Sample records for textured bi-2212 rods

  1. Nanoparticle Ag-enhanced textured-powder Bi-2212/Ag wire technology (United States)

    Kellams, J. N.; McIntyre, P.; Pogue, N.; Vandergrifft, J.


    A new approach to the preparation of cores for Bi-2212/Ag wire is being developed. Nanoparticle Ag is homogeneously dispersed in Bi-2212 fine powder, and the mixture is uniaxially compressed to form highly textured, cold-sintered core rods. The rods can be assembled in a silver matrix, drawn to form multifilament wire, and restacked and drawn to form multifilament wire. Preliminary studies using tablet geometry demonstrate that a nonmelt heat treatment produces densification, grain growth, intergrowth among grains, and macroscopic current transport. The status of the development is reported.

  2. submitter Comparison of microstructure, second phases and texture formation during melt processing of Bi-2212 mono- and multifilament wires

    CERN Document Server

    Kadar, J; Rikel, MO; Di Michiel, M; Huang, Y


    Based on simultaneous in situ high energy synchrotron micro-tomography and x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements we compare the microstructural changes and the formation of second phases and texture during the processing of Bi-2212 round wires with 15 μm filament diameter (multifilament) and 650 μm filament diameter (monofilament) fabricated using identical Bi-2212 precursor. The monofilament tomograms show in unprecedented detail how the distributed porosity agglomerates well before Bi-2212 melting decomposition to form lenticular voids that completely interrupt the filament connectivity along the wire axis. When the Bi-2212 phase completely melts connectivity in the axial wire direction is established via the changes in the void morphology from the lenticular voids to bubbles that remain when Bi-2212 crystallises out of the melt. By measuring the attenuation of the monochromatic x-ray beam, the associated Bi-2212 mass density changes have been monitored during the entire heat cycle. The XRD results reveal ...

  3. Effect of Secondary Annealing Process on Critical Current Density in Highly Textured Bi-2212 Superconducting System (United States)

    Aksan, M. A.; Madre, M. A.; Rasekh, Sh.; Constantinescu, G.; Torres, M. A.; Diez, J. C.; Sotelo, A.; Yakinci, M. E.


    Bi-2212 samples prepared by a solid-state reaction technique have been grown from the melt using the laser floating zone method. After annealing the as-grown bars, the samples showed a good grain alignment and a high transport critical current density. Secondary annealing processes were performed on the annealed samples with the aim of producing Bi-2212 phase controlled decomposition. Hence, the Bi-2201 phase and the secondary phases, which act as effective pinning centers, were obtained with the secondary annealing process. After these thermal treatments, the transport critical current densities of samples significantly increased, when compared to the annealed ones. The maximum critical current density was achieved when the samples were subjected to secondary annealing at 680°C for 168 h with an improvement of ~80%, compared to the annealed ones. Moreover, it was found that magnetization of the secondarily annealed samples was also increased. The magnetic critical current densities in these secondary annealed samples were about 3 times higher than the values obtained for the annealed ones. These results clearly indicate that the secondary annealing processes lead to the formation of effective pinning centers in the bulk material.

  4. Thermal imaging of Bi2212 THz oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, H.; Pyon, S. [Department of Applied Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Tamegai, T., E-mail: [Department of Applied Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Tsujimoto, M.; Kakeya, I. [Department of Electric Science & Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)


    Highlights: • Temperature distributions of Bi2212 mesas at low temperatures are measured. • Fluorescent thermal imaging (FTI) method is applied in the thermal imaging. • Obtained thermal images reveal non-uniformity of the temperature distribution. - Abstract: Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ} (Bi2212) mesas are promising candidates for THz oscillators, which can fill the frequency range around “THz gap”. However, it is known that Bi2212 mesas show self-heating effects (hot spots) when the current is passed along the c-axis due to the low thermal conductivity in this direction. Although several previous studies reported the relation of the hot spot and THz emission, consistent answer has not been obtained yet. In order to address this issue, imaging of temperature distributions on Bi2212 mesas is expected to be very effective. Here, we set up fluorescent thermal imaging (FTI) method for visualizing the surface temperature distribution on the Bi2212 mesa. We have succeeded in observing hot spots in the Bi2212 mesa with high spatial resolution.

  5. Influence of the oxygen partial pressure on the phase evolution during Bi-2212 wire melt processing

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C.; Rikel, M.O.; Kadar, J.; Doerrer, C.; Di Michiel, M.; Ballarino, A.; Bottura, L.; Jiang, J.; Kametani, F.; Hellstrom, E.E.; Larbalestier, D.C.


    We have studied the influence of the oxygen partial pressure pO2 up to 5.5 bar on the phase changes that occur during melt processing of a state-of-the-art Bi-2212 multifilamentary wire. Phase changes have been monitored in situ by high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD). We found that the stability of Bi-2212 phase is reduced with increasing pO2. For pO2>1 bar a significant amount of Bi-2212 phase decomposes upon heating in the range 400 to 650 °C. The extent of decomposition strongly increases with increasing pO2, and at pO2=5.5 bar Bi-2212 decomposes completely in the solid state. Textured Bi-2212 can be formed during solidification when pO2 is reduced to 0.45 bar when the precursor is molten. Since the formation of current limiting second phases is very sensitive to pO2 when it exceeds 1 bar, we recommend to reduce the oxygen partial pressure below the commonly used pO2=1 bar, in order to increase the pO2 margins and to make the overpressure process more robust.

  6. Tape casting and partial melting of Bi-2212 thick films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhl, D.; Lang, T.; Heeb, B. [Nichtmetallische Werkstoffe, Zuerich (Switzerland)] [and others


    To produce Bi-2212 thick films with high critical current densities tape casting and partial melting is a promising fabrication method. Bi-2212 powder and organic additives were mixed into a slurry and tape casted onto glass by the doctor blade tape casting process. The films were cut from the green tape and partially molten on Ag foils during heat treatment. We obtained almost single-phase and well-textured films over the whole thickness of 20 {mu}m. The orientation of the (a,b)-plane of the grains were parallel to the substrate with a misalignment of less than 6{degrees}. At 77K/OT a critical current density of 15`000 A/cm{sup 2} was reached in films of the dimension 1cm x 2cm x 20{mu}m (1{mu}V/cm criterion, resistively measured). At 4K/OT the highest value was 350`000 A/cm{sup 2} (1nV/cm criterion, magnetically measured).

  7. Preparation and characterization of PEG/Bi2212 nanocomposites (United States)

    Enomoto, H.; Deguchi, T.; Takano, Y.; Mori, N.


    Single-phase nanocomposites of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+d (Bi2212) with organic polymer have been successfully synthesized for the first time by the foliation-adsorption technique. Colloidal suspension containing exfoliated Bi2212 nanosheets was prepared with a stepwise intercalation method. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was slowly added into colloids containing Bi2212 nanosheets. X-ray diffraction patterns show that the gallery height of Bi2212 host is expanded from 3.08 nm to 4.91 nm in PEG/Bi2212 nanocomposites. The basal plane expansion of 0.9 nm is in good agreement with the values reported for PEG-containing nanocomposites, suggesting that a PEG bilayer is incorporated within the Bi2212 nanosheets.

  8. AC losses in Bi2212 ROSAT wires exposed to an AC magnetic field(2); Bi2212 ROSAT senzai no koryu sonshitsu (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Y.; Matsumura, K.; Kajikawa, K.; Iwakuma, M.; Funaki, K. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Okada, M. [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The wire rod the anisotropy is big for the Bi system superconductor, and it is processed in order to level the orientation of the superconductive crystal, thin tapelike. Therefore, wire rod itself of the rectangular cross section also has the anisotropy for critical current and ac loss characteristics. This time, the base metal was alloyed, and the ac loss was measured on improvement of mechanical strength and Bi2212ROSAT wire rod with the aim of making into low-loss, and it was compared and was examined with the ac loss of theoretical value and pure silver base metal ROSAT wire rod. (NEDO)

  9. Efecto de la adición de Ag en Bi-2212 texturado mediante laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mora, M.


    Full Text Available The addition of Ag into Bi-2212 compounds has demonstrated to be a suitable method to improve both, the thermal and mechanical properties as well as the electrical ones. The final properties have been found to be in strong dependence of Ag content and the processing technique. In the present work the influence of Ag addition on Bi-2212 bulk materials grown from the melt, using a laser floating zone melting technique, has been studied. Samples with different Ag contents (0 to 40 wt.% were prepared for this work. The Bi-2212 + x wt.% Ag powders have been prepared by a sol-gel method via nitrates to assure total cation solution, small particle size and good homogeneity in the mixture. Cylindrical precursors, fabricated from these powders, were used as feed in a LFZ melting installation to obtain textured Bi-2212/Ag composites. The effect of the Ag addition on the microstructure is analysed as a function of Ag content. The changes on the microstructure are also correlated with the mechanical and superconducting properties.

    La incorporación de Ag en los compuestos de Bi-2212 ha demostrado ser un método adecuado para mejorar tanto las propiedades mecánicas, térmicas como eléctricas de estos materiales. Las propiedades finales dependen fuertemente de la cantidad de Ag añadida al sistema pero también del tipo de procesado que sufre. En el presente trabajo se realiza un estudio del efecto de la adición de Ag en materiales masivos Bi-2212 texturados mediante fusión zonal inducida por láser, con el objetivo de comprender el efecto de la adición de Ag en sistemas Bi-2212 que pasan totalmente por un fundido. Para ello se preparon muestras con diferentes contenidos en Ag (hasta el 40% en peso. Debido a la inmiscibilidad en estado sólido de la Ag y del Bi-2212, se ha utilizado un método de síntesis de estos materiales por medio de técnicas sol-gel para asegurar una buena homogeneidad y un tamaño de partícula reducido en la cerámica de

  10. AC loss properties of Bi-2212 rutherford-type cables; Bi-2212 razafuodo gata asshuku seikei dotai no koryu sonshitsu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Y.; Matsumura, K.; Kajikawa, K.; Iwakuma, M.; Funaki, K. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Hasegawa, T. [Showa Electric Wire and Cable Co., Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan); Kasahara, H.; Akita, S. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    With the aim of the application to SMES, it advances the development of the large-capacity oxide superconducting wire rod. A current capacity per 1 is small for present oxide superconducting wire rod. And, it needs the development of method of improving of mechanical strength of wire rod in the large magnet like SMES, because it receives the mighty electromagnetic force. It produced Rutherford type conductor, which made the Ni unit alloy to be the reinforcement using Bi-2212 cross section wire rod as a trial for solving these problems experimentally. In this study, it measured ac loss on produced conductor and the wire, which constitutes this, and it evaluated the electromagnetic property. (NEDO)

  11. Crystalline instability of Bi-2212 superconducting whiskers near room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cagliero, Stefano; Khan, Mohammad Mizanur Rahman [Torino Universita, ' NIS' Centre of Excellence, Dip. Chimica Generale e Chimica Organica, and CNISM UdR, Turin (Italy); Torino Universita, ' NIS' Centre of Excellence, Dip. Fisica Sperimentale, and CNISM UdR, Turin (Italy); Agostino, Angelo [Torino Universita, ' NIS' Centre of Excellence, Dip. Chimica Generale e Chimica Organica, and CNISM UdR, Turin (Italy); Truccato, Marco [Torino Universita, ' NIS' Centre of Excellence, Dip. Fisica Sperimentale, and CNISM UdR, Turin (Italy); Orsini, Francesco; Marinone, Massimo; Poletti, Giulio [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Istituto di Fisiologia Generale e Chimica Biologica, Milan (Italy); CNR-INFM-S3 NRC, Modena (Italy); Lascialfari, Alessandro [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Istituto di Fisiologia Generale e Chimica Biologica, Milan (Italy); CNR-INFM-S3 NRC, Modena (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Pavia, INFM-CNR c/o Dipartimento di Fisica A. Volta, Pavia (Italy)


    We report new evidences for the thermodynamic instability of whisker crystals in the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (BSCCO) system. Annealing treatments at 90 C have been performed on two sets of samples, which were monitored by means of X-rays diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements, respectively. Two main crystalline domains of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CuCa{sub 2}O{sub 8+x} (Bi-2212) were identified in the samples by the XRD data, which underwent an evident crystalline segregation after about 60 hours. Very fast dynamics of the surface modifications was also described by the AFM monitoring. Two typologies of surface structures formed after about 3 annealing hours: continuous arrays of dome shaped bodies were observed along the edges of the whiskers, while in the central regions a dense texture of flat bodies was found. These modifications are described in terms of the formation of simple oxide clusters involving a degradation of the internal layers. (orig.)

  12. The vortex glass to liquid transition in Bi2212 whisker (United States)

    Zheng, P.; Zhou, Y. Q.; Chen, Z. J.; Luo, S.; Wang, W. H.; He, Y. S.; Duo, J.


    Through scaling the dc I- V isotherms of Bi2212 whisker in magnetic field H‖ c, the vortex glass-liquid transition is found in Bi2212 whisker whereas it does not appear in Bi2212 crystal slab [R. Behr, J. Kotzler, G. Nakielski, M. Baumann, M. Kaufmann, J. Kowalewski, Physica C 235 (1994) 2669]. The critical exponents are ν=0.5, z=4.0. We found that the critical exponents are influenced by the planar defects of the sample. The result was compared to those of single crystals and films [Behr et al., 1994; H. Yamasaki, K. Endo, S. Kosaka, M. Umeda, S. Yoshida, K. Kajimura, Phys. Rev. B 50 (17) (1994) 12959].

  13. Observation of vortex by bitter decoration in Bi-2212

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, K.; Kamimura, A.; Mochiku, T. [National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)


    Bitter decoration method has been applied to observe vortex in Bi-2212 superconductors. The basic theory of Bitter method, and the experimental method is described. Bitter method, in which ferromagnetic materials are vapor-deposited onto superconductors can facilitate observation of fluxoid quantum. (A. Yamamoto)

  14. Strain induced irreversible critical current degradation in highly dense Bi-2212 round wire

    CERN Document Server

    Bjoerstad, R; Rikel, M.O.; Ballarino, A; Bottura, L; Jiang, J; Matras, M; Sugano, M; Hudspeth, J; Di Michiel, M


    The strain induced critical current degradation of overpressure processed straight Bi 2212/Ag wires has been studied at 77 K in self-field. For the first time superconducting properties, lattice distortions, composite wire stress and strain have been measured simultaneously in a high energy synchrotron beamline. A permanent Ic degradation of 5% occurs when the wire strain exceeds 0.60%. At a wire strain of about 0.65% a drastic n value and Ic reduction occur, and the composite stress and the Bi-2212 lattice parameter reach a plateau, indicating Bi-2212 filament fracturing. The XRD measurements show that Bi-2212 exhibits linear elastic behaviour up to the irreversible strain limit.

  15. 20 T dipoles and Bi-2212: the path to LHC energy upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    McIntyre, P M; Holik, E F; Lu, F; McInturff, A D; Pogue, N; Sattarov, A; Sooby, E


    Increasing the energy of the LHC would require a ring of \\sim20 T magnets using the superconductors Nb3Sn and Bi-2212/Ag. The technology for Bi-2212/Ag wire, cable, and coil has advanced significantly but is still far short of the performance needed for such magnets. New technol-ogy for both wire and cable is under development, which if successful would yield the needed performance.

  16. AC loss of Bi-2212 superconducting ring for limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.N.; Wang, J.X.; Li, J.H.; Zong, X.H.; Sun, J


    A wattmeter technique is used to measure alternating field loss in Bi-2212 superconducting ring as an element of inductive fault current limiter. Experiment is performed at 77 K. Measurement results show that AC loss P vs. amplitude of sweeping field P follows a power law, P{proportional_to}H{sup n}. When sweeping field is lower than H{sub p} we observe the cubic dependence as predicted by the Bean-London critical state model. With increasing field the exponent initially increases, reaches the maximum of 4 as predicted by the Kim-Anderson critical state model. When the field is higher than H{sub p} the exponent decrease to 1. But AC loss per cycle decreases with the increase of frequency of field when the field is high. This can be explained by heating effect of AC loss. Furthermore, we calculate the AC loss of a full-scale inductive superconductor fault current limiter based on our measurement result. We found that the AC loss of this device is acceptable.

  17. A descriptive model for the critical current as a function of axial strain in Bi-2212/Ag wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Haken, Bernard; Godeke, A.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Schuver, Henk-Jan


    A descriptive model is presented for the critical current of a Bi-2212 conductor that is axially deformed. This model is based on previously published critical current measurements on axially compressed and elongated Bi-2212 wires. The validity of the model is investigated by applying an additional

  18. Correlation between modulation structure and electronic inhomogeneity on Pb-doped Bi-2212 single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, A. [Low Temperature Physics Group, Nano-electronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Kashiwaya, S. [Low Temperature Physics Group, Nano-electronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Eisaki, H. [Low Temperature Physics Group, Nano-electronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Yamaguchi, H. [Low Temperature Physics Group, Nano-electronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Oka, K. [Low Temperature Physics Group, Nano-electronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Kashiwaya, H. [Low Temperature Physics Group, Nano-electronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Tsuchiura, H. [Department of Applied Physics, Tohoku University, 6-6 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Tanaka, Y. [Department of Applied Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho Chikusa-ku Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)


    The correlation between nanometer-size electronic states and surface structure is investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S) on Pb-doped Bi{sub 2-x}Pb {sub x}Sr{sub 2}CaCu2O{sub 8+y} (Pb-Bi-2212) single crystals. The advantage of the Pb-Bi-2212 samples is that the modulation structure can be totally or locally suppressed depending on the Pb contents and annealing conditions. The superconducting gap ({delta}) distribution on modulated Pb-Bi-2212 samples showed the lack of correlation with modulation structure except a slight reduction of superconducting island size for the b-axis direction. On the other hand, the optimal doped Pb-Bi-2212 (x = 0.6) samples obtained by reduced-annealing showed totally non-modulated structure in topography, however, the spatial distribution of {delta} still showed inhomogeneity of which features were quite similar to those of modulated samples. These results suggest that the modulation structure is not the dominant origin of inhomogeneity although it modifies the streaky {delta} structure sub-dominantly. From the gap structure variation around the border of narrow gap and broad gap regions, a trend of the coexistence of two separated phases i.e., superconducting phase and pseudogap like phase, is detected.

  19. Effects of Bi-2212 addition on the levitation force properties of bulk MgB{sub 2} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylan Koparan, E. [Bulent Ecevit University, Department of Science Education, Eregli Faculty of Education, Zonguldak (Turkey); Savaskan, B. [Karadeniz Technical University, Energy Systems Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Trabzon (Turkey); Guner, S.B. [Recep Tayyip Erdogan University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Rize (Turkey); Celik, S. [Sinop University, Energy Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Sinop (Turkey)


    We present a detailed investigation of the effects of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 1}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8+κ} (Bi-2212) adding on the levitation force and magnetic properties of bulk MgB{sub 2} obtained by hot press method. The amount of Bi-2212 was varied between 0 and 10 wt% (0, 2, 4, 6, 10 wt%) of the total MgB{sub 2}. Moreover, we present MgB{sub 2} bulk samples fabricated by using different production methods including hot pressing method to our knowledge. All samples were prepared by using elemental magnesium (Mg) powder, amorphous nano-boron (B) powder and Bi-2212 powder which are produced by hot press method. As a result of hot press process, compact pellet samples were manufactured. The vertical and lateral levitation force measurements were executed at the temperatures of 20, 24 and 28 K under zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) regimes for samples with various adding levels. At 24 K and 28 K under ZFC regime, the 2 wt% Bi-2212 added sample exhibits a higher vertical levitation force than the pure sample. Bi-2212 added MgB{sub 2} samples compared to the pure sample have lower attractive force values in FC regime. The magnetic field dependence of the critical current density J{sub c} was calculated from the M-H loops for Bi-2212 added MgB{sub 2} samples. The 2 wt% Bi-2212 added sample has the best levitation and critical current density performance compared to other samples. The critical temperature (T{sub c}) has slightly dropped from 37.8 K for the pure MgB{sub 2} sample to 36.7 K for the 10 wt% of Bi-2212 added sample. The transition temperature slightly decreases when Bi-2212 adding level is increased. (orig.)

  20. Effects of Bi-2212 addition on the levitation force properties of bulk MgB2 superconductors (United States)

    Taylan Koparan, E.; Savaskan, B.; Guner, S. B.; Celik, S.


    We present a detailed investigation of the effects of Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8+κ (Bi-2212) adding on the levitation force and magnetic properties of bulk MgB2 obtained by hot press method. The amount of Bi-2212 was varied between 0 and 10 wt% (0, 2, 4, 6, 10 wt%) of the total MgB2. Moreover, we present MgB2 bulk samples fabricated by using different production methods including hot pressing method to our knowledge. All samples were prepared by using elemental magnesium (Mg) powder, amorphous nano-boron (B) powder and Bi-2212 powder which are produced by hot press method. As a result of hot press process, compact pellet samples were manufactured. The vertical and lateral levitation force measurements were executed at the temperatures of 20, 24 and 28 K under zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) regimes for samples with various adding levels. At 24 K and 28 K under ZFC regime, the 2 wt% Bi-2212 added sample exhibits a higher vertical levitation force than the pure sample. Bi-2212 added MgB2 samples compared to the pure sample have lower attractive force values in FC regime. The magnetic field dependence of the critical current density J c was calculated from the M-H loops for Bi-2212 added MgB2 samples. The 2 wt% Bi-2212 added sample has the best levitation and critical current density performance compared to other samples. The critical temperature ( T c ) has slightly dropped from 37.8 K for the pure MgB2 sample to 36.7 K for the 10 wt% of Bi-2212 added sample. The transition temperature slightly decreases when Bi-2212 adding level is increased.

  1. Design and fabrication of a 30 T superconducting solenoid using overpressure processed Bi2212 round wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, Gene [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)


    High field superconducting magnets are used in particle colliders, fusion energy devices, and spectrometers for medical imaging and advanced materials research. Magnets capable of generating fields of 20-30 T are needed by future accelerator facilities. A 20-30 T magnet will require the use of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) and therefore the challenges of high field HTS magnet development need to be addressed. Superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi2212) conductors fabricated by the oxide-powder-in-tube (OPIT) technique have demonstrated the capability to carry large critical current density of 105 A/cm2 at 4.2 K and in magnetic fields up to 45 T. Available in round wire multi-filamentary form, Bi2212 may allow fabrication of 20-50 T superconducting magnets. Until recently the performance of Bi2212 has been limited by challenges in realizing high current densities (Jc ) in long lengths. This problem now is solved by the National High Magnetic Field Lab using an overpressure (OP) processing technique, which uses external pressure to process the conductor. OP processing also helps remove the ceramic leakage that results when Bi-2212 liquid leaks out from the sheath material and reacts with insulation, coil forms, and flanges. Significant advances have also been achieved in developing novel insulation materials (TiO2 coating) and Ag-Al sheath materials that have higher mechanical strengths than Ag-0.2wt.% Mg, developing heat treatment approaches to broadening the maximum process temperature window, and developing high-strength, mechanical reinforced Bi-2212 cables. In the Phase I work, we leveraged these new opportunities to prototype overpressure processed solenoids and test them in background fields of up to 14 T. Additionally a design of a fully superconducting 30 T solenoid was produced. This work in conjunction with the future path outlined in the Phase II proposal would

  2. First AC loss test and analysis of a Bi2212 cable-in-conduit conductor for fusion application (United States)

    Qin, Jinggang; Shi, Yi; Wu, Yu; Li, Jiangang; Wang, Qiuliang; He, Yuxiang; Dai, Chao; Liu, Fang; Liu, Huajun; Mao, Zhehua; Nijhuis, Arend; Zhou, Chao; Devred, Arnaud


    The main goal of the Chinese fusion engineering test reactor (CFETR) is to build a fusion engineering tokamak reactor with a fusion power of 50–200 MW, and plan to test the breeding tritium during the fusion reaction. This may require a maximum magnetic field of the central solenoid and toroidal field coils up to 15 T. New magnet technologies should be developed for the next generation of fusion reactors with higher requirements. Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi2212) is considered as a potential and promising superconductor for the magnets in the CFETR. R&D activities are ongoing at the Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences for demonstration of the feasibility of a CICC based on Bi2212 round wire. One sub-size conductor cabled with 42 wires was designed, manufactured and tested with limited strand indentation during cabling and good transport performance. In this paper, the first test results and analysis on the AC loss of Bi2212 round wires and cabled conductor samples are presented. Furthermore, the impact of mechanical load on the AC loss of the sub-size conductor is investigated to represent the operation conditions with electromagnetic loads. The first tests provide an essential basis for the validation of Bi2212 CICC and its application in fusion magnets.

  3. Second and third peaks in the non-resonant microwave absorption spectra of superconducting Bi2212 crystals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Srinivasu, V V


    Full Text Available -Tc Superconductors (HTS) [1] and followed by others [2–6], NMA has evolved into a powerful spectroscopic tool to probe the superconductiv- ity properties in HTS, such as granularity, critical current density and fluxon viscosity coefficient, etc. [7–14]. NMA... spectra in anisotropic superconductors, such as Bi2212 and Bi 2223 powders, single crystals and films, showed new and V.V. Srinivasu (�) Materials Science and Manufacturing, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Pretoria 0001, South...

  4. The Quasiparticle Puzzle: Reconciling ARPES and FTSTS Studies of Bi2212

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishik, I.M.; Nowadnick, E.A.; Lee, W.S.; Shen, Z.X.; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept. /SLAC /Stanford U., Geballe Lab. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Moritz, B.; Devereaux, T.P.; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept. /SLAC; Tanaka, K.; /Osaka U., Dept. Phys.; Sasagawa, T.; /Tokyo Inst. Tech.; Fujii, T.; /Tokyo U.


    Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARPES) probes the momentum-space electronic structure of materials, and provides invaluable information about the high-temperature superconducting cuprates. Likewise, cuprates real-space, inhomogeneous electronic structure is elucidated by Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy (STS). Recently, STS has exploited quasiparticle interference (QPI) - wave-like electrons scattering off impurities to produce periodic interference patterns - to infer properties of the QP in momentum-space. Surprisingly, some interference peaks in Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} (Bi-2212) are absent beyond the antiferromagnetic (AF) zone boundary, implying the dominance of particular scattering process. Here, we show that ARPES sees no evidence of quasiparticle (QP) extinction: QP-like peaks are measured everywhere on the Fermi surface, evolving smoothly across the AF zone boundary. This apparent contradiction stems from different natures of single-particle (ARPES) and two-particle (STS) processes underlying these probes. Using a simple model, we demonstrate extinction of QPI without implying the loss of QP beyond the AF zone boundary.

  5. Low coupling loss core-strengthened Bi 2212\\/Ag Rutherford cables

    CERN Document Server

    Collings, E W; Scanlan, R M; Dietderich, D R; Motowidlo, L R


    In a comprehensive "vertically integrated" program multifilamentary (MF) high temperature superconducting (HTSC) Bi:2212/Ag strand was fabricated using the powder-in-tube process and heat treated in oxygen by a modified standard $9 procedure. The reaction-heat-treatment (HT) was adjusted to maximize critical current (density), I/sub c/ (J /sub c/), as measured in various magnetic fields, B. A series of Rutherford cables was designed, each of which included a $9 metallic (Nichrome-80) core for strengthening and reduction of coupling loss. Prior to cable winding a series of tests examined the possibility of strand "poisoning" by the core during HT. Small model Rutherford cables were wound, $9 and after HT were prepared for I/sub c/(B) measurement and calorimetric measurement of AC loss and hence interstrand contact resistance I/sub c/(B). It was deduced that, if in direct contact with the strand during HT, the core $9 material can degrade the I/sub c/ of the cable; but steps can be taken to eliminate this probl...

  6. AC losses in Bi2212 ROSAT wires exposed to an AC magnetic field (1); Bi2212 ROSAT senzai no koryu sonshitsu (1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, K.; Fukuda, Y.; Kajikawa, K.; Iwakuma, M.; Funaki, K. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Okada, M. [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Bismuth system superconducting wire rod developed until now has been limited tapeline physical property the. However, the ROSAT wire rod in which tape wire rod had rotational symmetry of 3 times in the cross section of the round line recently was developed. The critical current density which is almost equivalent to tape wire rod in 4.2K and 28T by the homogenization of cross-sectional shape has been realized this ROSAT wire rod. This time, the ac loss in outside fluctuation magnetic field of superscription ROSAT wire rod was measured, and it was compared with the theoretical value, which deduced the ideal polycore line by assuming. (NEDO)

  7. Void and Phase Evolution during the Processing of Bi-2212 Superconducting Wires monitored by combined fast Synchrotron Micro-tomography and X-Ray Diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Scheel, M; Jiang, J; Kametani, F; Malagoli, A; Hellstrom, E E; Larbalestier, D C


    Recent study of the current-limiting mechanisms in Bi-2212 round wires has suggested that agglomeration of the residual Bi-2212 powder porosity into bubbles of filament-diameter size occurs on melting the Bi-2212 filaments. These pores introduce a major obstacle to current flow, which greatly reduces the critical current density (Jc). Here we present an in situ non-destructive tomographic and diffraction study of the changes occurring during the heat treatment of wires and starting powder, as well as a room temperature study of ex situ processed wires. The in situ through-process study shows that the agglomeration of residual porosity is more complex than previously seen. Filament changes start with coalescence of the quasi-uniform and finely divided powder porosity into lens-shaped defects at about 850 0C when the Bi-2201 impurity phase decomposes before the Bi-2212 starts to melt. These lens-shaped voids grow to bubbles of a filament diameter on melting of the Bi-2212 and continue to lengthen and then to ag...

  8. The effect of K-na co-doping on the formation and particle size of Bi-2212 phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kır, M. Ebru [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mersin University, Çiftlikköy, 33343 Mersin (Turkey); Özkurt, Berdan, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mersin University, Çiftlikköy, 33343 Mersin (Turkey); Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Faculty of Tarsus Technology, Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey); Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, Mersin University, Yenişehir, TR-33343 Mersin (Turkey); Aytekin, M. Ersin [Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, Mersin University, Yenişehir, TR-33343 Mersin (Turkey)


    Superconducting K-Na co-doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}K{sub x}Ca{sub 1}Cu{sub 1.75}Na{sub 0.25}O{sub y} (x=0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.25) ceramics are prepared by a solid-state reaction method. It is clearly determined from XRD data that the characteristic peaks of Bi-2212 phase are observed in all samples. The resistivity measurements show that T{sub c} (onset) values is gradually increasing as K content is increased. It is also found that K-Na co-doping influence the grain sizes for Bi-2212 phase significantly. The critical current densities as a function of magnetic field have been calculated from M–H hysteresis loops of samples according to Bean's critical model, indicating that K-Na co-doping cause higher J{sub c} values than the pure ones.

  9. Bubble Formation within Filaments of Melt-Processed Bi2212 wires and its strongly negative effect on the Critical Current Density

    CERN Document Server

    Kametani, F; Jiang, J; Scheuerlein, C; Malagoli, A; Di Michiel, M; Huang, Y; Miao, H; Parrell, J A; Hellstrom, E E; Larbalestier, D C


    Most studies of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi2212) show that the critical current density Jc is limited by the connectivity of the filaments, but what determines the connectivity is still elusive. Here we report on the role played by filament porosity in limiting Jc. By a microstructural investigation of wires quenched from the melt state, we find that porosity in the unreacted wire agglomerates into bubbles that segment the Bi2212 melt within the filaments into discrete sections. These bubbles do not disappear during subsequent processing because they are only partially filled by Bi2212 grains as the Bi2212 forms on cooling. Correlating the microstructure of quenched wires to their final, fully processed Jc values shows an inverse relation between Jc and bubble density. Bubbles are variable between conductors and perhaps from sample to sample, but they occur frequently and almost completely fill the filament diameter, so they exert a strongly variable but always negative effect on Jc. Bubbles reduce the continuous Bi221...

  10. Effect of 520 MeV Kr{sup 20+} ion irradiation on the critical current density of Bi-2212 single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terai, Takayuki; Ito, Yasuyuki [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kishio, Kouji


    Change in magnetic properties of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+y} (Bi-2212) single crystals due to Kr{sup 20+} ion irradiation is reported, focused on critical current density and irreversibility magnetic field. The Bi-2212 single crystal specimens (3x3x0.3 mm{sup 3}) were prepared by the floating zone method. Each specimen was irradiated with 520 MeV Kr{sup 20+} ions of 10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} in the fluence. Magnetic hysteresis was measured at 4.2K-60K with a vibrating sample magnetometer before and after irradiation. Very large enhancement was observed in critical current density and irreversibility magnetic field above 20K. (author)

  11. Influence of doping on transport and magnetisation properties of Bi 2212 tapes - vortex pinning; Influence du dopage sur les proprietes de transport et d`aimantation de rubans polycristallins de Bi 2212 - ancrage de vortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zani, L


    Bismuth-based superconductors ar now thoroughly studied and are thought to be one of the best High Critical Temperature Superconductors (HSTC) that could be industrially developed. Though their synthesis is one of the easiest to achieve, their strong anisotropy affects drastically their transport properties under magnetic field, especially in the low field regime. In order to avoid vortices motion, two main methods have been used to introduce pinning centers: irradiation defects or dissemination of non-superconducting particles. An original method of synthesis has been developed in our laboratories, alternating electrolytic depositions and heat treatments with which one can obtain Bi 2212 tapes on silver substrate. Though we have good performances at 77 K, the J{sub c} drops by a factor of 5 at 7 T for B parallel to c-axis. By including Ag, MgO and ZrO{sub 2} particles, we tried to introduce efficient pinning centers in the superconducting matrix. Some of these dopants played also a role on intergranular connectivity. By magnetisation and transport studies, we have been able to improve the situation in these two fields. (author) 195 refs.

  12. Processing of Bi-2212 and Nb$_3$Sn studied in situ by high energy synchrotron diffraction and micro-tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Kadar, Julian

    Next generation superconducting wires have been studied to obtain more information on the evolution of phase growth, crystallite size and strain state during wire processing. The high energy scattering beam line ID15 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility provides a very high flux of high energy photons for very fast in situ X-ray diffraction and micro-tomography studies of Bi-2212/Ag and Nb$_3$S/Cu wire samples. The typical wire processing conditions could be imitated in the X-ray transparent furnace at ID15 for diffraction and tomography studies. Efficient data analysis is mandatory in order to handle the very fast data acquisition rate. For this purpose an Excel-VBA based program was developed that allows a semi-automated fitting and tracking of peaks with pre-set constraints. With this method, more than one thousand diffraction patterns have been analysed to extract d-spacing, peak intensity and peak width values. X ray absorption micro tomograms were recorded simultaneously with the X-ray diffrac...

  13. The Use of Oxygen Gradients as a Texturing Mechanism During Isothermal Melt Processing of Bi-2212 Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holesinger, T.G.; Hults, W.L.; Smith, J.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Dai, Weiming; Marken, K.R. [Oxford Instruments Inc., Carteret, NJ (United States)


    Isothermal melt processing has been used to produce high critical currents (I{sub c}`s) and current densities (J{sub c}`s) in Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub y} round wires and flat tapes. I{sub c}`s and J{sub c}`s of 225 A and 80 kA/cm{sup 2} have been obtained in short length, monocore wires. However, voids and other macroscopic defects have limited performance over longer lengths. Isothermally melt processed tapes have yielded I{sub c} and J{sub c} values up to 341 A and 245 kA/cm{sup 2}, although performance over longer lengths is somewhat reduced. A test coil made from 0.5 m of tape yielded, I{sub c} and J{sub c} values of 208 A and 153 kA/cm{sup 2}, respectively.

  14. Effects of Texture and Grain Size on the Yield Strength of ZK61 Alloy Rods Processed by Cyclic Extrusion and Compression. (United States)

    Zhang, Lixin; Zhang, Wencong; Cao, Biao; Chen, Wenzhen; Duan, Junpeng; Cui, Guorong


    The ZK61 alloy rods with different grain sizes and crystallographic texture were successfully fabricated by cyclic extrusion and compression (CEC). Their room-temperature tension & compression yield strength displayed a significant dependence on grain size and texture, essentially attributed to {10-12} twinning. The texture variations were characterized by the angle θ between the c-axis of the grain and the extrusion direction (ED) during the process. The contour map of room-temperature yield strength as a function of grain size and the angle θ was obtained. It showed that both the tension yield strength and the compression yield strength of ZK61 alloy were fully consistent with the Hall-Patch relationship at a certain texture, but the change trends of the tension yield strength and the compression yield strength were completely opposite at the same grain size while texture altered. The friction stresses of different deformation modes calculated based on the texture confirmed the tension yield strength of the CECed ZK61 alloy rods, which was determined by both the basal slip and the tension twinning slip during the tension deformation at room temperature, while the compression yield strength was mainly determined by the basal slip during the compression deformation.

  15. Formation and texture of Bi-2223 phase during sintering in high magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, X.Y.; Nagata, A.; Watanabe, K.; Nojima, T.; Sugawara, K.; Hanada, S.; Kamada, S


    The formation and texture of Bi-2223 phase during sintering in high magnetic fields were investigated. Samples contained in silver crucibles were sintered at different temperatures from 835 to 860 deg. C for 120 h in a vertical tube furnace installed in a solenoid-type superconducting magnet. A vertical magnetic field, H{sub a} of 10 T can be applied parallel to the long axis of the furnace. It has been found that the mixed structures of the Bi-2223 and the Bi-2212 grains with their c-axis parallel to the magnetic field are formed in samples sintered at 850-855 deg. C in 10 T magnetic field. Below 845 deg. C sintering in 10 T, a high proportion of Bi-2223 phase is obtained, however no preferred orientation is observed. It is suggested that a liquid phase is important for the formation of the textured structure in magnetic fields.

  16. Heating rate effect on the evolution of texture in (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 Ag-sheathed tapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, J.C.; Raittila, J.; Xu, G.J.


    Bi2223/Ag tapes have been produced by the powder-in-tube technique. The evolution of texture during the first heat treatment has been studied by means of in situ synchrotron radiation diffraction. Using various heating rates (1, 2 and 4 degrees C min(-1)), it wag found that the kinetics of prefer......Bi2223/Ag tapes have been produced by the powder-in-tube technique. The evolution of texture during the first heat treatment has been studied by means of in situ synchrotron radiation diffraction. Using various heating rates (1, 2 and 4 degrees C min(-1)), it wag found that the kinetics...... in a faster disappearance of the Bi2212 phase, which in turn is supposed to induce a faster rate of liquid phase formation at the beginning of the reaction process leading to the development of the Bi2223 phase. This feature is also believed to play a role in the texturing kinetics....

  17. On the influence of magnetic field processing on the texture, phase assemblage and properties of low aspect ratio Bi2 Sr2 CaCu2 Ox /AgMg wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotao Liu and Justin Schwartz


    Full Text Available Bi2 Sr2 CaCu2 Ox /AgMg conductors are potentially important for many applications up to 20 K, including magnets for cryogen-free magnetic resonance imaging and high field nuclear magnetic resonance research. One promising approach to increased critical current density is partial-melt processing in the presence of a magnetic field which has been shown to enhance c-axis texturing of wide, thin tape conductors. Here, we report on low aspect ratio rectangular conductors processed in an 8 T magnetic field. The magnetic field is applied during different stages of the heat treatment process. The conductors are electrically characterized using four-point critical current measurements as a function of magnetic field and magnetic field orientation relative to the conductor. The superconductive transition and magnetization hysteresis are measured using a SQUID magnetometer. The microstructures are characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy and analyzed using digital image processing. It is found that the presence of a magnetic field during split melt processing enhances the electrical transport and magnetic behavior, but that the anisotropy is not consistently affected. The magnetic field also affects development of interfilamentary Bi2212 bridges, and that this depends on the initial shape of the Bi2212 filament. At least two behaviors are identified; one impacts the oxide phase assemblage and the other impacts textured growth.

  18. Phase transition in vortex system in Bi2212:Pb monocrystal

    CERN Document Server

    Uspenskaya, L S; Rakhmanov, A L


    Penetration of the magnetic flux into the (Bi sub 0 sub . sub 8 sub 4 Pb sub 0 sub . sub 1 sub 6) sub 2 sub . sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub 8 high-temperature superconductor monocrystal is studied thorough the magnetooptical method in the crossed magnetic fields. It is shown that the magnetic flux penetration in the low-temperature areas is anisotropic: it moves primarily along the magnetic field, applied in the sample plane, and this anisotropy grows with the temperature growth. At the temperature of T sub m = 54 +- 2 K there takes place sharp change in the character of the magnetic field penetration into the superconductor, whereby the direction of the flux motion discontinues to be dependent on the direction and value of the magnetic field applied in the sample plane. This effect is interpreted within the frames of representations on the phase transition in the vortex system connected with a sharp decrease in the correlations of the vortex position in the different CuO-planes

  19. Effects of yttrium and zinc substitutions in Bi-2212

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pignon, Bruno [Laboratoire d' Electrodynamique des Materiaux Avances, UMR 6157, CNRS-CEA, Universite Francois Rabelais, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)], E-mail:; Autret-Lambert, Cecile; Ruyter, Antoine; Monot-Laffez, Isabelle; Ammor, Larbi [Laboratoire d' Electrodynamique des Materiaux Avances, UMR 6157, CNRS-CEA, Universite Francois Rabelais, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)


    In this work, resistivity measurements of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 1-x}Y{sub x}Cu{sub 2-y}Zn{sub y}O{sub 8+d} were analyzed. The yttrium substitution on calcium site modifies the charge concentration and the zinc substitution on cupper site leads to a depression of the superconducting transition temperature T{sub C}. Beyond the superconducting transition, the resistivity curves show the compounds evolve from a metallic state to a semi-conducting state upon the yttrium and zinc substitutions. The semi-conductive behavior is explained by a random distribution of the substituted element. The evolution of the linear resistivity upon doping confirms the presence of heterogeneities. Moreover, the results suggest that zinc lead to a more effective states localization and stripes pinning.

  20. Rodding Surgery (United States)

    ... above-the-knee splint or lightweight plaster or fiberglass splint instead. Bracing may be used after the ... level. Potential Complications Complications from rodding surgery include risks related to:  General anesthesia,  Fractures during the procedure,  ...

  1. Structural studies of BSCCO/Ag-tapes by high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, H.F.; Frello, T.; Andersen, N.H.


    that the alignment of the superconducting grains takes place almost exclusively in the Bi-2212 phase. During heating, the texture profile narrows rapidly above 750 degrees C, coincident with the dissolution of (Ca,Sr)(2)PbO4. A 98% conversion of Bi-2212 is obtained within 19 h, but furnace cooling leads...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hynek Lauschmann


    Full Text Available The reconstitution of the history of a fatigue process is based on the knowledge of any correspondences between the morphology of the crack surface and the velocity of the crack growth (crack growth rate - CGR. The textural fractography is oriented to mezoscopic SEM magnifications (30 to 500x. Images contain complicated textures without distinct borders. The aim is to find any characteristics of this texture, which correlate with CGR. Pre-processing of images is necessary to obtain a homogeneous texture. Three methods of textural analysis have been developed and realized as computational programs: the method based on the spectral structure of the image, the method based on a Gibbs random field (GRF model, and the method based on the idealization of light objects into a fibre process. In order to extract and analyze the fibre process, special methods - tracing fibres and a database-oriented analysis of a fibre process - have been developed.

  3. Tie rod insertion test

    CERN Multimedia



    The superconducting coil is inserted in the outer vaccum tank and supported by a set of tie rods. These tie rods are made of titanium alloy. This test reproduce the final insertion of the tie rods inside the outer vacuum tank.

  4. Crystallographic textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klosek Vincent


    Full Text Available In material science, crystallographic texture is an important microstructural parameter which directly determines the anisotropy degree of most physical properties of a polycrystalline material at the macro scale. Its characterization is thus of fundamental and applied importance, and should ideally be performed prior to any physical property measurement or modeling. Neutron diffraction is a tool of choice for characterizing crystallographic textures: its main advantages over other existing techniques, and especially over the X-ray diffraction techniques, are due to the low neutron absorption by most elements. The obtained information is representative of a large number of grains, leading to a better accuracy of the statistical description of texture.

  5. Why Rods and Cocci

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bacteria exhibit a wide variety of shapes but the commonly studied species of bacteria are generally either spherical in shape which are called cocci (singular coccus) or have a cylindrical shape and are called rods or bacilli (singular bacillus). In reality rods and cocci are the ends of a continuum. Sonle of the cocci are.

  6. Impact of indentation on the critical current of Bi2212 round wire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, J.; Dai, C.; Wang, Q; Liu, P.; Liu, B.; Liu, F.; Wu, Y.; Zhou, Chao; Hao, Q.; Li, Chen-shan; Liu, Sheng


    CFETR, “China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor,” is a new tokamak device. Its magnet system includes the toroidal field (TF), central solenoid (CS), and poloidal field coils. The main goal of this project is to build a fusion engineering tokamak reactor with fusion power of 50-200 MW and

  7. Manufacture and test of Bi-2212 cable-in-conduit conductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Jing Gang; Wu, Yu; Li, Jian Gang; Dai, Chao; Liu, Fang; Liu, Hua Jun; Liu, Pei Hang; Li, Chen-shan; Hao, Qing Bin; Zhou, Chao; Liu, Sheng


    The CFETR, "China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor," is a new tokamak device. Its magnet system includes the toroidal field (TF), central solenoid (CS), and poloidal field coils. The main goal of this study is to build a fusion engineering tokamak reactor with fusion power of 50-200 MW and

  8. The role of silver in the processing and properties of Bi-2212

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, T.; Heeb, B.; Buhl, D. [Nichtmetallische Werkstoffe, Zuerich (Switzerland)] [and others


    The influence of the silver content and the oxygen partial pressure on the solidus temperature and the weight loss during melting of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 1}Cu{sub 2}O{sub x} has been examined by means of DTA and TGA. By decreasing the oxygen partial pressure the solidus is lowered (e.g. {triangle}T=59{degrees}C by decreasing pO{sub 2} from 1 atm to 0.001 atm) and the weight loss is increased. The addition of silver causes two effects: (a) the solidus is further decreased (e.g. 2wt% Ag lower T{sub solidus} by up to 25{degrees}C, depending on the oxygen partial pressure), (b) the weight loss during melting is reduced. Thick films (10-20 {mu}m in thickness) with 0 and 5 wt% silver and bulk samples with 0 and 2.7 wt% silver were melt processed in flowing oxygen on a silver substrate in the DTA, allowing the observation of the melting process and a good temperature control. The critical current densities are vigorously dependent on the maximum processing temperature. The highest j{sub c} in thick films (8000 A/cm{sup 2} at 77 K, O T) was reached by melting 7{degrees}C above the solidus temperature. The silver addition shows no significant effect on the processing parameters or the superconducting properties. The highest j{sub c} for bulk samples (1 mm in thickness) was obtained by partial melting at 900{degrees}C or 880{degrees}C, depending on the silver content of the powder (0 or 2.7 wt%). The j{sub c} of the samples is slightly enhanced from 1800 A/cm{sup 2} (at 77 K, O T) to 2000 A/cm{sup 2} by the silver addition. To be able to reach at least 80% of the maximum critical current density, the temperature has to be controlled in a window of 5{degrees}C for thick films and 17{degrees}C for bulk samples.

  9. Control rod testing apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, R.R.; Ashman, C.M.


    A control rod testing apparatus is described comprising: a first guide means having a vertical cylindrical opening for grossly guiding a control rod; a second guide means having a vertical cylindrical opening for grossly guiding a control rod. The first and second guide means are supported at axially spaced locations with the openings coaxial; and a substantially cylindrical subassembly having a vertical cylindrical opening therethrough. The subassembly is trapped coaxial with and between the first and second guide means, and the subassembly radially floats with respect to the first and second guide means.

  10. Axial Rod Coupling Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, David R


    .... The axial rod and coupling has been designed to withstand external survival loads ( 8.3 kN (1,870 lb) for Ring 5), and to maintain its length to within 7 microns after disassembly and reassembly...

  11. Morphoelastic rods. Part I: A single growing elastic rod

    KAUST Repository

    Moulton, D.E.


    A theory for the dynamics and statics of growing elastic rods is presented. First, a single growing rod is considered and the formalism of three-dimensional multiplicative decomposition of morphoelasticity is used to describe the bulk growth of Kirchhoff elastic rods. Possible constitutive laws for growth are discussed and analysed. Second, a rod constrained or glued to a rigid substrate is considered, with the mismatch between the attachment site and the growing rod inducing stress. This stress can eventually lead to instability, bifurcation, and buckling. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Miller, G.


    A nuclear reactor control rod mechanism is designed which mechanically moves the control rods into and out of the core under normal conditions but rapidly forces the control rods into the core by catapultic action in the event of an emergency. (AEC)

  13. Cone rod dystrophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamel Christian P


    Full Text Available Abstract Cone rod dystrophies (CRDs (prevalence 1/40,000 are inherited retinal dystrophies that belong to the group of pigmentary retinopathies. CRDs are characterized by retinal pigment deposits visible on fundus examination, predominantly localized to the macular region. In contrast to typical retinitis pigmentosa (RP, also called the rod cone dystrophies (RCDs resulting from the primary loss in rod photoreceptors and later followed by the secondary loss in cone photoreceptors, CRDs reflect the opposite sequence of events. CRD is characterized by primary cone involvement, or, sometimes, by concomitant loss of both cones and rods that explains the predominant symptoms of CRDs: decreased visual acuity, color vision defects, photoaversion and decreased sensitivity in the central visual field, later followed by progressive loss in peripheral vision and night blindness. The clinical course of CRDs is generally more severe and rapid than that of RCDs, leading to earlier legal blindness and disability. At end stage, however, CRDs do not differ from RCDs. CRDs are most frequently non syndromic, but they may also be part of several syndromes, such as Bardet Biedl syndrome and Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 7 (SCA7. Non syndromic CRDs are genetically heterogeneous (ten cloned genes and three loci have been identified so far. The four major causative genes involved in the pathogenesis of CRDs are ABCA4 (which causes Stargardt disease and also 30 to 60% of autosomal recessive CRDs, CRX and GUCY2D (which are responsible for many reported cases of autosomal dominant CRDs, and RPGR (which causes about 2/3 of X-linked RP and also an undetermined percentage of X-linked CRDs. It is likely that highly deleterious mutations in genes that otherwise cause RP or macular dystrophy may also lead to CRDs. The diagnosis of CRDs is based on clinical history, fundus examination and electroretinogram. Molecular diagnosis can be made for some genes, genetic counseling is

  14. Measurement of Color Texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, M.A.; Geusebroek, J.M.; Deprettere, E.F.; Belloum, A.; Heijnsdijk, J.W.J.; van der Stappen, F.


    In computer vision, measurement of image properties such as color or texture is essential. However, existing methods for measuring color and texture in combination are not well-defined neither from a measurement theoretical basis nor from a physical point of view. We propose a solid framework for

  15. From food structure to texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, C.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.; Minekus, M.


    Understanding the relationship between food texture perception and food structure is of increasing importance for companies wishing to produce texturally attractive food products. The perception of texture is a complex process involving the senses of vision, hearing, somesthesis and kinesthesis.

  16. Investigation of I-V characteristics of Bi-2212 intrinsic Josephson junctions for THz-wave generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachiki, T., E-mail: [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, National Defense Academy, Hashirimizu 1-10-20, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-8686 (Japan); Sugawara, A.; Uchida, T. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, National Defense Academy, Hashirimizu 1-10-20, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-8686 (Japan)


    Voltage jumps have been observed in the quasiparticle branch I-V characteristics of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+x} intrinsic Josephson junctions fabricated as 60 mum x 300 mum x 0.5 mum mesas. The Josephson frequency at the highest jump voltage was estimated to be 0.65 THz, close to the fundamental cavity resonance frequency of the transverse Josephson plasma mode. Numerical simulations using coupled sine-Gordon equations demonstrated voltage jumps similar to the above experimental results, which appeared in the I-V characteristics, and the electric field distribution at the highest jump voltage exhibited resonance in the junctions. Moreover, the maximum radiation power, which was obtained in the vicinity of the highest voltage, was proportional to the square of the number of junctions. This can be explained by reduction of the impedance mismatch between the junctions and free space with increasing the number of junctions.

  17. Bi-2212 and Y123 highly curved single-crystal-like objects: whiskers, bows and ring-like structures (United States)

    Badica, Petre; Agostino, Angelo; Mizanur Rahman Khan, Mohammad; Cagliero, Stefano; Plapcianu, Carmen; Pastero, Linda; Truccato, Marco; Hayasaka, Yuichiro; Jakob, Gerhard


    High-temperature superconducting objects of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 and Y Ba2Cu3O7 highly curved in the ab-plane, such as curved/kinked whiskers, bows and ring-like structures, were obtained within a solid-liquid-solid (SLS) grass-like growth mechanism. As-grown objects are crystals with three-dimensional epitaxy similar to conventional single crystals: they can be viewed as crystal parts ‘cut’ from a conventional rectangular crystal. Between our curved objects and conventional crystals, whiskers or thin films there are some differences in the superconducting properties induced only by the shape factors and no new physics is observed. Some details of the growth mechanism are discussed, emphasizing curved-line formation.

  18. Effect of Erbium substitution on temperature and field dependence of thermally activated flux flow resistance in Bi-2212 superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paladhi, D.; Mandal, P.; Sahoo, R.C.; Giri, S.K.; Nath, T.K., E-mail:


    Thermally activated flux flow (TAFF) regime of Er doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 1−x}Er{sub x}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ} (x=0.0, 0.1, 0.3) polycrystalline systems have been investigated using magneto-transport measurements up to 70 kOe magnetic field. High quality single phase samples have been prepared by standard solid state reaction method. The activation energy or pinning strength (U{sub 0}) have been calculated using thermally activated flux flow (TAFF) model by linear fitting from the semi-logarithmic curve of ln ρ vs 1/T. It has been observed that activation energy (U{sub 0}) decreases with Er substitution and U{sub 0} follows power law dependence with magnetic field for all three samples. Irreversibility lines (IL) have been drawn from the magneto-transport data for all three samples and it is observed that IL shifts to lower temperature with higher Er concentration. It is confirmed from the above results that pinning strength becomes weaker with Er doping. Finally, the variation of U{sub 0} have been shown with temperature by re-plotting –T(ln (ρ/ρ{sub 100})) vs T for three samples showing non-linear dependence with temperature.

  19. The Third ATLAS ROD Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    Poggioli, L.

    A new-style Workshop After two successful ATLAS ROD Workshops dedicated to the ROD hardware and held at the Geneva University in 1998 and in 2000, a new style Workshop took place at LAPP in Annecy on November 14-15, 2002. This time the Workshop was fully dedicated to the ROD-TDAQ integration and software in view of the near future integration activities of the final RODs for the detector assembly and commissioning. More precisely, the aim of this workshop was to get from the sub-detectors the parameters needed for T-DAQ, as well as status and plans from ROD builders. On the other hand, what was decided and assumed had to be stated (like EB decisions and URDs), and also support plans. The Workshop gathered about 70 participants from all ATLAS sub-detectors and the T-DAQ community. The quite dense agenda allowed nevertheless for many lively discussions, and for a dinner in the old town of Annecy. The Sessions The Workshop was organized in five main sessions: Assumptions and recommendations Sub-de...

  20. Advanced gray rod control assembly (United States)

    Drudy, Keith J; Carlson, William R; Conner, Michael E; Goldenfield, Mark; Hone, Michael J; Long, Jr., Carroll J; Parkinson, Jerod; Pomirleanu, Radu O


    An advanced gray rod control assembly (GRCA) for a nuclear reactor. The GRCA provides controlled insertion of gray rod assemblies into the reactor, thereby controlling the rate of power produced by the reactor and providing reactivity control at full power. Each gray rod assembly includes an elongated tubular member, a primary neutron-absorber disposed within the tubular member said neutron-absorber comprising an absorber material, preferably tungsten, having a 2200 m/s neutron absorption microscopic capture cross-section of from 10 to 30 barns. An internal support tube can be positioned between the primary absorber and the tubular member as a secondary absorber to enhance neutron absorption, absorber depletion, assembly weight, and assembly heat transfer characteristics.

  1. Gaussian Texture Inpainting


    Galerne, Bruno; Leclaire, Arthur


    Inpainting consists in computing a plausible completion of missing parts of an image given the available content. In the restricted framework of texture images, the image can be seen as a realization of a random field model, which gives a stochastic formulation of image inpainting: on the masked exemplar one estimates a random texture model which can then be conditionally sampled in order to fill the hole. In this paper is proposed an instance of such stochastic inpainting methods, dealing wi...

  2. Glass transition of repulsive charged rods (fd-viruses). (United States)

    Kang, Kyongok


    It has recently been shown that suspensions of long and thin charged fibrous viruses (fd) form a glass at low ionic strengths. The corresponding thick electric double layers give rise to long-ranged repulsive electrostatic interactions, which lead to caging and structural arrest at concentrations far above the isotropic-nematic coexistence region. Structural arrest and freezing of the orientational texture are found to occur at the same concentration. In addition, various types of orientational textures are equilibrated below the glass transition concentration, ranging from a chiral-nematic texture with a large pitch (of about 100 μm), an X-pattern, and a tightly packed domain texture, consisting of helical domains with a relatively small pitch (of about 10 μm) and twisted boundaries. The dynamics of both particles as well as the texture are discussed, below and above the glass transition. Dynamic light scattering correlation functions exhibit two dynamical modes, where the slow mode is attributed to the elasticity of helical domains. On approach of the glass-transition concentration, the slow mode increases in amplitude, while as the amplitudes of the fast and slow mode become equal at the glass transition. Finally, interesting features of the "transient" behaviors of charged fd-rod glass are shown as the initial caging due to structural arrest, the propagation of flow originating from stress release, and the transition to the final metastable glass state. In addition to the intensity correlation function, power spectra are presented as a function of the waiting time, at the zero-frequency limit that may access to the thermal anomalities in a charged system.

  3. Control rods in LMFBRs: a physics assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, H.F.; Collins, P.J.


    This physics assessment is based on roughly 300 control rod worth measurements in ZPPR from 1972 to 1981. All ZPPR assemblies simulated mixed-oxide LMFBRs, representing sizes of 350, 700, and 900 MWe. Control rod worth measurements included single rods, various combinations of rods, and Ta and Eu rods. Additional measurements studied variations in B/sub 4/C enrichment, rod interaction effects, variations in rod geometry, neutron streaming in sodium-filled channels, and axial worth profiles. Analyses were done with design-equivalent methods, using ENDF/B Version IV data. Some computations for the sensitivities to approximations in the methods have been included. Comparisons of these analyses with the experiments have allowed the status of control rod physics in the US to be clearly defined.

  4. Rod and lamellar growth of eutectic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Trepczyńska-Łent


    Full Text Available The paper presents adaptation problem of lamellar growth of eutectic. The formation of rod eutectic microstructure was investigated systematically. A new rod eutectic configuration was observed in which the rods form with elliptical cylindrical shape. A new interpretation of the eutectic growth theory was proposed.

  5. Solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Peter; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Lomdahl, P. S.


    In continuation of an earlier study of propagation of solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods, numerical investigations of blowup, reflection, and fission at continuous and discontinuous variation of the cross section for the rod and reflection at the end of the rod are presented. The results...

  6. Texture Enhanced Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Darkner, Sune


    to excessive storage and computational requirements. We propose to reduce the dimensionality of the textural components by selecting a subset of basis functions from a larger dictionary, estimate regression splines and model only the coeffcients of the retained basis functions. We demonstrate the use of two...... descriptions of the intensity information and serve to 1) reduce noise and 2) produce a compact textural description. Dimensionality reduction by subsampling in the CDF 9-7 wavelet and wedgelet representations yield better results than 'standard' subsampling in the pixel domain. We show that the bi...

  7. Exploiting rod technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    ROD development was proceeding apace until recent budgetary decisions caused funding support for ROD development to be drastically reduced. The funding which was originally provided by DARPA and the Balanced Technology Initiative (BTI) Office has been cut back to zero from $800K. To determine the aeroballistic coefficients of a candidate dart, ARDEC is currently supporting development out of its own 6.2 funds at about $100K. ARDEC has made slow progress toward achieving this end because of failures in the original dart during testing. It appears that the next dart design to be tested will diverge from the original concept visualized by DARPA and Science and Technology Associates (STA). STA, the design engineer, takes exception to these changes on the basis of inappropriate test conditions and insufficient testing. At this time, the full resolution of this issue will be difficult because of the current management structure, which separates the developer (ARDEC) from the designer (STA).

  8. Fuel rod assembly to manifold attachment (United States)

    Donck, Harry A.; Veca, Anthony R.; Snyder, Jr., Harold J.


    A fuel element is formed with a plurality of fuel rod assemblies detachably connected to an overhead support with each of the fuel rod assemblies having a gas tight seal with the support to allow internal fission gaseous products to flow without leakage from the fuel rod assemblies into a vent manifold passageway system on the support. The upper ends of the fuel rod assemblies are located at vertically extending openings in the support and upper threaded members are threaded to the fuel rod assemblies to connect the latter to the support. The preferred threaded members are cap nuts having a dome wall encircling an upper threaded end on the fuel rod assembly and having an upper sealing surface for sealing contact with the support. Another and lower seal is achieved by abutting a sealing surface on each fuel rod assembly with the support. A deformable portion on the cap nut locks the latter against inadvertent turning off the fuel rod assembly. Orienting means on the fuel rod and support primarily locates the fuel rods azimuthally for reception of a deforming tool for the cap nut. A cross port in the fuel rod end plug discharges into a sealed annulus within the support, which serves as a circumferential chamber, connecting the manifold gas passageways in the support.

  9. Experiments in Texture Perception (United States)


    the search for continua suitable for an objective definition of "texture" (Jones and Higgins, 1945; Rosenfeld. 1967; Pickett. 1968; Mlnsky and Papert ...1950. Minsky, M. and Papert , S. (1969). Perceptrons. M.l.T. Press, Cambridge, Mass. Pickett, R. M. (1962

  10. Texture analysis of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubsch, A.; Timmermans, K.


    Texture analysis is a method to test the physical properties of a material by tension and compression. The growing interest in commercialisation of seaweeds for human food has stimulated research into the physical properties of seaweed tissue. These are important parameters for the survival of

  11. Chameleons: Reptilian Texture (United States)

    Petersen, Hugh


    This article presents an art project inspired by a drawing of a chameleon the author saw in an art-supply catalog. Chameleons prove to be a good subject to highlight shape, color and texture with eigth-graders. In this project, middle- and high-school students draw a chameleon, learn how to use shapes to add to their chameleon drawing, learn how…

  12. Texture & Textiles, Together (United States)

    Guhin, Paula


    Creating a painting with texture is easy, although using heavy gel medium or modeling paste may be pricey ways to go about it. High school artists generally like making collages and mixed-media. In this article, the author suggests ways to capitalize on that interest with inexpensive fabric in a painting project.

  13. Texture affects color emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Gevers, T.; Gijsenij, A.


    Several studies have recorded color emotions in subjects viewing uniform color (UC) samples. We conduct an experiment to measure and model how these color emotions change when texture is added to the color samples. Using a computer monitor, our subjects arrange samples along four scales: warm-cool,

  14. Study on production of materials with one direction solidification texture (United States)

    Sato, Akira; Namai, Toru; Osawa, Yoshiaki; Aragane, Goro


    By utilizing the solidification process of metal alloys, investigation was made focusing on the following four items with the purposes of producing materials with one directional solidification texture and developing new structured materials. Moldless upward continuous casting: Al-Cu and Al-Si alloy rods with a wide range of freezing points were produced. The crystals of these rods were completely in one direction lengthwise. It was also clarified that pure aluminum rods with various surface shapes could be produced by refractory molding tools. Composite material production by centrifugal casting: Research was conducted to improve wear resistance and heat dilatation at specific areas of materials by controlling the distribution of the primary Si crystals resulting from centrifugal segregation. The primary Si crystals tend to segregate around the outer circumference of test samples due to centrifugal force. This segregated distribution changes the material properties. Supersonic oscillation application to melting metals: Two methods were investigated to apply supersonic oscillation to melting metals. One was to transmit oscillation by melting metals, and the other to use Al coated film steel horns. Both methods were effective in preventing steel loss from melting steels and grain refinement of solidified texture. Fundamental studies of materials with one direction solidification: It was confirmed that the dendrite became coarse when the solidification rate and solute density were lowered while the temperature was kept constant.

  15. Contrast negation and texture synthesis differentially disrupt natural texture appearance. (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin


    Natural textures have characteristic image statistics that make them discriminable from unnatural textures. For example, both contrast negation and texture synthesis alter the appearance of natural textures even though each manipulation preserves some features while disrupting others. Here, we examined the extent to which contrast negation and texture synthesis each introduce or remove critical perceptual features for discriminating unnatural textures from natural textures. We find that both manipulations remove information that observers use for distinguishing natural textures from transformed versions of the same patterns, but do so in different ways. Texture synthesis removes information that is relevant for discrimination in both abstract patterns and ecologically valid textures, and we also observe a category-dependent asymmetry for identifying an "oddball" real texture among synthetic distractors. Contrast negation exhibits no such asymmetry, and also does not impact discrimination performance in abstract patterns. We discuss our results in the context of the visual system's tuning to ecologically relevant patterns and other results describing sensitivity to higher-order statistics in texture patterns.

  16. Influence of texture on fracture toughness of zircaloy cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, V. [Studsvik Material AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Andersson, Stefan [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)


    The correlation between texture and fracture toughness of Zircaloy 2 cladding has been investigated in connection with axial cracks in fuel rods. The texture of the cladding determines the anisotropy of plasticity of the cladding which, in turn, should influence the strain conditions at the crack-tip. Plastic strains in the cladding under uniaxial tension were characterised by means of the anisotropy constants F, G and H calculated according to Hill`s theory. Test temperatures between 20 and 300 deg C do not influence the F, G and H values. Any significant effect of hydrogen (about 500 wtppm) on the anisotropy constants F, G and H has not been revealed at a test temperature of 300 deg C. The results, obtained for stress-relieved and recrystallized cladding with different texture, show an obvious influence of texture on the fracture toughness of Zircaloy cladding. A higher fracture toughness has been found for cladding with more radial texture. With a 2 page summary in Swedish. 32 refs, 18 figs.

  17. Parallel-Sequential Texture Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Singh, Sameer; Singh, Maneesha; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Apte, Chid; Perner, Petra


    Color induced texture analysis is explored, using two texture analysis techniques: the co-occurrence matrix and the color correlogram as well as color histograms. Several quantization schemes for six color spaces and the human-based 11 color quantization scheme have been applied. The VisTex texture

  18. Nonlinear operator for oriented texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruizinga, Peter; Petkov, Nikolay


    Texture is an important part of the visual world of animals and humans and their visual systems successfully detect, discriminate, and segment texture. Relatively recently progress was made concerning structures in the brain that are presumably responsible for texture processing. Neurophysiologists

  19. Compact Hybrid Laser Rod and Laser System (United States)

    Busch, George E. (Inventor); Amzajerdian, Farzin (Inventor); Pierrottet, Diego F. (Inventor)


    A hybrid fiber rod includes a fiber core and inner and outer cladding layers. The core is doped with an active element. The inner cladding layer surrounds the core, and has a refractive index substantially equal to that of the core. The outer cladding layer surrounds the inner cladding layer, and has a refractive index less than that of the core and inner cladding layer. The core length is about 30 to 2000 times the core diameter. A hybrid fiber rod laser system includes an oscillator laser, modulating device, the rod, and pump laser diode(s) energizing the rod from opposite ends. The rod acts as a waveguide for pump radiation but allows for free-space propagation of laser radiation. The rod may be used in a laser resonator. The core length is less than about twice the Rayleigh range. Degradation from single-mode to multi-mode beam propagation is thus avoided.

  20. Electric-field Induced Microdynamics of Charged Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyongok eKang


    Full Text Available Electric-field induced phase/state transitions are observed in AC electric fields with small amplitudes and low frequencies in suspensions of charged fibrous viruses (fd, which are model systems for highly charged rod-like colloids. Texture- and particle-dynamics in these field-induced states, and on crossing transition lines, are explored by image time-correlation and dynamic light scattering, respectively. At relatively low frequencies, starting from a system within the isotropic-nematic coexistence region, a transition from a nematic to a chiral nematic is observed, as well as a dynamical state where nematic domains melt and reform. These transitions are preliminary due to field-induced dissociation/association of condensed ions. At higher frequencies a uniform state is formed that is stabilized by hydrodynamic interactions through field-induced electro-osmotic flow where the rods align along the field direction. There is a point in the field-amplitude versus frequency plane where various transition lines meet. This point can be identified as a non-equilibrium critical point, in the sense that a length scale and a time scale diverge on approach of that point. The microscopic dynamics exhibits discontinuities on crossing transition lines that were identified independently by means of image and signal correlation spectroscopy.

  1. [Visual Texture Agnosia in Humans]. (United States)

    Suzuki, Kyoko


    Visual object recognition requires the processing of both geometric and surface properties. Patients with occipital lesions may have visual agnosia, which is impairment in the recognition and identification of visually presented objects primarily through their geometric features. An analogous condition involving the failure to recognize an object by its texture may exist, which can be called visual texture agnosia. Here we present two cases with visual texture agnosia. Case 1 had left homonymous hemianopia and right upper quadrantanopia, along with achromatopsia, prosopagnosia, and texture agnosia, because of damage to his left ventromedial occipitotemporal cortex and right lateral occipito-temporo-parietal cortex due to multiple cerebral embolisms. Although he showed difficulty matching and naming textures of real materials, he could readily name visually presented objects by their contours. Case 2 had right lower quadrantanopia, along with impairment in stereopsis and recognition of texture in 2D images, because of subcortical hemorrhage in the left occipitotemporal region. He failed to recognize shapes based on texture information, whereas shape recognition based on contours was well preserved. Our findings, along with those of three reported cases with texture agnosia, indicate that there are separate channels for processing texture, color, and geometric features, and that the regions around the left collateral sulcus are crucial for texture processing.

  2. Tipping Time of a Quantum Rod (United States)

    Parrikar, Onkar


    The behaviour of a quantum rod, pivoted at its lower end on an impenetrable floor and restricted to moving in the vertical plane under the gravitational potential, is studied analytically under the approximation that the rod is initially localized to a "small-enough" neighbourhood around the point of classical unstable equilibrium. It is shown…

  3. Computing Temperatures In Optically Pumped Laser Rods (United States)

    Farrukh, Usamah O.


    Computer program presents new model solving temperature-distribution problem for laser rods of finite length and calculates both radial and axial components of temperature distributions in these rods. Contains several self-checking schemes to prevent over-writing of memory blocks and to provide simple tracing of information in case of trouble. Written in Microsoft FORTRAN 77.

  4. Self-contact for rods on cylinders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H.M. van der Heijden; M.A. Peletier (Mark); R. Planqué (Robert)


    textabstractWe study self-contact phenomena in elastic rods that are constrained to lie on a cylinder. By choosing a particular set of variables to describe the rod centerline the variational setting is made particularly simple: the strain energy is a second-order functional of a single scalar

  5. Texture in state-of-the-art Nb3Sn multifilamentary superconducting wires

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Alknes, P; Jimenez, N; Bordini, B; Ballarino, A; Di Michiel, M; Thilly, L; Besara, T; Siegrist, T


    The texture of Nb3Sn in recent multifilamentary composite wires has been studied by neutron diffraction, synchrotron x-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction. In powder-in-tube (PIT) type superconductors the Nb precursor filaments exhibit a strong 〈110〉 fiber texture as a consequence of the severe cold drawing process, and a 〈110〉 texture is also observed in the Nb3Sn. In the Nb–Ta precursor of the restacked rod process (RRP) strand there is an additional texture component, and in both Ta-alloyed and Ti-alloyed RRP type conductors the Nb3Sn grains grow with a preferential 〈100〉 orientation.

  6. Height and Tilt Geometric Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vedrana; Desbrun, Mathieu; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas


    We propose a new intrinsic representation of geometric texture over triangle meshes. Our approach extends the conventional height field texture representation by incorporating displacements in the tangential plane in the form of a normal tilt. This texture representation offers a good practical...... compromise between functionality and simplicity: it can efficiently handle and process geometric texture too complex to be represented as a height field, without having recourse to full blown mesh editing algorithms. The height-and-tilt representation proposed here is fully intrinsic to the mesh, making...... texture editing and animation (such as bending or waving) intuitively controllable over arbitrary base mesh. We also provide simple methods for texture extraction and transfer using our height-and-field representation....

  7. Textural modification of processing tomatoes. (United States)

    Barrett, D M; Garcia, E; Wayne, J E


    Knowledge of the textural properties of processing tomatoes is crucial to ensuing product acceptability; measurement, control, and optimization of these properties through judicious selection of varieties and control of unit operations results in products that the consumer prefers. It is important to first define the terms texture, rheology, consistency, and viscosity prior to discussing principles of their measurement. The textural properties of processing tomatoes may be measured using both sensory and objective tests, and the latter may be either destructive or nondestructive in nature. The unique anatomy of tomato fruit (peel, pericarp, columella, and locules) in part dictates the method of texture measurement. Numerous factors, including variety, maturity, genetic modification, cultural particles, and environmental conditions, processing conditions, and calcium addition affect the textural integrity of tomatoes. Textural properties of raw tomatoes and most processed tomato products are reviewed in this article.

  8. A New Rig for Testing Textured Surfaces in Pure Sliding Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Grønbæk, J.; Mohaghegh, Kamran


    for cylinder liners. To prove the efficacy of a particular textured surface, it is paramount to perform experimental tests under controlled laboratory conditions. In this paper, a new test rig simulating pure sliding conditions is presented, dubbed axial sliding test. It presents four major components: a rod......, a sleeve, a housing and a stripwound container. The rod and the sleeve are the two surfaces in relative sliding motion; the stripwound container maintains a constant, but adjustable normal pressure, and the housing serves as interface between the sleeve and the container. For carrying out the test, two...

  9. A generic framework for colour texture segmentation


    Nammalwar, Padmapriya


    This thesis proposes a novel method to combine the colour and the texture for colour texture segmentation. The objective of this research work is to derive a framework for colour texture segmentation and to determine the contribution of colour in colour texture analysis. The colour texture processing is based on the feature extraction from colour-textured images. The texture features were obtained from the luminance plane along with the colour features from the chrominance planes. Based on th...

  10. Independent Component Analysis of Textures (United States)

    Manduchi, Roberto; Portilla, Javier


    A common method for texture representation is to use the marginal probability densities over the outputs of a set of multi-orientation, multi-scale filters as a description of the texture. We propose a technique, based on Independent Components Analysis, for choosing the set of filters that yield the most informative marginals, meaning that the product over the marginals most closely approximates the joint probability density function of the filter outputs. The algorithm is implemented using a steerable filter space. Experiments involving both texture classification and synthesis show that compared to Principal Components Analysis, ICA provides superior performance for modeling of natural and synthetic textures.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Reena Rose


    Full Text Available Texture descriptors have an important role in recognizing face images. However, almost all the existing local texture descriptors use nearest neighbors to encode a texture pattern around a pixel. But in face images, most of the pixels have similar characteristics with that of its nearest neighbors because the skin covers large area in a face and the skin tone at neighboring regions are same. Therefore this paper presents a general framework called Local Texture Description Framework that uses only eight pixels which are at certain distance apart either circular or elliptical from the referenced pixel. Local texture description can be done using the foundation of any existing local texture descriptors. In this paper, the performance of the proposed framework is verified with three existing local texture descriptors Local Binary Pattern (LBP, Local Texture Pattern (LTP and Local Tetra Patterns (LTrPs for the five issues viz. facial expression, partial occlusion, illumination variation, pose variation and general recognition. Five benchmark databases JAFFE, Essex, Indian faces, AT&T and Georgia Tech are used for the experiments. Experimental results demonstrate that even with less number of patterns, the proposed framework could achieve higher recognition accuracy than that of their base models.

  12. Estimation of irradiated control rod worth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varvayanni, M., E-mail: melina@ipta.demokritos.g [NCSR ' DEMOKRITOS' , PO Box 60228, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Catsaros, N. [NCSR ' DEMOKRITOS' , PO Box 60228, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Antonopoulos-Domis, M. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece)


    When depleted control rods are planned to be used in new core configurations, their worth has to be accurately predicted in order to deduce key design and safety parameters such as the available shutdown margin. In this work a methodology is suggested for the derivation of the distributed absorbing capacity of a depleted rod, useful in the case that the level of detail that is known about the irradiation history of the control rod does not allow an accurate calculation of the absorber's burnup. The suggested methodology is based on measurements of the rod's worth carried out in the former core configuration and on corresponding calculations based on the original (before first irradiation) absorber concentration. The methodology is formulated for the general case of the multi-group theory; it is successfully tested for the one-group approximation, for a depleted control rod of the Greek Research Reactor, containing five neutron absorbers. The computations reproduce satisfactorily the irradiated rod worth measurements, practically eliminating the discrepancy of the total rod worth, compared to the computations based on the nominal absorber densities.

  13. Control Rod Malfunction at the NRAD Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas L. Maddock


    The neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD) is a training, research, and isotope (TRIGA) reactor located at the INL. The reactor is normally shut down by the insertion of three control rods that drop into the core when power is removed from electromagnets. During a routine shutdown, indicator lights on the console showed that one of the control rods was not inserted. It was initially thought that the indicator lights were in error because of a limit switch that was out of adjustment. Through further testing, it was determined that the control rod did not drop when the scram switch was initially pressed. The control rod anomaly led to a six month shutdown of the reactor and an in depth investigation of the reactor protective system. The investigation looked into: scram switch operation, console modifications, and control rod drive mechanisms. A number of latent issues were discovered and corrected during the investigation. The cause of the control rod malfunction was found to be a buildup of corrosion in the control rod drive mechanism. The investigation resulted in modifications to equipment, changes to both operation and maintenance procedures, and additional training. No reoccurrences of the problem have been observed since corrective actions were implemented.

  14. Magnetically controlled growing rods for scoliosis surgery. (United States)

    Metkar, Umesh; Kurra, Swamy; Quinzi, David; Albanese, Stephen; Lavelle, William F


    Early onset scoliosis can be both a disfiguring as well as a life threatening condition. When more conservative treatments fail, pediatric spinal surgeons are forced to consider operative interventions. Traditionally, these interventions have involved the insertion of a variety of implants into the patient with a limited number of anchor points controlling the spine. In the past, these pediatric patients have had multiple surgeries for elective lengthening of these devices to facilitate their growth while attempting to control the scoliosis. These patients often experience a physical and emotional toll from their multiple repeated surgeries. Growing spine techniques have also had a noted high complication rate due to implant dislodgement and infections. Recently, the development of non-invasively, self-lengthening growing rods has occurred. These devices have the potential to allow for the devices to be lengthened magnetically in a conscious patient in the surgeon's office. Areas covered: This review summarized previously published articles in the English literature using a key word search in PubMed for: 'magnetically controlled growing rods', 'Magec rods', 'magnetic growing rods' and 'growing rods'. Expert commentary: Magnetically controlled growing rods have an advantage over growing rods in lengthening the growing spine in the absence of repetitive surgeries.

  15. Induced Current Measurement of Rod Vibrations (United States)

    Sawicki, Charles A.


    The longitudinal normal modes of vibration of rods are similar to the modes seen in pipes open at both ends. A maximum of particle displacement exists at both ends and an integral number (n) of half wavelengths fit into the rod length. The frequencies fn of the normal modes is given by Eq. (1), where L is the rod length and V is the wave velocity: fn = nV/2L. Many methods have been used to measure the velocity of these waves. The Kundt's tube method commonly used in student labs will not be discussed here. A simpler related method has been described by Nicklin.2 Kluk3 measured velocities in a wide range of materials using a frequency counter and microphone to study sounds produced by impacts. Several earlier methods4,5 used phonograph cartridges complete with needles to detect vibrations in excited rods. A recent interesting experiment6 used wave-induced changes in magnetization produced in an iron rod by striking one end. The travel time, measured as the impulsive wave reflects back and forth, gave the wave velocity for the iron rod. In the method described here, a small magnet is attached to the rod with epoxy, and vibrations are detected using the current induced in a few loops of wire. The experiment is simple and yields very accurate velocity values.

  16. Texture of mayonnaise and dressing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, M.E.J.; Janssen, A.M.; Gemert, van L.J.; Doorn, van R.J.M.; Wijk, de R.A.; Weenen, H.; Linden, van der E.


    Relationships between sensory texture attributes and physical properties of mayonnaise and dressings have been explored. The focus of the work was in creaminess and related texture attributes. Samples ranging from 0-70% oil were tested sensorially by QDA-panels. Physical caharacterisation of these

  17. Quantitative Characterisation of Surface Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Lonardo, P.M.; Trumpold, H.


    This paper reviews the different methods used to give a quantitative characterisation of surface texture. The paper contains a review of conventional 2D as well as 3D roughness parameters, with particular emphasis on recent international standards and developments. It presents new texture...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zhabinski


    Full Text Available In the paper the role of texture (pixel values in a task of emotion recognition in the image of a face is explored. Texture-based method is compared to classic methods based on coordinates of key point. In addition, a new combined method is presented that unites both sets of features.

  19. Emotional Effects of Dynamic Textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Toet


    Full Text Available This study explores the effects of various spatiotemporal dynamic texture characteristics on human emotions. The emotional experience of auditory (eg, music and haptic repetitive patterns has been studied extensively. In contrast, the emotional experience of visual dynamic textures is still largely unknown, despite their natural ubiquity and increasing use in digital media. Participants watched a set of dynamic textures, representing either water or various different media, and self-reported their emotional experience. Motion complexity was found to have mildly relaxing and nondominant effects. In contrast, motion change complexity was found to be arousing and dominant. The speed of dynamics had arousing, dominant, and unpleasant effects. The amplitude of dynamics was also regarded as unpleasant. The regularity of the dynamics over the textures' area was found to be uninteresting, nondominant, mildly relaxing, and mildly pleasant. The spatial scale of the dynamics had an unpleasant, arousing, and dominant effect, which was larger for textures with diverse content than for water textures. For water textures, the effects of spatial contrast were arousing, dominant, interesting, and mildly unpleasant. None of these effects were observed for textures of diverse content. The current findings are relevant for the design and synthesis of affective multimedia content and for affective scene indexing and retrieval.

  20. Fermentation, Effect on Textural Properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (UTM, model 1 122, Instron Corporation,. Canton, MA, USA) was used to study the texture profile of 30% flour gels following the method of Bourne (1978). Because cassava flour paste is an amorphous mixture that does not provide the necessary consistency for collecting useful information by Texture Profile. Analysis (TPA) ...

  1. Emotional effects of dynamic textures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Henselmans, M.; Lucassen, M.P.; Gevers, T.


    This study explores the effects of various spatiotemporal dynamic texture characteristics on human emotions. The emotional experience of auditory (eg, music) and haptic repetitive patterns has been studied extensively. In contrast, the emotional experience of visual dynamic textures is still largely

  2. Bijels stabilized using rod-like particles. (United States)

    Hijnen, Niek; Cai, Dongyu; Clegg, Paul S


    Bicontinuous interfacially jammed emulsion gels, in short 'bijels', rely on a trapped layer of colloidal particles for their stability. These structures have traditionally been created using spherical colloidal particles. Here we show for the first time the use of rod-shape particles to stabilize bijels. We show that domain size decreases more rapidly with particle concentration in the case of rods compared to spheres. Large-scale analysis and detailed examination of images show that the packing fraction of rods is much higher than expected, in part, due to the role of 'flippers'.

  3. Texture dependent lattice strains and texture gradient in AI7020 (United States)

    Y Zhong, Z.; Brokmeier, H.-G.; Maawad, E.; Schell, N.


    Firstly, an Al7020 block was characterized by the texture gradient, which was remarkably strong. Texture sharpness in the center with about 30 mrd (multiple random distribution) shows typical plain strain texture components. On the surface and close to the surface the texture sharpness is much weaker showing also shear components. Strongest shear was not directly at the surface but 4 mm deeper. The texture analysis at HEMS Beamline (Petra III/DESY-Hamburg) was done with continuous scanning mode to include all grains to improve the grain statistics. Secondly, with an in situ synchrotron experiment the texture dependent lattice strain behavior was investigated using flat tensile samples oriented 0°, 45° and 90° to the rolling direction (RD). Texture induced anisotropy influenced on the lattice dependent yield strength and the lattice dependent stress-strain behavior, which will be discussed in detail. Due to the high energy synchrotron beam complete Debye-Scherrer rings were obtained so that the patterns, parallel and perpendicular to loading direction (LD), were obtained simultaneously.

  4. The rod as an instrument of discipline


    Milton Luiz Torres; Centro Universitário Adventista de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP


    Both in biblical literature as in ancient extrabiblical literature, the use of the rod appears primarily related to the capacity or to the authority of the one who holds it. It is, above all, an instrument of power. This article investigates the implications of using the rod as a tool of correction and discipline, taking into account the symbolism, culture and literary tradition associated with the use of that instrument of discipline for correction and transformation of those subjected to it...

  5. High Power Performance of Rod Fiber Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette Marie; Michieletto, Mattia; Kristensen, Torben


    An improved version of the DMF rod fiber is tested in a high power setup delivering 360W of stable signal power. Multiple testing degrades the fiber and transverse modal instability threshold from >360W to ~290W.......An improved version of the DMF rod fiber is tested in a high power setup delivering 360W of stable signal power. Multiple testing degrades the fiber and transverse modal instability threshold from >360W to ~290W....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulitin G.


    Full Text Available The problem is considered of longitudinal impact conical rod in article. A recommendation on the use of the approximate method of calculation is based on an analysis of the influence of design parameters on the value of the main oscillation frequency. There was obtained an equation of the displacement and stress of the rod. Engineering dependence has been proposed to determine the maximum force in the impact section.

  7. Microelectrophoresis of Silica Rods Using Confocal Microscopy (United States)


    The electrophoretic mobility and the zeta potential (ζ) of fluorescently labeled colloidal silica rods, with an aspect ratio of 3.8 and 6.1, were determined with microelectrophoresis measurements using confocal microscopy. In the case where the colloidal particles all move at the same speed parallel to the direction of the electric field, we record a xyz-stack over the whole depth of the capillary. This method is faster and more robust compared to taking xyt-series at different depths inside the capillary to obtain the parabolic flow profile, as was done in previous work from our group. In some cases, rodlike particles do not move all at the same speed in the electric field, but exhibit a velocity that depends on the angle between the long axis of the rod and the electric field. We measured the orientation-dependent velocity of individual silica rods during electrophoresis as a function of κa, where κ–1 is the double layer thickness and a is the radius of the rod associated with the diameter. Thus, we determined the anisotropic electrophoretic mobility of the silica rods with different sized double layers. The size of the double layer was tuned by suspending silica rods in different solvents at different electrolyte concentrations. We compared these results with theoretical predictions. We show that even at already relatively high κa when the Smoluchowski limiting law is assumed to be valid (κa > 10), an orientation dependent velocity was measured. Furthermore, we observed that at decreasing values of κa the anisotropy in the electrophoretic mobility of the rods increases. However, in low polar solvents with κa mobility of the rods decreased. We argue that this decrease is due to end effects, which was already predicted theoretically. When end effects are not taken into account, this will lead to strong underestimation of the experimentally determined zeta potential. PMID:28045541

  8. Texture-based correspondence display (United States)

    Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael


    Texture-based correspondence display is a methodology to display corresponding data elements in visual representations of complex multidimensional, multivariate data. Texture is utilized as a persistent medium to contain a visual representation model and as a means to create multiple renditions of data where color is used to identify correspondence. Corresponding data elements are displayed over a variety of visual metaphors in a normal rendering process without adding extraneous linking metadata creation and maintenance. Texture-based correspondence display extends the effectiveness of visual representation for understanding data to the understanding and creation of visual representation models.

  9. Texture-Based Correspondence Display (United States)

    Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael


    Texture-based correspondence display is a methodology to display corresponding data elements in visual representations of complex multidimensional, multivariate data. Texture is utilized as a persistent medium to contain a visual representation model and as a means to create multiple renditions of data where color is used to identify correspondence. Corresponding data elements are displayed over a variety of visual metaphors in a normal rendering process without adding extraneous linking metadata creation and maintenance. The effectiveness of visual representation for understanding data is extended to the expression of the visual representation model in texture.

  10. International symposium on fuel rod simulators: development and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloch, R.W. (comp.)


    Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented concerning fuel rod simulator operation and performance; simulator design and evaluation; clad heated fuel rod simulators and fuel rod simulators for cladding investigations; fuel rod simulator components and inspection; and simulator analytical modeling. Ten papers have previously been input to the Energy Data Base.

  11. Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterton, M.


    The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff`s understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required.

  12. Tests of quark mass textures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The classic hints on the structure of the quark mass matrices are shortly reviewed and the possibility of obtaining further information through precise texture analysis is discussed with the aid of a specific example.

  13. Preferred Orientation Contribution to the Anisotropic Normal State Resistivity in Superconducting Melt-Cast Processed Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Dellicour


    Full Text Available We describe how the contribution of crystallographic texture to the anisotropy of the resistivity of polycrystalline samples can be estimated by averaging over crystallographic orientations through a geometric mean approach. The calculation takes into account the orientation distribution refined from neutron diffraction data and literature values for the single crystal resistivity tensor. The example discussed here is a melt-cast processed Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi-2212 polycrystalline tube in which the main texture component is a <010> fiber texture with relatively low texture strength. Experimentally-measured resistivities along the longitudinal, radial, and tangential directions of the Bi-2212 tube were compared to calculated values and found to be of the same order of magnitude. Calculations for this example and additional simulations for various texture strengths and single crystal resistivity anisotropies confirm that in the case of highly anisotropic phases such as Bi-2212, even low texture strengths have a significant effect on the anisotropy of the resistivity in polycrystalline samples.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Korczyk-Szabó


    Full Text Available Abstract The bread quality is considerably dependent on the texture characteristic of bread crumb. Crumb texture is an important quality indicator, as consumer prefer different bread taste. Texture analysis is primarily concerned with the evaluation of mechanical characteristics where a material is subjected to a controlled force from which a deformation curve of its response is generated. It is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. This is why the texture analysis is one of the most helpful analytical methods of the product development. In the framework of our research during the years 2008 – 2009 were analyzed selected indicators for bread texture quality of five Triticum spelta L. varieties – Altgold, Oberkulmer Rotkorn, Ostro, Rubiota and Franckenkorn grown in an ecological system. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus (Stable Micro Systems, Surrey, UK, following the AACC (74-09 standard method and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness ( and relative elasticity (%. Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was achieved in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Franckenkorn and Altgold were the most firm and stiff. Correlation analysis showed strong negative correlation between relative elasticity and bread crumb firmness as well as bread stiffness (-0.81++, -0.78++. The spelt grain can be a good source for making bread flour, but is closely dependent on choice of spelt variety. The spelt wheat bread crumb texture need further investigation as it can be a reliable quality parameter.

  15. Radiological characterization of spent control rod assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepel, E.A.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.; Pratt, S.L.; Haggard, D.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    This document represents the final report of an ongoing study to provide radiological characterizations, classifications, and assessments in support of the decommissioning of nuclear power stations. This report describes the results of non-destructive and laboratory radionuclide measurements, as well as waste classification assessments, of BWR and PWR spent control rod assemblies. The radionuclide inventories of these spent control rods were determined by three separate methodologies, including (1) direct assay techniques, (2) calculational techniques, and (3) by sampling and laboratory radiochemical analyses. For the BWR control rod blade (CRB) and PWR burnable poison rod assembly (BPRA), {sup 60}Co and {sup 63}Ni, present in the stainless steel cladding, were the most abundant neutron activation products. The most abundant radionuclide in the PWR rod cluster control assembly (RCCA) was {sup 108m}Ag (130 yr halflife) produced in the Ag-In-Cd alloy used as the neutron poison. This radionuclide will be the dominant contributor to the gamma dose rate for many hundreds of years. The results of the direct assay methods agree very well ({+-}10%) with the sampling/radiochemical measurements. The results of the calculational methods agreed fairly well with the empirical measurements for the BPRA, but often varied by a factor of 5 to 10 for the CRB and the RCCA assemblies. If concentration averaging and encapsulation, as allowed by 10CFR61.55, is performed, then each of the entire control assemblies would be classified as Class C low-level radioactive waste.

  16. Broadband Vibration Attenuation Using Hybrid Periodic Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Asiri


    Full Text Available This paper presents both theoretically and experimentally a new kind of a broadband vibration isolator. It is a table-like system formed by four parallel hybrid periodic rods connected between two plates. The rods consist of an assembly of periodic cells, each cell being composed of a short rod and piezoelectric inserts. By actively controlling the piezoelectric elements, it is shown that the periodic rods can efficiently attenuate the propagation of vibration from the upper plate to the lower one within critical frequency bands and consequently minimize the effects of transmission of undesirable vibration and sound radiation. In such a system, longitudinal waves can propagate from the vibration source in the upper plate to the lower one along the rods only within specific frequency bands called the "Pass Bands" and wave propagation is efficiently attenuated within other frequency bands called the "Stop Bands". The spectral width of these bands can be tuned according to the nature of the external excitation. The theory governing the operation of this class of vibration isolator is presented and their tunable filtering characteristics are demonstrated experimentally as functions of their design parameters. This concept can be employed in many applications to control the wave propagation and the force transmission of longitudinal vibrations both in the spectral and spatial domains in an attempt to stop/attenuate the propagation of undesirable disturbances.

  17. Friction measuring device for control rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Tomomi.


    In the present invention, judgment for friction of control rods conducted upon periodical inspection of a BWR type power plant is conducted by automatic analysis and evaluation by digitalizing data of an operation pressure and an differential pressure of control rods. That is, a differential pressure detection means detects a pressure and a differential pressure of driving water of a control rod driving source. A data processing device conducts digital analysis and store data from the differential pressure detection means, as well as compares the data with set values to automatically judge the friction of the control rod to diagnose abnormality based on the changing trend of the analyzed data. According to the device of the present invention, data measured for the friction of a great number of control rods can be analyzed and judged automatically in a short period of time. Accordingly, evaluation can be conducted accurately even by less skilled operators. Further, when an abnormality is detected, the diagnosis thereof is conducted, so that the operation is simplified and an operator's burden upon inspection can be mitigated. (I.S.).

  18. Wetting of a partially immersed compliant rod (United States)

    Hui, Chung-Yuen; Jagota, Anand


    The force on a solid rod partially immersed in a liquid is commonly used to determine the liquid-vapor surface tension by equating the measured force required to remove the rod from the liquid to the vertical component of the liquid-vapor surface tension. Here, we study how this process is affected when the rod is compliant. For equilibrium, we enforce force and configurational energy balance, including contributions from elastic energy. We show that, in general, the contact angle does not equal that given by Young's equation. If surface stresses are tensile, the strain in the immersed part of the rod is found to be compressive and to depend only on the solid-liquid surface stress. The strain in the dry part of the rod can be either tensile or compressive, depending on a combination of parameters that we identify. We also provide results for compliant plates partially immersed in a liquid under plane strain and plane stress. Our results can be used to extract solid surface stresses from such experiments.

  19. A method for texturing a glass surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, G.; Van Swaaij, R.A.C.M.M.; Isabella, O.


    The present invention relates to a new method of texturing a glass surface. In further aspects, the present invention relates to the resulting textured glass surface; to a photovoltaic device comprising the textured glass surface; and, to use of the textured glass surface for scattering light.

  20. Bent Telescopic Rods in Patients With Osteogenesis Imperfecta. (United States)

    Lee, R Jay; Paloski, Michael D; Sponseller, Paul D; Leet, Arabella I


    Telescopic rods require alignment of 2 rods to enable lengthening. A telescopic rod converts functionally into a solid rod if either rod bends, preventing proper engagement. Our goal was to characterize implant bending as a mode of failure of telescopic rods used in the treatment of osteogenesis imperfecta in children. We conducted a retrospective review of our osteogenesis imperfecta database for patients treated with intramedullary telescopic rods at our institution from 1992 through 2010 and identified 12 patients with bent rods. The 6 boys and 6 girls had an average age at the time of initial surgery of 3.1 years (range, 1.8 to 8.3 y) and a total of 51 telescoping rods. Clinic notes, operative reports, and radiographs were reviewed. The rods were analyzed for amount of lengthening, characteristics of bending, presence of cut out, or disengagement from an anchor point. Bends in the rods were characterized by their location on the implant component. The bent and straight rods were compared. Data were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney test (statistical significance set at P≤0.05). Of the 51 telescoping rods, 17 constructs (33%) bent. The average interval between surgery and rod bending was 4.0 years (range, 0.9 to 8.2 y). Before bending, 11 of 17 telescoping rods had routine follow-up radiographs for review. In 10 of the rods, bending was present when early signs of rod failure were first detected. Rod bending did not seem to be related to rod size. There was no area on the rod itself that seemed more susceptible to bending. Rod bending can be an early sign of impending rod failure. When rod bending is first noted, it may predispose the rod to other subsequent failures such as loss of proximal and distal fixation and cut out. Rod bending should be viewed as an indicator for closer monitoring of the patient and discussions regarding future need for rod exchange. Level III-retrospective review.

  1. Color dissociation artifacts in double Maddox rod cyclodeviation testing. (United States)

    Simons, K; Arnoldi, K; Brown, M H


    The double Maddox rod test, based on a red Maddox rod in front of one eye and a clear Maddox rod in front of the other, is used to measure cyclodeviation, typically in patients with superior oblique muscle pareses. Discrepant results between the double Maddox rod test and other torsion measures, and reports of "paradoxic" cyclodeviation in the normal eye of some patients with superior oblique paresis, suggest the two-color format of the double Maddox rod test may produce artifactual torsion measures. Forty patients with superior oblique paresis were tested twice using the double Maddox rod test, reversing the red and white Maddox rods between eyes for the second test, and 18 were tested further with same-color red or clear Maddox rods in front of both eyes. With the standard double Maddox rod test, 33 (83%) of 40 patients localized their cyclodeviation to the eye viewing through the red Maddox rod, irrespective of laterality of the paresis or fixation preference. In all 33 patients, laterality of the perceived torsion changed between eyes when testing was repeated with red and white Maddox rods interchanged between eyes. With same-color Maddox rods before both eyes, 17 (94%) of 18 patients localized extorsion to the paretic eye. There was 7.6:1 ratio of luminance transmission and a 1.6:1 ratio of grating spatial frequency bandpass in the plano meridian between the clear and red Maddox rods, which appear to be responsible for the double Maddox rod test artifact. The traditional double Maddox rod test may produce artifactual cyclodeviation measurements. An alternative version of the test, based on same-color Maddox rods in front of both eyes, is proposed. The relatively high spatial frequency bandpass characteristics of the plano meridian of the Maddox rod (as high as 20/25 Snellen equivalent resolution through the clear Maddox rod) also suggests double Maddox rod testing should be conducted in a dark room to avoid biases from visual environment cues.

  2. Improving Tensile and Compressive Properties of an Extruded AZ91 Rod by the Combined Use of Torsion Deformation and Aging Treatment. (United States)

    Song, Bo; Wang, Chunpeng; Guo, Ning; Pan, Hucheng; Xin, Renlong


    In this study, AZ91 magnesium alloy rods were used to investigate the effects of torsion deformation on microstructure and subsequent aging behavior. Extruded AZ91 rod has a uniform microstructure and typical fiber texture. Torsion deformation can generate a gradient microstructure on the cross-section of the rod. After torsion, from the center to the edge in the cross-section of the rod, both stored dislocations and area fraction of {10-12} twins gradually increase, and the basal pole of the texture tends to rotate in the ED direction. Direct aging usually generates coarse discontinuous precipitates and fine continuous precipitates simultaneously. Both twin structures and dislocations via torsion deformation can be effective microstructures for the nucleation of continuous precipitates during subsequent aging. Thus, aging after torsion can promote continuous precipitation and generate gradient precipitation characteristics. Both aging treatment and torsion deformation can reduce yield asymmetry, and torsion deformation enhances the aging hardening effect by promoting continuous precipitation. Therefore, combined use of torsion deformation and aging treatment can effectively enhance the yield strength and almost eliminate the yield asymmetry of the present extruded AZ91 rod. Finally, the relevant mechanisms are discussed.

  3. Sensitivity study of control rod depletion coefficients


    Blomberg, Joel


    This report investigates the sensitivity of the control rod depletion coefficients, Sg, to different input parameters and how this affects the accumulated 10B depletion, β. Currently the coefficients are generated with PHOENIX4, but the geometries can be more accurately simulated in McScram. McScram is used to calculate Control Rod Worth, which in turn is used to calculate Nuclear End Of Life, and Sg cannot be generated in the current version of McScram. Therefore, it is also analyzed whether...

  4. Pattern selection dynamics in rod eutectics (United States)

    Serefoglu, Melis

    The cooperative or diffusively coupled growth of multiple phases during solidification is one of the most widely observed and generally important classes of phase transformations in materials. Technologically, low melting temperature and small freezing range contribute to excellent casting fluidity and fine composite structures give rise to favorable properties. Both of these features contribute to the wide application of eutectic alloys in the casting, welding, and soldering of engineered components. Despite the broad-based technological importance, many fundamental questions regarding eutectic solidification remain unanswered, severely limiting our ability to employ computational methods in the prediction of microstructure for the effective design of new materials and processes. At the core of the most persistent questions, lie problems involving multicomponent thermodynamics, solid-liquid and solid-solid interfacial phenomena, morphological stability, chemical and thermal diffusion, and nucleation phenomena. In the current study, pattern selection dynamics in rod eutectics are investigated using systematic directional solidification experiments and phase field simulations. Directional solidification of a succinonitrile-camphor (SCN-DC) transparent alloy in thin slab geometries of various thicknesses reveals two main points. First, a velocity is indentified at which a transition in array basis vectors is observed in specimens with many rows of rods (i.e. bulk). This transition amounts to a 90 degree rotation of the rod array, shifting from alignment of 1st nearest neighbors to alignment of 2nd nearest neighbors along the slide wall. Second, significant array distortion is observed with decreasing slide thickness, delta, which ultimately leads to a single-row (quasi-3D) morphology where delta/lambda is on the order of unity. In our analysis of these observations, we use a geometrical model to describe the rod arrangement as a function of slide thickness, providing

  5. An in vitro biomechanical comparison of single-rod, dual-rod, and dual-rod with transverse connector in anterior thoracolumbar instrumentation. (United States)

    Reddy, Chandan G; Magnetta, Michael; Dahdaleh, Nader S; Demmer, Matthew; Iyamah, Kingsley Abode; Lim, Tae-Hong; Torner, James C; Hitchon, Patrick W


    After thoracolumbar corpectomy, standard anterolateral instrumentation may consist of dual rods with cross-connectors. However, when the vertebral bodies are small or involved with disease, only 1 rod may be possible. To compare the biomechanics of an in vitro L1 corpectomy model using 1 rod, 2 rods, or 2 rods with 2 cross-connectors. Eight fresh frozen human cadaveric spines were potted from T9 to L3. Pure moments of 1.5, 3, and 4.5 Nm were applied, and the motion of the spine was measured using 3 infrared cameras. Loads were applied in flexion and extension, right and left lateral bending, and right and left axial rotation. Each spine was first tested in the intact state. After performing an L1 corpectomy and replacement with a carbon fiber reinforced polymer cage, 3 constructs were tested: single rod (1R), dual rod (2R), and dual rod with 2 transverse connectors (CC). Analysis of variance suggests significant main effects of load (P < .0001), axis (P = .022), construct (P =.0019), and individual spine (P < .0001). Overall, the single-rod construct is significantly less rigid than the intact spine in axial rotation. There is no significant difference between the intact spine and either the dual-rod construct or the dual-rod cross-connector construct. In our in vitro model of anterior spinal stabilization after corpectomy and grafting, a single-rod construct is significantly less rigid than the intact spine. Addition of a second rod returns the rigidity of the spine to the intact state. A dual-rod cross-connector construct is significantly more rigid than a single-rod construct.

  6. Design of Dynamic Vibrotactile Textures. (United States)

    Ahmaniemi, Teemu; Marila, Juha; Lantz, Vuokko


    This paper describes a method for creating virtual textures without force feedback by using a simple motion sensor and a single vibrotactile actuator. It is based on wavetable synthesis driven by the user's hand movements. The output of the synthesis is rendered with the tactile actuator attached in a hand-held box together with the motion sensor. The method provides a solution for creating tangible properties for virtual objects which can be explored by pointing at them with the sensor-actuator device. The study introduces 12 virtual textures which were based on three different envelope ridge lengths, two spatial densities, and were either regularly or irregularly organized. To evaluate the role of each design parameter in the perception of the texture, a series of experiments was conducted. The perceived similarity was assessed in a pairwise comparison test and the outcome was analyzed by using multidimensional scaling. The analysis revealed that envelope ridge length and spatial density were distinguishable design parameters while regularity was not. The textures were also rated according to five attribute scales previously determined in the pilot experiment. The results show that ridge length and spatial density influence perceived roughness and flatness similarly as with real textures.

  7. Towards a hydrologically motivated soil texture classification (United States)

    Bormann, Helge


    Soil texture classification is not designed for hydrological purposes, e.g. for hydrological modelling. Hydrological model applications based on classified soil textures have revealed that different soil texture classes within the same classification system induce different uncertainties with respect to simulated water balances. As a consequence, there is a need to think about required similarity in texture classifications. In different regions of the world, different soil texture classification systems have been developed. These different classification systems divide the soil texture triangle in different numbers of differently shaped soil texture classes. These texture classifications are based on pedological background and practical reasons with respect to soil mapping and analyses. In comparison, a possible soil texture classification motivated by soil hydrology should be based on similarity in hydrological fluxes or in the soil water regime. Therefore, this presentation proposes a procedure how to evaluate the appropriateness of currently used texture classifications and how to derive a new soil texture classification based on a similar behaviour of soils with respect to hydrological processes. Long-term hydrological modelling of water balance terms using the 1-D SVAT scheme SIMULAT serve as the basis of a similarity analysis of 5050 possible realisations of the soil texture triangle (1% grid). Cluster analysis is used for analysing similar hydrological behaviour of theoretical soil columns. Spatial patterns of similar realisations (=clusters) in the soil texture triangle based on annual water balance terms are compared to those based on soil hydraulic parameters and current soil texture classes. The results show that clusters based on soil hydraulic parameterisation are relatively similar to current soil texture classification schemes while hydrological model simulations suggest differing spatial patterns of similar behaviour over the soil texture triangle

  8. Rapakivi texture: An indication of the crystallization of hydrosilicates, II (United States)

    Elliston, John N.


    Rapakivi granites have puzzled all who have seriously studied them. Typical rapakivi texture is a mixture of variously mantled, non-mantled or partly mantled, concentrically zoned, plastically distorted, fragmented, reaggregated, large and small ovoids. Commonly they are potash feldspar often mantled by, and having a variable content of plagioclase. Some display remarkable sphericity. In form, composition, zoning sequence, and crystallization pattern each ovoid reflects an individual development. Up to five concentric internal plagioclase rims have been observed and some ovoids may be isolated in autoliths and wall-rocks. Anomalies and contradictions arise from any assumption of genesis from a cooling melt. The recorded objective data imply that the "magma" from which rapakivi textures develop had similar diffusive and rheological properties to those of a partly dewatered macromolecular paste or a mixture of gelatinous hydrosilicates. As indicated by deep oil wells this system is found at somewhat elevated temperatures at considerable depths within accumulated sediments. In addition to the very specific diffusive and rheological properties of such partly dewatered sediments, the system has as its major components normal solvated macromolecules of mixed clays, silica gels and hydrous ferromagnesian minerals which are characterised by distinctive particle sizes and geometric shapes (platelets, spheres and rods, respectively). Thixotropic liquefaction and intrusion of such concentrated gelatinous "magma" or sediment paste introduces relative movement between the component macromolecules whereby they can reduce surface energy by interaction to assume a "close-packed" condition and aggregate during laminar flow into macro-accretions comprised essentially of their respective particle shapes. Syneresis of these precursor accretions desorbs ions, including the small montmorillonite particles behaving as a colloidal electrolyte. These diffuse from the illitic cores to form

  9. Static in situ test of the axial power shaping rod and shim safety control rod mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soberano, F T; Gannon, J A; Parlee, K A


    There are eight Axial Power Shaping Rods (APSRs) and 61 Shim Safety Control Rods (SSCRs) within the Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 reactor core. This report describes the test results for all eight APSRs and three SSCRs. The tests were performed in situ from the Control Rod Drive (CRD) system logic cabinets and the transformer cabinets located in the cable spreading room. The tests were intended to determine the condition of the Absolute Position Indicators (APIs), the stator thermocouples, and the stators, and to assess each components' survival of the TMI-2 accident.

  10. Texture of lipid bilayer domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe Bernchou; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Midtiby, Henrik Skov


    which correlates with the phase state of the membrane. This is quantified by the generalized polarization (GP) function, and we demonstrate that a GP analysis can be performed on supported membranes. The results show that although the gel domains have heterogeneous texture, the membrane phase state does......We investigate the texture of gel (g) domains in binary lipid membranes composed of the phospholipids DPPC and DOPC. Lateral organization of lipid bilayer membranes is a topic of fundamental and biological importance. Whereas questions related to size and composition of fluid membrane domain...... are well studied, the possibility of texture in gel domains has so far not been examined. When using polarized light for two-photon excitation of the fluorescent lipid probe Laurdan, the emission intensity is highly sensitive to the angle between the polarization and the tilt orientation of lipid acyl...

  11. Di-uniform texture spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Ozcag


    Full Text Available Textures were introduced by the second author as a point-based setting for the study of fuzzy sets, and have since proved to be an appropriate framework for the development of complement-free mathematical concepts. In this paper the authors lay the foundation for a theory of uniformities in a textural context. Analogues are given for both the diagonal and covering approaches to the classical theory of uniform structures, the notion of uniform topology is generalized and an analogue given for the well known result that a topological space is uniformizable if and only if it is completely regular. Finally a textural analogue of the classical interplay between uniformities and families of pseudo-metrics is presented.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Korczyk – Szabó


    Full Text Available Texture analysis is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of bread crumb is important not only for quality assurance in the bakeries, but also for assessing the effects of changes in dough ingredients and processing condition and also for describing the changes in bread crumb during storage. Crumb cellular structure is an important quality criterion used in commercial baking and research laboratories to judge bread quality alongside taste, crumb colour and crumb physical texture. In the framework of our research during the years 2010 – 2011 were analyzed selected indicators of bread crumb for texture quality of three Triticum spelta L. cultivars – Altgold, Rubiota and Ostro grown in an ecological system. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus (Stable Micro Systems, Surrey, UK, following the AACC (74-09 standard and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness ( and relative elasticity (%. Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was achieved in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Altgold and Ostro were the most firm and stiff. Correlation analysis showed strong negative correlation between relative elasticity and bread crumb firmness as well as bread stiffness (-0.65++, -0.66++. The spelt wheat bread crumb texture need further investigation as it can be a reliable quality parameter.

  13. Oligo(naphthylene–ethynylene) Molecular Rods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Jacob Roland; Ning, Yanxiao; Shen, Cai


    of palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira reactions between naphthyl halides and acetylenes. The triazene functionality was used as a protected iodine precursor to allow linear extension of the molecular rods during the synthe-ses. The carboxylic acid groups in the target molecules were protected as esters during...

  14. Modeling and simulation performance of sucker rod beam pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aditsania, Annisa, E-mail: [Department of Computational Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rahmawati, Silvy Dewi, E-mail:; Sukarno, Pudjo, E-mail: [Department of Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Soewono, Edy, E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)


    Artificial lift is a mechanism to lift hydrocarbon, generally petroleum, from a well to surface. This is used in the case that the natural pressure from the reservoir has significantly decreased. Sucker rod beam pumping is a method of artificial lift. Sucker rod beam pump is modeled in this research as a function of geometry of the surface part, the size of sucker rod string, and fluid properties. Besides its length, sucker rod string also classified into tapered and un-tapered. At the beginning of this research, for easy modeling, the sucker rod string was assumed as un-tapered. The assumption proved non-realistic to use. Therefore, the tapered sucker rod string modeling needs building. The numerical solution of this sucker rod beam pump model is computed using finite difference method. The numerical result shows that the peak of polished rod load for sucker rod beam pump unit C-456-D-256-120, for non-tapered sucker rod string is 38504.2 lb, while for tapered rod string is 25723.3 lb. For that reason, to avoid the sucker rod string breaks due to the overload, the use of tapered sucker rod beam string is suggested in this research.

  15. Auditory Perception of Statistically Blurred Sound Textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; MacDonald, Ewen; Dau, Torsten

    Sound textures have been identified as a category of sounds which are processed by the peripheral auditory system and captured with running timeaveraged statistics. Although sound textures are temporally homogeneous, they offer a listener with enough information to identify and differentiate...... sources. This experiment investigated the ability of the auditory system to identify statistically blurred sound textures and the perceptual relationship between sound textures. Identification performance of statistically blurred sound textures presented at a fixed blur increased over those presented...... as a gradual blur. The results suggests that the correct identification of sound textures is influenced by the preceding blurred stimulus. These findings draw parallels to the recognition of blurred images....

  16. Articulated rods – a novel class of molecular rods based on oligospiroketals (OSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Wessig


    Full Text Available We developed a new type of molecular rods consisting of two (or more rigid units linked by a flexible joint. Consequently we called these constructs articulated rods (ARs. The syntheses of ARs were carried out by a flexible and modular approach providing access to a number of compounds with various functionalizations in terminal positions. First applications were presented with pyrene, cinnamoyl and anthracenyl labelled ARs.

  17. Sucker rod string design of the pumping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Hua Liu


    Full Text Available The existing design of sucker rod string mainly focuses on the simplifying assumptions that rod string was exposed to simple tension loading. And its goal was to have equal modified stress at the top of each taper. The improved rod design was to have the same degree of safety at each section, and it used a dynamic force distribution that was proportional along the whole string. However, the available procedures did not provide the desired accuracy of its pertinent analysis, and the operators could not identify the specific phenomena that occur in CBM wells. In this paper, the mathematical models of rod loads and string length were developed based on the cyclic nature of rod string loading; the fatigue endurance method is used to design the single rod string; and the tapered rod string is designed to have an equal equivalent stress at the top of each section. Its application characteristics are demonstrated by the example of CBM wells in Ordos Basin. The interpretations of results show that the previous design gave the single rods a larger diameter and the top rods in the string a greater percent than the proposed method. The calculation should concern about inertial, vibration and friction forces to illustrate the elastic force waves travelling in the rod material with the speed of sound. The single string should be designed using fatigue endurance ratings due to asymmetric pulsating tension of rod loading; and the tapered string should involve a balanced design by setting the fatigue endurance at each section equal. A shorter stroke length gives a greater rod taper percentage and an increased load capacity results to an enhanced rod diameter. The rod diameter increases with the pump size and load capacity for the single string, and the rod taper percentage of the top rod strings increases with plunger diameter for the tapered string. The proposed research improves efficiency of the pumping system, assures good operating conditions, and reduces

  18. Dependence of control rod worth on fuel burnup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savva, P., E-mail: savvapan@ipta.demokritos.g [NCSR ' DEMOKRITOS' , PoB 60228, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Varvayanni, M., E-mail: melina@ipta.demokritos.g [NCSR ' DEMOKRITOS' , PoB 60228, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Catsaros, N., E-mail: nicos@ipta.demokritos.g [NCSR ' DEMOKRITOS' , PoB 60228, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece)


    Research highlights: Diffusion and MC calculations for rod worth dependence on burnup and Xe in reactors. One-step rod withdrawal/insertion are used for rod worth estimation. The study showed that when Xe is present the rods worth is significantly reduced. Rod worth variation with burnup depends on rod position in core. Rod worth obtained with MC code is higher than that obtained from deterministic. - Abstract: One important parameter in the design and the analysis of a nuclear reactor core is the reactivity worth of the control rods, i.e. their efficiency to absorb excess reactivity. The control rod worth is affected by parameters such as the fuel burnup in the rod vicinity, the Xe concentration in the core, the operational time of the rod and its position in the core. In the present work, two different computational approaches, a deterministic and a stochastic one, were used for the determination of the rods worth dependence on the fuel burnup level and the Xe concentration level in a conceptual, symmetric reactor core, based on the MTR fuel assemblies used in the Greek Research Reactor (GRR-1). For the deterministic approach the neutronics code system composed by the SCALE modules NITAWL and XSDRN and the diffusion code CITATION was used, while for the stochastic one the Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI was applied. The study showed that when Xe is present in the core, the rods worth is significantly reduced, while the rod worth variation with increasing burnup depends on the rods position in the core grid. The rod worth obtained with the use of the Monte Carlo code is higher than the one obtained from the deterministic code.

  19. Distributed Mode Filtering Rod Fiber Amplifier With Improved Mode Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurila, Marko; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Broeng, Jes


    We report 216W of average output power from a photonic crystal rod fiber amplifier. We demonstrate 44% power improvement before onset of the mode instability by operating the rod fiber in a leaky guiding regime.......We report 216W of average output power from a photonic crystal rod fiber amplifier. We demonstrate 44% power improvement before onset of the mode instability by operating the rod fiber in a leaky guiding regime....

  20. Sucker rod string design of the pumping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Hua Liu


    Full Text Available The existing design of sucker rod string mainly focuses on the simplifying assumptions that rod string was exposed to simple tension loading. And its goal was to have equal modified stress at the top of each taper. The improved rod design was to have the same degree of safety at each section, and it used a dynamic force distribution that was proportional along the whole string. However, the available procedures did not provide the desired accuracy of its pertinent analysis, and the operators could not identify the specific phenomena that occur in CBM wells. In this paper, the mathematical models of rod loads and string length were developed based on the cyclic nature of rod string loading; the fatigue endurance method is used to design the single rod string; and the tapered rod string is designed to have an equal equivalent stress at the top of each section. Its application characteristics are demonstrated by the example of CBM wells in Ordos Basin. The interpretations of results show that the previous design gave the single rods a larger diameter and the top rods in the string a greater percent than the proposed method. The calculation should concern about inertial, vibration and friction forces to illustrate the elastic force waves travelling in the rod material with the speed of sound. The single string should be designed using fatigue endurance ratings due to asymmetric pulsating tension of rod loading; and the tapered string should involve a balanced design by setting the fatigue endurance at each section equal. A shorter stroke length gives a greater rod taper percentage and an increased load capacity results to an enhanced rod diameter. The rod diameter increases with the pump size and load capacity for the single string, and the rod taper percentage of the top rod strings increases with plunger diameter for the tapered string. The proposed research improves efficiency of the pumping system, assures good operating conditions, and reduces

  1. Hierarchical approaches to analysis of natural textures (United States)

    Lutsiv, Vadim R.; Malyshev, Igor A.; Novikova, Tatiana A.


    The surface textures of natural objects often have the visible fractal-like properties. A similar pattern of texture could be found looking at the forests in the aerial photographs or at the trees in the outdoor scenes when the image spatial resolution was changed. Or the texture patterns are different at different spatial resolution levels in the aerial photographs of villages. It creates the difficulties in image segmentation and object recognition because the levels of spatial resolution necessary to get the homogeneously and correctly labeled texture regions differ for different types of landscape. E.g. if the spatial resolution was sufficient for distinguishing between the textures of agricultural fields, water, and asphalt, the texture labeled areas of forest or suburbs are hardly fragmented, because the texture peculiarities corresponding to two stable levels of texture spatial resolution will be visible in this case. A hierarchical texture analysis could solve this problem, and we did it in two different ways: we performed the texture segmentation simultaneously for several levels of image spatial resolution, or we subjected the texture labeled image of highest spatial resolution to a recurring texture segmentation using the texture cells of larger sizes. The both approaches turned out to be rather fruitful for the aerial photographs as well as for the outdoor images. They generalize and support the hierarchical image analysis technique presented in another our paper. Some of the methods applied were borrowed from the living vision systems.

  2. The brass-type texture and its deviation from the copper-type texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, Torben; Ray, R.K.


    Our basic aim with the present review is to address the classical problem of the “fcc rolling texture transition” – the fact that fcc materials may, depending on material parameters and rolling conditions, develop two different types of rolling textures, the copper-type texture and the brass......-type texture. However, since there is by now reasonable agreement about the description of and the explanation for the development of the copper-type texture (though not about all the details), we have chosen to focus on the brass-type texture for which there is no such general agreement. First we introduce...... of the brass-type texture after the nineteen sixties covering texture measurements and microstructural investigations. The main observations are: (1) The brass-type texture deviates from the copper-type texture from an early stage of texture development. (2) Deformation twinning has a decisive effect...

  3. Colloidal aspects of texture perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.


    The perception of complex textures in food is strongly related to the way food is processed during eating, and is modulated by other basic characteristics, such as taste and aroma. An understanding at the colloidal level of the basic processes in the mouth is essential in order to link the

  4. Sensory memory and food texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Köster, E.P.


    Memory for texture plays an important role in food expectations. After fasting overnight, subjects (41 women, 35 men, age 19-60 years) received a breakfast including breakfast drink, biscuits and yoghurt. Subsequently, they rated their hunger feelings every hour, and returned for a taste experiment

  5. Colloidal aspects of texture perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.; Aken, van G.A.; Jongh, de H.H.J.; Hamer, R.J.


    Recently, considerable attention has been given to the understanding of texture attributes that cannot directly be related to physical properties of food, such as creamy, crumbly and watery. The perception of these attributes is strongly related to the way the food is processed during food intake,

  6. The Science of Soil Textures (United States)

    Bigham, Gary


    Off-road motorcycle racing and ATV riding. Gardening and fishing. What do these high-adrenaline and slower-paced pastimes have in common? Each requires soil, and the texture of that soil has an effect on all of them. In the inquiry-based lessons described here, students work both in the field or laboratory and in the classroom to collect soil…

  7. Color Textons for Texture Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; Geusebroek, J.M.


    Texton models have proven to be very discriminative for the recognition of grayvalue images taken from rough textures. To further improve the discriminative power of the distinctive texton models of Varma and Zisserman (VZ model) (IJCV, vol. 62(1), pp. 61-81, 2005), we propose two schemes to exploit

  8. [Biomimetics of crystal texture in dental enamel prism by self-assembly oligopeptide]. (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Bai, Wei; Feng, Hai-lan; Jia, Xin-ru


    To evaluate the possibility of self-assembly oligopeptide(T2) for dental enamel biomimetics, especially for the prism's crystal texture since it could prompt calcium phosphate precipitated in gel carrier. SEM (Scanning electron microscope) and TEM (Transmission electron microscope) were used to observe the morphologic presentation and ED(Electron diffraction) to crystal texture comparing with the human molar enamel powder. (a) Flake-like and needle-like octacalcium phosphate precipitated in the gel carrier with self-assemble oligopeptide(T2). They transformed into rod-like hydroxyapatite crystals gradually in the following 2-4 weeks. (b) The rod-like hydroxyapatite may arrange or grow into bundles which are similar to the human enamel prisms in both appearance and size. (c) The rod-like hydroxyapatite showed polycrystal while the enamel prisms showed monocrystal under examination of ED. The self-assemble oligopeptide(T2) could regulate the speed of nucleation and crystallization of hydroxyapatite in morphology and crystalline size. Thus, the self-assembly oligopeptide and the gel carrier mineralization system could be primarily applied in biomimetic use for the crystallization of hydroxyapatite in dental prism in vitro.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Kostadin [Pennsylvania State University, University Park; Jessee, Matthew Anderson [ORNL


    The discharge rod internal pressure (RIP) and cladding hoop stress (CHS) distributions are quantified forWatts BarNuclearUnit 1 (WBN1) fuel rods by modeling core cycle design data, intercycle assembly movements, operation data (including modeling significant trips and downpowers), and as-built fuel enrichments and densities of each fuel rod in FRAPCON-3.5. An alternate model for the amount of helium released from zirconium diboride (ZrB2) integral fuel burnable absorber (IFBA) layers is derived and applied to FRAPCON output data to quantify the RIP and CHS for these fuel rods. SCALE/Polaris is used to quantify fuel rod-specific spectral quantities and the amount of gaseous fission products produced in the fuel for use in FRAPCON inputs. Fuel rods with ZrB2 IFBA layers (i.e., IFBA rods) are determined to have RIP predictions that are elevated when compared to fuel rod without IFBA layers (i.e., standard rods) despite the fact that IFBA rods often have reduced fill pressures and annular fuel blankets. Cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) are prepared from the distribution of RIP predictions for all standard and IFBA rods. The provided CDFs allow for the determination of the portion of WBN1 fuel rods that exceed a specified RIP limit. Lastly, improvements to the computational methodology of FRAPCON are proposed.

  10. Measurement of the Speed of Sound in a Metal Rod. (United States)

    Mak, Se-yuen; Ng, Yee-kong; Wu, Kam-wah


    Suggests two improved methods to measure the speed of sound in a metal rod. One employs a fast timer to measure the time required for a compression pulse to travel along the rod from end to end, and a second uses a microphone to measure the frequency of the fundamental mode of a freely suspending singing rod. (Author/ASK)

  11. 77 FR 1504 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on stainless steel wire rod From India would be likely to lead to continuation or... contained in USITC Publication 4300 (January 2012), entitled Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India...

  12. Feature-aware natural texture synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Fuzhang


    This article presents a framework for natural texture synthesis and processing. This framework is motivated by the observation that given examples captured in natural scene, texture synthesis addresses a critical problem, namely, that synthesis quality can be affected adversely if the texture elements in an example display spatially varied patterns, such as perspective distortion, the composition of different sub-textures, and variations in global color pattern as a result of complex illumination. This issue is common in natural textures and is a fundamental challenge for previously developed methods. Thus, we address it from a feature point of view and propose a feature-aware approach to synthesize natural textures. The synthesis process is guided by a feature map that represents the visual characteristics of the input texture. Moreover, we present a novel adaptive initialization algorithm that can effectively avoid the repeat and verbatim copying artifacts. Our approach improves texture synthesis in many images that cannot be handled effectively with traditional technologies.

  13. Evaluation of Texture of Packhams Pears


    Guiné, Raquel; Marques, Bruno


    The textural parameters, together with appearance and flavor, are sensory attributes of great importance for the product to be accepted by the consumer. The objective of the present study was the evaluation of the textural attributes of Packhams pears in the fresh state, after drying in a chamber with forced convection at 50ºC, lyophilized and re-hydrated. In texture analysis it was used the method of Texture Profile Analysis (TPA). The par...

  14. Invariant texture segmentation via circular gabor filter


    ZHANG, Jianguo; Tan, Tieniu


    International audience; In this paper, we focus on invariant texture segmentation, and propose a new method using circular Gabor filters (CGF) for rotation invariant texture segmentation. The traditional Gabor function is modified into a circular symmetric version. The rotation invariant texture features are achieved via the channel output of the CGF. A new scheme of the selection of Gabor parameters is also proposed for texture segmentation. Experiments show the efficacy of this method

  15. Texture Based Image Analysis With Neural Nets (United States)

    Ilovici, Irina S.; Ong, Hoo-Tee; Ostrander, Kim E.


    In this paper, we combine direct image statistics and spatial frequency domain techniques with a neural net model to analyze texture based images. The resultant optimal texture features obtained from the direct and transformed image form the exemplar pattern of the neural net. The proposed approach introduces an automated texture analysis applied to metallography for determining the cooling rate and mechanical working of the materials. The results suggest that the proposed method enhances the practical applications of neural nets and texture extraction features.

  16. Ceramic high temperature superconductors for high current applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, J.


    Composite Reaction Texturing (CRT) is a technique which uses a fine distribution of pre-aligned seeds as nucleating sites for texturing oxide superconductors. It has successfully been applied to the texturing of Bi-2212 compounds. A furhter application of CRT is reported in which Y-123 is biaxially textured using seeds of other Rare Earth-123 compounds with higher melting points as nucleating sites. The resultant textured microstructure exhibits mainly low angle grain boundaries (up to 5 deg. misorientation). Results will be presented on the seed alignment techniques, the development of microstructure during reaction of the composite preform and preliminary measurements of electromagnetic properties. (au). 111 refs.

  17. On the Vortex Sound from Rotating Rods (United States)

    Yudin, E. Y.


    The motion of different bodies imersed in liquid or gaseous media is accompanied by characteristic sound which is excited by the formation of unstable surfaces of separation behind the body, usually disintegrating into a system of discrete vortices(such as the Karman vortex street due to the flow about an infintely long rod, etc.).In the noise from fans,pumps,and similar machtnery, vortexnQif3eI?Yequently predominates. The purpose of this work is to elucidate certain questions of the dependence ofthis sound upon the aerodynamic parameters and the tip speed of the rotating rods,or blades. Although scme material is given below,insufficientto calculate the first rough approximation to the solution of this question,such as the mechanics of vortex formation,never the less certain conclusions maybe found of practical application for the reduction of noise from rotating blades.

  18. Composites reinforcement by rods a SAS study

    CERN Document Server

    Urban, V; Pyckhout-Hintzen, W; Richter, D; Straube, E


    The mechanical properties of composites are governed by size, shape and dispersion degree of so-called reinforcing particles. Polymeric fillers based on thermodynamically driven microphase separation of block copolymers offer the opportunity to study a model system of controlled rod-like filler particles. We chose a triblock copolymer (PBPSPB) and carried out SAS measurements with both X-rays and neutrons, in order to characterize separately the hard phase and the cross-linked PB matrix. The properties of the material depend strongly on the way that stress is carried and transferred between the soft matrix and the hard fibers. The failure of the strain-amplification concept and the change of topological contributions to the free energy and scattering factor have to be addressed. In this respect the composite shows a similarity to a two-network system, i.e. interpenetrating rubber and rod-like filler networks. (orig.)

  19. Convergence in graded ditopological texture spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Ekmekçi


    Full Text Available Graded ditopological texture spaces have been presented and discussed in categorical aspects by Lawrence M. Brown and Alexander Sostak (see bibliography. In this paper, the authors generalize the structure of difilters in ditopological texture spaces defined in (see bibliography to the graded ditopological texture spaces and compare the properties of difilters and graded difilters.

  20. Texture Control: Theoretical and Practical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, Torben; Gangli, P.


    The possibility of controlling the rolling texture by simple modifications to the rolling process is investigated. It is demonstrated that the computer programs developed for simulation of the normal rolling textures can also satisfactorily predict textures formed under new rolling conditions...

  1. Roughness vs. contrast in natural textures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Egmond, R.; De Ridder, H.; Pappas, T.N.; Silva, P.M.


    We investigate the effect of contrast enhancement on the subjective roughness of visual textures. Our analysis is based on subjective experiments with seventeen images from the CUReT database in three variants: original, synthesized textures, and contrast-enhanced synthesized textures. In Experiment

  2. Modeling Human Aesthetic Perception of Visual Textures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thumfart, Stefan; Jacobs, Richard H. A. H.; Lughofer, Edwin; Eitzinger, Christian; Cornelissen, Frans W.; Groissboeck, Werner; Richter, Roland


    Texture is extensively used in areas such as product design and architecture to convey specific aesthetic information. Using the results of a psychological experiment, we model the relationship between computational texture features and aesthetic properties of visual textures. Contrary to previous

  3. Texture analysis using Renyi's generalized entropies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, SE; Petkov, N


    We propose a texture analysis method based on Renyi's generalized entropies. The method aims at identifying texels in regular textures by searching for the smallest window through which the minimum number of different visual patterns is observed when moving the window over a given texture. The

  4. Evaluation of color representation for texture analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, R.; van den Broek, Egon; van Rikxoort, E.M.; Taatgen, N.; Schomaker, L.


    Since more than 50 years texture in image material is a topic of research. Hereby, color was ignored mostly. This study compares 70 different configurations for texture analysis, using four features. For the configurations we used: (i) a gray value texture descriptor: the co-occurrence matrix and a

  5. Rod Driven Frequency Entrainment and Resonance Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Salchow


    Full Text Available A controversy exists on photic driving in the human visual cortex evoked by intermittent photic stimulation. Frequency entrainment and resonance phenomena are reported for frequencies higher than 12 Hz in some studies while missing in others. We hypothesized that this might be due to different experimental conditions, since both high and low intensity light stimulation were used. However, most studies do not report radiometric measurements, which makes it impossible to categorize the stimulation according to photopic, mesopic, and scotopic vision. Low intensity light stimulation might lead to scotopic vision, where rod perception dominates. In this study, we investigated photic driving for rod-dominated visual input under scotopic conditions. Twelve healthy volunteers were stimulated with low intensity light flashes at 20 stimulation frequencies, leading to rod activation only. The frequencies were multiples of the individual alpha frequency (α of each volunteer in the range from 0.40–2.30*α. 306-channel whole head magnetoencephalography recordings were analyzed in time, frequency, and spatiotemporal domains with the Topographic Matching Pursuit algorithm. We found resonance phenomena and frequency entrainment for stimulations at or close to the individual alpha frequency (0.90–1.10*α and half of the alpha frequency (0.40–0.55*α. No signs of resonance and frequency entrainment phenomena were revealed around 2.00*α. Instead, on-responses at the beginning and off-responses at the end of each stimulation train were observed for the first time in a photic driving experiment at frequencies of 1.30–2.30*α, indicating that the flicker fusion threshold was reached. All results, the resonance and entrainment as well as the fusion effects, provide evidence for rod-dominated photic driving in the visual cortex.


    Young, J.N.


    An electromagnetic device for moving an object in a linear path by increments is described. The device is specifically adapted for moving a neutron absorbing control rod into and out of the core of a reactor and consists essentially of an extension member made of magnetic material connected to one end of the control rod and mechanically flexible to grip the walls of a sleeve member when flexed, a magnetic sleeve member coaxial with and slidable between limit stops along the flexible extension, electromagnetic coils substantially centrally located with respect to the flexible extension to flex the extension member into gripping engagement with the sleeve member when ener gized, moving electromagnets at each end of the sleeve to attract the sleeve when energized, and a second gripping electromagnet positioned along the flexible extension at a distance from the previously mentioned electromagnets for gripping the extension member when energized. In use, the second gripping electromagnet is deenergized, the first gripping electromagnet is energized to fix the extension member in the sleeve, and one of the moving electromagnets is energized to attract the sleeve member toward it, thereby moving the control rod.

  7. Copper Refinement from Anode to Cathode and then to Wire Rod: Effects of Impurities on Recrystallization Kinetics and Wire Ductility. (United States)

    Helbert, Anne-Laure; Moya, Alice; Jil, Tomas; Andrieux, Michel; Ignat, Michel; Brisset, François; Baudin, Thierry


    In this paper, the traceability of copper from the anode to the cathode and then the wire rod has been studied in terms of impurity content, microstructure, texture, recrystallization kinetics, and ductility. These characterizations were obtained based on secondary ion mass spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction, HV hardness, and electron backscattered diffraction. It is shown that the recrystallization was delayed by the total amount of impurities. From tensile tests performed on cold drawn and subsequently annealed wires for a given time, a simplified model has been developed to link tensile elongation to the chemical composition. This model allowed quantification of the contribution of some additional elements, present in small quantity, on the recrystallization kinetics. The proposed model adjusted for the cold-drawn wires was also validated on both the cathode and wire rod used for the study of traceability.

  8. The orphan nuclear hormone receptor ERRβ controls rod photoreceptor survival (United States)

    Onishi, Akishi; Peng, Guang-Hua; Poth, Erin M.; Lee, Daniel A.; Chen, Jichao; Alexis, Uel; de Melo, Jimmy; Chen, Shiming; Blackshaw, Seth


    Mutation of rod photoreceptor-enriched transcription factors is a major cause of inherited blindness. We identified the orphan nuclear hormone receptor estrogen-related receptor β (ERRβ) as selectively expressed in rod photoreceptors. Overexpression of ERRβ induces expression of rod-specific genes in retinas of wild-type as well as Nrl−/− mice, which lack rod photoreceptors. Mutation of ERRβ results in dysfunction and degeneration of rods, whereas inverse agonists of ERRβ trigger rapid rod degeneration, which is rescued by constitutively active mutants of ERRβ. ERRβ coordinates expression of multiple genes that are rate-limiting regulators of ATP generation and consumption in photoreceptors. Furthermore, enhancing ERRβ activity rescues photoreceptor defects that result from loss of the photoreceptor-specific transcription factor Crx. Our findings demonstrate that ERRβ is a critical regulator of rod photoreceptor function and survival, and suggest that ERRβ agonists may be useful in the treatment of certain retinal dystrophies. PMID:20534447

  9. Between a Map and a Data Rod (United States)

    Teng, W. L.; Rui, H.; Strub, R. F.; Vollmer, B.


    A "Digital Divide" has long stood between how NASA and other satellite-derived data are typically archived (time-step arrays or "maps") and how hydrology and other point-time series oriented communities prefer to access those data. In essence, the desired method of data access is orthogonal to the way the data are archived. Our approach to bridging the Divide is part of a larger NASA-supported "data rods" project to enhance access to and use of NASA and other data by the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) Hydrologic Information System (HIS) and the larger hydrology community. Our main objective was to determine a way to reorganize data that is optimal for these communities. Two related objectives were to optimally reorganize data in a way that (1) is operational and fits in and leverages the existing Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) operational environment and (2) addresses the scaling up of data sets available as time series from those archived at the GES DISC to potentially include those from other Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data archives. Through several prototype efforts and lessons learned, we arrived at a non-database solution that satisfied our objectives/constraints. We describe, in this presentation, how we implemented the operational production of pre-generated data rods and, considering the tradeoffs between length of time series (or number of time steps), resources needed, and performance, how we implemented the operational production of on-the-fly ("virtual") data rods. For the virtual data rods, we leveraged a number of existing resources, including the NASA Giovanni Cache and NetCDF Operators (NCO) and used data cubes processed in parallel. Our current benchmark performance for virtual generation of data rods is about a year's worth of time series for hourly data (~9,000 time steps) in ~90 seconds. Our approach is a specific

  10. Evaluation of the effect of initial texture on the development of deformation texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, Torben; Juul Jensen, Dorte


    The authors describe a computer procedure which allows them to introduce experimental initial textures as starting conditions for texture simulation (instead of a theoretical random texture). They apply the procedure on two batches of copper with weak initial textures and on fine-grained and coar......, there are differences between the simulated and the experimental aluminium textures that can only be explained as a grain-size effect. Possible future applications of the procedure are discussed...

  11. Watermarking textures in video games (United States)

    Liu, Huajian; Berchtold, Waldemar; Schäfer, Marcel; Lieb, Patrick; Steinebach, Martin


    Digital watermarking is a promising solution to video game piracy. In this paper, based on the analysis of special challenges and requirements in terms of watermarking textures in video games, a novel watermarking scheme for DDS textures in video games is proposed. To meet the performance requirements in video game applications, the proposed algorithm embeds the watermark message directly in the compressed stream in DDS files and can be straightforwardly applied in watermark container technique for real-time embedding. Furthermore, the embedding approach achieves high watermark payload to handle collusion secure fingerprinting codes with extreme length. Hence, the scheme is resistant to collusion attacks, which is indispensable in video game applications. The proposed scheme is evaluated in aspects of transparency, robustness, security and performance. Especially, in addition to classical objective evaluation, the visual quality and playing experience of watermarked games is assessed subjectively in game playing.

  12. Outcomes of support rod usage in loop stoma formation. (United States)

    Whiteley, Ian; Russell, Michael; Nassar, Natasha; Gladman, Marc A


    Traditionally, support rods have been used when creating loop stomas in the hope of preventing retraction. However, their effectiveness has not been clearly established. This study aimed to investigate the rate of stoma rod usage and its impact on stoma retraction and complication rates. A prospective cohort of 515 consecutive patients who underwent loop ileostomy/colostomy formation at a tertiary referral colorectal unit in Sydney, Australia were studied. Mortality and unplanned return to theatre rates were calculated. The primary outcome measure of interest was stoma retraction, occurring within 30 days of surgery. Secondary outcome measures included early stoma complications. The 10-year temporal trends for rod usage, stoma retraction, and complications were examined. Mortality occurred in 23 patients (4.1 %) and unplanned return to theatre in 4 patients (0.8 %). Stoma retraction occurred in four patients (0.78 %), all without rods. However, the rate of retraction was similar, irrespective of whether rods were used (P = 0.12). There was a significant decline in the use of rods during the study period (P stoma retraction rates. Early complications occurred in 94/432 patients (21.8 %) and were more likely to occur in patients with rods (64/223 versus 30/209 without rods, P Stoma retraction is a rare complication and its incidence is not significantly affected by the use of support rods. Further, complications are common post-operatively, and the rate appears higher when rods are used. The routine use of rods warrants judicious application. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO THE LITERATURE?: It remains unclear whether support rods prevent stoma retraction. This study, the largest to date, confirms that stoma retraction is a rare complication and is not significantly affected by the use of rods. Consequently, routine rod usage cannot be recommended, particularly as it is associated with increased stoma complications.

  13. Random phase textures: theory and synthesis. (United States)

    Galerne, Bruno; Gousseau, Yann; Morel, Jean-Michel


    This paper explores the mathematical and algorithmic properties of two sample-based texture models: random phase noise (RPN) and asymptotic discrete spot noise (ADSN). These models permit to synthesize random phase textures. They arguably derive from linearized versions of two early Julesz texture discrimination theories. The ensuing mathematical analysis shows that, contrarily to some statements in the literature, RPN and ADSN are different stochastic processes. Nevertheless, numerous experiments also suggest that the textures obtained by these algorithms from identical samples are perceptually similar. The relevance of this study is enhanced by three technical contributions providing solutions to obstacles that prevented the use of RPN or ADSN to emulate textures. First, RPN and ADSN algorithms are extended to color images. Second, a preprocessing is proposed to avoid artifacts due to the nonperiodicity of real-world texture samples. Finally, the method is extended to synthesize textures with arbitrary size from a given sample.

  14. Texture Classification for 3D Urban Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inatsuka Hiroyuki


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to control texture resolution for rendering large-scale 3D urban maps. Since on the 3D maps texture data generally tend to be far larger than geometry information such as vertices and triangles, it is more effective to reduce the texture by exploiting the LOD (Level of Detail in order to decrease whole data size. For this purpose, we propose a new method to control the resolution of the texture. In our method we classify the textures to four classes based on their salient features. The appropriate texture resolutions are decided based on the classification resulsts, their rendered sizes on a display, and their level of importance. We verify the validity of our texture classification algorithm by applying it to the large-scale 3D urban map rendering.

  15. Sucker-rod pumping handbook production engineering fundamentals and long-stroke rod pumping

    CERN Document Server

    Takacs, Gabor


    Sucker-Rod Pumping Handbook presents the latest information on the most common form of production enhancement in today's oil industry, making up roughly two-thirds of the producing oilwell operations in the world. The book begins with an introduction to the main features of sucker rod pumping and an explanation and comparison of lift methods. It goes on to provide the technical and practical knowledge needed to introduce the new and practicing production engineer and operator to the equipment, technology, and applications required to maintain optimum operating conditions.

  16. The ATLAS tile calorimeter ROD injector and multiplexer board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero, A., E-mail: alberto.valero@cern.c [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Paterna, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Castillo, V.; Ferrer, A. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Paterna, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Gonzalez, V. [Departamento de Ingenieria electronica, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Hernandez, Y.; Higon, E. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Paterna, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Sanchis, E. [Departamento de Ingenieria electronica, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Solans, C. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Paterna, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Torres, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria electronica, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Valls, J.A. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Paterna, 46071 Valencia (Spain)


    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is a sampling detector composed by cells made of iron-scintillator tiles. The calorimeter cell signals are digitized in the front-end electronics and transmitted to the Read-Out Drivers (RODs) at the first level trigger rate. The ROD receives triggered data from up to 9856 channels and provides the energy, phase and quality factor of the signals to the second level trigger. The back-end electronics is divided into four partitions containing eight RODs each. Therefore, a total of 32 RODs are used to process and transmit the data of the TileCal detector. In order to emulate the detector signals in the production and commissioning of ROD modules a board called ROD Injector and Multiplexer Board (RIMBO) was designed. In this paper, the RIMBO main functional blocks, PCB design and the different operation modes are described. It is described the crucial role of the board within the TileCal ROD test-bench in order to emulate the front-end electronics during the validation of ROD boards as well as during the evaluation of the ROD signal reconstruction algorithms. Finally, qualification and performance results for the injection operation mode obtained during the Tile Calorimeter ROD production tests are presented.

  17. Aesthetic Perception of Visual Textures: A Holistic Exploration using Texture Analysis, Psychological Experiment and Perception Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli eLiu


    Full Text Available Modeling human aesthetic perception of visual textures is important and valuable in numerous industrial domains, such as product design, architectural design and decoration. Based on results from a semantic differential rating experiment, we modeled the relationship between low-level basic texture features and aesthetic properties involved in human aesthetic texture perception. First, we compute basic texture features from textural images using four classical methods. These features are neutral, objective and independent of the socio-cultural context of the visual textures. Then, we conduct a semantic differential rating experiment to collect from evaluators their aesthetic perceptions of selected textural stimuli. In semantic differential rating experiment, eights pairs of aesthetic properties are chosen, which are strongly related to the socio-cultural context of the selected textures and to human emotions. They are easily understood and connected to everyday life. We propose a hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception and assign 8 pairs of aesthetic properties to different layers. Finally, we describe the generation of multiple linear and nonlinear regression models for aesthetic prediction by taking dimensionality-reduced texture features and aesthetic properties of visual textures as dependent and independent variables, respectively. Our experimental results indicate that the relationships between each layer and its neighbors in the hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception can be fitted well by linear functions, and the models thus generated can successfully bridge the gap between computational texture features and aesthetic texture properties.

  18. Aesthetic perception of visual textures: a holistic exploration using texture analysis, psychological experiment, and perception modeling. (United States)

    Liu, Jianli; Lughofer, Edwin; Zeng, Xianyi


    Modeling human aesthetic perception of visual textures is important and valuable in numerous industrial domains, such as product design, architectural design, and decoration. Based on results from a semantic differential rating experiment, we modeled the relationship between low-level basic texture features and aesthetic properties involved in human aesthetic texture perception. First, we compute basic texture features from textural images using four classical methods. These features are neutral, objective, and independent of the socio-cultural context of the visual textures. Then, we conduct a semantic differential rating experiment to collect from evaluators their aesthetic perceptions of selected textural stimuli. In semantic differential rating experiment, eights pairs of aesthetic properties are chosen, which are strongly related to the socio-cultural context of the selected textures and to human emotions. They are easily understood and connected to everyday life. We propose a hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception and assign 8 pairs of aesthetic properties to different layers. Finally, we describe the generation of multiple linear and non-linear regression models for aesthetic prediction by taking dimensionality-reduced texture features and aesthetic properties of visual textures as dependent and independent variables, respectively. Our experimental results indicate that the relationships between each layer and its neighbors in the hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception can be fitted well by linear functions, and the models thus generated can successfully bridge the gap between computational texture features and aesthetic texture properties.

  19. Rod strain after pedicle subtraction osteotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehrchen, Poul Martin; Hallager, Dennis Winge; Dahl, Benny


    Pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) can provide major sagittal correction for adult spinal deformity, sometimes achieving correction greater than 308. Surgeons have reported failure rates up to 30% within 2 years, increasing to 46% after 4 to 5 years (SDC Figure 1, Revision following failure is difficult on the patient. PSO has achieved positive outcomes, but when used to correct posture in older patients with spinal deformity and fixed sagittal imbalance, rod breakage often leads to multiple surgical revisions. These complications must be avoided....

  20. Rodded shutdown system for a nuclear reactor (United States)

    Golden, Martin P.; Govi, Aldo R.


    A top mounted nuclear reactor diverse rodded shutdown system utilizing gas fed into a pressure bearing bellows region sealed at the upper extremity to an armature. The armature is attached to a neutron absorber assembly by a series of shafts and connecting means. The armature is held in an uppermost position by an electromagnet assembly or by pressurized gas in a second embodiment. Deenergizing the electromagnet assembly, or venting the pressurized gas, causes the armature to fall by the force of gravity, thereby lowering the attached absorber assembly into the reactor core.

  1. 4-rod RFQ linac for ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisawa, Hiroshi; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka [Nisshin Electric Co. Ltd., Kyoto (Japan)


    A 34 MHz 4-rod RFQ linac system has been upgraded in both its rf power efficiency and beam intensity. The linac is able to accelerate in cw operation 0.83 mA of a B{sup +} ion beam from 0.03 to 0.91 MeV with transmission of 61 %. The rf power fed to the RFQ is 29 kW. The unloaded Q-value of the RFQ has been improved approximately 61 % to 5400 by copper-plating stainless steel cooling pipes in the RFQ cavity. (author)

  2. Nonlinear localized elastoplastic waves in a rod (United States)

    Erofeev, V. I.; Leonteva, A. V.; Malkhanov, A. O.


    It has been shown that longitudinal nonlinear stationary elastic-plastic waves can be formed in a rod. Waves can be both periodic and solitary (solitons), which is determined by the index of strain hardening of the material.The velocity of propagation of such waves is less than the speed of the elastic shear wave. Along with classical solitons, so-called “embedded solitons” can be formed, that is, double solitons, one of which with a smaller amplitude and widthis located inside the other with a larger amplitude and width.

  3. Uspon silovatelja: etnicitet, rod i nasilje


    Mežnarić, Silva


    Članak raspravlja o uporabi silovanja kao politike u slučajevima kada se, do tragičnih posljedica, ukrštaju nasilje, rod i etnicitet. Prvo se ispituje kampanja srbijanskih medija 1990. na Kosovu protiv Albanaca kao silovatelja; zatim se analizira upotreba silovanja u prinudnom etničkom čišćenju prilikom srpske agresije na Bosnu, 1992-1993. Pokazuje se da je kampanja na Kosovu bila predigra stvarnom silovanju u Bosni. U oba je slučaja silovanje poslužilo u ograđivanju teritorija i definiranju ...

  4. Solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Peter; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Lomdahl, P. S.


    Acoustic waves on elastic rods with circular cross section are governed by improved Boussinesq equations when transverse motion and nonlinearity in the elastic medium are taken into account. Solitary wave solutions to these equations have been found. The present paper treats the interaction between...... the solitary waves numerically. It is demonstrated that the waves behave almost like solitons in agreement with the fact that the improved Boussinesq equations are nearly integrable. Thus three conservation theorems can be derived from the equations. A new subsonic quasibreather is found in the case of a cubic...

  5. FCC Rolling Textures Reviewed in the Light of Quantitative Comparisons between Simulated and Experimental Textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbanowski, Krzysztof; Wroński, Marcin; Leffers, Torben


    The crystallographic texture of metallic materials has a very strong effect on the properties of the materials. In the present article, we look at the rolling textures of fcc metals and alloys, where the classical problem is the existence of two different types of texture, the "copper-type texture...... of the copper-type texture is best simulated with {111} slip combined with type CL/PR lattice rotation and relatively strong interaction between the grains-but not with the full-constraint Taylor model and neither with the classical relaxed-constraint models. The development of the brass-type texture is best...

  6. Texture development in Ti/Al filament wires produced by accumulative swaging and bundling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eschke, A., E-mail: [Technische Universität Dresden, Institut für Strukturphysik, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Scharnweber, J.; Oertel, C.-G.; Skrotzki, W. [Technische Universität Dresden, Institut für Strukturphysik, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Marr, T.; Romberg, J. [Leibnizinstitut für Festkörper- und Werkstoffforschung Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Freudenberger, J. [Leibnizinstitut für Festkörper- und Werkstoffforschung Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut für Werkstoffwissenschaft, 09599 Freiberg (Germany); Schultz, L. [Leibnizinstitut für Festkörper- und Werkstoffforschung Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Institut für Werkstoffwissenschaft, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Okulov, I.; Kühn, U. [Leibnizinstitut für Festkörper- und Werkstoffforschung Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Eckert, J. [Leibnizinstitut für Festkörper- und Werkstoffforschung Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Institut für Werkstoffwissenschaft, 01062 Dresden (Germany)


    Mechanical properties of ultra-fine grained materials are interesting for advanced engineering applications. For producing ultra-fine grained microstructures, various top-down processes of severe plastic deformation like equal channel angular pressing, high pressure torsion and accumulative roll bonding are available. The evolution of texture with respect to deformation by an alternative severe plastic deformation process, called accumulative swaging and bundling, is shown for ultra-fine grained Ti/Al composite wires, suitable for structural applications because of their high specific strength. In this cyclic process, an aluminium rod is inserted into a titanium tube before being swaged with an areal reduction of 20% per pass to a true strain of 4.3. After cleaning and cutting the resulting composite wire into 37 pieces, these are stacked in hexagonal arrangement into another Ti tube of the initial dimension before deformation is continued. The local texture gradient of the accumulative swaging and bundling composites was studied using a X-ray microdiffraction system based on a D8 Discover (Bruker AXS GmbH) equipped with a microfocus X-ray tube Iμ S and an area detector VÅNTEC-2000. The results are discussed with respect to the grain refining deformation process starting from the initial texture measured by synchrotron and neutron diffraction, respectively. The local Al and Ti texture evolution is related to the deformation mode, which is similar to extrusion. As such, an Al〈111〉+〈100〉-double fibre and a Ti〈101{sup ¯}0〉-fibre emerge as the main texture components, each revealing gradients related to the deformation process. In particular, the local Al texture – being a function of both radial measurement position and deformation stage – can be correlated to material and process related issues like plastic flow and the superposition effect due to encapsulated filaments, respectively.


    Farrukh, U. O.


    Managing the thermal energy that accumulates within a solid-state laser material under active pumping is of critical importance in the design of laser systems. Earlier models that calculated the temperature distribution in laser rods were single dimensional and assumed laser rods of infinite length. This program presents a new model which solves the temperature distribution problem for finite dimensional laser rods and calculates both the radial and axial components of temperature distribution in these rods. The modeled rod is either side-pumped or end-pumped by a continuous or a single pulse pump beam. (At the present time, the model cannot handle a multiple pulsed pump source.) The optical axis is assumed to be along the axis of the rod. The program also assumes that it is possible to cool different surfaces of the rod at different rates. The user defines the laser rod material characteristics, determines the types of cooling and pumping to be modeled, and selects the time frame desired via the input file. The program contains several self checking schemes to prevent overwriting memory blocks and to provide simple tracing of information in case of trouble. Output for the program consists of 1) an echo of the input file, 2) diffusion properties, radius and length, and time for each data block, 3) the radial increments from the center of the laser rod to the outer edge of the laser rod, and 4) the axial increments from the front of the laser rod to the other end of the rod. This program was written in Microsoft FORTRAN77 and implemented on a Tandon AT with a 287 math coprocessor. The program can also run on a VAX 750 mini-computer. It has a memory requirement of about 147 KB and was developed in 1989.

  8. Grey Rod Test in HANARO Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, K. N.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, Y. H. (and others)


    Westinghouse/KAERI/KNF agreed to perform an irradiation test in the HANARO reactor to obtain irradiation data on the new grey rods that will be part of an AP1000 system. As a preliminary test, two samples containing pure Ag (Reference) and Ag-In-Cd materials provided by Westinghouse Electric Company (WEC) were inserted in a KNF irradiation capsule of 07M-13N. The specimens were irradiated for 95.19days (4 cycles) in the CT test hole of the HANARO of a 30MW thermal output to have a fast neutron fluence of 1.11x10{sup 21}(n/cm{sup 2}) (E>1.0MeV). This report provides all the test conditions and data obtained during the irradiation test of the grey rods in HANARO requested by Westinghouse. The test was prepared according to the meeting minutes (June 26, 2007) and the on-going subject test was stopped midway by the request of Westinghouse.

  9. Steam by-pass reciprocating rod pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterhouse, B. [Weatherford, Edmonton, AB (Canada)


    This article presented the design details of Weatherford's steam by-pass reciprocating rod rod pump which was designed to work under specific well conditions and individual applications, including Imperial Oil's Cold Lake bitumen recovery project located 230 km northeast of Edmonton, Alberta. Imperial Oil uses a cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) process to enhance bitumen recovery from the Clearwater oil sand reservoir. A typical wellbore reach can be up to 700 m and 80 degrees deviation at a target depth of 455 m TVD. These long well bore reaches along with high bottomhole angles and high produced fluid viscosities complicate the design of the artificial lift, which is essentially a modified conventional API pump. The hold-down section is a friction ring design incorporating stainless steel friction rings to provide positive holding force. The steam by-pass coupling is a reduced-diameter tube fitting between the API pump and the friction ring hold-down section. Three stages of the Imperial Cold Lake operation were described, namely the steam injection stage, soak phase stage and production stage. Typically, the steam by-pass pump is suspended in the tubing for the entire cycle. This presentation reviewed the operating steps of the pump, whose average run time in the field is about 15 months, depending on the potential for scaling or sand influx. tab., figs.

  10. Push rod for moving mine cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shtokman, I.G.; Apukhtin, A.S.; Dudnik, M.Z.; Remizov, I.P.; Shakhtar, P.S.


    In the operation of the known pushrods for haulage of cars on horizontal shafts, it becomes necessary to slow down the moving cars. In normal working modes, braking of the cars is guaranteed by counter engagement of the linear motors. However when emergency situations develop, for example if there is some lack of voltage in the network, it becomes necessary to brake the cars which this device cannot guarantee. The purpose of the invention is to brake the cars with disconnection of power. The goal is achieved because the push rod containing a frame with inductors attached to it installed on the sides of the rail path opposite each other, in which the cabs of the cars fill the role of the rotor, the support stands are connected to the inductors by means of springs, and the frame with inductors is hinged to the support stand and has mechanism for regulating the gap between the inductors and the cars, made in the form of rollers attached to the frame for interaction with the outer sidewalls of the car is equipped with friction elements installed on the frame and electromagnets with spring-rods installed on the support stands arranged with the possibility of interacting with the frame, and each friction element is arranged with the possibility of interacting with the rollers.

  11. Application of polyimide actuator rod seals (United States)

    Watermann, A. W.; Gay, B. F.; Robinson, E. D.; Srinath, S. K.; Nelson, W. G.


    Development of polyimide two-stage hydraulic actuator rod seals for application in high-performance aircraft was accomplished. The significant portion of the effort was concentrated on optimization of the chevron and K-section second-stage seal geometries to satisfy the requirements for operation at 450 K (350 F) with dynamic pressure loads varying between 200 psig steady-state and 1500 psig impulse cycling. Particular significance was placed on reducing seal gland dimension by efficiently utilizing the fatigue allowables of polyimide materials. Other objectives included investigation of pressure balancing techniques for first-stage polyimide rod seals for 4000 psig 450 K(350 F) environment and fabrication of a modular retainer for the two-stage combination. Seals were fabricated in 0.0254 m (1.0in.) and 0.0635 m (2.5in.) sizes and tested for structural integrity, frictional resistance, and endurance life. Test results showed that carefully designed second stages using polyimides could be made to satisfy the dynamic return pressure requirements of applications in high-performance aircraft. High wear under full system pressure indicated that further research is necessary to obtain an acceptable first-stage design. The modular retainer was successfully tested and showed potential for new actuator applications.

  12. On Texture and Geometry in Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, David Karl John


    Images are composed of geometric structure and texture. Large scale structures are considered to be the geometric structure, while small scale details are considered to be the texture. In this dissertation, we will argue that the most important difference between geometric structure and texture...... is not the scale - instead, it is the requirement on representation or reconstruction. Geometric structure must be reconstructed exactly and can be represented sparsely. Texture does not need to be reconstructed exactly, a random sample from the distribution being sufficient. Furthermore, texture can...... not be represented sparsely. In image inpainting, the image content is missing in a region and should be reconstructed using information from the rest of the image. The main challenges in inpainting are: prolonging and connecting geometric structure and reproducing the variation found in texture. The Filter, Random...

  13. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; Dau, Torsten


    Sound textures, such as crackling fire or chirping crickets, represent a broad class of sounds defined by their homogeneous temporal structure. It has been suggested that the perception of texture is mediated by time-averaged summary statistics measured from early auditory representations....... In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as "beating" in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture...... model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures-stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures...

  14. Integrated active contours for texture segmentation. (United States)

    Sagiv, Chen; Sochen, Nir A; Zeevi, Yehoshua Y


    We address the issue of textured image segmentation in the context of the Gabor feature space of images. Gabor filters tuned to a set of orientations, scales and frequencies are applied to the images to create the Gabor feature space. A two-dimensional Riemannian manifold of local features is extracted via the Beltrami framework. The metric of this surface provides a good indicator of texture changes and is used, therefore, in a Beltrami-based diffusion mechanism and in a geodesic active contours algorithm for texture segmentation. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with that of the edgeless active contours algorithm applied for texture segmentation. Moreover, an integrated approach, extending the geodesic and edgeless active contours approaches to texture segmentation, is presented. We show that combining boundary and region information yields more robust and accurate texture segmentation results.

  15. On the Wave Stresses in the Rods of Anvil Hammers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Sinitskiy


    Full Text Available With operating anvil hammers, there are rigid impacts of die tools, and as a result, almost instantaneous impact stops of the falling parts of hammer. Such operating conditions lead to the accelerated breakdowns of rods because of significant wave stresses arising in them. Common differential and integral methods to estimate wave stresses are widespread in engineering practice. However, to use them a researcher has to possess certain skills and special software. We consider the method for estimating the wave stresses in the rods of anvil hammers based on Laplace transforms (LT of wave equation. The article shows a procedure to set up and solve differential wave equations by operator method. These equations describe the wave propagation process of strains and stresses in the rods of anvil hammers with rigid impact and taking into account a damping rod connection with the head of hammer. The method takes into consideration an influence of both piston and rod weights and of mechanical and geometrical characteristics of rod on the stress value in the placement of rod in hammer head. Results analysis shows that a sufficiently efficient method for practical improving the durability of rods is the method of damping impact load on the rod through setting the damping devices in the form either of elastic "pad" of one or another design or of hydraulic shock absorbers in the placement of its connection with the hammer head. In this case there is a change of the wave front, it becomes flatter. It is shown that the stresses in the rod are proportional to the amount of wave stresses because of the own impact of rod and piston, which make a total weight of the system. Effect of piston weight on the stresses value at the rod during impact is directly proportional to the ratio of its weight to the rod weight. The geometric parameters of rod and the speed of the falling parts before the impact also influence on the value of stresses in the rod.The represented

  16. Vortex patterns in a superconducting-ferromagnetic rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaguera, Antonio R. de C, E-mail: antonio.romaguera@df.ufrpe.b [Departamento de Fi' sica, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, 52171-900 Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Doria, Mauro M. [Departamento de Fi' sica dos Solidos, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Peeters, Francois M. [Departement Fysica, Universiteit Antwerpen, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)


    A superconducting rod with a magnetic moment on top develops vortices obtained here through 3D calculations of the Ginzburg-Landau theory. The inhomogeneity of the applied field brings new properties to the vortex patterns that vary according to the rod thickness. We find that for thin rods (disks) the vortex patterns are similar to those obtained in presence of a homogeneous magnetic field instead because they consist of giant vortex states. For thick rods novel patterns are obtained as vortices are curve lines in space that exit through the lateral surface.

  17. TileCal ROD Hardware and Software Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Castelo, J; Cuenca, C; Ferrer, A; Fullana, E; Higón, E; Iglesias, C; Munar, A; Poveda, J; Ruiz-Martínez, A; Salvachúa, B; Solans, C; Valls, J A


    In this paper we present the specific hardware and firmware requirements and modifications to operate the Liquid Argon Calorimeter (LiArg) ROD motherboard in the Hadronic Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) environment. Although the use of the board is similar for both calorimeters there are still some differences in the operation of the front-end associated to both detectors which make the use of the same board incompatible. We review the evolution of the design of the ROD from the early prototype stages (ROD based on commercial and Demonstrator boards) to the production phases (ROD final board based on the LiArg design), with emphasis on the different operation modes for the TileCal detector. We start with a short review of the TileCal ROD system functionality and then we detail the different ROD hardware requirements for options, the baseline (ROD Demo board) and the final (ROD final high density board). We also summarize the performance parameters of the ROD motherboard based on the final high density option and s...

  18. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McWalter


    Full Text Available Sound textures, such as crackling fire or chirping crickets, represent a broad class of sounds defined by their homogeneous temporal structure. It has been suggested that the perception of texture is mediated by time-averaged summary statistics measured from early auditory representations. In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as “beating” in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures—stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures. In a texture identification task, our results indicated that second-order amplitude modulation sensitivity enhanced recognition. Next, we examined the contribution of the second-order modulation analysis in a preference task, where the proposed auditory texture model was preferred over a range of model deviants that lacked second-order modulation rate sensitivity. Lastly, the discriminability of textures that included second-order amplitude modulations appeared to be perceived using a time-averaging process. Overall, our results demonstrate that the inclusion of second-order modulation analysis generates improvements in the perceived quality of synthetic textures compared to the first-order modulation analysis considered in previous approaches.

  19. Phenomenological Analysis of Hybrid Textures of Neutrinos


    Dev, S.; Verma, Surender; Gupta, Shivani


    We present a comprehensive phenomenological analysis of the allowed hybrid textures of neutrinos. Out of a total of sixty hybrid textures with one equality between the elements of neutrino mass matrix and one texture zero only twenty three are found to be viable at 99% C.L. whereas the earlier analysis found fifty four to be viable. We examine the phenomenological implications of the allowed hybrid textures including Majorana type CP-violating phases, 1-3 mixing angle and Dirac type CP-violat...

  20. Geometric Total Variation for Texture Deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bespalov, Dmitriy; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Shokoufandeh, Ali


    In this work we propose a novel variational method that we intend to use for estimating non-rigid texture deformation. The method is able to capture variation in grayscale images with respect to the geometry of its features. Our experimental evaluations demonstrate that accounting for geometry...... of features in texture images leads to significant improvements in localization of these features, when textures undergo geometrical transformations. Accurate localization of features in the presense of unkown deformations is a crucial property for texture characterization methods, and we intend to expoit...

  1. Shifted laser surface texturing for bearings applications (United States)

    Houdková, Š.; Šperka, P.; Repka, M.; Martan, J.; Moskal, D.


    The laser surface texturing (LST) technologies, based on creation of micro-pattern with pre-defined geometry can positively influence both the friction and wear of tribo-elements. In practice, the integration of LST technology is often limited due to its slowness. The new method, so called shifted laser surface texturing (sLST) with increased process speed was developed to make the technology more attractive for the industrial application. In the paper, the texture created by sLST technology was applied onto the steel samples and Al-Sn-Si surface of sliding bearings. Both block-on-ring (ASTM G-77) laboratory tests of steel samples and high-loaded working application tests on Al-Sn-Si bearings surface were carried out to evaluate the influence of texture on tribological behaviour. The ASTM G-77 laboratory tests showed a positive effect of the texture on friction behaviour. Under the high-loaded testing conditions, the positive effect was observed in initial stages of the tests, decreasing the torque of textured bearings compared to the untreated one. Lately, the texture was worn out and have no influence on the overall wear of the bearings. Based on the above mentioned observations, the use of alternative bearing material with higher hardness or application of protective layer over the created texture was suggested to exploit the texture benefits.


    Schmidt, Thomas R; Ahmed, Esam M


    Steam-peeled unprocessed potatoes showed the least hardness, gumminess, and resistance to shear or to compression forces in comparison to those peeled by lye or by abrasion. Fracturability values were greater than hardness values for the unprocessed potatoes, while the reverse was true for processed potatoes. Processed lye-peeled potatoes showed the greatest amount of cohesiveness and gumminess, and required the largest forces to shear or compress. The peeling method had no observed effect on adhesiveness values of processed potatoes. Texture profile parameters as well as resistance to shear or compression forces, and sensory hardness ratings increased during storage of processed potatoes. Steam and lye-peeled potatoes were more preferred organoleptically than abrasion-peeled potatoes.

  3. Heterologous expression of hydrophobins RodA and RodB from Aspergillus fumigatus in host Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mona Højgaard; Borodina, Irina; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    proteins with the signal sequence of alfa-mating factor from Saccharomyces cerevisia known to work well for protein secretion from P. pastoris and the pPICZB plasmids had proteins cloned with their native signal sequences. The plasmids were linearized, transformed into P. pastoris strain X33...... and transformants were selected by zeocin resistance. The presence of the RodA and RodB genes in the transformants was confirmed by colony PCR. The expression of RodA and RodB genes was induced by growing cells in culture flasks for three days in buffered complex methanol medium as protein production was dependent...

  4. Beyond fourth-order texture discrimination: generation of extreme-order and statistically-balanced textures. (United States)

    Tyler, Christopher W


    Julesz introduced the concept of statistically defined textures and their perceptual discrimination. Julesz showed that discrimination was possible with statistics equated to third-order, specifying fourth-order textures. Klein and Tyler offered a variety of paradigms suggesting that fourth order might be the limit on human texture processing. To go beyond this limit, new texture paradigms are now introduced to avoid contamination by luminance extrema, to control local and long-range texture properties, and to provide textures without global statistical structure. Local luminance contamination is avoided by novel orientation plaids, in which higher-order rules govern the orientation of local elements rather than their coloring. These textures allow evaluation of texture discrimination up to thirty-second order by cortical pattern elements. Long-range processing is studied by random strip rotation and by interlacing of independent textures. Each substantially degrades the visibility of the fourth-order textures, revealing that the fourth-order information is conveyed largely by local rather than long-range perturbations from random statistics. Finally, textures equated at all orders can be defined in terms of their global statistics, but may nevertheless readily be discriminated in human vision. The discrimination on the basis of local perturbations implies that human vision assesses textures through a local sampling window, and is largely insensitive to longer-range statistical properties.

  5. Contrast-negation and texture synthesis differentially disrupt natural texture appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Balas


    Full Text Available Natural textures have characteristic image statistics that make them discriminable from unnatural textures. For example, both contrast-negation and texture synthesis alter the appearance of natural textures even though each manipulation preserves some features while disrupting others. Here, we examined the extent to which contrast-negation and texture synthesis each introduce or remove critical perceptual features for discriminating unnatural textures from natural textures. We find that both manipulations remove information that observers use for distinguishing natural textures from transformed versions of the same patterns, but do so in different ways. Texture synthesis removes information that is relevant for discrimination in both abstract patterns and ecologically valid textures, and we also observe a category-dependent asymmetry for identifying an oddball real texture among synthetic distractors. Contrast negation exhibits no such asymmetry, and also does not impact discrimination performance in abstract patterns. We discuss our results in the context of the visual system’s tuning to ecologically relevant patterns and other results describing sensitivity to higher-order statistics in texture patterns.

  6. Nuclear reactor shutdown control rod assembly (United States)

    Bilibin, Konstantin


    A temperature responsive, self-actuated nuclear reactor shutdown control rod assembly 10. The upper end 18 of a lower drive line 17 fits within the lower end of an upper drive line 12. The lower end (not shown) of the lower drive line 17 is connected to a neutron absorber. During normal temperature conditions the lower drive line 17 is supported by detent means 22,26. When an overtemperature condition occurs thermal actuation means 34 urges ring 26 upwardly sufficiently to allow balls 22 to move radially outwardly thereby allowing lower drive line 17 to move downwardly toward the core of the nuclear reactor resulting in automatic reduction of the reactor powder.

  7. Mechanical seal with textured sidewall (United States)

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Xiao, Nian


    The present invention discloses a mating ring, a primary ring, and associated mechanical seal having superior heat transfer and wear characteristics. According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, one or more dimples are formed onto the cylindrical outer surface of a mating ring sidewall and/or a primary ring sidewall. A stationary mating ring for a mechanical seal assembly is disclosed. Such a mating ring comprises an annular body having a central axis and a sealing face, wherein a plurality of dimples are formed into the outer circumferential surface of the annular body such that the exposed circumferential surface area of the annular body is increased. The texture added to the sidewall of the mating ring yields superior heat transfer and wear characteristics.

  8. Optimized Control Rods of the BR2 Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalcheva, Silva; Koonen, E.


    At the present time the BR-2 reactor uses control elements with cadmium as neutron absorbing part. The lower section of the control element is a beryllium assembly cooled by light water. Due to the burn up of the lower end of the cadmium section during the reactor operation, the presently used rods for reactivity control of the BR-2 reactor have to be replaced by new ones. Considered are various types Control Rods with full active part of the following materials: cadmium (Cd), hafnium (Hf), europium oxide (Eu2O3) and gadolinium (Gd2O3). Options to decrease the burn up of the control rod material in the hot spot, such as use of stainless steel in the lower active part of the Control Rod are discussed. Comparison with the characteristics of the presently used Control Rods types is performed. The changing of the characteristics of different types Control Rods and the perturbation effects on the reactor neutronics during the BR-2 fuel cycle are investigated. The burn up of the Control Rod absorbing material, total and differential control rods worth, macroscopic and effective microscopic absorption cross sections, fuel and reactivity evolution are evaluated during approximately 30 operating cycles.

  9. Tunable attractions directing nonequilibrium states in dispersions of hard rods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, M.P.B. van; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.


    The effect of attractive interactions on the phase behavior of colloidal hard rods has been studied by the addition of nonadsorbing polymer. In these rod-polymer mixtures, four pathways of phase separation can be distinguished: nucleation and growth, spinodal decomposition, aggregation, and

  10. Switch isotropic/anisotropic wettability via dual-scale rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang He


    Full Text Available It is the first time to demonstrate the comparison of isotropic/anisotropic wettability between dual-scale micro-nano-rods and single-scale micro-rods. Inspired by the natural structures of rice leaf, a series of micro-nano-rods and micro-rods with different geometric parameters were fabricated using micro-fabrication technology. Experimental measured apparent contact angles and advancing and receding contact angles from orthogonal orientations were characterized. The difference of contact angles from orthogonal orientation on dual-scale rods was much smaller than those on single-scale rods in both static and dynamic situation. It indicated that the dual-scale micro-nano-rods showed isotropic wettability, while single-scale micro-rods showed anisotropic wettability. The switch of isotropic/anisotropic wettability could be illustrated by different wetting state and contact line moving. It offers a facial way to switch isotropic/anisotropic wettability of the surface via dual-scale or single-scale structure.

  11. Numerical investigation of flow past a row of rectangular rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Ul. Islam


    Full Text Available A numerical study of uniform flow past a row of rectangular rods with aspect ratio defined as R = width/height = 0.5 is performed using the Lattice Boltzmann method. For this study the Reynolds number (Re is fixed at 150, while spacings between the rods (g are taken in the range from 1 to 6. Depending on g, the flow is classified into four patterns: flip-flopping, nearly unsteady-inphase, modulated inphase-antiphase non-synchronized and synchronized. Sudden jumps in physical parameters were observed, attaining either maximum or minimum values, with the change in flow patterns. The mean drag coefficient (Cdmean of middle rod is higher than the second and fourth rod for flip-flopping pattern while in case of nearly unsteady-inphase the middle rod attains minimum drag coefficient. It is also found that the Strouhal number (St of first, second and fifth rod decreases as g increases while that of other two have mixed trend. The results further show that there exist secondary interaction frequencies together with primary vortex shedding frequency due to jet in the gap between rods for 1 ⩽ g ⩽ 3. For the average values of Cdmean and St, an empirical relation is also given as a function of gap spacing. This relation shows that the average values of Cdmean and St approach to those of single rectangular rod with increment in g.

  12. Probabilistic thermo-chemical analysis of a pultruded composite rod

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem C.; Hattel, Jesper H.


    In the present study the deterministic thermo-chemical pultrusion simulation of a composite rod taken from the literature [7] is used as a validation case. The predicted centerline temperature and cure degree profiles of the rod match well with those in the literature [7]. Following the validation

  13. Rapid calibaration of the control rod of miniature neutron source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An innovative method of combining the well-known computer codes WIMS and CITATION in an interactive Windows environment to calculate the control rod worth and generate the calibration data/curve of single-contr-ol rod miniature source reactor (MNSR) types has been developed and tested. In the scheme, once ...

  14. Ultrasonic detection of cracks in uniaxial glass fibre rods

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, PW


    Full Text Available propagation in the rods. The authors attempt to model the excitation and transmission of waves along undamaged as well as damaged rods in order to predict the received signals, and we compare the model results with experimental data. Specially developed...

  15. 49 CFR 236.794 - Rod, up-and-down. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rod, up-and-down. 236.794 Section 236.794 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., up-and-down. A rod used for connecting the semaphore arm to the operating mechanism of a signal. ...

  16. Damage development in rod-on-rod impact test on 1100 pure aluminum (United States)

    Iannitti, G.; Bonora, N.; Bourne, N.; Ruggiero, A.; Testa, G.


    Stress triaxiality plays a major role in the nucleation and growth of ductile damage in metals and alloys. Although, the mechanisms responsible for ductile failure are the same at low and high strain rate, in impact dynamics, in addition to time resolved stress triaxiality and plastic strain accumulation, pressure also contributes to establish the condition for ductile failure to occur. In this work, ductile damage development in 1100 commercially pure aluminum was investigated by means of rod-on-rod (ROR) impact tests. Based on numerical simulations, using a continuum damage mechanics (CDM) model that accounts for the role of pressure on damage parameters and stochastic variability of such parameters, the impact velocity for no damage, incipient and fully developed damage were estimated. ROR tests at selected velocities were performed and damage distribution and extent were investigated by sectioning of soft recovered samples. Comparison between numerical simulations and experimental results is presented and discussed.

  17. Adaptive 4-8 Texture Hierarchies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwa, L M; Duchaineau, M A; Joy, K I


    We address the texture level-of-detail problem for extremely large surfaces such as terrain during real-time, view-dependent rendering. A novel texture hierarchy is introduced based on 4-8 refinement of raster tiles, in which the texture grids in effect rotate 45 degrees for each level of refinement. This hierarchy provides twice as many levels of detail as conventional quad-tree-style refinement schemes such as mipmaps, and thus provides per-pixel view-dependent filtering that is twice as close to the ideal cutoff frequency for an average pixel. Because of this more gradual change in low-pass filtering, and due to the more precise emulation of the ideal cutoff frequency, we find in practice that the transitions between texture levels of detail are not perceptible. This allows rendering systems to avoid the complexity and performance costs of per-pixel blending between texture levels of detail. The 4-8 texturing scheme is integrated into a variant of the Real-time Optimally Adapting Meshes (ROAM) algorithm for view-dependent multiresolution mesh generation. Improvements to ROAM included here are: the diamond data structure as a streamlined replacement for the triangle bintree elements, the use of low-pass-filtered geometry patches in place of individual triangles, integration of 4-8 textures, and a simple out-of-core data access mechanism for texture and geometry tiles.

  18. Cool Polar Bears: Dabbing on the Texture (United States)

    O'Connell, Jean


    In this article, the author describes how her second-graders created their cool polar bears. The students used the elements of shape and texture to create the bears. They used Monet's technique of dabbing paint so as to give the bear some texture on his fur.

  19. A Noise Robust Statistical Texture Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Larsen, Rasmus


    This paper presents a novel approach to the problem of obtaining a low dimensional representation of texture (pixel intensity) variation present in a training set after alignment using a Generalised Procrustes analysis.We extend the conventional analysis of training textures in the Active...

  20. On the origin of recrystallization textures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. The development of recrystallization textures has been debated for the past 50 years. Essentially the rival theories of evolution of recrystallization textures i.e. oriented nucleation (ON) and oriented growth (OG) has been under dispute. In the ON model, it has been argued that a higher frequency of the special ...

  1. On texture formation of chromium electrodeposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Bergenstof; Leisner, Peter; Horsewell, Andy


    The microstructure, texture and hardness of electrodeposited hard, direct current (DC) chromium and pulsed reversed chromium has been investigated. These investigations suggest that the growth and texture of hard chromium is controlled by inhibition processes and reactions. Further, it has been e...

  2. Friction tensor concept for textured surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Directionality of grinding marks influences the coefficient of friction during sliding. Depending on the sliding direction the coefficient of friction varies between maximum and minimum for textured surfaces. For random surfaces without any texture the friction coefficient becomes independent of the sliding direction. This paper ...

  3. Interfacial colloidal rod dynamics: Coefficients, simulations, and analysis (United States)

    Yang, Yuguang; Bevan, Michael A.


    Colloidal rod diffusion near a wall is modeled and simulated based on a constrained Stokesian dynamic model of chains-of-spheres. By modeling colloidal rods as chains-of-spheres, complete diffusion tensors are computed for colloidal rods in bulk media and near interfaces, including hydrodynamic interactions, translation-rotation coupling, and all diffusion modes in the particle and lab frames. Simulated trajectories based on the chain-of-spheres diffusion tensor are quantified in terms of typical experimental quantities such as mean squared positional and angular displacements as well as autocorrelation functions. Theoretical expressions are reported to predict measured average diffusivities as well as the crossover from short-time anisotropic translational diffusion along the rod's major axis to isotropic diffusion. Diffusion modes are quantified in terms of closed form empirical fits to model results to aid their use in interpretation and prediction of experiments involving colloidal rod diffusion in interfacial and confined systems.

  4. RODMOD: a code for control rod positioning. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.


    The report documents a computer code which has been implemented to position control rods according to a prescribed schedule during the calculation of a reactor history. Control rods may be represented explicitly with or without internal black absorber conditions in selected energy groups, or fractional insertion may be done, or both, in a problem. There is provision for control rod follower, movement of materials through a series of zones in a closed loop, and shutdown rod insertion and subsequent removal to allow the reactor history calculation to be continued. This code is incorporated in the system containing the VENTURE diffusion theory neutronics and the BURNER exposure codes for routine use. The implemented automated procedures cause the prescribed control rod insertion schedule to be applied without the access of additional user input data during the calculation of a reactor operating history.

  5. Study of the anti-sand sucker rod pump (United States)

    Wei, Hangxin; Lv, Bingxin; Xi, Wenkui; Yi, Peng


    In order to solve the problem of sand stuck in the sucker rod pump, an anti-sand sucker rod pump is designed. The anti-sand sucker rod pump includes the conventional sucker rod pump and the swirl flow device. The sand particles can be separated from the oil in the swirl flow device, so the plunger of the sucker rod pump cannot be stuck. The motion equation of the sand particles in oil is deduced. The virtual model of the swirl flow device is built in GAMBIT software. And simulation of solid-liquid two phase flow is simulated in software FLUENT. The simulation results show that the swirl flow device can realize the sand particles separation from the oil completely. So the pump can have the effect of anti-sands.

  6. Buckling of a thin rod under cylindrical constraint (United States)

    Miller, Jay; Su, Tianxiang; Wicks, Nathan; Pabon, Jahir; Bertoldi, Katia; Reis, Pedro


    We investigate the buckling and post-buckling behavior of a thin elastic rod, under cylindrical constraint, with distributed loading. Our precision model experiments consist of injecting a custom-fabricated rod into a transparent glass pipe. Under imposed velocity (leading to frictional axial loading), a portion of the initially straight rod first buckles into a sinusoidal mode and eventually undergoes a secondary instability into a helical configuration. The buckling and post-buckling behavior is found to be highly dependent on the system's geometry, namely the injected rod length and the aspect ratio of the rod to pipe diameter, as well as material parameters. We quantify the critical loads for this sequence of instabilities, contrast our results with numerical experiments and rationalize the observed behavior through scaling arguments.

  7. Semiconductor Quantum Rods as Single Molecule FluorescentBiological Labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Aihua; Gu, Weiwei; Boussert, Benjamine; Koski, Kristie; Gerion, Daniele; Manna, Liberato; Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn; Alivisatos, A. Paul


    In recent years, semiconductor quantum dots have beenapplied with great advantage in a wide range of biological imagingapplications. The continuing developments in the synthesis of nanoscalematerials and specifically in the area of colloidal semiconductornanocrystals have created an opportunity to generate a next generation ofbiological labels with complementary or in some cases enhanced propertiescompared to colloidal quantum dots. In this paper, we report thedevelopment of rod shaped semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum rods) asnew fluorescent biological labels. We have engineered biocompatiblequantum rods by surface silanization and have applied them fornon-specific cell tracking as well as specific cellular targeting. Theproperties of quantum rods as demonstrated here are enhanced sensitivityand greater resistance for degradation as compared to quantum dots.Quantum rods have many potential applications as biological labels insituations where their properties offer advantages over quantumdots.

  8. Dynamic behavior of upper hydraulic drive control rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaotian [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail:; He Shuyan [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Beijing 100084 (China)


    A 200 MW nuclear heating reactor (NHR) was developed based on the 5 MW testing heating reactor (THR-5). In order to improve its features, the INET was used to optimize its structure design. One task was to design the upper hydraulic drive control rod, which is located at the upper part of the reactor core, so that the fuel rod in each corner of the bundle will not be removed as they are in the THR-5. A program based on the method of characteristics was run to investigate the dynamic behavior of the upper hydraulic control rod drive system. The steady-state and dynamic characteristics of the control rod were studied. The influence of the reactor temperature and structure parameters on the operation reliability was investigated. Finally the optimal design parameters of the upper hydraulic drive control rod were obtained.

  9. Bayesian exploration for intelligent identification of textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy A. Fishel


    Full Text Available In order to endow robots with humanlike abilities to characterize and identify objects, they must be provided with tactile sensors and intelligent algorithms to select, control and interpret data from useful exploratory movements. Humans make informed decisions on the sequence of exploratory movements that would yield the most information for the task, depending on what the object may be and prior knowledge of what to expect from possible exploratory movements. This study is focused on texture discrimination, a subset of a much larger group of exploratory movements and percepts that humans use to discriminate, characterize, and identify objects. Using a testbed equipped with a biologically inspired tactile sensor (the BioTac® we produced sliding movements similar to those that humans make when exploring textures. Measurement of tactile vibrations and reaction forces when exploring textures were used to extract measures of textural properties inspired from psychophysical literature (traction, roughness, and fineness. Different combinations of normal force and velocity were identified to be useful for each of these three properties. A total of 117 textures were explored with these three movements to create a database of prior experience to use for identifying these same textures in future encounters. When exploring a texture, the discrimination algorithm adaptively selects the optimal movement to make and property to measure based on previous experience to differentiate the texture from a set of plausible candidates, a process we call Bayesian exploration. Performance of 99.6% in correctly discriminating pairs of similar textures was found to exceed human capabilities. Absolute classification from the entire set of 117 textures generally required a small number of well-chosen exploratory movements (median=5 and yielded a 95.4% success rate. The method of Bayesian exploration developed and tested in this paper may generalize well to other

  10. Anisotropy in CdSe quantum rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Liang-shi [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The size-dependent optical and electronic properties of semiconductor nanocrystals have drawn much attention in the past decade, and have been very well understood for spherical ones. The advent of the synthetic methods to make rod-like CdSe nanocrystals with wurtzite structure has offered us a new opportunity to study their properties as functions of their shape. This dissertation includes three main parts: synthesis of CdSe nanorods with tightly controlled widths and lengths, their optical and dielectric properties, and their large-scale assembly, all of which are either directly or indirectly caused by the uniaxial crystallographic structure of wurtzite CdSe. The hexagonal wurtzite structure is believed to be the primary reason for the growth of CdSe nanorods. It represents itself in the kinetic stabilization of the rod-like particles over the spherical ones in the presence of phosphonic acids. By varying the composition of the surfactant mixture used for synthesis we have achieved tight control of the widths and lengths of the nanorods. The synthesis of monodisperse CdSe nanorods enables us to systematically study their size-dependent properties. For example, room temperature single particle fluorescence spectroscopy has shown that nanorods emit linearly polarized photoluminescence. Theoretical calculations have shown that it is due to the crossing between the two highest occupied electronic levels with increasing aspect ratio. We also measured the permanent electric dipole moment of the nanorods with transient electric birefringence technique. Experimental results on nanorods with different sizes show that the dipole moment is linear to the particle volume, indicating that it originates from the non-centrosymmetric hexagonal lattice. The elongation of the nanocrystals also results in the anisotropic inter-particle interaction. One of the consequences is the formation of liquid crystalline phases when the nanorods are dispersed in solvent to a high enough

  11. Probing Majorana neutrino textures at DUNE (United States)

    Bora, Kalpana; Borah, Debasish; Dutta, Debajyoti


    We study the possibility of probing different texture zero neutrino mass matrices at the long baseline neutrino experiment DUNE, particularly focusing on its sensitivity to the octant of atmospheric mixing angle θ23 and leptonic Dirac C P phase δcp. Assuming a diagonal charged lepton basis and Majorana nature of light neutrinos, we first classify the possible light neutrino mass matrices with one and two texture zeros and then numerically evaluate the parameter space which satisfies the texture zero conditions. Apart from using the latest global fit 3 σ values of neutrino oscillation parameters, we also use the latest bound on the sum of absolute neutrino masses (∑i |mi|) from the Planck mission data and the updated bound on effective neutrino mass Me e from neutrinoless double beta decay (0 ν β β ) experiments to find the allowed Majorana texture zero mass matrices. For the allowed texture zero mass matrices from all these constraints, we then feed the corresponding light neutrino parameter values satisfying the texture zero conditions into the numerical analysis in order to study the capability of DUNE to allow or exclude them once it starts taking data. We find that DUNE will be able to exclude some of these texture zero mass matrices which restrict (θ23-δcp) to a very specific range of values, depending on the values of the parameters that nature has chosen.

  12. Dynamics of entangled rod-coil block copolymers (United States)

    Wang, Muzhou; Timachova, Ksenia; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo; Likhtman, Alexei E.; Olsen, Bradley D.


    Polymer science is exploring advanced materials which combine functional domains such as proteins and semiconducting polymers with traditional flexible polymers onto the same molecule. While many studies have focused on equilibrium structure-property relationships, little is known about how the conformational restrictions of rigid domains affect dynamical phenomena such as mechanical properties, processing pathways, and self-assembly kinetics. We have recently introduced a reptation theory for entangled rod-coil block copolymers as a model for this wider class of functional polymeric materials. The theory hypothesizes that the motion of rod-coils is slowed relative to rod and coil homopolymers because of a mismatch between the curvature of the rod and coil entanglement tubes. This effect leads to activated reptation and arm retraction as two relaxation mechanisms that govern the short and long rod regimes, respectively. These results were verified by tracer diffusion measurements using molecular dynamics simulation and forced Rayleigh scattering in both the rod-coil diblock and coil-rod-coil triblock configurations. The tracer diffusion results were then compared to experimental self-diffusion measurements which require a consideration of the motion of the surrounding chains.

  13. Numerical simulation of the sucker-rod pumping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldrich Joel Romero


    Full Text Available The sucker rod pump is an artificial lift method frequently applied in onshore petroleum wells. This system can be described using a numerical simulation based on the behavior of a rod string. In the past, the elastic behavior of the rod string made it difficult to model the system. However, since the 1960s and with the advent of digital computers, it has been modeled numerically. The rod string be-haves like a slender bar, and thus, the propagation of elastic waves along the bar can be represented by a one-dimensional equation. Gibbs (1963 presented a mathematical model based on the wave equation, which is described on the basis of the analysis of forces on the rod string and is incorporated into a boundary value problem involving partial differential equations. The use of the finite differ-ence method allows for a numerical solution by the discretization of the wave equation developed in the mathematical formulation with appropriate boundary and initial conditions. This work presents a methodology for implementing an academic computer code that allows simulation of the upstroke and downstroke motion of the rod string described by the wave equation under ideal operating conditions, assuming a harmonic motion of the rod at one end and downhole pump at the other end. The goal of this study is to generate the downhole dynamometer card, an important and consolidated tool that controls the pump system by diagnosing oper-ational conditions of the downhole pump.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacit DÜNDAR


    Full Text Available Non-random distribution of orientations between the neigbouring grains of polycrystalline aggregates leads to preferred orientations or textures. Texture analysis of a Cu-10 % Ni alloy carried out on three types of cast materials after varying amounts of deformation led to clearly defined copper type texture due to the dominance of high stacking fault energy SFE regions in the structure. (123 [41 2 ] is the strongest orientation observed with (123 as the plane lying paralel to the rolling plane and [41 2 ] as the direction paralel to the rolling direction.

  15. Revisiting the texture zero neutrino mass matrices (United States)

    Singh, Madan; Ahuja, Gulsheen; Gupta, Manmohan


    In the light of refined and large measurements of the reactor mixing angle θ, we have revisited the texture three- and two-zero neutrino mass matrices in the flavor basis. For Majorana neutrinos, it has been explicitly shown that all the texture three-zero mass matrices remain ruled out. Further, for both normal and inverted mass ordering, for the texture two-zero neutrino mass matrices one finds interesting constraints on the Dirac-like CP-violating phase δ and Majorana phases ρ and σ.

  16. Orientation selectivity based structure for texture classification (United States)

    Wu, Jinjian; Lin, Weisi; Shi, Guangming; Zhang, Yazhong; Lu, Liu


    Local structure, e.g., local binary pattern (LBP), is widely used in texture classification. However, LBP is too sensitive to disturbance. In this paper, we introduce a novel structure for texture classification. Researches on cognitive neuroscience indicate that the primary visual cortex presents remarkable orientation selectivity for visual information extraction. Inspired by this, we investigate the orientation similarities among neighbor pixels, and propose an orientation selectivity based pattern for local structure description. Experimental results on texture classification demonstrate that the proposed structure descriptor is quite robust to disturbance.

  17. Thermal-recovery of modal instability in rod fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette Marie; Laurila, Marko; Noordegraaf, Danny


    We investigate the temporal dynamics of Modal instabilities (MI) in ROD fiber amplifiers using a 100 μm core rod fiber in a single-pass amplifier configuration, and we achieve ~200W of extracted output power before the onset of MI. Above the MI threshold, we investigate the temporal dynamics of b...... and thermally annealed between each test series. We find that the MI threshold degrades as it is reached multiple times, but is recovered by thermal annealing. We also find that the test history of the rods affects the temporal dynamics....

  18. Plasmonic rod dimers as elementary planar chiral meta-atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Zhukovsky, Sergei V; Chigrin, Dmitry N


    Electromagnetic response of metallic rod dimers is theoretically calculated for arbitrary planar arrangement of rods in the dimer. It is shown that dimers without an in-plane symmetry axis exhibit elliptical dichroism and act as "atoms" in planar chiral metamaterials. Due to a very simple geometry of the rod dimer, such planar metamaterials are much easier in fabrication than conventional split-ring or gammadion-type structures, and lend themselves to a simple analytical treatment based on coupled dipole model. Dependencies of metamaterial's directional asymmetry on the dimer's geometry are established analytically and confirmed in numerical simulations.

  19. Review of FFTF and CRBRP control rod systems designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitterle, T. A.; Lagally, H. O.


    The evolution of the primary control rod system design for FFTF and CRBR, beginning with the initial choice of the basic concepts, is described. The significant component and systems tests are reviewed together with the test results which referenced the development of the CRBR primary control rod system design. Modifications to the concepts and detail designs of the FFTF control rod system were required principally to satisfy the requirements of CRBR, and at the same time incorporating design refinements shown desirable by the tests.

  20. Results of Post Irradiation Examinations of VVER Leaky Rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markov, D.; Perepelkin, S.; Polenok, V.; Zhitelev, V.; Mayorshina, G. [Head of Fuel Research Department, JSC ' SSC RIAR' , 433510, Dimitrovgrad-10, Ulyanovsk region (Russian Federation)


    The most important requirement imposed on fuel elements is to maintain integrity of fuel rod claddings under operation, storage and transportation, since it is directly related to the operational safety. However, failed rod claddings are sometimes observed under reactor operation. Identification and unloading of fuel assemblies with leaky rods from VVER is available only at the time of planned preventive maintenance. An unscheduled reactor shutdown due to the excess of coolant activity limit as well as a preterm unloading of the fuel assembly cause economic damage to nuclear plant. Therefore, models and calculation codes were developed to forecast coolant contamination and failed fuel rod behavior. Criteria based on calculations were set to determine the admissible number of the failed rods in core and the opportunity to continue the reactor operation or pre-term unloading of the fuel assembly with the failed rods. Nevertheless, to prevent the fuel rod failure (for unfailing operation) it is necessary to reveal disadvantages of the design, fabrication method and fuel operation conditions, and to eliminate defects. The most complete and significant information about spent fuel assemblies may be received following the post irradiation material examinations. In order to reveal failure origins and mechanism of changes in VVER fuel and failed rod cladding condition depending on the operation, the examinations of 12 VVER-1000 fuel assemblies and 3 VVER-440 fuel assemblies, operated under normal conditions up to the fuel burnup 13..47 MWd/kgU were carried out. To evaluate the rod cladding condition, reveal defects and determine their parameters, the ultrasonic control of cladding integrity, surface visual inspection, eddy current defectoscopy, measurement of geometrical parameters were applied. In separate cases we used the metallography, measured the hydrogen percentage and carried out the mechanical tests of o-ring samples. The pellet condition was evaluated in

  1. CLASIC07 Soil Texture Data V001 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains soil texture data obtained for the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign 2007 (CLASIC07). The original data were extracted from a...

  2. Image texture analysis of crushed wheat kernels (United States)

    Zayas, Inna Y.; Martin, C. R.; Steele, James L.; Dempster, Richard E.


    The development of new approaches for wheat hardness assessment may impact the grain industry in marketing, milling, and breeding. This study used image texture features for wheat hardness evaluation. Application of digital imaging to grain for grading purposes is principally based on morphometrical (shape and size) characteristics of the kernels. A composite sample of 320 kernels for 17 wheat varieties were collected after testing and crushing with a single kernel hardness characterization meter. Six wheat classes where represented: HRW, HRS, SRW, SWW, Durum, and Club. In this study, parameters which characterize texture or spatial distribution of gray levels of an image were determined and used to classify images of crushed wheat kernels. The texture parameters of crushed wheat kernel images were different depending on class, hardness and variety of the wheat. Image texture analysis of crushed wheat kernels showed promise for use in class, hardness, milling quality, and variety discrimination.

  3. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing (United States)

    Wei, H. L.; Mazumder, J.; DebRoy, T.


    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Therefore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numerical modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components. PMID:26553246

  4. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wei, H L; Mazumder, J; DebRoy, T


    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data...

  5. High-yield production of hydrophobins RodA and RodB from Aspergillus fumigatus in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mona Højgaard; Borodina, Irina; Moresco, Jacob Lange


    broth. Protein bands of expected sizes were detected by SDS-PAGE and western blotting, and the identity was further confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry. Both proteins were purified using his-affinity chromatography, and the high level of purity was verified by silver-stained SDS-PAGE. Recombinant Rod...... RodA showed a similar ability to emulsify air in water, while recombinant RodB could also emulsify oil in water better than the control protein bovine serum albumin (BSA). This is to our knowledge the first successful expression of hydrophobins from A. fumigatus in a eukaryote host, which makes...

  6. Lava flow texture LiDAR signatures (United States)

    Whelley, P.; Garry, W. B.; Scheidt, S. P.; Irwin, R. P., III; Fox, J.; Bleacher, J. E.; Hamilton, C. W.


    High-resolution point clouds and digital elevation models (DEMs) are used to investigate lava textures on the Big Island of Hawaii. An experienced geologist can distinguish fresh or degraded lava textures (e.g., blocky, a'a and pahoehoe) visually in the field. Lava texture depends significantly on eruption conditions, and it is therefore instructive, if accurately determined. In places where field investigations are prohibitive (e.g., Mercury, Venus, the Moon, Mars, Io and remote regions on Earth) lava texture must be assessed from remote sensing data. A reliable method for differentiating lava textures in remote sensing data remains elusive. We present preliminary results comparing properties of lava textures observed in airborne and terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. Airborne data, in this study, were collected in 2011 by Airborne 1 Corporation and have a ~1m point spacing. The authors collected the terrestrial data during a May 2014 field season. The terrestrial scans have a heterogeneous point density. Points close to the scanner are 1 mm apart while 200 m in the distance points are 10 cm apart. Both platforms offer advantages and disadvantages beyond the differences in scale. Terrestrial scans are a quantitative representation of what a geologist sees "on the ground". Airborne scans are a point of view routinely imaged by other remote sensing tools, and can therefore be quickly compared to complimentary data sets (e.g., spectral scans or image data). Preliminary results indicate that LiDAR-derived surface roughness, from both platforms, is useful for differentiating lava textures, but at different spatial scales. As all lava types are quite rough, it is not simply roughness that is the most advantageous parameter; rather patterns in surface roughness can be used to differentiate lava surfaces of varied textures. This work will lead to faster and more reliable volcanic mapping efforts for planetary exploration as well as terrestrial

  7. Facial Features Detection Using Texture Hough Transform (United States)

    Gorbatsevich, V. S.


    The paper presents an original method for object detection. The "texture" Hough transform is used as the main tool in the search. Unlike classical generalized Hough transform, this variation uses texture LBP descriptor as a primitive for voting. The voting weight of each primitive is assumed by learning at a training set. This paper gives an overview of an original method for weights learning, and a number of ways to get the maximum searching algorithm speed on practice.

  8. Image Segmentation with Color and Texture, (United States)


    easily by other means. For example, it may be relatively easy to camouflage a target so that it resembles the average color of its background (a land...textural properties. Note that the matching of visual color or texture for camouflaging purposes does not guarantee that appropriate processing algorithms...UNCLASSIFIED 29 6.0 REFERENCES 1. S6vigny, L., "Simulation d’un syst~me d’acquisition automatique d’objectif infrarouge dans un

  9. Model for understanding consumer textural food choice


    Jeltema, Melissa; Beckley, Jacqueline; Vahalik, Jennifer


    The current paradigm for developing products that will match the marketing messaging is flawed because the drivers of product choice and satisfaction based on texture are misunderstood. Qualitative research across 10?years has led to the thesis explored in this research that individuals have a preferred way to manipulate food in their mouths (i.e., mouth behavior) and that this behavior is a major driver of food choice, satisfaction, and the desire to repurchase. Texture, which is currently t...

  10. Extrusion Cooking Systems and Textured Vegetable Proteins



    Many fabricated foods are cooked industrially and are given desired textures, shapes, density and rehydration characteristics by an extrusion cooking process. This relatively new process is used in the preparation of “engineered” convenience foods: textured vegetable proteins, breakfast cereals, snacks, infant foods, dry soup mixes, breading, poultry stuffing, croutons, pasta products, beverage powders, hot breakfast gruels, and in the gelatinization of starch or the starchy component of ...

  11. Synthesis of homochiral tris-indanyl molecular rods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Niels Due; Funder, Erik Daa; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager


    Homochiral tris-indanyl molecular rods designed for supramolecular surface self-assembly were synthesized. The chiral indanol moiety was constructed via a Ti-mediated alkyne trimerization. Further manipulations resulted in a homochiral indanol monomer. This was employed as the precursor for succe......Homochiral tris-indanyl molecular rods designed for supramolecular surface self-assembly were synthesized. The chiral indanol moiety was constructed via a Ti-mediated alkyne trimerization. Further manipulations resulted in a homochiral indanol monomer. This was employed as the precursor...... for successive Sonogashira and Ohira-Bestman reactions towards the homochiral tris-indanyl molecular rods. The molecular rods will be applied for scanning tunnelling microscopy studies of their surface self-assembly and chirality....

  12. Motion simulation of hydraulic driven safety rod using FSI method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jaeho; Kim, Sanghaun; Yoo, Yeonsik; Cho, Yeonggarp; Kim, Jong In [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Hydraulic driven safety rod which is one of them is being developed by Division for Reactor Mechanical Engineering, KAERI. In this paper the motion of this rod is simulated by fluid structure interaction (FSI) method before manufacturing for design verification and pump sizing. A newly designed hydraulic driven safety rod which is one of reactivity control mechanism is simulated using FSI method for design verification and pump sizing. The simulation is done in CFD domain with UDF. The pressure drop is changed slightly by flow rates. It means that the pressure drop is mainly determined by weight of moving part. The simulated velocity of piston is linearly proportional to flow rates so the pump can be sized easily according to the rising and drop time requirement of the safety rod using the simulation results.

  13. Vibrations of post-buckled rods: The singular inextensible limit

    KAUST Repository

    Neukirch, Sébastien


    The small-amplitude in-plane vibrations of an elastic rod clamped at both extremities are studied. The rod is modeled as an extensible, shearable, planar Kirchhoff elastic rod under large displacements and rotations, and the vibration frequencies are computed both analytically and numerically as a function of the loading. Of particular interest is the variation of mode frequencies as the load is increased through the buckling threshold. While for some modes there are no qualitative changes in the mode frequencies, other frequencies experience rapid variations after the buckling threshold, the thinner the rod, the more abrupt the variations. Eventually, a mismatch for half of the frequencies at buckling arises between the zero thickness limit of the extensible model and the inextensible model. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The ATLAS LARG ROD G-Links Cooling System

    CERN Document Server

    Hubaut, F; Repain, P; Rossel, F; Vincent, D


    In this note is described the water cooling system that will be implemented on the ROD boards of the liquid argon calorimeter detectors in order to guarantee a proper behavior of the optical reception of the data.

  15. Fast Image Texture Classification Using Decision Trees (United States)

    Thompson, David R.


    Texture analysis would permit improved autonomous, onboard science data interpretation for adaptive navigation, sampling, and downlink decisions. These analyses would assist with terrain analysis and instrument placement in both macroscopic and microscopic image data products. Unfortunately, most state-of-the-art texture analysis demands computationally expensive convolutions of filters involving many floating-point operations. This makes them infeasible for radiation- hardened computers and spaceflight hardware. A new method approximates traditional texture classification of each image pixel with a fast decision-tree classifier. The classifier uses image features derived from simple filtering operations involving integer arithmetic. The texture analysis method is therefore amenable to implementation on FPGA (field-programmable gate array) hardware. Image features based on the "integral image" transform produce descriptive and efficient texture descriptors. Training the decision tree on a set of training data yields a classification scheme that produces reasonable approximations of optimal "texton" analysis at a fraction of the computational cost. A decision-tree learning algorithm employing the traditional k-means criterion of inter-cluster variance is used to learn tree structure from training data. The result is an efficient and accurate summary of surface morphology in images. This work is an evolutionary advance that unites several previous algorithms (k-means clustering, integral images, decision trees) and applies them to a new problem domain (morphology analysis for autonomous science during remote exploration). Advantages include order-of-magnitude improvements in runtime, feasibility for FPGA hardware, and significant improvements in texture classification accuracy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová


    Full Text Available The bread quality is considerably dependent on the texture characteristic of bread crumb. Texture analysis is primarily concerned with the evaluation of mechanical characteristics where a material is subjected to a controlled force from which a deformation curve of its response is generated. It is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what are inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. This is why the texture analysis is one of the most helpful analytical methods of the product development. In the framework of our research during the years 2008 – 2009 were analyzed selected indicators of bread crumb for texture quality of three Triticum spelta L. cultivars – Oberkulmer Rotkorn, Rubiota and Franckenkorn grown in an ecological system at the locality of Dolna Malanta near Nitra. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness ( and relative elasticity (%.Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was measured in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Franckenkorn were the most firm and stiff. Relative elasticity confirmed that the lowest firmness and stiffness was found in Rubiota bread. The spelt grain can be a good source for making bread flour, but is closely dependent on choice of spelt variety.

  17. Simultaneous structure and texture image inpainting. (United States)

    Bertalmio, Marcelo; Vese, Luminita; Sapiro, Guillermo; Osher, Stanley


    An algorithm for the simultaneous filling-in of texture and structure in regions of missing image information is presented in this paper. The basic idea is to first decompose the image into the sum of two functions with different basic characteristics, and then reconstruct each one of these functions separately with structure and texture filling-in algorithms. The first function used in the decomposition is of bounded variation, representing the underlying image structure, while the second function captures the texture and possible noise. The region of missing information in the bounded variation image is reconstructed using image inpainting algorithms, while the same region in the texture image is filled-in with texture synthesis techniques. The original image is then reconstructed adding back these two sub-images. The novel contribution of this paper is then in the combination of these three previously developed components, image decomposition with inpainting and texture synthesis, which permits the simultaneous use of filling-in algorithms that are suited for different image characteristics. Examples on real images show the advantages of this proposed approach.

  18. Oscillation of a rigid rod in the special relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Paiva, F M


    In the special relativity, a rigid rod slides upon itself, with one extremity oscillating harmonically. We discovered restrictions in the amplitude of the motion and in the length of the rod, essential to eliminate unphysical solutions. ------- Cxe la speciala relativeco, rigida stango movigxas sur si mem, kun unu fino oscilante harmonie. Ni malkovris limigajn kondicxojn pri la amplitudo de movado kaj pri la longo de stango, necesegaj por elimini ne-fizikajn solvojn.

  19. CHF prediction in rod bundles using round tube data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Wallen F.; Veloso, Maria A.F.; Pereira, Cláubia; Costa, Antonella L., E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear


    The present work concerns the use of 1995 CHF table for uniformly heated round tubes, developed jointly by Canadian and Russian researchers, for the prediction of critical heat fluxes in rod bundles geometries. Comparisons between measured and calculated critical heat fluxes indicate that this table could be applied to rod bundles provided that a suitable correction factor is employed. The tolerance limits associated with the departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) are evaluated by using statistical analysis. (author)

  20. Apparatus for injection casting metallic nuclear energy fuel rods (United States)

    Seidel, Bobby R.; Tracy, Donald B.; Griffiths, Vernon


    Molds for making metallic nuclear fuel rods are provided which present reduced risks to the environment by reducing radioactive waste. In one embodiment, the mold is consumable with the fuel rod, and in another embodiment, part of the mold can be re-used. Several molds can be arranged together in a cascaded manner, if desired, or several long cavities can be integrated in a monolithic multiple cavity re-usable mold.

  1. Colloidal rods and spheres in partially miscible binary liquids


    Hijnen, Niek


    Different scenarios for assembling rod-like and spherical colloidal particles using binary mixtures of partially miscible liquids were investigated experimentally. Suitable rod-like colloids were developed first. The subsequent studies of colloids in binary liquids consisted, on one hand, of systems where particles were partially wetted by both phases and, on the other hand, of systems where particles were completely wetted by the minority phase. A simple method to prepare l...

  2. Estimating modal instability threshold for photonic crystal rod fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette Marie; Hansen, Kristian Rymann; Laurila, Marko


    We present a semi-analytic numerical model to estimate the transverse modal instability (TMI) threshold for photonic crystal rod amplifiers. The model includes thermally induced waveguide perturbations in the fiber cross section modeled with finite element simulations, and the relative intensity ...... noise (RIN) of the seed laser, which seeds mode coupling between the fundamental and higher order mode. The TMI threshold is predicted to ~370 W – 440 W depending on RIN for the distributed modal filtering rod fiber....

  3. Performance of the NRX shut-off rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manson, R.E.


    A new type of shut-off rod of electromechanical design was developed by the American Machine and Foundry Company for use in the NRX reactor following the accident of 1952. The new rods were installed in May, 1956, as part of the control system conversion program which was completed in 1958. Some problems were encountered with limit switch adjustment but minor modifications in design led to much improved operation. he performance of the rods also improved as more experience was gained in the maintenance and adjustment of the various headgear components. Each headgear is now overhauled once a year on a routine basis. The present design of shut-off rod is considered to be very satisfactory. There has only been one occasion when a shut-off rod has failed to come fully down on a trip. Rods have failed to operate correctly on five other occasions but these occurred during shutdown periods or when the reactor was being shutdown manually. (author)

  4. Toggle rod stabilisation of coxofemoral luxation in 14 cats. (United States)

    Pratesi, A; Grierson, J; Moores, A P


    To describe the surgical technique and to report outcomes in cats with coxofemoral luxation treated with open reduction and toggle rod stabilisation. Retrospective study of cats with coxofemoral luxation stabilised via the toggle rod method. Short-term follow-up included clinical examination and radiographs. Long-term follow-up was via owner questionnaire. Fourteen cats were included. All of the cats had reported unilateral craniodorsal hip luxation. Nine cats (64·3%) had additional orthopaedic injuries. Luxations were stabilised with a 3·2-mm toggle rod (2·7-mm toggle rod in one cat) and two loops of four-metric polydioxanone (five-metric polydioxanone in one cat and three loops of four-metric polydioxanone in two cats). Success rate, in terms of maintenance of reduction, was 86%. Reluxation occurred in two cats (14%), both of which had multiple limb injuries. Eleven owner questionnaires (mean follow-up time 15·5 months) reported a functional outcome of "very good" to "excellent". Although the diameter of the pelvic canal was reduced by the presence of the toggle rod (mean narrowing 16.2%), none of the cats had defaecatory issues. Toggle rod stabilisation is an effective method for the treatment of coxofemoral luxation in cats. Injuries to multiple limbs may be a risk factor for reluxation. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  5. Vibrational Power Flow Analysis of Rods and Beams (United States)

    Wohlever, James Christopher; Bernhard, R. J.


    A new method to model vibrational power flow and predict the resulting energy density levels in uniform rods and beams is investigated. This method models the flow of vibrational power in a manner analogous to the flow of thermal power in a heat conduction problem. The classical displacement solutions for harmonically excited, hysteretically damped rods and beams are used to derive expressions for the vibrational power flow and energy density in the rod and beam. Under certain conditions, the power flow in these two structural elements will be shown to be proportional to the energy density gradient. Using the relationship between power flow and energy density, an energy balance on differential control volumes in the rod and beam leads to a Poisson's equation which models the energy density distribution in the rod and beam. Coupling the energy density and power flow solutions for rods and beams is also discussed. It is shown that the resonant behavior of finite structures complicates the coupling of solutions, especially when the excitations are single frequency inputs. Two coupling formulations are discussed, the first based on the receptance method, and the second on the travelling wave approach used in Statistical Energy Analysis. The receptance method is the more computationally intensive but is capable of analyzing single frequency excitation cases. The traveling wave approach gives a good approximation of the frequency average of energy density and power flow in coupled systems, and thus, is an efficient technique for use with broadband frequency excitation.

  6. Commissioning of a passive rod scanner at INB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junqueira, Fabio da Silva; Oliveira, Carlos A.; Palheiros, Franklin, E-mail:, E-mail: [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil). Superintendencia de Engenharia do Combustivel; Fernandez, Pablo Jesus Piñer, E-mail: [Tecnatom, San Sebastian de los Reyes, Madrid (Spain)


    For the 21st reload for Angra 1, a shift from Standard to Advanced fuel design will be introduced, where the fuel assemblies under the new design will contain fuel rods with axial blanket, in line with ELETRONUCLEAR's requirement for a higher energy efficient reactor fuel. Additionally, fuel rods for Angra 2 and 3, using gadolinium type burnable poison, have to be submitted to inspections due to the demand for the same type of inspection, which cannot be certified at INB currently. In keeping with CNEN regulations, every fuel-assembly component must be inspected and certified by a qualified method. Nevertheless, INB lacks the means to perform the certification-required inspection aimed at determining the uranium enrichment and presence of gadolinium pellets inside the closed rods. Hence, the use is necessary of a scanner capable of inspecting differently enriched fuel rods and/or gadolinium pellets (axial blanket). This work aims to present the recent Passive Rod Scanner installed at INB with most advance technology in the area, making possible to completely fulfill Angra 1, 2 and 3 rods inspection at INB Resende site. (author)

  7. A categorical view of textural approximation spaces | Dost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent works on textures show that they also provide a useful model for rough set theory. In this paper, we show that i-c spaces (interior-closure texture spaces) can be regarded as a textural rough set systems on a single universe. Then we consider the approaches containing direlations and dicovers for textural rough sets ...

  8. Rod internal pressure quantification and distribution analysis using Frapcon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessee, Matthew Anderson [ORNL; Wieselquist, William A [ORNL; Ivanov, Kostadin [Pennsylvania State University, University Park


    This report documents work performed supporting the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) Fuel Cycle Technologies Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) under work breakdown structure element, ST Analysis. In particular, this report fulfills the M4 milestone M4FT- 15OR0810036, Quantify effects of power uncertainty on fuel assembly characteristics, within work package FT-15OR081003 ST Analysis-ORNL. This research was also supported by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (, an Energy Innovation Hub ( for Modeling and Simulation of Nuclear Reactors under U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725. The discharge rod internal pressure (RIP) and cladding hoop stress (CHS) distributions are quantified for Watts Bar Nuclear Unit 1 (WBN1) fuel rods by modeling core cycle design data, operation data (including modeling significant trips and downpowers), and as-built fuel enrichments and densities of each fuel rod in FRAPCON-3.5. A methodology is developed which tracks inter-cycle assembly movements and assembly batch fabrication information to build individual FRAPCON inputs for each evaluated WBN1 fuel rod. An alternate model for the amount of helium released from the zirconium diboride (ZrB2) integral fuel burnable absorber (IFBA) layer is derived and applied to FRAPCON output data to quantify the RIP and CHS for these types of fuel rods. SCALE/Polaris is used to quantify fuel rodspecific spectral quantities and the amount of gaseous fission products produced in the fuel for use in FRAPCON inputs. Fuel rods with ZrB2 IFBA layers (i.e., IFBA rods) are determined to have RIP predictions that are elevated when compared to fuel rod without IFBA layers (i.e., standard rods) despite the fact that IFBA rods often have reduced fill pressures and annular fuel pellets. The primary contributor to elevated RIP predictions at burnups less than and greater than 30 GWd

  9. Aesthetics by numbers:Links between perceived texture qualities and computed visual texture properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Henrikus Augustinus Hubertus Jacobs


    Full Text Available Our world is filled with texture. For the human visual system, this is an important source of information for assessing environmental and material properties. Indeed – and presumably for this reason– the human visual system has regions dedicated to processing textures. Despite their abundance and apparent relevance, only recently the relationships between texture features and high-level judgments have captured the interest of mainstream science, despite long-standing indications for such relationships. In this study, we explore such relationships, as these might be used to predict perceived texture qualities. This is relevant, not only from a psychological/neuroscience perspective, but also for more applied fields such as design, architecture, and the visual arts. In two separate experiments, observers judged various qualities of visual textures such as beauty, roughness, naturalness, elegance, and complexity. Based on factor analysis, we find that in both experiments, ~75% of the variability in the judgments could be explained by a two-dimensional space, with axes that are closely aligned to the beauty and roughness judgments. That a two-dimensional judgment space suffices to capture most of the variability in the perceived texture qualities suggests that observers use a relatively limited set of internal scales on which to base various judgments, including aesthetic ones.Finally, for both of these judgments, we determined the relationship with a large number of texture features computed for each of the texture stimuli. We find that the presence of lower spatial frequencies, oblique orientations, higher intensity variation, higher saturation, and redness correlates with higher beauty ratings. Features that captured image intensity and uniformity correlated with roughness ratings. Therefore, a number of computational texture features are predictive of these judgments. This suggests that perceived texture qualities – including the aesthetic

  10. Age-related decrease in rod bipolar cell density of the human retina ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    During normal ageing, the rods (and other neurones) undergo a significant decrease in density in the human retina from the fourth decade of life onward. Since the rods synapse with the rod bipolar cells in the outer plexiform layer, a decline in rod density (mainly due to death) may ultimately cause an associated decline of ...

  11. 75 FR 21658 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Trinidad and Tobago (United States)


    ... Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Trinidad and Tobago AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... Investigation No. 731-TA-961 concerning carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod (``wire rod'') from Trinidad and... value. Caribbean Ispat Ltd., a Trinidadian producer and exporter of wire rod now known as Mittal Steel...

  12. Characterization of control rod worths and fuel rod power peaking factors in the university of Utah TRIGA Mark I reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alroumi Fawaz


    Full Text Available Control rod reactivity (worths for the three control rods and fuel rod power peaking factors in the University of Utah research reactor (100 kW TRIGA Mark I are characterized using the AGENT code system and the results described in this paper. These values are compared to the MCNP6 and existing experimental measurements. In addition, the eigenvalue, neutron spatial flux distributions and reaction rates are analyzed and discussed. The AGENT code system is widely benchmarked for various reactor types and complexities in their geometric arrangements of the assemblies and reactor core material distributions. Thus, it is used as a base methodology to evaluate neutronics variables of the research reactor at the University of Utah. With its much shorter computation time than MCNP6, AGENT provides agreement with the MCNP6 within a 0.5 % difference for the eigenvalue and a maximum difference of 10% in the power peaking factor values. Differential and integral control rod worths obtained by AGENT show well agreement with MCNP6 and the theoretical model. However, regulating the control rod worth is somewhat overestimated by both MCNP6 and AGENT models when compared to the experimental/theoretical values. In comparison to MCNP6, the total control rod worths and shutdown margin obtained with AGENT show better agreement to the experimental values.

  13. Visual texture accurate material appearance measurement, representation and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Haindl, Michal


    This book surveys the state of the art in multidimensional, physically-correct visual texture modeling. Features: reviews the entire process of texture synthesis, including material appearance representation, measurement, analysis, compression, modeling, editing, visualization, and perceptual evaluation; explains the derivation of the most common representations of visual texture, discussing their properties, advantages, and limitations; describes a range of techniques for the measurement of visual texture, including BRDF, SVBRDF, BTF and BSSRDF; investigates the visualization of textural info

  14. A Multi-Stage Wear Model for Grid-to-Rod Fretting of Nuclear Fuel Rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL


    The wear of fuel rod cladding against the supporting structures in the cores of pressurized water nuclear reactors (PWRs) is an important and potentially costly tribological issue. Grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF), as it is known, involves not only time-varying contact conditions, but also elevated temperatures, flowing hot water, aqueous tribo-corrosion, and the embrittling effects of neutron fluences. The multi-stage, closed-form analytical model described in this paper relies on published out-of-reactor wear and corrosion data and a set of simplifying assumptions to portray the conversion of frictional work into wear depth. The cladding material of interest is a zirconium-based alloy called Zircaloy-4, and the grid support is made of a harder and more wear-resistant material. Focus is on the wear of the cladding. The model involves an incubation stage, a surface oxide wear stage, and a base alloy wear stage. The wear coefficient, which is a measure of the efficiency of conversion of frictional work into wear damage, can change to reflect the evolving metallurgical condition of the alloy. Wear coefficients for Zircaloy-4 and for a polyphase zirconia layer were back-calculated for a range of times required to wear to a critical depth. Inputs for the model, like the friction coefficient, are taken from the tribology literature in lieu of in-reactor tribological data. Concepts of classical fretting were used as a basis, but are modified to enable the model to accommodate the complexities of the PWR environment. Factors like grid spring relaxation, pre-oxidation of the cladding, multiple oxide phases, gap formation, impact, and hydrogen embrittlement are part of the problem definition but uncertainties in their relative roles limits the ability to validate the model. Sample calculations of wear depth versus time in the cladding illustrate how GTRF wear might occur in a discontinuous fashion during months-long reactor operating cycles. A means to account for grid/rod gaps

  15. Trabecular microarchitecture in established osteoporosis: relationship between vertebrae, distal radius and calcaneus by X-ray imaging texture analysis. (United States)

    Mallard, F; Bouvard, B; Mercier, P; Bizot, P; Cronier, P; Chappard, D


    Osteoporosis is an alteration of bone mass and microarchitecture leading to an increased risk of fractures. A radiograph is a 2D projection of the 3D bone network exposing a texture, that can be assessed by texture analysis. We compared the trabecular microarchitecture of the spine, radius and calcaneus in a series of osteoporotic cadavers. Thirty-four cadavers (11 men, 23 women), mean age 85.2±2.1years, were radiographed from T4 to L5 to identify those with vertebral fractures (FV). Non-fractured vertebrae (NFV), radius and calcaneus were taken and analyzed by densitometry, radiography and texture analysis under run-length, skeletonization of the trabeculae, and fractal geometry. Six subjects (five women, one man) were selected, mean age 82.5±5.5years. Twelve calcanei and 10 radii were taken. Two radii were excluded. The texture of NFV was significantly correlated (Pradius for horizontal run-lengths. No relationship between the texture of NFV and calcaneus was found. In the horizontal direction (perpendicular to the stress lines), the microarchitecture of NFV and radius showed a disappearance of the transverse rods anchoring the plates. Due to its particular microarchitecture, the calcaneus is not representative of the vertebral status. Bone densitometry provides no information about microarchitecture. Texture analysis of X-ray images of the radius would be a minimally invasive tool, providing an early detection of microarchitectural alterations. IV retrospective study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Aesthetics by numbers: Links between perceived texture qualities and computed visual texture properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, R.H.A.H.; Haak, K.V.; Thumfart, S.; Renken, R.J.; Henson, B.; Cornelissen, F.W.


    Our world is filled with texture. For the human visual system, this is an important source of information for assessing environmental and material properties. Indeed - and presumably for this reason - the human visual system has regions dedicated to processing textures. Despite their abundance and

  17. Aesthetics by Numbers : Links between Perceived Texture Qualities and Computed Visual Texture Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Richard H. A. H.; Haak, Koen V.; Thumfart, Stefan; Renken, Remco; Henson, Brian; Cornelissen, Frans W.


    Our world is filled with texture. For the human visual system, this is an important source of information for assessing environmental and material properties. Indeed-and presumably for this reason-the human visual system has regions dedicated to processing textures. Despite their abundance and

  18. Control Rod Driveline Reactivity Feedback Model for Liquid Metal Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Young-Min; Jeong, Hae-Yong; Chang, Won-Pyo; Cho, Chung-Ho; Lee, Yong-Bum


    The thermal expansion of the control rod drivelines (CRDL) is one important passive mitigator under all unprotected accident conditions in the metal and oxide cores. When the CRDL are washed by hot sodium in the coolant outlet plenum, the CRDL thermally expands and causes the control rods to be inserted further down into the active core region, providing a negative reactivity feedback. Since the control rods are attached to the top of the vessel head and the core attaches to the bottom of the reactor vessel (RV), the expansion of the vessel wall as it heats will either lower the core or raise the control rods supports. This contrary thermal expansion of the reactor vessel wall pulls the control rods out of the core somewhat, providing a positive reactivity feedback. However this is not a safety factor early in a transient because its time constant is relatively large. The total elongated length is calculated by subtracting the vessel expansion from the CRDL expansion to determine the net control rod expansion into the core. The system-wide safety analysis code SSC-K includes the CRDL/RV reactivity feedback model in which control rod and vessel expansions are calculated using single-nod temperatures for the vessel and CRDL masses. The KALIMER design has the upper internal structures (UIS) in which the CRDLs are positioned outside the structure where they are exposed to the mixed sodium temperature exiting the core. A new method to determine the CRDL expansion is suggested. Two dimensional hot pool thermal hydraulic model (HP2D) originally developed for the analysis of the stratification phenomena in the hot pool is utilized for a detailed heat transfer between the CRDL mass and the hot pool coolant. However, the reactor vessel wall temperature is still calculated by a simple lumped model.

  19. Strategy for Fuel Rod Receipt, Characterization, Sample Allocation for the Demonstration Sister Rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marschman, Steven C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Warmann, Stephan A. [Portage, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rusch, Chris [NAC International, Inc., Norcross, GA (United States)


    , inert gas backfilling, and transfer to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) for multi-year storage. To document the initial condition of the used fuel prior to emplacement in a storage system, “sister ” fuel rods will be harvested and sent to a national laboratory for characterization and archival purposes. This report supports the demonstration by describing how sister rods will be shipped and received at a national laboratory, and recommending basic nondestructive and destructive analyses to assure the fuel rods are adequately characterized for UFDC work. For this report, a hub-and-spoke model is proposed, with one location serving as the hub for fuel rod receipt and characterization. In this model, fuel and/or clad would be sent to other locations when capabilities at the hub were inadequate or nonexistent. This model has been proposed to reduce DOE-NE’s obligation for waste cleanup and decontamination of equipment.

  20. Texture classification of lung computed tomography images (United States)

    Pheng, Hang See; Shamsuddin, Siti M.


    Current development of algorithms in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme is growing rapidly to assist the radiologist in medical image interpretation. Texture analysis of computed tomography (CT) scans is one of important preliminary stage in the computerized detection system and classification for lung cancer. Among different types of images features analysis, Haralick texture with variety of statistical measures has been used widely in image texture description. The extraction of texture feature values is essential to be used by a CAD especially in classification of the normal and abnormal tissue on the cross sectional CT images. This paper aims to compare experimental results using texture extraction and different machine leaning methods in the classification normal and abnormal tissues through lung CT images. The machine learning methods involve in this assessment are Artificial Immune Recognition System (AIRS), Naive Bayes, Decision Tree (J48) and Backpropagation Neural Network. AIRS is found to provide high accuracy (99.2%) and sensitivity (98.0%) in the assessment. For experiments and testing purpose, publicly available datasets in the Reference Image Database to Evaluate Therapy Response (RIDER) are used as study cases.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová


    Full Text Available At present, there are limited and incomplete data on the ability of spelt to produce alimentary pasta of suitable quality. Noodles are traditional cereal-based food that is becoming increasingly popular worldwide because of its convenience, nutritional qualities, and palatability. It is generally accepted that texture is the main criterion for assessing overall quality of cooked noodles. We present selected indicators of noodle texture of three spelt cultivars – Oberkulmer Rotkorn, Rubiota and Franckenkorn grown in an ecological system at the locality of Dolna Malanta near Nitra. A texture analyzer TA.XT PLUS was used to determine cooked spelt wheat noodle firmness (N (AACC 66-50. The texture of cooked spelt wheat noodles was expressed also as elasticity (N and extensibility (mm. Statistical analysis showed significant influence of the variety and year of growing on the firmness, elasticity and extensibility of cooked noodles. The wholemeal spelt wheat noodles were characterized with lower cutting firmness than the flour noodles. Flour noodles were more tensile than wholemeal noodles. The best elasticity and extensibility of flour noodles was found in noodles prepared from Rubiota however from wholemeal noodles it was Oberkulmer Rotkorn. Spelt wheat is suitable for noodle production, however also here it is necessary to differentiate between varieties. According to achieved results, wholemeal noodles prepared from Oberkulmer Rotkorn can be recommended for noodle industry due to their consistent structure and better texture quality after cooking.

  2. Plasmonic-cavity model for radiating nano-rod antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Liang; Mortensen, N. Asger


    In this paper, we propose the analytical solution of nano-rod antennas utilizing a cylindrical harmonics expansion. By treating the metallic nano-rods as plasmonic cavities, we derive closed-form expressions for both the internal and the radiated fields, as well as the resonant condition and the ......In this paper, we propose the analytical solution of nano-rod antennas utilizing a cylindrical harmonics expansion. By treating the metallic nano-rods as plasmonic cavities, we derive closed-form expressions for both the internal and the radiated fields, as well as the resonant condition...... and the radiation efficiency. With our theoretical model, we show that besides the plasmonic resonances, efficient radiation takes advantage of (a) rendering a large value of the rods' radius and (b) a central-fed profile, through which the radiation efficiency can reach up to 70% and even higher in a wide...... frequency band. Our theoretical expressions and conclusions are general and pave the way for engineering and further optimization of optical antenna systems and their radiation patterns....

  3. On Cherenkov light production by irradiated nuclear fuel rods (United States)

    Branger, E.; Grape, S.; Jacobsson Svärd, S.; Jansson, P.; Andersson Sundén, E.


    Safeguards verification of irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storage is frequently done by measuring the Cherenkov light in the surrounding water produced due to radioactive decays of fission products in the fuel. This paper accounts for the physical processes behind the Cherenkov light production caused by a single fuel rod in wet storage, and simulations are presented that investigate to what extent various properties of the rod affect the Cherenkov light production. The results show that the fuel properties have a noticeable effect on the Cherenkov light production, and thus that the prediction models for Cherenkov light production which are used in the safeguards verifications could potentially be improved by considering these properties. It is concluded that the dominating source of the Cherenkov light is gamma-ray interactions with electrons in the surrounding water. Electrons created from beta decay may also exit the fuel and produce Cherenkov light, and e.g. Y-90 was identified as a possible contributor to significant levels of the measurable Cherenkov light in long-cooled fuel. The results also show that the cylindrical, elongated fuel rod geometry results in a non-isotropic Cherenkov light production, and the light component parallel to the rod's axis exhibits a dependence on gamma-ray energy that differs from the total intensity, which is of importance since the typical safeguards measurement situation observes the vertical light component. It is also concluded that the radial distributions of the radiation sources in a fuel rod will affect the Cherenkov light production.

  4. Control rod worth calculations using deterministic and stochastic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varvayanni, M. [NCSR ' DEMOKRITOS' , PO Box 60228, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Savva, P., E-mail: melina@ipta.demokritos.g [NCSR ' DEMOKRITOS' , PO Box 60228, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Catsaros, N. [NCSR ' DEMOKRITOS' , PO Box 60228, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece)


    Knowledge of the efficiency of a control rod to absorb excess reactivity in a nuclear reactor, i.e. knowledge of its reactivity worth, is very important from many points of view. These include the analysis and the assessment of the shutdown margin of new core configurations (upgrade, conversion, refuelling, etc.) as well as several operational needs, such as calibration of the control rods, e.g. in case that reactivity insertion experiments are planned. The control rod worth can be assessed either experimentally or theoretically, mainly through the utilization of neutronic codes. In the present work two different theoretical approaches, i.e. a deterministic and a stochastic one are used for the estimation of the integral and the differential worth of two control rods utilized in the Greek Research Reactor (GRR-1). For the deterministic approach the neutronics code system SCALE (modules NITAWL/XSDRNPM) and CITATION is used, while the stochastic one is made using the Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI. Both approaches follow the procedure of reactivity insertion steps and their results are tested against measurements conducted in the reactor. The goal of this work is to examine the capability of a deterministic code system to reliably simulate the worth of a control rod, based also on comparisons with the detailed Monte Carlo simulation, while various options are tested with respect to the deterministic results' reliability.

  5. Nonlinear stiffness profiles of external fixators constructed with composite rods. (United States)

    Carlson, Kimberly R; Kraus, Karl H; Kowaleski, Michael P


    To determine if composite connecting rods confer nonlinear stiffness characteristics on unilateral and bilateral external skeletal fixators (ESF) in cranial-caudal bending and axial loading. Mechanical testing performed on models. Six models of 6-pin ESF constructs composed of birch dowels, a commercial ESF system, and composite connecting rods. Unilateral and bilateral ESF configurations were assembled using either specially designed composite titanium and silicone (composite group) or solid titanium (solid group) connecting rods. Mechanical testing was performed in axial loading and 4-point cranial-caudal bending. Stiffness was determined at a low and high-load range, and was considered increasing and nonlinear if the stiffness at high loads was greater than at low loads. The stiffness of the solid group was linear in all testing modes and configurations. Bilateral composite fixators had a nonlinear increasing stiffness in axial loading and cranial-caudal bending. Unilateral composite fixators had a nonlinear increasing stiffness in axial loading, but not cranial-caudal bending. Solid connecting rods conferred a higher stiffness in all testing modes and configurations. Composite connecting rods resulted in nonlinear increasing axial and bending stiffness in bilateral fixators, and in axial load in unilateral fixators. Conventional ESF can be constructed so that the stiffness increases as load increases. This provides the surgeon with additional options to control the local mechanical environment of a healing fracture, which may be used to enhance fracture healing.

  6. Quasi-static and dynamic response of viscoelastic helical rods (United States)

    Temel, Beytullah; Fırat Çalim, Faruk; Tütüncü, Naki


    In this study, the dynamic behaviour of cylindrical helical rods made of linear viscoelastic materials are investigated in the Laplace domain. The governing equations for naturally twisted and curved spatial rods obtained using the Timoshenko beam theory are rewritten for cylindrical helical rods. The curvature of the rod axis, effect of rotary inertia, and shear and axial deformations are considered in the formulation. The material of the rod is assumed to be homogeneous, isotropic and linear viscoelastic. In the viscoelastic material case, according to the correspondence principle, the material constants are replaced with their complex counterparts in the Laplace domain. Ordinary differential equations in scalar form obtained in the Laplace domain are solved numerically using the complementary functions method to calculate the dynamic stiffness matrix of the problem. In the solutions, the Kelvin model is employed. The solutions obtained are transformed to the real space using the Durbin's numerical inverse Laplace transform method. Numerical results for quasi-static and dynamic response of viscoelastic models are presented in the form of graphics.

  7. Combustion of solid carbon rods in zero and normal gravity (United States)

    Spuckler, C. M.; Kohl, F. J.; Miller, R. A.; Stearns, C. A.; De Witt, K. J.


    In order to investigate the mechanism of carbon combustion, normal and zero gravity experiments were conducted in which spectroscopic carbon rods were resistance ignited and burned in an oxygen environment. Direct mass spectrometric sampling was used in the normal gravity tests to measure gas phase concentrations. The gas sampling probe was positioned near the circumference of the horizontally mounted carbon rods, either at the top or at angles of 45 or 90 deg from the top, and yielded concentration profiles of CO2, CO, and O2 as a function of distance from the carbon surface. The experimental concentrations were compared to those predicted by a stagnant film model. Zero gravity droptower tests were conducted in order to assess the effect of convection on the normal gravity combustion process. The ratio of flame diameter to rod diameter as a function of time for oxygen pressures of 5, 10, 15, and 20 psia was obtained for three different diameter rods. It was found that this ratio was inversely proportional to both the oxygen pressure and the rod diameter.

  8. Fault pseudotachylyte: a coseismic lightning rod (United States)

    Ferre, E. C.; Conder, J. A.; MathanaSekaran, N.; Geissman, J. W.


    of melt during the formation of a pseudotachylite vein. The increase in melt temperature is the most important factor affecting electrical conductivity in the fault plane. When the melt temperature rises from 1300 to 2000K, its electrical conductivity increases about 80 times. This implies that once a continuous pseudotachylite sheet-like vein is formed during an earthquake, the vein has a much higher electrical conductivity than its host-rock. The dramatic increase in electrical conductivity along the pseudotachylite plane might be synchronous with the generation of the coseismic electrical current. Thus, regardless of its origin, any electrical current produced during an earthquake will travel along the pseudotachylite plane which acts as a lightning rod. The magnetization of a solid due to an electrical current results from Biot-Savart law which states that an electrical current generates a magnetic field. The solidification of the pseudotachylite vein does not happen at once but proceeds from the margin inwards as an electrical current may still pass through the conducting pseudotachylite. Therefore, the host-rock of the pseudotachylite vein or its solidified margin can be magnetized by a coseismic current.

  9. Electrochemically grown rough-textured nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, Pawan; Postetter, David; Saragnese, Daniel [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (United States); Papadakis, Stergios J. [Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory (United States); Gracias, David H., E-mail: dgracias@jhu.ed [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (United States)


    Nanowires with a rough surface texture show unusual electronic, optical, and chemical properties; however, there are only a few existing methods for producing these nanowires. Here, we describe two methods for growing both free standing and lithographically patterned gold (Au) nanowires with a rough surface texture. The first strategy is based on the deposition of nanowires from a silver (Ag)-Au plating solution mixture that precipitates an Ag-Au cyanide complex during electrodeposition at low current densities. This complex disperses in the plating solution, thereby altering the nanowire growth to yield a rough surface texture. These nanowires are mass produced in alumina membranes. The second strategy produces long and rough Au nanowires on lithographically patternable nickel edge templates with corrugations formed by partial etching. These rough nanowires can be easily arrayed and integrated with microscale devices.

  10. Automatic photointerpretation via texture and morphology analysis (United States)

    Tou, J. T.


    Computer-based techniques for automatic photointerpretation based upon information derived from texture and morphology analysis of images are discussed. By automatic photointerpretation, is meant the determination of semantic descriptions of the content of the images by computer. To perform semantic analysis of morphology, a heirarchical structure of knowledge representation was developed. The simplest elements in a morphology are strokes, which are used to form alphabets. The alphabets are the elements for generating words, which are used to describe the function or property of an object or a region. The words are the elements for constructing sentences, which are used for semantic description of the content of the image. Photointerpretation based upon morphology is then augmented by textural information. Textural analysis is performed using a pixel-vector approach.

  11. Nano-granular texture of cement hydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannidou Katerina


    Full Text Available Mechanical behavior of concrete crucially depends on cement hydrates, the “glue” of cement. The design of high performance and more environmentally friendly cements demands a deeper understanding of the formation of the multiscale structure of cement hydrates, when they precipitate and densify. We investigate the precipitation and setting of nano-grains of cement hydrates using a combination of Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics numerical simulations and study their texture from nano up to the micron scale. We characterize the texture of cement hydrates using the local volume fraction distribution, the pore size distribution, the scattering intensity and the chord length distribution and we compare them with experiments. Our nano-granular model provides cement structure with realistic texture and mechanics and can be further used to investigate degradation mechanisms.

  12. Texture design for light touch perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhang


    Full Text Available This study focused on active light touch with predefined textures specially-designed for tactile perception. The counter-body material is stainless steel sheet. Three geometric structures (grid, crater and groove were fabricated by pulsed laser surface texturing. A total number of twenty volunteers participated in the research which contains two parts: perception tests and skin friction measurements. The perception tests focused mainly on the participants׳ perceptual attributes: perceived roughness and perceived stickiness. For the skin friction measurements, a multi-axis force/torque transducer was used to measure the normal force and friction force between skin and counter-surface along with the fingertip position. The results of the predefined textures showed the ability to reduce skin friction due to the reduction of contact area. Moreover, the participants׳ perceptual attributes were greatly influenced by the predefined micro-structures in the light touch regime.

  13. Changes in food bolus texture during mastication. (United States)

    Wada, Sachie; Goto, Takaharu; Fujimoto, Keiko; Watanabe, Megumi; Nagao, Kan; Nakamichi, Atsuko; Ichikawa, Tetsuo


    The purpose of this study was to survey the changes that occur in bolus texture from intake to swallowing during the mastication process for four types of food materials and to identify how texture is related to the number of chews. We recruited 15 young Japanese participants for this study. The subjects were asked to spit the food bolus just before swallowing when eating four different foods: cracker, boiled rice, hard gelatine gel, and soft gelatine gel. Three physical properties (hardness, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness) were measured in the bolus after being chewed for 25, 50, 75, 100, and 125% of the normal number of chews. Occlusal force and pressure as well as stimulated whole saliva volume were also measured. Extensive variation in the number of chews existed between subjects, but minimal intra-subject variation was observed. Hardness was observed to decrease, whereas cohesiveness and adhesiveness increased in a chew-dependent manner for the cracker, soft gelatine gel, and hard gelatine gel, but not boiled rice. Bolus texture appears to be largely related to the number of chews. Hardness also tended to be influenced by occlusion. The adhesiveness and hardness of the boiled rice were also greatly influenced by saliva volume and occlusal force, respectively. Hardness is an important rheological factor in food bolus texture and likely plays a significant role in determining the appropriate number of chews. Adhesiveness and cohesiveness appear to be secondary factors in this process. We propose a model of oral processing for application in determining the appropriate number of chews for an individual. Hardness appears to be an important rheological factor in food bolus texture, with adhesiveness and cohesiveness being secondary aspects. When food is hard or difficult to swallow, chewing behavior will likely be more influenced by the perception of bolus texture. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Analysis of Explanted Magnetically Controlled Growing Rods From Seven UK Spinal Centers. (United States)

    Joyce, Thomas J; Smith, Simon L; Rushton, Paul R P; Bowey, Andrew J; Gibson, Michael J


    Analysis of explanted MAGnetic Expansion Control (MAGEC) growing rods. To analyze explanted MAGEC rods used in management of early onset scoliosis and identify the mode of failure in such cases. Magnetically controlled growing rods are increasingly used as the option of choice for early onset scoliosis. However, being more complex than conventional growing rods they are perhaps more likely to succumb to multifarious failure modes. In addition, metallosis has been reported around failed MAGEC rods. Explanted MAGEC rods from seven UK spinal centers were obtained for independent analysis. Thirty-four MAGEC rods, from 18 children, explanted for reasons including failure of rod lengthening and maximum rod distraction reached, were cut open to allow internal components to be evaluated and assessed. Externally, all MAGEC rods showed localized marks, which were termed "growth marks" as they indicated growth of the rod in vivo, on the extending bar component. After cutting open, titanium wear debris was found inside all 34 (100%) MAGEC rods. Ninety-one percent (31/34) of MAGEC rods showed measurable wear of the extending bar, towards the magnet end. Substantial damage to the radial bearing was seen inside 74% (25/34) of MAGEC rods while O-ring seal failure was seen in 53% (18/34) of cases. In 44% (15/34) of MAGEC rods the drive pin was fractured but this was felt to be an effect of rod failure, not a cause. The combination of high volumes of titanium wear debris alongside O-ring seal damage likely accounts for the metallosis reported clinically around some MAGEC rods. Based on this explant data, a failure mechanism in MAGEC rods due to the natural off axis loading in the spine was proposed. This is the largest data set reporting a complete analysis of explanted MAGEC rods to date. 4.

  15. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.


    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  16. Biaxially textured articles formed by power metallurgy (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.


    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  17. Textures as Probes of Visual Processing. (United States)

    Victor, Jonathan D; Conte, Mary M; Chubb, Charles F


    Visual textures are a class of stimuli with properties that make them well suited for addressing general questions about visual function at the levels of behavior and neural mechanism. They have structure across multiple spatial scales, they put the focus on the inferential nature of visual processing, and they help bridge the gap between stimuli that are analytically convenient and the complex, naturalistic stimuli that have the greatest biological relevance. Key questions that are well suited for analysis via visual textures include the nature and structure of perceptual spaces, modulation of early visual processing by task, and the transformation of sensory stimuli into patterns of population activity that are relevant to perception.

  18. Micro Surface Texturing for Friction Control (United States)

    Rashwan, Ola

    Recently, surface texturing has gained momentum as a way to control the friction which is involved in various applications and systems, such as components of internal combustion engines, dies and punches of the metal forming processes and Micro-electrical-mechanical Systems (MEMS). This dissertation demonstrates that under dry sliding, there is a specific significant surface texturing parameter at which the coefficient of friction should be at a minimum. This dissertation met this objective through an extensive study of the relevant literature on surface texturing and friction, analysing the friction mechanisms involved in dry sliding, and highlighting the key factors that control friction as the real area of contact and material properties. An analytical proof is derived demonstrating that a minimum friction force exists if the two components of the friction force, adhesion and mechanical deformation, are differentiated with respect to the real contact area. In addition, numerical simulations and experimental work were performed to test this hypothesis. In the two and three dimensional finite element models, normal and sliding contact between a rigid indenter and elastic-plastic surfaces, which are textured by circular and hexagonal dimples of different sizes and densities, are simulated and analysed. Circular craters of different sizes and densities, are fabricated using laser ablation on hardened tool steel samples, while the hexagonal dimples are fabricated using photo-lithography. The dimples are arranged in adjacent equilateral triangles layout. Coefficients of friction were measured using a scratch tester under dry sliding conditions and constant load. In addition, adhesion forces were estimated using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The adhesion force is found to be exponentially decreasing with the increase of the spatial texture density. The dimensionless quantity, spatial texture density (D/L) was identified as the most significant texturing parameter

  19. Preparation of nanometer-scale rod array of hydroxyapatite crystal. (United States)

    Hayakawa, Satoshi; Li, Yaqi; Tsuru, Kanji; Osaka, Akiyoshi; Fujii, Eiji; Kawabata, Koji


    Fabrication of nano- or micro-structured scaffolds to mimic structural and three-dimensional details of natural bone or teeth has been the subject of much interest, and this study proposes a new strategy for self-assembling one-dimensional hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanorods into organized superstructures. A nanometer-scale rod array of HAp having preferred orientation to the c-axis was successfully prepared simply by soaking calcium-containing silicate glass substrates in Na(2)HPO(4) aqueous solution at 80 degrees C for various periods. Those HAp rods grew perpendicularly to the glass surface, and the crystallites covered the glass surface uniformly, resulting in a "dental enamel-like" rod array structure consisting of "pine-leaf-like" structure units.

  20. Simulations of optical sensors fabricated from metallic rods couplers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Balakrishanan, Shankar [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada, N6A 3K7 and Lawson Health Research Institute, 268, Grosvenor Street, London, Ontario N6A 4V2 (Canada)


    We have developed the optical sensing mechanism of photonic couplers fabricated from the periodically arranged metallic rods. The metallic rod lattice is embedded between two dielectric material waveguides. This structure is called metallic coupler. Using the transfer matrix method, expressions for the reflection and transmission coefficients of electromagnetic wave propagating in waveguides have been obtained. We found that for certain energies, the electromagnetic wave is totally reflected from the coupler. Similarly, for a certain energy range the light is totally transmitted. It has also been found that by changing the periodicity of the metallic rods, the transmitted energy can be reflected. The periodicity of the metallic lattice can be modified by applying an external stress or pressure. In other words, the system can be used as stress and pressure sensors. The present findings can be used to make new types photonic sensors.

  1. 3-D rod ejection analysis using a conservative methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Min Ho; Park, Jin Woo; Park, Guen Tae; Um, Kil Sup; Ryu, Seok Hee; Lee, Jae Il; Choi, Tong Soo [KEPCO, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The point kinetics model which simplifies the core phenomena and physical specifications is used for the conventional rod ejection accident analysis. The point kinetics model is convenient to assume conservative core parameters but this simplification loses large amount of safety margin. The CHASER system couples the three-dimensional core neutron kinetics code ASTRA, the sub-channel analysis code THALES and the fuel performance analysis code FROST. The validation study for the CHASER system is addressed using the NEACRP three-dimensional PWR core transient benchmark problem. A series of conservative rod ejection analyses for the APR1400 type plant is performed for both hot full power (HFP) and hot zero power (HZP) conditions to determine the most limiting cases. The conservative rod ejection analysis methodology is designed to properly consider important phenomena and physical parameters.

  2. Characterisation of Plasma Filled Rod Pinch electron beam diode operation (United States)

    MacDonald, James; Bland, Simon; Chittenden, Jeremy


    The plasma filled rod pinch diode (aka PFRP) offers a small radiographic spot size and a high brightness source. It operates in a very similar to plasma opening switches and dense plasma focus devices - with a plasma prefill, supplied via a number of simple coaxial plasma guns, being snowploughed along a thin rod cathode, before detaching at the end. The aim of this study is to model the PFRP and understand the factors that affect its performance, potentially improving future output. Given the dependence on the PFRP on the prefill, we are making detailed measurements of the density (1015-1018 cm-3), velocity, ionisation and temperature of the plasma emitted from a plasma gun/set of plasma guns. This will then be used to provide initial conditions to the Gorgon 3D MHD code, and the dynamics of the entire rod pinch process studied.

  3. The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters Read Out Driver (ROD) system

    CERN Document Server

    Henry-Coüannier, F


    The electronic Readout chain for the Liquid Argon calorimeters of the ATLAS detector is briefly presented. Special attention is given to the Read Out Drivers (ROD) which will receive the triggered data from approximately 200,000 calorimeter cells at a 100 kHz event rate. In the ROD boards the energy will be computed for each cell from discrete samples of the waveform using optimal filtering algorithms running in fast digital signal processors. The monitoring of the calorimeter data will also be performed at the ROD level. Performances expected in ATLAS which have been evaluated from simulation studies are presented. A demonstrator system currently under construction is described and performances of the Processing Units (DSP daughter boards) are presented. 4 Refs.

  4. An experimental study on mechanical properties of GFRP braid-pultruded composite rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available In this work, a conventional textile braiding machine was modified and added to a pultrusion line in order to produce glass fiber reinforced composite rods by braiding-pultrusion technique. Braid-pultruded (BP rods were produced with three braid roving linear densities and also with three different braid angles. To study the influence of overbraiding on mechanical properties of pultruded rods, unidirectional (UD rods, without braided fabric, were produced, as well. All rod types were subjected to tensile, bending and torsion tests. The experimental results showed that BP rods have considerably higher shear modulus, but lower tensile modulus and flexural rigidity than those of UD pultruded rods, when fiber volume fraction is kept constant. Moreover, rods produced with higher braid roving linear densities had better torsional, but lower tensile and flexural properties. The highest shear modulus was observed in BP rods with braid angle of 45°.

  5. New models of droplet deposition and entrainment for prediction of CHF in cylindrical rod bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haibin, E-mail: [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2BY (United Kingdom); Hewitt, G.F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2BY (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: • New models of droplet deposition and entrainment in rod bundles is developed. • A new phenomenological model to predict the CHF in rod bundles is described. • The present model is well able to predict CHF in rod bundles. - Abstract: In this paper, we present a new set of model of droplet deposition and entrainment in cylindrical rod bundles based on the previously proposed model for annuli (effectively a “one-rod” bundle) (2016a). These models make it possible to evaluate the differences of the rates of droplet deposition and entrainment for the respective rods and for the outer tube by taking into account the geometrical characteristics of the rod bundles. Using these models, a phenomenological model to predict the CHF (critical heat flux) for upward annular flow in vertical rod bundles is described. The performance of the model is tested against the experimental data of Becker et al. (1964) for CHF in 3-rod and 7-rod bundles. These data include tests in which only the rods were heated and data for simultaneous uniform and non-uniform heating of the rods and the outer tube. It was shown that the predicted CHFs by the present model agree well with the experimental data and with the experimental observation that dryout occurred first on the outer rods in 7-rod bundles. It is expected that the methodology used will be generally applicable in the prediction of CHF in rod bundles.

  6. Periodicity effects of axial waves in elastic compound rods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R. B.; Sorokin, S. V.


    Floquet analysis is applied to the Bernoulli-Euler model for axial waves in a periodic rod. Explicit asymptotic formulae for the stop band borders are given and the topology of the stop band pattern is explained. Eigenfrequencies of the symmetric unit cell are determined by the Phase-closure Prin......Floquet analysis is applied to the Bernoulli-Euler model for axial waves in a periodic rod. Explicit asymptotic formulae for the stop band borders are given and the topology of the stop band pattern is explained. Eigenfrequencies of the symmetric unit cell are determined by the Phase...

  7. Determination of Ultimate Torque for Multiply Connected Cross Section Rod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Danilov


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to determine load-carrying capability of the multiply cross-section rod. This calculation is based on the model of the ideal plasticity of the material, so that the desired ultimate torque is a torque at which the entire cross section goes into a plastic state.The article discusses the cylindrical multiply cross-section rod. To satisfy the equilibrium equation and the condition of plasticity simultaneously, two stress function Ф and φ are introduced. By mathematical transformations it has been proved that Ф is constant along the path, and a formula to find its values on the contours has been obtained. The paper also presents the rationale of the line of stress discontinuity and obtained relationships, which allow us to derive the equations break lines for simple interaction of neighboring circuits, such as two lines, straight lines and circles, circles and a different sign of the curvature.After substitution into the boundary condition at the end of the stress function Ф and mathematical transformations a formula is obtained to determine the ultimate torque for the multiply cross-section rod.Using the doubly connected cross-section and three-connected cross-section rods as an example the application of the formula of ultimate torque is studied.For doubly connected cross-section rod, the paper offers a formula of the torque versus the radius of the rod, the aperture radius and the distance between their centers. It also clearly demonstrates the torque dependence both on the ratio of the radii and on the displacement of hole. It is shown that the value of the torque is more influenced by the displacement of hole, rather than by the ratio of the radii.For the three-connected cross-section rod the paper shows the integration feature that consists in selection of a coordinate system. As an example, the ultimate torque is found by two methods: analytical one and 3D modeling. The method of 3D modeling is based on the Nadai

  8. Quantitative texture analysis of electrodeposited line patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A.J.


    Free-standing line patterns of Cu and Ni were manufactured by electrochemical deposition into lithographically prepared patterns. Electrodeposition was carried out on top of a highly oriented Au-layer physically vapor deposited on glass. Quantitative texture analysis carried out by means of x...

  9. Graph-based features for texture discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, Cosmin; Petkov, Nikolay; Sanfeliu, A; Villanueva, JJ; Vanrell, M; Alquezar, R; Huang, T; Serra, J


    Graph-based features, such as the number of connected components, edges of a given orientation and vertices per unit area, and the number of vertices and pixels per connected component, are proposed for the analysis of textures which consist of structural elements. The proposed set of features is

  10. Factors Affecting the Textural Properties of Pork (United States)

    Holmer, Sean Frederick


    Research concerning rate and extent of tenderization has focused on beef or lamb. However, it is critical to understand these processes in pork, especially as retailers move towards minimally processed or non-enhanced product. The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the textural properties of pork (firmness and tenderness) by examining…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    This paper is an attempt to fill an important gap in the existing literature on trade unions by providing a more adequate theoretical formulation of trade union environments. The discussion suggests that unlike the environment of business and related organisations whose causal texture is understood in terms of uncertainty, ...

  12. On the origin of recrystallization textures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the ON model, it has been argued that a higher frequency of the special orientation (grains) than random occur, thus accounting for the texture. In the OG model, it has been argued that the specially oriented grains have a high mobility boundary and thus can migrate faster and grow to a larger size as compared to random ...

  13. Some Numerical Characteristics of Image Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Samarina


    Full Text Available Texture classification is one of the basic images processing tasks. In this paper we present some numerical characteristics to the images analysis and processing. It can be used at the solving of images classification problems, their recognition, problems of remote sounding, biomedical images analysis, geological researches.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    providing a more adequate theoretical formulation of trade union environments. The discussion suggests that unlike the environment of business and related organisations whose causal texture is understood in terms of uncertainty, complexity, instability and turbulence that of trade unions needs to be understood in terms of ...

  15. A neural network model for texture discrimination. (United States)

    Xing, J; Gerstein, G L


    A model of texture discrimination in visual cortex was built using a feedforward network with lateral interactions among relatively realistic spiking neural elements. The elements have various membrane currents, equilibrium potentials and time constants, with action potentials and synapses. The model is derived from the modified programs of MacGregor (1987). Gabor-like filters are applied to overlapping regions in the original image; the neural network with lateral excitatory and inhibitory interactions then compares and adjusts the Gabor amplitudes in order to produce the actual texture discrimination. Finally, a combination layer selects and groups various representations in the output of the network to form the final transformed image material. We show that both texture segmentation and detection of texture boundaries can be represented in the firing activity of such a network for a wide variety of synthetic to natural images. Performance details depend most strongly on the global balance of strengths of the excitatory and inhibitory lateral interconnections. The spatial distribution of lateral connective strengths has relatively little effect. Detailed temporal firing activities of single elements in the lateral connected network were examined under various stimulus conditions. Results show (as in area 17 of cortex) that a single element's response to image features local to its receptive field can be altered by changes in the global context.

  16. Surface texture metrology for high precision surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gasparin, Stefania; Tosello, Guido


    This paper introduces some of the challenges related to surface texture measurement of high precision surfaces. The paper is presenting two case studies related to polished tool surfaces and micro part surfaces. In both cases measuring instrumentation, measurement procedure and the measurement re...

  17. Adaptive Matrices for Color Texture Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunte, Kerstin; Giotis, Ioannis; Petkov, Nicolai; Biehl, Michael; Real, P; DiazPernil, D; MolinaAbril, H; Berciano, A; Kropatsch, W


    In this paper we introduce an integrative approach towards color texture classification learned by a supervised framework. Our approach is based on the Generalized Learning Vector Quantization (GLVQ), extended by an adaptive distance measure which is defined in the Fourier domain and 2D Gabor

  18. Functional allocation of synaptic contacts in microcircuits from rods via rod bipolar to AII amacrine cells in the mouse retina. (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Yoshihiko; Omi, Naoko


    Retinal microcircuits for night vision at the absolute threshold are required to relay a single-photon rod signal reliably to ganglion cells via rod bipolar (RB) cells and AII amacrine cells. To assess the noise reduction of intercellular signal transmission in this rod-specific pathway, we quantified its synaptic connectivity by 3D reconstruction of a series of electron micrographs. In most cases (94%), each rod made ribbon synaptic contacts onto two adjacent RB cells. Conversely, each RB cell was contacted by 25 rods. Each RB axon terminal contacted four or five AII amacrine cells via 53 ribbon synapses. Thus, the signal from one rod may be represented as 106 replicates at two RB axons. Moreover, the two adjacent RB cells contacted two to four AII amacrine cells in common, where the signals relayed by two RB cells were reunited. In more detail, over 50% of each RB output was directed predominantly to a single, preferred AII amacrine cell, although each RB cell also separately contacted another one to three AII amacrine cells. Most of the replicate signals at two RB axons were collected on a few AII amacrine cells via reunions, dominant connections, and electrical coupling by AII-AII gap junctions. Thus the original signal may be reliably represented by signal amplification with focal accumulation without gathering unnecessary noise from a wide surrounding area. This allocation of RB-AII synaptic contacts may serve as the structural basis for the physiological properties of the AII single-photon response that include high amplification, local adaptation, and regenerative acceleration. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Spin Transport in Ferromagnetic and Antiferromagnetic Textures

    KAUST Repository

    Akosa, Collins A.


    In this dissertation, we provide an accurate description of spin transport in magnetic textures and in particular, we investigate in detail, the nature of spin torque and magnetic damping in such systems. Indeed, as will be further discussed in this thesis, the current-driven velocity of magnetic textures is related to the ratio between the so-called non-adiabatic torque and magnetic damping. Uncovering the physics underlying these phenomena can lead to the optimal design of magnetic systems with improved efficiency. We identified three interesting classes of systems which have attracted enormous research interest (i) Magnetic textures in systems with broken inversion symmetry: We investigate the nature of magnetic damping in non-centrosymmetric ferromagnets. Based on phenomenological and microscopic derivations, we show that the magnetic damping becomes chiral, i.e. depends on the chirality of the magnetic texture. (ii) Ferromagnetic domain walls, skyrmions and vortices: We address the physics of spin transport in sharp disordered magnetic domain walls and vortex cores. We demonstrate that upon spin-independent scattering, the non-adiabatic torque can be significantly enhanced. Such an enhancement is large for vortex cores compared to transverse domain walls. We also show that the topological spin currents owing in these structures dramatically enhances the non-adiabaticity, an effect unique to non-trivial topological textures (iii) Antiferromagnetic skyrmions: We extend this study to antiferromagnetic skyrmions and show that such an enhanced topological torque also exist in these systems. Even more interestingly, while such a non-adiabatic torque inuences the undesirable transverse velocity of ferromagnetic skyrmions, in antiferromagnetic skyrmions, the topological non-adiabatic torque directly determines the longitudinal velocity. As a consequence, scaling down the antiferromagnetic skyrmion results in a much more efficient spin torque.

  20. Texture of semi-solids : sensory flavor-texture interactions for custard desserts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Rasing, F.; Wilkinson, C.L.


    Possible interactions between flavor and oral texture sensations were investigated for four flavorants, diacetyl, benzaldehyde, vanillin, and caffeine, added in two concentrations to model vanilla custard desserts. The flavorants affected viscosities and resulted in corresponding changes in

  1. The improvement of control rod in experimental fast reactor JOYO. The development of a sodium bonded type control rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soga, T.; Miyakawa, S.; Mitsugi, T. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai Engineering Center, Irradiation Center, Irradiation and Administration Section, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)


    Currently, the lifetime of control rods in JOYO is limited by Absorber-Cladding Mechanical Interaction (ACMI) due to swelling of B{sub 4}C(boron carbide) pellets accelerated by relocation of pellet fragments. A sodium bonded type control rod was developed which improves the thermal conductivity by means of charging sodium into the gap between B{sub 4}C and cladding and by utilizing a shroud which wraps the pellet fragments in a thin tube. This new design will be able to enlarge the gap between B{sub 4}C and cladding, without heating B{sub 4}C or fragment relocation, thus extending the life of the control rod. The sodium bonded type will be fabricated as the ninth reload control rods in JOYO. (1) The specification of a sodium bonded type control rod was determined with the wide gap between B{sub 4}C and cladding. In the design simulation, main component temperature were below the maximum limit. And the local heating by helium bubble generated from B{sub 4}C in the sodium gap, was not a serious problem in the analysis which was considered. (2) A structural design for the sodium entrance into the pin was determined. A formula was developed which the limit for sodium charging given physical dimension of the structure and sodium property. Result from sodium out-pile experiments validated the theoretical formula. (3) The analysis of ACMI indicated a lifetime extension of the sodium bonded type by 4.6% in comparison with lifetime of the helium bonded type of 1.6%. This is due to the boron10 burn-up rate being three times higher in the sodium bonded type than in the helium bonded type. To achieve a target burn-up 10% in the future, it will be necessary to modify design based on irradiation data which will be obtained by practical use of the sodium bonded control rods in JOYO. (4) The effects due to Absorber-Cladding Chemical Interaction (ACCI) were reduced by controlling the cladding temperature and chromium coating to the cladding's inner surface. It was confirmed

  2. Microstructure analysis and comparison of tungsten alloy rod and [001] oriented columnar-grained tungsten rod ballistic penetrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappu, S.; Kennedy, C.; Murr, L.E. [Texas Univ., El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering; Magness, L.S. [US Army Research Lab., Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Kapoor, D. [US Army Armament, Research, Development, and Engineering Center (ARDEC), Picatinny Arsenal, NJ (United States)


    Tungsten heavy alloy (WHA) penetrator rods (93% W particles in a matrix of 4.9% Ni and 2.1% Fe) were compared with [001] columnar-grained W penetrator rods in the as-fabricated condition, and after penetration into thick targets at impact velocities of 1 and 1.5 km s{sup -1}, respectively. Light metallography and transmission electron microscopy revealed the initial W microstructures to be similar arrangements of predominantly a left angle 111 right angle /2 screw dislocations. The in-target (deformed) microstructures were characterized by recovered and elongated sub-grains having misorientations ranging from 1 to 5 . (orig.) 22 refs.

  3. Decomposition of dynamic textures using Morphological Component Analysis


    Dubois, Sloven; Péteri, Renaud; Ménard, Michel


    International audience; The research context of this work is dynamic texture analysis and characterization. Many dynamic textures can be modeled as large scale propagating wavefronts and local oscillating phenomena. After introducing a formal model for dynamic textures, the Morphological Component Analysis (MCA) approach with a well chosen dictionary is used to retrieve the components of dynamic textures. We define two new strategies for adaptive thresholding in the MCA framework, which great...

  4. Neural Network-Based Segmentation of Textures Using Gabor Features


    Ramakrishnan, AG; Raja, Kumar S; Ram, Ragu HV


    The effectiveness of Gabor filters for texture segmentation is well known. In this paper, we propose a texture identification scheme, based on a neural network (NN) using Gabor features. The features are derived from both the Gabor cosine and sine filters. Through experiments, we demonstrate the effectiveness of a NN based classifier using Gabor features for identifying textures in a controlled environment. The neural network used for texture identification is based on the multilayer perceptr...

  5. The Evolutionary Linguist's Divining-rod: Restrictive Theory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The Evolutionary Linguist's Divining-rod: Restrictive Theory 51 course, to be complemented by a theory which characterizes – in an equally constrained way – the products of adaptation by natural selection. Indeed, on certain theories of evolutionary processes an entity is considered an exaptation if it lacks the properties of ...

  6. Boiling water reactor radiation shielded Control Rod Drive Housing Supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baversten, B.; Linden, M.J. [ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Operations, Windsor, CT (United States)


    The Control Rod Drive (CRD) mechanisms are located in the area below the reactor vessel in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Specifically, these CRDs are located between the bottom of the reactor vessel and above an interlocking structure of steel bars and rods, herein identified as CRD Housing Supports. The CRD Housing Supports are designed to limit the travel of a Control Rod and Control Rod Drive in the event that the CRD vessel attachement went to fail, allowing the CRD to be ejected from the vessel. By limiting the travel of the ejected CRD, the supports prevent a nuclear overpower excursion that could occur as a result of the ejected CRD. The Housing Support structure must be disassembled in order to remove CRDs for replacement or maintenance. The disassembly task can require a significant amount of outage time and personnel radiation exposure dependent on the number and location of the CRDs to be changed out. This paper presents a way to minimize personal radiation exposure through the re-design of the Housing Support structure. The following paragraphs also delineate a method of avoiding the awkward, manual, handling of the structure under the reactor vessel during a CRD change out.

  7. Porous tantalum rods for treating osteonecrosis of the femoral head. (United States)

    Liu, Z H; Guo, W S; Li, Z R; Cheng, L M; Zhang, Q D; Yue, D B; Shi, Z C; Wang, B L; Sun, W; Zhang, N F


    This study evaluated the outcomes of using porous tantalum rods for the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). We performed core decompression and inserted porous tantalum implants in 149 patients (168 consecutive hips) with ONFH. Hips had large (65), medium (64), or small (39) lesions; 63 lesions were lateral, 68 were central, and 35 were medial. Conversion to total hip arthroplasty (THA) was the end point of this survey. A total of 130 cases (138 hips) were followed. The mean follow-up time was 38.46 ± 5.76 months; 43 hips (31%) were converted to or needed THA. Of the 43 hips requiring THA, 33 had large lesions, including 1 medial, 3 central, and 29 lateral lesions; 9 had medium, lateral lesions, and 1 hip had a small, lateral lesion. Bone grafting was used in 59 hips, with 3 hips failing; 40 of 79 hips without bone grafts failed. The sum distances between the tops of the rods and the lateral lesion boundaries (SDTL, mm) were measured in anteroposterior and lateral radiographs. In the failure and spared groups, the average SDTLs were 7.65 ± 2.759 and 0.83 ± 2.286 mm, respectively. The survival of porous tantalum rods used for treating early-stage ONFH was affected by the size and location of the lesion, whether or not a bone graft was used, as well as the distance between top of the rod and the lateral boundary of the lesion.

  8. Effect of Cuisenaire Rods' approach on students' interest in decimal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored the effectiveness of Cuisenaire Rods' approach in arousing students' interest in decimal fractions. Two research questions were posed and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A sample of 200 JS3 students from a randomly selected schools in Makurdi Metropolis of Benue State, served ...

  9. Mathematical model of an integrated circuit cooling through cylindrical rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrán-Prieto Luis Antonio


    Full Text Available One of the main challenges in integrated circuits development is to propose alternatives to handle the extreme heat generated by high frequency of electrons moving in a reduced space that cause overheating and reduce the lifespan of the device. The use of cooling fins offers an alternative to enhance the heat transfer using combined a conduction-convection systems. Mathematical model of such process is important for parametric design and also to gain information about temperature distribution along the surface of the transistor. In this paper, we aim to obtain the equations for heat transfer along the chip and the fin by performing energy balance and heat transfer by conduction from the chip to the rod, followed by dissipation to the surrounding by convection. Newton's law of cooling and Fourier law were used to obtain the equations that describe the profile temperature in the rod and the surface of the chip. Ordinary differential equations were obtained and the respective analytical solutions were derived after consideration of boundary conditions. The temperature along the rod decreased considerably from the initial temperature (in contatct with the chip surface. This indicates the benefit of using a cilindrical rod to distribute the heat generated in the chip.

  10. Phase behaviour of rod-like colloid + flexible polymer mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.; Stroobants, A.

    The effect of non-adsorbing, flexible polymer on the isotropic-nematic transition in dispersions of rod-like colloids is investigated. A widening of the biphasic gap is observed, in combination with a marked polymer partitioning between the coexisting phases. Under certain conditions, areas of

  11. Prosthetic Hand For Holding Rods, Tools, And Handles (United States)

    Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Vest, Thomas W.


    Prosthetic hand with quick-grip/quick-release lever broadens range of specialized functions available to lower-arm amputee by providing improved capabilities for gripping rods, tools, handles, and like. Includes two stationary lower fingers opposed by one pivoting upper finger. Lever operates in conjunction with attached bracket.

  12. Alignment of rod-shaped gold particles by electric fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zande, B.M.I. van der; Koper, G.J.M.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.


    The electro-optical response of colloidal dispersions of rod-shaped gold particles is studied for various aspect ratios (2.6 < L/d < 49; d = 15 nm) by monitoring the absorbance spectra in the visible wavelength regime. The absorbance spectra strongly depend on the degree of orientational order of

  13. Estimation and control in HTGR fuel rod fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, D J; Bailey, M J


    A control algorithm has been derived for a HTGR Fuel Rod Fabrication Process utilizing the method of Box and Jenkins. The estimator is a Kalman filter and is compared with a Least Square estimator and a standard control chart. The effects of system delays are presented.

  14. On the resonant behavior of longitudinally vibrating accreting rods

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, M


    Full Text Available subjected to longitudinal vibrations. This problem is described it terms of the linear classical, Rayleigh-Love and Rayleigh-Bishop models. It is assumed that the rod is fixed at one end and free at the other end and its length is increasing. For solution...

  15. Electric Field Driven Self-Assembly of Colloidal Rods (United States)

    Juarez, Jaime; Chaudhary, Kundan; Chen, Qian; Granick, Steve; Lewis, Jennifer


    The ability to assemble anisotropic colloidal building blocks into ordered configurations is of both scientific and technological importance. We are studying how electric field-induced interactions guide the self-assembly of these blocks into well aligned microstructures. Specifically, we present observations of the assembly of colloidal silica rods (L/D ˜ 4) within planar electrode cells as a function of different electric field parameters. Results from video microscopy and image analysis demonstrate that aligned microstructures form due to the competition between equilibrium interactions of induced dipoles and non-equilibrium processes (i.e., electro-osmosis). Under the appropriate electric field conditions (˜ kHZ AC fields), aligned colloidal rod fluids form over large areas on the electrode surface. The superposition of a DC electric field to this aligned colloidal rod fluid initiates their condensation into a vertically oriented crystalline phase. Ongoing work is now focused on exploring how temporal changes to electric fields influence colloidal rod dynamics and, hence, the assembly kinetics of aligned colloidal monolayers.

  16. Longitudinal vibrations of a Rayleigh-Bishop rod

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fedotov, IA


    Full Text Available In this work, for analyzing the longitudinal vibrations of a conic rod, the authors used the Rayleigh–Bishop model, which generalizes the Rayleigh model and takes into account both lateral displacements and the shear stress in the transverse cross...

  17. Cross-correlated imaging of distributed mode filtering rod fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurila, Marko; Barankov, Roman; Jørgensen, Mette Marie


    We analyze the modal properties of an 85μm core distributed mode filtering rod fiber using cross-correlated (C2) imaging. We evaluate suppression of higher-order modes (HOMs) under severely misaligned mode excitation and identify a single-mode regime where HOMs are suppressed by more than 20dB....

  18. The Rod and Bottle System: A Problem in Statics (United States)

    MacInnes, Iain


    The rod and bottle system (sometimes called the "wine butler"), shown in Fig. 1, is a common statics demonstration in the introductory level physics course. One is immediately attracted to it by the craftsmanship in wood. Thomas Carlyle wrote, "Two men I honour, and no third. The scholar and the craftsman."2 This paper presents an analytic treatment of the system.

  19. Rigid rod spaced fullerene as building block for nanoclusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By using phenylacetylene based rigid-rod linkers (PhA), we have successfully synthesized two fullerene derivatives, C60-PhA and C60-PhA-C60. The absorption spectral features of C60, as well as that of the phenylacetylene moiety are retained in the monomeric forms of these fullerene derivatives, ruling out the possibility ...

  20. Hemispherical-rod microlens as a variant fractional Fourier transformer. (United States)

    Dragoman, D; Brenner, K H; Dragoman, M; Bähr, J; Krackhardt, U


    It is shown that a hemispherical-rod microlens can act as a fractional Fourier transform device with a continuously varying degree of fractionality. It is believed to be the first proposed device to perform such a task; its most immediate applications include optical tomography.

  1. Nonlinear optical properties of rigid-rod polymers (United States)

    Trimmer, Mark S.; Wang, Ying


    The purpose of this research project was to integrate enhanced third order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties, especially high x(exp (3)) (greater than 10(exp -8) esu), into Maxdem's novel conjugated rigid-rod polymers while retaining their desirable processing, mechanical, and thermal properties. This work primarily involved synthetic approaches to optimized materials.

  2. Auer rod-like inclusions in non blast cells. (United States)

    Chapuis, Alexandra; Chebrek, Safia; Lefrand, Hélène; Chesnais, Anne-Laure; Granier, Guillaume; Zerazhi, Hacène; André-Kerneïs, Elisabeth


    We report a 69-year-old adult case with a monoclonal gammopathy incidentally discovered, associated with a moderate thrombocytopenia of 90 G/L. Study of blood smear revealed the presence of tumor cells presenting Auer rod-like inclusions, although there were not blast cells. Blood cytology as well as immunophenotyping allowed us to make the diagnosis of malignant hemopathy.

  3. Fabrication of control rods for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sease, J.D.


    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is a research-type nuclear reactor that was designed and built in the early 1960s and has been in continuous operation since its initial criticality in 1965. Under current plans, the HFIR is expected to continue in operation until 2035. This report updates ORNL/TM-9365, Fabrication Procedure for HFIR Control Plates, which was mainly prepared in the early 1970's but was not issued until 1984, and reflects process changes, lessons learned in the latest control rod fabrication campaign, and suggested process improvements to be considered in future campaigns. Most of the personnel involved with the initial development of the processes and in part campaigns have retired or will retire soon. Because their unlikely availability in future campaigns, emphasis has been placed on providing some explanation of why the processes were selected and some discussions about the importance of controlling critical process parameters. Contained in this report is a description of the function of control rods in the reactor, the brief history of the development of control rod fabrication processes, and a description of procedures used in the fabrication of control rods. A listing of the controlled documents and procedures used in the last fabrication campaigns is referenced in Appendix A.

  4. A Rod-Sparing Retinopathy in Bardet-Biedl Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia S. Chiu


    Full Text Available Bardet-Biedl syndrome is a continuum of disorders characterized by systemic and ocular findings. Retinal abnormalities typically present as diffuse photoreceptor degeneration. Here, we report a novel case that suggests a rod-sparing variant of Bardet-Biedl syndrome.

  5. Non-linear waves in heterogeneous elastic rods via homogenization

    KAUST Repository

    Quezada de Luna, Manuel


    We consider the propagation of a planar loop on a heterogeneous elastic rod with a periodic microstructure consisting of two alternating homogeneous regions with different material properties. The analysis is carried out using a second-order homogenization theory based on a multiple scale asymptotic expansion. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. SCADOP: Phenomenological modeling of dryout in nuclear fuel rod bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Arnab, E-mail:; Chandraker, D.K., E-mail:; Vijayan, P.K., E-mail:


    Highlights: • Phenomenological model for annular flow dryout is presented. • The model evaluates initial entrained fraction using a new methodology. • The history effect in annular flow is predicted and validated. • Rod bundle dryout is predicted using subchannel methodology. • Model is validated against experimental dryout data in tubes and rod bundles. - Abstract: Analysis and prediction of dryout is of important consequence to safety of nuclear fuel clusters of boiling water type of reactors. Traditionally, experimental correlations are used for dryout predictions. Since these correlations are based on operating parameters and do not aim to model the underlying phenomena, there has been a proliferation of the correlations, each catering to some specific bundle geometry under a specific set of operating conditions. Moreover, such experiments are extremely costly. In general, changes in tested bundle geometry for improvement in thermal-hydraulic performance would require re-experimentation. Understanding and modeling the basic processes leading to dryout in flow boiling thus has great incentive. Such a model has the ability to predict dryout in any rod bundle geometry, unlike the operating parameter based correlation approach. Thus more informed experiments can be carried out. A good model can, reduce the number of experiments required during the iterations in bundle design. In this paper, a phenomenological model as indicated above is presented. The model incorporates a new methodology to estimate the Initial Entrained Fraction (IEF), i.e., entrained fraction at the onset of annular flow. The incorporation of this new methodology is important since IEF is often assumed ad-hoc and sometimes also used as a parameter to tune the model predictions to experimental data. It is highlighted that IEF may be low under certain conditions against the general perception of a high IEF due to influence of churn flow. It is shown that the same phenomenological model is

  7. Evaluation of texture differences among varieties of cooked quinoa (United States)

    Texture is one of the most significant factors for consumers’ experience of foods. Texture difference of cooked quinoa among thirteen different varieties was studied. Correlations between the texture and seed composition, seed characteristics, cooking qualities, flour pasting properties and flour th...

  8. The Role of Texture in French Spectral Music (United States)

    Besharse, Kari E.


    This study examines the essential role of texture in French spectral music and its contribution to musical evolution and form in specific works by Gerard Grisey, Tristan Murail, Philippe Hurel, and Kaija Saariaho. The use of texture in French spectral music is placed in a historical context by exploring the new ways that texture is employed in…

  9. A dynamical system approach to texel identification in regular textures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, S.E.; Petkov, N.; Loncaric, S; Neri, A; Babic, H


    We propose a texture analysis method based on Rényi’s entropies. The method aims at identifying texels in regular textures by searching for the smallest window through which the minimum number of different visual patterns is observed when moving the window over a given texture. The experimental

  10. Texture analysis of the radiographic trabecular bone pattern in osteoporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Veenland (Jifke)


    textabstractTexture is an image property which is difficult to grasp. It can be described as a "homogeneous visual pattern"l. but there exists no formal definition of texture. Intuitively people can discriminate between different textures. referring to visual clues like coarseness, orientation.

  11. Brightness perception in low resolution images of 3d textures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Siteur, J.


    A first step towards the analysis of the appearance of 3 dimensional textures is presented in this paper. It is assumed that the scale of the texture is small relative to the resolution of the camera. Therefore, the texture itself is not distinguishable.However, the perceived brightness of the

  12. Texture Analysis Using Rényi’s Generalized Entropies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, S.E.; Petkov, N.


    We propose a texture analysis method based on Rényi’s generalized entropies. The method aims at identifying texels in regular textures by searching for the smallest window through which the minimum number of different visual patterns is observed when moving the window over a given texture. The

  13. Meat studies of indigenous Southern African cattle. II. Textural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Textural evaluations were conducted on the longissimus thoracis muscles from carcasses of young Afrikaner, Nguni and Pedi bulls ... Compared with published results of textural evaluation of steer meat, the meat from the young Afrikaner, Nguni and. Pedi bulls ..... HARRIS, P.V. & SHORTHOUSE, W.R., 1988. Meat texture.

  14. Design of textured surfaces for super-hydrophobicity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 42; Issue 11. Design of textured ... Alternatively, geometries of natural super-hydrophobic surfaces are often imitated to design textured surfaces. Knowing the ... dimensions.The proposed approach is sufficiently general that its application can be extended to design other textured surface ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bakalov


    Full Text Available Apple pomace - wheat semolina blends were extruded in a laboratory single screw extruder (Brabender 20 DN, Germany. Effects apple pomace content, moisture content, screw speed, and temperature of final cooking zone on texture of extrudates were studied applying response surface methodology. The texture characteristics of the extrudates were measured using a TA.XT Plus Texture Analyser, Stable Micro Systems.

  16. A Texture Thesaurus for Browsing Large Aerial Photographs. (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Ying; Manjunath, B. S.


    Presents a texture-based image-retrieval system for browsing large-scale aerial photographs. System components include texture-feature extraction, image segmentation and grouping, learning-similarity measure, and a texture-thesaurus model for fast search and indexing. Testing has demonstrated the system's effectiveness in searching and selecting…

  17. Line Laser and Triple Laser Quantification of the Difference in International Roughness Index between Textured and Non-Textured Strips (United States)


    Practitioners have often wondered whether, during ride measurement with inertial devices, the motion of the laser through pavement texture introduces non representative values of international roughness index (IRI), particularly in certain textures. ...

  18. p53 selectively regulates developmental apoptosis of rod photoreceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Vuong

    Full Text Available Retinal cells become post-mitotic early during post-natal development. It is likely that p53, a well-known cell cycle regulator, is involved in regulating the genesis, differentiation and death of retinal cells. Furthermore, retinal cells are under constant oxidative stress that can result in DNA damage, due to the extremely high level of metabolic activity associated with phototransduction. If not repaired, this damage may result in p53-dependent cell death and ensuing vision loss. In this study, the role of p53 during retinal development and in the post-mitotic retina is investigated. A previously described super p53 transgenic mouse that expresses an extra copy of the mouse p53 gene driven by its endogenous promoter is utilized. Another transgenic mouse (HIP that expresses the p53 gene in rod and cone photoreceptors driven by the human interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein promoter was generated. The electroretinogram (ERG of the super p53 mouse exhibited reduced rod-driven scotopic a and b wave and cone-driven photopic b wave responses. This deficit resulted from a reduced number of rod photoreceptors and inner nuclear layer cells. However, the reduced photopic signal arose only from lost inner retinal neurons, as cone numbers did not change. Furthermore, cell loss was non-progressive and resulted from increased apoptosis during retinal developmental as determined by TUNEL staining. In contrast, the continuous and specific expression of p53 in rod and cone photoreceptors in the mature retinas of HIP mice led to the selective loss of both rods and cones. These findings strongly support a role for p53 in regulating developmental apoptosis in the retina and suggest a potential role, either direct or indirect, for p53 in the degenerative photoreceptor loss associated with human blinding disorders.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Lancaster


    The cost impact to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System of using rod consolidation is evaluated. Previous work has demonstrated that the fuel rods of two assemblies can be packed into a canister that can fit into the same size space as that used to store a single assembly. The remaining fuel assembly hardware can be compacted into the same size canisters with a ratio of 1 hardware canister per each 6 to 12 assemblies. Transportation casks of the same size as currently available can load twice the number of assemblies by placing the compacted assemblies in the slots currently designed for a single assembly. Waste packages similarly could contain twice the number of assemblies; however, thermal constraints would require considering either a low burnup or cooling. The analysis evaluates the impact of rod consolidation on CRWMS costs for consolidation at prior to transportation and for consolidation at the Monitored Geological Repository surface facility. For this study, no design changes were made to either the transport casks or waste packages. Waste package designs used for the Viability Assessment design were employed but derated to make the thermal limits. A logistics analysis of the waste was performed to determine the number of each waste package with each loading. A review of past rod consolidation experience found cost estimates which range from $10/kgU to $32/kgU. $30/kgU was assumed for rod consolidation costs prior to transportation. Transportation cost savings are about $17/kgU and waste package cost savings are about $21/kgU. The net saving to the system is approximately $500 million if the consolidation is performed prior to transportation. If consolidation were performed at the repository surface facilities, it would cost approximately $15/kgU. No transportation savings would be realized. The net savings for consolidation at the repository site would be about $400 million dollars.

  20. Biosynthesis of Zinc Oxide Nano-rods Using Xanthomonas campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra sadat Mahdi


    Full Text Available Introduction: one dimensional nanocrystals especially nano-rods have attracted a great deal of attention due to their unique properties and wide applications in industry. Chemical and physical methods which are currently used to produce zinc oxide nano- rods, often leave toxic chemicals on surface of nanoparticles limiting their applications for health and medical purposes. Therefore, biological synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles has been considered as an environmentally friendly process and a potential alternative to chemical and physical methods. Materials and methods: Nano-rods of zinc oxide were produced by Xanthomonas campestris using zinc nitrate hexa hydrate as substrate, in a shaker incubator at 37 ° C and pH 7. The powder produced was then calcined at 600 ° C for 2 hours after drying. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were characterized using FTIR, XRD, SEM, EDX and UV–vis spectroscopy. Results: FTIR analysis was used to identify functional groups involved in the biosynthesis of ZnO NPs. The peak observed at 563 cm-1 corresponds to the stretching vibrations of ZnO NPs. XRD analysis revealed that the hexagonal ZnO nanoparticles synthesized were pure and crystalline in nature. The morphology and size of the powder were investigated using SEM analysis and the results showed that ZnO nano-rods have a diameter ranging from 122–200 nm with an average length about 300 nm. EDX analysis was performed for determination of the elemental composition and purity of samples. The recorded EDX spectrum revealed the high purity of the synthesized ZnO nano-rods without detection of any impurities. The absorption peak at 376 nm indicating the presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles was further confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Discussion and conclusion: The current research work describes a low-cost, unreported, nontoxic, simple, safe and eco-friendly method for the biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticle using xanthomonas campestris as the reducing

  1. Correlated and uncorrelated invisible temporal white noise alters mesopic rod signaling. (United States)

    Hathibelagal, Amithavikram R; Feigl, Beatrix; Kremers, Jan; Zele, Andrew J


    We determined how rod signaling at mesopic light levels is altered by extrinsic temporal white noise that is correlated or uncorrelated with the activity of one (magnocellular, parvocellular, or koniocellular) postreceptoral pathway. Rod and cone photoreceptor excitations were independently controlled using a four-primary photostimulator. Psychometric (Weibull) functions were measured for incremental rod pulses (50 to 250 ms) in the presence (or absence; control) of perceptually invisible subthreshold extrinsic noise. Uncorrelated (rod) noise facilitates rod detection. Correlated postreceptoral pathway noise produces differential changes in rod detection thresholds and decreases the slope of the psychometric functions. We demonstrate that invisible extrinsic noise changes rod-signaling characteristics within the three retinogeniculate pathways at mesopic illumination depending on the temporal profile of the rod stimulus and the extrinsic noise type.

  2. Burnout data for flow of boiling water in vertical round ducts, annuli and rod clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Kurt M.; Hernborg, Gunnar; Bode, Manfred; Eriksson, O.


    The present report contains the tables of the burnout data obtained for flow in vertical channels at the Heat Engineering Laboratory of AB Atomenergi in Sweden. The data covers measurements in round ducts, annuli, 3-rod and 7-rod clusters.

  3. 78 FR 33103 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and... (United States)


    ... Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine... countervailing duty order on carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod (``wire rod'') from Brazil and the...

  4. Quality Assessment of Mapping Building Textures from Infrared Image Sequences (United States)

    Hoegner, L.; Iwaszczuk, D.; Stilla, U.


    Generation and texturing of building models is a fast developing field of research. Several techniques have been developed to extract building geometry and textures from multiple images and image sequences. In this paper, these techniques are discussed and extended to automatically add new textures from infrared (IR) image sequences to existing building models. In contrast to existing work, geometry and textures are not generated together from the same dataset but the textures are extracted from the image sequence and matched to an existing geo-referenced 3D building model. The texture generation is divided in two main parts. The first part deals with the estimation and refinement of the exterior camera orientation. Feature points are extracted in the images and used as tie points in the sequence. A recorded exterior orientation of the camera s added to these homologous points and a bundle adjustment is performed starting on image pairs and combining the hole sequence. A given 3d model of the observed building is additionally added to introduce further constraint as ground control points in the bundle adjustment. The second part includes the extraction of textures from the images and the combination of textures from different images of the sequence. Using the reconstructed exterior camera orientation for every image of the sequence, the visible facades are projected into the image and texture is extracted. These textures normally contain only parts of the facade. The partial textures extracted from all images are combined to one facade texture. This texture is stored with a 3D reference to the corresponding facade. This allows searching for features in textures and localising those features in 3D space. It will be shown, that the proposed strategy allows texture extraction and mapping even for big building complexes with restricted viewing possibilities and for images with low optical resolution.

  5. Texture perception through direct and indirect touch: an analysis of perceptual space for tactile textures in two modes of exploration. (United States)

    Yoshioka, T; Bensmaïa, S J; Craig, J C; Hsiao, S S


    Considerable information about the texture of objects can be perceived remotely through a probe. It is not clear, however, how texture perception with a probe compares with texture perception with the bare finger. Here we investigate the perception of a variety of textured surfaces encountered daily (e.g., corduroy, paper, and rubber) using the two scanning modes - direct touch through the finger and indirect touch through a probe held in the hand - in two tasks. In the first task, subjects rated the overall pair-wise dissimilarity of the textures. In the second task, subjects rated each texture along three continua, namely, perceived roughness, hardness, and stickiness of the surfaces, shown previously as the primary dimensions of texture perception in direct touch. From the dissimilarity judgment experiment, we found that the texture percept is similar though not identical in the two scanning modes. From the adjective rating experiments, we found that while roughness ratings are similar, hardness and stickiness ratings tend to differ between scanning conditions. These differences between the two modes of scanning are apparent in perceptual space for tactile textures based on multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis. Finally, we demonstrate that three physical quantities, vibratory power, compliance, and friction carry roughness, hardness, and stickiness information, predicting perceived dissimilarity of texture pairs with indirect touch. Given that different types of texture information are processed by separate groups of neurons across direct and indirect touch, we propose that the neural mechanisms underlying texture perception differ between scanning modes.

  6. Control rod system useable for fuel handling in a gas-cooled nuclear reactor (United States)

    Spurrier, Francis R.


    A control rod and its associated drive are used to elevate a complete stack of fuel blocks to a position above the core of a gas-cooled nuclear reactor. A fuel-handling machine grasps the control rod and the drive is unlatched from the rod. The stack and rod are transferred out of the reactor, or to a new location in the reactor, by the fuel-handling machine.

  7. Linear motion device and method for inserting and withdrawing control rods (United States)

    Smith, J.E.

    Disclosed is a linear motion device and more specifically a control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) for inserting and withdrawing control rods into a reactor core. The CRDM and method disclosed is capable of independently and sequentially positioning two sets of control rods with a single motor stator and rotor. The CRDM disclosed can control more than one control rod lead screw without incurring a substantial increase in the size of the mechanism.

  8. 49 CFR 230.96 - Main, side, and valve motion rods. (United States)


    ... bore of main rod bearings shall not exceed pin diameters more than 3/32 inch at front or back end. The total lost motion at both ends shall not exceed 5/32 inch. (g) Side rod bearings. The bore of side rod.... The total amount of side motion of each rod on its crank pin shall not exceed 1/4 inch. (e) Oil and...

  9. Composite biaxially textured substrates using ultrasonic consolidation (United States)

    Blue, Craig A; Goyal, Amit


    A method of forming a composite sheet includes disposing an untextured metal or alloy first sheet in contact with a second sheet in an aligned opposing position; bonding the first sheet to the second sheet by applying an oscillating ultrasonic force to at least one of the first sheet and the second sheet to form an untextured intermediate composite sheet; and annealing the untextured intermediate composite sheet at a temperature lower than a primary re-crystallization temperature of the second sheet and higher than a primary re-crystallization temperature of the first sheet to convert the untextured first sheet into a cube textured sheet, wherein the cube texture is characterized by a .phi.-scan having a FWHM of no more than in all directions, the second sheet remaining untextured, to form a composite sheet.

  10. Dropwise condensation on inclined textured surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Khandekar, Sameer


    Dropwise Condensation on Textured Surfaces presents a holistic framework for understanding dropwise condensation through mathematical modeling and meaningful experiments. The book presents a review of the subject required to build up models as well as to design experiments. Emphasis is placed on the effect of physical and chemical texturing and their effect on the bulk transport phenomena. Application of the model to metal vapor condensation is of special interest. The unique behavior of liquid metals, with their low Prandtl number and high surface tension, is also discussed. The model predicts instantaneous drop size distribution for a given level of substrate subcooling and derives local as well as spatio-temporally averaged heat transfer rates and wall shear stress.

  11. Topological image texture analysis for quality assessment (United States)

    Asaad, Aras T.; Rashid, Rasber Dh.; Jassim, Sabah A.


    Image quality is a major factor influencing pattern recognition accuracy and help detect image tampering for forensics. We are concerned with investigating topological image texture analysis techniques to assess different type of degradation. We use Local Binary Pattern (LBP) as a texture feature descriptor. For any image construct simplicial complexes for selected groups of uniform LBP bins and calculate persistent homology invariants (e.g. number of connected components). We investigated image quality discriminating characteristics of these simplicial complexes by computing these models for a large dataset of face images that are affected by the presence of shadows as a result of variation in illumination conditions. Our tests demonstrate that for specific uniform LBP patterns, the number of connected component not only distinguish between different levels of shadow effects but also help detect the infected regions as well.

  12. Texture-based analysis of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge; Nielsen, Mads; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau


    This study presents a fully automatic, data-driven approach for texture-based quantitative analysis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in pulmonary computed tomography (CT) images. The approach uses supervised learning where the class labels are, in contrast to previous work, based...... on measured lung function instead of on manually annotated regions of interest (ROIs). A quantitative measure of COPD is obtained by fusing COPD probabilities computed in ROIs within the lung fields where the individual ROI probabilities are computed using a k nearest neighbor (kNN ) classifier. The distance...... and subsequently applied to classify 200 independent images from the same screening trial. The texture-based measure was significantly better at discriminating between subjects with and without COPD than were the two most common quantitative measures of COPD in the literature, which are based on density...

  13. Topological Spin Textures in Confined Geometries (United States)

    Zang, Jiadong

    The magnetic skyrmion is a nanostructured spin texture stabilized by the spin-orbital coupling. Its nontrivial topology enables unique dynamical property and thermal stability, which give out promise on future magnetic memory devise. However, to enable its applications, it is essential to understand the skyrmion properties in confined geometries and tackle key challenges including the creation and detection of skyrmions, preferably without magnetic fields. In this talk, I will present our recent theory-experiment collaboration results, covering studies of skyrmions in nanoribbon, nanodisk, and nanowires. Zero field skyrmions and their polarization switch will be discussed. New skyrmion materials and new topological textures in helimagnet heterostructures will be presented. This work is supported by the Grant DE-SC0016424 funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science.

  14. Novel Method for Color Textures Features Extraction Based on GLCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hudec


    Full Text Available Texture is one of most popular features for image classification and retrieval. Forasmuch as grayscale textures provide enough information to solve many tasks, the color information was not utilized. But in the recent years, many researchers have begun to take color information into consideration. In the texture analysis field, many algorithms have been enhanced to process color textures and new ones have been researched. In this paper the new method for color GLCM textures and comparing with other good known methods is presented.

  15. Texture analyses of Sauropod dinosaur bones from Tendaguru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyzalla, A.R. [TU Wien, Institute of Material Science and Technology, Karlsplatz 13-308, A-1040 Vienna (Austria) and MPI fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany)]. E-mail:; Sander, P.M. [University of Bonn, Institute of Palaeontology, Nusseallee, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Hansen, A. [TU Clausthal, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering. A, Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and Processingnd GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str.1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Ferreyro, R. [TU Wien, Institute of Material Science and Technology, Karlsplatz 13-308, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Yi, S.-B. [TU Clausthal, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering. A, Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and Processingnd GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str.1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); MPI fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Stempniewicz, M. [TU Wien, Institute of Material Science and Technology, Karlsplatz 13-308, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Brokmeier, H.-G. [TU Clausthal, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering. A, Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and Processingnd GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str.1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany)


    The apatite texture of fossil Brachiosaurus brancai and Barosaurus africanus sauropod bones from the excavation site at Tendaguru, Tanzania, was characterized by neutron diffraction pole figures. The results obtained reveal predominantly <0 0 0 1>-fibre textures of the apatite; the fibre direction coincides with the longitudinal direction of the long bones of the skeletons. Neutron pole figures further indicate that other texture types may also be present. Texture strength is similar to dinosaur tendons and contemporary turkey tendon studied by others. Variations of texture strength across the bone wall cross-sections are not significantly large.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Tosello, Guido

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 3 hours duration as a part of the course VISION ONLINE – One week course on Precision & Nanometrology. The exercises concern surface texture analysis for functionality control, in connection with three different case stories. This document...... contains a short description of each case story, 3-D roughness parameters analysis and relation with the product’s functionality....

  17. Crossover between activated reptation and arm retraction mechanisms in entangled rod-coil block copolymers (United States)

    Wang, Muzhou; Likhtman, Alexei E.; Olsen, Bradley D.


    Using a coarse-grained slip-spring model, the dynamics of rod-coil block copolymers is explored over a wide parameter space to fully capture the crossover between the short rod (activated reptation) and long rod (arm retraction) limits. An analytical, closed-form expression for curvilinear diffusion by activated reptation was derived by separating the drag into individual components for the rod and coil block. Curvilinear diffusion in the intermediate rod regime, where both mechanisms are important, was then found to be faster than predicted when both mechanisms are independently combined. The discrepancy in the crossover regime arises because the rod-coil copolymer's exploration of space is not accurately described by either a coil homopolymer (assumed by activated reptation) or a rod homopolymer (assumed by arm retraction). This effect is explored by tracking the rod orientation as the polymer reptates, confirming that the polymer reptates along a path that becomes more rodlike as the rod fraction is increased. Thus, activated reptation under-predicts diffusion because the rod can choose reptation paths that are more extended than the coil homopolymer by renewal of the entanglement tube from the ends. Arm retraction under-predicts diffusion because minor rotations of the rod allow some motion before full retractions of the coil block. Finally, more familiar 3-dimensional center-of-mass diffusion measurements are related to the curvilinear diffusion analysis because the ratio of these two quantities varies smoothly between the coil and rod homopolymer limits as the reptation path becomes more extended.

  18. Simultaneous contribution of two rod pathways to AII amacrine and cone bipolar cell light responses. (United States)

    Trexler, E Brady; Li, Wei; Massey, Stephen C


    Rod signals traverse several synapses en route to cone bipolar cells. In one pathway, rods communicate directly with cones via gap junctions. In a second pathway, signals flow rods-rod bipolars-AII amacrines-cone bipolars. The relative contribution of each pathway to retinal function is not well understood. Here we have examined this question from the perspective of the AII amacrine. AIIs form bidirectional electrical synapses with on cone bipolars. Consequently, as on cone bipolars are activated by outer plexiform inputs, they too should contribute to the AII response. Rod bipolar inputs to AIIs were blocked by AMPA receptor antagonists, revealing a smaller, non-AMPA component of the light response. This small residual response did not reverse between -70 and +70 mV and was blocked by carbenoxolone, suggesting that the current arose in on cone bipolars and was transmitted to AIIs via gap junctions. The residual component was evident for stimuli 2 log units below cone threshold and was prolonged for bright stimuli, demonstrating that it was rod driven. Because the rod bipolar-AII pathway was blocked, the rod-driven residual current likely was generated via the rod-cone pathway activation of on cone bipolars. Thus for a large range of intensities, rod signals reach the inner retina by both rod bipolar-AII and rod-cone coupling pathways.

  19. 78 FR 71565 - Steel Threaded Rod from India: Postponement of Preliminary Determination of Antidumping Duty... (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Steel Threaded Rod from India: Postponement of Preliminary Determination of...'') published a notice of initiation of the antidumping duty investigation of steel threaded rod from India.\\1... later than December 20, 2013. \\1\\ See Steel Threaded Rod From India and Thailand: Initiation of...

  20. 78 FR 44532 - Steel Threaded Rod From India: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Steel Threaded Rod From India: Initiation of Countervailing Duty... (``CVD'') petition concerning imports of steel threaded rod from India, filed in proper form by All...., (collectively hereinafter ``Petitioners'').\\1\\ Petitioners are domestic producers of steel threaded rod. On July...

  1. 77 FR 59892 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Affirmative Final Determination of... (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Affirmative Final... mm to 5.0 mm. \\1\\ See Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Mexico: Affirmative Preliminary... on said entries.\\4\\ \\2\\ See Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Mexico: Initiation of Anti...

  2. 75 FR 32503 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan Determinations On the basis...)), that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel wire rod from Italy, Japan, Korea... contained in USITC Publication 4154 (May 2010), entitled Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy, Japan, Korea...

  3. Results of automatic system implementation for the friction control rods execution in Cofrentes nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, M., E-mail: [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (UPV) (Spain); Urrea, M., E-mail: [Iberdrola Generacion S.A. Valencia (Spain). C.N. Cofrentes; Curiel, M., E-mail: [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales (LAINSA), Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos, A., E-mail: [TITANIA Servicios Teconologicos, Valencia (Spain)


    The purpose of this presentation is to show the obtained results in Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant (Spain) of Control Rods PCC/24 Friction Test Procedure. In order to perform this, a Control Rod Friction Test System has been developed. Principally, this system consists on software and data acquisition hardware that obtains and analyzes the control rod pressure variation on which the test is being made. The PCC/24 Procedure objective is to detect an excessive friction in the control rod movement that could cause a CRD (Control Rod Drive) movement slower than usual. This test is necessary every time that an anomalous alteration is produced in the reactor core that could affect to a fuel rod, and it is executed before the time measure of control rods rapid scram test of the affected rods. This test has to be carried out to all the reactor control rods and takes valuable time during plant refuelling. So, by means of an automatic system to perform the test, we obtain an important time saving during refuelling. On the other hand, the on-line monitoring of the control rod insertion and changes in differential pressure, permits a control rod operation fast and safe validation. Moreover, an automatic individual report of every rod is generated by the system and a final global result report of the entire test developed in refuelling is generated. The mentioned reports can be attached directly to the procedure documents obtaining an office data processing important saving time.(author)

  4. Results of automatic system implementation for the friction control rods execution in Cofrentes nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curiel, M. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Palomo, M. J. [ISIRYM, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia (Spain); Urrea, M. [Iberdrola Generacion S. A., Central Nuclear Cofrentes, Carretera Almansa Requena s/n, 04662 Cofrentes, Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos, A., E-mail: [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain)


    The purpose of this presentation is to show the obtained results in Cofrentes nuclear power plant (Spain) of control rods Pcc/24 friction test procedure. In order to perform this, a control rod friction test system has been developed. Principally, this system consists on software and data acquisition hardware that obtains and analyzes the control rod pressure variation on which the test is being made. The Pcc/24 procedure objective is to detect an excessive friction in the control rod movement that could cause a control rod drive movement slower than usual. This test is necessary every time that an anomalous alteration is produced in the reactor core that could affect to a fuel rod, and it is executed before the time measure of control rods rapid scram test of the affected rods. This test has to be carried out to all the reactor control rods and takes valuable time during plant refuelling. So, by means of an automatic system to perform the test, we obtain an important time saving during refuelling. On the other hand, the on-line monitoring of the control rod insertion and changes in differential pressure, permits a control rod operation fast and safe validation. Moreover, an automatic individual report of every rod is generated by the system and a final global result report of the entire test developed in refuelling is generated. The mentioned reports can be attached directly to the procedure documents obtaining an office data processing important saving time. (Author)

  5. Yukawa Textures from Family Symmetry and Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Allanach, Benjamin C; Leontaris, George K; Lola, S


    In this letter, we show how the combination of both a gauged U(1)_X family symmetry and an extended vertical gauge symmetry in a single model, allows for the presence of additional Clebsch texture zeroes in the fermion mass matrices. This leads to new structures for the textures, with increased predictivity, as compared to schemes with enhanced family symmetries only. We illustrate these ideas in the context of the Pati-Salam gauge group SU(4)xSU(2)_LxSU(2)_R$ supplemented by a U(1)_X gauged family symmetry. In the case of symmetric mass matrices, two of the solutions of Ramond, Roberts and Ross that may not be obtained by family symmetries only, are accurately reproduced. For non-symmetric textures, new structures arise in models of this type. To distinguish between the solutions in this latter case, we performed a numerical fit to the charged fermion mass and mixing data. The best solution we found allows a fit with a total chi^2 of 0.39, for three degrees of freedom.

  6. Focal Conic Flower Textures at Curved Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Beller


    Full Text Available Focal conic domains (FCDs in smectic-A liquid crystals have drawn much attention, both for their exquisitely structured internal form and for their ability to direct the assembly of micromaterials and nanomaterials in a variety of patterns. A key to directing FCD assembly is control over the eccentricity of the domain. Here, we demonstrate a new paradigm for creating spatially varying FCD eccentricity by confining a hybrid-aligned smectic with curved interfaces. In particular, we manipulate interface behavior with colloidal particles in order to experimentally produce two examples of what has recently been dubbed the flower texture [C. Meyer et al., Focal Conic Stacking in Smectic A Liquid Crystals: Smectic Flower and Apollonius Tiling, Materials 2, 499, 2009MATEG91996-194410.3390/ma2020499], where the focal hyperbolæ diverge radially outward from the center of the texture, rather than inward as in the canonical éventail or fan texture. We explain how this unconventional assembly can arise from appropriately curved interfaces. Finally, we present a model for this system that applies the law of corresponding cones, showing how FCDs may be embedded smoothly within a “background texture” of large FCDs and concentric spherical layers, in a manner consistent with the qualitative features of the smectic flower. Such understanding could potentially lead to disruptive liquid-crystal technologies beyond displays, including patterning, smart surfaces, microlens arrays, sensors, and nanomanufacturing.

  7. Augmented Reality Marker Hiding with Texture Deformation. (United States)

    Kawai, Norihiko; Sato, Tomokazu; Nakashima, Yuta; Yokoya, Naokazu


    Augmented reality (AR) marker hiding is a technique to visually remove AR markers in a real-time video stream. A conventional approach transforms a background image with a homography matrix calculated on the basis of a camera pose and overlays the transformed image on an AR marker region in a real-time frame, assuming that the AR marker is on a planar surface. However, this approach may cause discontinuities in textures around the boundary between the marker and its surrounding area when the planar surface assumption is not satisfied. This paper proposes a method for AR marker hiding without discontinuities around texture boundaries even under nonplanar background geometry without measuring it. For doing this, our method estimates the dense motion in the marker's background by analyzing the motion of sparse feature points around it, together with a smooth motion assumption, and deforms the background image according to it. Our experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in various environments with different background geometries and textures.

  8. Depth image enhancement using perceptual texture priors (United States)

    Bang, Duhyeon; Shim, Hyunjung


    A depth camera is widely used in various applications because it provides a depth image of the scene in real time. However, due to the limited power consumption, the depth camera presents severe noises, incapable of providing the high quality 3D data. Although the smoothness prior is often employed to subside the depth noise, it discards the geometric details so to degrade the distance resolution and hinder achieving the realism in 3D contents. In this paper, we propose a perceptual-based depth image enhancement technique that automatically recovers the depth details of various textures, using a statistical framework inspired by human mechanism of perceiving surface details by texture priors. We construct the database composed of the high quality normals. Based on the recent studies in human visual perception (HVP), we select the pattern density as a primary feature to classify textures. Upon the classification results, we match and substitute the noisy input normals with high quality normals in the database. As a result, our method provides the high quality depth image preserving the surface details. We expect that our work is effective to enhance the details of depth image from 3D sensors and to provide a high-fidelity virtual reality experience.

  9. Evaluation of textural features for multispectral images (United States)

    Bayram, Ulya; Can, Gulcan; Duzgun, Sebnem; Yalabik, Nese


    Remote sensing is a field that has wide use, leading to the fact that it has a great importance. Therefore performance of selected features plays a great role. In order to gain some perspective on useful textural features, we have brought together state-of-art textural features in recent literature, yet to be applied in remote sensing field, as well as presenting a comparison with traditional ones. Therefore we selected most commonly used textural features in remote sensing that are grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Gabor features. Other selected features are local binary patterns (LBP), edge orientation features extracted after applying steerable filter, and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) features. Color histogram feature is also used and compared. Since most of these features are histogram-based, we have compared performance of bin-by-bin comparison with a histogram comparison method named as diffusion distance method. During obtaining performance of each feature, k-nearest neighbor classification method (k-NN) is applied.

  10. Model for understanding consumer textural food choice. (United States)

    Jeltema, Melissa; Beckley, Jacqueline; Vahalik, Jennifer


    The current paradigm for developing products that will match the marketing messaging is flawed because the drivers of product choice and satisfaction based on texture are misunderstood. Qualitative research across 10 years has led to the thesis explored in this research that individuals have a preferred way to manipulate food in their mouths (i.e., mouth behavior) and that this behavior is a major driver of food choice, satisfaction, and the desire to repurchase. Texture, which is currently thought to be a major driver of product choice, is a secondary factor, and is important only in that it supports the primary driver-mouth behavior. A model for mouth behavior is proposed and the qualitative research supporting the identification of different mouth behaviors is presented. The development of a trademarked typing tool for characterizing mouth behavior is described along with quantitative substantiation of the tool's ability to group individuals by mouth behavior. The use of these four groups to understand textural preferences and the implications for a variety of areas including product design and weight management are explored.

  11. Nominated Texture Based Cervical Cancer Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Jayasingh Mariarputham


    Full Text Available Accurate classification of Pap smear images becomes the challenging task in medical image processing. This can be improved in two ways. One way is by selecting suitable well defined specific features and the other is by selecting the best classifier. This paper presents a nominated texture based cervical cancer (NTCC classification system which classifies the Pap smear images into any one of the seven classes. This can be achieved by extracting well defined texture features and selecting best classifier. Seven sets of texture features (24 features are extracted which include relative size of nucleus and cytoplasm, dynamic range and first four moments of intensities of nucleus and cytoplasm, relative displacement of nucleus within the cytoplasm, gray level cooccurrence matrix, local binary pattern histogram, tamura features, and edge orientation histogram. Few types of support vector machine (SVM and neural network (NN classifiers are used for the classification. The performance of the NTCC algorithm is tested and compared to other algorithms on public image database of Herlev University Hospital, Denmark, with 917 Pap smear images. The output of SVM is found to be best for the most of the classes and better results for the remaining classes.

  12. Improving texture optimization with application to visualizing meat products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Laursen, Lasse Farnung


    dimensional space. Applying a principal component analysis on the texture patches originating from the synthesized solid accelerates the process. These patches are then reduced in dimensionality until ”only” 95% of their original variance remains. This usually results in a dimension reduction from 192...... (such as color, translucency, reflective properties). One way of reintroducing this lost information back to the volume data is to synthesize an appropriate texture and apply this to the volume data. A recent method within the field of texture synthesis is called Texture Optimization presented by Kopf...... et al. in 2007. This method accepts a number of 2D input exemplars, from which it generates a solid texture volume. The volume is iteratively improved via an expectation maximization algorithm. The bottleneck of Texture Optimization occurs during a nearest neighbor search, between texture patches...

  13. Automatic Texture Optimization for 3D Urban Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Ming


    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of texture optimization in 3D city reconstruction by using multi-lens oblique images, the paper presents a method of seamless texture model reconstruction. At first, it corrects the radiation information of images by camera response functions and image dark channel. Then, according to the corresponding relevance between terrain triangular mesh surface model to image, implements occlusion detection by sparse triangulation method, and establishes the triangles' texture list of visible. Finally, combines with triangles' topology relationship in 3D triangular mesh surface model and means and variances of image, constructs a graph-cuts-based texture optimization algorithm under the framework of MRF(Markov random filed, to solve the discrete label problem of texture optimization selection and clustering, ensures the consistency of the adjacent triangles in texture mapping, achieves the seamless texture reconstruction of city. The experimental results verify the validity and superiority of our proposed method.

  14. A Novel Texture Classification Procedure by using Association Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jaba Sheela


    Full Text Available Texture can be defined as a local statistical pattern of texture primitives in observer’s domain of interest. Texture classification aims to assign texture labels to unknown textures, according to training samples and classification rules. Association rules have been used in various applications during the past decades. Association rules capture both structural and statistical information, and automatically identify the structures that occur most frequently and relationships that have significant discriminative power. So, association rules can be adapted to capture frequently occurring local structures in textures. This paper describes the usage of association rules for texture classification problem. The performed experimental studies show the effectiveness of the association rules. The overall success rate is about 98%.

  15. Kinematic Analysis of Continuum Robot Consisted of Driven Flexible Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzhong Tian


    Full Text Available This paper presents the kinematic analysis of a continuum bionic robot with three flexible actuation rods. Since the motion of the end-effector is actuated by the deformation of the rods, the robot structure is with high elasticity and good compliance and the kinematic analysis of the robot requires special treatment. We propose a kinematic model based on the geometry with constant curvature. The analysis consists of two independent mappings: a general mapping for the kinematics of all robots and a specific mapping for this kind of robots. Both of those mappings are developed for the single section and for the multisections. We aim at providing a guide for kinematic analysis of the similar manipulators through this paper.

  16. High-power rod-type photonic crystal fiber laser (United States)

    Limpert, J.; Deguil-Robin, N.; Manek-Hönninger, I.; Salin, F.; Röser, F.; Liem, A.; Schreiber, T.; Nolte, S.; Zellmer, H.; Tünnermann, A.; Broeng, J.; Petersson, A.; Jakobsen, C.


    We report on a novel ytterbium-doped fiber design that combines the advantages of rod and fiber gain media. The fiber design has outer dimensions of a rod laser, meaning a diameter in the range of a few millimeters and a length of just a few tens of centimeters, and includes two important waveguide structures, one for pump radiation and one for laser radiation. We obtained 120-W output power in single-mode beam quality from a 48-cm-long fiber cane that corresponds to an extracted power of 250 W/m. The fiber has significantly reduced nonlinearity, which therefore allows for scalability in the performance of a high-peak-power fiber laser and amplifier system.

  17. The readout driver (ROD) for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Efthymiopoulos, I


    The Readout Driver (ROD) for the Liquid Argon calorimeter of the ATLAS detector is described. Each ROD module receives triggered data from 256 calorimeter cells via two fiber-optics 1.28 Gbit/s links with a 100 kHz event rate (25 kbit/event). Its principal function is to determine the precise energy and timing of the signal from discrete samples of the waveform, taken each period of the LHC clock (25 ns). In addition, it checks, histograms, and formats the digital data stream. A demonstrator system, consisting of a motherboard and several daughter-board processing units (PUs) was constructed and is currently used for tests in the lab. The design of this prototype board is presented here. The board offers maximum modularity and allows the development and testing of different PU designs based on today's leading integer and floating point DSPs. (3 refs).

  18. Fuel rod crud deposition: effects of heat load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Facundo


    Anomalous diameter changes have been observed on the fuel rods of the in-pile test assembly IFA-585. These diameter changes are described in the HWR-407 [1], where it is suggested that crud deposition is their cause. The present report continues the study of the causes of crud deposition on the fuel rods, by analysing its dependence with the heat load. It is observed that crud deposition is less favoured on the cladding at axial positions of pellet-pellet interfaces, and that this is directly correlated with the fact that heat flux is lower at pellet-pellet interfaces. A finite element model is built to analyse the heat flux on the cladding at the surroundings of pellet-pellet interfaces. Also, an empirical formula is derived for the dependence of crud deposition rate with heat loading, taking into account the differences in heat flux on the surroundings of pellet-pellet interfaces (author) (ml)

  19. Measurement of secondary flow vortices on a rod bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonka, V.


    Secondary flow vortices in infinite rod bundles have been predicted by a number of theoretical analyses. Nevertheless experimental verification was difficult, since the magnitude of the secondary velocities appeared to be less than the accuracy of the experimental techniques used. Only indications of the maximum velocity magnitude have been available but no report on successful direct measurement is known to the author. At ECN, laser Doppler velocimetry is successfully used for measurement of secondary flow vortices in two regular subchannels of a triangularly arranged bare rod bundle with pitch-to-diameter ratio P/D-1.3 under the Reynolds number conditions 60,000 and 175,000. One single secondary vortex, having the average tangential velocity slightly less than 0.1% of the mean bulk velocity, is resolved per minimum symmetry sector of the bundle geometry. Ensemble averages are made to obtain quantitative description of the vortex and to form a data base for comparison with calculations.

  20. High-power dual-rod Yb:YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honea, Eric C.; Beach, Raymond J.; Mitchell, Scott C.; Skidmore, Jay A.; Emanuel, Mark A.; Sutton, Steven B.; Payne, Stephen A.; Avizonis, Petras V.; Monroe, Robert S.; Harris, Dennis G.


    We describe a diode-pumped Yb:YAG laser that produces 1080 W of power cw with 27.5% optical optical efficiency and 532 W Q -switched with M{sup 2}=2.2 and 17% optical-optical efficiency. The laser uses two composite Yb:YAG rods separated by a 90 degree sign quartz rotator for bifocusing compensation. A microlensed diode array end pumps each rod, using a hollow lens duct for pump delivery. By changing resonator parameters we can adjust the fundamental mode size and the output beam quality. Using a flattened Gaussian intensity profile to calculate the mode-fill efficiency and clipping losses, we compare experimental data with modeled output power versus beam quality. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America.

  1. The DC Electrical Resistivity Curves of Bismuth-2212 Ceramic Superconductors: Evaluation of the Hole-Carrier Concentrations per-Cu Ion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nurmalita .


    Full Text Available In this study the samples of Bismuth ceramic superconductors were synthesized by the melt textured growth methods from a 2212 stoichiometric composition in order to obtain a large amount of pure Bi-2212. The effects of Pb substitution on the properties of Bi-based Bi2−xPbxSr2CaCu2Oy superconductor with x = 0, 0.2, and 0.4 were investigated by means of DC electrical resistivity measurements. It has been found that the hole-carrier concentrations per-Cu ion of the samples change independently of Pb content.

  2. Synthesis and Microstructure Properties of (Bi,Pb2Sr2Ca1Cu2Oy Ceramic Superconductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nurmalita .


    Full Text Available Properties of (Bi, Pb2Sr2Ca1Cu2Oy ceramic superconductors were prepared by the melt textured growth methods in order to investigate the effects of the slow cooling time on the microstructur.  Phase analyses of the samples by X-ray diffraction (XRD has been carried out to assess the effects of the slow cooling time. From XRD analyses, the addition to the sample of  the slow cooling time degrades formation of the high-Tc Bi-2212 phase. The possible reasons for the observed degradation in the microstructure properties due to the slow cooling time addition were discussed.

  3. The Attenuation of Torsional Strain Wave in a PMMA Rod


    田辺, 裕治; 前川, 一郎; 半田, 晋一; 原, 利昭; Tanabe, Yuji; Maekawa, Ichiro; Handa, Shinichi; Hara, Toshiaki


    In order to clarify the strain attenuation during shear wave propagation, impact torsion experiments are carried out using a PMMA rod specimen. The strain pulses measured by strain gages are complicated due to the superposition of many reflected and transmitted waves from the supported end of the specimen. To obtain data from such pulses for determining a viscoelastic model, a method which modifies the pulse form is developed taking into account wave propagation behavior in the experimental s...

  4. Pinch-off of rods by bulk diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagesen, L.K.; Johnson, A.E.; Fife, J.L.


    The morphology of a rod embedded in a matrix undergoing pinching by interfacial-energy-driven bulk diffusion is determined near the point of pinching. We find a self-similar solution that gives a unique temporal power law and interfacial shape prior to pinching and self-similar solutions after pi......, and thus provide estimates of the time required for capillarity-driven break-up of microstructures from the detachment of secondary dendrite arms to polymer blends....

  5. Hydrodynamic behavior of a bare rod bundle. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartzis, J.G.; Todreas, N.E.


    The temperature distribution within the rod bundle of a nuclear reactor is of major importance in nuclear reactor design. However temperature information presupposes knowledge of the hydrodynamic behavior of the coolant which is the most difficult part of the problem due to complexity of the turbulence phenomena. In the present work a 2-equation turbulence model--a strong candidate for analyzing actual three dimensional turbulent flows--has been used to predict fully developed flow of infinite bare rod bundle of various aspect ratios (P/D). The model has been modified to take into account anisotropic effects of eddy viscosity. Secondary flow calculations have been also performed although the model seems to be too rough to predict the secondary flow correctly. Heat transfer calculations have been performed to confirm the importance of anisotropic viscosity in temperature predictions. All numerical calculations for flow and heat have been performed by two computer codes based on the TEACH code. Experimental measurements of the distribution of axial velocity, turbulent axial velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and radial Reynolds stresses were performed in the developing and fully developed regions. A 2-channel Laser Doppler Anemometer working on the Reference mode with forward scattering was used to perform the measurements in a simulated interior subchannel of a triangular rod array with P/D = 1.124. Comparisons between the analytical results and the results of this experiment as well as other experimental data in rod bundle array available in literature are presented. The predictions are in good agreement with the results for the high Reynolds numbers.

  6. Critical Power in 7-Rod Tight Lattice Bundle (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Kureta, Masatoshi; Akimoto, Hajime

    The Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) has recently becomes of great concern. The RMWR is expected to promote the effective utilization of uranium recourse. The RMWR is based on water-cooled reactor technology, with achieved under lower core water volume and water flow rate. In comparison with the current light water reactors whose water-to-fuel volume ratio is about 2-3, in the RMWR, this value is reduced to less than 0.5. Thereby, there is a need to research its cooling characteristics. Experimental research on critical power in tight lattice bundle that simulates the RMWR has been carried out in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The bundle consists one center rod and six peripheral rods. The 7 rods are arranged on a 14.3mm equilateral triangular pitch. Each rod is 13mm in outside diameter. An axial 12-step power distribution is employed to simulate the complicate heating condition in RMWR. Experiments are carried out under G=100-1400kg/m2s, Pex=2-8.5MPa. Effects of mass velocity, inlet temperature, pressure, radial peaking factor and axial peaking factor on critical power and critical quality are discussed. Compared with axial uniform heating condition, the axial non-uniform heating condition causes an obvious decrease in critical quality. Arai correlation, which is the only correlation that has been optimized for tight lattice condition, is verified with the present experimental data. The correlation is found to be able to give reasonable prediction only around RMWR nominal operating condition.

  7. Transmission efficiency measurement at the FNAL 4-rod RFQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, J. P. [Fermilab; Garcia, F. G. [Fermilab; Ostiguy, J. F. [Fermilab; Saini, A. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. [Fermilab; Mustapha, B. [Argonne; Ostroumov, P. [Argonne


    This paper presents measurements of the beam transmission performed on the 4-rod RFQ currently under operation at Fermilab. The beam current has been measured at the RFQ exit as a function of the magnetic field strength in the two LEBT solenoids. This measurement is compared with scans performed on the FermiGrid with the beam dynamics code TRACK. A particular attention is given to the impact, on the RFQ beam transmission, of the space-charge neutralization in the LEBT.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Raspopov


    Full Text Available For decomposition of two- and three-dimensional rod systems the effective algorithm of dividing a system into blocks and the appropriate technique of coding for states of each from subsystems are developed. It is shown that the structure of multi-dimensional models can be set by means of space matrices based on the research of topological properties of the system graph.

  9. Features of electric drive sucker rod pumps for oil production (United States)

    Gizatullin, F. A.; Khakimyanov, M. I.; Khusainov, F. F.


    This article is about modes of operation of electric drives of downhole sucker rod pumps. Downhole oil production processes are very energy intensive. Oil fields contain many oil wells; many of them operate in inefficient modes with significant additional losses. Authors propose technical solutions to improve energy performance of a pump unit drives: counterweight balancing, reducing of electric motor power, replacing induction motors with permanent magnet motors, replacing balancer drives with chain drives, using of variable frequency drives.

  10. First Test Results of the 4-ROD Crab Cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Ambattu, P; Burt, G; Calaga, R; Capatina, O; Calatroni, S; Ciapala, E; Doherty, D; Ferreira, L; Jensen, E; Hall, B; Lingwood, C; Maesen, P; Mongelluzzo, A; Renaglia, T; Therasse, M


    The first compact prototype crab cavity with the 4rod geometry has undergone surface treatment and cold testing. Due to the complex geometry and unique fabrication procedure, RF validation of the field at beyond the nominal operating voltage at a sufficiently high Q0 is an important pre-requisite. Preliminary results of the first cold tests are presented along with cavity performance at different stages of the cavity processing is described.

  11. Characterization of Emericella nidulans RodA and DewA hydrophobin mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Guillaume; Nielsen, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Pedersen, Mona Højgaard

    Hydrophobins are small amphiphilic proteins containing an eight cysteine pattern only found in filamentous fungi. They are involved in the attachment of hyphae to hydrophobic structures and the formation of aerial structures. Five Emericella nidulans mutant strains were examined to study the two...... hydrophobins RodA and DewA. Individual knock-out mutants rodAΔ, dewAΔ and the double deletion strain rodAΔdewAΔ were constructed. Furthermore, two strains containing a point mutation in the first of the cysteines of RodA (rodA-C57G), where one was coupled to the dewA deletion, were included. The reference...

  12. Modal properties of the flexural vibrating package of rods linked by spacer grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeman V.


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the modelling and modal analysis of the large package of identical parallel rods linked by transverse springs (spacer grids placed on several level spacings. The rod discretization by finite element method is based on Rayleigh beam theory. For the cyclic and central symmetric package of rods (such as fuel rods in nuclear fuel assembly the system decomposition on the identical revolved rod segments was applied. A modal synthesis method with condensation is used for modelling of the whole system. The presented method is the first step for modelling the nuclear fuel assembly vibration caused by excitation determined by the support plate motion of the reactor core.

  13. Activation and deactivation of vibronic channels in intact phycocyanin rods (United States)

    Nganou, C.; David, L.; Meinke, R.; Adir, N.; Maultzsch, J.; Mkandawire, M.; Pouhè, D.; Thomsen, C.


    We investigated the excitation modes of the light-harvesting protein phycocyanin (PC) from Thermosynechococcus vulcanus in the crystalline state using UV and near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. The spectra revealed the absence of a hydrogen out-of-plane wagging (HOOP) mode in the PC trimer, which suggests that the HOOP mode is activated in the intact PC rod, while it is not active in the PC trimer. Furthermore, in the PC trimer an intense mode at 984 cm-1 is assigned to the C-C stretching vibration while the mode at 454 cm-1 is likely due to ethyl group torsion. In contrast, in the similar chromophore phytochromobilin the C5,10,15-D wag mode at 622 cm-1 does not come from a downshift of the HOOP. Additionally, the absence of modes between 1200 and 1300 cm-1 rules out functional monomerization. A correlation between phycocyanobilin (PCB) and phycoerythrobilin (PEB) suggests that the PCB cofactors of the PC trimer appear in a conformation similar to that of PEB. The conformation of the PC rod is consistent with that of the allophycocyanin (APC) trimer, and thus excitonic flow is facilitated between these two independent light-harvesting compounds. This excitonic flow from the PC rod to APC appears to be modulated by the vibration channels during HOOP wagging, C = C stretching, and the N-H rocking in-plan vibration.

  14. Model of ASTM Flammability Test in Microgravity: Iron Rods (United States)

    Steinberg, Theodore A; Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Fries, Joseph (Technical Monitor)


    There is extensive qualitative results from burning metallic materials in a NASA/ASTM flammability test system in normal gravity. However, this data was shown to be inconclusive for applications involving oxygen-enriched atmospheres under microgravity conditions by conducting tests using the 2.2-second Lewis Research Center (LeRC) Drop Tower. Data from neither type of test has been reduced to fundamental kinetic and dynamic systems parameters. This paper reports the initial model analysis for burning iron rods under microgravity conditions using data obtained at the LERC tower and modeling the burning system after ignition. Under the conditions of the test the burning mass regresses up the rod to be detached upon deceleration at the end of the drop. The model describes the burning system as a semi-batch, well-mixed reactor with product accumulation only. This model is consistent with the 2.0-second duration of the test. Transient temperature and pressure measurements are made on the chamber volume. The rod solid-liquid interface melting rate is obtained from film records. The model consists of a set of 17 non-linear, first-order differential equations which are solved using MATLAB. This analysis confirms that a first-order rate, in oxygen concentration, is consistent for the iron-oxygen kinetic reaction. An apparent activation energy of 246.8 kJ/mol is consistent for this model.

  15. A measurement of a control rod drop using an LVDT (United States)

    Choi, Myoung-Hwan; Kim, Ji-Ho; Huh, Hyung; Yu, Je-Yong; Sohn, Dong-Seong


    A control element drive mechanism is a reactor regulating system, which is to insert, withdraw, or maintain a control rod containing neutron-absorbing material within a reactor core to control the reactivity of the reactor. The ball-screw type CEDM for the small and medium research reactor has a spring-hydraulic damper to reduce the impact force due to the free drop of the CEDM. This paper describes the experimental results to obtain the drop characteristics of the CEDM. The tests are performed by using a full-scale structure except the control element assembly, and a drop time and displacement after an impact are measured by using an LVDT. The influences of the rod weight and the drop height on the drop behavior are also estimated on the basis of test results. In case of the longest stroke, the drop time of the control rod is within 4.5 seconds to meet the design requirement. The behavior after the impact shows a general damping motion of the spring-damper system, and the maximum displacement is measured as 15.6 mm.

  16. ESVC-based extraction and segmentation of texture features (United States)

    Yang, Jingan; Zhuang, Yanbin; Wu, Feng


    Inspired by Krige' variogram and the multi-channel filtering theory for human vision information processing, this paper proposes a novel algorithm for segmenting the textures based on experimental semi-variogram function (ESVF), which can simultaneously describe structural property and statistical property of textures. The single variogram function value (SVFV) and the variance distance obtained by ESVF are used as texture feature description for segmenting textures. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by testing on some texture images. The computational complexity of the proposed approach depends neither on the number of the textures nor on the number of the gray levels, and only on the size of the image blocks. We have proved theoretically that the algorithm has the advantages of direction invariability and a higher sensitivity to different textures and can detect almost all kinds of the boundaries of the shape textures. Experimental results on the Brodatz texture databases show that the performance of this algorithm is superior to the traditional techniques such as texture spectrum, SIFT, k-mean method, and Gabor filters. The proposed approach is found to be robust, efficient, and satisfactory.

  17. Development of examination technique for oxide layer thickness measurement of irradiated fuel rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, D. S.; Park, S. W.; Kim, J. H.; Seo, H. S.; Min, D. K.; Kim, E. K.; Chun, Y. B.; Bang, K. S


    Technique for oxide layer thickness measurement of irradiated fuel rods was developed to measure oxide layer thickness and study characteristic of fuel rods. Oxide layer thickness of irradiated fuels were measured, analyzed. Outer oxide layer thickness of 3 cycle-irradiated fuel rods were 20 - 30 {mu}m, inner oxide layer thickness 0 - 10 {mu}m and inner oxide layer thickness on cracked cladding about 30 {mu}m. Oxide layer thickness of 4 cycle-irradiated fuel rods were about 2 times as thick as those of 1 cycle-irradiated fuel rods. Oxide layer on lower region of irradiated fuel rods was thin and oxide layer from lower region to upper region indicated gradual increase in thickness. Oxide layer thickness from 2500 to 3000 mm showed maximum and oxide layer thickness from 3000 to top region of irradiated fuel rods showed decreasing trend. Inner oxide layer thicknesses of 4 cycle-irradiated fuel rod were about 8 {mu}m at 750 - 3500 mm from the bottom end of fuel rod. Outer oxide layer thickness were about 8 {mu}m at 750 - 1000 mm from the bottom end of fuel rod. These indicated gradual increase up to upper region from the bottom end of fuel rod. These indicated gradual increase up to upper region from the bottom end of fuel. Oxide layer thickness technique will apply safety evaluation and study of reactor fuels. (author). 6 refs., 14 figs.

  18. Morphological Texture Manipulation for The Evaluation of Human Visual Sensibility (United States)

    Asano, Chie Muraki; Asano, Akira; Li, Liang; Fujimoto, Takako

    Since the surface texture of materials often affects human visual impressions as much as or more than the design, shape, or color properties, texture characteristics have been studied as features of object identification. We have been investigating the effect of texture on visual impression and objective identification using black fabrics that do not exhibit any effects of color. Our studies showed that visual impressions of texture correspond to complex micro-components and global structures of image features of those textures. Our results also showed that some important elements influence human visual impressions and identification of textures. Because of a variety of fibrous structures, it is not easy to provide a systematic analysis of clothing materials. Nevertheless, developing the method and collecting data on these elements and their effects using these image features will be important. To make this research applicable for wider use, we have been studying precisely what it is about an arbitrary texture that influences human visual impressions and sensibility. As a new step, in this paper, a texture is altered and transformed using the parameter estimation method of texture based on mathematical morphology, which is often used for extracting image components that are useful for representation and description. A texture is decomposed into a primitive and grain arrangement which correspond to local and global characteristics, respectively. Different textures are created by modifying the primitive and the arrangement to investigate the effects of modifications of local and global features. The relationship between the parameters and visual impressions of the modified textures were evaluated. This study shows that influence of both local and global structures of the texture along with their combinations and mutual interactions are important for identification of human visual impression.

  19. Analysis of Subchannel and Rod Bundle PSBT Experiments with CATHARE 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Valette


    Full Text Available This paper presents the assessment of CATHARE 3 against PWR subchannel and rod bundle tests of the PSBT benchmark. Noticeable measurements were the following: void fraction in single subchannel and rod bundle, multiple liquid temperatures at subchannel exit in rod bundle, and DNB power and location in rod bundle. All these results were obtained both in steady and transient conditions. Void fraction values are satisfactory predicted by CATHARE 3 in single subchannels with the pipe module. More dispersed predictions of void values are obtained in rod bundles with the CATHARE 3 3D module at subchannel scale. Single-phase liquid mixing tests and DNB tests in rod bundle are also analyzed. After calibrating the mixing in liquid single phase with specific tests, DNB tests using void mixing give mitigated results, perhaps linked to inappropriate use of CHF lookup tables in such rod bundles with many spacers.

  20. The rod pathway of the microbat retina has bistratified rod bipolar cells and tristratified AII amacrine cells. (United States)

    Müller, Brigitte; Butz, Elisabeth; Peichl, Leo; Haverkamp, Silke


    We studied the retinal rod pathway of Carollia perspicillata and Glossophaga soricina, frugivorous microbats of the phyllostomid family. Protein kinase Cα (PKCα) immunolabeling revealed abundant rod bipolar cells (RBCs) with axon terminals in the innermost sublamina of the inner plexiform layer (IPL), which is typical for mammals. Extraordinarily, the RBC axons showed additional synaptic contacts in a second sublamina further out in the IPL. Dye injections of PKCα-prelabeled RBCs of C. perspicillata confirmed the bistratified axon morphology. The functional partition of the IPL into ON and OFF sublayers was shown by using antibodies against vesicular glutamate transporter 1 [labeling all ON and OFF bipolar cell (BC) axon terminals] and G-protein γ13 (labeling all ON BCs). The ON sublayer occupied 75% of the IPL thickness, including both strata of the RBC axons. RBC output onto putative AII amacrine cells (ACs), the crucial interneurons of the rod pathway, was identified by calretinin, PKCα, and CtBP2 triple immunolabeling. Dye injections of calretinin-prelabeled ACs revealed tristratification of the AII ACs corresponding to the bistratified RBCs. Triple immunolabeling for PKCα, nitric oxide synthetase (NOS), and either GABA(C) or CtBP2 indicated GABAergic feedback onto RBCs via NOS-immunoreactive ACs. AII output analysis showed glycineric synapses with glycine receptor α1 expression between AII cells and OFF cone BCs and connexin 36-labeled gap junctions between AII cells and ON cone BCs. We conclude that microbats have a well developed rod pathway with great similarities to that of other mammals, but with an unusual IPL stratification pattern of RBCs and AIIs.

  1. Automatic computational labeling of glomerular textural boundaries (United States)

    Ginley, Brandon; Tomaszewski, John E.; Sarder, Pinaki


    The glomerulus, a specialized bundle of capillaries, is the blood filtering unit of the kidney. Each human kidney contains about 1 million glomeruli. Structural damages in the glomerular micro-compartments give rise to several renal conditions; most severe of which is proteinuria, where excessive blood proteins flow freely to the urine. The sole way to confirm glomerular structural damage in renal pathology is by examining histopathological or immunofluorescence stained needle biopsies under a light microscope. However, this method is extremely tedious and time consuming, and requires manual scoring on the number and volume of structures. Computational quantification of equivalent features promises to greatly ease this manual burden. The largest obstacle to computational quantification of renal tissue is the ability to recognize complex glomerular textural boundaries automatically. Here we present a computational pipeline to accurately identify glomerular boundaries with high precision and accuracy. The computational pipeline employs an integrated approach composed of Gabor filtering, Gaussian blurring, statistical F-testing, and distance transform, and performs significantly better than standard Gabor based textural segmentation method. Our integrated approach provides mean accuracy/precision of 0.89/0.97 on n = 200Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE) glomerulus images, and mean 0.88/0.94 accuracy/precision on n = 200 Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) glomerulus images. Respective accuracy/precision of the Gabor filter bank based method is 0.83/0.84 for HE and 0.78/0.8 for PAS. Our method will simplify computational partitioning of glomerular micro-compartments hidden within dense textural boundaries. Automatic quantification of glomeruli will streamline structural analysis in clinic, and can help realize real time diagnoses and interventions.

  2. Magnetic controlled growth rods versus conventional growing rod systems in the treatment of early onset scoliosis: a cost comparison. (United States)

    Rolton, Daniel; Richards, Joanna; Nnadi, Colin


    To evaluate the cost differences between a conventional growth rod system (CGRS) and magnetic controlled growth rods (MCGR) in treating early onset scoliosis (EOS) over a projected 5 year period. We hypothesise that the high initial outlay for MCGR would be recouped from fewer admissions and surgical procedures over the lifetime of the implant. The costs of all aspects of treatment for 14 patients undergoing conversion from CGRS to MGRS were collected over a 3 year period. The costs of all aspects of each treatment including clinic visits, hospital stay, theatre and complications were calculated and projected over the lifetime of each device. The initial outlay for insertion for MCGR was £12,913 more than the CGRS. There were significant cost savings for each lengthening which projected over the 5 year lifetime amounted to a cost saving of over £8,000 per patient. Magnetic controlled growth rods reduce the need for multiple invasive procedures in the management of EOS. The implant has a significant projected cost saving in comparison to CGRS.

  3. Multiple rod-cone and cone-rod photoreceptor transmutations in snakes: evidence from visual opsin gene expression. (United States)

    Simões, Bruno F; Sampaio, Filipa L; Loew, Ellis R; Sanders, Kate L; Fisher, Robert N; Hart, Nathan S; Hunt, David M; Partridge, Julian C; Gower, David J


    In 1934, Gordon Walls forwarded his radical theory of retinal photoreceptor 'transmutation'. This proposed that rods and cones used for scotopic and photopic vision, respectively, were not fixed but could evolve into each other via a series of morphologically distinguishable intermediates. Walls' prime evidence came from series of diurnal and nocturnal geckos and snakes that appeared to have pure-cone or pure-rod retinas (in forms that Walls believed evolved from ancestors with the reverse complement) or which possessed intermediate photoreceptor cells. Walls was limited in testing his theory because the precise identity of visual pigments present in photoreceptors was then unknown. Subsequent molecular research has hitherto neglected this topic but presents new opportunities. We identify three visual opsin genes, rh1, sws1 and lws, in retinal mRNA of an ecologically and taxonomically diverse sample of snakes central to Walls' theory. We conclude that photoreceptors with superficially rod- or cone-like morphology are not limited to containing scotopic or photopic opsins, respectively. Walls' theory is essentially correct, and more research is needed to identify the patterns, processes and functional implications of transmutation. Future research will help to clarify the fundamental properties and physiology of photoreceptors adapted to function in different light levels. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Maya Studio Projects Texturing and Lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Lanier, Lee


    Learn to create realistic digital assets for film and games with this project-based guide Focused entirely on practical projects, this hands-on guide shows you how to use Maya's texturing and lighting tools in real-world situations. Whether you need to sharpen your skills or you're looking to break into the field for the first time, you'll learn top industry techniques for this important skill as you follow the instructions for several specific projects. You can even create your own version, using final Maya scene files to validate results. The companion DVD includes supplemental videos, proje

  5. Texturing and modeling a procedural approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ebert, David S


    Congratulations to Ken Perlin for his 1997 Technical Achievement Award from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Science Board of Governors, given in recognition of the development of ""Turbulence"", Perlin Noise, a technique discussed in this book which is used to produce natural appearing textures on computer-generated surfaces for motion picture visual effects. Dr. Perlin joins Darwyn Peachey (co-developer of RenderMan(R), also discussed in the book) in being honored with this prestigious award.* * Written at a usable level by the developers of the techniques* Serves as a source book for

  6. A Study of Texture Analysis Algorithms. (United States)


    If so how can the improvement be made? ( iv ) Can it be improved to the point where it can match a level of human texture perception? (v) Can it be...cooccurrence matrices in- creases as more 6’s are used; (iii) to infer visual qualities of patterns in general requires more than one 6 value be used; and ( iv ...scenes, small regions could belong to anyone of a large number of primitive clases such as grass, concrete, car, tree, etc. Combining these primitives

  7. Detection of surfaces for projection of texture (United States)

    Molinier, Thierry; Fofi, David; Gorria, Patrick; Salvi, Joaquim


    Augmented reality is used to improve color segmentation on human's body or on precious no touch artefacts. We propose a technique based on structured light to project texture on a real object without any contact with it. Such techniques can be apply on medical application, archeology, industrial inspection and augmented prototyping. Coded structured light is an optical technique based on active stereovision which allows shape acquisition. By projecting a light pattern onto the surface of an object and capturing images with a camera, a large number of correspondences can be found and 3D points can be reconstructed by means of triangulation.

  8. Fabrication of Textured Rough SnO2:F Films on Glass Using TiO2 Film as a Buffer Layer (United States)

    Ren, Yang; Wang, Qiuhong; Zhou, Xiaoge; Gao, Yun; Zhao, Gaoyang


    This study proposes an alternative method for preparing SnO2:F films with a pyramid-like surface morphology that are suitable for the transparent electrodes used in amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells. By introducing a TiO2 film as a buffer layer, the crystallographic orientation of the SnO2:F films was changed from random to a (200) plane, and the surface topography of the SnO2:F film transformed from rod-like to pyramid-like; hence, textured, rough SnO2:F films were obtained. An appropriately textured rough surface improves light-trapping and enhances the photocurrent in amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells. The textured SnO2:F films were used as the front electrode in a 1-cm2 single-junction amorphous silicon solar cell yielding an initial efficiency of 9.3%. Light-trapping in the textured SnO2:F films led to a photo-generated current higher than that generated in smooth films.

  9. Fabrication of Textured Rough SnO2:F Films on Glass Using TiO2 Film as a Buffer Layer (United States)

    Ren, Yang; Wang, Qiuhong; Zhou, Xiaoge; Gao, Yun; Zhao, Gaoyang


    This study proposes an alternative method for preparing SnO2:F films with a pyramid-like surface morphology that are suitable for the transparent electrodes used in amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells. By introducing a TiO2 film as a buffer layer, the crystallographic orientation of the SnO2:F films was changed from random to a (200) plane, and the surface topography of the SnO2:F film transformed from rod-like to pyramid-like; hence, textured, rough SnO2:F films were obtained. An appropriately textured rough surface improves light-trapping and enhances the photocurrent in amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells. The textured SnO2:F films were used as the front electrode in a 1-cm2 single-junction amorphous silicon solar cell yielding an initial efficiency of 9.3%. Light-trapping in the textured SnO2:F films led to a photo-generated current higher than that generated in smooth films.

  10. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma response evaluation with MRI texture classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinonen Tomi T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To show magnetic resonance imaging (MRI texture appearance change in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL during treatment with response controlled by quantitative volume analysis. Methods A total of 19 patients having NHL with an evaluable lymphoma lesion were scanned at three imaging timepoints with 1.5T device during clinical treatment evaluation. Texture characteristics of images were analyzed and classified with MaZda application and statistical tests. Results NHL tissue MRI texture imaged before treatment and under chemotherapy was classified within several subgroups, showing best discrimination with 96% correct classification in non-linear discriminant analysis of T2-weighted images. Texture parameters of MRI data were successfully tested with statistical tests to assess the impact of the separability of the parameters in evaluating chemotherapy response in lymphoma tissue. Conclusion Texture characteristics of MRI data were classified successfully; this proved texture analysis to be potential quantitative means of representing lymphoma tissue changes during chemotherapy response monitoring.

  11. Anisotropic 3D texture synthesis with application to volume rendering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lasse Farnung; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas


    We present a novel approach to improving volume rendering by using synthesized textures in combination with a custom transfer function. First, we use existing knowledge to synthesize anisotropic solid textures to fit our volumetric data. As input to the synthesis method, we acquire high quality...... images using a 12.1 megapixel camera. Next, we extend the volume rendering pipeline by creating a transfer function which yields not only color and opacity from the input intensity, but also texture coordinates for our synthesized 3D texture. Thus, we add texture to the volume rendered images....... This method is applied to a high quality visualization of a pig carcass, where samples of meat, bone, and fat have been used to produce the anisotropic 3D textures....

  12. Deformation texture development in a model composite system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, W.J.; MacEwen, S.; Kocks, U.F.; Embury, J.D.


    Model composites fabricated with a polycrystalline copper matrix and continuous tungsten fibres were deformed in plane strain compression with the fibres perpendicular to the loading axis and parallel to the direction of zero strain. The development of texture in the matrix due to deformation was measured using x-ray diffraction. It was observed that the macroscopic texture development in the composite was weaker than for unreinforced copper. The pattern of deformation in the matrix was quantified using experimental measurements and finite element method calculations. By carefully sectioning the composite after deformation, texture measurements were conducted for regions which exhibited characteristic types of deformation. These measurements showed that there is a variety of local textures (some weaker, some stronger than the texture in the unreinforced matrix) which when summed give the result of a weak global texture. This result is in agreement with the predictions from the computer simulations of Bolmaro et al.

  13. Exploring Sound-Motion Textures in drum set performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godøy, Rolf Inge; song, minho; Dahl, Sofia


    to our perceptions of musical textures. Musical textures could thus be understood as multimodal, with features of both sound and motion, hence the idea here of sound-motion textures in music. The study of such multi- modal sound-motion textures will necessitate collecting and analyzing data of both...... the produced sound and of the sound-producing body motion, thus entailing a number of methodological challenges. In our current work on sound- motion textures in music, we focus on short and idiomatic figures for different instruments (e.g. ornaments on vari- ous instruments), and in this paper, we present......A musical texture, be that of an ensemble or of a solo in- strumentalist, may be perceived as combinations of both simultaneous and sequential sound events. However, we believe that also sensations of the corresponding sound- producing events (e.g. hitting, stroking, bowing, blowing) contribute...

  14. Reduction of intradiscal pressure by the use of polycarbonate-urethane rods as compared to titanium rods in posterior thoracolumbar spinal fixation. (United States)

    Jacobs, Eva; Roth, Alex K; Arts, Jacobus J; van Rhijn, Lodewijk W; Willems, Paul C


    Loss of sagittal alignment and balance in adult spinal deformity can cause severe pain, disability and progressive neurological deficit. When conservative treatment has failed, spinal fusion using rigid instrumentation is currently the salvage treatment to stop further curve progression. However, fusion surgery is associated with high revision rates due to instrumentation failure and proximal junctional failure, especially if patients also suffer from osteoporosis. To address these drawbacks, a less rigid rod construct is proposed, which is hypothesized to provide a more gradual transition of force and load distribution over spinal segments in comparison to stiff titanium rods. In this study, the effect of variation in rod stiffness on the intradiscal pressure (IDP) of fixed spinal segments during flexion-compression loading was assessed. An ex vivo multisegment (porcine) flexion-compression spine test comparing rigid titanium rods with more flexible polycarbonate-urethane (PCU) rods was used. An increase in peak IDP was found for both the titanium and PCU instrumentation groups as compared to the uninstrumented controls. The peak IDP for the spines instrumented with the PCU rods was significantly lower in comparison to the titanium instrumentation group. These results demonstrated the differences in mechanical load transfer characteristics between PCU and titanium rod constructs when subjected to flexion-compression loading. The concept of stabilization with a less rigid rod may be an alternative to fusion with rigid instrumentation, with the aim of decreasing mechanical stress on the instrumented segments and the possible benefit of a decrease in the incidence of screw pullout.

  15. Adaptive pixel/patch-based synthesis for texture compression


    Racapé, Fabien; Lefort, Simon; Francois, Edouard; Babel, Marie; Déforges, Olivier


    International audience; This paper presents an adaptive scheme for synthesizing missing textured regions. In synthesis-based compression approaches, large textures are removed at encoder side and filled in at decoder side. This work proposes a synthesizer in which both complementary pixel-based and patch-based approaches are used. According to results shown by synthesis algorithms, patch-based and pixel-based approaches are efficient with different kinds of texture. Two algorithms are adapted...

  16. Texture development during recrystallization of aluminium containing large particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, Dorte; Hansen, Niels; Humphreys, F. J.


    The recrystallization process in heavily deformed commercially pure aluminium containing large intermetallic particles was studied by in situ neutron diffraction texture measurements and various microscopical techniques including texture measurements in local areas and simultaneous determination...... of size and orientation of individual grains. The formation and growth of recrystallization nuclei at the particles and in the matrix were examined by correlating the measured change in texture to the observed change in microstructure. It was found that prolific nucleation of grains having a wide spread...

  17. MRT letter: recovering weak-textured surfaces using image focus. (United States)

    Muhammad, Mannan Saeed; Choi, Tae-Sun


    In nature, objects have partially weak texture and their shape reconstruction using focus based passive methods like shape from focus (SFF), is difficult. This article presents a new SFF algorithm which can compute precise depth of dense as well as weak textured objects. Segmentation is applied to discard wrong depth estimate and then later interpolating them from accurate depth values of their neighbors. The performance of the proposed method is tested, using different image sequences of synthetic and real objects, with varying textures.

  18. 78 FR 60850 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset... (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil: Final Results of the... certain alloy steel wire rod (wire rod) from Brazil would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence... Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Brazil, 67 FR 55805 (August 30, 2002). \\2\\ See Initiation of Five-Year...

  19. 77 FR 13545 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty... (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Notice of Final Results... duty order on carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod (wire rod) from Mexico.\\1\\ This review covers.... \\1\\ See Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Mexico: Notice of Preliminary Results of...

  20. 77 FR 66954 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Preliminary Results of... on carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod (wire rod) from Mexico. The period of review is October 1... certain alloy steel wire rod. The product is currently classified under the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of...

  1. 78 FR 28190 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Final Results of... carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod (wire rod) from Mexico. The period of review (POR) is October 1... (the Act). \\1\\ See Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Preliminary Results of...

  2. Dynamic air layer on textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev


    We provide an experimental demonstration that a novel macroscopic, dynamic continuous air layer or plastron can be sustained indefinitely on textured superhydrophobic surfaces in air-supersaturated water by a natural gas influx mechanism. This type of plastron is an intermediate state between Leidenfrost vapor layers on superheated surfaces and the equilibrium Cassie-Baxter wetting state on textured superhydrophobic surfaces. We show that such a plastron can be sustained on the surface of a centimeter-sized superhydrophobic sphere immersed in heated water and variations of its dynamic behavior with air saturation of the water can be regulated by rapid changes of the water temperature. The simple experimental setup allows for quantification of the air flux into the plastron and identification of the air transport model of the plastron growth. Both the observed growth dynamics of such plastrons and millimeter-sized air bubbles seeded on the hydrophilic surface under identical air-supersaturated solution conditions are consistent with the predictions of a well-mixed gas transport model. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  3. Texture classification by texton: statistical versus binary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Guo

    Full Text Available Using statistical textons for texture classification has shown great success recently. The maximal response 8 (Statistical_MR8, image patch (Statistical_Joint and locally invariant fractal (Statistical_Fractal are typical statistical texton algorithms and state-of-the-art texture classification methods. However, there are two limitations when using these methods. First, it needs a training stage to build a texton library, thus the recognition accuracy will be highly depended on the training samples; second, during feature extraction, local feature is assigned to a texton by searching for the nearest texton in the whole library, which is time consuming when the library size is big and the dimension of feature is high. To address the above two issues, in this paper, three binary texton counterpart methods were proposed, Binary_MR8, Binary_Joint, and Binary_Fractal. These methods do not require any training step but encode local feature into binary representation directly. The experimental results on the CUReT, UIUC and KTH-TIPS databases show that binary texton could get sound results with fast feature extraction, especially when the image size is not big and the quality of image is not poor.

  4. Toward a taxonomy of textures for image retrieval (United States)

    Payne, Janet S.; Stonham, T. John


    Image retrieval remains a difficult task, in spite of the many research efforts applied over the past decade or more, from IBM's QBIC onwards. Colour, texture and shape have all been used for content-based image retrieval (CBIR); texture is particularly effective, alone or with colour. Many researchers have expressed the hope that textures can be organised and classified in the way that colour can; however, it seems likely that such an ambition is unrealisable. While the goal of content-based retrieval is to retrieve "more images like this one," there is the difficulty of judging what is meant by similarity for images. It seems appropriate to search on what the images actually look like to potential users of such systems. No single computational method for textural classification matches human perceptual similarity judgements. However, since different methods are effective for different kinds of textures, a way of identifying or grouping such classes should lead to more effective retrievals. In this research, working with the Brodatz texture images, participants were asked to select up to four other textures which they considered similar to each of the Brodatz textures in turn. A principal components analysis was performed upon the correlations between their rankings, which was then used to derive a 'mental map' of the composite similarity ranking for each texture. These similarity measures can be considered as a matrix of distances in similarity space; hierarchical cluster analysis produces a perceptually appropriate dendrogram with eight distinct clusters.

  5. Texture alteration detection in bitemporal images of lesions with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær


    The objective of this work is to explore the feasibility of quantifying textural change between pairs of segmented patterns without registering them. The Multi-variate Alteration Detection (M.A.D.) Transform is applied to a texture model constructed with the data of segmented psoriasis lesions...... images. The texture model is Haralick's co-occurrence matrix, which is computed and normalized for each single band with the equalized data of a given lesion. The contribution of each single color band to the textural change is analyzed....

  6. Chemical composition and temperature influence on honey texture properties. (United States)

    Oroian, Mircea; Paduret, Sergiu; Amariei, Sonia; Gutt, Gheorghe


    The aim of this study is to evaluate the chemical composition and temperatures (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 °C) influence on the honey texture parameters (hardness, viscosity, adhesion, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness). The honeys analyzed respect the European regulation in terms of moisture content and inverted sugar concentration. The texture parameters are influenced negatively by the moisture content, and positively by the °Brix concentration. The texture parameters modelling have been made using the artificial neural network and the polynomial model. The polynomial model predicted better the texture parameters than the artificial neural network.

  7. Multi Texture Analysis of Colorectal Cancer Continuum Using Multispectral Imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Chaddad

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to characterize the continuum of colorectal cancer (CRC using multiple texture features extracted from multispectral optical microscopy images. Three types of pathological tissues (PT are considered: benign hyperplasia, intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma.In the proposed approach, the region of interest containing PT is first extracted from multispectral images using active contour segmentation. This region is then encoded using texture features based on the Laplacian-of-Gaussian (LoG filter, discrete wavelets (DW and gray level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM. To assess the significance of textural differences between PT types, a statistical analysis based on the Kruskal-Wallis test is performed. The usefulness of texture features is then evaluated quantitatively in terms of their ability to predict PT types using various classifier models.Preliminary results show significant texture differences between PT types, for all texture features (p-value < 0.01. Individually, GLCM texture features outperform LoG and DW features in terms of PT type prediction. However, a higher performance can be achieved by combining all texture features, resulting in a mean classification accuracy of 98.92%, sensitivity of 98.12%, and specificity of 99.67%.These results demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of combining multiple texture features for characterizing the continuum of CRC and discriminating between pathological tissues in multispectral images.

  8. Fast color/texture segmentation for outdoor robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blas, Morten Rufus; Agrawal, Motilal; Sundaresan, Aravind


    We present a fast integrated approach for online segmentation of images for outdoor robots. A compact color and texture descriptor has been developed to describe local color and texture variations in an image. This descriptor is then used in a two-stage fast clustering framework using K-means to ......We present a fast integrated approach for online segmentation of images for outdoor robots. A compact color and texture descriptor has been developed to describe local color and texture variations in an image. This descriptor is then used in a two-stage fast clustering framework using K...

  9. Shape-Tailored Features and their Application to Texture Segmentation

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Naeemullah


    Texture Segmentation is one of the most challenging areas of computer vision. One reason for this difficulty is the huge variety and variability of textures occurring in real world, making it very difficult to quantitatively study textures. One of the key tools used for texture segmentation is local invariant descriptors. Texture consists of textons, the basic building block of textures, that may vary by small nuisances like illumination variation, deformations, and noise. Local invariant descriptors are robust to these nuisances making them beneficial for texture segmentation. However, grouping dense descriptors directly for segmentation presents a problem: existing descriptors aggregate data from neighborhoods that may contain different textured regions, making descriptors from these neighborhoods difficult to group, leading to significant errors in segmentation. This work addresses this issue by proposing dense local descriptors, called Shape-Tailored Features, which are tailored to an arbitrarily shaped region, aggregating data only within the region of interest. Since the segmentation, i.e., the regions, are not known a-priori, we propose a joint problem for Shape-Tailored Features and the regions. We present a framework based on variational methods. Extensive experiments on a new large texture dataset, which we introduce, show that the joint approach with Shape-Tailored Features leads to better segmentations over the non-joint non Shape-Tailored approach, and the method out-performs existing state-of-the-art.

  10. Rhodopsin mutant P23H destabilizes rod photoreceptor disk membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Haeri

    Full Text Available Mutations in rhodopsin cause retinitis pigmentosa in humans and retinal degeneration in a multitude of other animals. We utilized high-resolution live imaging of the large rod photoreceptors from transgenic frogs (Xenopus to compare the properties of fluorescently tagged rhodopsin, Rho-EGFP, and Rho(P23H-EGFP. The mutant was abnormally distributed both in the inner and outer segments (OS, accumulating in the OS to a concentration of ∼0.1% compared to endogenous opsin. Rho(P23H-EGFP formed dense fluorescent foci, with concentrations of mutant protein up to ten times higher than other regions. Wild-type transgenic Rho-EGFP did not concentrate in OS foci when co-expressed in the same rod with Rho(P23H-EGFP. Outer segment regions containing fluorescent foci were refractory to fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, while foci in the inner segment exhibited recovery kinetics similar to OS regions without foci and Rho-EGFP. The Rho(P23H-EGFP foci were often in older, more distal OS disks. Electron micrographs of OS revealed abnormal disk membranes, with the regular disk bilayers broken into vesiculotubular structures. Furthermore, we observed similar OS disturbances in transgenic mice expressing Rho(P23H, suggesting such structures are a general consequence of mutant expression. Together these results show that mutant opsin disrupts OS disks, destabilizing the outer segment possibly via the formation of aggregates. This may render rods susceptible to mechanical injury or compromise OS function, contributing to photoreceptor loss.

  11. Rewetting of a low superheated rod with saturated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portillo, O.; Reyes, R.; Wayner, P.C. Jr.


    The study of the rewetting of a superheated surface has application in several technological fields. It is related to the control mechanism for loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in nuclear reactors. An adsorption model as the precursory mechanism for rewetting of a superheated surface is extended from its application to non-polar liquids to a polar fluid, and modeling calculations are compared with experimental data found in the literature. The adsorption model is based on interfacial forces acting at the tip of the rewetting front, the three-phase region. In this region, solid, liquid and vapor interfaces generate a contact angle that depends on the degree of superheat and describes the velocity of rewetting. The contact angle is a function of interfacial forces calculated through the disjoining pressure of the adsorbed film precursory of the rewetting. The influences of van der Waals and electrostatic intermolecular forces in the film thickness are analyzed. The authors find that the order of magnitude of the film thickness in the controlling region is of a few angstroms: thus, only van der Waals intermolecular forces define the interactions. For the prediction of the velocity of rewetting the temperature profile along the rod's surface is required and a one-dimensional and a two-dimensional heat conduction balances are solved. The thermophysical properties in the adsorption model are predicted by ASPEN PLUS data bank and from ASME steam tables. Variations of the predicted values have a strong influence on the results. The surface boundary condition on the rod contains an evaporative heat transfer coefficient that is calculated from the fitted experimental rewetting velocities and the two-dimensional temperature field in the rod. Using this calculation scheme the values of the evaporative heat transfer coefficient are obtained in the normal range of values. Therefore the adsorption model gives results that are consistent with experimental observations.

  12. Rod monochromacy and the coevolution of cetacean retinal opsins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Meredith


    Full Text Available Cetaceans have a long history of commitment to a fully aquatic lifestyle that extends back to the Eocene. Extant species have evolved a spectacular array of adaptations in conjunction with their deployment into a diverse array of aquatic habitats. Sensory systems are among those that have experienced radical transformations in the evolutionary history of this clade. In the case of vision, previous studies have demonstrated important changes in the genes encoding rod opsin (RH1, short-wavelength sensitive opsin 1 (SWS1, and long-wavelength sensitive opsin (LWS in selected cetaceans, but have not examined the full complement of opsin genes across the complete range of cetacean families. Here, we report protein-coding sequences for RH1 and both color opsin genes (SWS1, LWS from representatives of all extant cetacean families. We examine competing hypotheses pertaining to the timing of blue shifts in RH1 relative to SWS1 inactivation in the early history of Cetacea, and we test the hypothesis that some cetaceans are rod monochomats. Molecular evolutionary analyses contradict the "coastal" hypothesis, wherein SWS1 was pseudogenized in the common ancestor of Cetacea, and instead suggest that RH1 was blue-shifted in the common ancestor of Cetacea before SWS1 was independently knocked out in baleen whales (Mysticeti and in toothed whales (Odontoceti. Further, molecular evidence implies that LWS was inactivated convergently on at least five occasions in Cetacea: (1 Balaenidae (bowhead and right whales, (2 Balaenopteroidea (rorquals plus gray whale, (3 Mesoplodon bidens (Sowerby's beaked whale, (4 Physeter macrocephalus (giant sperm whale, and (5 Kogia breviceps (pygmy sperm whale. All of these cetaceans are known to dive to depths of at least 100 m where the underwater light field is dim and dominated by blue light. The knockout of both SWS1 and LWS in multiple cetacean lineages renders these taxa rod monochromats, a condition previously unknown among

  13. Electrical responses of rods in the retina of Bufo marinus (United States)

    Cervetto, L.; Pasino, E.; Torre, V.


    1. Intracellular responses to flashes and steps of light have been recorded from the outer segment and the cell body of rods in the retina of the Bufo marinus. The identification of the origin of recorded responses has been confirmed by intracellular marking. 2. Responses to flashes delivered in darkness or superimposed on a background were analysed. Responses recorded from outer segments conform to the principle of `spectral univariance'. The shape of the response is not affected by enlarging the spot diameter from 150 to 1000 μm. 3. The membrane potential measured in darkness at the outer segments varied from -15 to -25 mV. Injection of steady hyperpolarizing currents increases the size of the response to light; depolarizing currents reduce the response. The mean value of the input resistance is 97 ± 30 MΩ in darkness and increases by 20-30% during illumination. 4. The responses obtained from the cell body of rods have the same shape, time course and spectral sensitivity of those recorded at the outer segment. Injection of steady current at the cell body produces different effects than at the outer segment: hyperpolarizing currents reduce the amplitude of the response to light; depolarizing currents increase the response. 5. The experimental data are fitted according to a model similar to that used to describe the responses of turtle cones (Baylor & Hodgkin, 1974; Baylor, Hodgkin & Lamb, 1974a, b). 6. The model reproduces the electrical responses of the rod outer segment to a variety of stimuli: (a) brief flashes and steps of light in dark adapted conditions; (b) bright flashes superimposed on background illuminations; (c) pairs of flashes delivered at different time intervals. Responses to hyperpolarizing steps of current are also reproduced by the model. ImagesABCD PMID:406383

  14. Rod progenitor cells in the mature zebrafish retina. (United States)

    Morris, Ann C; Scholz, Tamera; Fadool, James M


    The zebrafish is an excellent model organism in which to study the retina's response to photoreceptor degeneration and/or acute injury. While much has been learned about the retinal stem and progenitor cells that mediate the damage response, several questions remain that cannot be addressed by acute models of injury. The development of genetic models, such as the XOPS-mCFP transgenic line, should further efforts to understand the nature of the signals that promote rod progenitor proliferation and differentiation following photoreceptor loss. This in turn may help to refine future approaches in higher vertebrates aimed at enhancing retinal progenitor cell activity for therapeutic purposes.

  15. Breaking of rod-shaped model material during compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Kulaviak


    Full Text Available The breakage of a model anisometric dry granular material caused by uniaxial compression was studied. The bed of uniform rod-like pasta particles (8 mm long, aspect ratio 1:8 was compressed (Gamlen Tablet Press and their size distribution was measured after each run (Dynamic Image Analysing. The compression dynamics was recorded and the effect of several parameters was tested (rate of compression, volume of granular bed, pressure magnitude and mode of application. Besides the experiments, numerical modelling of the compressed breakable material was performed as well, employing the DEM approach (Discrete Element Method. The comparison between the data and the model looks promising.

  16. Elasticity of the Rod-Shaped Gram-Negative Eubacteria (United States)

    Boulbitch, A.; Quinn, B.; Pink, D.


    We report a theoretical calculation of the elasticity of the peptidoglycan network, the only stress-bearing part of rod-shaped Gram-negative eubacteria. The peptidoglycan network consists of elastic peptides and inextensible glycan strands, and it has been proposed that the latter form zigzag filaments along the circumference of the cylindrical bacterial shell. The zigzag geometry of the glycan strands gives rise to nonlinear elastic behavior. The four elastic moduli of the peptidoglycan network depend on its stressed state. For a bacterium under physiological conditions the elasticity is proportional to the bacterial turgor pressure. Our results are in good agreement with recent measurements.

  17. Breaking of rod-shaped model material during compression (United States)

    Lukas, Kulaviak; Vera, Penkavova; Marek, Ruzicka; Miroslav, Puncochar; Petr, Zamostny; Zdenek, Grof; Frantisek, Stepanek; Marek, Schongut; Jaromir, Havlica


    The breakage of a model anisometric dry granular material caused by uniaxial compression was studied. The bed of uniform rod-like pasta particles (8 mm long, aspect ratio 1:8) was compressed (Gamlen Tablet Press) and their size distribution was measured after each run (Dynamic Image Analysing). The compression dynamics was recorded and the effect of several parameters was tested (rate of compression, volume of granular bed, pressure magnitude and mode of application). Besides the experiments, numerical modelling of the compressed breakable material was performed as well, employing the DEM approach (Discrete Element Method). The comparison between the data and the model looks promising.

  18. Texture measurements in fine grained polyphase aggregates (United States)

    Kilian, R.; Heilbronner, R.; Stünitz, H.


    When analyzing natural and experimental microstructures, we routinely use the two methods for orientation imaging and texture measurements: (a) the computer-integrated polarization microscopy (CIP, Panozzo Heilbronner & Pauli, 1993) and (b) the electron back scatter diffractometry (EBSD, e.g. Kunze et al., 1994). The CIP method yields orientation maps and pole figures of c-axes (of uni-axial materials), while the EBSD method yields complete textural data for all crystallographic orientations. In order to compare the orientation images the Euler maps (obtained from EBSD) are recalculated and presented with the more intuitive colour look-up tables (CLUTs) of the CIP method. In this contribution we compare and contrast the results achieved by these two methods using two different samples taken from a metagranodiorite (Kilian et al., 2009): (1) a coarse grained mylonitic rock with polycrystalline quartz aggregates and (2) a very fine grained ultramylonitic rock with single quartz grains dispersed in a polymineralic matrix. For the coarse grained sample (1) both methods yield the same (strong) c-axis pole figure: the geometry of the c-axis polefigure as well as the texture intensity (maximum of polefigure) are identical. The texture of sample (2) - where small quartz grains are dispersed in the polymineralic matrix - is very weak to random. The CIP and EBSD c-axis pole figures are different and - as noted previously - these differences arise from a machine specific bias of the EBSD (Schmocker 2002). In addition to texture analysis, both methods are capable of image segmentation (identification and separation of individual grains in the orientation image) as well as shape and grain size analysis. However due to the entirely different approach taken, the results may differ significantly. For example, when deriving the grain size distribution for sample (2) EBSD (combined with with the OIM® analysis software) yields a positively skewed histogram (with the mode occurring

  19. Memory texture as a mechanism of improvement in preference by adding noise (United States)

    Zhao, Yinzhu; Aoki, Naokazu; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki


    According to color research, people have memory colors for familiar objects, which correlate with high color preference. As a similar concept to this, we propose memory texture as a mechanism of texture preference by adding image noise (1/f noise or white noise) to photographs of seven familiar objects. Our results showed that (1) memory texture differed from real-life texture; (2) no consistency was found between memory texture and real-life texture; (3) correlation existed between memory texture and preferred texture; and (4) the type of image noise which is more appropriate to texture reproduction differed by object.

  20. Comparison of texture models for efficient ultrasound image retrieval (United States)

    Bansal, Maggi; Sharma, Vipul; Singh, Sukhwinder


    Due to availability of inexpensive and easily available image capturing devices, the size of digital image collection is increasing rapidly. Thus, there is need to create efficient access methods or retrieval tools to search, browse and retrieve images from large multimedia repositories. More specifically, researchers have been engaged on different ways of retrieving images based on their actual content. In particular, Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) systems have attracted considerable research and commercial interest in the recent years. In CBIR, visual features characterizing the image content are color, shape and texture. Currently, texture is used to quantify the image content of medical images as it is the most prominent feature that contains information about the spatial distribution of gray levels and variations in brightness. Various texture models like Haralick's Spatial Gray Level Co-occurence Matrix (SGLCM), Gray Level Difference Statistics (GLDS), First-order Statistics (FoS), Statistical Feature Matrix (SFM), Law's Texture Energy Measures (TEM), Fractal features and Fourier Power Spectrum (FPS) features exists in literature. Each of these models visualizes texture in a different way. Retrieval performance depends upon the choice of texture algorithm. Unfortunately, there is no texture model known to work best for encoding texture properties of liver ultrasound images or retrieving most similar images. An experimental comparison of different texture models for Content Based Medical Image Retrieval (CBMIR) is presented in this paper. For the experiments, liver ultrasound image database is used and the retrieval performance of the various texture models is analyzed in detail. The paper concludes with recommendations which texture model performs better for liver ultrasound images. Interestingly, FPS and SGLCM based Haralick's features perform well for liver ultrasound retrieval and thus can be recommended as a simple baseline for such images.

  1. On the application of electrochemical techniques for the preparation of {sup 57}Co source core, encapsulation and quality evaluation for radiometric assay of nuclear fuel rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, A.; Kumar, M.; Udhayakumar, J.; Gandhi, S.S.; Venkatesh, M. [Bhabha Atomic Reseach Center, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Radiopharmaceuticals Div.; Satpati, A.K. [Bhabha Atomic Reseach Center, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Analytical Chemistry Div.; Nuwad, J.; Shukla, R.; Pillai, C.G.S. [Bhabha Atomic Reseach Center, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Chemistry Div.; Venugopal, V. [Bhabha Atomic Reseach Center, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Radiochemistry and Isotope Group


    This paper describes an electrochemical method for the preparation of {sup 57}Co source to be used in quality evaluation of nuclear fuel rods. The electrolytic cell, the experimental set up used and the process of deposition are described. The effect of various parameters such as pH of the electrolyte, bath temperature, current density, content of cobalt in the bath, electrolyte volume in the cell and deposition time were investigated and optimized for maximum deposition. The texture and morphology of the electrodeposited samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM and EDS analyses. Sources containing {proportional_to} 370 MBq (10 mCi) {sup 57}Co on a circular copper foil of 4 mm diameter could be prepared and encapsulated in an aluminum capsule. Quality assurance tests performed to ensure non-leachability, uniform distribution of activity and stability of the sources gave satisfactory results. (orig.)

  2. Simultaneous Processing Method for Micro-Rods and Holes Using EDM (United States)

    Yamazaki, Minoru; Mori, Noritosi; Suzuki, Takemi; Kunieda, Masanori

    This paper describes a new method for micro-EDM drilling which utilizes the wear of rod electrodes. With this method, a pair of micro rod and micro hole can be machined in a single process, while with conventional methods, the micro rod electrode needs to be formed before machining the micro hole. Processing conditions were optimized for the new method to obtain higher aspect ratio for the micro rods. Results of experiments also showed the following: 1) This method can be applied to AISI1045, AISI304 and Kovar and any electrode diameter size. 2) From the second process, if machining many holes using the same electrode, the electrode shape can be regenerated with excellent repeatability and holes processed efficiently. 3) The influence of carbon adhering to the tip region of the rod electrode is large, which is why the rod electrode becomes needle sharp.

  3. Ti-Ni Rods with Variable Stiffness for Spine Stabilization: Manufacture and Biomechanical Evaluation (United States)

    Brailovski, Vladimir; Facchinello, Yann; Brummund, Martin; Petit, Yvan; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc


    A new concept of monolithic spinal rods with variable flexural stiffness is proposed to reduce the risk of adjacent segment degeneration and vertebral fracture, while providing adequate stability to the spine. The variability of mechanical properties is generated by locally annealing Ti-Ni shape memory alloy rods. Ten-minute Joule effect annealing allows the restoration of the superelasticity in the heated portion of the rod. Such processing also generates a mechanical property gradient between the heated and the unheated zones. A numerical model simulating the annealing temperature and the distributions of the mechanical properties was developed to optimize the Joule-heating strategy and to modulate the rod's overall flexural stiffness. Subsequently, the rod model was included in a finite element model of a porcine lumbar spine to study the effect of the rod's stiffness profiles on the spinal biomechanics.

  4. Photonic crystal rod fibers: Understanding a new class of active optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurila, Marko

    In this PhD thesis an experimental study of modal characterization methods on large mode area photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) is performed and the development of a new ytterbium-doped photonic bandgap PCF rod fiber is presented. The first focus of this work is to use modal characterization methods...... core modes and the cladding band as the underlying mechanics to ensure SM operation of the new rod fiber design (85 μm core diameter), which was developed during this thesis work. The second focus of this work is the study of the new ytterbiumdoped rod fiber design under active operation. Performance...... of the rod fiber is evaluated in high power laser and laser amplifier configurations. The high power rod amplifier setup including the seed source is developed and characterized. Results obtained from the rod fiber showed simultaneously SM, near diffraction limited output beam quality with high average power...

  5. The Interaction Between Control Rods as Estimated by Second-Order One-Group Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Rolf


    The interaction effect between control rods is an important problem for the reactivity control of a reactor. The approach of second order one-group perturbation theory is shown to be attractive due to its simplicity. Formulas are derived for the fully inserted control rods in a bare reactor. For a single rod we introduce a correction parameter b, which with good approximation is proportional to the strength of the absorber. For two and more rods we introduce an interaction function g(r{sub ij}), which is assumed to depend only on the distance r{sub ij} between the rods. The theoretical expressions are correlated with the results of several experiments in R0, ZEBRA and the Aagesta reactor, as well as with more sophisticated calculations. The approximate formulas are found to give quite good agreement with exact values, but in the case of about 8 or more rods higher-order effects are likely to be important.

  6. Geometric and Texture Inpainting by Gibbs Sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, David Karl John; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Nielsen, Mads


    This paper discuss a method suitable for inpainting both large scale geometric structures and more stochastic texture components. Image inpainting concerns the problem of reconstructing the intensity contents inside regions of missing data. Common techniques for solving this problem are methods....... In this paper we use the well-known FRAME (Filters, Random Fields and Maximum Entropy) for inpainting. We introduce a temperature term in the learned FRAME Gibbs distribution. By sampling using different temperature in the FRAME Gibbs distribution, different contents of the image are reconstructed. We propose...... a two step method for inpainting using FRAME. First the geometric structure of the image is reconstructed by sampling from a cooled Gibbs distribution, then the stochastic component is reconstructed by sample froma heated Gibbs distribution. Both steps in the reconstruction process are necessary...

  7. Controlling and imaging chiral spin textures (United States)

    Chen, Gong

    Chirality in magnetic materials is fundamentally interesting and holds potential for logic and memory applications. Using spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy at National Center for Electron Microscopy, we recently observed chiral domain walls in thin films. We developed ways to tailor the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which drives the chirality, by interface engineering and by forming ternary superlattices. We find that spin-textures can be switched between left-handed, right-handed, cycloidal, helical and mixed domain wall structures by controlling uniaxial strain in magnetic films. We also demonstrate an experimental approach to stabilize skyrmions in magnetic multilayers without external magnetic field. These results exemplify the rich physics of chirality associated with interfaces of magnetic materials

  8. D-brane Inspired Fermion Mass Textures

    CERN Document Server

    Leontaris, G K


    In this paper, the issues of the quark mass hierarchies and the Cabbibo Kobayashi Maskawa mixing are analyzed in a class of intersecting D-brane configurations with Standard Model gauge symmetry. The relevant mass matrices are constructed taking into account the constraints imposed by extra abelian symmetries and anomaly cancelation conditions. Possible mass generating mechanisms including perturbative as well as non-perturbative effects are discussed and specific patterns of mass textures are found characterized by the hierarchies of the scales where the various sources contribute. It is argued that the Cholesky decomposition of the mass matrices is the most appropriate way to determine the properties of these fermion mass patterns, while the associated triangular mass matrix form provides a unified description of all phenomenologically equivalent symmetric and non-symmetric mass matrices. An elegant analytic formula is derived for the Cholesky triangular form of the mass matrices where the entries are given...

  9. Considerations for sensitivity analysis, uncertainty quantification, and data assimilation for grid-to-rod fretting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Pernice


    Grid-to-rod fretting is the leading cause of fuel failures in pressurized water reactors, and is one of the challenge problems being addressed by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors to guide its efforts to develop a virtual reactor environment. Prior and current efforts in modeling and simulation of grid-to-rod fretting are discussed. Sources of uncertainty in grid-to-rod fretting are also described.

  10. Dimensional Analysis and Extended Hydrodynamic Theory Applied to Long-Rod Penetration of Ceramics (United States)


    ARL-RP-0572 ● JULY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Dimensional Analysis and Extended Hydrodynamic Theory Applied to Long-Rod...Dimensional Analysis and Extended Hydrodynamic Theory Applied to Long-Rod Penetration of Ceramics by John D Clayton Weapons and Materials Research...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dimensional Analysis and Extended Hydrodynamic Theory Applied to Long- Rod Penetration of Ceramics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  11. An analysis of the temperature distribution in finite solid-state laser rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrukh, U.O. (Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA 23668 (US)); Buoncristiani, A.M.; Byvik, C.E. (NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23665 (US))


    An expression for the time-dependent temperature distribution in a finite solid-state laser rod, for an arbitrary distribution of pump energy, has been derived. The specific case of end pumping by circular (constant) or Gaussian beams is included. This formulation was employed to predict the time evolution of temperature in Ti:sapphire laser rods and in Nd:YAG rods of specific dimensions.

  12. An analysis of the temperature distribution in finite solid-state laser rods (United States)

    Farrukh, Usamah O.; Buoncristiani, A. Martin; Byvik, Charles E.


    An expression for the time-dependent temperature distribution in a finite solid-state laser rod, for an arbitrary distribution of pump energy, has been derived. The specific case of end pumping by circular (constant) or Gaussian beams is included. This formulation was used to predict the time evolution of temperature in Ti:sapphire laser rods and in Nd:YAG rods of specific dimensions.

  13. Method of targeted delivery of laser beam to isolated retinal rods by fiber optics. (United States)

    Sim, Nigel; Bessarab, Dmitri; Jones, C Michael; Krivitsky, Leonid


    A method of controllable light delivery to retinal rod cells using an optical fiber is described. Photo-induced current of the living rod cells was measured with the suction electrode technique. The approach was tested with measurements relating the spatial distribution of the light intensity to photo-induced current. In addition, the ion current responses of rod cells to polarized light at two different orientation geometries of the cells were studied.

  14. Experimental Study on Surrogate Nuclear Fuel Rods under Reversed Cyclic Bending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong [ORNL; Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL


    The mechanical behavior of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) rods under reversed cyclic bending or bending fatigue must be understood to evaluate their vibration integrity in a transportation environment. This is especially important for high-burnup fuels (>45 GWd/MTU), which have the potential for increased structural damage. It has been demonstrated that the bending fatigue of SNF rods can be effectively studied using surrogate rods. In this investigation, surrogate rods made of stainless steel (SS) 304 cladding and aluminum oxide pellets were tested under load or moment control at a variety of amplitude levels at 5 Hz using the Cyclic Integrated Reversible-Bending Fatigue Tester developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The behavior of the rods was further characterized using flexural rigidity and hysteresis data, and fractography was performed on the failed rods. The proposed surrogate rods captured many of the characteristics of deformation and failure mode observed in SNF, including the linear-to-nonlinear deformation transition and large residual curvature in static tests, PPI and PCMI failure mechanisms, and large variation in the initial structural condition. Rod degradation was measured and characterized by measuring the flexural rigidity; the degradation of the rigidity depended on both the moment amplitude applied and the initial structural condition of the rods. It was also shown that a cracking initiation site can be located on the internal surface or the external surface of cladding. Finally, fatigue damage to the bending rods can be described in terms of flexural rigidity, and the fatigue life of rods can be predicted once damage model parameters are properly evaluated. The developed experimental approach, test protocol, and analysis method can be used to study the vibration integrity of SNF rods in the future.

  15. A Texture Analysis of 3D Radar Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deiana, D.; Yarovoy, A.


    In this paper a texture feature coding method to be applied to high-resolution 3D radar images in order to improve target detection is developed. An automatic method for image segmentation based on texture features is proposed. The method has been able to automatically detect weak targets which

  16. Cortical mechanisms for the segregation and representation of acoustic textures. (United States)

    Overath, Tobias; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Stewart, Lauren; von Kriegstein, Katharina; Cusack, Rhodri; Rees, Adrian; Griffiths, Timothy D


    Auditory object analysis requires two fundamental perceptual processes: the definition of the boundaries between objects, and the abstraction and maintenance of an object's characteristic features. Although it is intuitive to assume that the detection of the discontinuities at an object's boundaries precedes the subsequent precise representation of the object, the specific underlying cortical mechanisms for segregating and representing auditory objects within the auditory scene are unknown. We investigated the cortical bases of these two processes for one type of auditory object, an "acoustic texture," composed of multiple frequency-modulated ramps. In these stimuli, we independently manipulated the statistical rules governing (1) the frequency-time space within individual textures (comprising ramps with a given spectrotemporal coherence) and (2) the boundaries between textures (adjacent textures with different spectrotemporal coherences). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show mechanisms defining boundaries between textures with different coherences in primary and association auditory cortices, whereas texture coherence is represented only in association cortex. Furthermore, participants' superior detection of boundaries across which texture coherence increased (as opposed to decreased) was reflected in a greater neural response in auditory association cortex at these boundaries. The results suggest a hierarchical mechanism for processing acoustic textures that is relevant to auditory object analysis: boundaries between objects are first detected as a change in statistical rules over frequency-time space, before a representation that corresponds to the characteristics of the perceived object is formed.

  17. Quantitative 3-D texture analysis of interphase cell nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strasters, K.C.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; van der Voort, H.T.M.; Young, I.T.; Nanninga, N.; Young, I.T.


    In order to investigate the spatio-temporal structure of chromatin in interphase nuclei the authors present two 3-D texture parameters based on the grey-weighted distance transform that quantify the accessibility and the homogeneity of a nucleus. Results of experiments on computer generated textures

  18. Enhancement of Human Cheek Skin Texture by Acacia Nilotica Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... < 0.05) and the texture parameter of energy showed significant increase (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the cream containing 3 % Acacia nilotica bark extract possesses anti-aging effect and improves skin surface appearance.. Keywords: Acacia nilotica, Cream, Visioscan VC 98, Skin texture, Anti-aging ...

  19. Use of Texture Fading in the Treatment of Food Selectivity. (United States)

    Shore, Bridget A.; Babbitt, Roberta L.; Williams, Keith E.; Coe, David A.; Snyder, Angela


    A study investigated the efficacy of texture fading in the treatment of food selectivity displayed by four children (ages 2-5). Successful treatment involved the gradual addition of higher textures based on results of periodic probes. Food acceptance and swallowing were reinforced, while food refusal and expulsion were placed on extinction.…

  20. The effect of visual experience on texture segmentation without awareness. (United States)

    Guzzon, Daniela; Casco, Clara


    The effect of visual experience is usually investigated through active (task dependent) training in a discrimination task. In contrast, the current work explored the psychophysical and electrophysiological correlates of passive (task independent) visual experience in texture segmentation by using an inattentional blindness-like paradigm (Mack et al., 1992). The psychophysical and electrophysiological responses to a segmented line-texture bar, with texture elements oriented either congruently (parallel) or noncongruently (orthogonal) to bar orientation, were collected after both short and long passive experience, with the texture presented on the background while subjects performed a primary task. Subjects were not able to distinguish the orientation of the bar (psychophysical results) after either short or long passive experience. However, the short experience produced an electrophysiological correlate of texture segmentation (N150), and the amplitude of this component was greater for the parallel bar, demonstrating that it reflected not simply local orientation discontinuities but also texture boundary-surface orientation congruency. This configurational effect in texture segmentation, which occurred without awareness during passive viewing, disappeared when the subjects had previously discriminated the orientation of the bar and when experience was lengthened, probably as a consequence of adaptation. Our study provides the first ERP evidence that boundary-surface relations are available during short passive visual experiences of very salient texture images and are suppressed by long experience, probably because of adaptation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Design of textured surfaces for super-hydrophobicity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prithvi Raj Jelia


    Nov 11, 2017 ... Alternatively, geometries of natural super-hydrophobic surfaces are often imitated to design textured surfaces. Knowing the ... The proposed approach is sufficiently general that its application can be extended to design other textured surfaces. Keywords. .... labТ software package. Further, manufacturing ...

  2. Texture Segmentation Based on Gabor Filters and Neutrosophic Graph Cut


    Akbulut, Y.; Sengur, Abdulkadir; Yanhui, Guo


    Image segmentation is the first step of image processing and image analysis. Texture segmentation is a challenging task in image segmentation applications. Neutrosophy hasanaturalabilitytohandletheindeterminateinformation.In this work, we investigate the texture image segmentation based on Gabor filters (GFs) and neutrosophic graph cut (NGC).

  3. Dry etch method for texturing silicon and device (United States)

    Gershon, Talia S.; Haight, Richard A.; Kim, Jeehwan; Lee, Yun Seog


    A method for texturing silicon includes loading a silicon wafer into a vacuum chamber, heating the silicon wafer and thermal cracking a gas to generate cracked sulfur species. The silicon wafer is exposed to the cracked sulfur species for a time duration in accordance with a texture characteristic needed for a surface of the silicon wafer.

  4. Magnetically textured ferrofluid in a non-magnetic matrix: Magnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Texturing of two different magnetic fluids were carried out in paraffin wax under the influence of an external magnetic field. The textured samples were characterized using magnetization measurement and a.c. susceptibility techniques. The results are discussed in the light of ratio of anisotropic energy to magnetic and ...

  5. Instrumental textural perception of food and comparative biomaterials (United States)

    Texture is an important food quality attribute affecting consumer acceptance. Consumers characterize texture as either crispy or crunchy, and the moisture content and internal structure of the products are significant factors in its perception. Exposing an extruded corn snack (ECS), an extruded biod...

  6. Evaluation of physicochemical, functional and textural properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... thus could contribute to the functional and textural properties of commercial meat products, generating a value liked trout producers. After this time of storage, the trout flesh can be consumed in the conventional way. Keywords: Rainbow trout, refrigeration, freezing, texture. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 12(32), pp.

  7. Post tsunami rebuilding of beaches and the texture of sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Loveson, V.J.; Gujar, A.R.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Chandrasekar, N.; Manickaraj, D.S.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Chaturvedi, S.K.; Mahesh, R.; Josephine, P.J.; Deepa, V.; Sudha, V.; Sunderasen, D.

    and textural statistic studies. In view of the presence tsunami in between, the beach sand composition and texture have been drastically changed, the studies on beach re-building effort has been initiated in continuing the beach sand sample collection to 2006...

  8. The role of friction in perceived oral texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.A. de; Prinz, J.F.


    Instrumentally measured in vitro friction in semi-solid foods was related to oral texture sensations. Increased fat content resulted in lower sensations of roughness, higher sensations of creaminess, and lower friction, suggesting that lubrication is the mechanism by which fat affects oral texture

  9. Geometric Nonlinear Computation of Thin Rods and Shells (United States)

    Grinspun, Eitan


    We develop simple, fast numerical codes for the dynamics of thin elastic rods and shells, by exploiting the connection between physics, geometry, and computation. By building a discrete mechanical picture from the ground up, mimicking the axioms, structures, and symmetries of the smooth setting, we produce numerical codes that not only are consistent in a classical sense, but also reproduce qualitative, characteristic behavior of a physical system----such as exact preservation of conservation laws----even for very coarse discretizations. As two recent examples, we present discrete computational models of elastic rods and shells, with straightforward extensions to the viscous setting. Even at coarse discretizations, the resulting simulations capture characteristic geometric instabilities. The numerical codes we describe are used in experimental mechanics, cinema, and consumer software products. This is joint work with Miklós Bergou, Basile Audoly, Max Wardetzky, and Etienne Vouga. This research is supported in part by the Sloan Foundation, the NSF, Adobe, Autodesk, Intel, the Walt Disney Company, and Weta Digital.

  10. Numerical analysis of MHD flow structure behind a square rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satake, M. [Advanced Fusion Reactor Engineering Laboratory, Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University (Japan)]. E-mail:; Yuki, K. [Advanced Fusion Reactor Engineering Laboratory, Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University (Japan); Chiba, S. [Advanced Fusion Reactor Engineering Laboratory, Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University (Japan); Hashizume, H. [Advanced Fusion Reactor Engineering Laboratory, Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University (Japan)


    In a liquid blanket system, the large MHD pressure drop for liquid lithium and/or LiPb makes it difficult to remove high heat load. Since the MHD pressure drop is proportional to the flow velocity, it is necessary to remove the high heat load under low velocity conditions. Meanwhile, in case of molten salt Flibe, which is a high Prandtl number fluid, it is also important to enhance the heat transfer performance. In this study, MHD flow structure behind a square rod inserted in a parallel channel to enhance the heat transfer is simulated numerically to clarify the interaction between the flow structure and the magnetic field by using a low-Reynolds number k-{epsilon} turbulent model and including MHD effects. The laminar flow analysis indicates that the disappearance of twin vortices and the change of the Karman's vortex street to the twin vortices occur around a Ha/Re {sub h} ratio of 0.7 and 0.07-0.09, respectively. The turbulent flow analysis confirms that installing the rod near the heating wall contributes to enhancing the heat transfer even in the presence of a magnetic field, although the turbulent kinetic energy decreases with increasing Hartmann number.

  11. Structural analysis of fuel rod applied to pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Danilo P.; Pinheiro, Andre Ricardo M.; Lotto, André A., E-mail: [Centro Tecnológico da Marinha em São Paulo (CTMSP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The design of fuel assemblies applied to Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) has several requirements and acceptance criteria that must be attended for licensing. In the case of PWR fuel rods, an important mechanical structural requirement is to keep the radial stability when submitted to the coolant external pressure. In the framework of the Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) program new materials have been studied to replace zirconium based alloys as cladding, including iron-based alloys. In this sense, efforts have been made to evaluate the behavior of these materials under PWR conditions. The present work aims to evaluate the collapse cold pressure of a stainless steel thin-walled tube similar to that used as cladding material of fuel rods by means of the comparison of numeric data, and experimental results. As a result of the simulations, it was observed that the collapse pressure has a value intermediate value between those found by regulatory requirements and analytical calculations. The experiment was carried out for the validation of the computational model using test specimens of thin-walled tubes considering empty tube. The test specimens were sealed at both ends by means of welding. They were subjected to a high pressure device until the collapse of the tubes. Preliminary results obtained from experiments with the empty test specimens indicate that the computational model can be validated for stainless steel cladding, considering the difference between collapse pressure indicated in the regulatory document and the actual limit pressure concerning to radial instability of tubes with the studied characteristics. (author)

  12. Trans-orbital orbitocranial penetrating injury by pointed iron rod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar Tewari


    Full Text Available Trans-orbital orbitocranial penetrating injury (TOPI by a foreign body is an extremely rare compound head injury having a potential to cause major morbidity and mortality. Preoperative radiological imaging by CT scan is very important for operative guidance, but in remote area where CT scan is not available, the patient is generally referred to tertiary level. Here we present a case which was dealt successfully without CT scan, only on the basis of stable clinical status and X-rays. We present a case of a 35-year-old man who had an accidental injury (fall from height by rod. Immediate X-ray (anteroposterior and lateral views revealed that the pointed end of the foreign body (rod was inside the ipsilateral anterior fossa via basifrontal bone up to frontal vertex, not crossing the midline. CT scan was not available and his vitals with GCS were normal (15/15. He was operated with the help of an ophthalmic surgeon by right frontotemporal craniotomy. The patient was discharged on 10 th day without any neurological deficit except restricted right eyeball movement to superolateral and ptosis. The restricted eyeball movements recovered after third month of follow up with remnant ptosis for 2 years. This case highlights an unusual case, direct visualization and repair of brain structures with higher antibiotics can save the life even in remote areas where CT scan is still not available only on the basis of stable GCS and X-rays.

  13. Protrusion of the Rod Electrode in the Electrospinning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Valtera


    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the influence of the protrusion of the rod electrode on critical voltage in the DC electrospinning process. On the testing and industrial DC electrospinning devices, electrodes of any kind are extended towards the counter electrode. This provides the maximal, that is, supercritical, electric field intensity on the spinning-electrode orifice that is found to be higher than on the other supplementary parts. The principal study and experiments with basic apparatus were carried out and presented by Taylor in 1966. This study is focused on the arrangement closely related to the design of the real electrospinning device with respect to the safety and technological aspects. Results of the carried out experiments of the rod spinning-electrode are compared with the electrostatic simulation and analytical calculation. The presented effect of the electrode protrusion on the potential difference and the critical field strength introduces valuable information for the designers of electrospinning machines as well as for the setting up of the optimal technological parameters for producing modern nonwoven textile products.

  14. Hardened plungers and piston rods for high-pressure compressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report was a summary of information on dimensions, materials, and operating conditions, as well as experience in the use of piston rods and plungers at Gelsenkirchen. The surface hardening of these parts and their resulting life and wear were of prime importance. Nitriding hardening was one of the best processes for the production of wearproof surfaces. Case hardening and autogeneous hardening had been found satisfactory. Heat hardening had been found to be a cheap process in many applications. Surfaces could be obtained by hard chrome plating which would have the same or higher wear resistance as nitriding and excel in the depth of hardness. However, the heat hardening alone produced hard layers which had sufficiently good properties for plungers and piston rods of the booster compressors, gas-circulation pumps, paste presses, compressors and possibly pressure-release machines. This plant possessed a hardening installation which offered the advantage of production of most of the required equipment right at the works. This was particularly important if a grinding machine was available. This arrangement had to be supplemented with a shaft furnace in which parts could be heated to remove stresses before and after machining. 5 tables.

  15. Comparative Study Between Cobalt Chrome and Titanium Alloy Rods for Multilevel Spinal Fusion: Proximal Junctional Kyphosis More Frequently Occurred in Patients Having Cobalt Chrome Rods. (United States)

    Han, Sanghyun; Hyun, Seung-Jae; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Hyun-Jib


    The use of titanium alloy (Ti) rods is frequently associated with rod fracture after spinal fixation. To address this issue, cobalt chrome (CoCr) rods, which are advantageous because of their greater strength and resistance to fatigue relative to Ti rods, have been introduced. The purpose of the present study was to compare radiographic outcomes after the use of Ti versus CoCr rods in a matched cohort of patients undergoing posterior spinal fusion for treatment of spinal instability. We retrospectively reviewed data from patients who had undergone spinal fusion involving more than 3 levels at a single institution between 2004 and 2015. Patients were matched for age, diagnosis, 3-column osteotomy, levels fused, and T score. Fifty patients with Ti rods were identified and appropriately matched to 50 consecutive patients with CoCr rods. The distributions of age at surgery, sex, diagnosis, 3-column osteotomy, levels fused, number of patients with previous surgical procedures, and T score did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. However, there were significant differences in length of follow-up (CoCr, 25.0 vs. Ti, 28.5 months; P < 0.001), fusion rate (CoCr, 45 [90%] vs. Ti, 33 [66%]; P = 0.004), occurrence of rod breakage (CoCr, 0 vs. T, 8 [16%]; P = 0.006), and junctional kyphosis (CoCr, 24 [46%] vs. Ti, 9 [18%]; P = 0.003). Our findings indicate that the use of CoCr rods is effective in ensuring stability of the posterior spinal construct and accomplishment of spinal fusion. Furthermore, our results indicate that junctional kyphosis may occur more frequently in CoCr systems than in Ti systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fuel rod pressure in nuclear power reactors: Statistical evaluation of the fuel rod internal pressure in LWRs with application to lift-off probability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelinek, Tomas


    In this thesis, a methodology for quantifying the risk of exceeding the Lift-off limit in nuclear light water power reactors is outlined. Due to fission gas release, the pressure in the gap between the fuel pellets and the cladding increases with burnup of the fuel. An increase in the fuel-clad gap due to clad creep would be expected to result in positive feedback, in the form of higher fuel temperatures, leading to more fission gas release, higher rod pressure, etc, until the cladding breaks. An increase in the fuel-clad gap that leads to this positive feedback is a phenomenon called Lift-off and is a limitation that must be considered in the fuel core management. Lift-off is a consequence of very high internal fuel rod pressure. The internal fuel rod pressure is therefore used as a Lift-off indicator. The internal fuel rod pressure is closely connected to the fission gas release into the fuel rod plenum and is thus used to increase the database. It is concluded that the dominating error source in the prediction of the pressure in Boiling Water Reactors (BWR), is the power history. There is a bias in the fuel pressure prediction that is dependent on the fuel rod position in the fuel assembly for BWRs. A methodology to quantify the risk of the fuel rod internal pressure exceeding a certain limit is developed; the risk is dependent of the pressure prediction and the fuel rod position. The methodology is based on statistical treatment of the discrepancies between predicted and measured fuel rod internal pressures. Finally, a methodology to estimate the Lift-off probability of the whole core is outlined.

  17. Highly textured Gd2Zr2O7 films grown on textured Ni-5 at.%W substrates by solution deposition route: Growth, texture evolution, and microstructure dependency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Zhao; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Napari, M.


    or crystallization in the thicker films. This work not only demonstrates a route for producing textured Gd2Zr2O7 buffer layers with dense structure directly on technical substrates, but also provides some fundamental understandings related to chemical solution derived films grown on metallic substrates.......Growth, texture evolution and microstructure dependency of solution derived Gd2Zr2O7 films deposited on textured Ni-5 at.%W substrates have been extensively studied. Influence of processing parameters, in particular annealing temperature and dwell time, as well as thickness effect on film texture...... the difference of interfacial energy along two directions in the anisotropic metallic substrate. Growth of Gd2Zr2O7 films displays an ultrafast kinetics under optimized conditions. Independency of sharp epitaxial (004) and polycrystalline (222) orientation is revealed from further synchrotron diffraction studies...

  18. Use of Supplemental Short Pre-Contoured Accessory Rods and Cobalt Chrome Alloy Posterior Rods Reduces Primary Rod Strain and Range of Motion Across the Pedicle Subtraction Osteotomy Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallager, Dennis Winge; Gehrchen, Poul Martin; Dahl, Benny


    and rod strain is necessary to determine the biomechanical efficacy of these techniques. METHODS: Five specimens (T12-S1) underwent PSO at L3 with pedicle screw stabilization at L1-S1. Pedicle subtraction was adjusted to achieve a final lordosis of 70°. Flexion-extension (FE), lateral bending, and axial...... surface strain on the primary rod, irrespective of construct (P devices minimally affected motion...

  19. Repulsion between oppositely charged rod-shaped macromolecules: Role of overcharging and ionic confinement (United States)

    Antila, Hanne S.; Van Tassel, Paul R.; Sammalkorpi, Maria


    The interaction between two oppositely charged rod-shaped macro-ions in a micro-ion solution is investigated via Monte Carlo simulations of the primitive model. The focus is on the asymmetry in rod and/or ion charge, i.e., conditions where oppositely charged objects can repel one another. For equally and oppositely charged rods with asymmetric z:1 micro-ions, repulsion may be induced by overcharging one of the rods with the z valent ions. For asymmetrically charged rods in a symmetric z:z micro-ion solution, a repulsive interaction—at separation of the order of one ion diameter—can arise via an unbalanced osmotic pressure contribution from the ionic atmosphere in the inter-rod space, and an attractive interaction—at a smaller separation—may occur due to a "squeezing out" of the micro-ions from the space between the rods (with a consequent gain in entropy). The thermodynamics of each mechanism is investigated in terms of rod charge and size and micro-ion valence, size, and concentration. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the complex role of charge asymmetry on the interaction of, for example, oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, functionalized nanotubes, and rod-like biomolecules, e.g., viruses.

  20. Mechanical stability of talin rod controls cell migration and substrate sensing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rolle Rahikainen; Magdaléna von Essen; Markus Schaefer; Lei Qi; Latifeh Azizi; Conor Kelly; Teemu O Ihalainen; Bernhard Wehrle-Haller; Martin Bastmeyer; Cai Huang; Vesa P Hytönen


    .... Here, by utilizing computationally designed mutations, we demonstrate that stepwise destabilization of the talin rod R3 subdomain decreases cellular traction force generation, which affects talin...