.001 Pa, which is in good agreement with ITER's design.

  3. Global particle in cell simulation of radio frequency waves in tokamak ∖fs20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuley, Animesh; Lin, Z.; Bao, J.; Lau, C.; Sun, G. Y.

    2016-10-01

    We are looking into a new nonlinear kinetic simulation model to study the radio frequency heating and current drive of fusion plasmas using toroidal code GTC. In this model ions are considered as fully kinetic (FK) particles using Vlasov equation and the electrons are treated as drift kinetic (DK) particles using drift kinetic equation. We have benchmarked this numerical model to verify the linear physics of normal modes, conversion of slow and fast waves and its propagation in the core region of the tokamak using the Boozer coordinates. In the nonlinear simulation of ion Bernstein wave (IBW) in a tokamak, parametric decay instability (PDI) is observed where a large amplitude pump wave decays into an IBW sideband and an ion cyclotron quasi-mode (ICQM). The ICQM induces an ion perpendicular heating, with a heating rate proportional to the pump wave intensity. Finally, in the electromagnetic LH simulation, nonlinear wave trapping of electrons is verified and plasma current is nonlinearly driven. Presently we are working on the development of new PIC simulation model using cylindrical coordinates to address the RF wave propagation from the edge of the tokamak to the core region and the parametric instabilities associated with this RF waves. We have verified the cyclotron integrator using Boris push method.

  4. Data acquisition and control system for the ECE imaging diagnostic on the EAST tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, C.; Lan, T.; Zhu, Y.; Xie, J.; Gao, B.; Liu, W.; Yu, C.; Milne, P. G.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.

    2017-06-01

    A 384-channel electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) system is installed on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) and 7-gigabyte data is produced for each regular discharge of a 10-second pulse. The data acquisition and control (DAC) system for the EAST ECEI diagnostics covers the large data production and embeds the ability to report the data quality instantly after the discharge. The symmetric routing design of the timing signal distributions among the 384 channels provides a low-cost solution to the synchronization of a large number of channels. The application of the load-balance bond service largely reduces the configuration difficulty and the cost in the high-speed data transferring tasks. Benefiting from the various kinds of hardware units with dedicated functionalities, an automated and user interactive DAC work flow is achieved, including the pre-selections of the automation scheme and the observation region, 384-channel data acquisition and local caching, post-discharge imaging data quality evaluation, remote system status monitoring, and inter-discharge imaging system event handling. The system configuration in a specific physics experiment is further optimized through the associated operating software which is enhanced by the input of the tokamak operation status and the region of interest (ROI) from other diagnostics. The DAC system is based on a modularized design and scalable to the long-pulse discharges in the EAST tokamak.

  5. Development of a Cherenkov-type diagnostic system to study runaway electrons within the COMPASS tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinski, M.; Jakubowski, L.; Malinowski, K.; Sadowski, M. J.; Zebrowski, J.; Jakubowski, M. J.; Mirowski, R.; Weinzettl, V.; Ficker, O.; Mlynar, J.; Panek, R.; Paprok, R.; Vlainic, M.

    2017-10-01

    Direct measurements of fast electrons, which are produced in high-temperature plasma and escape from tokamak-type facilities, are of particular interest for ITER and future fusion devices, where intense runaway electrons (RE) can significantly damage the first wall components. Therefore, the runaway control and mitigation based on credible measuring methods should be developed already in present devices. A team from the National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), Poland, developed special probes equipped with Cherenkov-type detectors for measurements of the fast electrons within edge plasmas of tokamaks. Studies of the fast runaway electrons were extensively carried out at the COMPASS tokamak at the Institute of Plasma Physics (IPP) in Prague during experimental campaigns in 2014–2016. In order to investigate an electron-beam energy distribution a three-channel probe equipped with the Cherenkov-type detectors sensitive to electrons of different energies has been constructed. The measurements performed by means of these detectors showed that the first fast electron peak appears usually in the current ramp-up phase, even before the hard X-rays (HXR) pulse. Some electron signals can also be observed during subsequent HXR emissions. However, the most distinct electron peaks in all energy channels appear mainly during the plasma disruption. A correlation of Cherenkov signals with the MHD activity was also studied.

  6. Simulations of the operational control of a cryogenic plant for a superconducting burning-plasma tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, N

    2001-01-01

    In recent proposals for next generation superconducting tokamaks, such as the ITER project, the nuclear burning plasma is confined by magnetic fields generated from a large set (up to 100 GJ stored energy) of superconducting magnets. These magnets suffer heat loads in operation from thermal and nuclear radiation from the surrounding components and plasma as well as eddy currents and AC losses generated within the magnets, together with the heat conduction through supports and resistive heat generated at the current lead transitions to room temperature. The initial cryoplant for such a tokamak is expected to have a steady state capacity of up to about 85 kW at 4.5 K, comparable to the system installed for LHC at CERN. Experimental tokamaks are expected to operate at least initially in a pulsed mode with 20-30 short plasma pulses and plasma burn periods each day. A conventional cryoplant, consisting of a cold box and a set of primary heat exchangers, is ill-suited to such a mode of operation as the instantaneou...

  7. Upgrade of the TCV tokamak, first phase: Neutral beam heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpushov, Alexander N., E-mail: alexander.karpushov@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Alberti, Stefano; Chavan, René [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Davydenko, Vladimir I. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Duval, Basil P. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Ivanov, Alexander A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Fasel, Damien; Fasoli, Ambrogio [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Gorbovsky, Aleksander I. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Goodman, Timothy [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Kolmogorov, Vyacheslav V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Martin, Yves; Sauter, Olivier [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Sorokin, Aleksey V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Widening the parameter range of reactor relevant regimes on the TCV tokamak. • Installation of 1 MW, 30 keV neutral beam, direct ion heating, access to T{sub i}/T{sub e} ≥ 1. • ASTRA simulation of plasma response to NB and EC heating in different regimes. • Specific low divergency neutral beam injector with tunable beam power and energy. - Abstract: Experiments on TCV are designed to complement the work at large integrated tokamak facilities (such as JET) to provide a stepwise approach to extrapolation to ITER and DEMO in areas where medium-size tokamaks can often exploit their experimental capabilities and flexibility. Improving the understanding and control requirements of burning plasmas is a major scientific challenge, requiring access to plasma regimes and configurations with high normalized plasma pressure and a wide range of ion to electron temperature ratios, including T{sub e}/T{sub i} ∼ 1. These conditions will be explored by adding a 1 MW neutral heating beam to TCV's auxiliary for direct ion heating (2015) and increasing the ECH power injected in X-mode at the third harmonic (2 MW in 2015–2016). The manufacturing of the neutral beam injector was launched in 2014.

  8. Delineating the magnetic field line escape pattern and stickiness in a poloidally diverted tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Caroline G. L., E-mail: carolinegameiro@gmail.com, E-mail: ibere@if.usp.br [Departamento de Física, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, São José dos Campos, SP 12228-900 (Brazil); Department of Physics, Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Roberto, M., E-mail: marisar@ita.br [Departamento de Física, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, São José dos Campos, SP 12228-900 (Brazil); Caldas, I. L., E-mail: carolinegameiro@gmail.com, E-mail: ibere@if.usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Física, São Paulo, SP 05315-970 (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    We analyze a Hamiltonian model with five wire loops that delineates magnetic surfaces of tokamaks with poloidal divertor. Non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations are added by external coils, similar to the correction coils that have been installed or designed in present tokamaks. To show the influence of magnetic perturbations on the field line escape, we integrate numerically the field line differential equations and obtain the footprints and deposition patterns on the divertor plate. Moreover, we show that the homoclinic tangle describes the deposition patterns in the divertor plate, agreeing with results observed in sophisticated simulation codes. Additionally, we show that while chaotic lines escape to the divertor plates, some of them are trapped, for many toroidal turns, in complex structures around magnetic islands, embedded in the chaotic region, giving rise to stickiness evidences characteristic of chaotic Hamiltonian systems. Finally, we introduce a random collisional term to the field line mapping to investigate stickiness alterations due to particle collisions. Within this model, we conclude that, even reduced by collisions, the observed trapping still influences the field line transport. The results obtained for our numerical estimations indicate that the reported trapping may affect the transport in present tokamaks.

  9. Mechanical design of the coils encapsulated of toroidal field of Tokamak TPM1; Diseno mecanico del encapsulado de las bobinas de campo toroidal del Tokamak TPM1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldino H, U.; Francois L, J. L., E-mail: ucaldino@outlook.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The TPM1 is a small Tokamak that belongs to the Centro de Investigacion en Ciencias Aplicadas y Tecnologia Avanzada of Instituto Politecnico Nacional (CICATA-IPN); the project is under construction. Currently it has the vacuum chamber, and is intended that the machine can operate with electric pulses of 10 ms to study the behavior of plasmas in order to provide knowledge in the field of nuclear fusion by magnetic confinement. To achieve this goal is necessary to design the toroidal field coils which operate the Tokamak. This paper presents an analysis which was performed to obtain the correct configuration of coils depending on design parameters for operation of the machine. Once determined this configuration, an analysis of electromagnetic forces present in normal machine operation on one coil was conducted, this to know the stresses in the encapsulation of the same. Considering the pulsed operation, a thickness of 5 mm is determined in the encapsulated, considering fatigue failure based on studies of fatigue failures in epoxy resins. (Author)

  10. Monitoring of the current profile by using cyclotronic electron waves in tokamaks; Controle du profil de courant par ondes cyclotroniques electroniques dans les tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, R

    2001-08-01

    The subject of this thesis is the study of the cyclotronic electron wave as a monitoring tool of the current profile. The first chapter is dedicated to basic notions concerning tokamak plasmas and current generation. The second chapter is centered on the use of fast electrons to generate current and on its modelling. The propagation and absorption of the cyclotronic electron wave require a specific polarization state whose characteristics must be carefully chosen according to some parameters of the discharge, the chapter 3 deals with this topic. The absorption of a wave in a plasma depends greatly on the velocity distribution of the particles that make up the plasma and this distribution is constantly modified by the energy of the wave, so this phenomenon is non-linear and its physical description is difficult. In a case of a fusion plasma, a sophisticated approximation called quasi-linear theory can be applied with some restrictions that are presented in chapter 4. Chapters 5 and 6 are dedicated to kinetics scenarios involving the low hybrid wave and the cyclotronic electron wave inside the plasma. Some experiments dedicated to the study of the cyclotronic electron wave have been performed in Tore-supra (France) and FTU (Italy) tokamaks, they are presented in the last chapter. (A.C.)

  11. OVERVIEW OF RECENT EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FROM THE DIII-D ADVANCED TOKAMAK PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BURRELL,HK

    2002-11-01

    OAK A271 OVERVIEW OF RECENT EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FROM THE DIII-D ADVANCED TOKAMAK PROGRAM. The DIII-D research program is developing the scientific basis for advanced tokamak (AT) modes of operation in order to enhance the attractiveness of the tokamak as an energy producing system. Since the last International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) meeting, they have made significant progress in developing the building blocks needed for AT operation: (1) they have doubled the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stable tokamak operating space through rotational stabilization of the resistive wall mode; (2) using this rotational stabilization, they have achieved {beta}{sub N}H{sub 89} {ge} 10 for 4 {tau}{sub E} limited by the neoclassical tearing mode; (3) using real-time feedback of the electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) location, they have stabilized the (m,n) = (3,2) neoclassical tearing mode and then increased {beta}{sub T} by 60%; (4) they have produced ECCD stabilization of the (2,1) neoclassical tearing mode in initial experiments; (5) they have made the first integrated AT demonstration discharges with current profile control using ECCD; (6) ECCD and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) have been used to control the pressure profile in high performance plasmas; and (7) they have demonstrated stationary tokamak operation for 6.5 s (36 {tau}{sub E}) at the same fusion gain parameter of {beta}{sub N}H{sub 89}/q{sub 95}{sup 2} {approx} 0.4 as ITER but at much higher q{sub 95} = 4.2. The authors have developed general improvements applicable to conventional and advanced tokamak operating modes: (1) they have an existence proof of a mode of tokamak operation, quiescent H-mode, which has no pulsed, ELM heat load to the divertor and which can run for long periods of time (3.8 s or 25 {tau}{sub E}) with constant density and constant radiated power; (2) they have demonstrated real-time disruption detection and mitigation for vertical disruption events using high pressure gas jet

  12. Efficiency of the generation of impulsion by cyclotron waves currents of the electrons in an Axisymmetric Tokamak; Eficiencia de la generacion de corrientes de impulsion por ondas ciclotronicas de los electrones en un Tokamak axisimetrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez T, C.; Beltran P, M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The neoclassical theory of transport is used to calculate the current efficiency of electronic cyclotron impulsion (ECCD) in an axisymmetric tokamak in the few collisions regime. The standard parameter of the tokamak is used to obtain a system of equations that describe the hydrodynamic of the plasma, where the ponderomotive force (PM) due to high power radio frequency waves is taken in account. The PM force is produced in the proximity of electron cyclotron resonance surface in a specific poloidal localization. The efficiency ECCD is analyzed in the cases of first and second harmonic (for different angles of injection of radio frequency waves) and it is validated using the experimental values of the TCV and T-10 tokamaks. The results are according to those obtained by means of the techniques of the Green functions. (Author)

  13. Effect of the Shafranov shift and the gradient of $\\beta$ on intrinsic momentum transport in up-down asymmetric tokamaks

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Justin; Lee, Jungpyo; Cerfon, Antoine J

    2016-01-01

    Tokamaks with up-down asymmetric poloidal cross-sections spontaneously rotate due to turbulent transport of momentum. In this work, we investigate the effect of the Shafranov shift on this intrinsic rotation, primarily by analyzing tokamaks with tilted elliptical flux surfaces. By expanding the Grad-Shafranov equation in the large aspect ratio limit we calculate the magnitude and direction of the Shafranov shift in tilted elliptical tokamaks. The results show that, while the Shafranov shift becomes up-down asymmetric and depends strongly on the tilt angle of the flux surfaces, it is insensitive to the shape of the current and pressure profiles (when specific experimental parameters are kept fixed). Next, local nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of these MHD equilibria are performed with GS2, which reveal that the Shafranov shift can significantly enhance the momentum transport. However, to be consistent, the effect of $\\beta'$ (i.e. the radial gradient of $\\beta$) on the magnetic equilibrium was also included....

  14. Importance of the fine structure in a tokamak for the abnormal transport and the internal disruptions; Importance de la structure magnetique fine dans un Tokamak pour le transport anormal et les disruptions internes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabot, R.

    1996-02-28

    The problem of energy transport in a Tokamak, in presence of magnetic islets, has been treated by decomposing this problem in different bricks. To assembly the different bricks the model of dynamic percolation, which couples by the intermediate of scattering coefficient, the activity of transport sites (islets size) to the profile of transported quantity (temperature profile) has been chosen. The results, got with this model, results connected to the hypothesis of a limited number of islets, agree with the different observations. A possible application of this model could be the exploration of different operating conditions of Tokamak and a research of improved confinement running. (N.C.). 149 refs., 85 figs.

  15. Plasma density determination by microwave interferometry .- The 2 mm interferometer of the TJ-1 Tokamak; Determinacion de la densidad de un plasma por interferometria de microondas. El interferometro de 2 mm del Tokamak TJ-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.; Manero, F.

    1984-07-01

    In this paper a description is given of the microwave interferometer used for measuring the plasma electronic density in the TJ-1 Tokamak of Fusion Division of JEN. The principles of the electronic density measurement are discussed in detail, as well as those concerning the determination of density pro files from experimental data. A description of the interferometer used in the TJ-1 Tokamak is given, together with a detailed analysis of the circuits which constitute the measuring chain. The working principles of the klystron reflex and hybrid rings are also presented. (Author) 23 refs.

  16. Feedback control of current drive by using hybrid wave in tokamaks; Asservissement de la generation de courant par l`onde hybride dans un plasma de tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijnands, T.J. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee]|[CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Direction des Sciences de la Matiere

    1997-03-01

    This work is focussed on an important and recent development in present day Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research and Tokamaks. The aim is to optimise the energy confinement for a certain magnetic configuration by adapting the radial distribution of the current. Of particular interest are feedback control scenarios with stationary modifications of the current profile using current, driven by Lower Hybrid waves. A new feedback control system has been developed for Tore Supra and has made a large number of new operation scenarios possible. In one of the experiments described here, there is no energy exchange between the poloidal field system and the plasma, the current is controlled by the power of the Lower Hybrid waves while the launched wave spectrum is used to optimise the current profile shape and the energy confinement. (author) 151 refs.

  17. A study on tokamak fusion reactor - Numerical analyses of MHD equilibrium= and edge plasma transport in tokamak fusion reactor with divertor configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sang Hee; Lim, Ki Hang; Kang, Kyung Doo; Ryu, Ji Myung; Kim, Duk Kyu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Soo Won [Kyungki Unviersity, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    In the present project for developing the numerical codes of 2-DMHD equilibrium, edge plasma transport and neutral particle transport for the tokamak plasmas, we compute the plasma equilibrium of double null type and calculate the external coil currents and the plasma parameters used for operation and control data. Also the numerical algorithm is developed to analyse the behavior of edge plasmas in poloidal and radial directions and the programming and debugging of a 2-D transport code are completed. Furthermore, a neutral particle transport code for the edge region is developed and then used for the analysis of the neutral transport phenomena giving the sources in the fluid equations, and expected to supply the input parameters for the edge plasma transport code. 34 refs., 5 tabs., 28 figs. (author)

  18. Multi-channel control circuit for real-time control of events in Aditya tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edappala, Praveenlal, E-mail: praveen@ipr.res.in; Shah, Minsha; Rajpal, Rachana; Tanna, R.L.; Ghosh, Joydeep; Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Jha, R.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Low cost microcontroller based control circuit. • The control hardware can be programmed/configured very easily for different applications. • Microcontroller programming is done in assembly language so that precise timing can be achieved with micro seconds resolution. • Successful implementation of this circuit in noisy tokamak environment. • Efficient noise and burst elimination. • Can be integrated in to the other subsystems. • Low cost solution for implementing feedback control in small and medium size tokamaks and other experiments requiring feedback control. - Abstract: Tokamak plasma is prone to many random events having potential for causing severe damages to the machine, such as disruptions, production and elimination of high-energy runaway electrons etc. These events can be mitigated by obtaining pre-cursor signal leading to these events and then taking proper measures just before their onset to avoid their happenings, like disruptions can be mitigated by massive gas injection or putting a bias voltage on an electrode placed inside the plasma, the runaways can be mitigated by gas injection and by applying specific magnetic fields. Hence for real time control of these events, the pre-cursors should be electronically recorded and the mitigation techniques should be initiated by sending triggers to their individual operational systems. To implement these methodologies of real-time controlling of events in Aditya Tokamak, a low cost multi-channel Micro-Controller based timing circuit is designed and developed in-house. This circuit first compares the precursor signals fed into it with the pre-set values and gives a trigger output whenever the signals overshoot the pre-set values. The circuit readies itself for operation along with start of the tokamak discharge and waits up to an initial pre-determined delay and then initiates a trigger at the time of overshooting of precursor signal. The circuit is fully integrated and assembled in

  19. Plasma Shape and Current Density Profile Control in Advanced Tokamak Operating Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenyu

    The need for new sources of energy is expected to become a critical problem within the next few decades. Nuclear fusion has sufficient energy density to potentially supply the world population with its increasing energy demands. The tokamak is a magnetic confinement device used to achieve controlled fusion reactions. Experimental fusion technology has now reached a level where tokamaks are able to produce about as much energy as is expended in heating the fusion fuel. The next step towards the realization of a nuclear fusion tokamak power plant is ITER, which will be capable of exploring advanced tokamak (AT) modes, characterized by a high fusion gain and plasma stability. The extreme requirements of the advanced modes motivates researchers to improve the modeling of the plasma response as well as the design of feedback controllers. This dissertation focuses on several magnetic and kinetic control problems, including the plasma current, position and shape control, and data-driven and first-principles-driven modeling and control of plasma current density profile and the normalized plasma pressure ratio betaN. The plasma is confined within the vacuum vessel by an external electromagnetic field, produced primarily by toroidal and poloidal field coils. The outermost closed plasma surface or plasma boundary is referred to as the shape of the plasma. A central characteristic of AT plasma regimes is an extreme elongated shape. The equilibrium among the electromagnetic forces acting on an elongated plasma is unstable. Moreover, the tokamak performance is improved if the plasma is located in close proximity to the torus wall, which guarantees an efficient use of available volume. As a consequence, feedback control of the plasma position and shape is necessary. In this dissertation, an Hinfinity-based, multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) controller for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is developed, which is used to control the plasma position, shape, and X

  20. TOKOPS: Tokamak Reactor Operations Study: The influence of reactor operations on the design and performance of tokamaks with solid-breeder blankets: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conn, R.W.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Firestone, M.A. (eds.)

    1986-09-01

    Reactor system operation and procedures have a profound impact on the conception and design of power plants. These issues are studied here using a model tokamak system employing a solid-breeder blanket. The model blanket is one which has evolved from the STARFIRE and BCSS studies. The reactor parameters are similar to those characterizing near-term fusion engineering reactors such as INTOR or NET (Next European Tokamak). Plasma startup, burn analysis, and methods for operation at various levels of output power are studied. A critical, and complicating, element is found to be the self-consistent electromagnetic response of the system, including the presence of the blanket and the resulting forces and loadings. Fractional power operation, and the strategy for burn control, is found to vary depending on the scaling law for energy confinement, and an extensive study is reported. Full-power reactor operation is at a neutron wall loading pf 5 MW/m/sup 2/ and a surface heat flux of 1 MW/m/sup 2/. The blanket is a pressurized steel module with bare beryllium rods and low-activation HT-9-(9-C-) clad LiAlO/sub 2/ rods. The helium coolant pressure is 5 MPa, entering the module at 297/sup 0/C and exiting at 550/sup 0/C. The system power output is rated at 1000 MW(e). In this report, we present our findings on various operational scenarios and their impact on system design. We first start with the salient aspects of operational physics. Time-dependent analyses of the blanket and balance of plant are then presented. Separate abstracts are included for each chapter.

  1. Multi scale study of carbon deposits collected in Tore-Supra and TEXTOR tokamaks; Etude multi echelle des depots carbones collectes dans les tokamaks Tore Supra et TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richou, M

    2007-06-15

    Tokamaks are devices aimed at studying magnetic fusion. They operate with high temperature plasmas containing hydrogen, deuterium or tritium. One of the major issue is to control the plasma-wall interaction. The plasma facing components are most often in carbon. The major drawback of carbon is the existence of carbon deposits and dust, due to erosion. Dust is potentially reactive in case of an accidental opening of the device. These deposits also contain H, D or T and induce major safety problems when tritium is used, which will be the case in ITER. Therefore, the understanding of the deposit formation and structure has become a main issue for fusion researches. To clarify the role of the deposits in the retention phenomenon, we have done different complementary characterizations for deposits collected on similar places (neutralizers) in tokamaks Tore Supra (France) and TEXTOR (Germany). Accessible microporous volume and pore size distribution of deposits has been determined with the analysis of nitrogen and methane adsorption isotherms using the BET, Dubinin-Radushkevich and {alpha}{sub s} methods and the Density Functional Theory (DFT). To understand growth mechanisms, we have studied the deposit structure and morphology. We have shown using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Raman micro-spectrometry that these deposits are non amorphous and disordered. We have also shown the presence of nano-particles (diameter between 4 and 70 nm) which are similar to carbon blacks: nano-particle growth occurs in homogeneous phase in the edge plasma. We have emphasised a dual growth process: a homogenous and a heterogeneous one. (author)

  2. The O-X-B mode conversion scheme for ECRH of a high-density Tokamak plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, F. R.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul

    1985-01-01

    A method to apply electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) to a Tokamak plasma with central density higher than the critical density for cut-off of the ordinary mode (O-mode) has been investigated. This method involves two mode conversions, from an O-mode via an extraordinary mode (X-mode) int......-mode) into an electron Bernstein mode (B-mode). Radial profiles for the power deposition and the wave-drive current due to the B-waves are calculated for realistic antenna radiation patterns with parameters corresponding to the Danish DANTE Tokamak and to Princeton's PLT....

  3. Feedback control experiments on 1.0 and 1.5 cycle ac operations in the STOR-M tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitarai, Osamu; Xiao, Chijin; White, Darren; McColl, David; Zawalski, Wade; Hirose, Akira

    1997-07-01

    Complete one cycle and 1.5 cycle ac operations are performed in the STOR-M tokamak with the plasma current of ˜20 kA using newly developed feedback control and Ohmic heating circuits. Bias voltage adjustment is installed in the plasma position circuit to optimize the plasma position in the second negative plasma current phase for multicycle ac operation. The key to successful, reproducible multicycle ac tokamak operations on STOR-M is to control both the total vertical field by the feedback control system and the plasma position by application of the bias voltage.

  4. Plasma-material Interactions in Current Tokamaks and their Implications for Next-step Fusion Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federici, G.; Skinner, C.H.; Brooks, J.N.; Coad, J.P.; Grisolia, C. [and others

    2001-01-10

    The major increase in discharge duration and plasma energy in a next-step DT [deuterium-tritium] fusion reactor will give rise to important plasma-material effects that will critically influence its operation, safety, and performance. Erosion will increase to a scale of several centimeters from being barely measurable at a micron scale in today's tokamaks. Tritium co-deposited with carbon will strongly affect the operation of machines with carbon plasma-facing components. Controlling plasma wall interactions is critical to achieving high performance in present-day tokamaks and this is likely to continue to be the case in the approach to practical fusion reactors. Recognition of the important consequences of these phenomena has stimulated an internationally coordinated effort in the field of plasma-surface interactions supporting the Engineering Design Activities of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project and significant progress has been made in better under standing these issues. This paper reviews the underlying physical processes and the existing experimental database of plasma-material interactions both in tokamaks and laboratory simulation facilities for conditions of direct relevance to next-step fusion reactors. Two main topical groups of interactions are considered: (i) erosion/redeposition from plasma sputtering and disruptions, including dust and flake generation, (ii) tritium retention and removal. The use of modeling tools to interpret the experimental results and make projections for conditions expected in future devices is explained. Outstanding technical issues and specific recommendations on potential R and D [Research and Development] avenues for their resolution are presented.

  5. Deflection of a liquid metal jet/drop in a tokamak environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelekasis, Nikos, E-mail: pel@uth.gr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Thessaly, Volos 38334 (Greece); Benos, Lefteris [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Thessaly, Volos 38334 (Greece); Gomes, Rui [Associação EURATOM/IST, Centro de Fusão Nuclear, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We model steady flow of a liquid metal jet inside an electromagnetic field in the presence of inertia and capillary forces. • Similar analysis is performed for the motion of a liquid metal spherical drop. • The deflection of the trajectory is predicted as a function of the intensity of the externally imposed magnetic and electric fields. • The analysis is used as a proof of principle study in reference to experimental observations of jet/drop deflection due to j{sup →}×B{sup →} effects in the ISTTOK tokamak. • We discuss the possibility of using liquid metal flows as an alternative approach toward enhancing power exhaust in tokamak facilities. - Abstract: The interaction of a liquid gallium jet with plasma has been investigated in the ISTTOK tokamak. The jet was observed to remain intact during its interaction with plasma, within a certain length beyond which drop formation was observed. Significant deflection of the jet was detected as soon as plasma production was started. Furthermore, a strong dependency of the deflection magnitude on plasma position was observed that could be correlated with plasma potential gradients. As a means to capture and, possibly, quantify this effect, a preliminary magnetohydrodynamic analysis was performed in order to predict the trajectory of a jet that is traveling inside an electromagnetic field. The effect of Lorentz forces, gravity and pressure drop are accounted for in a unidirectional model that assumes a small jet radius in comparison with the trajectory length. The effect of external electric potential gradients on jet deflection was ascertained in conjunction with the importance of electric stresses in modulating the jet speed and radius. Analysis of the results reported in the ISTTOK experiments identifies the process of jet break-up as a capillary instability. The trajectory of the ensuing droplets is modeled and intensification of the deflection process is predicted in the presence of Lorentz

  6. Liquid Metal Walls, Lithium, And Low Recycling Boundary Conditions In Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Majeski

    2010-01-15

    At present, the only solid material believed to be a viable option for plasma-facing components (PFCs) in a fusion reactor is tungsten. Operated at the lower temperatures typical of present-day fusion experiments, tungsten is known to suffer from surface degradation during long-term exposure to helium-containing plasmas, leading to reduced thermal conduction to the bulk, and enhanced erosion. Existing alloys are also quite brittle at temperatures under 700oC. However, at a sufficiently high operating temperature (700 - 1000 oC), tungsten is selfannealing and it is expected that surface damage will be reduced to the point where tungsten PFCs will have an acceptable lifetime in a reactor environment. The existence of only one potentially viable option for solid PFCs, though, constitutes one of the most significant restrictions on design space for DEMO and follow-on fusion reactors. In contrast, there are several candidates for liquid metal-based PFCs, including gallium, tin, lithium, and tin-lithium eutectics. We will discuss options for liquid metal walls in tokamaks, looking at both high and low recycling materials. We will then focus in particular on one of the candidate liquids, lithium. Lithium is known to have a high chemical affinity for hydrogen, and has been shown in test stands1 and fusion experiments2,3 to produce a low recycling surface, especially when liquid. Because it is also low-Z and is usable in a tokamak over a reasonable temperature range (200 - 400 oC), it has been now been used as a PFC in several confinement experiments (TFTR, T11- M, CDX-U, NSTX, FTU, and TJ-II), with favorable results. The consequences of substituting low recycling walls for the traditional high recycling variety on tokamak equilibria are very extensive. We will discuss some of the expected modifications, briefly reviewing experimental results, and comparing the results to expectations.

  7. FPGA based Fuzzy Logic Controller for plasma position control in ADITYA Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suratia, Pooja, E-mail: poojasuratia@yahoo.com [Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Kalabhavan, Vadodara 390001, Gujarat (India); Patel, Jigneshkumar, E-mail: jjp@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat (India); Rajpal, Rachana, E-mail: rachana@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat (India); Kotia, Sorum, E-mail: smkotia-eed@msubaroda.ac.in [Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Kalabhavan, Vadodara 390001, Gujarat (India); Govindarajan, J., E-mail: govindarajan@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat (India)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluation and comparison of the working performance of FLC is done with that of PID Controller. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FLC is designed using MATLAB Fuzzy Logic Toolbox, and validated on ADITYA RZIP model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FLC was implemented on a FPGA. The close-loop testing is done by interfacing FPGA to MATLAB/Simulink. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developed FLC controller is able to maintain the plasma column within required range of {+-}0.05 m and was found to give robust control against various disturbances and faster and smoother response compared to PID Controller. - Abstract: Tokamaks are the most promising devices for obtaining nuclear fusion energy from high-temperature, ionized gas termed as Plasma. The successful operation of tokamak depends on its ability to confine plasma at the geometric center of vacuum vessel with sufficient stability. The quality of plasma discharge in ADITYA Tokamak is strongly related to the radial position of the plasma column in the vacuum vessel. If the plasma column approaches too near to the wall of vacuum vessel, it leads to minor or complete disruption of plasma. Hence the control of plasma position throughout the entire plasma discharge duration is a fundamental requirement. This paper describes Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) which is designed for radial plasma position control. This controller is tested and evaluated on the ADITYA RZIP control model. The performance of this FLC was compared with that of Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) Controller and the response was found to be faster and smoother. FLC was implemented on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip with the use of a Very High-Speed Integrated-Circuits Hardware Description-Language (VHDL).

  8. MHD and current profile control studies of reversed shear tokamak configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, J.J.; Bonoli, P.T.; Porkolab, M. [M.I.T. Plasma Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Given the observed enhancement of energy and particle confinement, and the possibility of achieving high betas and high bootstrap current fractions, reversed magnetic shear equilibria have become the leading concept in advanced tokamak scenarios. The performance limits for these configurations are most likely to be set by MHD stability constraints. The other essential issue for this advanced tokamak concept is the non-inductive, steady state sustainment of the current profile. These two topics are covered in the present work. We concentrate on equilibria with minimum value of q greater than 2 so as to avoid double-tearing mode problems and to have global access to the n={infinity} ballooning second stability region. Then the MHD limit is set by the n=1 (pressure-current driven) external mode. The critical parameters for the onset of the n=1 instability in terms of the plasma beta and current are obtained for several classes of equilibria, allowing for a systematic study of geometrical shaping and profile effects. It is shown that triangular shapes and broad profiles yield optimal results. The realistic sustainment of the reversed shear current profiles is investigated by generating equilibria with the ACCOME code. This simulation model combines a free boundary solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation with the calculation of driven currents due to neutral beam injection, lower hybrid waves, ICRF fast waves and bootstrap effects. Such equilibrium code is coupled to the JSOLVER and PEST-II codes in order to perform the stability analysis. Specific simulations for the ALCATOR C-mod and ITER tokamaks are provided. Optimal parameters for completely stable equilibria without conducting walls thus obtained reach {beta}{sub N}=3.7, {beta}=3.7%, {beta}*=5.0% and bootstrap fraction in excess of 75%.

  9. Physics of the Tokamak Pedestal, and Implications for Magnetic Fusion Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Philip

    2017-10-01

    High performance in tokamaks is achieved via the spontaneous formation of a transport barrier in the outer few percent of the confined plasma. This narrow insulating layer, referred to as a ``pedestal,'' typically results in a >30x increase in pressure across a 0.4-5cm layer. Predicted fusion power scales with the square of the pedestal top pressure (or ``pedestal height''), hence a fusion reactor strongly benefits from a high pedestal, provided this can be attained without large Edge Localized Modes (ELMs), which may erode plasma facing materials. The overlap of drift orbit, turbulence, and equilibrium scales across this narrow layer leads to rich and complex physics, and challenges traditional analytic and computational approaches. We review studies employing gyrokinetic, neoclassical, MHD, and other methods, which have explored how a range of instabilities, influenced by complex geometry, and strong ExB flows and bootstrap current, drive transport across the pedestal and guide its structure and dynamics. Development of high resolution diagnostics, and coordinated experiments on several tokamaks, have validated understanding of important aspects of the physics, while highlighting open issues. A predictive model (EPED) has proven capable of predicting the pedestal height and width to 20-25% accuracy in large statistical studies. This model was used to predict a new, high pedestal ``Super H-Mode'' regime, which was subsequently discovered on DIII-D, and motivated experiments on Alcator C-Mod which achieved world record, reactor relevant pedestal pressure. We review open issues including improved formalism, particle and momentum transport, the role of neutrals and impurities, ELM control, and pedestal formation. Finally we discuss coupling pedestal and core predictive models to enable more comprehensive optimization of the tokamak fusion concept. Supported by the US DOE under DE-FG02-95ER54309, FC02-06ER54873, DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  10. Plasma Turbulence in the Scrape-off Layer of the ISTTOK Tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Jorge, Rogerio; Halpern, Federico D; Loureiro, Nuno F; Silva, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The properties of plasma turbulence in a poloidally limited scrape-off layer (SOL) are addressed, with focus on ISTTOK, a large aspect ratio tokamak with a circular cross section. Theoretical investigations based on the drift-reduced Braginskii equations are carried out through linear calculations and non-linear simulations, in two- and three-dimensional geometries. The linear instabilities driving turbulence and the mechanisms that set the amplitude of turbulence as well as the SOL width are identified. A clear asymmetry is shown to exist between the low-field and the high-field sides of the machine. A comparison between experimental measurements and simulation results is presented.

  11. Final Report: Spectral Analysis of L-shell Data in the Extreme Ultraviolet from Tokamak Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepson, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jernigan, J. Garrett [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Beiersdorfer, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-02-05

    We performed detailed analyses of extreme ultraviolet spectra taken by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on the National Spherical Torus Experiment at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and on the Alcator CKmod tokamak at the M.I.T. Plasma Science and Fusion Center. We focused on the emission of iron, carbon, and other elements in several spectral band pass regions covered by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We documented emission lines of carbon not found in currently used solar databases and demonstrated that this emission was due to charge exchange.

  12. Density modulation experiment to determine transport coefficients on Joint-TEXT Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.; Zhuang, G.; Gao, L., E-mail: gaoli@mail.hust.edu.cn; Chen, J.; Shi, P.; Liu, Y.; Li, Q.; Wang, Z. J. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Gentle, K. W. [Institute of Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Density modulation experiments have been conducted on Joint-TEXT (J-TEXT) Tokamak Ohmic discharge to investigate particle transport based on a model with constant diffusion plus inward convection. Like the HCN interferometer, the newly developed three-wave polarimeter-interferometer system (POLARIS) is used to measure the perturbed density. The comparison of results between the HCN interferometer and POLARIS is given. The consistent results indicate the validity of the analysis scheme. At lower densities, the typical particle confinement time τ{sub p} is found to increase with electron density, while it saturates at higher densities.

  13. Contribution to the multi-machine pedestal scaling from the COMPASS tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komm, M.; Bílková, P.; Aftanas, M.; Berta, M.; Böhm, P.; Bogár, O.; Frassinetti, L.; Grover, O.; Háček, P.; Havlicek, J.; Hron, M.; Imríšek, M.; Krbec, J.; Mitošínková, K.; Naydenkova, D.; Pánek, R.; Peterka, M.; Snyder, P. B.; Stefanikova, E.; Stöckel, J.; Sos, M.; Urban, J.; Varju, J.; Vondráček, P.; Weinzettl, V.; the COMPASS Team

    2017-05-01

    First systematic measurements of pedestal structure during Ohmic and NBI-assisted Type I ELMy H-modes were performed on the COMPASS tokamak in two dedicated experimental campaigns during 2015 and 2016. By adjusting the NBI heating and a toroidal magnetic field, the electron pedestal temperature was increased from 200 eV up to 300 eV, which allowed reaching pedestal collisionality ν \\text{ped}\\ast   text{ped}\\ast . The pedestal pressure was successfully reproduced by the EPED model. The dependence of pedestal pressure width on ν \\text{ped}\\ast and β \\text{ped ~ }\\text{pol} is discussed.

  14. 3D passive stabilization of n = 0 MHD modes in EAST tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S L; Villone, F; Xiao, B J; Barbato, L; Luo, Z P; Liu, L; Mastrostefano, S; Xing, Z

    2016-09-06

    Evidence is shown of the capability of non-axisymmetrical conducting structures in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) to guarantee the passive stabilization of the n = 0 MHD unstable mode. Suitable numerical modeling of the experiments allows a clear interpretation of the phenomenon. This demonstration and the availability of computational tools able to describe the effect of 3D conductors will have a huge impact on the design of future fusion devices, in which the conducting structures closest to plasma will be highly segmented.

  15. Gyrokinetic full-f transport simulations of ohmic FT-2 tokamak discharges

    OpenAIRE

    Leerink, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The work described in the thesis focuses on understanding large-scale mean ExB flows, fine-scale zonal flows and turbulent transport in ohmic plasma discharges in the small Russian FT-2 tokamak from a first principal basis. The investigations are performed with the full-fparticle-in-cell (PIC) code Elmfire which calculates the time evolution of the full distribution function of the electrons and a selection of ions while self-consistently calculating the electric field making the code suitabl...

  16. Core tungsten radiation diagnostic calibration by small shell pellet injection in the DIII-D tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, E. M.; Commaux, N.; Shiraki, D.; Alexander, N.; Bykov, I.; Moser, A. L.; Thomas, D.; Victor, B. S.

    2017-10-01

    Injection of small (outer diameter = 0.8 mm) plastic pellets carrying embedded smaller (10 μg) tungsten grains is used to check calibrations of core tungsten line radiation diagnostics in support of the 2016 tungsten ring campaign in the DIII-D tokamak. Observed total brightness (1 eV-10 keV) and soft x-ray (1 keV-10 keV) brightness are found to be reasonably well (core (extreme ultra-violet/soft x-ray) tungsten line brightness appears to be somewhat less reliable (factor 2-4) for the prediction of core tungsten concentration.

  17. Strong Scattering of High Power Millimeter Waves in Tokamak Plasmas with Tearing Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhof, E.; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Oosterbeek, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    In tokamak plasmas with a tearing mode, strong scattering of high power millimeter waves, as used for heating and noninductive current drive, is shown to occur. This new wave scattering phenomenon is shown to be related to the passage of the O point of a magnetic island through the high power...... heating beam. The density determines the detailed phasing of the scattered radiation relative to the O-point passage. The scattering power depends strongly nonlinearly on the heating beam power. ©2009 The American Physical Society...

  18. Beyond Orbital-Motion-Limited theory effects for dust transport in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delzanno, Gian Luca [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tang, Xianzhu [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-29

    Dust transport in tokamaks is very important for ITER. Can many kilograms of dust really accumulate in the device? Can the dust survive? The conventional dust transport model is based on Orbital-Motion-Limited theory (OML). But OML can break in the limit where the dust grain becomes positively charged due to electron emission processes because it overestimates the dust collected power. An OML+ approximation of the emitted electrons trapped/passing boundary is shown to be in good agreement with PIC simulations.

  19. Overview of progress in European medium sized tokamaks towards an integrated plasma-edge/wall solution

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, H.; Eich, T.; Citrin, J.; Classen, I.; Hogeweij, D.; Jaulmes, F.; Kappatou, A.; Van den Brand, H.; Vanovac, B.; Vijvers, W. A. J.; Westerhof, E.; et al.

    2017-01-01

    Integrating the plasma core performance with an edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) that leads to tolerable heat and particle loads on the wall is a major challenge. The new European medium size tokamak task force (EU-MST) coordinates research on ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), MAST and TCV. This multi-machine approach within EU-MST, covering a wide parameter range, is instrumental to progress in the field, as ITER and DEMO core/pedestal and SOL parameters are not achievable simultaneously in present day de...

  20. Timing and triggering of the Thomson scattering diagnostics on the COMPASS tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulín, Ondřej; Hron, Martin; Böhm, Petr; Naylor, G.; Bílková, Petra; Janky, Filip; Salášek, J.; Pánek, Radomír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 5 (2014), s. 693-697 ISSN 0920-3796. [The 9th Technical Meeting on Control, Data Acquisition, and Remote Participation for Fusion Research/9./. Hefei, 06.05.2013-10.05.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7G10072; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021; GA ČR GAP205/11/2470 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Tokamak * Timing and triggering * FPGA * Real-time control * Diagnostics control * Thomson scattering Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.152, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379614002105#