Sample records for texture


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hynek Lauschmann


    Full Text Available The reconstitution of the history of a fatigue process is based on the knowledge of any correspondences between the morphology of the crack surface and the velocity of the crack growth (crack growth rate - CGR. The textural fractography is oriented to mezoscopic SEM magnifications (30 to 500x. Images contain complicated textures without distinct borders. The aim is to find any characteristics of this texture, which correlate with CGR. Pre-processing of images is necessary to obtain a homogeneous texture. Three methods of textural analysis have been developed and realized as computational programs: the method based on the spectral structure of the image, the method based on a Gibbs random field (GRF model, and the method based on the idealization of light objects into a fibre process. In order to extract and analyze the fibre process, special methods - tracing fibres and a database-oriented analysis of a fibre process - have been developed.

  2. Crystallographic textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klosek Vincent


    Full Text Available In material science, crystallographic texture is an important microstructural parameter which directly determines the anisotropy degree of most physical properties of a polycrystalline material at the macro scale. Its characterization is thus of fundamental and applied importance, and should ideally be performed prior to any physical property measurement or modeling. Neutron diffraction is a tool of choice for characterizing crystallographic textures: its main advantages over other existing techniques, and especially over the X-ray diffraction techniques, are due to the low neutron absorption by most elements. The obtained information is representative of a large number of grains, leading to a better accuracy of the statistical description of texture.

  3. Measurement of Color Texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, M.A.; Geusebroek, J.M.; Deprettere, E.F.; Belloum, A.; Heijnsdijk, J.W.J.; van der Stappen, F.


    In computer vision, measurement of image properties such as color or texture is essential. However, existing methods for measuring color and texture in combination are not well-defined neither from a measurement theoretical basis nor from a physical point of view. We propose a solid framework for

  4. From food structure to texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, C.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.; Minekus, M.


    Understanding the relationship between food texture perception and food structure is of increasing importance for companies wishing to produce texturally attractive food products. The perception of texture is a complex process involving the senses of vision, hearing, somesthesis and kinesthesis.

  5. Gaussian Texture Inpainting


    Galerne, Bruno; Leclaire, Arthur


    Inpainting consists in computing a plausible completion of missing parts of an image given the available content. In the restricted framework of texture images, the image can be seen as a realization of a random field model, which gives a stochastic formulation of image inpainting: on the masked exemplar one estimates a random texture model which can then be conditionally sampled in order to fill the hole. In this paper is proposed an instance of such stochastic inpainting methods, dealing wi...

  6. Texture Enhanced Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Darkner, Sune


    to excessive storage and computational requirements. We propose to reduce the dimensionality of the textural components by selecting a subset of basis functions from a larger dictionary, estimate regression splines and model only the coeffcients of the retained basis functions. We demonstrate the use of two...... descriptions of the intensity information and serve to 1) reduce noise and 2) produce a compact textural description. Dimensionality reduction by subsampling in the CDF 9-7 wavelet and wedgelet representations yield better results than 'standard' subsampling in the pixel domain. We show that the bi...

  7. Experiments in Texture Perception (United States)


    the search for continua suitable for an objective definition of "texture" (Jones and Higgins, 1945; Rosenfeld. 1967; Pickett. 1968; Mlnsky and Papert ...1950. Minsky, M. and Papert , S. (1969). Perceptrons. M.l.T. Press, Cambridge, Mass. Pickett, R. M. (1962

  8. Texture analysis of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubsch, A.; Timmermans, K.


    Texture analysis is a method to test the physical properties of a material by tension and compression. The growing interest in commercialisation of seaweeds for human food has stimulated research into the physical properties of seaweed tissue. These are important parameters for the survival of

  9. Chameleons: Reptilian Texture (United States)

    Petersen, Hugh


    This article presents an art project inspired by a drawing of a chameleon the author saw in an art-supply catalog. Chameleons prove to be a good subject to highlight shape, color and texture with eigth-graders. In this project, middle- and high-school students draw a chameleon, learn how to use shapes to add to their chameleon drawing, learn how…

  10. Texture & Textiles, Together (United States)

    Guhin, Paula


    Creating a painting with texture is easy, although using heavy gel medium or modeling paste may be pricey ways to go about it. High school artists generally like making collages and mixed-media. In this article, the author suggests ways to capitalize on that interest with inexpensive fabric in a painting project.

  11. Texture affects color emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Gevers, T.; Gijsenij, A.


    Several studies have recorded color emotions in subjects viewing uniform color (UC) samples. We conduct an experiment to measure and model how these color emotions change when texture is added to the color samples. Using a computer monitor, our subjects arrange samples along four scales: warm-cool,

  12. Contrast negation and texture synthesis differentially disrupt natural texture appearance. (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin


    Natural textures have characteristic image statistics that make them discriminable from unnatural textures. For example, both contrast negation and texture synthesis alter the appearance of natural textures even though each manipulation preserves some features while disrupting others. Here, we examined the extent to which contrast negation and texture synthesis each introduce or remove critical perceptual features for discriminating unnatural textures from natural textures. We find that both manipulations remove information that observers use for distinguishing natural textures from transformed versions of the same patterns, but do so in different ways. Texture synthesis removes information that is relevant for discrimination in both abstract patterns and ecologically valid textures, and we also observe a category-dependent asymmetry for identifying an "oddball" real texture among synthetic distractors. Contrast negation exhibits no such asymmetry, and also does not impact discrimination performance in abstract patterns. We discuss our results in the context of the visual system's tuning to ecologically relevant patterns and other results describing sensitivity to higher-order statistics in texture patterns.

  13. Parallel-Sequential Texture Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Singh, Sameer; Singh, Maneesha; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Apte, Chid; Perner, Petra


    Color induced texture analysis is explored, using two texture analysis techniques: the co-occurrence matrix and the color correlogram as well as color histograms. Several quantization schemes for six color spaces and the human-based 11 color quantization scheme have been applied. The VisTex texture

  14. Nonlinear operator for oriented texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruizinga, Peter; Petkov, Nikolay


    Texture is an important part of the visual world of animals and humans and their visual systems successfully detect, discriminate, and segment texture. Relatively recently progress was made concerning structures in the brain that are presumably responsible for texture processing. Neurophysiologists

  15. [Visual Texture Agnosia in Humans]. (United States)

    Suzuki, Kyoko


    Visual object recognition requires the processing of both geometric and surface properties. Patients with occipital lesions may have visual agnosia, which is impairment in the recognition and identification of visually presented objects primarily through their geometric features. An analogous condition involving the failure to recognize an object by its texture may exist, which can be called visual texture agnosia. Here we present two cases with visual texture agnosia. Case 1 had left homonymous hemianopia and right upper quadrantanopia, along with achromatopsia, prosopagnosia, and texture agnosia, because of damage to his left ventromedial occipitotemporal cortex and right lateral occipito-temporo-parietal cortex due to multiple cerebral embolisms. Although he showed difficulty matching and naming textures of real materials, he could readily name visually presented objects by their contours. Case 2 had right lower quadrantanopia, along with impairment in stereopsis and recognition of texture in 2D images, because of subcortical hemorrhage in the left occipitotemporal region. He failed to recognize shapes based on texture information, whereas shape recognition based on contours was well preserved. Our findings, along with those of three reported cases with texture agnosia, indicate that there are separate channels for processing texture, color, and geometric features, and that the regions around the left collateral sulcus are crucial for texture processing.

  16. Height and Tilt Geometric Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vedrana; Desbrun, Mathieu; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas


    We propose a new intrinsic representation of geometric texture over triangle meshes. Our approach extends the conventional height field texture representation by incorporating displacements in the tangential plane in the form of a normal tilt. This texture representation offers a good practical...... compromise between functionality and simplicity: it can efficiently handle and process geometric texture too complex to be represented as a height field, without having recourse to full blown mesh editing algorithms. The height-and-tilt representation proposed here is fully intrinsic to the mesh, making...... texture editing and animation (such as bending or waving) intuitively controllable over arbitrary base mesh. We also provide simple methods for texture extraction and transfer using our height-and-field representation....

  17. Textural modification of processing tomatoes. (United States)

    Barrett, D M; Garcia, E; Wayne, J E


    Knowledge of the textural properties of processing tomatoes is crucial to ensuing product acceptability; measurement, control, and optimization of these properties through judicious selection of varieties and control of unit operations results in products that the consumer prefers. It is important to first define the terms texture, rheology, consistency, and viscosity prior to discussing principles of their measurement. The textural properties of processing tomatoes may be measured using both sensory and objective tests, and the latter may be either destructive or nondestructive in nature. The unique anatomy of tomato fruit (peel, pericarp, columella, and locules) in part dictates the method of texture measurement. Numerous factors, including variety, maturity, genetic modification, cultural particles, and environmental conditions, processing conditions, and calcium addition affect the textural integrity of tomatoes. Textural properties of raw tomatoes and most processed tomato products are reviewed in this article.

  18. A generic framework for colour texture segmentation


    Nammalwar, Padmapriya


    This thesis proposes a novel method to combine the colour and the texture for colour texture segmentation. The objective of this research work is to derive a framework for colour texture segmentation and to determine the contribution of colour in colour texture analysis. The colour texture processing is based on the feature extraction from colour-textured images. The texture features were obtained from the luminance plane along with the colour features from the chrominance planes. Based on th...

  19. Independent Component Analysis of Textures (United States)

    Manduchi, Roberto; Portilla, Javier


    A common method for texture representation is to use the marginal probability densities over the outputs of a set of multi-orientation, multi-scale filters as a description of the texture. We propose a technique, based on Independent Components Analysis, for choosing the set of filters that yield the most informative marginals, meaning that the product over the marginals most closely approximates the joint probability density function of the filter outputs. The algorithm is implemented using a steerable filter space. Experiments involving both texture classification and synthesis show that compared to Principal Components Analysis, ICA provides superior performance for modeling of natural and synthetic textures.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Reena Rose


    Full Text Available Texture descriptors have an important role in recognizing face images. However, almost all the existing local texture descriptors use nearest neighbors to encode a texture pattern around a pixel. But in face images, most of the pixels have similar characteristics with that of its nearest neighbors because the skin covers large area in a face and the skin tone at neighboring regions are same. Therefore this paper presents a general framework called Local Texture Description Framework that uses only eight pixels which are at certain distance apart either circular or elliptical from the referenced pixel. Local texture description can be done using the foundation of any existing local texture descriptors. In this paper, the performance of the proposed framework is verified with three existing local texture descriptors Local Binary Pattern (LBP, Local Texture Pattern (LTP and Local Tetra Patterns (LTrPs for the five issues viz. facial expression, partial occlusion, illumination variation, pose variation and general recognition. Five benchmark databases JAFFE, Essex, Indian faces, AT&T and Georgia Tech are used for the experiments. Experimental results demonstrate that even with less number of patterns, the proposed framework could achieve higher recognition accuracy than that of their base models.

  1. Texture of mayonnaise and dressing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, M.E.J.; Janssen, A.M.; Gemert, van L.J.; Doorn, van R.J.M.; Wijk, de R.A.; Weenen, H.; Linden, van der E.


    Relationships between sensory texture attributes and physical properties of mayonnaise and dressings have been explored. The focus of the work was in creaminess and related texture attributes. Samples ranging from 0-70% oil were tested sensorially by QDA-panels. Physical caharacterisation of these

  2. Quantitative Characterisation of Surface Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Lonardo, P.M.; Trumpold, H.


    This paper reviews the different methods used to give a quantitative characterisation of surface texture. The paper contains a review of conventional 2D as well as 3D roughness parameters, with particular emphasis on recent international standards and developments. It presents new texture...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zhabinski


    Full Text Available In the paper the role of texture (pixel values in a task of emotion recognition in the image of a face is explored. Texture-based method is compared to classic methods based on coordinates of key point. In addition, a new combined method is presented that unites both sets of features.

  4. Emotional Effects of Dynamic Textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Toet


    Full Text Available This study explores the effects of various spatiotemporal dynamic texture characteristics on human emotions. The emotional experience of auditory (eg, music and haptic repetitive patterns has been studied extensively. In contrast, the emotional experience of visual dynamic textures is still largely unknown, despite their natural ubiquity and increasing use in digital media. Participants watched a set of dynamic textures, representing either water or various different media, and self-reported their emotional experience. Motion complexity was found to have mildly relaxing and nondominant effects. In contrast, motion change complexity was found to be arousing and dominant. The speed of dynamics had arousing, dominant, and unpleasant effects. The amplitude of dynamics was also regarded as unpleasant. The regularity of the dynamics over the textures' area was found to be uninteresting, nondominant, mildly relaxing, and mildly pleasant. The spatial scale of the dynamics had an unpleasant, arousing, and dominant effect, which was larger for textures with diverse content than for water textures. For water textures, the effects of spatial contrast were arousing, dominant, interesting, and mildly unpleasant. None of these effects were observed for textures of diverse content. The current findings are relevant for the design and synthesis of affective multimedia content and for affective scene indexing and retrieval.

  5. Fermentation, Effect on Textural Properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (UTM, model 1 122, Instron Corporation,. Canton, MA, USA) was used to study the texture profile of 30% flour gels following the method of Bourne (1978). Because cassava flour paste is an amorphous mixture that does not provide the necessary consistency for collecting useful information by Texture Profile. Analysis (TPA) ...

  6. Emotional effects of dynamic textures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Henselmans, M.; Lucassen, M.P.; Gevers, T.


    This study explores the effects of various spatiotemporal dynamic texture characteristics on human emotions. The emotional experience of auditory (eg, music) and haptic repetitive patterns has been studied extensively. In contrast, the emotional experience of visual dynamic textures is still largely

  7. Texture dependent lattice strains and texture gradient in AI7020 (United States)

    Y Zhong, Z.; Brokmeier, H.-G.; Maawad, E.; Schell, N.


    Firstly, an Al7020 block was characterized by the texture gradient, which was remarkably strong. Texture sharpness in the center with about 30 mrd (multiple random distribution) shows typical plain strain texture components. On the surface and close to the surface the texture sharpness is much weaker showing also shear components. Strongest shear was not directly at the surface but 4 mm deeper. The texture analysis at HEMS Beamline (Petra III/DESY-Hamburg) was done with continuous scanning mode to include all grains to improve the grain statistics. Secondly, with an in situ synchrotron experiment the texture dependent lattice strain behavior was investigated using flat tensile samples oriented 0°, 45° and 90° to the rolling direction (RD). Texture induced anisotropy influenced on the lattice dependent yield strength and the lattice dependent stress-strain behavior, which will be discussed in detail. Due to the high energy synchrotron beam complete Debye-Scherrer rings were obtained so that the patterns, parallel and perpendicular to loading direction (LD), were obtained simultaneously.

  8. Texture-based correspondence display (United States)

    Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael


    Texture-based correspondence display is a methodology to display corresponding data elements in visual representations of complex multidimensional, multivariate data. Texture is utilized as a persistent medium to contain a visual representation model and as a means to create multiple renditions of data where color is used to identify correspondence. Corresponding data elements are displayed over a variety of visual metaphors in a normal rendering process without adding extraneous linking metadata creation and maintenance. Texture-based correspondence display extends the effectiveness of visual representation for understanding data to the understanding and creation of visual representation models.

  9. Texture-Based Correspondence Display (United States)

    Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael


    Texture-based correspondence display is a methodology to display corresponding data elements in visual representations of complex multidimensional, multivariate data. Texture is utilized as a persistent medium to contain a visual representation model and as a means to create multiple renditions of data where color is used to identify correspondence. Corresponding data elements are displayed over a variety of visual metaphors in a normal rendering process without adding extraneous linking metadata creation and maintenance. The effectiveness of visual representation for understanding data is extended to the expression of the visual representation model in texture.

  10. Tests of quark mass textures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The classic hints on the structure of the quark mass matrices are shortly reviewed and the possibility of obtaining further information through precise texture analysis is discussed with the aid of a specific example.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Korczyk-Szabó


    Full Text Available Abstract The bread quality is considerably dependent on the texture characteristic of bread crumb. Crumb texture is an important quality indicator, as consumer prefer different bread taste. Texture analysis is primarily concerned with the evaluation of mechanical characteristics where a material is subjected to a controlled force from which a deformation curve of its response is generated. It is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. This is why the texture analysis is one of the most helpful analytical methods of the product development. In the framework of our research during the years 2008 – 2009 were analyzed selected indicators for bread texture quality of five Triticum spelta L. varieties – Altgold, Oberkulmer Rotkorn, Ostro, Rubiota and Franckenkorn grown in an ecological system. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus (Stable Micro Systems, Surrey, UK, following the AACC (74-09 standard method and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness ( and relative elasticity (%. Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was achieved in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Franckenkorn and Altgold were the most firm and stiff. Correlation analysis showed strong negative correlation between relative elasticity and bread crumb firmness as well as bread stiffness (-0.81++, -0.78++. The spelt grain can be a good source for making bread flour, but is closely dependent on choice of spelt variety. The spelt wheat bread crumb texture need further investigation as it can be a reliable quality parameter.

  12. A method for texturing a glass surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, G.; Van Swaaij, R.A.C.M.M.; Isabella, O.


    The present invention relates to a new method of texturing a glass surface. In further aspects, the present invention relates to the resulting textured glass surface; to a photovoltaic device comprising the textured glass surface; and, to use of the textured glass surface for scattering light.

  13. Design of Dynamic Vibrotactile Textures. (United States)

    Ahmaniemi, Teemu; Marila, Juha; Lantz, Vuokko


    This paper describes a method for creating virtual textures without force feedback by using a simple motion sensor and a single vibrotactile actuator. It is based on wavetable synthesis driven by the user's hand movements. The output of the synthesis is rendered with the tactile actuator attached in a hand-held box together with the motion sensor. The method provides a solution for creating tangible properties for virtual objects which can be explored by pointing at them with the sensor-actuator device. The study introduces 12 virtual textures which were based on three different envelope ridge lengths, two spatial densities, and were either regularly or irregularly organized. To evaluate the role of each design parameter in the perception of the texture, a series of experiments was conducted. The perceived similarity was assessed in a pairwise comparison test and the outcome was analyzed by using multidimensional scaling. The analysis revealed that envelope ridge length and spatial density were distinguishable design parameters while regularity was not. The textures were also rated according to five attribute scales previously determined in the pilot experiment. The results show that ridge length and spatial density influence perceived roughness and flatness similarly as with real textures.

  14. Towards a hydrologically motivated soil texture classification (United States)

    Bormann, Helge


    Soil texture classification is not designed for hydrological purposes, e.g. for hydrological modelling. Hydrological model applications based on classified soil textures have revealed that different soil texture classes within the same classification system induce different uncertainties with respect to simulated water balances. As a consequence, there is a need to think about required similarity in texture classifications. In different regions of the world, different soil texture classification systems have been developed. These different classification systems divide the soil texture triangle in different numbers of differently shaped soil texture classes. These texture classifications are based on pedological background and practical reasons with respect to soil mapping and analyses. In comparison, a possible soil texture classification motivated by soil hydrology should be based on similarity in hydrological fluxes or in the soil water regime. Therefore, this presentation proposes a procedure how to evaluate the appropriateness of currently used texture classifications and how to derive a new soil texture classification based on a similar behaviour of soils with respect to hydrological processes. Long-term hydrological modelling of water balance terms using the 1-D SVAT scheme SIMULAT serve as the basis of a similarity analysis of 5050 possible realisations of the soil texture triangle (1% grid). Cluster analysis is used for analysing similar hydrological behaviour of theoretical soil columns. Spatial patterns of similar realisations (=clusters) in the soil texture triangle based on annual water balance terms are compared to those based on soil hydraulic parameters and current soil texture classes. The results show that clusters based on soil hydraulic parameterisation are relatively similar to current soil texture classification schemes while hydrological model simulations suggest differing spatial patterns of similar behaviour over the soil texture triangle

  15. Texture of lipid bilayer domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe Bernchou; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Midtiby, Henrik Skov


    which correlates with the phase state of the membrane. This is quantified by the generalized polarization (GP) function, and we demonstrate that a GP analysis can be performed on supported membranes. The results show that although the gel domains have heterogeneous texture, the membrane phase state does......We investigate the texture of gel (g) domains in binary lipid membranes composed of the phospholipids DPPC and DOPC. Lateral organization of lipid bilayer membranes is a topic of fundamental and biological importance. Whereas questions related to size and composition of fluid membrane domain...... are well studied, the possibility of texture in gel domains has so far not been examined. When using polarized light for two-photon excitation of the fluorescent lipid probe Laurdan, the emission intensity is highly sensitive to the angle between the polarization and the tilt orientation of lipid acyl...

  16. Di-uniform texture spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Ozcag


    Full Text Available Textures were introduced by the second author as a point-based setting for the study of fuzzy sets, and have since proved to be an appropriate framework for the development of complement-free mathematical concepts. In this paper the authors lay the foundation for a theory of uniformities in a textural context. Analogues are given for both the diagonal and covering approaches to the classical theory of uniform structures, the notion of uniform topology is generalized and an analogue given for the well known result that a topological space is uniformizable if and only if it is completely regular. Finally a textural analogue of the classical interplay between uniformities and families of pseudo-metrics is presented.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Korczyk – Szabó


    Full Text Available Texture analysis is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of bread crumb is important not only for quality assurance in the bakeries, but also for assessing the effects of changes in dough ingredients and processing condition and also for describing the changes in bread crumb during storage. Crumb cellular structure is an important quality criterion used in commercial baking and research laboratories to judge bread quality alongside taste, crumb colour and crumb physical texture. In the framework of our research during the years 2010 – 2011 were analyzed selected indicators of bread crumb for texture quality of three Triticum spelta L. cultivars – Altgold, Rubiota and Ostro grown in an ecological system. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus (Stable Micro Systems, Surrey, UK, following the AACC (74-09 standard and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness ( and relative elasticity (%. Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was achieved in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Altgold and Ostro were the most firm and stiff. Correlation analysis showed strong negative correlation between relative elasticity and bread crumb firmness as well as bread stiffness (-0.65++, -0.66++. The spelt wheat bread crumb texture need further investigation as it can be a reliable quality parameter.

  18. Auditory Perception of Statistically Blurred Sound Textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; MacDonald, Ewen; Dau, Torsten

    Sound textures have been identified as a category of sounds which are processed by the peripheral auditory system and captured with running timeaveraged statistics. Although sound textures are temporally homogeneous, they offer a listener with enough information to identify and differentiate...... sources. This experiment investigated the ability of the auditory system to identify statistically blurred sound textures and the perceptual relationship between sound textures. Identification performance of statistically blurred sound textures presented at a fixed blur increased over those presented...... as a gradual blur. The results suggests that the correct identification of sound textures is influenced by the preceding blurred stimulus. These findings draw parallels to the recognition of blurred images....

  19. Hierarchical approaches to analysis of natural textures (United States)

    Lutsiv, Vadim R.; Malyshev, Igor A.; Novikova, Tatiana A.


    The surface textures of natural objects often have the visible fractal-like properties. A similar pattern of texture could be found looking at the forests in the aerial photographs or at the trees in the outdoor scenes when the image spatial resolution was changed. Or the texture patterns are different at different spatial resolution levels in the aerial photographs of villages. It creates the difficulties in image segmentation and object recognition because the levels of spatial resolution necessary to get the homogeneously and correctly labeled texture regions differ for different types of landscape. E.g. if the spatial resolution was sufficient for distinguishing between the textures of agricultural fields, water, and asphalt, the texture labeled areas of forest or suburbs are hardly fragmented, because the texture peculiarities corresponding to two stable levels of texture spatial resolution will be visible in this case. A hierarchical texture analysis could solve this problem, and we did it in two different ways: we performed the texture segmentation simultaneously for several levels of image spatial resolution, or we subjected the texture labeled image of highest spatial resolution to a recurring texture segmentation using the texture cells of larger sizes. The both approaches turned out to be rather fruitful for the aerial photographs as well as for the outdoor images. They generalize and support the hierarchical image analysis technique presented in another our paper. Some of the methods applied were borrowed from the living vision systems.

  20. The brass-type texture and its deviation from the copper-type texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, Torben; Ray, R.K.


    Our basic aim with the present review is to address the classical problem of the “fcc rolling texture transition” – the fact that fcc materials may, depending on material parameters and rolling conditions, develop two different types of rolling textures, the copper-type texture and the brass......-type texture. However, since there is by now reasonable agreement about the description of and the explanation for the development of the copper-type texture (though not about all the details), we have chosen to focus on the brass-type texture for which there is no such general agreement. First we introduce...... of the brass-type texture after the nineteen sixties covering texture measurements and microstructural investigations. The main observations are: (1) The brass-type texture deviates from the copper-type texture from an early stage of texture development. (2) Deformation twinning has a decisive effect...

  1. Colloidal aspects of texture perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.


    The perception of complex textures in food is strongly related to the way food is processed during eating, and is modulated by other basic characteristics, such as taste and aroma. An understanding at the colloidal level of the basic processes in the mouth is essential in order to link the

  2. Sensory memory and food texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Köster, E.P.


    Memory for texture plays an important role in food expectations. After fasting overnight, subjects (41 women, 35 men, age 19-60 years) received a breakfast including breakfast drink, biscuits and yoghurt. Subsequently, they rated their hunger feelings every hour, and returned for a taste experiment

  3. Colloidal aspects of texture perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.; Aken, van G.A.; Jongh, de H.H.J.; Hamer, R.J.


    Recently, considerable attention has been given to the understanding of texture attributes that cannot directly be related to physical properties of food, such as creamy, crumbly and watery. The perception of these attributes is strongly related to the way the food is processed during food intake,

  4. The Science of Soil Textures (United States)

    Bigham, Gary


    Off-road motorcycle racing and ATV riding. Gardening and fishing. What do these high-adrenaline and slower-paced pastimes have in common? Each requires soil, and the texture of that soil has an effect on all of them. In the inquiry-based lessons described here, students work both in the field or laboratory and in the classroom to collect soil…

  5. Color Textons for Texture Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; Geusebroek, J.M.


    Texton models have proven to be very discriminative for the recognition of grayvalue images taken from rough textures. To further improve the discriminative power of the distinctive texton models of Varma and Zisserman (VZ model) (IJCV, vol. 62(1), pp. 61-81, 2005), we propose two schemes to exploit

  6. Feature-aware natural texture synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Fuzhang


    This article presents a framework for natural texture synthesis and processing. This framework is motivated by the observation that given examples captured in natural scene, texture synthesis addresses a critical problem, namely, that synthesis quality can be affected adversely if the texture elements in an example display spatially varied patterns, such as perspective distortion, the composition of different sub-textures, and variations in global color pattern as a result of complex illumination. This issue is common in natural textures and is a fundamental challenge for previously developed methods. Thus, we address it from a feature point of view and propose a feature-aware approach to synthesize natural textures. The synthesis process is guided by a feature map that represents the visual characteristics of the input texture. Moreover, we present a novel adaptive initialization algorithm that can effectively avoid the repeat and verbatim copying artifacts. Our approach improves texture synthesis in many images that cannot be handled effectively with traditional technologies.

  7. Evaluation of Texture of Packhams Pears


    Guiné, Raquel; Marques, Bruno


    The textural parameters, together with appearance and flavor, are sensory attributes of great importance for the product to be accepted by the consumer. The objective of the present study was the evaluation of the textural attributes of Packhams pears in the fresh state, after drying in a chamber with forced convection at 50ºC, lyophilized and re-hydrated. In texture analysis it was used the method of Texture Profile Analysis (TPA). The par...

  8. Invariant texture segmentation via circular gabor filter


    ZHANG, Jianguo; Tan, Tieniu


    International audience; In this paper, we focus on invariant texture segmentation, and propose a new method using circular Gabor filters (CGF) for rotation invariant texture segmentation. The traditional Gabor function is modified into a circular symmetric version. The rotation invariant texture features are achieved via the channel output of the CGF. A new scheme of the selection of Gabor parameters is also proposed for texture segmentation. Experiments show the efficacy of this method

  9. Texture Based Image Analysis With Neural Nets (United States)

    Ilovici, Irina S.; Ong, Hoo-Tee; Ostrander, Kim E.


    In this paper, we combine direct image statistics and spatial frequency domain techniques with a neural net model to analyze texture based images. The resultant optimal texture features obtained from the direct and transformed image form the exemplar pattern of the neural net. The proposed approach introduces an automated texture analysis applied to metallography for determining the cooling rate and mechanical working of the materials. The results suggest that the proposed method enhances the practical applications of neural nets and texture extraction features.

  10. Convergence in graded ditopological texture spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Ekmekçi


    Full Text Available Graded ditopological texture spaces have been presented and discussed in categorical aspects by Lawrence M. Brown and Alexander Sostak (see bibliography. In this paper, the authors generalize the structure of difilters in ditopological texture spaces defined in (see bibliography to the graded ditopological texture spaces and compare the properties of difilters and graded difilters.

  11. Texture Control: Theoretical and Practical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, Torben; Gangli, P.


    The possibility of controlling the rolling texture by simple modifications to the rolling process is investigated. It is demonstrated that the computer programs developed for simulation of the normal rolling textures can also satisfactorily predict textures formed under new rolling conditions...

  12. Roughness vs. contrast in natural textures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Egmond, R.; De Ridder, H.; Pappas, T.N.; Silva, P.M.


    We investigate the effect of contrast enhancement on the subjective roughness of visual textures. Our analysis is based on subjective experiments with seventeen images from the CUReT database in three variants: original, synthesized textures, and contrast-enhanced synthesized textures. In Experiment

  13. Modeling Human Aesthetic Perception of Visual Textures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thumfart, Stefan; Jacobs, Richard H. A. H.; Lughofer, Edwin; Eitzinger, Christian; Cornelissen, Frans W.; Groissboeck, Werner; Richter, Roland


    Texture is extensively used in areas such as product design and architecture to convey specific aesthetic information. Using the results of a psychological experiment, we model the relationship between computational texture features and aesthetic properties of visual textures. Contrary to previous

  14. Texture analysis using Renyi's generalized entropies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, SE; Petkov, N


    We propose a texture analysis method based on Renyi's generalized entropies. The method aims at identifying texels in regular textures by searching for the smallest window through which the minimum number of different visual patterns is observed when moving the window over a given texture. The

  15. Evaluation of color representation for texture analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, R.; van den Broek, Egon; van Rikxoort, E.M.; Taatgen, N.; Schomaker, L.


    Since more than 50 years texture in image material is a topic of research. Hereby, color was ignored mostly. This study compares 70 different configurations for texture analysis, using four features. For the configurations we used: (i) a gray value texture descriptor: the co-occurrence matrix and a

  16. Evaluation of the effect of initial texture on the development of deformation texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, Torben; Juul Jensen, Dorte


    The authors describe a computer procedure which allows them to introduce experimental initial textures as starting conditions for texture simulation (instead of a theoretical random texture). They apply the procedure on two batches of copper with weak initial textures and on fine-grained and coar......, there are differences between the simulated and the experimental aluminium textures that can only be explained as a grain-size effect. Possible future applications of the procedure are discussed...

  17. Watermarking textures in video games (United States)

    Liu, Huajian; Berchtold, Waldemar; Schäfer, Marcel; Lieb, Patrick; Steinebach, Martin


    Digital watermarking is a promising solution to video game piracy. In this paper, based on the analysis of special challenges and requirements in terms of watermarking textures in video games, a novel watermarking scheme for DDS textures in video games is proposed. To meet the performance requirements in video game applications, the proposed algorithm embeds the watermark message directly in the compressed stream in DDS files and can be straightforwardly applied in watermark container technique for real-time embedding. Furthermore, the embedding approach achieves high watermark payload to handle collusion secure fingerprinting codes with extreme length. Hence, the scheme is resistant to collusion attacks, which is indispensable in video game applications. The proposed scheme is evaluated in aspects of transparency, robustness, security and performance. Especially, in addition to classical objective evaluation, the visual quality and playing experience of watermarked games is assessed subjectively in game playing.

  18. Random phase textures: theory and synthesis. (United States)

    Galerne, Bruno; Gousseau, Yann; Morel, Jean-Michel


    This paper explores the mathematical and algorithmic properties of two sample-based texture models: random phase noise (RPN) and asymptotic discrete spot noise (ADSN). These models permit to synthesize random phase textures. They arguably derive from linearized versions of two early Julesz texture discrimination theories. The ensuing mathematical analysis shows that, contrarily to some statements in the literature, RPN and ADSN are different stochastic processes. Nevertheless, numerous experiments also suggest that the textures obtained by these algorithms from identical samples are perceptually similar. The relevance of this study is enhanced by three technical contributions providing solutions to obstacles that prevented the use of RPN or ADSN to emulate textures. First, RPN and ADSN algorithms are extended to color images. Second, a preprocessing is proposed to avoid artifacts due to the nonperiodicity of real-world texture samples. Finally, the method is extended to synthesize textures with arbitrary size from a given sample.

  19. Texture Classification for 3D Urban Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inatsuka Hiroyuki


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to control texture resolution for rendering large-scale 3D urban maps. Since on the 3D maps texture data generally tend to be far larger than geometry information such as vertices and triangles, it is more effective to reduce the texture by exploiting the LOD (Level of Detail in order to decrease whole data size. For this purpose, we propose a new method to control the resolution of the texture. In our method we classify the textures to four classes based on their salient features. The appropriate texture resolutions are decided based on the classification resulsts, their rendered sizes on a display, and their level of importance. We verify the validity of our texture classification algorithm by applying it to the large-scale 3D urban map rendering.

  20. Aesthetic Perception of Visual Textures: A Holistic Exploration using Texture Analysis, Psychological Experiment and Perception Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli eLiu


    Full Text Available Modeling human aesthetic perception of visual textures is important and valuable in numerous industrial domains, such as product design, architectural design and decoration. Based on results from a semantic differential rating experiment, we modeled the relationship between low-level basic texture features and aesthetic properties involved in human aesthetic texture perception. First, we compute basic texture features from textural images using four classical methods. These features are neutral, objective and independent of the socio-cultural context of the visual textures. Then, we conduct a semantic differential rating experiment to collect from evaluators their aesthetic perceptions of selected textural stimuli. In semantic differential rating experiment, eights pairs of aesthetic properties are chosen, which are strongly related to the socio-cultural context of the selected textures and to human emotions. They are easily understood and connected to everyday life. We propose a hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception and assign 8 pairs of aesthetic properties to different layers. Finally, we describe the generation of multiple linear and nonlinear regression models for aesthetic prediction by taking dimensionality-reduced texture features and aesthetic properties of visual textures as dependent and independent variables, respectively. Our experimental results indicate that the relationships between each layer and its neighbors in the hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception can be fitted well by linear functions, and the models thus generated can successfully bridge the gap between computational texture features and aesthetic texture properties.

  1. Aesthetic perception of visual textures: a holistic exploration using texture analysis, psychological experiment, and perception modeling. (United States)

    Liu, Jianli; Lughofer, Edwin; Zeng, Xianyi


    Modeling human aesthetic perception of visual textures is important and valuable in numerous industrial domains, such as product design, architectural design, and decoration. Based on results from a semantic differential rating experiment, we modeled the relationship between low-level basic texture features and aesthetic properties involved in human aesthetic texture perception. First, we compute basic texture features from textural images using four classical methods. These features are neutral, objective, and independent of the socio-cultural context of the visual textures. Then, we conduct a semantic differential rating experiment to collect from evaluators their aesthetic perceptions of selected textural stimuli. In semantic differential rating experiment, eights pairs of aesthetic properties are chosen, which are strongly related to the socio-cultural context of the selected textures and to human emotions. They are easily understood and connected to everyday life. We propose a hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception and assign 8 pairs of aesthetic properties to different layers. Finally, we describe the generation of multiple linear and non-linear regression models for aesthetic prediction by taking dimensionality-reduced texture features and aesthetic properties of visual textures as dependent and independent variables, respectively. Our experimental results indicate that the relationships between each layer and its neighbors in the hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception can be fitted well by linear functions, and the models thus generated can successfully bridge the gap between computational texture features and aesthetic texture properties.

  2. FCC Rolling Textures Reviewed in the Light of Quantitative Comparisons between Simulated and Experimental Textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbanowski, Krzysztof; Wroński, Marcin; Leffers, Torben


    The crystallographic texture of metallic materials has a very strong effect on the properties of the materials. In the present article, we look at the rolling textures of fcc metals and alloys, where the classical problem is the existence of two different types of texture, the "copper-type texture...... of the copper-type texture is best simulated with {111} slip combined with type CL/PR lattice rotation and relatively strong interaction between the grains-but not with the full-constraint Taylor model and neither with the classical relaxed-constraint models. The development of the brass-type texture is best...

  3. On Texture and Geometry in Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, David Karl John


    Images are composed of geometric structure and texture. Large scale structures are considered to be the geometric structure, while small scale details are considered to be the texture. In this dissertation, we will argue that the most important difference between geometric structure and texture...... is not the scale - instead, it is the requirement on representation or reconstruction. Geometric structure must be reconstructed exactly and can be represented sparsely. Texture does not need to be reconstructed exactly, a random sample from the distribution being sufficient. Furthermore, texture can...... not be represented sparsely. In image inpainting, the image content is missing in a region and should be reconstructed using information from the rest of the image. The main challenges in inpainting are: prolonging and connecting geometric structure and reproducing the variation found in texture. The Filter, Random...

  4. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; Dau, Torsten


    Sound textures, such as crackling fire or chirping crickets, represent a broad class of sounds defined by their homogeneous temporal structure. It has been suggested that the perception of texture is mediated by time-averaged summary statistics measured from early auditory representations....... In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as "beating" in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture...... model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures-stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures...

  5. Integrated active contours for texture segmentation. (United States)

    Sagiv, Chen; Sochen, Nir A; Zeevi, Yehoshua Y


    We address the issue of textured image segmentation in the context of the Gabor feature space of images. Gabor filters tuned to a set of orientations, scales and frequencies are applied to the images to create the Gabor feature space. A two-dimensional Riemannian manifold of local features is extracted via the Beltrami framework. The metric of this surface provides a good indicator of texture changes and is used, therefore, in a Beltrami-based diffusion mechanism and in a geodesic active contours algorithm for texture segmentation. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with that of the edgeless active contours algorithm applied for texture segmentation. Moreover, an integrated approach, extending the geodesic and edgeless active contours approaches to texture segmentation, is presented. We show that combining boundary and region information yields more robust and accurate texture segmentation results.

  6. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McWalter


    Full Text Available Sound textures, such as crackling fire or chirping crickets, represent a broad class of sounds defined by their homogeneous temporal structure. It has been suggested that the perception of texture is mediated by time-averaged summary statistics measured from early auditory representations. In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as “beating” in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures—stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures. In a texture identification task, our results indicated that second-order amplitude modulation sensitivity enhanced recognition. Next, we examined the contribution of the second-order modulation analysis in a preference task, where the proposed auditory texture model was preferred over a range of model deviants that lacked second-order modulation rate sensitivity. Lastly, the discriminability of textures that included second-order amplitude modulations appeared to be perceived using a time-averaging process. Overall, our results demonstrate that the inclusion of second-order modulation analysis generates improvements in the perceived quality of synthetic textures compared to the first-order modulation analysis considered in previous approaches.

  7. Phenomenological Analysis of Hybrid Textures of Neutrinos


    Dev, S.; Verma, Surender; Gupta, Shivani


    We present a comprehensive phenomenological analysis of the allowed hybrid textures of neutrinos. Out of a total of sixty hybrid textures with one equality between the elements of neutrino mass matrix and one texture zero only twenty three are found to be viable at 99% C.L. whereas the earlier analysis found fifty four to be viable. We examine the phenomenological implications of the allowed hybrid textures including Majorana type CP-violating phases, 1-3 mixing angle and Dirac type CP-violat...

  8. Geometric Total Variation for Texture Deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bespalov, Dmitriy; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Shokoufandeh, Ali


    In this work we propose a novel variational method that we intend to use for estimating non-rigid texture deformation. The method is able to capture variation in grayscale images with respect to the geometry of its features. Our experimental evaluations demonstrate that accounting for geometry...... of features in texture images leads to significant improvements in localization of these features, when textures undergo geometrical transformations. Accurate localization of features in the presense of unkown deformations is a crucial property for texture characterization methods, and we intend to expoit...

  9. Shifted laser surface texturing for bearings applications (United States)

    Houdková, Š.; Šperka, P.; Repka, M.; Martan, J.; Moskal, D.


    The laser surface texturing (LST) technologies, based on creation of micro-pattern with pre-defined geometry can positively influence both the friction and wear of tribo-elements. In practice, the integration of LST technology is often limited due to its slowness. The new method, so called shifted laser surface texturing (sLST) with increased process speed was developed to make the technology more attractive for the industrial application. In the paper, the texture created by sLST technology was applied onto the steel samples and Al-Sn-Si surface of sliding bearings. Both block-on-ring (ASTM G-77) laboratory tests of steel samples and high-loaded working application tests on Al-Sn-Si bearings surface were carried out to evaluate the influence of texture on tribological behaviour. The ASTM G-77 laboratory tests showed a positive effect of the texture on friction behaviour. Under the high-loaded testing conditions, the positive effect was observed in initial stages of the tests, decreasing the torque of textured bearings compared to the untreated one. Lately, the texture was worn out and have no influence on the overall wear of the bearings. Based on the above mentioned observations, the use of alternative bearing material with higher hardness or application of protective layer over the created texture was suggested to exploit the texture benefits.

  10. TEXTURAL AND ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF IRISH POTATOES: I. Textural Properties. (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas R; Ahmed, Esam M


    Steam-peeled unprocessed potatoes showed the least hardness, gumminess, and resistance to shear or to compression forces in comparison to those peeled by lye or by abrasion. Fracturability values were greater than hardness values for the unprocessed potatoes, while the reverse was true for processed potatoes. Processed lye-peeled potatoes showed the greatest amount of cohesiveness and gumminess, and required the largest forces to shear or compress. The peeling method had no observed effect on adhesiveness values of processed potatoes. Texture profile parameters as well as resistance to shear or compression forces, and sensory hardness ratings increased during storage of processed potatoes. Steam and lye-peeled potatoes were more preferred organoleptically than abrasion-peeled potatoes.

  11. Beyond fourth-order texture discrimination: generation of extreme-order and statistically-balanced textures. (United States)

    Tyler, Christopher W


    Julesz introduced the concept of statistically defined textures and their perceptual discrimination. Julesz showed that discrimination was possible with statistics equated to third-order, specifying fourth-order textures. Klein and Tyler offered a variety of paradigms suggesting that fourth order might be the limit on human texture processing. To go beyond this limit, new texture paradigms are now introduced to avoid contamination by luminance extrema, to control local and long-range texture properties, and to provide textures without global statistical structure. Local luminance contamination is avoided by novel orientation plaids, in which higher-order rules govern the orientation of local elements rather than their coloring. These textures allow evaluation of texture discrimination up to thirty-second order by cortical pattern elements. Long-range processing is studied by random strip rotation and by interlacing of independent textures. Each substantially degrades the visibility of the fourth-order textures, revealing that the fourth-order information is conveyed largely by local rather than long-range perturbations from random statistics. Finally, textures equated at all orders can be defined in terms of their global statistics, but may nevertheless readily be discriminated in human vision. The discrimination on the basis of local perturbations implies that human vision assesses textures through a local sampling window, and is largely insensitive to longer-range statistical properties.

  12. Contrast-negation and texture synthesis differentially disrupt natural texture appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Balas


    Full Text Available Natural textures have characteristic image statistics that make them discriminable from unnatural textures. For example, both contrast-negation and texture synthesis alter the appearance of natural textures even though each manipulation preserves some features while disrupting others. Here, we examined the extent to which contrast-negation and texture synthesis each introduce or remove critical perceptual features for discriminating unnatural textures from natural textures. We find that both manipulations remove information that observers use for distinguishing natural textures from transformed versions of the same patterns, but do so in different ways. Texture synthesis removes information that is relevant for discrimination in both abstract patterns and ecologically valid textures, and we also observe a category-dependent asymmetry for identifying an oddball real texture among synthetic distractors. Contrast negation exhibits no such asymmetry, and also does not impact discrimination performance in abstract patterns. We discuss our results in the context of the visual system’s tuning to ecologically relevant patterns and other results describing sensitivity to higher-order statistics in texture patterns.

  13. Mechanical seal with textured sidewall (United States)

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Xiao, Nian


    The present invention discloses a mating ring, a primary ring, and associated mechanical seal having superior heat transfer and wear characteristics. According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, one or more dimples are formed onto the cylindrical outer surface of a mating ring sidewall and/or a primary ring sidewall. A stationary mating ring for a mechanical seal assembly is disclosed. Such a mating ring comprises an annular body having a central axis and a sealing face, wherein a plurality of dimples are formed into the outer circumferential surface of the annular body such that the exposed circumferential surface area of the annular body is increased. The texture added to the sidewall of the mating ring yields superior heat transfer and wear characteristics.

  14. Adaptive 4-8 Texture Hierarchies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwa, L M; Duchaineau, M A; Joy, K I


    We address the texture level-of-detail problem for extremely large surfaces such as terrain during real-time, view-dependent rendering. A novel texture hierarchy is introduced based on 4-8 refinement of raster tiles, in which the texture grids in effect rotate 45 degrees for each level of refinement. This hierarchy provides twice as many levels of detail as conventional quad-tree-style refinement schemes such as mipmaps, and thus provides per-pixel view-dependent filtering that is twice as close to the ideal cutoff frequency for an average pixel. Because of this more gradual change in low-pass filtering, and due to the more precise emulation of the ideal cutoff frequency, we find in practice that the transitions between texture levels of detail are not perceptible. This allows rendering systems to avoid the complexity and performance costs of per-pixel blending between texture levels of detail. The 4-8 texturing scheme is integrated into a variant of the Real-time Optimally Adapting Meshes (ROAM) algorithm for view-dependent multiresolution mesh generation. Improvements to ROAM included here are: the diamond data structure as a streamlined replacement for the triangle bintree elements, the use of low-pass-filtered geometry patches in place of individual triangles, integration of 4-8 textures, and a simple out-of-core data access mechanism for texture and geometry tiles.

  15. Cool Polar Bears: Dabbing on the Texture (United States)

    O'Connell, Jean


    In this article, the author describes how her second-graders created their cool polar bears. The students used the elements of shape and texture to create the bears. They used Monet's technique of dabbing paint so as to give the bear some texture on his fur.

  16. A Noise Robust Statistical Texture Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Larsen, Rasmus


    This paper presents a novel approach to the problem of obtaining a low dimensional representation of texture (pixel intensity) variation present in a training set after alignment using a Generalised Procrustes analysis.We extend the conventional analysis of training textures in the Active...

  17. On the origin of recrystallization textures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. The development of recrystallization textures has been debated for the past 50 years. Essentially the rival theories of evolution of recrystallization textures i.e. oriented nucleation (ON) and oriented growth (OG) has been under dispute. In the ON model, it has been argued that a higher frequency of the special ...

  18. On texture formation of chromium electrodeposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Bergenstof; Leisner, Peter; Horsewell, Andy


    The microstructure, texture and hardness of electrodeposited hard, direct current (DC) chromium and pulsed reversed chromium has been investigated. These investigations suggest that the growth and texture of hard chromium is controlled by inhibition processes and reactions. Further, it has been e...

  19. Friction tensor concept for textured surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Directionality of grinding marks influences the coefficient of friction during sliding. Depending on the sliding direction the coefficient of friction varies between maximum and minimum for textured surfaces. For random surfaces without any texture the friction coefficient becomes independent of the sliding direction. This paper ...

  20. Bayesian exploration for intelligent identification of textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy A. Fishel


    Full Text Available In order to endow robots with humanlike abilities to characterize and identify objects, they must be provided with tactile sensors and intelligent algorithms to select, control and interpret data from useful exploratory movements. Humans make informed decisions on the sequence of exploratory movements that would yield the most information for the task, depending on what the object may be and prior knowledge of what to expect from possible exploratory movements. This study is focused on texture discrimination, a subset of a much larger group of exploratory movements and percepts that humans use to discriminate, characterize, and identify objects. Using a testbed equipped with a biologically inspired tactile sensor (the BioTac® we produced sliding movements similar to those that humans make when exploring textures. Measurement of tactile vibrations and reaction forces when exploring textures were used to extract measures of textural properties inspired from psychophysical literature (traction, roughness, and fineness. Different combinations of normal force and velocity were identified to be useful for each of these three properties. A total of 117 textures were explored with these three movements to create a database of prior experience to use for identifying these same textures in future encounters. When exploring a texture, the discrimination algorithm adaptively selects the optimal movement to make and property to measure based on previous experience to differentiate the texture from a set of plausible candidates, a process we call Bayesian exploration. Performance of 99.6% in correctly discriminating pairs of similar textures was found to exceed human capabilities. Absolute classification from the entire set of 117 textures generally required a small number of well-chosen exploratory movements (median=5 and yielded a 95.4% success rate. The method of Bayesian exploration developed and tested in this paper may generalize well to other

  1. Probing Majorana neutrino textures at DUNE (United States)

    Bora, Kalpana; Borah, Debasish; Dutta, Debajyoti


    We study the possibility of probing different texture zero neutrino mass matrices at the long baseline neutrino experiment DUNE, particularly focusing on its sensitivity to the octant of atmospheric mixing angle θ23 and leptonic Dirac C P phase δcp. Assuming a diagonal charged lepton basis and Majorana nature of light neutrinos, we first classify the possible light neutrino mass matrices with one and two texture zeros and then numerically evaluate the parameter space which satisfies the texture zero conditions. Apart from using the latest global fit 3 σ values of neutrino oscillation parameters, we also use the latest bound on the sum of absolute neutrino masses (∑i |mi|) from the Planck mission data and the updated bound on effective neutrino mass Me e from neutrinoless double beta decay (0 ν β β ) experiments to find the allowed Majorana texture zero mass matrices. For the allowed texture zero mass matrices from all these constraints, we then feed the corresponding light neutrino parameter values satisfying the texture zero conditions into the numerical analysis in order to study the capability of DUNE to allow or exclude them once it starts taking data. We find that DUNE will be able to exclude some of these texture zero mass matrices which restrict (θ23-δcp) to a very specific range of values, depending on the values of the parameters that nature has chosen.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacit DÜNDAR


    Full Text Available Non-random distribution of orientations between the neigbouring grains of polycrystalline aggregates leads to preferred orientations or textures. Texture analysis of a Cu-10 % Ni alloy carried out on three types of cast materials after varying amounts of deformation led to clearly defined copper type texture due to the dominance of high stacking fault energy SFE regions in the structure. (123 [41 2 ] is the strongest orientation observed with (123 as the plane lying paralel to the rolling plane and [41 2 ] as the direction paralel to the rolling direction.

  3. Revisiting the texture zero neutrino mass matrices (United States)

    Singh, Madan; Ahuja, Gulsheen; Gupta, Manmohan


    In the light of refined and large measurements of the reactor mixing angle θ, we have revisited the texture three- and two-zero neutrino mass matrices in the flavor basis. For Majorana neutrinos, it has been explicitly shown that all the texture three-zero mass matrices remain ruled out. Further, for both normal and inverted mass ordering, for the texture two-zero neutrino mass matrices one finds interesting constraints on the Dirac-like CP-violating phase δ and Majorana phases ρ and σ.

  4. Orientation selectivity based structure for texture classification (United States)

    Wu, Jinjian; Lin, Weisi; Shi, Guangming; Zhang, Yazhong; Lu, Liu


    Local structure, e.g., local binary pattern (LBP), is widely used in texture classification. However, LBP is too sensitive to disturbance. In this paper, we introduce a novel structure for texture classification. Researches on cognitive neuroscience indicate that the primary visual cortex presents remarkable orientation selectivity for visual information extraction. Inspired by this, we investigate the orientation similarities among neighbor pixels, and propose an orientation selectivity based pattern for local structure description. Experimental results on texture classification demonstrate that the proposed structure descriptor is quite robust to disturbance.

  5. CLASIC07 Soil Texture Data V001 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains soil texture data obtained for the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign 2007 (CLASIC07). The original data were extracted from a...

  6. Image texture analysis of crushed wheat kernels (United States)

    Zayas, Inna Y.; Martin, C. R.; Steele, James L.; Dempster, Richard E.


    The development of new approaches for wheat hardness assessment may impact the grain industry in marketing, milling, and breeding. This study used image texture features for wheat hardness evaluation. Application of digital imaging to grain for grading purposes is principally based on morphometrical (shape and size) characteristics of the kernels. A composite sample of 320 kernels for 17 wheat varieties were collected after testing and crushing with a single kernel hardness characterization meter. Six wheat classes where represented: HRW, HRS, SRW, SWW, Durum, and Club. In this study, parameters which characterize texture or spatial distribution of gray levels of an image were determined and used to classify images of crushed wheat kernels. The texture parameters of crushed wheat kernel images were different depending on class, hardness and variety of the wheat. Image texture analysis of crushed wheat kernels showed promise for use in class, hardness, milling quality, and variety discrimination.

  7. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing (United States)

    Wei, H. L.; Mazumder, J.; DebRoy, T.


    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Therefore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numerical modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components. PMID:26553246

  8. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wei, H L; Mazumder, J; DebRoy, T


    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data...

  9. Lava flow texture LiDAR signatures (United States)

    Whelley, P.; Garry, W. B.; Scheidt, S. P.; Irwin, R. P., III; Fox, J.; Bleacher, J. E.; Hamilton, C. W.


    High-resolution point clouds and digital elevation models (DEMs) are used to investigate lava textures on the Big Island of Hawaii. An experienced geologist can distinguish fresh or degraded lava textures (e.g., blocky, a'a and pahoehoe) visually in the field. Lava texture depends significantly on eruption conditions, and it is therefore instructive, if accurately determined. In places where field investigations are prohibitive (e.g., Mercury, Venus, the Moon, Mars, Io and remote regions on Earth) lava texture must be assessed from remote sensing data. A reliable method for differentiating lava textures in remote sensing data remains elusive. We present preliminary results comparing properties of lava textures observed in airborne and terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. Airborne data, in this study, were collected in 2011 by Airborne 1 Corporation and have a ~1m point spacing. The authors collected the terrestrial data during a May 2014 field season. The terrestrial scans have a heterogeneous point density. Points close to the scanner are 1 mm apart while 200 m in the distance points are 10 cm apart. Both platforms offer advantages and disadvantages beyond the differences in scale. Terrestrial scans are a quantitative representation of what a geologist sees "on the ground". Airborne scans are a point of view routinely imaged by other remote sensing tools, and can therefore be quickly compared to complimentary data sets (e.g., spectral scans or image data). Preliminary results indicate that LiDAR-derived surface roughness, from both platforms, is useful for differentiating lava textures, but at different spatial scales. As all lava types are quite rough, it is not simply roughness that is the most advantageous parameter; rather patterns in surface roughness can be used to differentiate lava surfaces of varied textures. This work will lead to faster and more reliable volcanic mapping efforts for planetary exploration as well as terrestrial

  10. Facial Features Detection Using Texture Hough Transform (United States)

    Gorbatsevich, V. S.


    The paper presents an original method for object detection. The "texture" Hough transform is used as the main tool in the search. Unlike classical generalized Hough transform, this variation uses texture LBP descriptor as a primitive for voting. The voting weight of each primitive is assumed by learning at a training set. This paper gives an overview of an original method for weights learning, and a number of ways to get the maximum searching algorithm speed on practice.

  11. Image Segmentation with Color and Texture, (United States)


    easily by other means. For example, it may be relatively easy to camouflage a target so that it resembles the average color of its background (a land...textural properties. Note that the matching of visual color or texture for camouflaging purposes does not guarantee that appropriate processing algorithms...UNCLASSIFIED 29 6.0 REFERENCES 1. S6vigny, L., "Simulation d’un syst~me d’acquisition automatique d’objectif infrarouge dans un

  12. Model for understanding consumer textural food choice


    Jeltema, Melissa; Beckley, Jacqueline; Vahalik, Jennifer


    The current paradigm for developing products that will match the marketing messaging is flawed because the drivers of product choice and satisfaction based on texture are misunderstood. Qualitative research across 10?years has led to the thesis explored in this research that individuals have a preferred way to manipulate food in their mouths (i.e., mouth behavior) and that this behavior is a major driver of food choice, satisfaction, and the desire to repurchase. Texture, which is currently t...

  13. Extrusion Cooking Systems and Textured Vegetable Proteins



    Many fabricated foods are cooked industrially and are given desired textures, shapes, density and rehydration characteristics by an extrusion cooking process. This relatively new process is used in the preparation of “engineered” convenience foods: textured vegetable proteins, breakfast cereals, snacks, infant foods, dry soup mixes, breading, poultry stuffing, croutons, pasta products, beverage powders, hot breakfast gruels, and in the gelatinization of starch or the starchy component of ...

  14. Fast Image Texture Classification Using Decision Trees (United States)

    Thompson, David R.


    Texture analysis would permit improved autonomous, onboard science data interpretation for adaptive navigation, sampling, and downlink decisions. These analyses would assist with terrain analysis and instrument placement in both macroscopic and microscopic image data products. Unfortunately, most state-of-the-art texture analysis demands computationally expensive convolutions of filters involving many floating-point operations. This makes them infeasible for radiation- hardened computers and spaceflight hardware. A new method approximates traditional texture classification of each image pixel with a fast decision-tree classifier. The classifier uses image features derived from simple filtering operations involving integer arithmetic. The texture analysis method is therefore amenable to implementation on FPGA (field-programmable gate array) hardware. Image features based on the "integral image" transform produce descriptive and efficient texture descriptors. Training the decision tree on a set of training data yields a classification scheme that produces reasonable approximations of optimal "texton" analysis at a fraction of the computational cost. A decision-tree learning algorithm employing the traditional k-means criterion of inter-cluster variance is used to learn tree structure from training data. The result is an efficient and accurate summary of surface morphology in images. This work is an evolutionary advance that unites several previous algorithms (k-means clustering, integral images, decision trees) and applies them to a new problem domain (morphology analysis for autonomous science during remote exploration). Advantages include order-of-magnitude improvements in runtime, feasibility for FPGA hardware, and significant improvements in texture classification accuracy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová


    Full Text Available The bread quality is considerably dependent on the texture characteristic of bread crumb. Texture analysis is primarily concerned with the evaluation of mechanical characteristics where a material is subjected to a controlled force from which a deformation curve of its response is generated. It is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what are inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. This is why the texture analysis is one of the most helpful analytical methods of the product development. In the framework of our research during the years 2008 – 2009 were analyzed selected indicators of bread crumb for texture quality of three Triticum spelta L. cultivars – Oberkulmer Rotkorn, Rubiota and Franckenkorn grown in an ecological system at the locality of Dolna Malanta near Nitra. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness ( and relative elasticity (%.Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was measured in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Franckenkorn were the most firm and stiff. Relative elasticity confirmed that the lowest firmness and stiffness was found in Rubiota bread. The spelt grain can be a good source for making bread flour, but is closely dependent on choice of spelt variety.

  16. Simultaneous structure and texture image inpainting. (United States)

    Bertalmio, Marcelo; Vese, Luminita; Sapiro, Guillermo; Osher, Stanley


    An algorithm for the simultaneous filling-in of texture and structure in regions of missing image information is presented in this paper. The basic idea is to first decompose the image into the sum of two functions with different basic characteristics, and then reconstruct each one of these functions separately with structure and texture filling-in algorithms. The first function used in the decomposition is of bounded variation, representing the underlying image structure, while the second function captures the texture and possible noise. The region of missing information in the bounded variation image is reconstructed using image inpainting algorithms, while the same region in the texture image is filled-in with texture synthesis techniques. The original image is then reconstructed adding back these two sub-images. The novel contribution of this paper is then in the combination of these three previously developed components, image decomposition with inpainting and texture synthesis, which permits the simultaneous use of filling-in algorithms that are suited for different image characteristics. Examples on real images show the advantages of this proposed approach.

  17. A categorical view of textural approximation spaces | Dost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent works on textures show that they also provide a useful model for rough set theory. In this paper, we show that i-c spaces (interior-closure texture spaces) can be regarded as a textural rough set systems on a single universe. Then we consider the approaches containing direlations and dicovers for textural rough sets ...

  18. Aesthetics by numbers:Links between perceived texture qualities and computed visual texture properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Henrikus Augustinus Hubertus Jacobs


    Full Text Available Our world is filled with texture. For the human visual system, this is an important source of information for assessing environmental and material properties. Indeed – and presumably for this reason– the human visual system has regions dedicated to processing textures. Despite their abundance and apparent relevance, only recently the relationships between texture features and high-level judgments have captured the interest of mainstream science, despite long-standing indications for such relationships. In this study, we explore such relationships, as these might be used to predict perceived texture qualities. This is relevant, not only from a psychological/neuroscience perspective, but also for more applied fields such as design, architecture, and the visual arts. In two separate experiments, observers judged various qualities of visual textures such as beauty, roughness, naturalness, elegance, and complexity. Based on factor analysis, we find that in both experiments, ~75% of the variability in the judgments could be explained by a two-dimensional space, with axes that are closely aligned to the beauty and roughness judgments. That a two-dimensional judgment space suffices to capture most of the variability in the perceived texture qualities suggests that observers use a relatively limited set of internal scales on which to base various judgments, including aesthetic ones.Finally, for both of these judgments, we determined the relationship with a large number of texture features computed for each of the texture stimuli. We find that the presence of lower spatial frequencies, oblique orientations, higher intensity variation, higher saturation, and redness correlates with higher beauty ratings. Features that captured image intensity and uniformity correlated with roughness ratings. Therefore, a number of computational texture features are predictive of these judgments. This suggests that perceived texture qualities – including the aesthetic

  19. Visual texture accurate material appearance measurement, representation and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Haindl, Michal


    This book surveys the state of the art in multidimensional, physically-correct visual texture modeling. Features: reviews the entire process of texture synthesis, including material appearance representation, measurement, analysis, compression, modeling, editing, visualization, and perceptual evaluation; explains the derivation of the most common representations of visual texture, discussing their properties, advantages, and limitations; describes a range of techniques for the measurement of visual texture, including BRDF, SVBRDF, BTF and BSSRDF; investigates the visualization of textural info

  20. Aesthetics by numbers: Links between perceived texture qualities and computed visual texture properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, R.H.A.H.; Haak, K.V.; Thumfart, S.; Renken, R.J.; Henson, B.; Cornelissen, F.W.


    Our world is filled with texture. For the human visual system, this is an important source of information for assessing environmental and material properties. Indeed - and presumably for this reason - the human visual system has regions dedicated to processing textures. Despite their abundance and

  1. Aesthetics by Numbers : Links between Perceived Texture Qualities and Computed Visual Texture Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Richard H. A. H.; Haak, Koen V.; Thumfart, Stefan; Renken, Remco; Henson, Brian; Cornelissen, Frans W.


    Our world is filled with texture. For the human visual system, this is an important source of information for assessing environmental and material properties. Indeed-and presumably for this reason-the human visual system has regions dedicated to processing textures. Despite their abundance and

  2. Texture classification of lung computed tomography images (United States)

    Pheng, Hang See; Shamsuddin, Siti M.


    Current development of algorithms in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme is growing rapidly to assist the radiologist in medical image interpretation. Texture analysis of computed tomography (CT) scans is one of important preliminary stage in the computerized detection system and classification for lung cancer. Among different types of images features analysis, Haralick texture with variety of statistical measures has been used widely in image texture description. The extraction of texture feature values is essential to be used by a CAD especially in classification of the normal and abnormal tissue on the cross sectional CT images. This paper aims to compare experimental results using texture extraction and different machine leaning methods in the classification normal and abnormal tissues through lung CT images. The machine learning methods involve in this assessment are Artificial Immune Recognition System (AIRS), Naive Bayes, Decision Tree (J48) and Backpropagation Neural Network. AIRS is found to provide high accuracy (99.2%) and sensitivity (98.0%) in the assessment. For experiments and testing purpose, publicly available datasets in the Reference Image Database to Evaluate Therapy Response (RIDER) are used as study cases.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová


    Full Text Available At present, there are limited and incomplete data on the ability of spelt to produce alimentary pasta of suitable quality. Noodles are traditional cereal-based food that is becoming increasingly popular worldwide because of its convenience, nutritional qualities, and palatability. It is generally accepted that texture is the main criterion for assessing overall quality of cooked noodles. We present selected indicators of noodle texture of three spelt cultivars – Oberkulmer Rotkorn, Rubiota and Franckenkorn grown in an ecological system at the locality of Dolna Malanta near Nitra. A texture analyzer TA.XT PLUS was used to determine cooked spelt wheat noodle firmness (N (AACC 66-50. The texture of cooked spelt wheat noodles was expressed also as elasticity (N and extensibility (mm. Statistical analysis showed significant influence of the variety and year of growing on the firmness, elasticity and extensibility of cooked noodles. The wholemeal spelt wheat noodles were characterized with lower cutting firmness than the flour noodles. Flour noodles were more tensile than wholemeal noodles. The best elasticity and extensibility of flour noodles was found in noodles prepared from Rubiota however from wholemeal noodles it was Oberkulmer Rotkorn. Spelt wheat is suitable for noodle production, however also here it is necessary to differentiate between varieties. According to achieved results, wholemeal noodles prepared from Oberkulmer Rotkorn can be recommended for noodle industry due to their consistent structure and better texture quality after cooking.

  4. Electrochemically grown rough-textured nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, Pawan; Postetter, David; Saragnese, Daniel [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (United States); Papadakis, Stergios J. [Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory (United States); Gracias, David H., E-mail: dgracias@jhu.ed [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (United States)


    Nanowires with a rough surface texture show unusual electronic, optical, and chemical properties; however, there are only a few existing methods for producing these nanowires. Here, we describe two methods for growing both free standing and lithographically patterned gold (Au) nanowires with a rough surface texture. The first strategy is based on the deposition of nanowires from a silver (Ag)-Au plating solution mixture that precipitates an Ag-Au cyanide complex during electrodeposition at low current densities. This complex disperses in the plating solution, thereby altering the nanowire growth to yield a rough surface texture. These nanowires are mass produced in alumina membranes. The second strategy produces long and rough Au nanowires on lithographically patternable nickel edge templates with corrugations formed by partial etching. These rough nanowires can be easily arrayed and integrated with microscale devices.

  5. Automatic photointerpretation via texture and morphology analysis (United States)

    Tou, J. T.


    Computer-based techniques for automatic photointerpretation based upon information derived from texture and morphology analysis of images are discussed. By automatic photointerpretation, is meant the determination of semantic descriptions of the content of the images by computer. To perform semantic analysis of morphology, a heirarchical structure of knowledge representation was developed. The simplest elements in a morphology are strokes, which are used to form alphabets. The alphabets are the elements for generating words, which are used to describe the function or property of an object or a region. The words are the elements for constructing sentences, which are used for semantic description of the content of the image. Photointerpretation based upon morphology is then augmented by textural information. Textural analysis is performed using a pixel-vector approach.

  6. Nano-granular texture of cement hydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannidou Katerina


    Full Text Available Mechanical behavior of concrete crucially depends on cement hydrates, the “glue” of cement. The design of high performance and more environmentally friendly cements demands a deeper understanding of the formation of the multiscale structure of cement hydrates, when they precipitate and densify. We investigate the precipitation and setting of nano-grains of cement hydrates using a combination of Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics numerical simulations and study their texture from nano up to the micron scale. We characterize the texture of cement hydrates using the local volume fraction distribution, the pore size distribution, the scattering intensity and the chord length distribution and we compare them with experiments. Our nano-granular model provides cement structure with realistic texture and mechanics and can be further used to investigate degradation mechanisms.

  7. Texture design for light touch perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhang


    Full Text Available This study focused on active light touch with predefined textures specially-designed for tactile perception. The counter-body material is stainless steel sheet. Three geometric structures (grid, crater and groove were fabricated by pulsed laser surface texturing. A total number of twenty volunteers participated in the research which contains two parts: perception tests and skin friction measurements. The perception tests focused mainly on the participants׳ perceptual attributes: perceived roughness and perceived stickiness. For the skin friction measurements, a multi-axis force/torque transducer was used to measure the normal force and friction force between skin and counter-surface along with the fingertip position. The results of the predefined textures showed the ability to reduce skin friction due to the reduction of contact area. Moreover, the participants׳ perceptual attributes were greatly influenced by the predefined micro-structures in the light touch regime.

  8. Changes in food bolus texture during mastication. (United States)

    Wada, Sachie; Goto, Takaharu; Fujimoto, Keiko; Watanabe, Megumi; Nagao, Kan; Nakamichi, Atsuko; Ichikawa, Tetsuo


    The purpose of this study was to survey the changes that occur in bolus texture from intake to swallowing during the mastication process for four types of food materials and to identify how texture is related to the number of chews. We recruited 15 young Japanese participants for this study. The subjects were asked to spit the food bolus just before swallowing when eating four different foods: cracker, boiled rice, hard gelatine gel, and soft gelatine gel. Three physical properties (hardness, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness) were measured in the bolus after being chewed for 25, 50, 75, 100, and 125% of the normal number of chews. Occlusal force and pressure as well as stimulated whole saliva volume were also measured. Extensive variation in the number of chews existed between subjects, but minimal intra-subject variation was observed. Hardness was observed to decrease, whereas cohesiveness and adhesiveness increased in a chew-dependent manner for the cracker, soft gelatine gel, and hard gelatine gel, but not boiled rice. Bolus texture appears to be largely related to the number of chews. Hardness also tended to be influenced by occlusion. The adhesiveness and hardness of the boiled rice were also greatly influenced by saliva volume and occlusal force, respectively. Hardness is an important rheological factor in food bolus texture and likely plays a significant role in determining the appropriate number of chews. Adhesiveness and cohesiveness appear to be secondary factors in this process. We propose a model of oral processing for application in determining the appropriate number of chews for an individual. Hardness appears to be an important rheological factor in food bolus texture, with adhesiveness and cohesiveness being secondary aspects. When food is hard or difficult to swallow, chewing behavior will likely be more influenced by the perception of bolus texture. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.


    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  10. Biaxially textured articles formed by power metallurgy (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.


    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  11. Textures as Probes of Visual Processing. (United States)

    Victor, Jonathan D; Conte, Mary M; Chubb, Charles F


    Visual textures are a class of stimuli with properties that make them well suited for addressing general questions about visual function at the levels of behavior and neural mechanism. They have structure across multiple spatial scales, they put the focus on the inferential nature of visual processing, and they help bridge the gap between stimuli that are analytically convenient and the complex, naturalistic stimuli that have the greatest biological relevance. Key questions that are well suited for analysis via visual textures include the nature and structure of perceptual spaces, modulation of early visual processing by task, and the transformation of sensory stimuli into patterns of population activity that are relevant to perception.

  12. Micro Surface Texturing for Friction Control (United States)

    Rashwan, Ola

    Recently, surface texturing has gained momentum as a way to control the friction which is involved in various applications and systems, such as components of internal combustion engines, dies and punches of the metal forming processes and Micro-electrical-mechanical Systems (MEMS). This dissertation demonstrates that under dry sliding, there is a specific significant surface texturing parameter at which the coefficient of friction should be at a minimum. This dissertation met this objective through an extensive study of the relevant literature on surface texturing and friction, analysing the friction mechanisms involved in dry sliding, and highlighting the key factors that control friction as the real area of contact and material properties. An analytical proof is derived demonstrating that a minimum friction force exists if the two components of the friction force, adhesion and mechanical deformation, are differentiated with respect to the real contact area. In addition, numerical simulations and experimental work were performed to test this hypothesis. In the two and three dimensional finite element models, normal and sliding contact between a rigid indenter and elastic-plastic surfaces, which are textured by circular and hexagonal dimples of different sizes and densities, are simulated and analysed. Circular craters of different sizes and densities, are fabricated using laser ablation on hardened tool steel samples, while the hexagonal dimples are fabricated using photo-lithography. The dimples are arranged in adjacent equilateral triangles layout. Coefficients of friction were measured using a scratch tester under dry sliding conditions and constant load. In addition, adhesion forces were estimated using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The adhesion force is found to be exponentially decreasing with the increase of the spatial texture density. The dimensionless quantity, spatial texture density (D/L) was identified as the most significant texturing parameter

  13. Quantitative texture analysis of electrodeposited line patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A.J.


    Free-standing line patterns of Cu and Ni were manufactured by electrochemical deposition into lithographically prepared patterns. Electrodeposition was carried out on top of a highly oriented Au-layer physically vapor deposited on glass. Quantitative texture analysis carried out by means of x...

  14. Graph-based features for texture discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, Cosmin; Petkov, Nikolay; Sanfeliu, A; Villanueva, JJ; Vanrell, M; Alquezar, R; Huang, T; Serra, J


    Graph-based features, such as the number of connected components, edges of a given orientation and vertices per unit area, and the number of vertices and pixels per connected component, are proposed for the analysis of textures which consist of structural elements. The proposed set of features is

  15. Factors Affecting the Textural Properties of Pork (United States)

    Holmer, Sean Frederick


    Research concerning rate and extent of tenderization has focused on beef or lamb. However, it is critical to understand these processes in pork, especially as retailers move towards minimally processed or non-enhanced product. The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the textural properties of pork (firmness and tenderness) by examining…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    This paper is an attempt to fill an important gap in the existing literature on trade unions by providing a more adequate theoretical formulation of trade union environments. The discussion suggests that unlike the environment of business and related organisations whose causal texture is understood in terms of uncertainty, ...

  17. On the origin of recrystallization textures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the ON model, it has been argued that a higher frequency of the special orientation (grains) than random occur, thus accounting for the texture. In the OG model, it has been argued that the specially oriented grains have a high mobility boundary and thus can migrate faster and grow to a larger size as compared to random ...

  18. Some Numerical Characteristics of Image Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Samarina


    Full Text Available Texture classification is one of the basic images processing tasks. In this paper we present some numerical characteristics to the images analysis and processing. It can be used at the solving of images classification problems, their recognition, problems of remote sounding, biomedical images analysis, geological researches.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    providing a more adequate theoretical formulation of trade union environments. The discussion suggests that unlike the environment of business and related organisations whose causal texture is understood in terms of uncertainty, complexity, instability and turbulence that of trade unions needs to be understood in terms of ...

  20. A neural network model for texture discrimination. (United States)

    Xing, J; Gerstein, G L


    A model of texture discrimination in visual cortex was built using a feedforward network with lateral interactions among relatively realistic spiking neural elements. The elements have various membrane currents, equilibrium potentials and time constants, with action potentials and synapses. The model is derived from the modified programs of MacGregor (1987). Gabor-like filters are applied to overlapping regions in the original image; the neural network with lateral excitatory and inhibitory interactions then compares and adjusts the Gabor amplitudes in order to produce the actual texture discrimination. Finally, a combination layer selects and groups various representations in the output of the network to form the final transformed image material. We show that both texture segmentation and detection of texture boundaries can be represented in the firing activity of such a network for a wide variety of synthetic to natural images. Performance details depend most strongly on the global balance of strengths of the excitatory and inhibitory lateral interconnections. The spatial distribution of lateral connective strengths has relatively little effect. Detailed temporal firing activities of single elements in the lateral connected network were examined under various stimulus conditions. Results show (as in area 17 of cortex) that a single element's response to image features local to its receptive field can be altered by changes in the global context.

  1. Surface texture metrology for high precision surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gasparin, Stefania; Tosello, Guido


    This paper introduces some of the challenges related to surface texture measurement of high precision surfaces. The paper is presenting two case studies related to polished tool surfaces and micro part surfaces. In both cases measuring instrumentation, measurement procedure and the measurement re...

  2. Adaptive Matrices for Color Texture Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunte, Kerstin; Giotis, Ioannis; Petkov, Nicolai; Biehl, Michael; Real, P; DiazPernil, D; MolinaAbril, H; Berciano, A; Kropatsch, W


    In this paper we introduce an integrative approach towards color texture classification learned by a supervised framework. Our approach is based on the Generalized Learning Vector Quantization (GLVQ), extended by an adaptive distance measure which is defined in the Fourier domain and 2D Gabor

  3. Spin Transport in Ferromagnetic and Antiferromagnetic Textures

    KAUST Repository

    Akosa, Collins A.


    In this dissertation, we provide an accurate description of spin transport in magnetic textures and in particular, we investigate in detail, the nature of spin torque and magnetic damping in such systems. Indeed, as will be further discussed in this thesis, the current-driven velocity of magnetic textures is related to the ratio between the so-called non-adiabatic torque and magnetic damping. Uncovering the physics underlying these phenomena can lead to the optimal design of magnetic systems with improved efficiency. We identified three interesting classes of systems which have attracted enormous research interest (i) Magnetic textures in systems with broken inversion symmetry: We investigate the nature of magnetic damping in non-centrosymmetric ferromagnets. Based on phenomenological and microscopic derivations, we show that the magnetic damping becomes chiral, i.e. depends on the chirality of the magnetic texture. (ii) Ferromagnetic domain walls, skyrmions and vortices: We address the physics of spin transport in sharp disordered magnetic domain walls and vortex cores. We demonstrate that upon spin-independent scattering, the non-adiabatic torque can be significantly enhanced. Such an enhancement is large for vortex cores compared to transverse domain walls. We also show that the topological spin currents owing in these structures dramatically enhances the non-adiabaticity, an effect unique to non-trivial topological textures (iii) Antiferromagnetic skyrmions: We extend this study to antiferromagnetic skyrmions and show that such an enhanced topological torque also exist in these systems. Even more interestingly, while such a non-adiabatic torque inuences the undesirable transverse velocity of ferromagnetic skyrmions, in antiferromagnetic skyrmions, the topological non-adiabatic torque directly determines the longitudinal velocity. As a consequence, scaling down the antiferromagnetic skyrmion results in a much more efficient spin torque.

  4. Texture of semi-solids : sensory flavor-texture interactions for custard desserts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Rasing, F.; Wilkinson, C.L.


    Possible interactions between flavor and oral texture sensations were investigated for four flavorants, diacetyl, benzaldehyde, vanillin, and caffeine, added in two concentrations to model vanilla custard desserts. The flavorants affected viscosities and resulted in corresponding changes in

  5. Decomposition of dynamic textures using Morphological Component Analysis


    Dubois, Sloven; Péteri, Renaud; Ménard, Michel


    International audience; The research context of this work is dynamic texture analysis and characterization. Many dynamic textures can be modeled as large scale propagating wavefronts and local oscillating phenomena. After introducing a formal model for dynamic textures, the Morphological Component Analysis (MCA) approach with a well chosen dictionary is used to retrieve the components of dynamic textures. We define two new strategies for adaptive thresholding in the MCA framework, which great...

  6. Neural Network-Based Segmentation of Textures Using Gabor Features


    Ramakrishnan, AG; Raja, Kumar S; Ram, Ragu HV


    The effectiveness of Gabor filters for texture segmentation is well known. In this paper, we propose a texture identification scheme, based on a neural network (NN) using Gabor features. The features are derived from both the Gabor cosine and sine filters. Through experiments, we demonstrate the effectiveness of a NN based classifier using Gabor features for identifying textures in a controlled environment. The neural network used for texture identification is based on the multilayer perceptr...

  7. Evaluation of texture differences among varieties of cooked quinoa (United States)

    Texture is one of the most significant factors for consumers’ experience of foods. Texture difference of cooked quinoa among thirteen different varieties was studied. Correlations between the texture and seed composition, seed characteristics, cooking qualities, flour pasting properties and flour th...

  8. The Role of Texture in French Spectral Music (United States)

    Besharse, Kari E.


    This study examines the essential role of texture in French spectral music and its contribution to musical evolution and form in specific works by Gerard Grisey, Tristan Murail, Philippe Hurel, and Kaija Saariaho. The use of texture in French spectral music is placed in a historical context by exploring the new ways that texture is employed in…

  9. A dynamical system approach to texel identification in regular textures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, S.E.; Petkov, N.; Loncaric, S; Neri, A; Babic, H


    We propose a texture analysis method based on Rényi’s entropies. The method aims at identifying texels in regular textures by searching for the smallest window through which the minimum number of different visual patterns is observed when moving the window over a given texture. The experimental

  10. Texture analysis of the radiographic trabecular bone pattern in osteoporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Veenland (Jifke)


    textabstractTexture is an image property which is difficult to grasp. It can be described as a "homogeneous visual pattern"l. but there exists no formal definition of texture. Intuitively people can discriminate between different textures. referring to visual clues like coarseness, orientation.

  11. Brightness perception in low resolution images of 3d textures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Siteur, J.


    A first step towards the analysis of the appearance of 3 dimensional textures is presented in this paper. It is assumed that the scale of the texture is small relative to the resolution of the camera. Therefore, the texture itself is not distinguishable.However, the perceived brightness of the

  12. Texture Analysis Using Rényi’s Generalized Entropies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, S.E.; Petkov, N.


    We propose a texture analysis method based on Rényi’s generalized entropies. The method aims at identifying texels in regular textures by searching for the smallest window through which the minimum number of different visual patterns is observed when moving the window over a given texture. The

  13. Meat studies of indigenous Southern African cattle. II. Textural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Textural evaluations were conducted on the longissimus thoracis muscles from carcasses of young Afrikaner, Nguni and Pedi bulls ... Compared with published results of textural evaluation of steer meat, the meat from the young Afrikaner, Nguni and. Pedi bulls ..... HARRIS, P.V. & SHORTHOUSE, W.R., 1988. Meat texture.

  14. Design of textured surfaces for super-hydrophobicity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 42; Issue 11. Design of textured ... Alternatively, geometries of natural super-hydrophobic surfaces are often imitated to design textured surfaces. Knowing the ... dimensions.The proposed approach is sufficiently general that its application can be extended to design other textured surface ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bakalov


    Full Text Available Apple pomace - wheat semolina blends were extruded in a laboratory single screw extruder (Brabender 20 DN, Germany. Effects apple pomace content, moisture content, screw speed, and temperature of final cooking zone on texture of extrudates were studied applying response surface methodology. The texture characteristics of the extrudates were measured using a TA.XT Plus Texture Analyser, Stable Micro Systems.

  16. A Texture Thesaurus for Browsing Large Aerial Photographs. (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Ying; Manjunath, B. S.


    Presents a texture-based image-retrieval system for browsing large-scale aerial photographs. System components include texture-feature extraction, image segmentation and grouping, learning-similarity measure, and a texture-thesaurus model for fast search and indexing. Testing has demonstrated the system's effectiveness in searching and selecting…

  17. Line Laser and Triple Laser Quantification of the Difference in International Roughness Index between Textured and Non-Textured Strips (United States)


    Practitioners have often wondered whether, during ride measurement with inertial devices, the motion of the laser through pavement texture introduces non representative values of international roughness index (IRI), particularly in certain textures. ...

  18. Quality Assessment of Mapping Building Textures from Infrared Image Sequences (United States)

    Hoegner, L.; Iwaszczuk, D.; Stilla, U.


    Generation and texturing of building models is a fast developing field of research. Several techniques have been developed to extract building geometry and textures from multiple images and image sequences. In this paper, these techniques are discussed and extended to automatically add new textures from infrared (IR) image sequences to existing building models. In contrast to existing work, geometry and textures are not generated together from the same dataset but the textures are extracted from the image sequence and matched to an existing geo-referenced 3D building model. The texture generation is divided in two main parts. The first part deals with the estimation and refinement of the exterior camera orientation. Feature points are extracted in the images and used as tie points in the sequence. A recorded exterior orientation of the camera s added to these homologous points and a bundle adjustment is performed starting on image pairs and combining the hole sequence. A given 3d model of the observed building is additionally added to introduce further constraint as ground control points in the bundle adjustment. The second part includes the extraction of textures from the images and the combination of textures from different images of the sequence. Using the reconstructed exterior camera orientation for every image of the sequence, the visible facades are projected into the image and texture is extracted. These textures normally contain only parts of the facade. The partial textures extracted from all images are combined to one facade texture. This texture is stored with a 3D reference to the corresponding facade. This allows searching for features in textures and localising those features in 3D space. It will be shown, that the proposed strategy allows texture extraction and mapping even for big building complexes with restricted viewing possibilities and for images with low optical resolution.

  19. Texture perception through direct and indirect touch: an analysis of perceptual space for tactile textures in two modes of exploration. (United States)

    Yoshioka, T; Bensmaïa, S J; Craig, J C; Hsiao, S S


    Considerable information about the texture of objects can be perceived remotely through a probe. It is not clear, however, how texture perception with a probe compares with texture perception with the bare finger. Here we investigate the perception of a variety of textured surfaces encountered daily (e.g., corduroy, paper, and rubber) using the two scanning modes - direct touch through the finger and indirect touch through a probe held in the hand - in two tasks. In the first task, subjects rated the overall pair-wise dissimilarity of the textures. In the second task, subjects rated each texture along three continua, namely, perceived roughness, hardness, and stickiness of the surfaces, shown previously as the primary dimensions of texture perception in direct touch. From the dissimilarity judgment experiment, we found that the texture percept is similar though not identical in the two scanning modes. From the adjective rating experiments, we found that while roughness ratings are similar, hardness and stickiness ratings tend to differ between scanning conditions. These differences between the two modes of scanning are apparent in perceptual space for tactile textures based on multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis. Finally, we demonstrate that three physical quantities, vibratory power, compliance, and friction carry roughness, hardness, and stickiness information, predicting perceived dissimilarity of texture pairs with indirect touch. Given that different types of texture information are processed by separate groups of neurons across direct and indirect touch, we propose that the neural mechanisms underlying texture perception differ between scanning modes.

  20. Composite biaxially textured substrates using ultrasonic consolidation (United States)

    Blue, Craig A; Goyal, Amit


    A method of forming a composite sheet includes disposing an untextured metal or alloy first sheet in contact with a second sheet in an aligned opposing position; bonding the first sheet to the second sheet by applying an oscillating ultrasonic force to at least one of the first sheet and the second sheet to form an untextured intermediate composite sheet; and annealing the untextured intermediate composite sheet at a temperature lower than a primary re-crystallization temperature of the second sheet and higher than a primary re-crystallization temperature of the first sheet to convert the untextured first sheet into a cube textured sheet, wherein the cube texture is characterized by a .phi.-scan having a FWHM of no more than in all directions, the second sheet remaining untextured, to form a composite sheet.

  1. Dropwise condensation on inclined textured surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Khandekar, Sameer


    Dropwise Condensation on Textured Surfaces presents a holistic framework for understanding dropwise condensation through mathematical modeling and meaningful experiments. The book presents a review of the subject required to build up models as well as to design experiments. Emphasis is placed on the effect of physical and chemical texturing and their effect on the bulk transport phenomena. Application of the model to metal vapor condensation is of special interest. The unique behavior of liquid metals, with their low Prandtl number and high surface tension, is also discussed. The model predicts instantaneous drop size distribution for a given level of substrate subcooling and derives local as well as spatio-temporally averaged heat transfer rates and wall shear stress.

  2. Topological image texture analysis for quality assessment (United States)

    Asaad, Aras T.; Rashid, Rasber Dh.; Jassim, Sabah A.


    Image quality is a major factor influencing pattern recognition accuracy and help detect image tampering for forensics. We are concerned with investigating topological image texture analysis techniques to assess different type of degradation. We use Local Binary Pattern (LBP) as a texture feature descriptor. For any image construct simplicial complexes for selected groups of uniform LBP bins and calculate persistent homology invariants (e.g. number of connected components). We investigated image quality discriminating characteristics of these simplicial complexes by computing these models for a large dataset of face images that are affected by the presence of shadows as a result of variation in illumination conditions. Our tests demonstrate that for specific uniform LBP patterns, the number of connected component not only distinguish between different levels of shadow effects but also help detect the infected regions as well.

  3. Texture-based analysis of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge; Nielsen, Mads; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau


    This study presents a fully automatic, data-driven approach for texture-based quantitative analysis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in pulmonary computed tomography (CT) images. The approach uses supervised learning where the class labels are, in contrast to previous work, based...... on measured lung function instead of on manually annotated regions of interest (ROIs). A quantitative measure of COPD is obtained by fusing COPD probabilities computed in ROIs within the lung fields where the individual ROI probabilities are computed using a k nearest neighbor (kNN ) classifier. The distance...... and subsequently applied to classify 200 independent images from the same screening trial. The texture-based measure was significantly better at discriminating between subjects with and without COPD than were the two most common quantitative measures of COPD in the literature, which are based on density...

  4. Topological Spin Textures in Confined Geometries (United States)

    Zang, Jiadong

    The magnetic skyrmion is a nanostructured spin texture stabilized by the spin-orbital coupling. Its nontrivial topology enables unique dynamical property and thermal stability, which give out promise on future magnetic memory devise. However, to enable its applications, it is essential to understand the skyrmion properties in confined geometries and tackle key challenges including the creation and detection of skyrmions, preferably without magnetic fields. In this talk, I will present our recent theory-experiment collaboration results, covering studies of skyrmions in nanoribbon, nanodisk, and nanowires. Zero field skyrmions and their polarization switch will be discussed. New skyrmion materials and new topological textures in helimagnet heterostructures will be presented. This work is supported by the Grant DE-SC0016424 funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science.

  5. Novel Method for Color Textures Features Extraction Based on GLCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hudec


    Full Text Available Texture is one of most popular features for image classification and retrieval. Forasmuch as grayscale textures provide enough information to solve many tasks, the color information was not utilized. But in the recent years, many researchers have begun to take color information into consideration. In the texture analysis field, many algorithms have been enhanced to process color textures and new ones have been researched. In this paper the new method for color GLCM textures and comparing with other good known methods is presented.

  6. Texture analyses of Sauropod dinosaur bones from Tendaguru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyzalla, A.R. [TU Wien, Institute of Material Science and Technology, Karlsplatz 13-308, A-1040 Vienna (Austria) and MPI fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany)]. E-mail:; Sander, P.M. [University of Bonn, Institute of Palaeontology, Nusseallee, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Hansen, A. [TU Clausthal, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering. A, Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and Processingnd GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str.1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Ferreyro, R. [TU Wien, Institute of Material Science and Technology, Karlsplatz 13-308, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Yi, S.-B. [TU Clausthal, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering. A, Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and Processingnd GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str.1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); MPI fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Stempniewicz, M. [TU Wien, Institute of Material Science and Technology, Karlsplatz 13-308, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Brokmeier, H.-G. [TU Clausthal, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering. A, Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and Processingnd GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str.1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany)


    The apatite texture of fossil Brachiosaurus brancai and Barosaurus africanus sauropod bones from the excavation site at Tendaguru, Tanzania, was characterized by neutron diffraction pole figures. The results obtained reveal predominantly <0 0 0 1>-fibre textures of the apatite; the fibre direction coincides with the longitudinal direction of the long bones of the skeletons. Neutron pole figures further indicate that other texture types may also be present. Texture strength is similar to dinosaur tendons and contemporary turkey tendon studied by others. Variations of texture strength across the bone wall cross-sections are not significantly large.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Tosello, Guido

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 3 hours duration as a part of the course VISION ONLINE – One week course on Precision & Nanometrology. The exercises concern surface texture analysis for functionality control, in connection with three different case stories. This document...... contains a short description of each case story, 3-D roughness parameters analysis and relation with the product’s functionality....

  8. Yukawa Textures from Family Symmetry and Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Allanach, Benjamin C; Leontaris, George K; Lola, S


    In this letter, we show how the combination of both a gauged U(1)_X family symmetry and an extended vertical gauge symmetry in a single model, allows for the presence of additional Clebsch texture zeroes in the fermion mass matrices. This leads to new structures for the textures, with increased predictivity, as compared to schemes with enhanced family symmetries only. We illustrate these ideas in the context of the Pati-Salam gauge group SU(4)xSU(2)_LxSU(2)_R$ supplemented by a U(1)_X gauged family symmetry. In the case of symmetric mass matrices, two of the solutions of Ramond, Roberts and Ross that may not be obtained by family symmetries only, are accurately reproduced. For non-symmetric textures, new structures arise in models of this type. To distinguish between the solutions in this latter case, we performed a numerical fit to the charged fermion mass and mixing data. The best solution we found allows a fit with a total chi^2 of 0.39, for three degrees of freedom.

  9. Focal Conic Flower Textures at Curved Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Beller


    Full Text Available Focal conic domains (FCDs in smectic-A liquid crystals have drawn much attention, both for their exquisitely structured internal form and for their ability to direct the assembly of micromaterials and nanomaterials in a variety of patterns. A key to directing FCD assembly is control over the eccentricity of the domain. Here, we demonstrate a new paradigm for creating spatially varying FCD eccentricity by confining a hybrid-aligned smectic with curved interfaces. In particular, we manipulate interface behavior with colloidal particles in order to experimentally produce two examples of what has recently been dubbed the flower texture [C. Meyer et al., Focal Conic Stacking in Smectic A Liquid Crystals: Smectic Flower and Apollonius Tiling, Materials 2, 499, 2009MATEG91996-194410.3390/ma2020499], where the focal hyperbolæ diverge radially outward from the center of the texture, rather than inward as in the canonical éventail or fan texture. We explain how this unconventional assembly can arise from appropriately curved interfaces. Finally, we present a model for this system that applies the law of corresponding cones, showing how FCDs may be embedded smoothly within a “background texture” of large FCDs and concentric spherical layers, in a manner consistent with the qualitative features of the smectic flower. Such understanding could potentially lead to disruptive liquid-crystal technologies beyond displays, including patterning, smart surfaces, microlens arrays, sensors, and nanomanufacturing.

  10. Augmented Reality Marker Hiding with Texture Deformation. (United States)

    Kawai, Norihiko; Sato, Tomokazu; Nakashima, Yuta; Yokoya, Naokazu


    Augmented reality (AR) marker hiding is a technique to visually remove AR markers in a real-time video stream. A conventional approach transforms a background image with a homography matrix calculated on the basis of a camera pose and overlays the transformed image on an AR marker region in a real-time frame, assuming that the AR marker is on a planar surface. However, this approach may cause discontinuities in textures around the boundary between the marker and its surrounding area when the planar surface assumption is not satisfied. This paper proposes a method for AR marker hiding without discontinuities around texture boundaries even under nonplanar background geometry without measuring it. For doing this, our method estimates the dense motion in the marker's background by analyzing the motion of sparse feature points around it, together with a smooth motion assumption, and deforms the background image according to it. Our experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in various environments with different background geometries and textures.

  11. Depth image enhancement using perceptual texture priors (United States)

    Bang, Duhyeon; Shim, Hyunjung


    A depth camera is widely used in various applications because it provides a depth image of the scene in real time. However, due to the limited power consumption, the depth camera presents severe noises, incapable of providing the high quality 3D data. Although the smoothness prior is often employed to subside the depth noise, it discards the geometric details so to degrade the distance resolution and hinder achieving the realism in 3D contents. In this paper, we propose a perceptual-based depth image enhancement technique that automatically recovers the depth details of various textures, using a statistical framework inspired by human mechanism of perceiving surface details by texture priors. We construct the database composed of the high quality normals. Based on the recent studies in human visual perception (HVP), we select the pattern density as a primary feature to classify textures. Upon the classification results, we match and substitute the noisy input normals with high quality normals in the database. As a result, our method provides the high quality depth image preserving the surface details. We expect that our work is effective to enhance the details of depth image from 3D sensors and to provide a high-fidelity virtual reality experience.

  12. Evaluation of textural features for multispectral images (United States)

    Bayram, Ulya; Can, Gulcan; Duzgun, Sebnem; Yalabik, Nese


    Remote sensing is a field that has wide use, leading to the fact that it has a great importance. Therefore performance of selected features plays a great role. In order to gain some perspective on useful textural features, we have brought together state-of-art textural features in recent literature, yet to be applied in remote sensing field, as well as presenting a comparison with traditional ones. Therefore we selected most commonly used textural features in remote sensing that are grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Gabor features. Other selected features are local binary patterns (LBP), edge orientation features extracted after applying steerable filter, and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) features. Color histogram feature is also used and compared. Since most of these features are histogram-based, we have compared performance of bin-by-bin comparison with a histogram comparison method named as diffusion distance method. During obtaining performance of each feature, k-nearest neighbor classification method (k-NN) is applied.

  13. Model for understanding consumer textural food choice. (United States)

    Jeltema, Melissa; Beckley, Jacqueline; Vahalik, Jennifer


    The current paradigm for developing products that will match the marketing messaging is flawed because the drivers of product choice and satisfaction based on texture are misunderstood. Qualitative research across 10 years has led to the thesis explored in this research that individuals have a preferred way to manipulate food in their mouths (i.e., mouth behavior) and that this behavior is a major driver of food choice, satisfaction, and the desire to repurchase. Texture, which is currently thought to be a major driver of product choice, is a secondary factor, and is important only in that it supports the primary driver-mouth behavior. A model for mouth behavior is proposed and the qualitative research supporting the identification of different mouth behaviors is presented. The development of a trademarked typing tool for characterizing mouth behavior is described along with quantitative substantiation of the tool's ability to group individuals by mouth behavior. The use of these four groups to understand textural preferences and the implications for a variety of areas including product design and weight management are explored.

  14. Nominated Texture Based Cervical Cancer Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Jayasingh Mariarputham


    Full Text Available Accurate classification of Pap smear images becomes the challenging task in medical image processing. This can be improved in two ways. One way is by selecting suitable well defined specific features and the other is by selecting the best classifier. This paper presents a nominated texture based cervical cancer (NTCC classification system which classifies the Pap smear images into any one of the seven classes. This can be achieved by extracting well defined texture features and selecting best classifier. Seven sets of texture features (24 features are extracted which include relative size of nucleus and cytoplasm, dynamic range and first four moments of intensities of nucleus and cytoplasm, relative displacement of nucleus within the cytoplasm, gray level cooccurrence matrix, local binary pattern histogram, tamura features, and edge orientation histogram. Few types of support vector machine (SVM and neural network (NN classifiers are used for the classification. The performance of the NTCC algorithm is tested and compared to other algorithms on public image database of Herlev University Hospital, Denmark, with 917 Pap smear images. The output of SVM is found to be best for the most of the classes and better results for the remaining classes.

  15. Improving texture optimization with application to visualizing meat products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Laursen, Lasse Farnung


    dimensional space. Applying a principal component analysis on the texture patches originating from the synthesized solid accelerates the process. These patches are then reduced in dimensionality until ”only” 95% of their original variance remains. This usually results in a dimension reduction from 192...... (such as color, translucency, reflective properties). One way of reintroducing this lost information back to the volume data is to synthesize an appropriate texture and apply this to the volume data. A recent method within the field of texture synthesis is called Texture Optimization presented by Kopf...... et al. in 2007. This method accepts a number of 2D input exemplars, from which it generates a solid texture volume. The volume is iteratively improved via an expectation maximization algorithm. The bottleneck of Texture Optimization occurs during a nearest neighbor search, between texture patches...

  16. Automatic Texture Optimization for 3D Urban Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Ming


    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of texture optimization in 3D city reconstruction by using multi-lens oblique images, the paper presents a method of seamless texture model reconstruction. At first, it corrects the radiation information of images by camera response functions and image dark channel. Then, according to the corresponding relevance between terrain triangular mesh surface model to image, implements occlusion detection by sparse triangulation method, and establishes the triangles' texture list of visible. Finally, combines with triangles' topology relationship in 3D triangular mesh surface model and means and variances of image, constructs a graph-cuts-based texture optimization algorithm under the framework of MRF(Markov random filed, to solve the discrete label problem of texture optimization selection and clustering, ensures the consistency of the adjacent triangles in texture mapping, achieves the seamless texture reconstruction of city. The experimental results verify the validity and superiority of our proposed method.

  17. A Novel Texture Classification Procedure by using Association Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jaba Sheela


    Full Text Available Texture can be defined as a local statistical pattern of texture primitives in observer’s domain of interest. Texture classification aims to assign texture labels to unknown textures, according to training samples and classification rules. Association rules have been used in various applications during the past decades. Association rules capture both structural and statistical information, and automatically identify the structures that occur most frequently and relationships that have significant discriminative power. So, association rules can be adapted to capture frequently occurring local structures in textures. This paper describes the usage of association rules for texture classification problem. The performed experimental studies show the effectiveness of the association rules. The overall success rate is about 98%.

  18. ESVC-based extraction and segmentation of texture features (United States)

    Yang, Jingan; Zhuang, Yanbin; Wu, Feng


    Inspired by Krige' variogram and the multi-channel filtering theory for human vision information processing, this paper proposes a novel algorithm for segmenting the textures based on experimental semi-variogram function (ESVF), which can simultaneously describe structural property and statistical property of textures. The single variogram function value (SVFV) and the variance distance obtained by ESVF are used as texture feature description for segmenting textures. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by testing on some texture images. The computational complexity of the proposed approach depends neither on the number of the textures nor on the number of the gray levels, and only on the size of the image blocks. We have proved theoretically that the algorithm has the advantages of direction invariability and a higher sensitivity to different textures and can detect almost all kinds of the boundaries of the shape textures. Experimental results on the Brodatz texture databases show that the performance of this algorithm is superior to the traditional techniques such as texture spectrum, SIFT, k-mean method, and Gabor filters. The proposed approach is found to be robust, efficient, and satisfactory.

  19. Morphological Texture Manipulation for The Evaluation of Human Visual Sensibility (United States)

    Asano, Chie Muraki; Asano, Akira; Li, Liang; Fujimoto, Takako

    Since the surface texture of materials often affects human visual impressions as much as or more than the design, shape, or color properties, texture characteristics have been studied as features of object identification. We have been investigating the effect of texture on visual impression and objective identification using black fabrics that do not exhibit any effects of color. Our studies showed that visual impressions of texture correspond to complex micro-components and global structures of image features of those textures. Our results also showed that some important elements influence human visual impressions and identification of textures. Because of a variety of fibrous structures, it is not easy to provide a systematic analysis of clothing materials. Nevertheless, developing the method and collecting data on these elements and their effects using these image features will be important. To make this research applicable for wider use, we have been studying precisely what it is about an arbitrary texture that influences human visual impressions and sensibility. As a new step, in this paper, a texture is altered and transformed using the parameter estimation method of texture based on mathematical morphology, which is often used for extracting image components that are useful for representation and description. A texture is decomposed into a primitive and grain arrangement which correspond to local and global characteristics, respectively. Different textures are created by modifying the primitive and the arrangement to investigate the effects of modifications of local and global features. The relationship between the parameters and visual impressions of the modified textures were evaluated. This study shows that influence of both local and global structures of the texture along with their combinations and mutual interactions are important for identification of human visual impression.

  20. Automatic computational labeling of glomerular textural boundaries (United States)

    Ginley, Brandon; Tomaszewski, John E.; Sarder, Pinaki


    The glomerulus, a specialized bundle of capillaries, is the blood filtering unit of the kidney. Each human kidney contains about 1 million glomeruli. Structural damages in the glomerular micro-compartments give rise to several renal conditions; most severe of which is proteinuria, where excessive blood proteins flow freely to the urine. The sole way to confirm glomerular structural damage in renal pathology is by examining histopathological or immunofluorescence stained needle biopsies under a light microscope. However, this method is extremely tedious and time consuming, and requires manual scoring on the number and volume of structures. Computational quantification of equivalent features promises to greatly ease this manual burden. The largest obstacle to computational quantification of renal tissue is the ability to recognize complex glomerular textural boundaries automatically. Here we present a computational pipeline to accurately identify glomerular boundaries with high precision and accuracy. The computational pipeline employs an integrated approach composed of Gabor filtering, Gaussian blurring, statistical F-testing, and distance transform, and performs significantly better than standard Gabor based textural segmentation method. Our integrated approach provides mean accuracy/precision of 0.89/0.97 on n = 200Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE) glomerulus images, and mean 0.88/0.94 accuracy/precision on n = 200 Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) glomerulus images. Respective accuracy/precision of the Gabor filter bank based method is 0.83/0.84 for HE and 0.78/0.8 for PAS. Our method will simplify computational partitioning of glomerular micro-compartments hidden within dense textural boundaries. Automatic quantification of glomeruli will streamline structural analysis in clinic, and can help realize real time diagnoses and interventions.

  1. Maya Studio Projects Texturing and Lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Lanier, Lee


    Learn to create realistic digital assets for film and games with this project-based guide Focused entirely on practical projects, this hands-on guide shows you how to use Maya's texturing and lighting tools in real-world situations. Whether you need to sharpen your skills or you're looking to break into the field for the first time, you'll learn top industry techniques for this important skill as you follow the instructions for several specific projects. You can even create your own version, using final Maya scene files to validate results. The companion DVD includes supplemental videos, proje

  2. Texturing and modeling a procedural approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ebert, David S


    Congratulations to Ken Perlin for his 1997 Technical Achievement Award from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Science Board of Governors, given in recognition of the development of ""Turbulence"", Perlin Noise, a technique discussed in this book which is used to produce natural appearing textures on computer-generated surfaces for motion picture visual effects. Dr. Perlin joins Darwyn Peachey (co-developer of RenderMan(R), also discussed in the book) in being honored with this prestigious award.* * Written at a usable level by the developers of the techniques* Serves as a source book for

  3. A Study of Texture Analysis Algorithms. (United States)


    If so how can the improvement be made? ( iv ) Can it be improved to the point where it can match a level of human texture perception? (v) Can it be...cooccurrence matrices in- creases as more 6’s are used; (iii) to infer visual qualities of patterns in general requires more than one 6 value be used; and ( iv ...scenes, small regions could belong to anyone of a large number of primitive clases such as grass, concrete, car, tree, etc. Combining these primitives

  4. Detection of surfaces for projection of texture (United States)

    Molinier, Thierry; Fofi, David; Gorria, Patrick; Salvi, Joaquim


    Augmented reality is used to improve color segmentation on human's body or on precious no touch artefacts. We propose a technique based on structured light to project texture on a real object without any contact with it. Such techniques can be apply on medical application, archeology, industrial inspection and augmented prototyping. Coded structured light is an optical technique based on active stereovision which allows shape acquisition. By projecting a light pattern onto the surface of an object and capturing images with a camera, a large number of correspondences can be found and 3D points can be reconstructed by means of triangulation.

  5. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma response evaluation with MRI texture classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinonen Tomi T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To show magnetic resonance imaging (MRI texture appearance change in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL during treatment with response controlled by quantitative volume analysis. Methods A total of 19 patients having NHL with an evaluable lymphoma lesion were scanned at three imaging timepoints with 1.5T device during clinical treatment evaluation. Texture characteristics of images were analyzed and classified with MaZda application and statistical tests. Results NHL tissue MRI texture imaged before treatment and under chemotherapy was classified within several subgroups, showing best discrimination with 96% correct classification in non-linear discriminant analysis of T2-weighted images. Texture parameters of MRI data were successfully tested with statistical tests to assess the impact of the separability of the parameters in evaluating chemotherapy response in lymphoma tissue. Conclusion Texture characteristics of MRI data were classified successfully; this proved texture analysis to be potential quantitative means of representing lymphoma tissue changes during chemotherapy response monitoring.

  6. Anisotropic 3D texture synthesis with application to volume rendering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lasse Farnung; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas


    We present a novel approach to improving volume rendering by using synthesized textures in combination with a custom transfer function. First, we use existing knowledge to synthesize anisotropic solid textures to fit our volumetric data. As input to the synthesis method, we acquire high quality...... images using a 12.1 megapixel camera. Next, we extend the volume rendering pipeline by creating a transfer function which yields not only color and opacity from the input intensity, but also texture coordinates for our synthesized 3D texture. Thus, we add texture to the volume rendered images....... This method is applied to a high quality visualization of a pig carcass, where samples of meat, bone, and fat have been used to produce the anisotropic 3D textures....

  7. Deformation texture development in a model composite system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, W.J.; MacEwen, S.; Kocks, U.F.; Embury, J.D.


    Model composites fabricated with a polycrystalline copper matrix and continuous tungsten fibres were deformed in plane strain compression with the fibres perpendicular to the loading axis and parallel to the direction of zero strain. The development of texture in the matrix due to deformation was measured using x-ray diffraction. It was observed that the macroscopic texture development in the composite was weaker than for unreinforced copper. The pattern of deformation in the matrix was quantified using experimental measurements and finite element method calculations. By carefully sectioning the composite after deformation, texture measurements were conducted for regions which exhibited characteristic types of deformation. These measurements showed that there is a variety of local textures (some weaker, some stronger than the texture in the unreinforced matrix) which when summed give the result of a weak global texture. This result is in agreement with the predictions from the computer simulations of Bolmaro et al.

  8. Exploring Sound-Motion Textures in drum set performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godøy, Rolf Inge; song, minho; Dahl, Sofia


    to our perceptions of musical textures. Musical textures could thus be understood as multimodal, with features of both sound and motion, hence the idea here of sound-motion textures in music. The study of such multi- modal sound-motion textures will necessitate collecting and analyzing data of both...... the produced sound and of the sound-producing body motion, thus entailing a number of methodological challenges. In our current work on sound- motion textures in music, we focus on short and idiomatic figures for different instruments (e.g. ornaments on vari- ous instruments), and in this paper, we present......A musical texture, be that of an ensemble or of a solo in- strumentalist, may be perceived as combinations of both simultaneous and sequential sound events. However, we believe that also sensations of the corresponding sound- producing events (e.g. hitting, stroking, bowing, blowing) contribute...

  9. Adaptive pixel/patch-based synthesis for texture compression


    Racapé, Fabien; Lefort, Simon; Francois, Edouard; Babel, Marie; Déforges, Olivier


    International audience; This paper presents an adaptive scheme for synthesizing missing textured regions. In synthesis-based compression approaches, large textures are removed at encoder side and filled in at decoder side. This work proposes a synthesizer in which both complementary pixel-based and patch-based approaches are used. According to results shown by synthesis algorithms, patch-based and pixel-based approaches are efficient with different kinds of texture. Two algorithms are adapted...

  10. Texture development during recrystallization of aluminium containing large particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, Dorte; Hansen, Niels; Humphreys, F. J.


    The recrystallization process in heavily deformed commercially pure aluminium containing large intermetallic particles was studied by in situ neutron diffraction texture measurements and various microscopical techniques including texture measurements in local areas and simultaneous determination...... of size and orientation of individual grains. The formation and growth of recrystallization nuclei at the particles and in the matrix were examined by correlating the measured change in texture to the observed change in microstructure. It was found that prolific nucleation of grains having a wide spread...

  11. MRT letter: recovering weak-textured surfaces using image focus. (United States)

    Muhammad, Mannan Saeed; Choi, Tae-Sun


    In nature, objects have partially weak texture and their shape reconstruction using focus based passive methods like shape from focus (SFF), is difficult. This article presents a new SFF algorithm which can compute precise depth of dense as well as weak textured objects. Segmentation is applied to discard wrong depth estimate and then later interpolating them from accurate depth values of their neighbors. The performance of the proposed method is tested, using different image sequences of synthetic and real objects, with varying textures.

  12. Dynamic air layer on textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev


    We provide an experimental demonstration that a novel macroscopic, dynamic continuous air layer or plastron can be sustained indefinitely on textured superhydrophobic surfaces in air-supersaturated water by a natural gas influx mechanism. This type of plastron is an intermediate state between Leidenfrost vapor layers on superheated surfaces and the equilibrium Cassie-Baxter wetting state on textured superhydrophobic surfaces. We show that such a plastron can be sustained on the surface of a centimeter-sized superhydrophobic sphere immersed in heated water and variations of its dynamic behavior with air saturation of the water can be regulated by rapid changes of the water temperature. The simple experimental setup allows for quantification of the air flux into the plastron and identification of the air transport model of the plastron growth. Both the observed growth dynamics of such plastrons and millimeter-sized air bubbles seeded on the hydrophilic surface under identical air-supersaturated solution conditions are consistent with the predictions of a well-mixed gas transport model. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  13. Texture classification by texton: statistical versus binary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Guo

    Full Text Available Using statistical textons for texture classification has shown great success recently. The maximal response 8 (Statistical_MR8, image patch (Statistical_Joint and locally invariant fractal (Statistical_Fractal are typical statistical texton algorithms and state-of-the-art texture classification methods. However, there are two limitations when using these methods. First, it needs a training stage to build a texton library, thus the recognition accuracy will be highly depended on the training samples; second, during feature extraction, local feature is assigned to a texton by searching for the nearest texton in the whole library, which is time consuming when the library size is big and the dimension of feature is high. To address the above two issues, in this paper, three binary texton counterpart methods were proposed, Binary_MR8, Binary_Joint, and Binary_Fractal. These methods do not require any training step but encode local feature into binary representation directly. The experimental results on the CUReT, UIUC and KTH-TIPS databases show that binary texton could get sound results with fast feature extraction, especially when the image size is not big and the quality of image is not poor.

  14. Toward a taxonomy of textures for image retrieval (United States)

    Payne, Janet S.; Stonham, T. John


    Image retrieval remains a difficult task, in spite of the many research efforts applied over the past decade or more, from IBM's QBIC onwards. Colour, texture and shape have all been used for content-based image retrieval (CBIR); texture is particularly effective, alone or with colour. Many researchers have expressed the hope that textures can be organised and classified in the way that colour can; however, it seems likely that such an ambition is unrealisable. While the goal of content-based retrieval is to retrieve "more images like this one," there is the difficulty of judging what is meant by similarity for images. It seems appropriate to search on what the images actually look like to potential users of such systems. No single computational method for textural classification matches human perceptual similarity judgements. However, since different methods are effective for different kinds of textures, a way of identifying or grouping such classes should lead to more effective retrievals. In this research, working with the Brodatz texture images, participants were asked to select up to four other textures which they considered similar to each of the Brodatz textures in turn. A principal components analysis was performed upon the correlations between their rankings, which was then used to derive a 'mental map' of the composite similarity ranking for each texture. These similarity measures can be considered as a matrix of distances in similarity space; hierarchical cluster analysis produces a perceptually appropriate dendrogram with eight distinct clusters.

  15. Texture alteration detection in bitemporal images of lesions with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær


    The objective of this work is to explore the feasibility of quantifying textural change between pairs of segmented patterns without registering them. The Multi-variate Alteration Detection (M.A.D.) Transform is applied to a texture model constructed with the data of segmented psoriasis lesions...... images. The texture model is Haralick's co-occurrence matrix, which is computed and normalized for each single band with the equalized data of a given lesion. The contribution of each single color band to the textural change is analyzed....

  16. Chemical composition and temperature influence on honey texture properties. (United States)

    Oroian, Mircea; Paduret, Sergiu; Amariei, Sonia; Gutt, Gheorghe


    The aim of this study is to evaluate the chemical composition and temperatures (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 °C) influence on the honey texture parameters (hardness, viscosity, adhesion, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness). The honeys analyzed respect the European regulation in terms of moisture content and inverted sugar concentration. The texture parameters are influenced negatively by the moisture content, and positively by the °Brix concentration. The texture parameters modelling have been made using the artificial neural network and the polynomial model. The polynomial model predicted better the texture parameters than the artificial neural network.

  17. Multi Texture Analysis of Colorectal Cancer Continuum Using Multispectral Imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Chaddad

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to characterize the continuum of colorectal cancer (CRC using multiple texture features extracted from multispectral optical microscopy images. Three types of pathological tissues (PT are considered: benign hyperplasia, intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma.In the proposed approach, the region of interest containing PT is first extracted from multispectral images using active contour segmentation. This region is then encoded using texture features based on the Laplacian-of-Gaussian (LoG filter, discrete wavelets (DW and gray level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM. To assess the significance of textural differences between PT types, a statistical analysis based on the Kruskal-Wallis test is performed. The usefulness of texture features is then evaluated quantitatively in terms of their ability to predict PT types using various classifier models.Preliminary results show significant texture differences between PT types, for all texture features (p-value < 0.01. Individually, GLCM texture features outperform LoG and DW features in terms of PT type prediction. However, a higher performance can be achieved by combining all texture features, resulting in a mean classification accuracy of 98.92%, sensitivity of 98.12%, and specificity of 99.67%.These results demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of combining multiple texture features for characterizing the continuum of CRC and discriminating between pathological tissues in multispectral images.

  18. Fast color/texture segmentation for outdoor robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blas, Morten Rufus; Agrawal, Motilal; Sundaresan, Aravind


    We present a fast integrated approach for online segmentation of images for outdoor robots. A compact color and texture descriptor has been developed to describe local color and texture variations in an image. This descriptor is then used in a two-stage fast clustering framework using K-means to ......We present a fast integrated approach for online segmentation of images for outdoor robots. A compact color and texture descriptor has been developed to describe local color and texture variations in an image. This descriptor is then used in a two-stage fast clustering framework using K...

  19. Shape-Tailored Features and their Application to Texture Segmentation

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Naeemullah


    Texture Segmentation is one of the most challenging areas of computer vision. One reason for this difficulty is the huge variety and variability of textures occurring in real world, making it very difficult to quantitatively study textures. One of the key tools used for texture segmentation is local invariant descriptors. Texture consists of textons, the basic building block of textures, that may vary by small nuisances like illumination variation, deformations, and noise. Local invariant descriptors are robust to these nuisances making them beneficial for texture segmentation. However, grouping dense descriptors directly for segmentation presents a problem: existing descriptors aggregate data from neighborhoods that may contain different textured regions, making descriptors from these neighborhoods difficult to group, leading to significant errors in segmentation. This work addresses this issue by proposing dense local descriptors, called Shape-Tailored Features, which are tailored to an arbitrarily shaped region, aggregating data only within the region of interest. Since the segmentation, i.e., the regions, are not known a-priori, we propose a joint problem for Shape-Tailored Features and the regions. We present a framework based on variational methods. Extensive experiments on a new large texture dataset, which we introduce, show that the joint approach with Shape-Tailored Features leads to better segmentations over the non-joint non Shape-Tailored approach, and the method out-performs existing state-of-the-art.

  20. Texture measurements in fine grained polyphase aggregates (United States)

    Kilian, R.; Heilbronner, R.; Stünitz, H.


    When analyzing natural and experimental microstructures, we routinely use the two methods for orientation imaging and texture measurements: (a) the computer-integrated polarization microscopy (CIP, Panozzo Heilbronner & Pauli, 1993) and (b) the electron back scatter diffractometry (EBSD, e.g. Kunze et al., 1994). The CIP method yields orientation maps and pole figures of c-axes (of uni-axial materials), while the EBSD method yields complete textural data for all crystallographic orientations. In order to compare the orientation images the Euler maps (obtained from EBSD) are recalculated and presented with the more intuitive colour look-up tables (CLUTs) of the CIP method. In this contribution we compare and contrast the results achieved by these two methods using two different samples taken from a metagranodiorite (Kilian et al., 2009): (1) a coarse grained mylonitic rock with polycrystalline quartz aggregates and (2) a very fine grained ultramylonitic rock with single quartz grains dispersed in a polymineralic matrix. For the coarse grained sample (1) both methods yield the same (strong) c-axis pole figure: the geometry of the c-axis polefigure as well as the texture intensity (maximum of polefigure) are identical. The texture of sample (2) - where small quartz grains are dispersed in the polymineralic matrix - is very weak to random. The CIP and EBSD c-axis pole figures are different and - as noted previously - these differences arise from a machine specific bias of the EBSD (Schmocker 2002). In addition to texture analysis, both methods are capable of image segmentation (identification and separation of individual grains in the orientation image) as well as shape and grain size analysis. However due to the entirely different approach taken, the results may differ significantly. For example, when deriving the grain size distribution for sample (2) EBSD (combined with with the OIM® analysis software) yields a positively skewed histogram (with the mode occurring

  1. Memory texture as a mechanism of improvement in preference by adding noise (United States)

    Zhao, Yinzhu; Aoki, Naokazu; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki


    According to color research, people have memory colors for familiar objects, which correlate with high color preference. As a similar concept to this, we propose memory texture as a mechanism of texture preference by adding image noise (1/f noise or white noise) to photographs of seven familiar objects. Our results showed that (1) memory texture differed from real-life texture; (2) no consistency was found between memory texture and real-life texture; (3) correlation existed between memory texture and preferred texture; and (4) the type of image noise which is more appropriate to texture reproduction differed by object.

  2. Comparison of texture models for efficient ultrasound image retrieval (United States)

    Bansal, Maggi; Sharma, Vipul; Singh, Sukhwinder


    Due to availability of inexpensive and easily available image capturing devices, the size of digital image collection is increasing rapidly. Thus, there is need to create efficient access methods or retrieval tools to search, browse and retrieve images from large multimedia repositories. More specifically, researchers have been engaged on different ways of retrieving images based on their actual content. In particular, Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) systems have attracted considerable research and commercial interest in the recent years. In CBIR, visual features characterizing the image content are color, shape and texture. Currently, texture is used to quantify the image content of medical images as it is the most prominent feature that contains information about the spatial distribution of gray levels and variations in brightness. Various texture models like Haralick's Spatial Gray Level Co-occurence Matrix (SGLCM), Gray Level Difference Statistics (GLDS), First-order Statistics (FoS), Statistical Feature Matrix (SFM), Law's Texture Energy Measures (TEM), Fractal features and Fourier Power Spectrum (FPS) features exists in literature. Each of these models visualizes texture in a different way. Retrieval performance depends upon the choice of texture algorithm. Unfortunately, there is no texture model known to work best for encoding texture properties of liver ultrasound images or retrieving most similar images. An experimental comparison of different texture models for Content Based Medical Image Retrieval (CBMIR) is presented in this paper. For the experiments, liver ultrasound image database is used and the retrieval performance of the various texture models is analyzed in detail. The paper concludes with recommendations which texture model performs better for liver ultrasound images. Interestingly, FPS and SGLCM based Haralick's features perform well for liver ultrasound retrieval and thus can be recommended as a simple baseline for such images.

  3. Geometric and Texture Inpainting by Gibbs Sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, David Karl John; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Nielsen, Mads


    This paper discuss a method suitable for inpainting both large scale geometric structures and more stochastic texture components. Image inpainting concerns the problem of reconstructing the intensity contents inside regions of missing data. Common techniques for solving this problem are methods....... In this paper we use the well-known FRAME (Filters, Random Fields and Maximum Entropy) for inpainting. We introduce a temperature term in the learned FRAME Gibbs distribution. By sampling using different temperature in the FRAME Gibbs distribution, different contents of the image are reconstructed. We propose...... a two step method for inpainting using FRAME. First the geometric structure of the image is reconstructed by sampling from a cooled Gibbs distribution, then the stochastic component is reconstructed by sample froma heated Gibbs distribution. Both steps in the reconstruction process are necessary...

  4. Controlling and imaging chiral spin textures (United States)

    Chen, Gong

    Chirality in magnetic materials is fundamentally interesting and holds potential for logic and memory applications. Using spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy at National Center for Electron Microscopy, we recently observed chiral domain walls in thin films. We developed ways to tailor the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which drives the chirality, by interface engineering and by forming ternary superlattices. We find that spin-textures can be switched between left-handed, right-handed, cycloidal, helical and mixed domain wall structures by controlling uniaxial strain in magnetic films. We also demonstrate an experimental approach to stabilize skyrmions in magnetic multilayers without external magnetic field. These results exemplify the rich physics of chirality associated with interfaces of magnetic materials

  5. D-brane Inspired Fermion Mass Textures

    CERN Document Server

    Leontaris, G K


    In this paper, the issues of the quark mass hierarchies and the Cabbibo Kobayashi Maskawa mixing are analyzed in a class of intersecting D-brane configurations with Standard Model gauge symmetry. The relevant mass matrices are constructed taking into account the constraints imposed by extra abelian symmetries and anomaly cancelation conditions. Possible mass generating mechanisms including perturbative as well as non-perturbative effects are discussed and specific patterns of mass textures are found characterized by the hierarchies of the scales where the various sources contribute. It is argued that the Cholesky decomposition of the mass matrices is the most appropriate way to determine the properties of these fermion mass patterns, while the associated triangular mass matrix form provides a unified description of all phenomenologically equivalent symmetric and non-symmetric mass matrices. An elegant analytic formula is derived for the Cholesky triangular form of the mass matrices where the entries are given...

  6. A Texture Analysis of 3D Radar Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deiana, D.; Yarovoy, A.


    In this paper a texture feature coding method to be applied to high-resolution 3D radar images in order to improve target detection is developed. An automatic method for image segmentation based on texture features is proposed. The method has been able to automatically detect weak targets which

  7. Cortical mechanisms for the segregation and representation of acoustic textures. (United States)

    Overath, Tobias; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Stewart, Lauren; von Kriegstein, Katharina; Cusack, Rhodri; Rees, Adrian; Griffiths, Timothy D


    Auditory object analysis requires two fundamental perceptual processes: the definition of the boundaries between objects, and the abstraction and maintenance of an object's characteristic features. Although it is intuitive to assume that the detection of the discontinuities at an object's boundaries precedes the subsequent precise representation of the object, the specific underlying cortical mechanisms for segregating and representing auditory objects within the auditory scene are unknown. We investigated the cortical bases of these two processes for one type of auditory object, an "acoustic texture," composed of multiple frequency-modulated ramps. In these stimuli, we independently manipulated the statistical rules governing (1) the frequency-time space within individual textures (comprising ramps with a given spectrotemporal coherence) and (2) the boundaries between textures (adjacent textures with different spectrotemporal coherences). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show mechanisms defining boundaries between textures with different coherences in primary and association auditory cortices, whereas texture coherence is represented only in association cortex. Furthermore, participants' superior detection of boundaries across which texture coherence increased (as opposed to decreased) was reflected in a greater neural response in auditory association cortex at these boundaries. The results suggest a hierarchical mechanism for processing acoustic textures that is relevant to auditory object analysis: boundaries between objects are first detected as a change in statistical rules over frequency-time space, before a representation that corresponds to the characteristics of the perceived object is formed.

  8. Quantitative 3-D texture analysis of interphase cell nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strasters, K.C.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; van der Voort, H.T.M.; Young, I.T.; Nanninga, N.; Young, I.T.


    In order to investigate the spatio-temporal structure of chromatin in interphase nuclei the authors present two 3-D texture parameters based on the grey-weighted distance transform that quantify the accessibility and the homogeneity of a nucleus. Results of experiments on computer generated textures

  9. Enhancement of Human Cheek Skin Texture by Acacia Nilotica Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... < 0.05) and the texture parameter of energy showed significant increase (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the cream containing 3 % Acacia nilotica bark extract possesses anti-aging effect and improves skin surface appearance.. Keywords: Acacia nilotica, Cream, Visioscan VC 98, Skin texture, Anti-aging ...

  10. Use of Texture Fading in the Treatment of Food Selectivity. (United States)

    Shore, Bridget A.; Babbitt, Roberta L.; Williams, Keith E.; Coe, David A.; Snyder, Angela


    A study investigated the efficacy of texture fading in the treatment of food selectivity displayed by four children (ages 2-5). Successful treatment involved the gradual addition of higher textures based on results of periodic probes. Food acceptance and swallowing were reinforced, while food refusal and expulsion were placed on extinction.…

  11. The effect of visual experience on texture segmentation without awareness. (United States)

    Guzzon, Daniela; Casco, Clara


    The effect of visual experience is usually investigated through active (task dependent) training in a discrimination task. In contrast, the current work explored the psychophysical and electrophysiological correlates of passive (task independent) visual experience in texture segmentation by using an inattentional blindness-like paradigm (Mack et al., 1992). The psychophysical and electrophysiological responses to a segmented line-texture bar, with texture elements oriented either congruently (parallel) or noncongruently (orthogonal) to bar orientation, were collected after both short and long passive experience, with the texture presented on the background while subjects performed a primary task. Subjects were not able to distinguish the orientation of the bar (psychophysical results) after either short or long passive experience. However, the short experience produced an electrophysiological correlate of texture segmentation (N150), and the amplitude of this component was greater for the parallel bar, demonstrating that it reflected not simply local orientation discontinuities but also texture boundary-surface orientation congruency. This configurational effect in texture segmentation, which occurred without awareness during passive viewing, disappeared when the subjects had previously discriminated the orientation of the bar and when experience was lengthened, probably as a consequence of adaptation. Our study provides the first ERP evidence that boundary-surface relations are available during short passive visual experiences of very salient texture images and are suppressed by long experience, probably because of adaptation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Design of textured surfaces for super-hydrophobicity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prithvi Raj Jelia


    Nov 11, 2017 ... Alternatively, geometries of natural super-hydrophobic surfaces are often imitated to design textured surfaces. Knowing the ... The proposed approach is sufficiently general that its application can be extended to design other textured surfaces. Keywords. .... labТ software package. Further, manufacturing ...

  13. Texture Segmentation Based on Gabor Filters and Neutrosophic Graph Cut


    Akbulut, Y.; Sengur, Abdulkadir; Yanhui, Guo


    Image segmentation is the first step of image processing and image analysis. Texture segmentation is a challenging task in image segmentation applications. Neutrosophy hasanaturalabilitytohandletheindeterminateinformation.In this work, we investigate the texture image segmentation based on Gabor filters (GFs) and neutrosophic graph cut (NGC).

  14. Dry etch method for texturing silicon and device (United States)

    Gershon, Talia S.; Haight, Richard A.; Kim, Jeehwan; Lee, Yun Seog


    A method for texturing silicon includes loading a silicon wafer into a vacuum chamber, heating the silicon wafer and thermal cracking a gas to generate cracked sulfur species. The silicon wafer is exposed to the cracked sulfur species for a time duration in accordance with a texture characteristic needed for a surface of the silicon wafer.

  15. Magnetically textured ferrofluid in a non-magnetic matrix: Magnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Texturing of two different magnetic fluids were carried out in paraffin wax under the influence of an external magnetic field. The textured samples were characterized using magnetization measurement and a.c. susceptibility techniques. The results are discussed in the light of ratio of anisotropic energy to magnetic and ...

  16. Instrumental textural perception of food and comparative biomaterials (United States)

    Texture is an important food quality attribute affecting consumer acceptance. Consumers characterize texture as either crispy or crunchy, and the moisture content and internal structure of the products are significant factors in its perception. Exposing an extruded corn snack (ECS), an extruded biod...

  17. Evaluation of physicochemical, functional and textural properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... thus could contribute to the functional and textural properties of commercial meat products, generating a value liked trout producers. After this time of storage, the trout flesh can be consumed in the conventional way. Keywords: Rainbow trout, refrigeration, freezing, texture. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 12(32), pp.

  18. Post tsunami rebuilding of beaches and the texture of sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Loveson, V.J.; Gujar, A.R.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Chandrasekar, N.; Manickaraj, D.S.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Chaturvedi, S.K.; Mahesh, R.; Josephine, P.J.; Deepa, V.; Sudha, V.; Sunderasen, D.

    and textural statistic studies. In view of the presence tsunami in between, the beach sand composition and texture have been drastically changed, the studies on beach re-building effort has been initiated in continuing the beach sand sample collection to 2006...

  19. The role of friction in perceived oral texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.A. de; Prinz, J.F.


    Instrumentally measured in vitro friction in semi-solid foods was related to oral texture sensations. Increased fat content resulted in lower sensations of roughness, higher sensations of creaminess, and lower friction, suggesting that lubrication is the mechanism by which fat affects oral texture

  20. Highly textured Gd2Zr2O7 films grown on textured Ni-5 at.%W substrates by solution deposition route: Growth, texture evolution, and microstructure dependency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Zhao; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Napari, M.


    or crystallization in the thicker films. This work not only demonstrates a route for producing textured Gd2Zr2O7 buffer layers with dense structure directly on technical substrates, but also provides some fundamental understandings related to chemical solution derived films grown on metallic substrates.......Growth, texture evolution and microstructure dependency of solution derived Gd2Zr2O7 films deposited on textured Ni-5 at.%W substrates have been extensively studied. Influence of processing parameters, in particular annealing temperature and dwell time, as well as thickness effect on film texture...... the difference of interfacial energy along two directions in the anisotropic metallic substrate. Growth of Gd2Zr2O7 films displays an ultrafast kinetics under optimized conditions. Independency of sharp epitaxial (004) and polycrystalline (222) orientation is revealed from further synchrotron diffraction studies...

  1. Soil Texture Aanalysis by Laser Diffraction – Standardisation Needed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Palviainen, Marjo; Kjoenaas, O. Janne


    -sized fraction results obtained by laser diffraction analysis of fine-textured soil samples are not comparable to those obtained with sedimentation and sieving methods, when translating to the traditional particle size limits clay, silt and sand. Also, operating procedures for pretreatment of soil samples......Soil texture is a key soil physical property for soil quality and used in modeling studies through pedotransfer functions (PTF) for the prediction of physical, e.g. hydraulic, soil properties. Soil texture is quantified by a particle size distribution (PSD) of the fine earth fraction and often...... translated into a texture class using defined separates of clay (0 - 2 µm), silt (2 µm to 20 µm, 50 µm or 63 µm) and sand (20 µm, 50 µm or 63 µm up to 2 mm) illustrated in a texture triangle. Until now pretreatment methods (e.g. humus and carbonate removal and dispersion) followed by standardised...

  2. Hydrophobic mismatch triggering texture defects in membrane gel domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, J.; Brewer, J.R.; Simonsen, Adam Cohen


    The orientational texture of gel-phase lipid bilayers is a phenomenon that can structure membrane domains. Using two-photon polarized fluorescence microscopy and image analysis, we map the lateral variation of the lipid orientation (the texture) in single domains. With this method, we uncover...... a lipid-induced transition between vortex and uniform textures in binary phospholipid bilayers. By tuning the lipid composition, the hydrophobic mismatch at the domain boundary can be varied systematically as monitored by AFM. Low hydrophobic mismatch correlates with domains having uniform texture, while...... higher mismatch values correlate with a vortex-type texture. The defect pattern created during early growth persists in larger domains, and a minimal model incorporating the anisotropic line tension and the vortex energy can rationalize this finding. The results suggest that the lipid composition...

  3. Texture analysis for automated classification of geologic structures (United States)

    Shankar, V.; Rodriguez, J.J.; Gettings, M.E.


    Texture present in aeromagnetic anomaly images offers an abundance of useful geological information for discriminating between rock types, but current analysis of such images still relies on tedious, human interpretation. This study is believed to be the first effort to quantitatively assess the performance of texture-based digital image analysis for this geophysical exploration application. We computed several texture measures and determined the best subset using automated feature selection techniques. Pattern classification experiments measured the ability of various texture measures to automatically predict rock types. The classification accuracy was significantly better than a priori probability and prior weights-of-evidence results. The accuracy rates and choice of texture measures that minimize the error rate are reported. ?? 2006 IEEE.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-Maria Didden


    Full Text Available Shape from texture refers to the extraction of 3D information from 2D images with irregular texture. This paper introduces a statistical framework to learn shape from texture where convex texture elements in a 2D image are represented through a point process. In a first step, the 2D image is preprocessed to generate a probability map corresponding to an estimate of the unnormalized intensity of the latent point process underlying the texture elements. The latent point process is subsequently inferred from the probability map in a non-parametric, model free manner. Finally, the 3D information is extracted from the point pattern by applying a locally scaled point process model where the local scaling function represents the deformation caused by the projection of a 3D surface onto a 2D image.

  5. Textural changes in metallurgical coke prepared with polyethylene (United States)

    Gornostayev, Stanislav S.; Heino, Jyrki J.; Kokkonen, Tommi M. T.; Makkonen, Hannu T.; Huttunen, Satu M. M.; Fabritius, Timo M. J.


    The effect of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) on the textural features of experimental coke was investigated using polarized-light optical microscopy and wavelet-based image analysis. Metallurgical coke samples were prepared in a laboratory-scale furnace with 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, 10.0%, and 12.5% HDPE by mass, and one sample was prepared by 100% coal. The amounts and distribution of textures (isotropic, mosaic and banded) and pores were obtained. The calculations reveal that the addition of HDPE results in a decrease of mosaic texture and an increase of isotropic texture. Ethylene formed from the decomposition of HDPE is considered as a probable reason for the texture modifications. The approach used in this study can be applied to indirect evaluation for the reactivity and strength of coke.

  6. Manipulating Topological States by Imprinting Non-Collinear Spin Textures (United States)

    Streubel, Robert; Han, Luyang; Im, Mi-Young; Kronast, Florian; Rößler, Ulrich K.; Radu, Florin; Abrudan, Radu; Lin, Gungun; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Fischer, Peter; Makarov, Denys


    Topological magnetic states, such as chiral skyrmions, are of great scientific interest and show huge potential for novel spintronics applications, provided their topological charges can be fully controlled. So far skyrmionic textures have been observed in noncentrosymmetric crystalline materials with low symmetry and at low temperatures. We propose theoretically and demonstrate experimentally the design of spin textures with topological charge densities that can be tailored at ambient temperatures. Tuning the interlayer coupling in vertically stacked nanopatterned magnetic heterostructures, such as a model system of a Co/Pd multilayer coupled to Permalloy, the in-plane non-collinear spin texture of one layer can be imprinted into the out-of-plane magnetised material. We observe distinct spin textures, e.g. vortices, magnetic swirls with tunable opening angle, donut states and skyrmion core configurations. We show that applying a small magnetic field, a reliable switching between topologically distinct textures can be achieved at remanence. PMID:25739643

  7. Manipulating Topological States by Imprinting Non Collinear Spin Textures (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Streubel, Robert; Han, Luyang; Im, Mi-Young; Kronast, Florian; Roessler, Ulrich K.; Radu, Florin; Abrudan, Radu; Lin, Gungun; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Makarov, Denys


    Topological magnetic states, such as chiral skyrmions, are of great scientific interest and show huge potential for novel spintronics applications, provided their topological charges can be fully controlled. So far skyrmionic textures have been observed in noncentrosymmetric crystalline materials with low symmetry and at low temperatures. We propose theoretically and demonstrate experimentally the design of spin textures with topological charge densities that can be tailored at ambient temperatures. Tuning the interlayer coupling in vertically stacked nanopatterned magnetic heterostructures, such as a model system of a Co/Pd multilayer coupled to Permalloy, the in-plane non-collinear spin texture of one layer can be imprinted into the out-of-plane magnetised material. We observe distinct spin textures, e.g. vortices, magnetic swirls with tunable opening angle, donut states and skyrmion systems of Dn symmetry. We show that applying a small magnetic field, a reliable switching between topologically distinct textures can be achieved at remanence.

  8. Manipulating Topological States by Imprinting Non-Collinear Spin Textures (United States)

    Streubel, Robert; Han, Luyang; Im, Mi-Young; Kronast, Florian; Rößler, Ulrich K.; Radu, Florin; Abrudan, Radu; Lin, Gungun; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Fischer, Peter; Makarov, Denys


    Topological magnetic states, such as chiral skyrmions, are of great scientific interest and show huge potential for novel spintronics applications, provided their topological charges can be fully controlled. So far skyrmionic textures have been observed in noncentrosymmetric crystalline materials with low symmetry and at low temperatures. We propose theoretically and demonstrate experimentally the design of spin textures with topological charge densities that can be tailored at ambient temperatures. Tuning the interlayer coupling in vertically stacked nanopatterned magnetic heterostructures, such as a model system of a Co/Pd multilayer coupled to Permalloy, the in-plane non-collinear spin texture of one layer can be imprinted into the out-of-plane magnetised material. We observe distinct spin textures, e.g. vortices, magnetic swirls with tunable opening angle, donut states and skyrmion core configurations. We show that applying a small magnetic field, a reliable switching between topologically distinct textures can be achieved at remanence.

  9. Phosphorous gettering in acidic textured multicrystalline solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montesdeoca-Santana, A. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Fraunhofer Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Laboratory and Servicecenter Gelsenkirchen, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Jimenez-Rodriguez, E.; Diaz-Herrera, B.; Hernandez-Rodriguez, C. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Gonzalez-Diaz, B. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Departamento de Energia Fotovoltaica, Instituto Tecnologico y de Energias Renovables. Poligono Industrial de Granadilla s/n, 38600 San Isidro-Granadilla de Abona, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Rinio, M.; Borchert, D. [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Laboratory and Servicecenter Gelsenkirchen, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Guerrero-Lemus, R. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Fundacion de Estudios de Economia Aplicada, Catedra Focus-Abengoa, Jorge Juan 46, 28001 Madrid (Spain)


    The influence of phosphorus gettering is studied in this work applied to an acidic textured multicrystalline silicon substrate. The texturization was achieved with an HF/HNO{sub 3} solution leading to nanostructures on the silicon surface. It has been demonstrated in previous works that this textured surface decreases the reflectance on the solar cell and increases the surface area improving the photon collection and enhancing the short circuit current. The present study investigates the effect on the minority carrier lifetime of the phosphorous diffusion when it is carried out on this textured surface. The lifetime is measured by means microwave photoconductance decay and quasi steady state phototoconductance devices. The diffused textured wafers are used to fabricate solar cells and their electrical parameters are analyzed. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Extraction of texture features with a multiresolution neural network (United States)

    Lepage, Richard; Laurendeau, Denis; Gagnon, Roger A.


    Texture is an important surface characteristic. Many industrial materials such as wood, textile, or paper are best characterized by their texture. Detection of defaults occurring on such materials or classification for quality control anD matching can be carried out through careful texture analysis. A system for the classification of pieces of wood used in the furniture industry is proposed. This paper is concerned with a neural network implementation of the features extraction and classification components of the proposed system. Texture appears differently depending at which spatial scale it is observed. A complete description of a texture thus implies an analysis at several spatial scales. We propose a compact pyramidal representation of the input image for multiresolution analysis. The feature extraction system is implemented on a multilayer artificial neural network. Each level of the pyramid, which is a representation of the input image at a given spatial resolution scale, is mapped into a layer of the neural network. A full resolution texture image is input at the base of the pyramid and a representation of the texture image at multiple resolutions is generated by the feedforward pyramid structure of the neural network. The receptive field of each neuron at a given pyramid level is preprogrammed as a discrete Gaussian low-pass filter. Meaningful characteristics of the textured image must be extracted if a good resolving power of the classifier must be achieved. Local dominant orientation is the principal feature which is extracted from the textured image. Local edge orientation is computed with a Sobel mask at four orientation angles (multiple of (pi) /4). The resulting intrinsic image, that is, the local dominant orientation image, is fed to the texture classification neural network. The classification network is a three-layer feedforward back-propagation neural network.

  11. Automatic Texture Reconstruction of 3d City Model from Oblique Images (United States)

    Kang, Junhua; Deng, Fei; Li, Xinwei; Wan, Fang


    In recent years, the photorealistic 3D city models are increasingly important in various geospatial applications related to virtual city tourism, 3D GIS, urban planning, real-estate management. Besides the acquisition of high-precision 3D geometric data, texture reconstruction is also a crucial step for generating high-quality and visually realistic 3D models. However, most of the texture reconstruction approaches are probably leading to texture fragmentation and memory inefficiency. In this paper, we introduce an automatic framework of texture reconstruction to generate textures from oblique images for photorealistic visualization. Our approach include three major steps as follows: mesh parameterization, texture atlas generation and texture blending. Firstly, mesh parameterization procedure referring to mesh segmentation and mesh unfolding is performed to reduce geometric distortion in the process of mapping 2D texture to 3D model. Secondly, in the texture atlas generation step, the texture of each segmented region in texture domain is reconstructed from all visible images with exterior orientation and interior orientation parameters. Thirdly, to avoid color discontinuities at boundaries between texture regions, the final texture map is generated by blending texture maps from several corresponding images. We evaluated our texture reconstruction framework on a dataset of a city. The resulting mesh model can get textured by created texture without resampling. Experiment results show that our method can effectively mitigate the occurrence of texture fragmentation. It is demonstrated that the proposed framework is effective and useful for automatic texture reconstruction of 3D city model.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kang


    Full Text Available In recent years, the photorealistic 3D city models are increasingly important in various geospatial applications related to virtual city tourism, 3D GIS, urban planning, real-estate management. Besides the acquisition of high-precision 3D geometric data, texture reconstruction is also a crucial step for generating high-quality and visually realistic 3D models. However, most of the texture reconstruction approaches are probably leading to texture fragmentation and memory inefficiency. In this paper, we introduce an automatic framework of texture reconstruction to generate textures from oblique images for photorealistic visualization. Our approach include three major steps as follows: mesh parameterization, texture atlas generation and texture blending. Firstly, mesh parameterization procedure referring to mesh segmentation and mesh unfolding is performed to reduce geometric distortion in the process of mapping 2D texture to 3D model. Secondly, in the texture atlas generation step, the texture of each segmented region in texture domain is reconstructed from all visible images with exterior orientation and interior orientation parameters. Thirdly, to avoid color discontinuities at boundaries between texture regions, the final texture map is generated by blending texture maps from several corresponding images. We evaluated our texture reconstruction framework on a dataset of a city. The resulting mesh model can get textured by created texture without resampling. Experiment results show that our method can effectively mitigate the occurrence of texture fragmentation. It is demonstrated that the proposed framework is effective and useful for automatic texture reconstruction of 3D city model.

  13. Fiber vs Rolling Texture: Stress State Dependence for Cold-Drawn Wire (United States)

    Zorina, M. A.; Karabanalov, M. S.; Stepanov, S. I.; Demakov, S. L.; Loginov, Yu. N.; Lobanov, M. L.


    The texture of the cold-drawn copper wire was investigated along the radius using electron backscatter diffraction. The complex fiber texture of the central region of the wire was considered as the rolling texture consisting of a set of preferred orientations. The texture of the periphery region was revealed to be similar to the shear texture. The orientation-dependent properties of the wire were proven to be determined by the texture of the near-surface layers.

  14. Fiber vs Rolling Texture: Stress State Dependence for Cold-Drawn Wire (United States)

    Zorina, M. A.; Karabanalov, M. S.; Stepanov, S. I.; Demakov, S. L.; Loginov, Yu. N.; Lobanov, M. L.


    The texture of the cold-drawn copper wire was investigated along the radius using electron backscatter diffraction. The complex fiber texture of the central region of the wire was considered as the rolling texture consisting of a set of preferred orientations. The texture of the periphery region was revealed to be similar to the shear texture. The orientation-dependent properties of the wire were proven to be determined by the texture of the near-surface layers.

  15. Texture Based Image Segmentation of Chili Pepper X-Ray Images Using Gabor Filter


    M.Rajalakshmi; Dr.P.Subashini


    Texture segmentation is the process of partitioning an image into regions with different textures containing a similar group of pixels. Detecting the discontinuity of the filter's output and their statistical properties help in segmenting and classifying a given image with different texture regions. In this proposed paper, chili x-ray image texture segmentation is performed by using Gabor filter. The texture segmented result obtained from Gabor filter fed into three texture filters, namely En...

  16. Sensitivity analysis of textural parameters for vertebroplasty (United States)

    Tack, Gye Rae; Lee, Seung Y.; Shin, Kyu-Chul; Lee, Sung J.


    Vertebroplasty is one of the newest surgical approaches for the treatment of the osteoporotic spine. Recent studies have shown that it is a minimally invasive, safe, promising procedure for patients with osteoporotic fractures while providing structural reinforcement of the osteoporotic vertebrae as well as immediate pain relief. However, treatment failures due to excessive bone cement injection have been reported as one of complications. It is believed that control of bone cement volume seems to be one of the most critical factors in preventing complications. We believed that an optimal bone cement volume could be assessed based on CT data of a patient. Gray-level run length analysis was used to extract textural information of the trabecular. At initial stage of the project, four indices were used to represent the textural information: mean width of intertrabecular space, mean width of trabecular, area of intertrabecular space, and area of trabecular. Finally, the area of intertrabecular space was selected as a parameter to estimate an optimal bone cement volume and it was found that there was a strong linear relationship between these 2 variables (correlation coefficient = 0.9433, standard deviation = 0.0246). In this study, we examined several factors affecting overall procedures. The threshold level, the radius of rolling ball and the size of region of interest were selected for the sensitivity analysis. As the level of threshold varied with 9, 10, and 11, the correlation coefficient varied from 0.9123 to 0.9534. As the radius of rolling ball varied with 45, 50, and 55, the correlation coefficient varied from 0.9265 to 0.9730. As the size of region of interest varied with 58 x 58, 64 x 64, and 70 x 70, the correlation coefficient varied from 0.9685 to 0.9468. Finally, we found that strong correlation between actual bone cement volume (Y) and the area (X) of the intertrabecular space calculated from the binary image and the linear equation Y = 0.001722 X - 2

  17. The study of textural and structural transformations of carbonized anthracites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusz, Slawomira; Duber, Stanislaw [Institute of Coal Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, 44-121 , Sowinskiego 5 str. Gliwice (Poland); Kwiecinska, Barbara K. [Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, 30-059 , Al. Mickiewicza 30 Cracow (Poland)


    Specific physical and chemical properties of anthracites may be explained by the differences in chemical structure of basic structural units (BSUs) and in various spatial arrangements of BSUs, that is, the texture. The structure and the texture of anthracites correspond with their optical properties. Thermal treatment causes the changes in the structure of BSUs and rearrangement of the texture of anthracites. The character of structural and textural transformation could be determined based on the reflectance values of anthracites. Various anthracites were thermally treated to the temperature of 1800 C. Maximum (R{sub max}) and minimum (R{sub min}) reflectance values were measured and reflectance indicatrix parameters (R{sub ev}, R{sub st} and R{sub am}) were calculated for initial and heated samples. It was found that R{sub max}, R{sub min} and R{sub ev} values increase together with the temperature up to 1200-1400 C. In higher temperatures, they start to decrease, while R{sub am} parameter depending on anisotropy of the texture still increases to the final temperature of 1800 C. That indicates gradual and soft transformation of the structure and the texture of anthracites up to the temperature 1200-1400 C (arrangement of turbostratic structure) and some disturbances in textural order before the stage of graphitization.

  18. Epitaxial hexagonal materials on IBAD-textured substrates (United States)

    Matias, Vladimir; Yung, Christopher


    A multilayer structure including a hexagonal epitaxial layer, such as GaN or other group III-nitride (III-N) semiconductors, a oriented textured layer, and a non-single crystal substrate, and methods for making the same. The textured layer has a crystalline alignment preferably formed by the ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) texturing process and can be biaxially aligned. The in-plane crystalline texture of the textured layer is sufficiently low to allow growth of high quality hexagonal material, but can still be significantly greater than the required in-plane crystalline texture of the hexagonal material. The IBAD process enables low-cost, large-area, flexible metal foil substrates to be used as potential alternatives to single-crystal sapphire and silicon for manufacture of electronic devices, enabling scaled-up roll-to-roll, sheet-to-sheet, or similar fabrication processes to be used. The user is able to choose a substrate for its mechanical and thermal properties, such as how well its coefficient of thermal expansion matches that of the hexagonal epitaxial layer, while choosing a textured layer that more closely lattice matches that layer.

  19. Creating Realistic Virtual Textures from Contact Acceleration Data. (United States)

    Romano, J M; Kuchenbecker, K J


    Modern haptic interfaces are adept at conveying the large-scale shape of virtual objects, but they often provide unrealistic or no feedback when it comes to the microscopic details of surface texture. Direct texture-rendering challenges the state of the art in haptics because it requires a finely detailed model of the surface's properties, real-time dynamic simulation of complex interactions, and high-bandwidth haptic output to enable the user to feel the resulting contacts. This paper presents a new, fully realized solution for creating realistic virtual textures. Our system employs a sensorized handheld tool to capture the feel of a given texture, recording three-dimensional tool acceleration, tool position, and contact force over time. We reduce the three-dimensional acceleration signals to a perceptually equivalent one-dimensional signal, and then we use linear predictive coding to distill this raw haptic information into a database of frequency-domain texture models. Finally, we render these texture models in real time on a Wacom tablet using a stylus augmented with small voice coil actuators. The resulting virtual textures provide a compelling simulation of contact with the real surfaces, which we verify through a human subject study.

  20. Research of second harmonic generation images based on texture analysis (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Li, Yan; Gong, Haiming; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Zufang; Chen, Guannan


    Texture analysis plays a crucial role in identifying objects or regions of interest in an image. It has been applied to a variety of medical image processing, ranging from the detection of disease and the segmentation of specific anatomical structures, to differentiation between healthy and pathological tissues. Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy as a potential noninvasive tool for imaging biological tissues has been widely used in medicine, with reduced phototoxicity and photobleaching. In this paper, we clarified the principles of texture analysis including statistical, transform, structural and model-based methods and gave examples of its applications, reviewing studies of the technique. Moreover, we tried to apply texture analysis to the SHG images for the differentiation of human skin scar tissues. Texture analysis method based on local binary pattern (LBP) and wavelet transform was used to extract texture features of SHG images from collagen in normal and abnormal scars, and then the scar SHG images were classified into normal or abnormal ones. Compared with other texture analysis methods with respect to the receiver operating characteristic analysis, LBP combined with wavelet transform was demonstrated to achieve higher accuracy. It can provide a new way for clinical diagnosis of scar types. At last, future development of texture analysis in SHG images were discussed.

  1. Direction repulsion in unfiltered and ring-filtered Julesz textures. (United States)

    Lindsey, D T


    Perceived directions of motion were measured for each of two superposed two-dimensional dynamic random patterns consisting of unfiltered or ring-filtered dense random-check (Julesz) textures. One pattern always moved in a cardinal direction (up, down, left, or right), and the other texture always moved in an oblique direction separated from the cardinal component by 20 degrees-80 degrees. Several cardinal/oblique speed ratios were tested. In Experiment 1, the textures were unfiltered. In Experiment 2, the textures were ring filtered and had the same center frequency (1, 2, or 4 cpd). In Experiment 3, a 1-cpd ring-filtered texture was paired with a 2-, 4-, or 8-cpd texture. Subjects consistently misperceived the directions of component motion in these experiments; the angular separation of movement of the two textures was perceptually exaggerated, a phenomenon referred to as direction repulsion (Marshak & Sekuler, 1979). The results show that (1) direction repulsion occurs across at least a fourfold range of spatial frequencies and a sixfold range of speed ratios, (2) direction repulsion varies systematically with speed ratio, and (3) across most conditions, direction repulsion is anisotropic--direction repulsion is more evident in the oblique directions than in the cardinal directions. These findings suggest that the spatiotemporal range of inhibitory interactions involved in motion transparency is much greater than previously appreciated.

  2. Non-parametric texture defect detection using Weibull features (United States)

    Timm, Fabian; Barth, Erhardt


    The detection of abnormalities is a very challenging problem in computer vision, especially if these abnormalities must be detected in images of textured surfaces such as textile, stone, or wood. We propose a novel, non-parametric approach for defect detection in textures that only employs two features. We compute the two parameters of a Weibull fit for the distribution of image gradients in local regions. Then, we perform a simple novelty detection algorithm in order to detect arbitrary deviations of the reference texture. Therefore, we evaluate the Euclidean distances of all local patches to a reference point in the Weibull space, where the reference point is determined for each texture image individually. Thus, our approach becomes independent of the particular texture type and also independent of a certain defect type. For performance evaluation we use the highly challenging database provided by Bosch for a contest on industrial optical inspection with different classes of textures and different defect types. By using the Weibull parameters we can detect local deviations of texture images in an unsupervised manner with high accuracy. Compared to existing approaches such as Gabor filters or grey level statistics, our approach is not only powerful, but also very efficient such that it can also be applied for real-time applications.

  3. Epitaxial hexagonal materials on IBAD-textured substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matias, Vladimir; Yung, Christopher


    A multilayer structure including a hexagonal epitaxial layer, such as GaN or other group III-nitride (III-N) semiconductors, a <111> oriented textured layer, and a non-single crystal substrate, and methods for making the same. The textured layer has a crystalline alignment preferably formed by the ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) texturing process and can be biaxially aligned. The in-plane crystalline texture of the textured layer is sufficiently low to allow growth of high quality hexagonal material, but can still be significantly greater than the required in-plane crystalline texture of the hexagonal material. The IBAD process enables low-cost, large-area, flexible metal foil substrates to be used as potential alternatives to single-crystal sapphire and silicon for manufacture of electronic devices, enabling scaled-up roll-to-roll, sheet-to-sheet, or similar fabrication processes to be used. The user is able to choose a substrate for its mechanical and thermal properties, such as how well its coefficient of thermal expansion matches that of the hexagonal epitaxial layer, while choosing a textured layer that more closely lattice matches that layer.

  4. A comparison of texture models for automatic liver segmentation (United States)

    Pham, Mailan; Susomboon, Ruchaneewan; Disney, Tim; Raicu, Daniela; Furst, Jacob


    Automatic liver segmentation from abdominal computed tomography (CT) images based on gray levels or shape alone is difficult because of the overlap in gray-level ranges and the variation in position and shape of the soft tissues. To address these issues, we propose an automatic liver segmentation method that utilizes low-level features based on texture information; this texture information is expected to be homogenous and consistent across multiple slices for the same organ. Our proposed approach consists of the following steps: first, we perform pixel-level texture extraction; second, we generate liver probability images using a binary classification approach; third, we apply a split-and-merge algorithm to detect the seed set with the highest probability area; and fourth, we apply to the seed set a region growing algorithm iteratively to refine the liver's boundary and get the final segmentation results. Furthermore, we compare the segmentation results from three different texture extraction methods (Co-occurrence Matrices, Gabor filters, and Markov Random Fields (MRF)) to find the texture method that generates the best liver segmentation. From our experimental results, we found that the co-occurrence model led to the best segmentation, while the Gabor model led to the worst liver segmentation. Moreover, co-occurrence texture features alone produced approximately the same segmentation results as those produced when all the texture features from the combined co-occurrence, Gabor, and MRF models were used. Therefore, in addition to providing an automatic model for liver segmentation, we also conclude that Haralick cooccurrence texture features are the most significant texture characteristics in distinguishing the liver tissue in CT scans.

  5. Soil texture derived from topography in North-eastern Amazonia


    Poccard-Chapuis, René; Plassin, Sophie; Martinez , Gustavo Pimentel


    We present a 1:100,000 scale soil texture map of Paragominas county (Pará, Brazil), covering 19,330 km2. The method allows rapid production of a soil texture map of a large area where the strength of a duricrust controls the relief. It is based on an easily accessible explanatory variable, topography, which is represented using a Digital Elevation Model. The method makes it possible to map the spatial distribution of the texture of the topsoil layer. Modelling was complemented by field observ...

  6. TOPICAL REVIEW Textured silicon nitride: processing and anisotropic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwen Zhu and Yoshio Sakka


    Full Text Available Textured silicon nitride (Si3N4 has been intensively studied over the past 15 years because of its use for achieving its superthermal and mechanical properties. In this review we present the fundamental aspects of the processing and anisotropic properties of textured Si3N4, with emphasis on the anisotropic and abnormal grain growth of β-Si3N4, texture structure and texture analysis, processing methods and anisotropic properties. On the basis of the texturing mechanisms, the processing methods described in this article have been classified into two types: hot-working (HW and templated grain growth (TGG. The HW method includes the hot-pressing, hot-forging and sinter-forging techniques, and the TGG method includes the cold-pressing, extrusion, tape-casting and strong magnetic field alignment techniques for β-Si3N4 seed crystals. Each processing technique is thoroughly discussed in terms of theoretical models and experimental data, including the texturing mechanisms and the factors affecting texture development. Also, methods of synthesizing the rodlike β-Si3N4 single crystals are presented. Various anisotropic properties of textured Si3 N4 and their origins are thoroughly described and discussed, such as hardness, elastic modulus, bending strength, fracture toughness, fracture energy, creep behavior, tribological and wear behavior, erosion behavior, contact damage behavior and thermal conductivity. Models are analyzed to determine the thermal anisotropy by considering the intrinsic thermal anisotropy, degree of orientation and various microstructure factors. Textured porous Si3N4 with a unique microstructure composed of oriented elongated β-Si3N4 and anisotropic pores is also described for the first time, with emphasis on its unique mechanical and thermal-mechanical properties. Moreover, as an important related material, textured α-Sialon is also reviewed, because the presence of elongated α-Sialon grains allows the production of textured

  7. Texture-property relationships in the high temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollett, A.D.; Heidelbach, F.; Schofield, T.G.; Muenschausen, R.E.; Raistrick, I.D.; Arendt, P.N.; Korzekwa, D.A.; Bennett, K. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Wenk, H.R. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA)); Kallend, J.S. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (USA))


    Textures have been measured by means of x-ray pole figures for high temperature superconductor materials in both bulk and thin film form. Variations in the epitaxy of the yttrium-based thin films are correlated with processing history and properties. Textures are given for deformation-processed Bi-based material, which, when subsequently melt-processed, exhibits high critical currents. The surface resistance of Tl-based films on a silver substrate are correlated with the sharpness of the texture. 13 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Modeling microstructural evolution of multiple texture components during recrystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandermeer, R.A.; Juul Jensen, D.


    Models were formulated in an effort to characterize recrystallization in materials with multiple texture components. The models are based on a microstructural path methodology (MPM). Experimentally the microstructural evolution of conmmercial aluminum during recrystallization was characterized...... using stereological point and lineal measurements of microstructural properties in combination with EBSP analysis for orientation determinations. The potential of the models to describe the observed recrystallization behavior of heavily cold-rolled commercial aluminum was demonstrated. A successful MPM...... model was deduced which, for each texture component-random, rolling and cube orientations, was quantitatively consistent with the measured microstructural properties. Nucleation and growth rates were deduced for each texture component using the model....

  9. Linear feature selection in texture analysis - A PLS based method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, Joselene; Igel, Christian; Lillholm, Martin


    We present a texture analysis methodology that combined uncommitted machine-learning techniques and partial least square (PLS) in a fully automatic framework. Our approach introduces a robust PLS-based dimensionality reduction (DR) step to specifically address outliers and high-dimensional feature...... sets. The texture analysis framework was applied to diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis (OA). To classify between healthy subjects and OA patients, a generic bank of texture features was extracted from magnetic resonance images of tibial knee bone. The features were used as input to the DR algorithm...

  10. Crop identification of SAR data using digital textural analysis (United States)

    Nuesch, D. R.


    After preprocessing SEASAT SAR data which included slant to ground range transformation, registration to LANDSAT MSS data and appropriate filtering of the raw SAR data to minimize coherent speckle, textural features were developed based upon the spatial gray level dependence method (SGLDM) to compute entropy and inertia as textural measures. It is indicated that the consideration of texture features are very important in SAR data analysis. The SEASAT SAR data are useful for the improvement of field boundary definitions and for an earlier season estimate of corn and soybean area location than is supported by LANDSAT alone.

  11. Method of Forming Textured Silicon Substrate by Maskless Cryogenic Etching (United States)

    Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor); Homyk, Andrew P. (Inventor)


    Disclosed herein is a textured substrate comprising a base comprising silicon, the base having a plurality of needle like structures depending away from the base, wherein at least one of the needle like structures has a depth of greater than or equal to about 50 micrometers determined perpendicular to the base, and wherein at least one of the needle like structures has a width of less than or equal to about 50 micrometers determined parallel to the base. An anode and a lithium ion battery comprising the textured substrate, and a method of producing the textured substrate are also disclosed.

  12. Reproduction of tactual textures transducers, mechanics and signal encoding

    CERN Document Server

    Wiertlewski, Michaël


    Texture accounts for an important part of the realism of simulated experiences, and it is most certainly true during tactile interaction. We usually experience roughness by running our fingers onto the explored surface. The perception of this fine texture is mediated by the vibrations generated by the encounters of the skin and the asperities of the surfaces.Reproduction of Tactual Textures presents factors that contribute to the mechanics of the interaction between a bare finger and a surface with a view to their artificial reproduction. It discusses the recording and reproduction of tactual

  13. Scene classification of infrared images based on texture feature (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Bai, Tingzhu; Shang, Fei


    Scene Classification refers to as assigning a physical scene into one of a set of predefined categories. Utilizing the method texture feature is good for providing the approach to classify scenes. Texture can be considered to be repeating patterns of local variation of pixel intensities. And texture analysis is important in many applications of computer image analysis for classification or segmentation of images based on local spatial variations of intensity. Texture describes the structural information of images, so it provides another data to classify comparing to the spectrum. Now, infrared thermal imagers are used in different kinds of fields. Since infrared images of the objects reflect their own thermal radiation, there are some shortcomings of infrared images: the poor contrast between the objectives and background, the effects of blurs edges, much noise and so on. Because of these shortcomings, it is difficult to extract to the texture feature of infrared images. In this paper we have developed an infrared image texture feature-based algorithm to classify scenes of infrared images. This paper researches texture extraction using Gabor wavelet transform. The transformation of Gabor has excellent capability in analysis the frequency and direction of the partial district. Gabor wavelets is chosen for its biological relevance and technical properties In the first place, after introducing the Gabor wavelet transform and the texture analysis methods, the infrared images are extracted texture feature by Gabor wavelet transform. It is utilized the multi-scale property of Gabor filter. In the second place, we take multi-dimensional means and standard deviation with different scales and directions as texture parameters. The last stage is classification of scene texture parameters with least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) algorithm. SVM is based on the principle of structural risk minimization (SRM). Compared with SVM, LS-SVM has overcome the shortcoming of

  14. Conductive and robust nitride buffer layers on biaxially textured substrates (United States)

    Sankar, Sambasivan [Chicago, IL; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Barnett, Scott A [Evanston, IL; Kim, Ilwon [Skokie, IL; Kroeger, Donald M [Knoxville, TN


    The present invention relates to epitaxial, electrically conducting and mechanically robust, cubic nitride buffer layers deposited epitaxially on biaxially textured substrates such as metals and alloys. The invention comprises of a biaxially textured substrate with epitaxial layers of nitrides. The invention also discloses a method to form such epitaxial layers using a high rate deposition method as well as without the use of forming gases. The invention further comprises epitaxial layers of oxides on the biaxially textured nitride layer. In some embodiments the article further comprises electromagnetic devices which may have superconducting properties.

  15. Vision Servoing Based on the Density Analysis of Texture Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Liu


    Full Text Available We present a novel vision servoing method, which is fit for climbing robots and those in unstructured environments, based on texture analysis. A large textured area is the target for observation. After the definition of texture element distribution density, the relationship between the change of the density at some selected points and the camera pose is deduced. The vision servoing control law, which meets the requirement of Lyapunov stability is designed in this paper. Experiments show the effectiveness of this method.

  16. Texturing formulations for uranium skin decontamination. (United States)

    Belhomme-Henry, Corinne; Phan, Guillaume; Huang, Nicolas; Bouvier, Céline; Rebière, François; Agarande, Michelle; Fattal, Elias


    Since no specific treatment exists in case of cutaneous contamination by radionuclides such as uranium, a nanoemulsion comprising calixarene molecules, known for their good chelation properties, was previously designed. However, this fluid topical form may be not suitable for optimal application on the skin or wounds. To develop a texturing pharmaceutical form for the treatment of wounded skins contaminated by uranium. The formulations consisted in oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions, loaded with calixarene molecules. The external phase of the initial liquid nanoemulsion was modified with a combination of thermosensitive gelifying polymers: Poloxamer and HydroxyPropylMethylcellulose (HPMC) or methylcellulose (MC). These new formulations were characterized then tested by ex vivo experiments on Franz cells to prevent uranyl ions diffusion through excoriated pig ear skin explants. Despite strong changes in rheological properties, the physico-chemical characteristics of the new nanoemulsions, such as the size and the zeta potential as well as macroscopic aspect were preserved. In addition, on wounded skin, diffusion of uranyl ions, measured by ICP-MS, was limited to less than 5% for both HPMC and MC nanoemulsions. These results demonstrated that a hybrid formulation of nanoemulsion in hydrogel is efficient to treat uranium skin contamination.

  17. Analysis of Texture Using the Fractal Model (United States)

    Navas, William; Espinosa, Ramon Vasquez


    Properties such as the fractal dimension (FD) can be used for feature extraction and classification of regions within an image. The FD measures the degree of roughness of a surface, so this number is used to characterize a particular region, in order to differentiate it from another. There are two basic approaches discussed in the literature to measure FD: the blanket method, and the box counting method. Both attempt to measure FD by estimating the change in surface area with respect to the change in resolution. We tested both methods but box counting resulted computationally faster and gave better results. Differential Box Counting (DBC) was used to segment a collage containing three textures. The FD is independent of directionality and brightness so five features were used derived from the original image to account for directionality and gray level biases. FD can not be measured on a point, so we use a window that slides across the image giving values of FD to the pixel on the center of the window. Windowing blurs the boundaries of adjacent classes, so an edge-preserving, feature-smoothing algorithm is used to improve classification within segments and to make the boundaries sharper. Segmentation using DBC was 90.8910 accurate.

  18. Texturing of polypropylene (PP) with nanosecond lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveiro, A., E-mail: [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo, EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, Vigo E36310 (Spain); Soto, R.; Val, J. del [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo, EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, Vigo E36310 (Spain); Comesaña, R. [Materials Eng., Applied Mech., and Construction Dpt., University of Vigo, EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, Vigo E36310 (Spain); Boutinguiza, M.; Quintero, F.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J. [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo, EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, Vigo E36310 (Spain)


    Highlights: • Surface properties of PP were modified with 1064, 532 and 355 nm laser wavelengths. • Samples coated with carbon particles due to large transmittance of PP (40–62%). • Studied laser wavelengths modify the roughness after coated with carbon particles. • Irradiated surfaces remain chemically unaltered. • Wettability more efficiently modified using the 1064 and 355 nm laser wavelengths. - Abstract: Polypropylene (PP) is a biocompatible and biostable polymer, showing good mechanical properties that has been recently introduced in the biomedical field for bone repairing applications; however, its poor surface properties due to its low surface energy limit their use in biomedical applications. In this work, we have studied the topographical modification of polypropylene (PP) laser textured with Nd:YVO{sub 4} nanosecond lasers emitting at λ = 1064 nm, 532 nm, and 355 nm. First, optical response of this material under these laser wavelengths was determined. The application of an absorbing coating was also studied. The influence of the laser processing parameters on the surface modification of PP was investigated by means of statistically designed experiments. Processing maps to tailor the roughness, and wettability, the main parameters affecting cell adhesion characteristics of implants, were also determined. Microhardness measurements were performed to discern the impact of laser treatment on the final mechanical properties of PP.

  19. Cloud type discrimination via multispectral textural analysis (United States)

    Lamei, Niloufar; Crawford, Melba M.; Hutchison, Keith D.; Khazenie, Nahid


    One of the primary interests in digital image processing is the development of robust methods to perform feature detection, extraction, and classification. Until recently, classification methods for cloud discrimination were mainly based on the spectral information of the imagery. However, because of the spectral similarities of certain features (such as ice clouds and snow) and the effects of atmospheric attenuation, multi-spectral rule based classifications do not necessarily produce accurate feature discrimination. Spectral homogeneity of two different features within a scene can lead to misclassification. Furthermore, the opposite problem can occur when one feature exhibits different spectral signatures locally but is homogeneous in its cyclic spatial variation. The exploration of spatial information is often advantageous in these discrimination problems. A texture-based method for feature identification has been investigated. This method uses a set of localized spatial filters known as two dimensional Gabor functions. Gabor filters can be described as a sinusoidal plane wave within a two-dimensional Gaussian envelope. The frequency and orientation of the sine plane and the width of the Gaussian envelope are determined by the Gabor parameters. These tunable channels yield joint optimal information both in the spatial and the frequency domains. The new method has been applied to the thermal channels of the NOAA-advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data for cloud type discrimination.

  20. Nanopatterned reconfigurable spin-textures for magnonics (United States)

    Albisetti, E.; Petti, D.; Pancaldi, M.; Madami, M.; Tacchi, S.; Curtis, J.; King, W. P.; Papp, A.; Csaba, G.; Porod, W.; Vavassori, P.; Riedo, E.; Bertacco, R.

    The control of spin-waves holds the promise to enable energy-efficient information transport and wave-based computing. Conventionally, the engineering of spin-waves is achieved via physically patterning magnetic structures such as magnonic crystals and micro-nanowires. We demonstrate a new concept for creating reconfigurable magnonic nanostructures, by crafting at the nanoscale the magnetic anisotropy landscape of a ferromagnet exchange-coupled to an antiferromagnet. By performing a highly localized field cooling with the hot tip of a scanning probe microscope, magnetic structures, with arbitrarily oriented magnetization and tunable unidirectional anisotropy, are patterned without modifying the film chemistry and topography. We demonstrate that, in such structures, the spin-wave excitation and propagation can be spatially controlled at remanence, and can be tuned by external magnetic fields. This opens the way to the use of nanopatterned spin-textures, such as domains and domain walls, for exciting and manipulating magnons in reconfigurable nanocircuits. Partially funded by the EC through project SWING (no. 705326).

  1. Completed Local Ternary Pattern for Rotation Invariant Texture Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha H. Rassem


    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the two texture descriptors, the completed modeling of Local Binary Pattern (CLBP and the Completed Local Binary Count (CLBC, have achieved a remarkable accuracy for invariant rotation texture classification, they inherit some Local Binary Pattern (LBP drawbacks. The LBP is sensitive to noise, and different patterns of LBP may be classified into the same class that reduces its discriminating property. Although, the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP is proposed to be more robust to noise than LBP, however, the latter’s weakness may appear with the LTP as well as with LBP. In this paper, a novel completed modeling of the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP operator is proposed to overcome both LBP drawbacks, and an associated completed Local Ternary Pattern (CLTP scheme is developed for rotation invariant texture classification. The experimental results using four different texture databases show that the proposed CLTP achieved an impressive classification accuracy as compared to the CLBP and CLBC descriptors.

  2. Color image segmentation by integrating texture measure into JSEG method (United States)

    Sheng, Qinghong; Zhang, Jianqing; Xiao, Hui


    We present a new color image segmentation method that combined texture measures and the JSEG (J measure based JSEGmentation) algorithm. In particular, two major contributions are set forth in this paper. (1) The two measures defined in JSEG and the Laws texture energy is discussed respectively and then we find that the over-segmentation problem of JSEG could be attributed partly to the absence of color discontinuity in the J measure. (2) A new measure is proposed by integrating the Laws texture energy measures into the J measure, on which our segmentation method is based. The new segmentation method taking account of both textural homogeneity and color discontinuity in local regions can be used to detect proper edges at the boundaries of shadows and highlights. Performance improvement due to the proposed modification was demonstrated on a variety of real color images.

  3. Textural Data from the Continental Margin Program (HATHAWAY71 shapefile) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains sediment grain size and textural information from the Continental Margin Program. The program was a joint collaboration between the U.S....

  4. Image Segmentation Applied to the Analysis of Fabric Textures


    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina


    International audience; In this work, we are proposing the use of image segmentation to the analysis of the textures of fabrics, with the aim of applying this approach to a fabric fault detection based on image processing.

  5. Multispectral Imaging of Meat Quality - Color and Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinderup, Camilla Himmelstrup

    , it is possible to assess color of very complicated structures, such as salamis, with a vision system. More importantly though, the vision system embraces the complicated scattering properties of meat. The images can also lead to other analyses, e.g. image texture analysis relating to the structure of the meat...... of meat quality parameters, especially with regards to meat color and texture. Several image modalities have been applied, all considering multi- or hyper spectral imaging. The work demonstrates the use of computer vision systems for meat color measurements. The color is assessed by suitable....... In the thesis it is presented how simple texture measures can be used for characterizing the texture changes in fermented salamis. Moreover, it was investigated if it was possible to relate structure in images to chemical compounds in lard from boars....

  6. Analysis of the Parameter of the Electro-discharge Texturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Terpák


    Full Text Available This paper deals with analysis of the electro discharge texturing (EDT parameter impact to micro-geometry of the cylinder surface. Micro-geometry of the cylinder surface results has significant influence to final quality of rolled metal plate used to different industry. Micro-geometry evaluate is based on measurement of the surface roughness average (Ra and peak count (Pc. In this paper is evaluated electro discharge texturing parameters and their impact to Ra and Pc. From the measured values follow that value of the texturing current, impulse on-time and impulse off-time most influence to Ra and Pc. In this paper is described design, realization and results of the model for estimation of the texturing current, impulse time and technological pause for Ra or Pc required value.

  7. Head Tracking via Robust Registration in Texture Map Images

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LaCascia, Marco


    .... The resulting dynamic texture map provides a stabilized view of the face that can be used as input to many existing 2D techniques for face recognition, facial expressions analysis, lip reading, and eye tracking...

  8. Oral texture perception in relation to rheology for mayonnaise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, M.E.J.; Janssen, A.M.; Linden, van der E.; Wijk, de R.A.


    Sensory attributes of commercial mayonnaises have been correlated to rheological curves to obtain those measuring conditions that reflect the oral perception of specific (texture) attributes. Correlations are found mainly with data from flow curve measurements and from dynamic stress measurements

  9. Three-dimensional carotid ultrasound plaque texture predicts vascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Engelen, Arna; Wannarong, Thapat; Parraga, Grace


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Carotid ultrasound atherosclerosis measurements, including those of the arterial wall and plaque, provide a way to monitor patients at risk of vascular events. Our objective was to examine carotid ultrasound plaque texture measurements and the change in carotid plaque...... texture during 1 year in patients at risk of events and to compare these with measurements of plaque volume and other risk factors as predictors of vascular events. METHODS: We evaluated 298 patients with carotid atherosclerosis using 3-dimensional (3D) ultrasound at baseline and after 1 year and measured...... carotid plaque volume and 376 measures of plaque texture. Patients were followed up to 5 years (median [range], 3.12 [0.77-4.66]) for myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attack, and stroke. Sparse Cox regression was used to select the most predictive plaque texture measurements in independent...

  10. Jadeite in shocked meteorites and its textural variations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    OHTANI, Eiji; OZAWA, Shin; MIYAHARA, Masaaki


    ...–pressure polymorphs in shock–melt veins of meteorites. The characteristic textures of jadeite in shocked ordinary chondrites show that some of jadeite crystals were formed from originally albite feldspar by a solid...

  11. Organization of texture segregation processing in primate visual cortex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamme, V.A.F.; van Dijk, B.W.; Spekreijse, H.


    Investigated which cortical areas and layers are involved in global feature interactions underlying texture segregation in humans and monkeys. Visual stimulation was assessed with an electrostatic monitor, and scalp or intracortical recordings with electrodes were made. Signal processing and

  12. Comparison of texture features based on Gabor filters. (United States)

    Grigorescu, Simona E; Petkov, Nicolai; Kruizinga, Peter


    Texture features that are based on the local power spectrum obtained by a bank of Gabor filters are compared. The features differ in the type of nonlinear post-processing which is applied to the local power spectrum. The following features are considered: Gabor energy, complex moments, and grating cell operator features. The capability of the corresponding operators to produce distinct feature vector clusters for different textures is compared using two methods: the Fisher (1923) criterion and the classification result comparison. Both methods give consistent results. The grating cell operator gives the best discrimination and segmentation results. The texture detection capabilities of the operators and their robustness to nontexture features are also compared. The grating cell operator is the only one that selectively responds only to texture and does not give false response to nontexture features such as object contours.

  13. Assessment of Concrete Pavement Texturing Methodologies in Colorado (United States)


    This report presents information and data produced by the Colorado Department of Transportations : (CDOTs) long-term study of Portland cement concrete pavement (PCCP) textures used within the state. : The information includes vehicle accident, ...

  14. Four Zero Neutrino Yukawa Textures in the Minimal Seesaw Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Branco, Gustavo C; Rebelo, M N; Roy, Probir


    We investigate, within the Type I seesaw framework, the physical implications of zero textures in the Yukawa couplings which generate the neutrino Dirac mass matrix $m_D$. It is shown that four is the maximal number of texture zeroes compatible with the observed leptonic mixing and the assumption that no neutrino mass vanishes. We classify all allowed four-zero textures of $m_D$ into two categories with three classes each. We show that the different classes, in general, admit CP violation both at low and high energies. We further present the constraints obtained for low energy physics in each case. The r\\^ ole of these zero textures in establishing a connection between leptogenesis and low energy data is analysed in detail. It is shown that it is possible in all cases to completely specify the parameters relevant for leptogenesis in terms of light neutrino masses and leptonic mixing together with the unknown heavy neutrino masses.

  15. Characterizing mammographic images by using generic texture features

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Häberle, Lothar; Wagner, Florian; Fasching, Peter A; Jud, Sebastian M; Heusinger, Katharina; Loehberg, Christian R; Hein, Alexander; Bayer, Christian M; Hack, Carolin C; Lux, Michael P; Binder, Katja; Elter, Matthias; Münzenmayer, Christian; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Meier-Meitinger, Martina; Adamietz, Boris R; Uder, Michael; Beckmann, Matthias W; Wittenberg, Thomas


    .... The aims of this study were to evaluate a variety of automated texture features in mammograms as risk factors for breast cancer and to compare them with the percentage mammographic density (PMD...

  16. Early detection of Alzheimer's disease using MRI hippocampal texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge; Igel, Christian; Hansen, Naja Liv


    Cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with reduction in hippocampal volume in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, it is unknown whether hippocampal texture changes in persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) that does not have a change in hippocam......Cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with reduction in hippocampal volume in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, it is unknown whether hippocampal texture changes in persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) that does not have a change...... in hippocampal volume. We tested the hypothesis that hippocampal texture has association to early cognitive loss beyond that of volumetric changes. The texture marker was trained and evaluated using T1-weighted MRI scans from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database, and subsequently...

  17. Method for forming a nano-textured substrate (United States)

    Jeong, Sangmoo; Hu, Liangbing; Cui, Yi


    A method for forming a nano-textured surface on a substrate is disclosed. An illustrative embodiment of the present invention comprises dispensing of a nanoparticle ink of nanoparticles and solvent onto the surface of a substrate, distributing the ink to form substantially uniform, liquid nascent layer of the ink, and enabling the solvent to evaporate from the nanoparticle ink thereby inducing the nanoparticles to assemble into an texture layer. Methods in accordance with the present invention enable rapid formation of large-area substrates having a nano-textured surface. Embodiments of the present invention are well suited for texturing substrates using high-speed, large scale, roll-to-roll coating equipment, such as that used in office product, film coating, and flexible packaging applications. Further, embodiments of the present invention are well suited for use with rigid or flexible substrates.

  18. Can textured insoles improve ankle proprioception and performance in dancers? (United States)

    Steinberg, Nili; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Karin, Janet; Begg, Rezaul; Tirosh, Oren


    With the aim of determining both the acute and the chronic effects of textured insoles on the ankle discrimination and performance ability of dancers, 60 ballet dancers from the Australian Ballet School, aged 14-19 years, were divided into three groups (two intervention groups and a control group), age- and level-matched. In the first 5 weeks (weeks 1 to 5), the first intervention group (GRP1) was asked to wear textured insoles in their ballet shoes and the second intervention group (GRP2) was not given textured insoles to wear. In the next 5 weeks (weeks 6 to 10), GRP2 was asked to wear the same type of textured insoles and GRP1 did not wear the textured insoles. The control group (CTRL) did not wear textured insoles during the whole 10 weeks. All participants were tested preintervention, after 5 weeks and after 10 weeks for ankle discrimination score (AUC scores). Dance performance was assessed by 5-7 dance teachers. Pre-to-post change in AUC scores was significantly greater for the groups wearing insoles than for the controls (P = .046) and the size of pre-to-post changes did not differ between the two intervention groups (P = .834). Significant correlation was found between ankle discrimination score and performance scores, using the textured insoles (r = .412; P = .024). In conclusion, the stimulation to the proprioceptive system arising from textured insoles worn for five weeks was sufficient to improve the proprioceptive ability and performance ability of ballet dancers.

  19. Validation of CBCT for the computation of textural biomarkers (United States)

    Paniagua, Beatriz; Ruellas, Antonio C.; Benavides, Erika; Marron, Steve; Wolford, Larry; Cevidanes, Lucia


    Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with significant pain and 42.6% of patients with TMJ disorders present with evidence of TMJ OA. However, OA diagnosis and treatment remain controversial, since there are no clear symptoms of the disease. The subchondral bone in the TMJ is believed to play a major role in the progression of OA. We hypothesize that the textural imaging biomarkers computed in high resolution Conebeam CT (hr- CBCT) and μCT scans are comparable. The purpose of this study is to test the feasibility of computing textural imaging biomarkers in-vivo using hr-CBCT, compared to those computed in μCT scans as our Gold Standard. Specimens of condylar bones obtained from condylectomies were scanned using μCT and hr- CBCT. Nine different textural imaging biomarkers (four co-occurrence features and five run-length features) from each pair of μCT and hr-CBCT were computed and compared. Pearson correlation coefficients were computed to compare textural biomarkers values of μCT and hr-CBCT. Four of the nine computed textural biomarkers showed a strong positive correlation between biomarkers computed in μCT and hr-CBCT. Higher correlations in Energy and Contrast, and in GLN (grey-level non-uniformity) and RLN (run length non-uniformity) indicate quantitative texture features can be computed reliably in hr-CBCT, when compared with μCT. The textural imaging biomarkers computed in-vivo hr-CBCT have captured the structure, patterns, contrast between neighboring regions and uniformity of healthy and/or pathologic subchondral bone. The ability to quantify bone texture non-invasively now makes it possible to evaluate the progression of subchondral bone alterations, in TMJ OA.

  20. Texture functions in image analysis: A computationally efficient solution (United States)

    Cox, S. C.; Rose, J. F.


    A computationally efficient means for calculating texture measurements from digital images by use of the co-occurrence technique is presented. The calculation of the statistical descriptors of image texture and a solution that circumvents the need for calculating and storing a co-occurrence matrix are discussed. The results show that existing efficient algorithms for calculating sums, sums of squares, and cross products can be used to compute complex co-occurrence relationships directly from the digital image input.

  1. Stylus type MEMS texture sensor covered with corrugated diaphragm (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Takashiro; Asao, Hideaki; Tanaka, Shuji


    In this paper, a stylus type MEMS texture sensor covered with a corrugated palylene diaphragm, which prevent debris from jamming into the sensor without significant degradation of sensitivity and bandwidth, was reported. A new fabrication process using a lost-foil method to make the corrugated diaphragm on a 3-axis piezoresistive force sensor at wafer level has been developed. The texture sensor could detect the surface microstructure as small as about 10 \

  2. Texture of YBCO/Ag PIT-tapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paturi, P.; Kulmala, T.; Raittila, J.


    YBCO/Ag tapes prepared using nanosized YBCO powder are currently the best powder-in-tube YBCO tapes with their I-c = 5.02 A and J(c) = 3300 A/cm(2) in self-field and at 77 K. The texture of these tapes was studied by removing the silver with mercury and then measuring the texture of the surface w...

  3. Residual stress measurement of fiber texture materials near single crystal


    Mori, Toshiya; Gotoh, Masahide; Sasaki, Toshihiko; Hirose, Yukio


    In this paper, a sample having 〈111〉 fiber texture near single crystal structure made by PVD was evaluated about texture states by the pole figure and about residual stress states by the new expression for X-ray stress analysis. As a result, about 6GPa compressive residual stress existed in the film. However, measurement planes of X-ray line were influence on each stress value. Copyright © 2007 by The International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers(ISOPE).

  4. Comparison of texture features based on Gabor filters


    Kruizinga, P.; Petkov, N; Grigorescu, S.E.


    Texture features that are based on the local power spectrum obtained by a bank of Gabor filters are compared. The features differ in the type of nonlinear post-processing which is applied to the local power spectrum. The following features are considered: Gabor energy, complex moments, and grating cell operator features. The capability of the corresponding operators to produce distinct feature vector clusters for different textures is compared using two methods: the Fisher criterion and the c...

  5. Active Unsupervised Texture Segmentation on a Diffusion Based Feature Space


    Rousson, Mikaël; Brox, Thomas; Deriche, Rachid


    In this report, we propose a novel and efficient approach for active unsurpervised texture segmentation. First, we show how we can extract a small set of good features for texture segmentation based on the structure tensor and nonlinear diffusion. Then, we propose a variational framework that allows to incorporate these features in a level set based unsupervised segmentation process that adaptively takes into account their estimated statistical information inside and outside the region to seg...

  6. Blender 2.6 cycles, materials and textures cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Enrico


    Written in a friendly, practical style this Cookbook deep-dives into a wide-array of techniques used to create realistic materials and textures.This book is perfect for you if you have used Blender before but are new to the impressive Cycles renderer. You should have some knowledge of the Blender interface, though this is not a strict requirement. If you want to create realistic, stunning materials and textures using Cycles, then this book is for you!

  7. Texture classification and retrieval using shearlets and linear regression. (United States)

    Dong, Yongsheng; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong; Ma, Jinwen; Pu, Jiexin


    Statistical modeling of wavelet subbands has frequently been used for image recognition and retrieval. However, traditional wavelets are unsuitable for use with images containing distributed discontinuities, such as edges. Shearlets are a newly developed extension of wavelets that are better suited to image characterization. Here, we propose novel texture classification and retrieval methods that model adjacent shearlet subband dependences using linear regression. For texture classification, we use two energy features to represent each shearlet subband in order to overcome the limitation that subband coefficients are complex numbers. Linear regression is used to model the features of adjacent subbands; the regression residuals are then used to define the distance from a test texture to a texture class. Texture retrieval consists of two processes: the first is based on statistics in contourlet domains, while the second is performed using a pseudo-feedback mechanism based on linear regression modeling of shearlet subband dependences. Comprehensive validation experiments performed on five large texture datasets reveal that the proposed classification and retrieval methods outperform the current state-of-the-art.

  8. Selectivity and tolerance for visual texture in macaque V2. (United States)

    Ziemba, Corey M; Freeman, Jeremy; Movshon, J Anthony; Simoncelli, Eero P


    As information propagates along the ventral visual hierarchy, neuronal responses become both more specific for particular image features and more tolerant of image transformations that preserve those features. Here, we present evidence that neurons in area V2 are selective for local statistics that occur in natural visual textures, and tolerant of manipulations that preserve these statistics. Texture stimuli were generated by sampling from a statistical model, with parameters chosen to match the parameters of a set of visually distinct natural texture images. Stimuli generated with the same statistics are perceptually similar to each other despite differences, arising from the sampling process, in the precise spatial location of features. We assessed the accuracy with which these textures could be classified based on the responses of V1 and V2 neurons recorded individually in anesthetized macaque monkeys. We also assessed the accuracy with which particular samples could be identified, relative to other statistically matched samples. For populations of up to 100 cells, V1 neurons supported better performance in the sample identification task, whereas V2 neurons exhibited better performance in texture classification. Relative to V1, the responses of V2 show greater selectivity and tolerance for the representation of texture statistics.

  9. Modeling, clustering, and segmenting video with mixtures of dynamic textures. (United States)

    Chan, Antoni B; Vasconcelos, Nuno


    A dynamic texture is a spatio-temporal generative model for video, which represents video sequences as observations from a linear dynamical system. This work studies the mixture of dynamic textures, a statistical model for an ensemble of video sequences that is sampled from a finite collection of visual processes, each of which is a dynamic texture. An expectationmaximization (EM) algorithm is derived for learning the parameters of the model, and the model is related to previous works in linear systems, machine learning, time-series clustering, control theory, and computer vision. Through experimentation, it is shown that the mixture of dynamic textures is a suitable representation for both the appearance and dynamics of a variety of visual processes that have traditionally been challenging for computer vision (e.g. fire, steam, water, vehicle and pedestrian traffic, etc.). When compared with state-of-the-art methods in motion segmentation, including both temporal texture methods and traditional representations (e.g. optical flow or other localized motion representations), the mixture of dynamic textures achieves superior performance in the problems of clustering and segmenting video of such processes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate texture of winter wheat bread. Winter wheat was cultivated in ecological (ES and integrated (IS farming system with two levels of fertilizing. Farming systems were established at research base Dolná Malanta in western Slovakia on a Haplic Luvisol. The experimental field altitude is 178 m, average annual precipitations 586 mm, average year temperature 10.4 °C. Subplots were fertilized (F and unfertilized (N variants. The F variant in ES was based on 40 t of manure, the IS also recieved 40 t of manure plus synthetic fertilizers. The effect of farming systems and two levels of fertilization on qualitative parameters of winter wheat was observed in the year 2009 and 2010. Farming system had no statistically significant effect on the bread crumb texture. Weather conditions, forecrop and fertilizing had significant influence on bread crumb texture. Year had the significant effect on every texture parameter, better values was reached in 2010. Forecrop had significant effect on crumb firmness and stiffness. After alfalfa as forecrop was found the best bread texture, the worst after forecrop pea. Fertilizing positively affected all texture parameters of bread.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Kersten


    Full Text Available Today, detailed, complete and exact 3D models with photo-realistic textures are increasingly demanded for numerous applications in architecture and archaeology. Manual texture mapping of 3D models by digital photographs with software packages, such as Maxon Cinema 4D, Autodesk 3Ds Max or Maya, still requires a complex and time-consuming workflow. So, procedures for automatic texture mapping of 3D models are in demand. In this paper two automatic procedures are presented. The first procedure generates 3D surface models with textures by web services, while the second procedure textures already existing 3D models with the software tmapper. The program tmapper is based on the Multi Layer 3D image (ML3DImage algorithm and developed in the programming language C++. The studies showing that the visibility analysis using the ML3DImage algorithm is not sufficient to obtain acceptable results of automatic texture mapping. To overcome the visibility problem the Point Cloud Painter algorithm in combination with the Z-buffer-procedure will be applied in the future.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zhang


    Full Text Available High precision 3D sculpture model can take the accurate records of the shape, material and color on the surface of the sculpture. It is an important foundation work of digital documentation, preservation, archaeological research and analysis for the sculpture types of cultural heritage. Constructing high precision 3D sculpture model includes two aspects: geometry modeling and texture reconstruction. But, there are many urgent problems still existing in the method of high precision texture reconstruction. This paper discussed a method of high precision texture reconstruction based on non-rigid transformation for 3D sculpture model. First, coarse registration of texture image to geometrical model is conducted with direct linear transformation (DLT method. Then, the registration is optimized with thin plane spline (TPS function to reduce local matching errors between texture image and geometrical model. Finally, texture mapping is implemented with optimized registration result. The experiments based on the sculpture in Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes of China are conducted, and the efficiency and feasibility of the proposed methods are proved.

  13. Texture segmentation using adaptive Gabor filters based on HVS (United States)

    Bi, Sheng; Liang, Dequn


    A texture segmentation algorithm based on HVS (Human Visual System) is proposed in this paper. Psychophysical and Neurophysiological conclusions have supported the hypothesis that the processing of afferent pictorial information in the HVS (the visual cortex in particular) involves two stages: the preattentive stage, and the focused attention stage. To simulate the preattentive stage of HVS, ring and wedge filtering methods are used to segment coarsely and the texture number in the input image is gotten. As texture is the repeating patterns of local variations in image intensity, we can use a part of the texture as the whole region representation. The inscribed squares in the coarse regions are transformed respectively to frequency domain and each spectrum is analyzed in detail. New texture measurements based on the Fourier spectrums are given. Through analyzing the measurements of the texture, including repeatability directionality and regularity, we can extract the feature, and determine the parameters of the Gabor filter-bank. Then to simulate the focused attention stage of HVS, the determined Gabor filter-bank is used to filter the original input image to produce fine segmentation regions. This approach performs better in computational complexity and feature extraction than the fixed parameters and fixed stages Gabor filter-bank approaches.

  14. Caractérisation de textures à l'aide d'un codage directionnel local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caractérisation de textures à l'aide d'un codage directionnel local. G Loum, TC Haba. Abstract. Texture characterisation with a local directional coding. In this paper, we propose a texture characterisation method based on a coding of the local structure of the texture. The local information in four directions around a pixel is ...

  15. Texture and Twinning in Selective Laser Melting Ti-6Al-4V Alloys


    N. Kazantseva; P. Krakhmalev; I. Yadroitsev; A. Fefelov; N. Vinogradova; I. Ezhov; T. Kurennykh


    Martensitic texture-phase transition in Selective Laser Melting (SLM) Ti-6Al-4V (ELI) alloys was found. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) analysis showed the initial cubic beta (001) BCC texture. Such kind of texture is observed in BCC metals with flat rolling texture when axis is in the direction of rolling and the texture plane coincides with the plane of rolling. It was found that the texture of the parent BCC beta-phase determined the texture of low-temperature HCP alpha-pha...

  16. High Rate Laser Pitting Technique for Solar Cell Texturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans J. Herfurth; Henrikki Pantsar


    High rate laser pitting technique for solar cell texturing Efficiency of crystalline silicon solar cells can be improved by creating a texture on the surface to increase optical absorption. Different techniques have been developed for texturing, with the current state-of-the-art (SOA) being wet chemical etching. The process has poor optical performance, produces surfaces that are difficult to passivate or contact and is relatively expensive due to the use of hazardous chemicals. This project shall develop an alternative process for texturing mc-Si using laser micromachining. It will have the following features compared to the current SOA texturing process: -Superior optical surfaces for reduced front-surface reflection and enhanced optical absorption in thin mc-Si substrates -Improved surface passivation -More easily integrated into advanced back-contact cell concepts -Reduced use of hazardous chemicals and waste treatment -Similar or lower cost The process is based on laser pitting. The objective is to develop and demonstrate a high rate laser pitting process which will exceed the rate of former laser texturing processes by a factor of ten. The laser and scanning technologies will be demonstrated on a laboratory scale, but will use inherently technologies that can easily be scaled to production rates. The drastic increase in process velocity is required for the process to be implemented as an in-line process in PV manufacturing. The project includes laser process development, development of advanced optical systems for beam manipulation and cell reflectivity and efficiency testing. An improvement of over 0.5% absolute in efficiency is anticipated after laser-based texturing. The surface textures will be characterized optically, and solar cells will be fabricated with the new laser texturing to ensure that the new process is compatible with high-efficiency cell processing. The result will be demonstration of a prototype process that is suitable for scale-up to a

  17. Image statistics underlying natural texture selectivity of neurons in macaque V4 (United States)

    Okazawa, Gouki; Tajima, Satohiro; Komatsu, Hidehiko


    Our daily visual experiences are inevitably linked to recognizing the rich variety of textures. However, how the brain encodes and differentiates a plethora of natural textures remains poorly understood. Here, we show that many neurons in macaque V4 selectively encode sparse combinations of higher-order image statistics to represent natural textures. We systematically explored neural selectivity in a high-dimensional texture space by combining texture synthesis and efficient-sampling techniques. This yielded parameterized models for individual texture-selective neurons. The models provided parsimonious but powerful predictors for each neuron’s preferred textures using a sparse combination of image statistics. As a whole population, the neuronal tuning was distributed in a way suitable for categorizing textures and quantitatively predicts human ability to discriminate textures. Together, we suggest that the collective representation of visual image statistics in V4 plays a key role in organizing the natural texture perception. PMID:25535362

  18. Texture analysis the evaluation of human irises reproduction in ocular prostheses and colored contact lenses


    Herrera Ramírez, Jorge Alexis; Vilaseca Ricart, Meritxell; Arjona Carbonell, Mª Montserrat; Pujol Ramo, Jaume


    This work takes advantage of multispectral data from human irises, ocular prostheses and colored contact lenses to compare them accounting for their texture features. For this aim, several procedures from image processing were implemented: image segmentation algorithms to extract the areas of interest, statical texture analysis tools for texture description, and statistical classifiers for samples discrimination from texture descriptors. For the texture study two approaches were implemented, ...

  19. Texture-Based Automated Lithological Classification Using Aeromagenetic Anomaly Images (United States)

    Shankar, Vivek


    This report consists of a thesis submitted to the faculty of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science, Graduate College, The University of Arizona, 2004 Aeromagnetic anomaly images are geophysical prospecting tools frequently used in the exploration of metalliferous minerals and hydrocarbons. The amplitude and texture content of these images provide a wealth of information to geophysicists who attempt to delineate the nature of the Earth's upper crust. These images prove to be extremely useful in remote areas and locations where the minerals of interest are concealed by basin fill. Typically, geophysicists compile a suite of aeromagnetic anomaly images, derived from amplitude and texture measurement operations, in order to obtain a qualitative interpretation of the lithological (rock) structure. Texture measures have proven to be especially capable of capturing the magnetic anomaly signature of unique lithological units. We performed a quantitative study to explore the possibility of using texture measures as input to a machine vision system in order to achieve automated classification of lithological units. This work demonstrated a significant improvement in classification accuracy over random guessing based on a priori probabilities. Additionally, a quantitative comparison between the performances of five classes of texture measures in their ability to discriminate lithological units was achieved.

  20. Textured ZnO thin films by RF magnetron sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Ginting, M; Kang, K H; Kim, S K; Yoon, K H; Park, I J; Song, J S


    Textured thin films ZnO has been successfully grown by rf magnetron sputtering method using a special technique of introducing a small amount of water and methanol on the deposition chamber. The grain size of the textured surface is highly dependent on the argon pressure during the deposition. The pressure in this experiment was varied from 50 mTorr down to 5 mTorr and the highest grain size of the film is obtained at 5 mTorr. The total transmittance of the films are more than 85% in the wavelength of 400 to 800 nm, and haze ratio of about 14% is obtained at 400 nm wavelength. Beside the textured surface, these films also have very low resistivity, which is lower than 1.4x10 sup - sup 3 OMEGA centre dot cm. X-ray analysis shows that the films with textured surface have four diffraction peaks on the direction of (110), (002), (101) and (112), while the non-textured films have only (110) and (002) peaks. Due to the excellent characteristics of this film, it will make the film very good TCO alternatives for the ...

  1. Breast density pattern characterization by histogram features and texture descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cunha Carneiro


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Breast cancer is the first leading cause of death for women in Brazil as well as in most countries in the world. Due to the relation between the breast density and the risk of breast cancer, in medical practice, the breast density classification is merely visual and dependent on professional experience, making this task very subjective. The purpose of this paper is to investigate image features based on histograms and Haralick texture descriptors so as to separate mammographic images into categories of breast density using an Artificial Neural Network. Methods We used 307 mammographic images from the INbreast digital database, extracting histogram features and texture descriptors of all mammograms and selecting them with the K-means technique. Then, these groups of selected features were used as inputs of an Artificial Neural Network to classify the images automatically into the four categories reported by radiologists. Results An average accuracy of 92.9% was obtained in a few tests using only some of the Haralick texture descriptors. Also, the accuracy rate increased to 98.95% when texture descriptors were mixed with some features based on a histogram. Conclusion Texture descriptors have proven to be better than gray levels features at differentiating the breast densities in mammographic images. From this paper, it was possible to automate the feature selection and the classification with acceptable error rates since the extraction of the features is suitable to the characteristics of the images involving the problem.

  2. Influence of texture on fracture toughness of zircaloy cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, V. [Studsvik Material AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Andersson, Stefan [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)


    The correlation between texture and fracture toughness of Zircaloy 2 cladding has been investigated in connection with axial cracks in fuel rods. The texture of the cladding determines the anisotropy of plasticity of the cladding which, in turn, should influence the strain conditions at the crack-tip. Plastic strains in the cladding under uniaxial tension were characterised by means of the anisotropy constants F, G and H calculated according to Hill`s theory. Test temperatures between 20 and 300 deg C do not influence the F, G and H values. Any significant effect of hydrogen (about 500 wtppm) on the anisotropy constants F, G and H has not been revealed at a test temperature of 300 deg C. The results, obtained for stress-relieved and recrystallized cladding with different texture, show an obvious influence of texture on the fracture toughness of Zircaloy cladding. A higher fracture toughness has been found for cladding with more radial texture. With a 2 page summary in Swedish. 32 refs, 18 figs.

  3. Wettability transition of laser textured brass surfaces inside different mediums (United States)

    Yan, Huangping; Abdul Rashid, Mohamed Raiz B.; Khew, Si Ying; Li, Fengping; Hong, Minghui


    Hydrophobic surface on brass has attracted intensive attention owing to its importance in scientific research and practical applications. Laser texturing provides a simple and promising method to achieve it. Reducing wettability transition time from hydrophilicity to hydrophobicity or superhydrophobicity remains a challenge. Herein, wettability transition of brass surfaces with hybrid micro/nano-structures fabricated by laser texturing was investigated by immersing the samples inside different mediums. Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and surface contact angle measurement were employed to characterize surface morphology, chemical composition and wettability of the fabricated surfaces of brass samples. Wettability transition time from hydrophilicity to hydrophobicity was shortened by immersion into isopropyl alcohol for a period of 3 h as a result of the absorption and accumulation of organic substances on the textured brass surface. When the textured brass sample was immersed into sodium bicarbonate solution, flower-like structures on the sample surface played a key role in slowing down wettability transition. Moreover, it had the smallest steady state contact angle as compared to the others. This study provides a facile method to construct textured surfaces with tunable wetting behaviors and effectively extend the industrial applications of brass.

  4. Effect of substrate texture on the growth of hematite nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Himanshu, E-mail: [Indus Synchrotron Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Tiwari, Pragya; Srivastava, A.K.; Rai, Sanjay; Ganguli, Tapas; Deb, S.K. [Indus Synchrotron Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)


    The effect of texture of iron foil substrate on the growth of hematite nanowires by annealing method has been investigated in detail. Three substrates of different textures were prepared from a [2 0 0] oriented iron foil by some simple processes. The hematite nanowires on these substrates were synthesized by annealing iron foil at 700 deg. C in moist oxygen. The growth pattern of nanowires on these substrates showed that the growth of hematite nanowires depends strongly on the iron substrate texture and [1 1 0] oriented iron grains are necessary for their growth. The samples were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) and Raman Spectroscopy. We have also tried to explain the various observations on the mechanism of growth. Mainly, the presence of water vapor significantly enhanced the formation of hematite nanowires which resulted in a very dense and aligned growth of nanowires on the substrate areas of favorable texture. Finally, the study proved the substrate texture to be a powerful tool to control growth of nanowires and can be used efficiently for patterning and large scale synthesis of the nanowires.

  5. Texture recognition by the methods of topological data analysis (United States)

    Makarenko, Nikolay; Kalimoldayev, Maksat; Pak, Ivan; Yessenaliyeva, Ainur


    High spatial resolution satellite images are different from Gaussian statistics of counts. Therefore, texture recognition methods based on variances become ineffective. The aim of this paper is to study possibilities of completely different, topological approach to problems of structures classification. Persistent Betti numbers are signs of texture recognition. They are not associated with metrics and received directly fromdata in form of so-called persistence diagram (PD). The different structures built on PD are used to get convenient numerical statistics. At the present time, three of such objects are known: topological landscapes, persistent images and rank functions. They have been introduced recently and appeared as an attempt to vectorize PD. Typically, each of the proposed structures was illustrated by the authors with simple examples.However, the practical application of these approaches to large data sets requires to evaluate their efficiency within the frame of the selected task at the same standard database. In our case, such a task is to recognize different textures of the Remote Sensing Data (RSD). We check efficiency of structure, called persistent images in this work. We calculate PD for base containing 800 images of high resolution representing 20 texture classes. We have found out that average efficiency of separate image recognition in the classes is 84%, and in 11 classes, it is not less than 90%. By comparison topological landscapes provide 68% for average efficiency, and only 3 classes of not less than 90%. Reached conclusions are of interest for new methods of texture recognition in RSD.

  6. Texture analysis software: integration with a radiological workstation. (United States)

    Duvauferrier, Régis; Bezy, Joan; Bertaud, Valérie; Toussaint, Grégoire; Morelli, John; Lasbleiz, Jeremy


    Image analysis is the daily task of radiologists. The texture of a structure or imaging finding can be more difficult to describe than other parameters. Image processing can help the radiologist in completing this difficult task. The aim of this article is to explain how we have developed texture analysis software and integrated it into a standard radiological workstation. The texture analysis method has been divided into three steps: definition of primitive elements, counting, and statistical analysis. The software was developed in C++ and integrated into a Siemens workstation with a graphical user interface. The results of analyses may be exported in Excel format. The software allows users to perform texture analyses on any type of radiological image without the need for image transfer by simply placing a region of interest. This tool has already been used to assess the trabecular network of vertebra. The integration of such software into PACS extends the applicability of texture analysis beyond that of a mere research tool and facilitates its use in routine clinical practice.

  7. Novel chromatin texture features for the classification of pap smears (United States)

    Bejnordi, Babak E.; Moshavegh, Ramin; Sujathan, K.; Malm, Patrik; Bengtsson, Ewert; Mehnert, Andrew


    This paper presents a set of novel structural texture features for quantifying nuclear chromatin patterns in cells on a conventional Pap smear. The features are derived from an initial segmentation of the chromatin into bloblike texture primitives. The results of a comprehensive feature selection experiment, including the set of proposed structural texture features and a range of different cytology features drawn from the literature, show that two of the four top ranking features are structural texture features. They also show that a combination of structural and conventional features yields a classification performance of 0.954±0.019 (AUC±SE) for the discrimination of normal (NILM) and abnormal (LSIL and HSIL) slides. The results of a second classification experiment, using only normal-appearing cells from both normal and abnormal slides, demonstrates that a single structural texture feature measuring chromatin margination yields a classification performance of 0.815±0.019. Overall the results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed structural approach and that it is possible to detect malignancy associated changes (MACs) in Papanicoloau stain.

  8. Novel texture-based descriptors for tool wear condition monitoring (United States)

    Antić, Aco; Popović, Branislav; Krstanović, Lidija; Obradović, Ratko; Milošević, Mijodrag


    All state-of-the-art tool condition monitoring systems (TCM) in the tool wear recognition task, especially those that use vibration sensors, heavily depend on the choice of descriptors containing information about the tool wear state which are extracted from the particular sensor signals. All other post-processing techniques do not manage to increase the recognition precision if those descriptors are not discriminative enough. In this work, we propose a tool wear monitoring strategy which relies on the novel texture based descriptors. We consider the module of the Short Term Discrete Fourier Transform (STDFT) spectra obtained from the particular vibration sensors signal utterance as the 2D textured image. This is done by identifying the time scale of STDFT as the first dimension, and the frequency scale as the second dimension of the particular textured image. The obtained textured image is then divided into particular 2D texture patches, covering a part of the frequency range of interest. After applying the appropriate filter bank, 2D textons are extracted for each predefined frequency band. By averaging in time, we extract from the textons for each band of interest the information regarding the Probability Density Function (PDF) in the form of lower order moments, thus obtaining robust tool wear state descriptors. We validate the proposed features by the experiments conducted on the real TCM system, obtaining the high recognition accuracy.

  9. Nanopatterning spin-textures: A route to reconfigurable magnonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Albisetti


    Full Text Available Magnonics is envisioned to enable highly efficient data transport and processing, by exploiting propagating perturbations in the spin-texture of magnetic materials. Despite the demonstrations of a plethora of proof-of-principle devices, the efficient excitation, transport and manipulation of spin-waves at the nanoscale is still an open challenge. Recently, we demonstrated that the spin-wave excitation and propagation can be controlled by nanopatterning reconfigurable spin-textures in a continuous exchange biased ferromagnetic film. Here, we show that by patterning 90° stripe-shaped magnetic domains, we spatially modulate the spin-wave excitation in a continuous film, and that by applying an external magnetic field we can reversibly “switch-off” the spin-wave excitation. This opens the way to the use of nanopatterned spin-textures, such as domains and domain walls, for exciting and manipulating magnons in reconfigurable nanocircuits.

  10. Image decomposition: separation of texture from piecewise smooth content (United States)

    Starck, Jean-Luc; Elad, Mikael; Donoho, David L.


    This paper presents a novel method for separating images into texture and piecewise smooth parts. The proposed approach is based on a combination of the Basis Pursuit Denoising (BPDN) algorithm and the Total-Variation (TV) regularization scheme. The basic idea promoted in this paper is the use of two appropriate dictionaries, one for the representation of textures, and the other for the natural scene parts. Each dictionary is designed for sparse representation of a particular type of image-content (either texture or piecewise smooth). The use of BPDN with the two augmented dictionaries leads to the desired separation, along with noise removal as a by-product. As the need to choose a proper dictionary for natural scene is very hard, a TV regularization is employed to better direct the separation process. Experimental results validate the algorithm's performance.

  11. Absorption enhancement by textured InP in solar cells (United States)

    Yun, Seokhun; Ji, Taeksoo


    III-V compound semiconductors seem to be the ideal materials for photovoltaic devices because they exhibit fast carrier velocity. III-V compound semiconductors, however, are unfavorable materials to be commercialized on large scale photovoltaic devices because of their high material cost. The textured surface shows the potential to increase the performance of solar cells because of the properties such as high absorption and longer light path length. These properties can overcome the disadvantage of the III-V compound semiconductors through thin thickness use when producing solar cells. In this study, we demonstrate that textured surfaces on InP formed by nano-sphere lithography and plasma etching process can enhance the absorption effectively in comparison with planar surface. The power conversion efficiency of InP solar cells using the textured InP and the aluminum doped zinc oxide was achieved up to 8%.

  12. An image-processing analysis of skin textures. (United States)

    Sparavigna, A; Marazzato, R


    This paper discusses an image-processing method applied to skin texture analysis. Considering that the characterisation of human skin texture is a task approached only recently by image processing, our goal is to lay out the benefits of this technique for quantitative evaluations of skin features and localisation of defects. We propose a method based on a statistical approach to image pattern recognition. The results of our statistical calculations on the grey-tone distributions of the images are proposed in specific diagrams, the coherence length diagrams. Using the coherence length diagrams, we were able to determine grain size and anisotropy of skin textures. Maps showing the localisation of defects are also proposed. According to the chosen statistical parameters of grey-tone distribution, several procedures to defect detection can be proposed. Here, we follow a comparison of the local coherence lengths with their average values. More sophisticated procedures, suggested by clinical experience, can be used to improve the image processing.

  13. Stato dell’arte nella sintesi di texture sonore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diemo Schwarz


    Full Text Available The synthesis of sound textures, such as rain, wind, or crowds, is an important application for cinema, multimedia creation, games and installations. However, despite the clearly defined requirements of naturalness and flexibility, no automatic method has yet found widespread use. After clarifying the definition, terminology, and usages of sound texture synthesis, we will give an overview of the many existing methods and approaches, and the few available software implementations, and classify them by the synthesis model they are based on, such as subtractive or additive synthesis, granular synthesis, corpus-based concatenative synthesis, wavelets, or physical modeling. Additionally, an overview is given over analysis methods used for sound texture synthesis, such as segmentation, statistical modeling, timbral analysis, and modeling of transitions.

  14. Image analysis of weaverbird nests reveals signature weave textures. (United States)

    Bailey, Ida E; Backes, André; Walsh, Patrick T; Morgan, Kate V; Meddle, Simone L; Healy, Susan D


    In nature, many animals build structures that can be readily measured at the scale of their gross morphology (e.g. length, volume and weight). Capturing individuality as can be done with the structures designed and built by human architects or artists, however, is more challenging. Here, we tested whether computer-aided image texture classification approaches can be used to describe textural variation in the nests of weaverbirds (Ploceus species) in order to attribute nests to the individual weaverbird that built them. We found that a computer-aided texture analysis approach does allow the assignment of a signature to weaverbirds' nests. We suggest that this approach will be a useful tool with which to examine individual variation across a range of animal constructions, not just for nests.

  15. Classification of interstitial lung disease patterns with topological texture features

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Markus B; Leinsinger, Gerda; Ray, Lawrence A; Wismüller, Axel; 10.1117/12.844318


    Topological texture features were compared in their ability to classify morphological patterns known as 'honeycombing' that are considered indicative for the presence of fibrotic interstitial lung diseases in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images. For 14 patients with known occurrence of honey-combing, a stack of 70 axial, lung kernel reconstructed images were acquired from HRCT chest exams. A set of 241 regions of interest of both healthy and pathological (89) lung tissue were identified by an experienced radiologist. Texture features were extracted using six properties calculated from gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM), Minkowski Dimensions (MDs), and three Minkowski Functionals (MFs, e.g. MF.euler). A k-nearest-neighbor (k-NN) classifier and a Multilayer Radial Basis Functions Network (RBFN) were optimized in a 10-fold cross-validation for each texture vector, and the classification accuracy was calculated on independent test sets as a quantitative measure of automated tissue characteriza...

  16. Texture analysis of hand radiographs to assess bone structure (United States)

    Klifa, Catherine S.; Lin, John C.; Augat, Peter; Fuerst, Thomas; Jiang, Yebin; Majumdar, Sharmila; Genant, Harry K.


    In this study we compared trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) with textural parameters (cooccurence matrices features) extracted from trabecular bone structures in radiographic images of the hand. Our data consists of 12 cadaver hands radiographed and digitized. After application of a specific preprocessing step on all images, the textural parameters were calculated within 4 regions of interest defined within the metacarpal and proximal phalanges on trabecular bone. The results show that using a combination of textural parameters calculated at different directions within the ROI could increase significantly the correlation with BMD. Some further research will validate this finding on a larger set of data. This work is intended to be applicable in the study of bone fractures associated with osteoporosis, and could be of great benefit to a large segment of the population at risk.

  17. Predicting the Coupling Properties of Axially-Textured Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Fuentes-Montero


    Full Text Available A description of methods and computer programs for the prediction of “coupling properties” in axially-textured polycrystals is presented. Starting data are the single-crystal properties, texture and stereography. The validity and proper protocols for applying the Voigt, Reuss and Hill approximations to estimate coupling properties effective values is analyzed. Working algorithms for predicting mentioned averages are given. Bunge’s symmetrized spherical harmonics expansion of orientation distribution functions, inverse pole figures and (single and polycrystals physical properties is applied in all stages of the proposed methodology. The established mathematical route has been systematized in a working computer program. The discussion of piezoelectricity in a representative textured ferro-piezoelectric ceramic illustrates the application of the proposed methodology. Polycrystal coupling properties, predicted by the suggested route, are fairly close to experimentally measured ones.

  18. The Application of Marker Based Segmentation for Surface Texture Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Pin Nuraini binti


    Full Text Available Structured surfaces have been increasingly used in industry for a variety of applications, including improving the tribological properties of the surfaces. Surface metrology plays an important role in this discipline since with the help of surface metrology technology, surface texture can be measured, visualize and quantified. Traditional surface texture parameters, such as roughness and waviness, cannot be related to the function for structured surfaces due to the less statistical description and little information. Therefore, a new approaches based on characterizing the structured surface is introduces where this paper focus on type of edges grain surface. To identify features, it is a must to detect the location of the edges and segmented the features based on the detected edges. Hence characterization of surface texture segmentation based on the edges detection is developing using Marker Based segmentation and it is prove that this method is possible to be used in order to characterize the structured surface.

  19. Robust Shot Boundary Detection from Video Using Dynamic Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Taile


    Full Text Available Video boundary detection belongs to a basis subject in computer vision. It is more important to video analysis and video understanding. The existing video boundary detection methods always are effective to certain types of video data. These methods have relatively low generalization ability. We present a novel shot boundary detection algorithm based on video dynamic texture. Firstly, the two adjacent frames are read from a given video. We normalize the two frames to get the same size frame. Secondly, we divide these frames into some sub-domain on the same standard. The following thing is to calculate the average gradient direction of sub-domain and form dynamic texture. Finally, the dynamic texture of adjacent frames is compared. We have done some experiments in different types of video data. These experimental results show that our method has high generalization ability. To different type of videos, our algorithm can achieve higher average precision and average recall relative to some algorithms.

  20. Ageing effects on the wettability behavior of laser textured silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, B. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica e Biologica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TU Lisbon Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Tecnologico Nuclear, Estrada Nac. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Serro, A.P. [Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TU Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Investigacao Interdisciplinar Egas Moniz, Instituto Superior de Ciencias da Saude Egas Moniz, Quinta da Granja Monte de Caparica, 2829-511 Caparica (Portugal); Oliveira, V. [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Rua Conselheiro Emidio Navarro No. 1, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal); ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TU Lisbon Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Montemor, M.F. [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TU Lisbon Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Alves, E. [Instituto Tecnologico Nuclear, Estrada Nac. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Saramago, B. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica e Biologica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TU Lisbon Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TU Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Colaco, R., E-mail: [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica e Biologica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TU Lisbon Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TU Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)


    In the present work we investigate the ageing of acid cleaned femtosecond laser textured <1 0 0> silicon surfaces. Changes in the surface structure and chemistry were analysed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), in order to explain the variation with time of the water contact angles of the laser textured surfaces. It is shown that highly hydrophobic silicon surfaces are obtained immediately after laser texturing and cleaning with acid solutions (water contact angle > 120{sup o}). However these surfaces are not stable and ageing leads to a decrease of the water contact angle which reaches a value of 80{sup o}. XPS analysis of the surfaces shows that the growth of the native oxide layer is most probably responsible for this behavior.

  1. Assessment of Kidney Function After Allograft Transplantation by Texture Analysis. (United States)

    Abbasian Ardakani, Ali; Mohammadi, Afshin; Khalili Najafabad, Bahareh; Abolghasemi, Jamileh


    Ultrasonography is the preferable imaging technique for monitoring and assessing complications in kidney allograft transplants. Computer-aided diagnostic system based on texture analysis in ultrasonographic imaging is recommended to identify changes in kidney function after allograft transplantation. A total of 61 biopsy-proven kidney allograft recipients (11 rejected and 50 unrejected) were assessed by a computer-aided diagnostic system. Up to 270 statistical texture features were extracted as descriptors for each region of interest in each recipient. Correlations of texture features with serum creatinine level and differences between rejected and unrejected allografts were analyzed. An area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was calculated for each significant texture feature. Linear discriminant analysis was employed to analyze significant features and increase discriminative power. Recipients were classified by the first nearest neighbor classifier. Fourteen texture features had a significant correlation with serum creatinine level and 16 were significantly different between the rejected and unrejected allografts, for which an area under the curve values were in the range of 0.575 for difference entropy S(4,0) to 0.676 for kurtosis. Using all 16 features, linear discriminant analysis indicated higher performance for classification of the two groups with an area under the curve of 0.975, which corresponded to a sensitivity of 90.9%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 98.0%. Texture analysis was a reliable method, with the potential for characterization, and can help physicians to diagnose kidney failure after transplantation on ultrasonographic imaging.

  2. Calculation of Crystallographic Texture of BCC Steels During Cold Rolling (United States)

    Das, Arpan


    BCC alloys commonly tend to develop strong fibre textures and often represent as isointensity diagrams in φ 1 sections or by fibre diagrams. Alpha fibre in bcc steels is generally characterised by crystallographic axis parallel to the rolling direction. The objective of present research is to correlate carbon content, carbide dispersion, rolling reduction, Euler angles (ϕ) (when φ 1 = 0° and φ 2 = 45° along alpha fibre) and the resulting alpha fibre texture orientation intensity. In the present research, Bayesian neural computation has been employed to correlate these and compare with the existing feed-forward neural network model comprehensively. Excellent match to the measured texture data within the bounding box of texture training data set has been already predicted through the feed-forward neural network model by other researchers. Feed-forward neural network prediction outside the bounds of training texture data showed deviations from the expected values. Currently, Bayesian computation has been similarly applied to confirm that the predictions are reasonable in the context of basic metallurgical principles, and matched better outside the bounds of training texture data set than the reported feed-forward neural network. Bayesian computation puts error bars on predicted values and allows significance of each individual parameters to be estimated. Additionally, it is also possible by Bayesian computation to estimate the isolated influence of particular variable such as carbon concentration, which exactly cannot in practice be varied independently. This shows the ability of the Bayesian neural network to examine the new phenomenon in situations where the data cannot be accessed through experiments.

  3. Estimates of Aboveground Biomass from Texture Analysis of Landsat Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine C. Kelsey


    Full Text Available Maps of forest biomass are important tools for managing natural resources and reporting terrestrial carbon stocks. Using the San Juan National Forest in Southwest Colorado as a case study, we evaluate regional biomass maps created using physical variables, spectral vegetation indices, and image textural analysis on Landsat TM imagery. We investigate eight gray level co-occurrence matrix based texture measures (mean, variance, homogeneity, contrast, dissimilarity, entropy, second moment and correlation on four window sizes (3 × 3, 5 × 5, 7 × 7, 9 × 9 at four offsets ([1,0], [1,1], [0,1], [1,−1] on four Landsat TM bands (2, 3, 4, and 5. The map with the highest prediction quality was created using three texture metrics calculated from Landsat Band 2 on a 3 × 3 window and an offset of [0,1]: entropy, mean and correlation; and one physical variable: slope. The correlation of predicted versus observed biomass values for our texture-based biomass map is r = 0.86, the Root Mean Square Error is 45.6 Mg∙ha−1, and the Coefficient of Variation of the Root Mean Square Error is 0.31. We find that models including image texture variables are more strongly correlated with biomass than models using only physical and spectral variables. Additionally, we suggest that the use of texture appears to better capture the magnitude and direction of biomass change following disturbance compared to spectral approaches. The biomass mapping methods we present here are widely applicable throughout the US, as they are based on publically available datasets and utilize relatively simple analytical routines.

  4. Extending ultra-short pulse laser texturing over large area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mincuzzi, G., E-mail:; Gemini, L.; Faucon, M.; Kling, R.


    Highlights: • We carried out metal surface texturing (Ripples, micro grooves, Spikes) using a high power, high repetition rate, industrial, Ultra-short pulses laser. • Extremely Fast processing is shown (Laser Scan speed as high as 90 m/s) with a polygon scanner head. • Stainless steel surface blackening with Ultra-short pulses laser has been obtained with unprecedented scanspeed. • Full SEM surface characterization was carried out for all the different structures obtained. • Reflectance measurements were carried out to characterize surface reflectance. - Abstract: Surface texturing by Ultra-Short Pulses Laser (UPL) for industrial applications passes through the use of both fast beam scanning systems and high repetition rate, high average power P, UPL. Nevertheless unwanted thermal effects are expected when P exceeds some tens of W. An interesting strategy for a reliable heat management would consists in texturing with a low fluence values (slightly higher than the ablation threshold) and utilising a Polygon Scanner Heads delivering laser pulses with unrepeated speed. Here we show for the first time that with relatively low fluence it is possible over stainless steel, to obtain surface texturing by utilising a 2 MHz femtosecond laser jointly with a polygonal scanner head in a relatively low fluence regime (0.11 J cm{sup −2}). Different surface textures (Ripples, micro grooves and spikes) can be obtained varying the scan speed from 90 m s{sup −1} to 25 m s{sup −1}. In particular, spikes formation process has been shown and optimised at 25 m s{sup −1} and a full morphology characterization by SEM has been carried out. Reflectance measurements with integrating sphere are presented to compare reference surface with high scan rate textures. In the best case we show a black surface with reflectance value < 5%.

  5. Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion on hydrophobic and hydrophilic textured biomaterial surfaces. (United States)

    Xu, Li-Chong; Siedlecki, Christopher A


    It is of great interest to use nano- or micro-structured surfaces to inhibit microbial adhesion and biofilm formation and thereby to prevent biomaterial-associated infection, without modification of the surface chemistry or bulk properties of the materials and without use of the drugs. Our previous study showed that a submicron textured polyurethane surface can inhibit staphylococcal bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. To further understand the effect of the geometry of textures on bacterial adhesion as well as the underlying mechanism, in this study, submicron and micron textured polyurethane surfaces featuring ordered arrays of pillars were fabricated and modified to have different wettabilities. All the textured surfaces were originally hydrophobic and showed significant reductions in Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A adhesion in phosphate buffered saline or 25% platelet poor plasma solutions under shear, as compared to smooth surfaces. After being subjected to an air glow discharge plasma treatment, all polyurethane surfaces were modified to hydrophilic, and reductions in bacterial adhesion on surfaces were subsequently found to be dependent on the size of the patterns. The submicron patterned surfaces reduced bacterial adhesion, while the micron patterned surfaces led to increased bacterial adhesion. The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from the S. epidermidis cell surfaces were extracted and purified, and were coated on a glass colloidal surface so that the adhesion force and separation energy in interactions of the EPS and the surface could be measured by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy. These results were consistent with the bacterial adhesion observations. Overall, the data suggest that the increased surface hydrophobicity and the decreased availability of the contact area contributes to a reduction in bacterial adhesion to the hydrophobic textured surfaces, while the availability of the contact area is the primary determinant factor

  6. Method for forming biaxially textured articles by powder metallurgy (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.


    A method of preparing a biaxially textured alloy article comprises the steps of preparing a mixture comprising Ni powder and at least one powder selected from the group consisting of Cr, W, V, Mo, Cu, Al, Ce, YSZ, Y, Rare Earths, (RE), MgO, CeO.sub.2, and Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; compacting the mixture, followed by heat treating and rapidly recrystallizing to produce a biaxial texture on the article. In some embodiments the alloy article further comprises electromagnetic or electro-optical devices and possesses superconducting properties.

  7. Shape and Texture Based Classification of Fish Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær


    In this paper we conduct a case study of ¯sh species classi- fication based on shape and texture. We consider three fish species: cod, haddock, and whiting. We derive shape and texture features from an appearance model of a set of training data. The fish in the training images were manual outline...... to discriminate between the fish types, as well as conducted a preliminary classfication. In a linear discrimant analysis based on the two best combined modes of variation we obtain a resubstitution rate of 76 %...

  8. Texture of obliquely sputtered ZnO thin films (United States)

    Červeň, I.; Lacko, T.; Novotný, I.; Tvarožek, V.; Harvanka, M.


    A series of ZnO polycrystalline thin films were prepared on Si(100)/SiO 2/TiN substrates by radio frequency (RF) sputtering at various angles between the sputter direction and the substrate normal. The X-ray diffraction θ/2 θ scans confirmed the expected c-orientation of the films, depending at some extent on the angle of sputtering. The limited pole figures, obtained by rocking-curve measurement, show a slight deviation of the texture axis from the substrate normal direction, which increase with the sputtering angle. The texture axis is inclined not toward the sputtering direction, as was expected, but quite opposite.

  9. New Statistics for Texture Classification Based on Gabor Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pavlovicova


    Full Text Available The paper introduces a new method of texture segmentation efficiency evaluation. One of the well known texture segmentation methods is based on Gabor filters because of their orientation and spatial frequency character. Several statistics are used to extract more information from results obtained by Gabor filtering. Big amount of input parameters causes a wide set of results which need to be evaluated. The evaluation method is based on the normal distributions Gaussian curves intersection assessment and provides a new point of view to the segmentation method selection.

  10. Modifications and influences of tactual preferences for shape and texture. (United States)

    Margolin, C R


    The effects of pretraining on tactual preferences for shape and texture and the effects of the preferences on discrimination learning were investigated in three experiments using kindergarten and third grade children. The pretraining experience significantly affected the dimensional preferences in both age groups, while an unexpected significant sex difference indicated a stronger texture preference in girls. Children tended to learn faster when the dimension they preferred was relevant to the task, but girls were affected more strongly than boys. In all experiments, the girls' behavior closely resembled that predicted for younger children.

  11. Textural characteristics of fermented milk beverages produced by kombucha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraković Katarina G.


    Full Text Available Rheological properties of fermented dairy products are very important parameters of the product quality. The behaviour of gel formed during fermentation of milk is influenced by a great number of factors, such as: milk composition, starter culture, flavourings addition, etc. The aim of this research was to examine the influence of fat content, and kombucha inoculum concentration on textural characteristics of fermented milk beverages: firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and viscosity index after production and during 10 days of storage. Higher fat content of beverage affects the firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and viscosity index, while higher amount of inoculum in beverages has an opposite effect on textural characteristics of samples during storage.

  12. Filter and Filter Bank Design for Image Texture Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randen, Trygve


    The relevance of this thesis to energy and environment lies in its application to remote sensing such as for instance sea floor mapping and seismic pattern recognition. The focus is on the design of two-dimensional filters for feature extraction, segmentation, and classification of digital images with textural content. The features are extracted by filtering with a linear filter and estimating the local energy in the filter response. The thesis gives a review covering broadly most previous approaches to texture feature extraction and continues with proposals of some new techniques. 143 refs., 59 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Random Surface Texturing of Silicon Dioxide Using Gold Agglomerates (United States)


    unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT A fabrication process for creating a silicon dioxide ( SiO2 ) light-trapping structure as part an AR coating on solar cells. 15. SUBJECT TERMS anti-reflective, AR coatings, textured surface structures , silicon dioxide, SiO2 16. SECURITY...surface texture structure . In this study, the idea was to pattern the SiO2 with a metal mask, then etch the oxide in a plasma etching tool for a

  14. Porous texture evolution in Nomex-derived activated carbon fibers. (United States)

    Villar-Rodil, S; Denoyel, R; Rouquerol, J; Martínez-Alonso, A; Tascón, J M D


    In the present work, the textural evolution of a series of activated carbon fibers with increasing burn-off degree, prepared by the pyrolysis and steam activation of Nomex aramid fibers, is followed by measurements of physical adsorption of N(2) (77 K) and CO(2) (273 K) and immersion calorimetry into different liquids (dichloromethane, benzene, cyclohexane). The immersion calorimetry results are discussed in depth, paying special attention to the choice of the reference material. The activated carbon fibers studied possess an essentially homogeneous microporous texture, which suggests that these materials may be applied in gas separation, either directly or with additional CVD treatment.

  15. Algorithms and software for areal surface texture function parameters (United States)

    Smith, I. M.; Harris, P. M.; Todhunter, L. D.; Giusca, C.; Jiang, X.; Scott, P.; Leach, R. K.


    Software for the evaluation of areal surface texture function parameters is described. Definitions of the parameters, expressed in terms of the inverse areal material ratio function, are provided along with details of the numerical algorithms employed in the software to implement calculations to evaluate approximations to the parameters according to those definitions. Results obtained using the software to process a number of data sets representing different surfaces are compared with those returned by proprietary software for surface texture measurement. Differences in the results, arising from different choices being made when implementing the steps in the parameter evaluation process, are discussed.

  16. A New Texture Synthesis Algorithm Based on Wavelet Packet Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsi Chin Hsin


    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient texture synthesis based on wavelet packet tree (TSWPT. It has the advantage of using a multiresolution representation with a greater diversity of bases functions for the nonlinear time series applications such as fractal images. The input image is decomposed into wavelet packet coefficients, which are rearranged and organized to form hierarchical trees called wavelet packet trees. A 2-step matching, that is, coarse matching based on low-frequency wavelet packet coefficients followed by fine matching based on middle-high-frequency wavelet packet coefficients, is proposed for texture synthesis. Experimental results show that the TSWPT algorithm is preferable, especially in terms of computation time.

  17. Use of feature extraction techniques for the texture and context information in ERTS imagery: Spectral and textural processing of ERTS imagery. [classification of Kansas land use (United States)

    Haralick, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Bosley, R. J.


    The author has identified the following significant results. A procedure was developed to extract cross-band textural features from ERTS MSS imagery. Evolving from a single image texture extraction procedure which uses spatial dependence matrices to measure relative co-occurrence of nearest neighbor grey tones, the cross-band texture procedure uses the distribution of neighboring grey tone N-tuple differences to measure the spatial interrelationships, or co-occurrences, of the grey tone N-tuples present in a texture pattern. In both procedures, texture is characterized in such a way as to be invariant under linear grey tone transformations. However, the cross-band procedure complements the single image procedure by extracting texture information and spectral information contained in ERTS multi-images. Classification experiments show that when used alone, without spectral processing, the cross-band texture procedure extracts more information than the single image texture analysis. Results show an improvement in average correct classification from 86.2% to 88.8% for ERTS image no. 1021-16333 with the cross-band texture procedure. However, when used together with spectral features, the single image texture plus spectral features perform better than the cross-band texture plus spectral features, with an average correct classification of 93.8% and 91.6%, respectively.

  18. Improved Oxygen-Beam Texturing of Glucose-Monitoring Optics (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A.


    An improved method has been devised for using directed, hyperthermal beams of oxygen atoms and ions to impart desired textures to the tips of polymethylmethacrylate [PMMA] optical fibers to be used in monitoring the glucose content of blood. The improved method incorporates, but goes beyond, the method described in Texturing Blood-Glucose- Monitoring Optics Using Oxygen Beams (LEW-17642-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 4 (April 2005), page 11a. The basic principle of operation of such a glucose-monitoring sensor is as follows: The textured surface of the optical fiber is coated with chemicals that interact with glucose in such a manner as to change the reflectance of the surface. Light is sent down the optical fiber and is reflected from, the textured surface. The resulting change in reflectance of the light is measured as an indication of the concentration of glucose. The required texture on the ends of the optical fibers is a landscape of microscopic cones or pillars having high aspect ratios (microscopic structures being taller than they are wide). The average distance between hills must be no more than about 5 mso that blood cells (which are wider) cannot enter the valleys between the hills, where they would interfere with optical sensing of glucose in the blood plasma. On the other hand, the plasma is required to enter the valleys, and high aspect ratio structures are needed to maximize the surface area in contact with the plasma, thereby making it possible to obtain a given level of optical glucose-measurement sensitivity with a relatively small volume of blood. There is an additional requirement that the hills be wide enough that a sufficient amount of light can propagate into them and, after reflection, can propagate out of them. The method described in the cited prior article produces a texture comprising cones and pillars that conform to the average-distance and aspect-ratio requirements. However, a significant fraction of the cones and pillars are so

  19. Control of crystallographic texture and surface morphology of Pt/Tio2 templates for enhanced PZT thin film texture. (United States)

    Fox, Austin J; Drawl, Bill; Fox, Glen R; Gibbons, Brady J; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan


    Optimized processing conditions for Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si templating electrodes were investigated. These electrodes are used to obtain [111] textured thin film lead zirconate titanate (Pb[ZrxTi1-x ]O3 0 ≤ x ≤ 1) (PZT). Titanium deposited by dc magnetron sputtering yields [0001] texture on a thermally oxidized Si wafer. It was found that by optimizing deposition time, pressure, power, and the chamber pre-conditioning, the Ti texture could be maximized while maintaining low surface roughness. When oxidized, titanium yields [100]-oriented rutile. This seed layer has as low as a 4.6% lattice mismatch with [111] Pt; thus, it is possible to achieve strongly oriented [111] Pt. The quality of the orientation and surface roughness of the TiO2 and the Ti directly affect the achievable Pt texture and surface morphology. A transition between optimal crystallographic texture and the smoothest templating surface occurs at approximately 30 nm of original Ti thickness (45 nm TiO2). This corresponds to 0.5 nm (2 nm for TiO2) rms roughness as determined by atomic force microscopy and a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the rocking curve 0002 (200) peak of 5.5/spl degrees/ (3.1/spl degrees/ for TiO2). A Pb[Zr0.52Ti 0.48]O3 layer was deposited and shown to template from the textured Pt electrode, with a maximum [111] Lotgering factor of 87% and a minimum 111 FWHM of 2.4/spl degrees/ at approximately 30 nm of original Ti.

  20. Low-level contrast statistics are diagnostic of invariance of natural textures. (United States)

    Groen, Iris I A; Ghebreab, Sennay; Lamme, Victor A F; Scholte, H Steven


    Texture may provide important clues for real world object and scene perception. To be reliable, these clues should ideally be invariant to common viewing variations such as changes in illumination and orientation. In a large image database of natural materials, we found textures with low-level contrast statistics that varied substantially under viewing variations, as well as textures that remained relatively constant. This led us to ask whether textures with constant contrast statistics give rise to more invariant representations compared to other textures. To test this, we selected natural texture images with either high (HV) or low (LV) variance in contrast statistics and presented these to human observers. In two distinct behavioral categorization paradigms, participants more often judged HV textures as "different" compared to LV textures, showing that textures with constant contrast statistics are perceived as being more invariant. In a separate electroencephalogram (EEG) experiment, evoked responses to single texture images (single-image ERPs) were collected. The results show that differences in contrast statistics correlated with both early and late differences in occipital ERP amplitude between individual images. Importantly, ERP differences between images of HV textures were mainly driven by illumination angle, which was not the case for LV images: there, differences were completely driven by texture membership. These converging neural and behavioral results imply that some natural textures are surprisingly invariant to illumination changes and that low-level contrast statistics are diagnostic of the extent of this invariance.

  1. Growth and Properties of ZnO:Al on Textured Glass for Thin Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lluscà


    Full Text Available Aluminium induced texturing (AIT method has been used to texture glass substrates in order to enhance the photon absorption in thin film solar cells. The resultant glass roughness has been analyzed by varying the AIT process parameters and it has been found that the deposition method of Al is a decisive factor in tuning the texture. Two types of textures, a soft (texture E and a rough texture (texture S, were achieved from the thermally evaporated and sputtered Al layers through AIT process. Aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO layers of different thickness were deposited over both textures and over smooth glass. Haze values above 30% were obtained for texture S + AZO and above 10% for texture E + AZO. The resultant morphologies were free from sharp edges or deep valleys and the transparency and the resistivity values were also good enough to be used as front contact for thin film solar cells. In order to demonstrate the light absorption enhancement in a solar cell device, 200 nm of a-Si:H followed by 300 nm of Ag were grown over the textured and smooth substrates with AZO, and an optical absorption enhancement of 35% for texture E and 53% for texture S was obtained in comparison to the smooth substrate.

  2. Ethnicity distinctiveness through iris texture features using Gabor filters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabuza-Hocquet, Gugulethu P


    Full Text Available Research in iris biometrics has been focused on utilizing iris features as a means of identity verification and authentication. However, not enough research work has been done to explore iris textures to determine soft biometrics such as gender...

  3. Meat studies of indigenous Southern African cattle. II. Textural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Textural evaluations were conducted on the longissimus thoracis muscles from carcasses of young Afrikaner, Nguni and Pedi bulls fed intensively and slaughtered at 160, 290, 340 and 390 kg. Carcasses were stimulated electrically (500 V, 12,5 Hz) for 2 min, and chilled for 19 h at 0-5 °C. Ribcut samples (II, 12 and 13th ...

  4. Surface texturing inside ceramic macro/micro channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salamon, David; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Wessling, Matthias


    Surface textures (roughness) inside of macro/micro channels have a number of potential uses in advanced ceramic applications, including areas such as bioceramic, cooling, microreactors or friction control. The presented microtemplating method is dealing with templating of structured fibres, which

  5. Breast Cancer Heterogeneity: MR Imaging Texture Analysis and Survival Outcomes. (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Ko, Eun Sook; Lim, Yaeji; Lee, Kyung Soo; Han, Boo-Kyung; Ko, Eun Young; Hahn, Soo Yeon; Nam, Seok Jin


    Purpose To determine the relationship between tumor heterogeneity assessed by means of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging texture analysis and survival outcomes in patients with primary breast cancer. Materials and Methods Between January and August 2010, texture analysis of the entire primary breast tumor in 203 patients was performed with T2-weighted and contrast material-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction MR imaging for preoperative staging. Histogram-based uniformity and entropy were calculated. To dichotomize texture parameters for survival analysis, the 10-fold cross-validation method was used to determine cutoff points in the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to determine the association of texture parameters and morphologic or volumetric information obtained at MR imaging or clinical-pathologic variables with recurrence-free survival (RFS). Results There were 26 events, including 22 recurrences (10 local-regional and 12 distant) and four deaths, with a mean follow-up time of 56.2 months. In multivariate analysis, a higher N stage (RFS hazard ratio, 11.15 [N3 stage]; P = .002, Bonferroni-adjusted α = .0167), triple-negative subtype (RFS hazard ratio, 16.91; P breast cancers that appeared more heterogeneous on T2-weighted images (higher entropy) and those that appeared less heterogeneous on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images (lower entropy) exhibited poorer RFS. © RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  6. Classification of texture patterns in CT lung imaging (United States)

    Nuzhnaya, Tatyana; Megalooikonomou, Vasileios; Ling, Haibin; Kohn, Mark; Steiner, Robert


    Since several lung diseases can be potentially diagnosed based on the patterns of lung tissue observed in medical images, automated texture classification can be useful in assisting the diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a methodology for discriminating between various types of normal and diseased lung tissue in computed tomography (CT) images that utilizes Vector Quantization (VQ), an image compression technique, to extract discriminative texture features. Rather than focusing on images of the entire lung, we direct our attention to the extraction of local descriptors from individual regions of interest (ROIs) as determined by domain experts. After determining the ROIs, we generate "locally optimal" codebooks representing texture features of each region using the Generalized Lloyd Algorithm. We then utilize the codeword usage frequency of each codebook as a discriminative feature vector for the region it represents. We compare k-nearest neighbor, support vector machine and neural network classification approaches using the normalized histogram intersection as a similarity measure. The classification accuracy reached up to 98% for certain experimental settings, indicating that our approach may potentially assist clinicians in the interpretation of lung images and facilitate the investigation of relationships among structure, texture and function or pathology related to several lung diseases.

  7. Active contours on statistical manifolds and texture segmentaiton (United States)

    Sang-Mook Lee; A. Lynn Abbott; Neil A. Clark; Philip A. Araman


    A new approach to active contours on statistical manifolds is presented. The statistical manifolds are 2- dimensional Riemannian manifolds that are statistically defined by maps that transform a parameter domain onto-a set of probability density functions. In this novel framework, color or texture features are measured at each Image point and their statistical...

  8. Active contours on statistical manifolds and texture segmentation (United States)

    Sang-Mook Lee; A. Lynn Abbott; Neil A. Clark; Philip A. Araman


    A new approach to active contours on statistical manifolds is presented. The statistical manifolds are 2- dimensional Riemannian manifolds that are statistically defined by maps that transform a parameter domain onto a set of probability density functions. In this novel framework, color or texture features are measured at each image point and their statistical...

  9. A Database of Registered, Textured Models of the Human Face

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl; Lading, Brian


    This note describes a data set of 24 registered human faces represented by both shape and texture. The data was collected during 2003 as part of the preparation of the master thesis of Karl Sjöstrand (former name Karl Skoglund). The data is ready to be used in shape, appearance and data analysis....

  10. Twisted quasiperiodic textures of biaxial nematic liquid crystals. (United States)

    Golo, V L; Kats, E I; Sevenyuk, A A; Sinitsyn, D O


    Textures (i.e., smooth space nonuniform distributions of the order parameter) in biaxial nematics turned out to be much more complex and interesting than expected. Scanning the literature we find only a very few publications on this topic. Thus, the immediate motivation of the present paper is to develop a systematic procedure to study, classify, and visualize possible textures in biaxial nematics. Based on the elastic energy of a biaxial nematic (written in the most simple form that involves the least number of phenomenological parameters) we derive and solve numerically the Lagrange equations of the first kind. It allows one to visualize the solutions and offers a deep insight into their geometrical and topological features. Performing Fourier analysis we find some particular textures possessing two or more characteristic space periods (we term such solutions quasiperiodic ones because the periods are not necessarily commensurate). The problem is not only of intellectual interest but also of relevance to optical characteristics of the liquid-crystalline textures.

  11. Texture Segmentation by Contractive Decomposition and Planar Grouping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Bogunovich, Peter; Shokoufandeh, Ali


    Image segmentation has long been an important problem in the computer vision community. In our recent work we have addressed the problem of texture segmentation, where we combined top-down and bottom-up views of the image into a unified procedure. In this paper we extend our work by proposing...

  12. Fractional Directional Differentiation and Its Application for Multiscale Texture Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaobang Gao


    Full Text Available This paper derives the directional derivative expression of Taylor formula for two-variable function from Taylor formula of one-variable function. Further, it proposes a new concept, fractional directional differentiation (FDD, and corresponding theories. To achieve the numerical calculation, the paper deduces power series expression of FDD. Moreover, the paper discusses the construction of FDD mask in the four quadrants, respectively, for digital image. The differential coefficients of every direction are not the same along the eight directions in the four quadrants, which is the biggest difference by contrast to general fractional differentiation and can reflect different fractional change rates along different directions, and this benefits to enlarge the differences among the image textures. Experiments show that, for texture-rich digital images, the capability of nonlinearly enhancing comprehensive texture details by FDD is better than those by the general fractional differentiation and Butterworth filter. By quantity analysis, it shows that state-of-the-art effect of texture enhancement is obtained by FDD.

  13. Adding Texture to Color: Quantitative Analysis of Color Emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Gevers, T.; Gijsenij, A.


    What happens to color emotion responses when texture is added to color samples? To quantify this we performed an experiment in which subjects ordered samples (displayed on a computer monitor) along four scales: Warm-Cool, Masculine-Feminine, Hard-Soft and Heavy-Light. Three sample types were used:

  14. Live texturing of augmented reality characters from colored drawings. (United States)

    Magnenat, Stéphane; Ngo, Dat Tien; Zünd, Fabio; Ryffel, Mattia; Noris, Gioacchino; Rothlin, Gerhard; Marra, Alessia; Nitti, Maurizio; Fua, Pascal; Gross, Markus; Sumner, Robert W


    Coloring books capture the imagination of children and provide them with one of their earliest opportunities for creative expression. However, given the proliferation and popularity of digital devices, real-world activities like coloring can seem unexciting, and children become less engaged in them. Augmented reality holds unique potential to impact this situation by providing a bridge between real-world activities and digital enhancements. In this paper, we present an augmented reality coloring book App in which children color characters in a printed coloring book and inspect their work using a mobile device. The drawing is detected and tracked, and the video stream is augmented with an animated 3-D version of the character that is textured according to the child's coloring. This is possible thanks to several novel technical contributions. We present a texturing process that applies the captured texture from a 2-D colored drawing to both the visible and occluded regions of a 3-D character in real time. We develop a deformable surface tracking method designed for colored drawings that uses a new outlier rejection algorithm for real-time tracking and surface deformation recovery. We present a content creation pipeline to efficiently create the 2-D and 3-D content. And, finally, we validate our work with two user studies that examine the quality of our texturing algorithm and the overall App experience.

  15. Efficient representation of texture details in medical images by fusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare the performance of Ripplet Type-1 transform and directional discrete cosine transform (DDCT) and their combinations for improved representation of MRI images while preserving its fine features such as edges along the smooth curves and textures. Methods: In a novel image ...

  16. Cirrhosis Classification Based on Texture Classification of Random Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu


    Full Text Available Accurate staging of hepatic cirrhosis is important in investigating the cause and slowing down the effects of cirrhosis. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD can provide doctors with an alternative second opinion and assist them to make a specific treatment with accurate cirrhosis stage. MRI has many advantages, including high resolution for soft tissue, no radiation, and multiparameters imaging modalities. So in this paper, multisequences MRIs, including T1-weighted, T2-weighted, arterial, portal venous, and equilibrium phase, are applied. However, CAD does not meet the clinical needs of cirrhosis and few researchers are concerned with it at present. Cirrhosis is characterized by the presence of widespread fibrosis and regenerative nodules in the hepatic, leading to different texture patterns of different stages. So, extracting texture feature is the primary task. Compared with typical gray level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM features, texture classification from random features provides an effective way, and we adopt it and propose CCTCRF for triple classification (normal, early, and middle and advanced stage. CCTCRF does not need strong assumptions except the sparse character of image, contains sufficient texture information, includes concise and effective process, and makes case decision with high accuracy. Experimental results also illustrate the satisfying performance and they are also compared with typical NN with GLCM.

  17. Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yield Dependence Upon Texture Development in Polymers (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Loftus, Ryan J.; Miller, Sharon K.


    The atomic oxygen erosion yield (volume of a polymer that is lost due to oxidation per incident atom) of polymers is typically assumed to be reasonably constant with increasing fluence. However polymers containing ash or inorganic pigments, tend to have erosion yields that decrease with fluence due to an increasing presence of protective particles on the polymer surface. This paper investigates two additional possible causes for erosion yields of polymers that are dependent upon atomic oxygen. These are the development of surface texture which can cause the erosion yield to change with fluence due to changes in the aspect ratio of the surface texture that develops and polymer specific atomic oxygen interaction parameters. The surface texture development under directed hyperthermal attack produces higher aspect ratio surface texture than isotropic thermal energy atomic oxygen attack. The fluence dependence of erosion yields is documented for low Kapton H (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) effective fluences for a variety of polymers under directed hyperthermal and isotropic thermal energy attack.

  18. Multi-polarimetric textural distinctiveness for outdoor robotic saliency detection (United States)

    Haider, S. A.; Scharfenberger, C.; Kazemzadeh, F.; Wong, A.; Clausi, D. A.


    Mobile robots that rely on vision, for navigation and object detection, use saliency approaches to identify a set of potential candidates to recognize. The state of the art in saliency detection for mobile robotics often rely upon visible light imaging, using conventional camera setups, to distinguish an object against its surroundings based on factors such as feature compactness, heterogeneity and/or homogeneity. We are demonstrating a novel multi- polarimetric saliency detection approach which uses multiple measured polarization states of a scene. We leverage the light-material interaction known as Fresnel reflections to extract rotationally invariant multi-polarimetric textural representations to then train a high dimensional sparse texture model. The multi-polarimetric textural distinctiveness is characterized using a conditional probability framework based on the sparse texture model which is then used to determine the saliency at each pixel of the scene. It was observed that through the inclusion of additional polarized states into the saliency analysis, we were able to compute noticeably improved saliency maps in scenes where objects are difficult to distinguish from their background due to color intensity similarities between the object and its surroundings.

  19. Enhancement of Human Cheek Skin Texture by Acacia Nilotica Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of a topical application of a cream formulation containing extract of Acacia nilotica bark extract on human cheek skin texture. Methods: A cream containing 3 % concentrated extract of Acacia nilotica bark was developed by entrapping the extract in the internal aqueous phase of the cream having strong antioxidant activity.

  20. Adaptive Matrices and Filters for Color Texture Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giotis, Ioannis; Bunte, Kerstin; Petkov, Nicolai; Biehl, Michael

    In this paper we introduce an integrative approach towards color texture classification and recognition using a supervised learning framework. Our approach is based on Generalized Learning Vector Quantization (GLVQ), extended by an adaptive distance measure, which is defined in the Fourier domain,

  1. Texture and flavour memory in foods : an incidental learning experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Koster, E.P.


    Memory plays a major role in the formation of food expectations. How accessible and how accurate is incidentally acquired and stored product information? In the present experiment the memory for variations in texture (and flavour) was tested with a new and ecologically valid method. Subjects (N=69:

  2. Texture and flavour memory in foods : an incidental learning experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Köster, E.P.


    Memory plays a major role in the formation of food expectations. How accessible and how accurate is incidentally acquired and stored product information? In the present experiment the memory for variations in texture (and flavour) was tested with a new and ecologically valid method. Subjects (N =

  3. Current-induced torques in textured Rashba ferromagnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bijl, E.; Duine, R.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830127


    In systems with small spin-orbit coupling, current-induced torques on the magnetization require inhomogeneous magnetization textures. For large spin-orbit coupling, such torques exist even without gradients in the magnetization direction. Here, we consider current-induced torques in ferromagnetic

  4. Textural and morphological studies of transition metal doped SBA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    have led to textural modifications while demonstrating the structural integrity akin to pristine SBA-15. The ... though some exotic morphological SBA-15 structures ... dance with the P123 phase diagram. Indeed the tem- perature effect on ripening step in SBA-15 synthesis indicates the size and shape of hybrid micelles prior.

  5. Texture analysis of cosmetic/pharmaceutical raw materials and formulations. (United States)

    Tai, A; Bianchini, R; Jachowicz, J


    The purpose of this work was to quantify textural properties of cosmetic and pharmaceutical raw materials. Textural parameters such as hardness, consistency, cohesiveness, index of viscosity, stickiness and resilience were evaluated. The measurements were performed using texture analyser - a tensile metre equipped with special probes (in the form of acrylic cylinder and stainless steel sphere), which can penetrate the measured sample of a product recording the force, distance and time. The instrument simulates the action of a human finger touching the surface and probing the properties of an object. The set-up has been previously shown to quantify the rheological/textural properties of cosmetic and pharmaceutical products such as creams, lotion and gels as well as rheological behaviour of human skin. The results include the analysis of water, glycerine and mineral oil as well as aqueous solutions of thickeners such as Acrylates/C10-30 Alkyl Acrylate Crosspolymer (Ultrez-20 obtained from Noveon) and carbomer. Solutions of common surfactants and complex surfactant formulations such as shampoos have also been investigated. The results, in the form plots of force as a function of time or distance, resulting from slow bidirectional probe movement (submergence and desubmergence) in the analysed fluid, were interpreted by considering buoyancy, drag and viscous drag force given by Stokes equation. The data can be used to correlate with tactile evaluations of products by trained panel evaluations. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  6. Electromigration-induced plasticity and texture in Cu interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Advanced Light Source; Tamura, Nobumichi; Budiman, A. S.; Hau-Riege, C.S.; Besser, P. R.; Marathe, A.; Joo, Y.-C.; Tamura, N.; Patel, J. R.; Nix, W. D.


    Plastic deformation has been observed in damascene Cu interconnect test structures during an in-situ electromigration experiment and before the onset of visible microstructural damage (ie. voiding) using a synchrotron technique of white beam X-ray microdiffraction. We show here that the extent of this electromigration-induced plasticity is dependent on the texture of the Cu grains in the line. In lines with strong <111> textures, the extent of plastic deformation is found to be relatively large compared to our plasticity results in the previous study [1] using another set of Cu lines with weaker textures. This is consistent with our earlier observation that the occurrence of plastic deformation in a given grain can be strongly correlated with the availability of a <112> direction of the crystal in the proximity of the direction of the electron flow in the line (within an angle of 10{sup o}). In <111> out-of-plane oriented grains in a damascene interconnect scheme, the crystal plane facing the sidewall tends to be a {l_brace}110{r_brace} plane,[2-4] so as to minimize interfacial energy. Therefore, it is deterministic rather than probabilistic that the <111> grains will have a <112> direction nearly parallel to the direction of electron flow. Thus, strong <111> textures lead to more plasticity, as we observe.

  7. textural dependence of shear strength and consolidation of colliery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The dominant constituents of the waste are fireclay, black shale and sandstone. Pieces of coal of various sizes make up a minor proportion of the mine stone. Texturally, mudstone is predominantly of sand-gravel sizes, typically between 100-1000 m in size [3]. After the separation at the mine, the coal together with adhering ...

  8. Bean Nodulation Patterns in Soils of Different Texture at Morogoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IDepartment of Soil Science, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3008, Morogoro, Tanzania. 2Centro Internacion,al de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) A.A. 6713, Cali, Colombia. Abstract. This study was designed to examine the, relationship between nodulation in a bean-Rhizobium system in three soils of varying texture ...

  9. Evolving texture-informed anisotropic yield criterion for sheet forming (United States)

    Gawad, J.; Banabic, D.; Comsa, D. S.; Gologanu, M.; Van Bael, A.; Eyckens, P.; Van Houtte, P.; Roose, D.


    In this work we compare the predictions of the phenomenological anisotropic plane-stress plasticity model BBC2008, calibrated either classically by means of mechanical tests, or by crystal plasticity virtual experiments, to those of a HMS type model with continuous calibration of the same phenomenological model BBC2008. An industrial-grade aluminum alloy AA-6016 is chosen for the test case. Experimental part of the study includes tensile tests and deep drawing of cylindrical cups, preceded by measurements of crystallographic texture. It was found that the material exhibits a noticeable through-thickness gradient in terms of both the texture and plastic anisotropy. The classical calibration of the 16 parameters of BBC2008 was done from tensile experiments (yield stresses and Lankford coefficients) in directions every 15° from the rolling direction and the biaxial yield stress and anisotropy coefficient. The initial texture for the HMS-BBC2008 model was determined from as received samples. The ALAMEL model was used to estimate polycrystal plasticity from texture information. Finally, the earing number and height profile was measured for experimentally drawn cups and compared to the results of macroscopic simulations, based on both the classically calibrated BBC2008 model and the continuously calibrated HMS-BBC2008 model.

  10. Color and texture associations in voice-induced synesthesia. (United States)

    Moos, Anja; Simmons, David; Simner, Julia; Smith, Rachel


    Voice-induced synesthesia, a form of synesthesia in which synesthetic perceptions are induced by the sounds of people's voices, appears to be relatively rare and has not been systematically studied. In this study we investigated the synesthetic color and visual texture perceptions experienced in response to different types of "voice quality" (e.g., nasal, whisper, falsetto). Experiences of three different groups-self-reported voice synesthetes, phoneticians, and controls-were compared using both qualitative and quantitative analysis in a study conducted online. Whilst, in the qualitative analysis, synesthetes used more color and texture terms to describe voices than either phoneticians or controls, only weak differences, and many similarities, between groups were found in the quantitative analysis. Notable consistent results between groups were the matching of higher speech fundamental frequencies with lighter and redder colors, the matching of "whispery" voices with smoke-like textures, and the matching of "harsh" and "creaky" voices with textures resembling dry cracked soil. These data are discussed in the light of current thinking about definitions and categorizations of synesthesia, especially in cases where individuals apparently have a range of different synesthetic inducers.

  11. Unconventional spin texture of a topologically nontrivial semimetal Sb(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strózecka, A.; Eiguren, A.; Bianchi, Marco


    The surfaces of antimony are characterized by the presence of spin-split states within the projected bulk band gap and the Fermi contour is thus expected to exhibit a spin texture. Using spin-resolved density functional theory calculations, we determine the spin polarization of the surface bands...

  12. The causal texture of trade union environments | Iyayi | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The discussion suggests that unlike the environment of business and related organisations whose causal texture is understood in terms of uncertainty, complexity, instability and turbulence that of trade unions needs to be understood in terms of hostility. In the capitalist state, environmental hostility denotes the existence of a ...

  13. Deformation and recrystallization textures in commercially pure aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Juul Jensen, Dorte


    The deformation and recrystallization textures of commercially pure aluminum (99.6 pct) containing large intermetallic particles (FeAl3) are measured by neutron diffraction, and the orientation distribution functions (ODF’s) are calculated. Sample parameters are the initial grain size (50 and 350...

  14. Textural characteristics of fresh and frozen meat chicken and turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Momchilovа


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine the structural characteristics of the texture of chilled and frozen meat of chickens and turkeys. The object of the study were chicken and turkey breast and legs frozen and refrigerated. Research was carried out using two methods - the analysis of the profile of texture (TPA and shear Warner-Bratzler (WB. The total chemical composition determined by methods: total protein - Kjeldahl, carbohydrates, fats and total ash down in the relevant known methods. Samples have similar protein containing identical anatomical sites, have some differences in the content of fat and minerals. The results show that the water content of the turkey breasts and legs lower than with the chicken at about equal protein content. According to analysis of variance (ANOVA, a statistical difference was observed between the shear forces of refrigerated and frozen chicken legs, but no significant differences in the results of the shear characteristics of the refrigerated and frozen chicken breast samples were detected. Parameters produced by Warner-Bratzler correlates well with the characteristics of strength, hardness and wiry, obtained by texture profile analysis. The results indicate that the test samples have different textural characteristics depending on the type of meat and the thermal state. Methods of Warner-Bratzler and ATP method in combination with others, may be used to determine in which the thermal state (chilled or frozen were meat turkey and chicken.

  15. Automatic detection of welding defects using texture features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mery, D.; Berti, M.A. [Univ. de Santiago de Chile, Santiago (Chile)


    In this paper we present a new approach to detecting weld defects from digitalised films based on texture features. Texture is one of the most important features used in recognising patterns in an image. However, these features are not yet commonly exploited in the analysis of X-ray images in NDT. The paper describes two groups of widely used texture features: (1) features based on the cooccurrence matrix, which gives a measurement of how often one grey value will appear in a specified spatial relationship to another grey value on the image; and (2) features based on 2D Gabor functions, i.e., Gaussian shaped band-pass filters, with dyadic treatment of the radial spatial frequency range and multiple orientations, which represent an appropriate choice for tasks requiring simultaneous measurement in both space and frequency domains. The proposed approach to detecting weld defects follows a general pattern recognition scheme based on three steps: segmentation, feature extraction and classification. That is, in our case, (1) potential defects are segmented using an edge detector based on the Laplacian-of-Gauss operator; (2) texture features of the potential defects are extracted; and (3) the most relevant features are used as input data on a statistical classifier. This preliminary study makes a contribution to the improvement of the automatic detection of welding defects.

  16. Segmentation of Gabor-filtered textures using deterministic relaxation. (United States)

    Raghu, P P; Yegnanarayana, B


    A supervised texture segmentation scheme is proposed in this article. The texture features are extracted by filtering the given image using a filter bank consisting of a number of Gabor filters with different frequencies, resolutions, and orientations. The segmentation model consists of feature formation, partition, and competition processes. In the feature formation process, the texture features from the Gabor filter bank are modeled as a Gaussian distribution. The image partition is represented as a noncausal Markov random field (MRF) by means of the partition process. The competition process constrains the overall system to have a single label for each pixel. Using these three random processes, the a posteriori probability of each pixel label is expressed as a Gibbs distribution. The corresponding Gibbs energy function is implemented as a set of constraints on each pixel by using a neural network model based on Hopfield network. A deterministic relaxation strategy is used to evolve the minimum energy state of the network, corresponding to a maximum a posteriori (MAP) probability. This results in an optimal segmentation of the textured image. The performance of the scheme is demonstrated on a variety of images including images from remote sensing.

  17. Comparison of texture features based on Gabor filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, Simona E.; Petkov, Nicolai; Kruizinga, Peter


    Texture features that are based on the local power spectrum obtained by a bank of Gabor filters are compared. The features differ in the type of nonlinear post-processing which is applied to the local power spectrum. The following features are considered: Gabor energy, complex moments, and grating

  18. Interactive annotation of textures in thoracic CT scans (United States)

    Kockelkorn, Thessa T. J. P.; de Jong, Pim A.; Gietema, Hester A.; Grutters, Jan C.; Prokop, Mathias; van Ginneken, Bram


    This study describes a system for interactive annotation of thoracic CT scans. Lung volumes in these scans are segmented and subdivided into roughly spherical volumes of interest (VOIs) with homogeneous texture using a clustering procedure. For each 3D VOI, 72 features are calculated. The observer inspects the scan to determine which textures are present and annotates, with mouse clicks, several VOIs of each texture. Based on these annotations, a k-nearest-neighbor classifier is trained, which classifies all remaining VOIs in the scan. The algorithm then presents a slice with suggested annotations to the user, in which the user can correct mistakes. The classifier is retrained, taking into account these new annotations, and the user is presented another slice for correction. This process continues until at least 50% of all lung voxels in the scan have been classified. The remaining VOIs are classified automatically. In this way, the entire lung volume is annotated. The system has been applied to scans of patients with usual and non-specific interstitial pneumonia. The results of interactive annotation are compared to a setup in which the user annotates all predefined VOIs manually. The interactive system is 3.7 times as fast as complete manual annotation of VOIs and differences between the methods are similar to interobserver variability. This is a first step towards precise volumetric quantitation of texture patterns in thoracic CT in clinical research and in clinical practice.

  19. Texture-based Visualization of Metrics on Software Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Byelas, Heorhiy; Telea, Alexandru; Spencer, SN


    We present a method that combines textures, blending, and scattered-data interpolation to visualize several metrics defined on overlapping areas-of-interest on UML class diagrams. We aim to simplify the task of visually correlating the distribution and outlier values of a multivariate metric dataset

  20. Characterizing commercial pureed foods: sensory, nutritional, and textural analysis. (United States)

    Ettinger, Laurel; Keller, Heather H; Duizer, Lisa M


    Dysphagia (swallowing impairment) is a common consequence of stroke and degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. Limited research is available on pureed foods, specifically the qualities of commercial products. Because research has linked pureed foods, specifically in-house pureed products, to malnutrition due to inferior sensory and nutritional qualities, commercial purees also need to be investigated. Proprietary research on sensory attributes of commercial foods is available; however direct comparisons of commercial pureed foods have never been reported. Descriptive sensory analysis as well as nutritional and texture analysis of commercially pureed prepared products was performed using a trained descriptive analysis panel. The pureed foods tested included four brands of carrots, of turkey, and two of bread. Each commercial puree was analyzed for fat (Soxhlet), protein (Dumas), carbohydrate (proximate analysis), fiber (total fiber), and sodium content (Quantab titrator strips). The purees were also texturally compared with a line spread test and a back extrusion test. Differences were found in the purees for sensory attributes as well as nutritional and textural properties. Findings suggest that implementation of standards is required to reduce variability between products, specifically regarding the textural components of the products. This would ensure all commercial products available in Canada meet standards established as being considered safe for swallowing.

  1. Textural and morphological studies of transition metal doped SBA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    condensation synthesis method. Very low concentrations of metals were introduced into silica framework by maintaining the metal to silica ratio in the synthesis gel at 0.01. The difference in hydrolysis rates of metal and silica precursors have led to textural ...

  2. Current-induced torques in continuous antiferromagnetic textures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaving, A.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313938083; Duine, R.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830127


    We study the influence of an electric current on a continuous noncollinear antiferromagnetic texture. Despite the lack of a net magnetic moment, we find that the exchange interaction between conduction electrons and local magnetization generally results in current-induced torques that are nonzero

  3. Comparison of features response in texture-based iris segmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bachoo, A


    Full Text Available and eyelashes that corrupt the iris region of interest. An accurate segmentation algorithm must localize and remove these noise components. Texture features are considered in this paper for describing iris and non-iris regions. These regions are classified using...

  4. Colour and texture associations in voice-induced synaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eMoos


    Full Text Available Voice-induced synaesthesia, a form of synaesthesia in which synaesthetic perceptions are induced by the sounds of people’s voices, appears to be relatively rare and has not been systematically studied. In this study we investigated the synaesthetic colour and visual texture perceptions experienced in response to different types of voice quality (e.g. nasal, whisper, falsetto. Experiences of three different groups – self-reported voice synaesthetes, phoneticians and controls – were compared using both qualitative and quantitative analysis in a study conducted online. Whilst, in the qualitative analysis, synaesthetes used more colour and texture terms to describe voices than either phoneticians or controls, only weak differences, and many similarities, between groups were found in the quantitative analysis. Notable consistent results between groups were the matching of higher speech fundamental frequencies with lighter and redder colours, the matching of whispery voices with smoke-like textures and the matching of harsh and creaky voices with textures resembling dry cracked soil. These data are discussed in the light of current thinking about definitions and categorizations of synaesthesia, especially in cases where individuals apparently have a range of different synaesthetic inducers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chakraborty


    Full Text Available RISAT-II or Radar Imaging satellite – II is a microwave-imaging satellite lunched by ISRO to take images of the earth during day and night as well as all weather condition. This satellite enhances the ISRO's capability for disaster management application together with forestry, agricultural, urban and oceanographic applications. The conventional pixel based classification technique cannot classify these type of images since it do not take into account the texture information of the image. This paper presents a method to classify the high-resolution RISAT-II microwave images based on texture analysis. It suppress the speckle noise from the microwave image before analysis the texture of the image since speckle is essentially a form of noise, which degrades the quality of an image; make interpretation (visual or digital more difficult. A local adaptive median filter is developed that uses local statistics to detect the speckle noise of microwave image and to replace it with a local median value. Local Binary Pattern (LBP operator is proposed to measure the texture around each pixel of the speckle suppressed microwave image. It considers a series of circles (2D centered on the pixel with incremental radius values and the intersected pixels on the perimeter of the circles of radius r (where r = 1, 3 and 5 are used for measuring the LBP of the center pixel. The significance of LBP is that it measure the texture around each pixel of the image and computationally simple. ISODATA method is used to cluster the transformed LBP image. The proposed method adequately classifies RISAT-II X band microwave images without human intervention.

  6. Electromagnetic induction for mapping textural contrasts of mine tailing deposits (United States)

    Nearing, Grey S.; Tuller, Markus; Jones, Scott B.; Heinse, Robert; Meding, Mercer S.


    Mine tailings present an important legacy of past and present ore-extraction activities in the Desert Southwest. Inactive mine tailings have no immediate economic role in current mining operations, yet from an environmental point of view it is important that such deposits are stabilized to prevent mass movement, wind or water erosion, leaching of chemicals such as acid mine drainage, and to reduce visual blight. In the presented study, we assess the potential for inferring textural properties of mine tailing deposits with electromagnetic induction (EMI) mapping as a means of informing efforts to establish vegetation at mine waste sites. EMI measurements of apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) and tailing samples were collected at a mine waste site in Southern Arizona, USA and used to test empirical and theoretical relationships between ECa and physical and mineralogical properties using linear and Gaussian process regression. Sensitivity analyses of a semi-theoretical and a regression model of ECa as a function of tailing properties indicated that volumetric clay fraction in the top 60 cm was a primary influence on bulk electrical conductivity along with water content, conductivity of the soil water and the presence of conductive minerals hematite and pyrite. At this site, latitude and longitude were better predictors of clay content than ECa, and while it was possible to obtain information about the spatial distribution of tailing texture using EMI, simple Kriging of texture data was a more powerful textural mapping technique. We conclude that EMI is a useful tool for mapping tailing texture at waste deposit sites, but due to physical and chemical heterogeneity of tailing deposits, it is necessary to collect more in situ samples than are needed for agricultural applications.

  7. Perturbed Yukawa textures in the minimal seesaw model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rink, Thomas; Schmitz, Kai [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (MPIK),69117 Heidelberg (Germany)


    We revisit the minimal seesaw model, i.e., the type-I seesaw mechanism involving only two right-handed neutrinos. This model represents an important minimal benchmark scenario for future experimental updates on neutrino oscillations. It features four real parameters that cannot be fixed by the current data: two CP-violating phases, δ and σ, as well as one complex parameter, z, that is experimentally inaccessible at low energies. The parameter z controls the structure of the neutrino Yukawa matrix at high energies, which is why it may be regarded as a label or index for all UV completions of the minimal seesaw model. The fact that z encompasses only two real degrees of freedom allows us to systematically scan the minimal seesaw model over all of its possible UV completions. In doing so, we address the following question: suppose δ and σ should be measured at particular values in the future — to what extent is one then still able to realize approximate textures in the neutrino Yukawa matrix? Our analysis, thus, generalizes previous studies of the minimal seesaw model based on the assumption of exact texture zeros. In particular, our study allows us to assess the theoretical uncertainty inherent to the common texture ansatz. One of our main results is that a normal light-neutrino mass hierarchy is, in fact, still consistent with a two-zero Yukawa texture, provided that the two texture zeros receive corrections at the level of O(10 %). While our numerical results pertain to the minimal seesaw model only, our general procedure appears to be applicable to other neutrino mass models as well.

  8. Texture in thin film silicides and germanides: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Schutter, B., E-mail:; De Keyser, K.; Detavernier, C. [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Lavoie, C. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, P.O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)


    Silicides and germanides are compounds consisting of a metal and silicon or germanium. In the microelectronics industry, silicides are the material of choice for contacting silicon based devices (over the years, CoSi{sub 2}, C54-TiSi{sub 2}, and NiSi have been adopted), while germanides are considered as a top candidate for contacting future germanium based electronics. Since also strain engineering through the use of Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} in the source/drain/gate regions of MOSFET devices is an important technique for improving device characteristics in modern Si-based microelectronics industry, a profound understanding of the formation of silicide/germanide contacts to silicon and germanium is of utmost importance. The crystallographic texture of these films, which is defined as the statistical distribution of the orientation of the grains in the film, has been the subject of scientific studies since the 1970s. Different types of texture like epitaxy, axiotaxy, fiber, or combinations thereof have been observed in such films. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that film texture can have a profound influence on the formation and stability of silicide/germanide contacts, as it controls the type and orientation of grain boundaries (affecting diffusion and agglomeration) and the interface energy (affecting nucleation during the solid-state reaction). Furthermore, the texture also has an impact on the electrical characteristics of the contact, as the orientation and size of individual grains influences functional properties such as contact resistance and sheet resistance and will induce local variations in strain and Schottky barrier height. This review aims to give a comprehensive overview of the scientific work that has been published in the field of texture studies on thin film silicide/germanide contacts.

  9. Modulating protein interaction on a molecular and Microstructural level for texture control in protein based gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, A.H.; Baigts Allende, D.; Munialo, C.D.; Urbonaite, V.; Pouvreau, L.A.M.; Jongh, de H.H.J.


    The exploration of microstructures and textures of protein based systems is essential to understand (oral) breakdown properties and thereby textural aspects, or macroscopic functionalities such as water holding. Upon structure breakdown, the applied energy (W) is primarily directed towards fracture

  10. Texture and mouthfeel of semi-solid foods : commercial mayonnaises, dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenen, H.; Gemert, van L.J.; Doorn, van J.M.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.; Wijk, de R.A.


    Texture and mouthfeel sensations of three groups of semisolid foodstuffs (mayonnaises and dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces) were characterised, measured, evaluated and compared based on quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of commercial products. Six groups of texture attributes were

  11. Texture and mouthfeel of semisolid foods: Commercial mayonnaises, dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenen, H.; Gemert, L.J. van; Doorn, J.M. van; Dijksterhuis, G.B.; Wijk, R.A. de


    Texture and mouthfeel sensations of three groups of semisolid foodstuffs (mayonnaises and dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces) were characterised, measured, evaluated and compared based on quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of commercial products. Six groups of texture attributes were

  12. Encoding of Whisker Vibration by Rat Barrel Cortex Neurons: Implications for Texture Discrimination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arabzadeh, Ehsan; Petersen, Rasmus S; Diamond, Mathew E


    .... What is the representation of texture in rat somatosensory cortex? We hypothesize that as rats "whisk" over a surface, the spatial frequency of a grooved or pebbled texture is converted to a temporal frequency of whisker vibration...

  13. Chemical constituents of Sweetpotato genotypes in relation to textural characteristics of processed French fries (United States)

    Sweetpotato French fries (SPFF) are growing in popularity but limited information is available on SPFF textural properties in relation to chemical composition. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between chemical components of different sweetpotato varieties and textural characteristics...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Felipe Osorio Tobón


    Full Text Available Para el queso Edam una caracterización físico-química y textural fue realizada. Los resultados indicaron que los parámetros texturales tales como la dureza, cohesividad, adhesividad y masticabilidad son dependientes del tiempo de maduración pero no la resortabilidad del producto. Las propiedades fisicoquímicas contenido de grasa, proteína y humedad también son dependientes del tiempo, siendo estos cambios los responsables de las modificaciones de las propiedades texturales.A physical-chemical and textural characterization of Edam cheese was conducted. The results indicated that the textural parameters such as the hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness and chewiness were dependent upon of the maturation period but not the springiness of the product. The physical-chemistry properties such as fat content, protein and moisture content also depended upon the maturation processing, with these changes being responsible for the modifications of the textural properties.

  15. Intrinsic Problems In Determination Of Soil Texture In Calcareous Soils Of Arid Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozna A. Ahmed


    Full Text Available This study aimed at studying the effect of removal of CaCO3 on the texture of the soil profile and that of the control section in some Aridisols of the Sudan. Sixty soil profiles were sampled from Shendi area latitude1636 and longitude 33 48 River Nile State Sudan. These soils were analyzed for CaCO3 and 20 of these profiles were found to be of relatively appreciable calcareousness and were therefore selected for this study. The following three weighted soil textures were determined 1 before any removal of the CaCO3 Texture1 2 after the removal of CaCO3 Texture2 3 after amending the texture by adding the clay sized CaCO3 to the silt fraction Texture 3. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences among soil separates in the three textures except between clay of T2 and clay of T3 and among sand fractions in the three textures. That was not unexpected because the first texture included both mineral separates plus their equivalent size of CaCO3 the second texture included only the mineral separates in complete absence of CaCO3 while texture 3 was an amended texture. The change in the textural class amounted to 72 of the profiles. Statistical analysis in the weighted texture of the control section revealed that this texture was not affected except in two profiles. That could be attributed to the fact that the clay content of the soils of the study area did not fall at or near the boundary between any two major textural classes used in the Soil Taxonomy. The size of the CaCO3 was found in the order of clay size silt size sand size.

  16. Statistical analysis of human visual impressions on morphological image manipulation of gray scale textures


    Li, Liang; Asano, Akira; Asano-Muraki, Chie


    A method of evaluating human visual impressions of gray scale textures using morphological manipulation is proposed. To study the effects of textural features on human Kansei, we introduced a texture analysis method based on mathematical morphology. Kansei is a Japanese word for sensibility or emotion. Kansei engineering is an approach to connect human sensibility with engineering applications. The proposed method allows us to manipulate global and local properties of a texture separately. Va...

  17. Chiral hedgehog textures in 2D XY-like ordered domains


    Loh, Kok-Kiong; Kraus, Isabelle; Meyer, Robert B.


    The textures associated with a point defect centered in a circular domain of a thin film with XY-like ordering have been analyzed. The family of equilibrium textures, both stable and metastable, can be classified by a new radial topological number in addition to the winding number of the defect. Chiral textures are supported in an achiral system as a result of spontaneously broken chiral symmetry. Among these chiral textures, our theoretical analysis accurately describes two categories of rec...

  18. The Visual N1 Is Sensitive to Deviations from Natural Texture Appearance. (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin; Conlin, Catherine


    Disruptions of natural texture appearance are known to negatively impact performance in texture discrimination tasks, for example, such that contrast-negated textures, synthetic textures, and textures depicting abstract art are processed less efficiently than natural textures. Presently, we examined how visual ERP responses (the P1 and the N1 in particular) were affected by violations of natural texture appearance. We presented participants with images depicting either natural textures or synthetic textures made from the original stimuli. Both stimulus types were additionally rendered either in positive or negative contrast. These appearance manipulations (negation and texture synthesis) preserve a range of low-level features, but also disrupt higher-order aspects of texture appearance. We recorded continuous EEG while participants completed a same/different image discrimination task using these images and measured both the P1 and N1 components over occipital recording sites. While the P1 exhibited no sensitivity to either contrast polarity or real/synthetic appearance, the N1 was sensitive to both deviations from natural appearance. Polarity reversal and synthetic appearance affected the N1 latency differently, however, suggesting a differential impact on processing. Our results suggest that stages of visual processing indexed by the P1 and N1 are sensitive to high-order statistical regularities in natural textures and also suggest that distinct violations of natural appearance impact neural responses differently.

  19. Instrumental texture characteristics of broiler pectoralis major with the woody breast condition (United States)

    The objective was to characterize texture properties of raw and cooked broiler fillets (pectoralis major) with the woody breast condition (WBC) using instrumental texture techniques Meullenet-Owens Razor Shear (MORS) and texture profile analysis (TPA). Deboned (3 h postmortem) broiler fillets were c...

  20. Modified centroid for estimating sand, silt, and clay from soil texture class (United States)

    Models that require inputs of soil particle size commonly use soil texture class for input; however, texture classes do not represent the continuum of soil size fractions. Soil texture class and clay percentage are collected as a standard practice for many land management agencies (e.g., NRCS, BLM, ...

  1. Drag reduction by herringbone riblet texture in direct numerical simulations of turbulent channel flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benschop, H.O.G.; Breugem, W.P.


    A bird-feather-inspired herringbone riblet texture was investigated for turbulent drag reduction. The texture consists of blade riblets in a converging/diverging or herringbone pattern with spanwise wavelength Λf. The aim is to quantify the drag change for this texture as compared to a smooth wall

  2. The Visual N1 Is Sensitive to Deviations from Natural Texture Appearance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Balas

    Full Text Available Disruptions of natural texture appearance are known to negatively impact performance in texture discrimination tasks, for example, such that contrast-negated textures, synthetic textures, and textures depicting abstract art are processed less efficiently than natural textures. Presently, we examined how visual ERP responses (the P1 and the N1 in particular were affected by violations of natural texture appearance. We presented participants with images depicting either natural textures or synthetic textures made from the original stimuli. Both stimulus types were additionally rendered either in positive or negative contrast. These appearance manipulations (negation and texture synthesis preserve a range of low-level features, but also disrupt higher-order aspects of texture appearance. We recorded continuous EEG while participants completed a same/different image discrimination task using these images and measured both the P1 and N1 components over occipital recording sites. While the P1 exhibited no sensitivity to either contrast polarity or real/synthetic appearance, the N1 was sensitive to both deviations from natural appearance. Polarity reversal and synthetic appearance affected the N1 latency differently, however, suggesting a differential impact on processing. Our results suggest that stages of visual processing indexed by the P1 and N1 are sensitive to high-order statistical regularities in natural textures and also suggest that distinct violations of natural appearance impact neural responses differently.

  3. Texture synthesis using convolutional neural networks with long-range consistency and spectral constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreiber, Shaun; Geldenhuys, Jaco; Villiers, De Hendrik


    Procedural texture generation enables the creation of more rich and detailed virtual environments without the help of an artist. However, finding a flexible generative model of real world textures remains an open problem. We present a novel Convolutional Neural Network based texture model

  4. 7 CFR 58.317 - Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.317 Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers. Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers shall be constructed of aluminum, stainless...

  5. Evaluation of Liver Fibrosis Using Texture Analysis on Combined-Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Images at 3.0T

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yokoo, Takeshi; Wolfson, Tanya; Iwaisako, Keiko; Peterson, Michael R; Mani, Haresh; Goodman, Zachary; Changchien, Christopher; Middleton, Michael S; Gamst, Anthony C; Mazhar, Sameer M; Kono, Yuko; Ho, Samuel B; Sirlin, Claude B


    ... of superparamagnetic iron oxides (ferumoxides) and gadolinium DTPA (gadopentetate dimeglumine). The image texture of the liver was quantified in regions-of-interest by calculating 165 texture features...

  6. Rapakivi texture: An indication of the crystallization of hydrosilicates, II (United States)

    Elliston, John N.


    Rapakivi granites have puzzled all who have seriously studied them. Typical rapakivi texture is a mixture of variously mantled, non-mantled or partly mantled, concentrically zoned, plastically distorted, fragmented, reaggregated, large and small ovoids. Commonly they are potash feldspar often mantled by, and having a variable content of plagioclase. Some display remarkable sphericity. In form, composition, zoning sequence, and crystallization pattern each ovoid reflects an individual development. Up to five concentric internal plagioclase rims have been observed and some ovoids may be isolated in autoliths and wall-rocks. Anomalies and contradictions arise from any assumption of genesis from a cooling melt. The recorded objective data imply that the "magma" from which rapakivi textures develop had similar diffusive and rheological properties to those of a partly dewatered macromolecular paste or a mixture of gelatinous hydrosilicates. As indicated by deep oil wells this system is found at somewhat elevated temperatures at considerable depths within accumulated sediments. In addition to the very specific diffusive and rheological properties of such partly dewatered sediments, the system has as its major components normal solvated macromolecules of mixed clays, silica gels and hydrous ferromagnesian minerals which are characterised by distinctive particle sizes and geometric shapes (platelets, spheres and rods, respectively). Thixotropic liquefaction and intrusion of such concentrated gelatinous "magma" or sediment paste introduces relative movement between the component macromolecules whereby they can reduce surface energy by interaction to assume a "close-packed" condition and aggregate during laminar flow into macro-accretions comprised essentially of their respective particle shapes. Syneresis of these precursor accretions desorbs ions, including the small montmorillonite particles behaving as a colloidal electrolyte. These diffuse from the illitic cores to form


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Mavko


    As part of our study on ''Relationships between seismic properties and rock microstructure'', we have (1) Studied relationships between velocity and permeability. (2) Used independent experimental methods to measure the elastic moduli of clay minerals as functions of pressure and saturation. (3) Applied different statistical methods for characterizing heterogeneity and textures from scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) images of shale microstructures. (4) Analyzed the directional dependence of velocity and attenuation in different reservoir rocks (5) Compared Vp measured under hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic stress conditions in sands. (6) Studied stratification as a source of intrinsic anisotropy in sediments using Vp and statistical methods for characterizing textures in sands.

  8. Visible light driven plasmonic photochemistry on nano-textured silver. (United States)

    Walia, Jaspreet; Guay, Jean-Michel; Krupin, Oleksiy; Variola, Fabio; Berini, Pierre; Weck, Arnaud


    Plasmon assisted generation of silver sulfate from dodecanethiol is demonstrated on a nano-textured silver substrate with a strong surface plasmon resonance in the visible range. The observed photo-physical processes are attributed to hot charge carriers that are generated from the excitation of surface plasmon resonances using 532 nm laser light. Excited charge carriers are responsible for cleaving the alkane chain, and for generating reactive oxygen species which rapidly photooxidize the exposed sulfur atoms. The ability to drive photochemical reactions with photon energies in the visible range rather than in the UV, on nano-textured silver surfaces, will enable researchers to study photochemical transformations for a wide variety of applications. The strong optical absorbance across the visible range, combined with the fact that the substrates can be fabricated over large areas, naturally makes them candidates for solar driven photochemical applications, and for large scale plasmonic reactors.

  9. Texture-based approach to palmprint retrieval for personal identification (United States)

    Li, Wenxin; Zhang, David; Xu, Z.; You, J.


    This paper presents a new approach to palmprint retrieval for personal identification. Three key issues in image retrieval are considered - feature selection, similarity measures and dynamic search for the best matching of the sample in the image database. We propose a texture-based method for palmprint feature representation. The concept of texture energy is introduced to define a palm print's global and local features, which are characterized with high convergence of inner-palm similarities and good dispersion of inter-palm discrimination. The search is carried out in a layered fashion: first global features are used to guide the fast selection of a small set of similar candidates from the database from the database and then local features are used to decide the final output within the candidate set. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method.

  10. Texture of Mo-containing hydrodesulfurization catalysts on different supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnopol' skaya, S.M.; Lur' e, M.A.; Kurets, I.Z.; Rak, V.S.; Belyaeva, V.A.; Shmidt, F.K.


    The thermal desorption of nitrogen was used to investigate the texture of molybdenum-containing hydrodesulfurization catalysts, synthesized on the basis of ..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and a genetic mixture of mountain cork (palygorskite) and montmorillonite. Their activity in the hydrogenolysis of thiophene has been determined. It has been shown that in the preparation of the oxide or sulfide forms the texture of the contact, containing the natural support, changes more strongly than that based on aluminum oxide. Elimination of the oxidizing calcination stage produces sulfide forms of the catalysts with a larger specific surface, porosity, and higher catalytic activity. A stronger effect is obtained on the natural support.

  11. Classification of Textures Using Filter Based Local Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocekci Veysel Gokhan


    Full Text Available In this work local features are used in feature extraction process in image processing for textures. The local binary pattern feature extraction method from textures are introduced. Filtering is also used during the feature extraction process for getting discriminative features. To show the effectiveness of the algorithm before the extraction process, three different noise are added to both train and test images. Wiener filter and median filter are used to remove the noise from images. We evaluate the performance of the method with Naïve Bayesian classifier. We conduct the comparative analysis on benchmark dataset with different filtering and size. Our experiments demonstrate that feature extraction process combine with filtering give promising results on noisy images.

  12. The physical basis of perceived roughness in virtual sinusoidal textures. (United States)

    Unger, Bertram; Klatzky, Roberta; Hollis, Ralph


    Using a high-fidelity haptic interface based on magnetic levitation, subjects explored virtual sinusoidal textures with a frictionless probe and reported the subjective magnitude of perceived roughness. A psychophysical function was obtained spanning 33 levels of spatial periods from 0.025 to 6.00 mm. Kinematic and dynamic variables were recorded at 1,000 Hz and used to derive a set of variables to correlate with the psychophysical outcome. These included position, velocity, kinetic energy, instantaneous force (based on acceleration), mean force, and variability of the z-axis force signal from the power spectral density. The analysis implicates power of the force signal as the physical correlate of perceived roughness of sinusoidal textures. The relationship between power and roughness held across the range of spatial periods examined.

  13. About normal distribution on SO(3) group in texture analysis (United States)

    Savyolova, T. I.; Filatov, S. V.


    This article studies and compares different normal distributions (NDs) on SO(3) group, which are used in texture analysis. Those NDs are: Fisher normal distribution (FND), Bunge normal distribution (BND), central normal distribution (CND) and wrapped normal distribution (WND). All of the previously mentioned NDs are central functions on SO(3) group. CND is a subcase for normal CLT-motivated distributions on SO(3) (CLT here is Parthasarathy’s central limit theorem). WND is motivated by CLT in R 3 and mapped to SO(3) group. A Monte Carlo method for modeling normally distributed values was studied for both CND and WND. All of the NDs mentioned above are used for modeling different components of crystallites orientation distribution function in texture analysis.

  14. Perspective texture synthesis based on improved energy optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Muhammad Arsalan Bashir

    Full Text Available Perspective texture synthesis has great significance in many fields like video editing, scene capturing etc., due to its ability to read and control global feature information. In this paper, we present a novel example-based, specifically energy optimization-based algorithm, to synthesize perspective textures. Energy optimization technique is a pixel-based approach, so it's time-consuming. We improve it from two aspects with the purpose of achieving faster synthesis and high quality. Firstly, we change this pixel-based technique by replacing the pixel computation with a little patch. Secondly, we present a novel technique to accelerate searching nearest neighborhoods in energy optimization. Using k- means clustering technique to build a search tree to accelerate the search. Hence, we make use of principal component analysis (PCA technique to reduce dimensions of input vectors. The high quality results prove that our approach is feasible. Besides, our proposed algorithm needs shorter time relative to other similar methods.

  15. Recrystallization texture in nickel heavily deformed by accumulative roll bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, O. V.; Zhang, Y. B.; Godfrey, A.


    The recrystallization behavior of Ni processed by accumulative roll bonding to a total accumulated von Mises strain of 4.8 has been examined, and analyzed with respect to heterogeneity in the deformation microstructure. The regions near the bonding interface are found to be more refined and contain...... particle deformation zones around fragments of the steel wire brush used to prepare the surface for bonding. Sample-scale gradients are also observed, manifested as differences between the subsurface, intermediate and central layers, where the distributions of texture components are different....... These heterogeneities affect the progress of recrystallization. While the subsurface and near-interface regions typically contain lower frequencies of cube-oriented grains than anywhere else in the sample, a strong cube texture forms in the sample during recrystallization, attributed to both a high nucleation rate...

  16. Textural features and neural network for image classification (United States)

    Haddadi, Souad; Fernandez, C.; Abdelnour, F.


    In this paper, we present a neural network approach for scene analysis: detection of human beings in images. To solve this problem, a precise classification system is required, with adaptation systems based on data processing. These systems must be largely parallel, which is why neural networks have been chosen. The first part of this text is a brief introduction to neural networks and their applications. The second part is a description of the image base composed for experiments and the low-level processing used, then we detail the method used to extract the texture feature of images. The third part describes the Bayesian method and its application to our problem. Part four shows the association of these texture processes with the neural network for identification of human beings. Finally, we conclude with the validity of the method and its future applications.

  17. Object texture recognition by dynamic tactile sensing using active exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Børlum Petersen, Mikkel; Bilberg, Arne

    For both humans and robots, tactile sensing is important for interaction with the environment: it is the core sensing used for exploration and manipulation of objects. In this paper, we present a method for determining object texture by active exploration with a robotic fingertip equipped...... with a dynamic tactile transducer based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric film. Different test surfaces are actively explored and the signal from the sensor is used for feature extraction, which is subsequently used for classification. A comparison between the significance of different extracted...... features and performance of learning algorithms is done and the best method is further used to classify objects by their surface textures with recognition results higher than 90 percent....

  18. Uterus segmentation in dynamic MRI using LBP texture descriptors (United States)

    Namias, R.; Bellemare, M.-E.; Rahim, M.; Pirró, N.


    Pelvic floor disorders cover pathologies of which physiopathology is not well understood. However cases get prevalent with an ageing population. Within the context of a project aiming at modelization of the dynamics of pelvic organs, we have developed an efficient segmentation process. It aims at alleviating the radiologist with a tedious one by one image analysis. From a first contour delineating the uterus-vagina set, the organ border is tracked along a dynamic mri sequence. The process combines movement prediction, local intensity and texture analysis and active contour geometry control. Movement prediction allows a contour intitialization for next image in the sequence. Intensity analysis provides image-based local contour detection enhanced by local binary pattern (lbp) texture descriptors. Geometry control prohibits self intersections and smoothes the contour. Results show the efficiency of the method with images produced in clinical routine.

  19. Impact of pretreatment on colour and texture of watermelon rind (United States)

    Athmaselvi, K.; Alagusundaram, K.; Kavitha, C.; Arumuganathan, T.


    The effect of osmotic dehydration pretreatment on water loss, solid gain, colour and textural change was investigated. Watermelon rind 1 x 1 cm size was immersed in sucrose solution of 40, 50 and 60° Brix after pretreatment with microwave and conventional boiling in water for 1, 3, and 5 min, respectively. Water loss and solid gain increased with the time of cooking and sugar concentration. Microwave pretreated samples showed higher water loss and solid gain. Increase in the time of cooking decreased the brightness of all the samples. Microwave pretreated samples showed higher `b' values than conventionally pretreated ones. There was no significant difference (P≤0.05) in texture profile analysis parameters except for hardness. Hardness decreased with increase in time of cooking and sugar concentration. Second order regression model was developed for water loss and solid gain of microwave and conventional pretreated watermelon rind.

  20. Development of BATAN’s texture diffractometer (current status)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priyanto, T. H., E-mail:; Bharoto,; Mugirahardjo, H.; Muslih, R.; Ramadhani, A.; Sairun [Center for Nuclear Industrial Material Technology (PTBIN) National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang Selatan (Indonesia)


    Texture Diffractometer, called DN2, is one of neutron diffractometers in BATAN which is dedicated for texture measurement using neutron diffraction method. To obtain better performance of the DN2, a flight tube goniometer have been installed between the monochromator and sample position. By adjusting the flight tube goniometer, defocusing effect at direct beam and background effect could be reduced significantly. Some experiments have been carried out to characterize DN2 performance. The flight tube goniometer alignment and neutron wavelength calibration were characterized using silicon standard sample Si640d. Data refinement of diffraction pattern was analyzed using MAUD software and it is obtained reliability factor with background, R{sub wpb}, reduced significantly, from 42.53 % to 19.36 % after setting of flight tube goniometer. Reliability factor without background (R{sub wp}) was reduced from 27.41% to 21.36%. Calibrated of neutron wavelengh, λ = 1,2799 Angstrom is obtained.

  1. Momentum-space spin texture in a topological superconductor (United States)

    Loder, Florian; Kampf, Arno P.; Kopp, Thilo; Braak, Daniel


    A conventional superconductor with spin-orbit coupling turns into a topological superconductor beyond a critical strength of the Zeeman energy. The spin-expectation values S (k ) in momentum space trace this transition via a characteristic change in the topological character of the spin texture within the Brillouin zone. At the transition the skyrmion counting number switches from 0 to 1/2 identifying the topological superconductor via its meron-like spin texture. The change in the skyrmion counting number is crucially controlled by singular points of the map S (k )/|S (k )| from the Brillouin zone, i.e., a torus, to the unit sphere. The complexity of this spin map is discussed at zero temperature as well as for the extension to finite temperatures.

  2. Momentum-space spin texture of a topological superconductor (United States)

    Kampf, Arno; Loder, Florian; Kopp, Thilo; Braak, Daniel

    A conventional superconductor with spin-orbit coupling turns into a topological superconductor beyond a critical strength of the Zeeman coupling. The spin-expectation values S (k) in momentum space trace this transition via a characteristic change in the topological character of the spin texture within the Brillouin zone. At the transition the skyrmion counting number switches from 0 to 1/2 identifying the topological superconductor via its meron-like spin texture. The change in the skyrmion counting number is crucially controlled by singular points of the map S (k) / | S (k) | from the Brillouin zone, i.e. a torus, to the unit sphere. The complexity of this spin-map is discussed at zero temperature as well as for the extension to finite temperatures. Supported by the DFG through TRR 80.

  3. Magnetization dynamics of imprinted non-collinear spin textures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streubel, Robert, E-mail:; Kopte, Martin; Makarov, Denys, E-mail: [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Fischer, Peter [Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Physics Department, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); Schmidt, Oliver G. [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Material Systems for Nanoelectronics, Chemnitz University of Technology, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany)


    We study the magnetization dynamics of non-collinear spin textures realized via imprint of the magnetic vortex state in soft permalloy into magnetically hard out-of-plane magnetized Co/Pd nanopatterned heterostructures. Tuning the interlayer exchange coupling between soft- and hard-magnetic subsystems provides means to tailor the magnetic state in the Co/Pd stack from being vortex- to donut-like with different core sizes. While the imprinted vortex spin texture leads to the dynamics similar to the one observed for vortices in permalloy disks, the donut-like state causes the appearance of two gyrofrequencies characteristic of the early and later stages of the magnetization dynamics. The dynamics are described using the Thiele equation supported by the full scale micromagnetic simulations by taking into account an enlarged core size of the donut states compared to magnetic vortices.

  4. Segmentation of textured images based on multiple fractal feature combinations (United States)

    Charalampidis, Dimitrios; Kasparis, Takis; Rolland, Jannick P.


    This paper describes an approach to segmentation of textured grayscale images using a technique based on image filtering and the fractal dimension (FD). Twelve FD features are computed based on twelve filtered versions of the original image using directional Gabor filters. Features are computed in a window and mapped to the central pixel of this window. An iterative K-means-based algorithm which includes feature smoothing and takes into consideration the boundaries between textures is used to segment an image into a desired number of clusters. This approach is partially supervised since the number of clusters has to be predefined. The fractal features are compared to Gabor energy features and the iterative K- means algorithm is compared to the original K-means clustering approach. The performance of segmentation for noisy images is also studied.

  5. Texture information processing system with binary optical wavelet element (United States)

    Feng, Wenyi; Yan, Yingbai; Jin, Guofan; Wang, Wenlu; Wu, Minxian


    The implementation strategy of optical wavelet transform for texture information processing is discussed in this paper. An opto-electronic hybrid system is constructed for texture segmentation, which is based on the multi-channel filtering framework in the early stages of human visual theory. First, a traditional optical system with a Damman grating as the beam splitter and a bank of Gabor wavelets as the channel filters is set up for feature extraction, and several clustering algorithms are then used for feature integration. Furthermore, a novel binary optical element with the functions of splitting, filtering and imaging is designed and fabricated to simplify the traditional system. The experimental results and the primary applications are also provided.

  6. Interactions between soil texture and placement of dairy slurry application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia Andersen; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Rubæk, Gitte Holton


    -textured soil. Smaller active flow volumes and higher proportions of preferential flow were observed with increasing soil clay content. Injection of slurry in the loam soil significantly enhanced diffusion of applied bromide into the large fraction of small pores compared with surface application. The resulting...... soils. We compared leaching of slurry-applied bromide through intact soil columns (20 cm diam., 20 cm high) of differing textures following surface application or injection of slurry. The volumetric fraction of soil pores >30 μm ranged from 43% in a loamy sand to 28% in a sandy loam and 15% in a loam...... physical protection against leaching of bromide was reflected by 60.2% of the bromide tracer was recovered in the effluent after injection, compared with 80.6% recovery after surface application. No effect of slurry injection was observed in the loamy sand and sandy loam soils. Our findings point to soil...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carriazo


    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se caracteriza una arcilla-bentonita colombiana (Valle del Cauca, mediante difracción de rayos X, técnicas espectroscópicas (IR, RMN y EPR y análisis textural. Los resultados indican que el componente principal en este material natural es una esmectita dioctaédrica (aluminosa. Igualmente, los resultados de RMN de 29Si y de 27Al revelan la substitución isomórfica de Al3+ por Si4+ en la capa tetraédrica. El estudio de EPR evidencia la presencia de hierro (III ocupando posiciones en la capa octaédrica del mineral de arcilla y formando nanoclusters, posiblemente de óxidos u oxihidróxidos. El análisis textural indica que el material es predominantemente mesoporoso.

  8. Multiresolution texture models for brain tumor segmentation in MRI. (United States)

    Iftekharuddin, Khan M; Ahmed, Shaheen; Hossen, Jakir


    In this study we discuss different types of texture features such as Fractal Dimension (FD) and Multifractional Brownian Motion (mBm) for estimating random structures and varying appearance of brain tissues and tumors in magnetic resonance images (MRI). We use different selection techniques including KullBack - Leibler Divergence (KLD) for ranking different texture and intensity features. We then exploit graph cut, self organizing maps (SOM) and expectation maximization (EM) techniques to fuse selected features for brain tumors segmentation in multimodality T1, T2, and FLAIR MRI. We use different similarity metrics to evaluate quality and robustness of these selected features for tumor segmentation in MRI for real pediatric patients. We also demonstrate a non-patient-specific automated tumor prediction scheme by using improved AdaBoost classification based on these image features.

  9. Computer aided periapical lesion diagnosis using quantized texture analysis (United States)

    Wu, Yi; Xie, Fangfang; Yang, Jie; Cheng, Erkang; Megalooikonomou, Vasileios; Ling, Haibin


    Periapical lesion is a common disease in oral health. While many studies have been devoted to image-based diagnosis of periapical lesion, these studies usually require clinicians to perform the task. In this paper we investigate the automatic solutions toward periapical lesion classification using quantized texture analysis. Specifically, we adapt the bag-of-visual-words model for periapical root image representation, which captures the texture information by collecting local patch statistics. Then we investigate several similarity measure approaches with the K-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifier for the diagnosis task. To evaluate these classifiers we have collected a digitized oral X-Ray image dataset from 21 patients, resulting 139 root images in total. The extensive experimental results demonstrate that the KNN classifier based on the bagof- words model can achieve very promising performance for periapical lesion classification.

  10. Analysis of four-zero textures in $3+1$ framework


    Borah, Debasish; Ghosh, Monojit; Gupta, Shivani; Prakash, Suprabh; Raut, Sushant K.


    The presence of a zero texture in the neutrino mass matrix can indicate the presence of an underlying symmetry which can generate neutrino mass and mixing. In this paper, for the first time we study the four-zero textures of the low energy neutrino mass matrix in the presence of an extra light-sterile neutrino i.e., the 3+1 neutrino scheme. In our analysis we find that out of the 210 possible four-zero textures only 15 textures are allowed. We divide the allowed four-zero textures into two cl...

  11. A complete survey of texture zeros in general and symmetric quark mass matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.O. Ludl


    Full Text Available We perform a systematic analysis of all possible texture zeros in general and symmetric quark mass matrices. Using the values of masses and mixing parameters at the electroweak scale, we identify for both cases the maximally restrictive viable textures. Furthermore, we investigate the predictive power of these textures by applying a numerical predictivity measure recently defined by us. With this measure we find no predictive textures among the viable general quark mass matrices, while in the case of symmetric quark mass matrices most of the 15 maximally restrictive textures are predictive with respect to one or more light quark masses.

  12. Modification of aluminum alloy surface properties by wave-long laser texturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batishcheva Kseniya


    Full Text Available Change of the static contact angle (SCA of 10 μL distilled water droplet on laser textured aluminium alloy (AMG-6 substrates was studied. The texture was deposited by a laser system based on a fiber laser. An increase in the power of laser radiation is found to lead to a decrease in the SCA measured on the first day after texturing. Change of dispersion and polar surface energy components of textured substrates is determined. Under the influence of the environment, the surface properties of AMG-6 change with time. SCA increased and reached stable state on the twentieth day after texturing.

  13. A Neuro-Fuzzy based System for Classification of Natural Textures (United States)

    Jiji, G. Wiselin


    A statistical approach based on the coordinated clusters representation of images is used for classification and recognition of textured images. In this paper, two issues are being addressed; one is the extraction of texture features from the fuzzy texture spectrum in the chromatic and achromatic domains from each colour component histogram of natural texture images and the second issue is the concept of a fusion of multiple classifiers. The implementation of an advanced neuro-fuzzy learning scheme has been also adopted in this paper. The results of classification tests show the high performance of the proposed method that may have industrial application for texture classification, when compared with other works.

  14. An experimental investigation for macro-textured tool in hot stamping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Kailun


    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of increasing draw-ability of materials in hot stamping processes using forming tools with macro-scale textures on the tool surfaces. Cold and hot stamping processes of a top-hat shape were conducted to evaluate the effects on macro-scale surface textures on the material drawing. Texture directional and texture ratio effects on the draw-ability have been investigated. A more uniform thickness distribution and improved draw-ability was found using the blankholders with surface textures, which is believed to be caused by the lower temperature loss derived from the smaller contact area.

  15. The influence of sensor and flight parameters on texture in radar images (United States)

    Frost, V. S.; Shanmugan, K. S.; Holtzman, J. C.


    Texture is known to be important in the analysis of radar images for geologic applications. It has previously been shown that texture features derived from the grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) can be used to separate large scale texture in radar images. Here the influence of sensor parameters, specifically the spatial and radiometric resolution and flight parameters, i.e., the orientation of the surface structure relative to the sensor, on the ability to classify texture based on the GLCM features is investigated. It was found that changing these sensor and flight parameters greatly affects the usefulness of the GLCM for classifying texture on radar images.

  16. Fourier optics for polymeric substrates and coating textures analysis


    Sparavigna, Amelia; Wolf, Rory A.


    Several devices for substrate texture detection based on diffractive optics, for paper, textiles and non-wovens have been proposed in the past for direct inspection during the production processes. In spite of the presence of devices totally based on image processing, the use of diffractive optics cannot be considered surpassed for many reasons. Compared with image processing procedures, it is less sensitive to vibrations and does not suffer from the presence of ambient light. Based on transm...

  17. Myocardium tissue analysis based on textures in ultrasound images. (United States)

    Punys, Vytenis; Puniene, Jurate; Jurkevicius, Renaldas; Punys, Jonas


    The heart disease is related to the alterations in the biological tissue of its muscles. The myocardium alterations have been analysed and evaluated on ultrasound images. The statistical parameters of the heart texture on the defined region of interest present information about the state of myocardium. There are hundreds of the texture parameters, which could be used to evaluate the heart tissue structure. The goal was to choose the most informative ones by applying the quantitative analysis technique. The Fisher statistics has been applied for hypothesis testing to define the most informative texture parameters. The quantitative analysis proved that the texture parameters of the myocardium tissue can be estimated significantly, when the sample size of ROI is not less than 900-1000 pixels. The sample cannot be enhanced by combining images on in the diastolic and systolic phases. To evaluate the state of the myocardium the following statistical parameters can be used on four chamber view images: the percentiles of order 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, grey level run length non-uniformity (in all directions: horizontally, vertically, 45(0), 135(0)), except a lateral wall of the left ventricle, the entropy of the two-dimensional probability distribution, the parameter of the two-dimensional probability distribution, which defines the mean distance between grey levels. On parasternal images the informative statistical parameters are: grey level run length non-uniformity (in all directions: horizontally, vertically, 45(0), 135(0)), grey level non-uniformity, the entropy of the two-dimensional probability distribution applied to the septum only.

  18. Simulation of Hohlraum Wall Texture for Improved Performance in Hohlraums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Isaac Chartrand [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scott, John Mitchell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The performance of hohlraums for use in NIF (National Ignition Facility) is explored using Cassio: a LANL produced radiation hydrodynamics code that implements implicit Monte Carlo radiation transport. We examine the effect on blowoff of adding texture to the inside of the hohlraum wall. These new designs are compared in simulation against current designs and the data are analyzed for the possible use of such hohlraums in future high energy density physics experiments.

  19. Evaluation of pavement skid resistance using high speed texture measurement


    Jay N. Meegoda; Shengyan Gao


    Skid resistance is an important parameter for highway designs, construction, management, maintenance and safety. The purpose of this manuscript is to propose the correlation between skid resistance, which is measured as skid resistance trailer, and mean profile depth (MPD) or the macro surface texture, which is measured by vehicle mounted laser, so that highway agencies can predict the skid resistance of pavement without the use of expensive and time consuming skid resistance trailer, which a...

  20. Simulating X-ray diffraction of textured films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiby, Dag W.; Bunk, Oliver; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel


    Computationally efficient simulations of grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) are discussed, with particular attention given to textured thin polycrystalline films on supporting substrates. A computer program has been developed for simulating scattering from thin films exhibiting varying...... from the totally substrate-reflected beam ( two-beam approximation) and refraction effects are also included in the program, together with the geometrical intensity corrections associated with GIXD measurements. To achieve 'user friendliness' for scientists less familiar with diffraction...

  1. Stabilization of Leidenfrost vapour layer by textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev


    In 1756, Leidenfrost observed that water drops skittered on a sufficiently hot skillet, owing to levitation by an evaporative vapour film. Such films are stable only when the hot surface is above a critical temperature, and are a central phenomenon in boiling. In this so-called Leidenfrost regime, the low thermal conductivity of the vapour layer inhibits heat transfer between the hot surface and the liquid. When the temperature of the cooling surface drops below the critical temperature, the vapour film collapses and the system enters a nucleate-boiling regime, which can result in vapour explosions that are particularly detrimental in certain contexts, such as in nuclear power plants. The presence of these vapour films can also reduce liquid-solid drag. Here we show how vapour film collapse can be completely suppressed at textured superhydrophobic surfaces. At a smooth hydrophobic surface, the vapour film still collapses on cooling, albeit at a reduced critical temperature, and the system switches explosively to nucleate boiling. In contrast, at textured, superhydrophobic surfaces, the vapour layer gradually relaxes until the surface is completely cooled, without exhibiting a nucleate-boiling phase. This result demonstrates that topological texture on superhydrophobic materials is critical in stabilizing the vapour layer and thus in controlling-by heat transfer-the liquid-gas phase transition at hot surfaces. This concept can potentially be applied to control other phase transitions, such as ice or frost formation, and to the design of low-drag surfaces at which the vapour phase is stabilized in the grooves of textures without heating. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  2. How visual attention is modified by disparities and textures changes? (United States)

    Khaustova, Dar'ya; Fournier, Jérome; Wyckens, Emmanuel; Le Meur, Olivier


    The 3D image/video quality of experience is a multidimensional concept that depends on 2D image quality, depth quantity and visual comfort. The relationship between these parameters is not yet clearly defined. From this perspective, we aim to understand how texture complexity, depth quantity and visual comfort influence the way people observe 3D content in comparison with 2D. Six scenes with different structural parameters were generated using Blender software. For these six scenes, the following parameters were modified: texture complexity and the amount of depth changing the camera baseline and the convergence distance at the shooting side. Our study was conducted using an eye-tracker and a 3DTV display. During the eye-tracking experiment, each observer freely examined images with different depth levels and texture complexities. To avoid memory bias, we ensured that each observer had only seen scene content once. Collected fixation data were used to build saliency maps and to analyze differences between 2D and 3D conditions. Our results show that the introduction of disparity shortened saccade length; however fixation durations remained unaffected. An analysis of the saliency maps did not reveal any differences between 2D and 3D conditions for the viewing duration of 20 s. When the whole period was divided into smaller intervals, we found that for the first 4 s the introduced disparity was conducive to the section of saliency regions. However, this contribution is quite minimal if the correlation between saliency maps is analyzed. Nevertheless, we did not find that discomfort (comfort) had any influence on visual attention. We believe that existing metrics and methods are depth insensitive and do not reveal such differences. Based on the analysis of heat maps and paired t-tests of inter-observer visual congruency values we deduced that the selected areas of interest depend on texture complexities.

  3. Intraoral radiographs texture analysis for dental implant planning. (United States)

    Mundim, Mayara B V; Dias, Danilo R; Costa, Ronaldo M; Leles, Cláudio R; Azevedo-Marques, Paulo M; Ribeiro-Rotta, Rejane F


    Computer vision extracts features or attributes from images improving diagnosis accuracy and aiding in clinical decisions. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of using texture analysis of periapical radiograph images as a tool for dental implant treatment planning. Periapical radiograph images of 127 jawbone sites were obtained before and after implant placement. From the superimposition of the pre- and post-implant images, four regions of interest (ROI) were delineated on the pre-implant images for each implant site: mesial, distal and apical peri-implant areas and a central area. Each ROI was analysed using Matlab® software and seven image attributes were extracted: mean grey level (MGL), standard deviation of grey levels (SDGL), coefficient of variation (CV), entropy (En), contrast, correlation (Cor) and angular second moment (ASM). Images were grouped by bone types-Lekholm and Zarb classification (1,2,3,4). Peak insertion torque (PIT) and resonance frequency analysis (RFA) were recorded during implant placement. Differences among groups were tested for each image attribute. Agreement between measurements of the peri-implant ROIs and overall ROI (peri-implant + central area) was tested, as well as the association between primary stability measures (PIT and RFA) and texture attributes. Differences among bone type groups were found for MGL (p = 0.035), SDGL (p = 0.024), CV (p  0.93), except for ASM (ρ = 0.62). Texture attributes were significantly associated with the implant stability measures. Texture analysis of periapical radiographs may be a reliable non-invasive quantitative method for the assessment of jawbone and prediction of implant stability, with potential clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of texture and colorimetric properties of irradiated ice cream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sabato, Susy F., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The ice cream consists of an aerated suspension of fat and crystals in a concentrate sugar solution where other ingredients may be added provided that does not mis characterize the product. It is one of the most important product of the dairy industry. The ice cream is considered a high nutritional value food providing fat, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and mineral to its consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the gamma radiation process in the color and texture of milk based ice cream purchased at Sao Paulo retail market, Brazil. The samples were irradiated with doses of 1.0 and 2.0 kGy into isothermal boxes at {sup 6}0{sup C}o Multipurpose Irradiator (IPEN-CNEN/SP) at -72 °C and it was immediately stored at -10 °C until the moment of the analyses. The color parameter were L *, a * and b * using a CR-400 Minolta Colorimeter and the texture was analyzed using a Stable Micro Systems texture analyzer (model TA-TX Plus) equipped with a Multiple Puncture Probe. It was observed that the control and irradiated sample differs statistically for the texture analysis. In the color analysis it was observed that the L * parameter have increased less than 5.0 % between the control and 2.0 kGy sample. For the parameters a * and b * the value rose by 18 % and 2.31 %, respectively. The authors concluded that even with the statistical difference the gamma radiation can be applied in ice creams. (author)

  5. Texture analysis of tissues in Gleason grading of prostate cancer (United States)

    Alexandratou, Eleni; Yova, Dido; Gorpas, Dimitris; Maragos, Petros; Agrogiannis, George; Kavantzas, Nikolaos


    Prostate cancer is a common malignancy among maturing men and the second leading cause of cancer death in USA. Histopathological grading of prostate cancer is based on tissue structural abnormalities. Gleason grading system is the gold standard and is based on the organization features of prostatic glands. Although Gleason score has contributed on cancer prognosis and on treatment planning, its accuracy is about 58%, with this percentage to be lower in GG2, GG3 and GG5 grading. On the other hand it is strongly affected by "inter- and intra observer variations", making the whole process very subjective. Therefore, there is need for the development of grading tools based on imaging and computer vision techniques for a more accurate prostate cancer prognosis. The aim of this paper is the development of a novel method for objective grading of biopsy specimen in order to support histopathological prognosis of the tumor. This new method is based on texture analysis techniques, and particularly on Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) that estimates image properties related to second order statistics. Histopathological images of prostate cancer, from Gleason grade2 to Gleason grade 5, were acquired and subjected to image texture analysis. Thirteen texture characteristics were calculated from this matrix as they were proposed by Haralick. Using stepwise variable selection, a subset of four characteristics were selected and used for the description and classification of each image field. The selected characteristics profile was used for grading the specimen with the multiparameter statistical method of multiple logistic discrimination analysis. The subset of these characteristics provided 87% correct grading of the specimens. The addition of any of the remaining characteristics did not improve significantly the diagnostic ability of the method. This study demonstrated that texture analysis techniques could provide valuable grading decision support to the pathologists

  6. Added Mastication Sound Affects Food Texture and Pleasantness


    Mami Masuda; Katsunori Okajima


    When eating, specific sounds are generated depending on the food, thus strong associations between food and mastication-sound exist. In the present study, we investigated how the sound of chewing affects the perceived texture and pleasantness of food. Mastication sounds were recorded prior to the experiment for each subject while chewing several foods. These artificial mastication sounds were then presented to subjects during the experiment while they chewed several foods. The onset of the ar...

  7. Texturing of Surface of 3D Human Head Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Michalcin


    Full Text Available The paper deals with an algorithm of texturing of the surface of 3Dhuman head model. The proposed algorithm generates a textureconsequently of several camera frames of the input video sequence. Thetexture values from the camera frames are mapped on the surface of the3D human head model using perspective projection, scan line and 3Dmotion estimation. To decrease the number of camera frames a filling ofempty places by a simple interpolation method has been done in thetexture plane.

  8. Characterization of nano-textured samples in a production environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten Hannibal; Hansen, Poul-Erik; Bilenberg, Brian


    Nano-textured surfaces have been characterized by optical diffraction techniques using an adapted commercial light microscope with two detectors, a CCD camera and a spectrometer. We demonstrate that the microscope has a resolution in the nanometer range, also in an environment with many vibration...... as the beam spot is kept inside an area with homogenous structures, which makes the proposed microscope well suited for implementation in a production environment....

  9. Relating microstructure, sensory and instrumental texture of processed oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study is a part of a larger project aiming to produce new, healthy, and tasty food ingredients from oat. Germination and different heating processes can be used to improve the texture and flavour of cereals. In this study effects of germination and wet and dry heating on the microstructure, instrumental structure and sensory properties of two oat varieties were assessed. The microstructure of native, germinated, autoclaved and extruded grains of the hulled cv. Veli and hull-less cv. Lisbeth was examined by light microscopy, the texture was measured by determining the milling energy and hardness of the grains and sensory characteristics were evaluated with descriptive sensory profile analysis. In cv. Veli the cells of the starchy endosperm were smaller than in cv. Lisbeth and ß-glucan was concentrated in the subaleurone layer. In cv. Lisbeth ß-glucan was evenly distributed in the starchy endosperm. The grains of cv. Lisbeth were more extensively modified in the germination process than the grains of cv. Veli, otherwise the effects of processing on the grains of the two cultivars were similar. Germination caused cell wall degradation, autoclaving and extrusion cooking caused starch gelatinization. Autoclaving resulted in the hardest perceived texture in oat. Gelatinization of starch appeared to contribute more to the hardness of oat groats than the cell wall structure. Of the instrumental methods used in this study the milling energy measurement appeared to be the most useful method for the analysis of the effects of processing on grain structure.;


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available

    The effect of the addition of gelatin and starch on the rheological properties of sweetened plain stirred yogurt was studied by manufacturing six samples: two with gelatin (3000 and 6000 ppm, three with starch (1000, 5000, 10000 ppm and a sample without thickener (control. Rheological characterization of the samples was performed using a coaxial cylinder Haake VT500 viscometer. Yield stress ( and hysteresis were also determined. Syneresis (% was measured by centrifugation at 1100 rpm for 10 minutes. Sensory characterization was performed with a panel of trained sensory assessors, who evaluated the following texture attributes: viscosity, ropiness, creaminess and mouthfeel. All samples showed thixotropic and pseudoplastic behaviour. Since the upward curve did not fit a unique model, it was divided in two regions. The first one fitted Herschel-Bulkley’s model. The addition of gelatine decreased flow behaviour index (n, whereas yield stress significantly increased with the addition of both thickeners. Gelatine was more efficient in reducing syneresis than starch. The addition of thickeners significantly increased all the studied sensory texture attributes. Non-oral and oral parameters were highly correlated witch each other and witch rheological parameters. KEYWORDS: Yogurt; texture; thickeners.

  11. Analysis of virus textures in transmission electron microscopy images. (United States)

    Nanni, Loris; Paci, Michelangelo; Caetano Dos Santos, Florentino Luciano; Brahnam, Sheryl; Hyttinen, Jari


    In this paper we propose an ensemble of texture descriptors for analyzing virus textures in transmission electron microscopy images. Specifically, we present several novel multi-quinary (MQ) codings of local binary pattern (LBP) variants: the MQ version of the dense LBP, the MQ version of the rotation invariant co-occurrence among adjacent LBPs, and the MQ version of the LBP histogram Fourier. To reduce computation time as well as to improve performance, a feature selection approach is utilized to select the thresholds used in the MQ approaches. In addition, we propose new variants of descriptors where two histograms, instead of the standard one histogram, are produced for each descriptor. The two histograms (one for edge pixels and the other for non-edge pixels) are calculated for training two different SVMs, whose results are then combined by sum rule. We show that a bag of features approach works well with this problem. Our experiments, using a publicly available dataset of 1500 images with 15 classes and same protocol as in previous works, demonstrate the superiority of our new proposed ensemble of texture descriptors. The MATLAB code of our approach is available at

  12. Configurable topological textures in strain graded ferroelectric nanoplates. (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Eun; Jeong, Seuri; Chu, Kanghyun; Lee, Jin Hong; Kim, Gi-Yeop; Xue, Fei; Koo, Tae Yeong; Chen, Long-Qing; Choi, Si-Young; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Yang, Chan-Ho


    Topological defects in matter behave collectively to form highly non-trivial structures called topological textures that are characterised by conserved quantities such as the winding number. Here we show that an epitaxial ferroelectric square nanoplate of bismuth ferrite subjected to a large strain gradient (as much as 10 5  m -1 ) associated with misfit strain relaxation enables five discrete levels for the ferroelectric topological invariant of the entire system because of its peculiar radial quadrant domain texture and its inherent domain wall chirality. The total winding number of the topological texture can be configured from - 1 to 3 by selective non-local electric switching of the quadrant domains. By using angle-resolved piezoresponse force microscopy in conjunction with local winding number analysis, we directly identify the existence of vortices and anti-vortices, observe pair creation and annihilation and manipulate the net number of vortices. Our findings offer a useful concept for multi-level topological defect memory.

  13. 2D Magnetic Texture Analysis of Co-Cu Films (United States)

    Bayirli, Mehmet; Karaagac, Oznur; Kockar, Hakan; Alper, Mursel


    The magnetic textures for the produced magnetic materials are important concepts in accordance with technical applications. Therefore, the aim of this article is to determine 2D magnetic textures of electrodeposited Co-Cu films by the measurement of hysteresis loops at the incremented angles. For that, Co-Cu films were deposited with different Co2+ in the electrolyte. In addition, the easy-axis orientation in the films from the squareness values of the angles, Mp(β) obtained by the hysteresis loops have been numerically studied using the Fourier series analysis. The differences observed in the magnetic easy-axis distributions were attributed to changes of the incorporation of Co in the films with the change of Co2+ in the electrolyte. The coefficients of Fourier series (A0 and A2n ) were also computed for 2D films. It is seen that a systematic and small decrease in A0 and an obvious decrease in A2n (n=1) were observed with increasing incorporated Co in the films. Results imply that interactions cause slightly demagnetization effect accordance with higher incorporation of Co in the films. Furthermore, the crystal structure of the Co-Cu films analysed by X-ray diffraction revealed that the films have dominantly face-centred cubic structure. Film contents analysed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and film morphologies observed by scanning electron microscope also support the magnetic texture analysis results found by numerical computation.

  14. Neuromorphic Artificial Touch for Categorization of Naturalistic Textures. (United States)

    Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Mazzoni, Alberto; Oddo, Calogero Maria


    We implemented neuromorphic artificial touch and emulated the firing behavior of mechanoreceptors by injecting the raw outputs of a biomimetic tactile sensor into an Izhikevich neuronal model. Naturalistic textures were evaluated with a passive touch protocol. The resulting neuromorphic spike trains were able to classify ten naturalistic textures ranging from textiles to glass to BioSkin, with accuracy as high as 97%. Remarkably, rather than on firing rate features calculated over the stimulation window, the highest achieved decoding performance was based on the precise spike timing of the neuromorphic output as captured by Victor Purpura distance. We also systematically varied the sliding velocity and the contact force to investigate the role of sensing conditions in categorizing the stimuli via the artificial sensory system. We found that the decoding performance based on the timing of neuromorphic spike events was robust for a broad range of sensing conditions. Being able to categorize naturalistic textures in different sensing conditions, these neurorobotic results pave the way to the use of neuromorphic tactile sensors in future real-life neuroprosthetic applications.

  15. The double capsules in macro-textured breast implants. (United States)

    Giot, Jean-Philippe; Paek, Laurence S; Nizard, Nathanael; El-Diwany, Mostafa; Gaboury, Louis A; Nelea, Monica; Bou-Merhi, Joseph S; Harris, Patrick G; Danino, Michel A


    Breast implants are amongst the most widely used types of permanent implants in modern medicine and have both aesthetic and reconstructive applications with excellent biocompatibility. The double capsule is a complication associated with textured prostheses that leads to implant displacement; however, its etiology has yet to be elucidated. In this study, 10 double capsules were sampled from breast expander implants for in-depth analysis; histologically, the inner capsular layer demonstrated highly organized collagen in sheets with delamination of fibers. At the prosthesis interface (PI) where the implant shell contacts the inner capsular layer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a thin layer which mirrored the three-dimensional characteristics of the implant texture; the external surface of the inner capsular layer facing the intercapsular space (ICS) was flat. SEM examination of the inner capsule layer revealed both a large bacterial presence as well as biofilm deposition at the PI; a significantly lower quantity of bacteria and biofilm were found at the ICS interface. These findings suggest that the double capsule phenomenon's etiopathogenesis is of mechanical origin. Delamination of the periprosthetic capsule leads to the creation of the ICS; the maintained separation of the 2 layers subsequently alters the biostability of the macro-textured breast implant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Visual Food Texture on Taste Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Okajima


    Full Text Available Food color affects taste perception. However, the possible effects of the visual texture of a foodstuff on taste and flavor, without associated changes to color, are currently unknown. We conducted a series of experiments designed to investigate how the visual texture and appearance of food influences its perceived taste and flavor by developing an Augmented Reality system. Participants observed a video of tomato ketchup as a food stimulus on a white dish placed behind a flat LC-display on which was mounted a video camera. The luminance distribution of the ketchup in the dynamic video was continuously and quantitatively modified by tracking specified colors in real-time. We changed the skewness of the luminance histogram of each frame in the video keeping the xy-chromaticity values intact. Participants watched themselves dip a spoon into the ketchup from the video feed (which could be altered, but then ate it with their eyes closed. They reported before and after tasting the ketchup on the perceived consistency (a liquid to solid continuum the food looked and felt and how tasty it looked or felt. The experimental results suggest that visual texture, independent of color, affects the taste and flavor as well as the appearance of foods.

  17. Dominant color and texture feature extraction for banknote discrimination (United States)

    Wang, Junmin; Fan, Yangyu; Li, Ning


    Banknote discrimination with image recognition technology is significant in many applications. The traditional methods based on image recognition only recognize the banknote denomination without discriminating the counterfeit banknote. To solve this problem, we propose a systematical banknote discrimination approach with the dominant color and texture features. After capturing the visible and infrared images of the test banknote, we first implement the tilt correction based on the principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm. Second, we extract the dominant color feature of the visible banknote image to recognize the denomination. Third, we propose an adaptively weighted local binary pattern with "delta" tolerance algorithm to extract the texture features of the infrared banknote image. At last, we discriminate the genuine or counterfeit banknote by comparing the texture features between the test banknote and the benchmark banknote. The proposed approach is tested using 14,000 banknotes of six different denominations from Chinese yuan (CNY). The experimental results show 100% accuracy for denomination recognition and 99.92% accuracy for counterfeit banknote discrimination.

  18. Image quality assessment based on textural structure and normalized noise (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-e.; Qiu, Zhengding


    Traditional image quality assessments are mostly based on error analysis and the errors only stem from the absolute differences of pixel values or transform coefficients between the two compared images. With consideration of Human Vision System this paper proposes a quality assessment based on textural structure and normalized noise, SNPSNR. The time-frequency property of wavelet transform is utilized to represent images' textural structure and then the structural noise is figured as the difference between wavelet transform coefficients emphasized by textural structure. The noises on each level, i.e., each channel, are weighted by HVS. Due to the energy distribution property of wavelet transform, the noise quantity difference on each transform level is quite large and is not proportional to the influence caused by them. We normalize the structural noise on different levels by normalizing the coefficients on each level. SNPSNR computation adopting the PSNR form and the result data are fitted with Differential Mean Opinion Scores (DMOS) using logistic function. SNPSNR gains better performance when compared with MSSIM, HVSNR and PSNR.

  19. Anterior dental microwear texture analysis of the Krapina Neandertals (United States)

    Krueger, Kristin; Ungar, Peter


    Some Neandertal anterior teeth show unusual and excessive gross wear, commonly explained by non-dietary anterior tooth use, or using the anterior dentition as a tool, clamp, or third hand. This alternate use is inferred from aboriginal arctic populations, who used their front teeth in this manner. Here we examine anterior dental microwear textures of the Krapina Neandertals to test this hypothesis and further analyze tooth use in these hominins. Microwear textures from 17 Krapina Dental People were collected by white-light confocal profilometry using a 100x objective lens. Four adjacent scans were generated, totaling an area of 204x276 μm, and were analyzed using Toothfrax and SFrax SSFA software packages. The Neandertals were compared to six bioarchaeological/ethnographic samples with reported variation in diet, abrasive load, and non-dietary anterior tooth use. Results indicate that Krapina anterior teeth lack extreme microwear textures expected of hominins exposed to heavy abrasives or those that regularly generated high stresses associated with intense use of the front teeth as tools. Krapina hominins have microwear attributes in common with Coast Tsimshian, Aleut, and Puye Pueblo samples. Collectively, this suggests that the Krapina Neandertals faced moderate abrasive loads and only periodically used their anterior teeth as tools for non-diet related behaviors.

  20. Texture segmentation via nonlinear interactions among Gabor feature pairs (United States)

    Tang, Hak W.; Srinivasan, Venugopal; Ong, Sim-Heng


    Segmentation of an image based on texture can be performed by a set of N Gabor filters that uniformly covers the spatial frequency domain. The filter outputs that characterize the frequency and orientation content of the intensity distribution in the vicinity of a pixel constitute an N-element feature vector. As an alternative to the computationally intensive procedure of segmentation based on the N-element vectors generated at each pixel, we propose an algorithm for selecting a pair of filters that provides maximum discrimination between two textures constituting the object and its surroundings in an image. Images filtered by the selected filters are nonlinearity transformed to produce two feature maps. The feature maps are smoothed by an intercompetitive and intracooperative interaction process between them. These interactions have proven to be much superior to simple Gaussian filtering in reducing the effects of spatial variability of feature maps. A segmented binary image is then generated by a pixel-by-pixel comparison of the two maps. Results of experiments involving several texture combinations show that this procedure is capable of producing clean segmentation.

  1. Segmentation of electron microscopy images through Gabor texture descriptors (United States)

    Navarro, Rafael B.; Nestares, Oscar


    We have developed a robust method for image segmentation based on a local multiscale texture description. We first apply a set of 4 by 4 complex Gabor filters, plus a low-pass residual (LPR), producing a log-polar sampling of the frequency domain. Contrary to other analysis methods, our Gabor scheme produces a visually complete multipurpose representation of the image, so that it can also be applied to coding, synthesis, etc. Our sixteen texture features consist of local contrast descriptors, obtained by dividing the modulus of the response of the complex Gabor filter by that of the LPR at each location. Contrast descriptors are basically independent of slow variations in intensity, while increasing the robustness and invariance of the representation. Before applying the segmentation algorithm, we equalize the number of samples of the four layers in the resulting pyramid of local contrast descriptors. This method has been applied to segmentation of electron microscopy images, obtaining very good results in this real case, where robustness is a basic requirement, because intensity, textures and other factors are not completely homogeneous.

  2. Optimized multichannel decomposition for texture segmentation using Gabor filter bank (United States)

    Nezamoddini-Kachouie, Nezamoddin; Alirezaie, Javad


    Texture segmentation and analysis is an important aspect of pattern recognition and digital image processing. Previous approaches to texture analysis and segmentation perform multi-channel filtering by applying a set of filters to the image. In this paper we describe a texture segmentation algorithm based on multi-channel filtering that is optimized using diagonal high frequency residual. Gabor band pass filters with different radial spatial frequencies and different orientations have optimum resolution in time and frequency domain. The image is decomposed by a set of Gabor filters into a number of filtered images; each one contains variation of intensity on a sub-band frequency and orientation. The features extracted by Gabor filters have been applied for image segmentation and analysis. There are some important considerations about filter parameters and filter bank coverage in frequency domain. This filter bank does not completely cover the corners of the frequency domain along the diagonals. In our method we optimize the spatial implementation for the Gabor filter bank considering the diagonal high frequency residual. Segmentation is accomplished by a feedforward backpropagation multi-layer perceptron that is trained by optimized extracted features. After MLP is trained the input image is segmented and each pixel is assigned to the proper class.

  3. Multifractal texture estimation for detection and segmentation of brain tumors. (United States)

    Islam, Atiq; Reza, Syed M S; Iftekharuddin, Khan M


    A stochastic model for characterizing tumor texture in brain magnetic resonance (MR) images is proposed. The efficacy of the model is demonstrated in patient-independent brain tumor texture feature extraction and tumor segmentation in magnetic resonance images (MRIs). Due to complex appearance in MRI, brain tumor texture is formulated using a multiresolution-fractal model known as multifractional Brownian motion (mBm). Detailed mathematical derivation for mBm model and corresponding novel algorithm to extract spatially varying multifractal features are proposed. A multifractal feature-based brain tumor segmentation method is developed next. To evaluate efficacy, tumor segmentation performance using proposed multifractal feature is compared with that using Gabor-like multiscale texton feature. Furthermore, novel patient-independent tumor segmentation scheme is proposed by extending the well-known AdaBoost algorithm. The modification of AdaBoost algorithm involves assigning weights to component classifiers based on their ability to classify difficult samples and confidence in such classification. Experimental results for 14 patients with over 300 MRIs show the efficacy of the proposed technique in automatic segmentation of tumors in brain MRIs. Finally, comparison with other state-of-the art brain tumor segmentation works with publicly available low-grade glioma BRATS2012 dataset show that our segmentation results are more consistent and on the average outperforms these methods for the patients where ground truth is made available.

  4. Deep neural networks for texture classification-A theoretical analysis. (United States)

    Basu, Saikat; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Karki, Manohar; DiBiano, Robert; Ganguly, Sangram; Nemani, Ramakrishna; Gayaka, Shreekant


    We investigate the use of Deep Neural Networks for the classification of image datasets where texture features are important for generating class-conditional discriminative representations. To this end, we first derive the size of the feature space for some standard textural features extracted from the input dataset and then use the theory of Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension to show that hand-crafted feature extraction creates low-dimensional representations which help in reducing the overall excess error rate. As a corollary to this analysis, we derive for the first time upper bounds on the VC dimension of Convolutional Neural Network as well as Dropout and Dropconnect networks and the relation between excess error rate of Dropout and Dropconnect networks. The concept of intrinsic dimension is used to validate the intuition that texture-based datasets are inherently higher dimensional as compared to handwritten digits or other object recognition datasets and hence more difficult to be shattered by neural networks. We then derive the mean distance from the centroid to the nearest and farthest sampling points in an n-dimensional manifold and show that the Relative Contrast of the sample data vanishes as dimensionality of the underlying vector space tends to infinity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of sensitivity to visual texture modulation in macaque monkeys. (United States)

    El-Shamayleh, Yasmine; Movshon, J Anthony; Kiorpes, Lynne


    In human and non-human primates, higher form vision matures substantially later than spatial acuity and contrast sensitivity, as revealed by performance on such tasks as figure-ground segregation and contour integration. Our goal was to understand whether delayed maturation on these tasks was intrinsically form-dependent or, rather, related to the nature of spatial integration necessary for extracting task-relevant cues. We used an intermediate-level form task that did not call for extensive spatial integration. We trained monkeys (6-201 weeks) to discriminate the orientation of pattern modulation in a two-alternative forced choice paradigm. We presented two families of form patterns, defined by texture or contrast variations, and luminance-defined patterns for comparison. Infant monkeys could discriminate texture- and contrast-defined form as early as 6 weeks; sensitivity improved up to 40 weeks. Surprisingly, sensitivity for texture- and contrast-defined form matured earlier than for luminance-defined form. These results suggest that intermediate-level form vision develops in concert with basic spatial vision rather than following sequentially. Comparison with earlier results reveals that different aspects of form vision develop over different time courses, with processes that depend on comparing local image content maturing earlier than those requiring "global" linking of multiple visual elements across a larger spatial extent.

  6. Texture coding in the rat whisker system: slip-stick versus differential resonance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Wolfe


    Full Text Available Rats discriminate surface textures using their whiskers (vibrissae, but how whiskers extract texture information, and how this information is encoded by the brain, are not known. In the resonance model, whisker motion across different textures excites mechanical resonance in distinct subsets of whiskers, due to variation across whiskers in resonance frequency, which varies with whisker length. Texture information is therefore encoded by the spatial pattern of activated whiskers. In the competing kinetic signature model, different textures excite resonance equally across whiskers, and instead, texture is encoded by characteristic, nonuniform temporal patterns of whisker motion. We tested these models by measuring whisker motion in awake, behaving rats whisking in air and onto sandpaper surfaces. Resonant motion was prominent during whisking in air, with fundamental frequencies ranging from approximately 35 Hz for the long Delta whisker to approximately 110 Hz for the shorter D3 whisker. Resonant vibrations also occurred while whisking against textures, but the amplitude of resonance within single whiskers was independent of texture, contradicting the resonance model. Rather, whiskers resonated transiently during discrete, high-velocity, and high-acceleration slip-stick events, which occurred prominently during whisking on surfaces. The rate and magnitude of slip-stick events varied systematically with texture. These results suggest that texture is encoded not by differential resonant motion across whiskers, but by the magnitude and temporal pattern of slip-stick motion. These findings predict a temporal code for texture in neural spike trains.

  7. Beyond the subjective experience of colour: An experimental case study of grapheme-texture synesthesia. (United States)

    Banno, Hayaki; Koga, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Saiki, Jun


    This study was a case investigation of grapheme-texture synestheste TH, a female who subjectively reported experiencing a visual association between grapheme and colour/texture. First, we validated the existence of a synesthetic association in an objective manner. Involuntarily elicited experience is a major hallmark that is common to different types of synesthetes. Our results indicated interference between physical and synesthetic texture, suggesting the involuntary occurrence of synesthetic textural experience. We analysed the behavioural measures using the EZ diffusion model. The result suggested that TH's synesthetic experience was dissociable from that of briefly trained associative processing of non-synesthetes. Second, we investigated how the synesthetic experience of colour and texture dimensions was bound in the visual representation. We found that the interference effects of colour and texture were not independent. This suggested that in the elicited experience, the colour and texture features construct an integrated representation.

  8. Control and characterization of textured, hydrophobic ionomer surfaces (United States)

    Wang, Xueyuan

    Polymer thin films are of increasing interest in many industrial and technological applications. Superhydrophobic, self-cleaning surfaces have attracted a lot of attention for their application in self-cleaning, anti-sticking coatings, stain resistance, or anti-contamination surfaces in diverse technologies, including medical, transportation, textiles, electronics and paints. This thesis focuses on the preparation of nanometer to micrometer-size particle textured surfaces which are desirable for super water repellency. Textured surfaces consisting of nanometer to micrometer-sized lightly sulfonated polystyrene ionomer (SPS) particles were prepared by rapid evaporation of the solvent from a dilute polymer solution cast onto silica. The effect of the solvent used to spin coat the film, the molecular weight of the ionomer, and the rate of solvent evaporation were investigated. The nano-particle or micron-particle textured ionomer surfaces were prepared by either spin coating or solution casting ionomer solutions at controlled evaporation rates. The surface morphologies were consistent with a spinodal decomposition mechanism where the surface first existed as a percolated-like structure and then ripened into droplets if molecular mobility was retained for sufficient time. The SPS particles or particle aggregates were robust and resisted deformation even after annealing at 120°C for one week. The water contact angles on as-prepared surfaces were relatively low, ~ 90° since the polar groups in ionomer reduce the surface hydrophobicity. After chemical vapor deposition of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane, the surface contact angles increased to ~ 109° on smooth surfaces and ~140° on the textured surfaces. Water droplets stuck to these surfaces even when tilted 90 degrees. Superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared by spraying coating ionomer solutions and Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane onto textured surfaces. The

  9. Proteolytic and physicochemical mechanisms involved in meat texture development. (United States)

    Ouali, A


    Development in meat texture is a complex process originating very likely from a softening of the structural elements, especially myofibrils. This process probably involves two sets of mechanisms: 1) an enzymatic mechanism involving at least two of the three proteolytic systems so far identified and present in this tissue, namely lysosomal (cathepsins) and calcium dependent (calpains) proteinases; 2) a physicochemical mechanism based on the important post mortem rise in muscle osmotic pressure which could be twice as high as in live animals. Despite the large progress in muscle enzymology, the nature of the proteinases responsible for the post mortem proteolysis associated with the development in meat texture is still not clearly established. In the present review, data obtained from two different approaches attempting to answer this question were analysed. The first one was based on the identification of a set of structural and biochemical changes associated with meat texture development and to examine which proteolytic system or proteinase would be able to reproduce them when incubated with either myofibrils or muscle fibres as substrate. The second tentatively relates the rate and the extent of the changes in meat texture to the proteolytic equipment of the tissue. The first approach led to the conclusion that changes in muscle proteins and structure can be only explained by considering a synergistic action of both lysosomal and calcium-dependent proteinases. From the second, it was concluded that the process of meat texture development did not depend on the proteinase levels but was related to their initial potential efficiency assessed by measurement of the enzyme/inhibitor ratio. With respect to the physicochemical mechanisms, the post mortem rise in muscle osmotic pressure was shown to be responsible for some biochemical changes occurring in myofibrils. This was further substantiated by the fact that the greatest osmotic pressure values were observed in

  10. Carbon Dioxide Sealing Capacity: Textural or Compositional Controls?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranganu, Constantin; Soleymani, Hamidreza; Sadiqua, Soleymani; Watson, Kieva


    This research project is aiming to assess the carbon dioxide sealing capacity of most common seal-rocks, such as shales and non-fractured limestones, by analyzing the role of textural and compositional parameters of those rocks. We hypothesize that sealing capacity is controlled by textural and/or compositional pa-rameters of caprocks. In this research, we seek to evaluate the importance of textural and compositional parameters affecting the sealing capacity of caprocks. The conceptu-al framework involves two testable end-member hypotheses concerning the sealing ca-pacity of carbon dioxide reservoir caprocks. Better understanding of the elements controlling sealing quality will advance our knowledge regarding the sealing capacity of shales and carbonates. Due to relatively low permeability, shale and non-fractured carbonate units are considered relatively imper-meable formations which can retard reservoir fluid flow by forming high capillary pres-sure. Similarly, these unites can constitute reliable seals for carbon dioxide capture and sequestration purposes. This project is a part of the comprehensive project with the final aim of studying the caprock sealing properties and the relationship between microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of seal rocks in depleted gas fields of Oklahoma Pan-handle. Through this study we examined various seal rock characteristics to infer about their respective effects on sealing capacity in special case of replacing reservoir fluid with super critical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}). To assess the effect of textural and compositional properties on scCO{sub 2} maximum reten-tion column height we collected 30 representative core samples in caprock formations in three counties (Cimarron, Texas, Beaver) in Oklahoma Panhandle. Core samples were collected from various seal formations (e.g., Cherokee, Keys, Morrowan) at different depths. We studied the compositional and textural properties of the core samples using several techniques

  11. Texture and microstructure analysis of epitaxial oxide layers prepared on textured Ni-12wt%Cr tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huehne, R; Kursumovic, A; Tomov, R I; Glowacki, B A [Department of Materials Science and IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Holzapfel, B [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstoffforschung, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Evetts, J E [Department of Materials Science and IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)


    Oxide layers for the preparation of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} coated conductors were grown on highly textured Ni-12wt%Cr tapes in pure oxygen using surface oxidation epitaxy at temperatures between 1000 deg. C and 1300 deg. C. Microstructural investigations revealed a layered oxide structure. The upper layer consists mainly of dense cube textured NiO. This is followed by a porous layer containing NiO and NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles. A detailed texture analysis showed a cube-on-cube relationship of the NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel to the metal substrate. Untextured Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles in a nickel matrix were found in a third layer arising from internal oxidation of the alloy. A high surface roughness and mechanical instability of the oxide were observed, depending on oxidation temperature and film thickness. However, mechanically stable oxide layers have been prepared using an additional annealing step in a protective atmosphere. Additionally, mechanical polishing or a second buffer layer, which grows with a higher smoothness, may be applied to reduce the surface roughness for coated conductor applications.

  12. Textural and sensory properties of low fat pork sausages with added hydrated oatmeal and tofu as texture-modifying agents. (United States)

    Yang, Han-Sul; Choi, Sung-Gil; Jeon, Jin-Tae; Park, Gu-Boo; Joo, Seon-Tea


    Low fat sausages were prepared with added hydrated oatmeal or tofu as texture-modifying agents at levels of 10%, 15%, and 25% (w/w), respectively. The effects of the type and level of texture-modifying agents on the physical and sensory properties of low fat sausages were investigated. The water-holding capacity in sausage products increased by increasing the hydrated oatmeal level, but no significant differences was observed by the addition of tofu. The higher level of the agents produced a sausage product with less cooking loss and with a softer texture. The moisture absorption measurements suggest that the decrease in hardness of oatmeal-added sausage products may be due to the higher water-retention properties of oatmeal in response to heat treatment, while that of tofu-added sausage products may be associated with a weaker internal structure of tofu than the pork loin. The sensory evaluations indicated that the greatest overall acceptability in a low fat sausage was attained when the hydrated oatmeal or tofu were at their 15% addition level, respectively.

  13. Evolution of microstructure, texture and topography during additional annealing of cube-textured Ni–5at.%W substrate for coated conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Anders Christian; Mishin, Oleg; Grivel, Jean-Claude


    Microstructure, texture and topography have been studied in a recrystallized Ni–5at.%W substrate before and after additional annealing at 1025C for 1 h. The initial recrystallized material contained a strong cube texture and a high fraction of low angle grain boundaries. R3 boundaries were also f...

  14. Extruded snacks from whole wheat supplemented with textured soy flour: Effect on instrumental and sensory textural characteristics. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vidal, Arturo; Martínez-Flores, Héctor Eduardo; González Jasso, Eva; Velázquez de la Cruz, Gonzalo; Ramírez-Jiménez, Aurea K; Morales-Sánchez, Eduardo


    The quality of extruded snacks can be affected not only by processing conditions, but also by some factors like the concentration and type of ingredients incorporated in their formulation and the working conditions used. Although the process conditions have been established with measurable textural properties, sensory qualities have not been correlated with these responses in expanded extruded snacks made with added functional ingredients. Therefore, in this study the effect of adding textured soy flour (TSF) and whole wheat flour (WWF) to refined wheat flour in the production of extruded snacks and expanded with hot air was evaluated. A response surface design using two levels with five central points was applied to obtain the best combinations of functional ingredients added, holding the parameters of the extrusion process and moisture of treatments. Some texture characteristics and sensory analysis were used as response variables, such as, hardness, fracturability, toughness, crispness, granularity, and chewiness. Likewise, the rate of expansion was evaluated. The results showed that the level of substitution of WWF, especially levels of 15%, had a significant effect on the hardness perceived by the panelist during sensory evaluation. The TSF at concentrations of ≥15%, favored the fracturability and crispness of the samples. It was found that the best expansion index was with the combination of 5% TSF and 15% WWF. Although a correlation between instrumental and sensory tests carried out on the extruded snacks expanded was not found. The physical characteristics of the extruded snacks such as expansion, hardness, and density are important parameters in terms of consumer acceptability of the final product as well as their functional properties. In other words, the appearance and texture are two of the most important attributes that can be seen in snack foods. In particular, the texture can be measured by intrinsic tests: objective (instrumental) and subjective

  15. Realistic texture extraction for 3D face models robust to self-occlusion (United States)

    Qu, Chengchao; Monari, Eduardo; Schuchert, Tobias; Beyerer, Jürgen


    In the context of face modeling, probably the most well-known approach to represent 3D faces is the 3D Morphable Model (3DMM). When 3DMM is fitted to a 2D image, the shape as well as the texture and illumination parameters are simultaneously estimated. However, if real facial texture is needed, texture extraction from the 2D image is necessary. This paper addresses the possible problems in texture extraction of a single image caused by self-occlusion. Unlike common approaches that leverage the symmetric property of the face by mirroring the visible facial part, which is sensitive to inhomogeneous illumination, this work first generates a virtual texture map for the skin area iteratively by averaging the color of neighbored vertices. Although this step creates unrealistic, overly smoothed texture, illumination stays constant between the real and virtual texture. In the second pass, the mirrored texture is gradually blended with the real or generated texture according to the visibility. This scheme ensures a gentle handling of illumination and yet yields realistic texture. Because the blending area only relates to non-informative area, main facial features still have unique appearance in different face halves. Evaluation results reveal realistic rendering in novel poses robust to challenging illumination conditions and small registration errors.

  16. Human perception of subresolution fineness of dense textures based on image intensity statistics. (United States)

    Sawayama, Masataka; Nishida, Shin'ya; Shinya, Mikio


    We are surrounded by many textures with fine dense structures, such as human hair and fabrics, whose individual elements are often finer than the spatial resolution limit of the visual system or that of a digitized image. Here we show that human observers have an ability to visually estimate subresolution fineness of those textures. We carried out a psychophysical experiment to show that observers could correctly discriminate differences in the fineness of hair-like dense line textures even when the thinnest line element was much finer than the resolution limit of the eye or that of the display. The physical image analysis of the textures, along with a theoretical analysis based on the central limit theorem, indicates that as the fineness of texture increases and the number of texture elements per resolvable unit increases, the intensity contrast of the texture decreases and the intensity histogram approaches a Gaussian shape. Subsequent psychophysical experiments showed that these image features indeed play critical roles in fineness perception; i.e., lowering the contrast made artificial and natural textures look finer, and this effect was most evident for textures with unimodal Gaussian-like intensity distributions. These findings indicate that the human visual system is able to estimate subresolution texture fineness on the basis of diagnostic image features correlated with subresolution fineness, such as the intensity contrast and the shape of the intensity histogram.

  17. Classifying scaled and rotated textures using a region-matched algorithm (United States)

    Yao, Chih-Chia; Chen, Yu-Tin


    A novel method to correct texture variations resulting from scale magnification, narrowing caused by cropping into the original size, or spatial rotation is discussed. The variations usually occur in images captured by a camera using different focal lengths. A representative region-matched algorithm is developed to improve texture classification after magnification, narrowing, and spatial rotation. By using a minimum ellipse, a representative region-matched algorithm encloses a specific region extracted by the J-image segmentation algorithm. After translating the coordinates, the equation of an ellipse in the rotated texture can be formulated as that of an ellipse in the original texture. The rotated invariant property of ellipse provides an efficient method to identify the rotated texture. Additionally, the scale-variant representative region can be classified by adopting scale-invariant parameters. Moreover, a hybrid texture filter is developed. In the hybrid texture filter, the scheme of texture feature extraction includes the Gabor wavelet and the representative region-matched algorithm. Support vector machines are introduced as the classifier. The proposed hybrid texture filter performs excellently with respect to classifying both the stochastic and structural textures. Furthermore, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms conventional design algorithms.

  18. Novel approaches for tri-crystalline silicon surface texturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kyumin; Kim, Kyunghae; Ju, Minkyu; Kim, Young Kuk; Moon, Inyong; Lee, Kyungsoo; Kyung, Dohyun; Kwon, Taeyoung; Yi, Junsin [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea); Thamilselvan, M. [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea); Government College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu (India)


    Tri-crystalline silicon (Tri-Si) is a promising candidate to reduce the cost of solar cells fabrication because it can be made by a low-cost, fast process with a better mechanical strength, and needs a thinner wafer. One of the key parameters in improving the efficiency of the Tri-Si solar cells is the reflectance, which can be lowered by etching methods. However, Tri-Si is a crystal compound consisting of three mutually tilted monocrystalline silicon grains. In all grains boundaries the surface is (1 1 0)-oriented. A standard surface texture of etched random pyramids using an anisotropic etchant, such as NaOH, is not achievable here. In this paper, for the first time, a novel texturing method has been attempted, which consisted of two steps - HF:HNO{sub 3}:DI (2.5:2.5:5) etching was followed by exposure to the vapors to generate fine holes and an etching depth of 2.5 {mu}m had been reached. A best result of 12.3% has been achieved for surface reflectance, which is about 10% lower than that using normal acidic texturing. Nanoporous structures were formed and the size of the porous structure varied from 5 to 10 nm. An antireflection coating of SiN{sub x} SLAR was used to optimize the reflectance. A fill factor of 0.78 has been reached with an efficiency of 16.2% in 12.5 cm x 12.5 cm. This high efficiency is mainly due to an increased short-circuit current density of 34 mA/cm{sup 2}. (author)

  19. Diversity of Soil Textures Along Spirit's Traverse in Gusev Crater (United States)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Farmer, J. D.; Greeley, R.; Grin, E. A.; Schröder, C.; D'Uston, C.; Weitz, C.; Yingst, R. A.; Cohen, B. A.; Moore, J.; Knudson, A.; Franklin, B.; Li, R.


    Since landing, Spirit has documented a diversity of bedforms i.e. dunes, ripples, drifts, and unstructured soils. Mineralogy and chemistry show basaltic soils in the Plains with limited water alteration to localized sulfate-rich soils in the Columbia Hills. While these analyses provide data about the nature of the soils, the texture of individual particles constrain their formation and the various processes affecting their evolution. Here, we present an example of quantitative techniques applied to the Microscopic Imager (MI) for analyses performed on all undisturbed soils up to Sol 1085, which represents 3,140 particles in 31 soils. Particle-size distribution, elongation, roundness/angularity, sorting, and morphology were quantified. These characteristics are indicative of soil dynamics and provide clues to understanding whether and how particles have been mobilized. Samples in the Plains Unit and Columbia Hills appear as contrasting textural domains: One is heterogeneous, with a continuum of angular-to-rounded particles of fine sand to pebble sizes and is generally dust covered and locally cemented. The second shows the effect of a dominant and ongoing dynamic aeolian process redistributing a uniform population of 270 µm-size sand. Results are consistent with volcanic, aeolian, impact, and water processes. A systematic textural classification of soils is critical for the understanding of geologic processes and their evolution on Mars and this analysis represents a first attempt in that direction. Results can also be used to more precisely model past/present erosional and depositional activity, in particular as it relates to aqueous (chemical alteration, cementation) and aeolian (wind strength, particle transport, erosion, saltation) processes over a broad range of spatial scales. The detailed evaluation of grain-size distribution is also key to link albedo to fine-grained dust deposits and thermal inertia determined from orbit.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging texture analysis classification of primary breast cancer. (United States)

    Waugh, S A; Purdie, C A; Jordan, L B; Vinnicombe, S; Lerski, R A; Martin, P; Thompson, A M


    Patient-tailored treatments for breast cancer are based on histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) subtypes. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) texture analysis (TA) may be useful in non-invasive lesion subtype classification. Women with newly diagnosed primary breast cancer underwent pre-treatment dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI. TA was performed using co-occurrence matrix (COM) features, by creating a model on retrospective training data, then prospectively applying to a test set. Analyses were blinded to breast pathology. Subtype classifications were performed using a cross-validated k-nearest-neighbour (k = 3) technique, with accuracy relative to pathology assessed and receiver operator curve (AUROC) calculated. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess raw entropy feature values. Histological subtype classifications were similar across training (n = 148 cancers) and test sets (n = 73 lesions) using all COM features (training: 75%, AUROC = 0.816; test: 72.5%, AUROC = 0.823). Entropy features were significantly different between lobular and ductal cancers (p cancers demonstrated significantly different entropy features. Entropy features alone were unable to create a robust classification model. Textural differences on contrast-enhanced MR images may reflect underlying lesion subtypes, which merits testing against treatment response. • MR-derived entropy features, representing heterogeneity, provide important information on tissue composition. • Entropy features can differentiate between histological and immunohistochemical subtypes of breast cancer. • Differing entropy features between breast cancer subtypes implies differences in lesion heterogeneity. • Texture analysis of breast cancer potentially provides added information for decision making.

  1. 2D magnetic texture analysis of Co-Cu films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayirli, Mehmet; Karaagac, Oznur; Kockar, Hakan [Balikesir Univ. (Turkey). Physics Dept.; Alper, Mursel [Uludag Univ., Bursa (Turkey). Physics Dept.


    The magnetic textures for the produced magnetic materials are important concepts in accordance with technical applications. Therefore, the aim of this article is to determine 2D magnetic textures of electrodeposited Co-Cu films by the measurement of hysteresis loops at the incremented angles. For that, Co-Cu films were deposited with different Co{sup 2+} in the electrolyte. In addition, the easy-axis orientation in the films from the squareness values of the angles, M{sub p}(β) obtained by the hysteresis loops have been numerically studied using the Fourier series analysis. The differences observed in the magnetic easy-axis distributions were attributed to changes of the incorporation of Co in the films with the change of Co{sup 2+} in the electrolyte. The coefficients of Fourier series (A{sub 0} and A{sub 2n}) were also computed for 2D films. It is seen that a systematic and small decrease in A{sub 0} and an obvious decrease in A{sub 2n} (n=1) were observed with increasing incorporated Co in the films. Results imply that interactions cause slightly demagnetization effect accordance with higher incorporation of Co in the films. Furthermore, the crystal structure of the Co-Cu films analysed by X-ray diffraction revealed that the films have dominantly face-centred cubic structure. Film contents analysed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and film morphologies observed by scanning electron microscope also support the magnetic texture analysis results found by numerical computation.

  2. Evaluation of pavement skid resistance using high speed texture measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay N. Meegoda


    Full Text Available Skid resistance is an important parameter for highway designs, construction, management, maintenance and safety. The purpose of this manuscript is to propose the correlation between skid resistance, which is measured as skid resistance trailer, and mean profile depth (MPD or the macro surface texture, which is measured by vehicle mounted laser, so that highway agencies can predict the skid resistance of pavement without the use of expensive and time consuming skid resistance trailer, which also causes disruption of traffic in use. In this research skid numbers and MPD from 5 new asphalt pavements and 4 old asphalt pavements were collected using a locked wheel skid trailer and a vehicle mounted laser. Using the data collected, a correlation between the skid number (SN40R collected by locked wheel skid tester and the texture data or MPD collected by a vehicle mounted laser operating at highway speeds was developed. The proposed correlation for new pavements was positive for MPD values less than 0.75 mm to reach a peak SN40R value, then there was a negative correlation as the MPD increases until the MPD value was equal to 1.1 mm and beyond the MPD value of 1.1 mm to the maximum value of 1.4 mm, SN40R value remained almost constant. There were significant data scatter for the MPD value of 0.8 mm. To explain these results, water film thickness during the friction test was calculated and the critical MPD was defined. The effect of sealed water pool on the SN40R was discussed. The test result showed a similar trend for older asphalt pavements, but with lower SN40R values due to the polishing of pavement micro-texture by traffic. Hence, a reduction factor was proposed for older pavements based on cumulative traffic volume for the above correlation to predict the skid resistance of older pavements.

  3. Dental Surface Texture Characterization Based on Erosive Tooth Wear Processes. (United States)

    Hara, A T; Livengood, S V; Lippert, F; Eckert, G J; Ungar, P S


    The differential diagnosis of dental wear lesions affects their clinical management. We hypothesized that surface texture parameters can differentiate simulated erosion, abrasion, and erosion-abrasion lesions on human enamel and dentin. This in vitro study comprised 2 parts (both factorial 4 × 2), with 4 lesion types (erosion, abrasion, erosion-abrasion, and sound [no lesion; control]) and 2 substrates (enamel and dentin). Flattened/polished dental specimens were used in part 1, whereas natural dental surfaces were used in part 2. Testing surfaces were evaluated in blind conditions, using average surface roughness (Sa) and the following scale-sensitive fractal analysis parameters: area-scale fractal complexity (Asfc), exact proportion length-scale anisotropy of relief (eplsar), scale of maximum complexity (Smc), and textural fill volume (Tfv). Two-way analyses of variance, followed by Fisher's protected least significant difference tests (α = 0.05), were used to evaluate the effects of lesion and substrate. Classification trees were constructed to verify the strength of potential associations of the tested parameters. In part 1,Asfc, Sa, and Tfv were able to differentiate erosion and erosion-abrasion lesions from the sound (no lesion) control in both substrates; only Asfc differentiated erosion and erosion-abrasion enamel lesions (allPabrasion lesions from the sound (no lesion) control in both substrates, whereas eplsar was able to differentiate erosion from erosion-abrasion (allPabrasion lesions, despite their complicated surface textures. The association of parameters improved the differentiation of lesions for both enamel and dentin in polished or natural surfaces. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  4. A Matlab Program for Textural Classification Using Neural Networks (United States)

    Leite, E. P.; de Souza, C.


    A new MATLAB code that provides tools to perform classification of textural images for applications in the Geosciences is presented. The program, here coined TEXTNN, comprises the computation of variogram maps in the frequency domain for specific lag distances in the neighborhood of a pixel. The result is then converted back to spatial domain, where directional or ominidirectional semivariograms are extracted. Feature vectors are built with textural information composed of the semivariance values at these lag distances and, moreover, with histogram measures of mean, standard deviation and weighted fill-ratio. This procedure is applied to a selected group of pixels or to all pixels in an image using a moving window. A feed- forward back-propagation Neural Network can then be designed and trained on feature vectors of predefined classes (training set). The training phase minimizes the mean-squared error on the training set. Additionally, at each iteration, the mean-squared error for every validation is assessed and a test set is evaluated. The program also calculates contingency matrices, global accuracy and kappa coefficient for the three data sets, allowing a quantitative appraisal of the predictive power of the Neural Network models. The interpreter is able to select the best model obtained from a k-fold cross-validation or to use a unique split-sample data set for classification of all pixels in a given textural image. The code is opened to the geoscientific community and is very flexible, allowing the experienced user to modify it as necessary. The performance of the algorithms and the end-user program were tested using synthetic images, orbital SAR (RADARSAT) imagery for oil seepage detection, and airborne, multi-polarimetric SAR imagery for geologic mapping. The overall results proved very promising.

  5. Texture based skin lesion abruptness quantification to detect malignancy. (United States)

    Erol, Recep; Bayraktar, Mustafa; Kockara, Sinan; Kaya, Sertan; Halic, Tansel


    Abruptness of pigment patterns at the periphery of a skin lesion is one of the most important dermoscopic features for detection of malignancy. In current clinical setting, abrupt cutoff of a skin lesion determined by an examination of a dermatologist. This process is subjective, nonquantitative, and error-prone. We present an improved computational model to quantitatively measure abruptness of a skin lesion over our previous method. To achieve this, we quantitatively analyze the texture features of a region within the lesion boundary. This region is bounded by an interior border line of the lesion boundary which is determined using level set propagation (LSP) method. This method provides a fast border contraction without a need for extensive boolean operations. Then, we build feature vectors of homogeneity, standard deviation of pixel values, and mean of the pixel values of the region between the contracted border and the original border. These vectors are then classified using neural networks (NN) and SVM classifiers. As lower homogeneity indicates sharp cutoffs, suggesting melanoma, we carried out our experiments on two dermoscopy image datasets, which consist of 800 benign and 200 malignant melanoma cases. LSP method helped produce better results than Kaya et al., 2016 study. By using texture homogeneity at the periphery of a lesion border determined by LSP, as a classification results, we obtained 87% f1-score and 78% specificity; that we obtained better results than in the previous study. We also compared the performances of two different NN classifiers and support vector machine classifier. The best results obtained using combination of RGB color spaces with the fully-connected multi-hidden layer NN. Computational results also show that skin lesion abrupt cutoff is a reliable indicator of malignancy. Results show that computational model of texture homogeneity along the periphery of skin lesion borders based on LSP is an effective way of quantitatively

  6. Recovery of crystallographic texture in remineralized dental enamel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samera Siddiqui

    Full Text Available Dental caries is the most prevalent disease encountered by people of all ages around the world. Chemical changes occurring in the oral environment during the caries process alter the crystallography and microstructure of dental enamel resulting in loss of mechanical function. Little is known about the crystallographic effects of demineralization and remineralization. The motivation for this study was to develop understanding of the caries process at the crystallographic level in order to contribute towards a long term solution. In this study synchrotron X-ray diffraction combined with scanning electron microscopy and scanning microradiography have been used to correlate enamel crystallography, microstructure and mineral concentration respectively in enamel affected by natural caries and following artificial demineralization and remineralization regimes. In particular, the extent of destruction and re-formation of this complex structure has been measured. 2D diffraction patterns collected at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility were used to quantify changes in the preferred orientation (crystallographic texture and position of the (002 Bragg reflection within selected regions of interest in each tooth slice, and then correlated with the microstructure and local mineral mass. The results revealed that caries and artificial demineralization cause a large reduction in crystallographic texture which is coupled with the loss of mineral mass. Remineralization restores the texture to the original level seen in healthy enamel and restores mineral density. The results also showed that remineralization promotes ordered formation of new crystallites and growth of pre-existing crystallites which match the preferred orientation of healthy enamel. Combining microstructural and crystallographic characterization aids the understanding of caries and erosion processes and assists in the progress towards developing therapeutic treatments to allow affected

  7. Soil texture analysis by laser diffraction - standardization needed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Palviainen, M.; Kjønaas, O. Janne


    Soil texture is a central soil quality property. Laser diffraction (LD) for determination of particle size distribution (PSD) is now widespread due to easy analysis and low cost. However, pretreatment methods and interpretation of the resulting soil PSD’s are not standardized. Comparison of LD data...... and many newer; ISO 13320:2009). PSD uncertainty caused by pretreatments and PSD bias caused by plate-shaped clay particles still calls for more method standardization work. If LD is used more generally, new pedotransfer functions for other soil properties (e.g water retention) based on sieving...

  8. Characterizing subsurface textural properties using electromagnetic induction mapping and geostatistics (United States)

    Abdu, Hiruy

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution of soil textural properties at the watershed scale is important for understanding spatial patterns of water movement, and in determining soil moisture storage and soil hydraulic transport properties. Capturing the heterogeneous nature of the subsurface without exhaustive and costly sampling presents a significant challenge. Soil scientists and geologists have adapted geophysical methods that measure a surrogate property related to the vital underlying process. Apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) is such a proxy, providing a measure of charge mobility due to application of an electric field, and is highly correlated to the electrical conductivity of the soil solution, clay percentage, and water content. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) provides the possibility of obtaining high resolution images of ECa across a landscape to identify subtle changes in subsurface properties. The aim of this study was to better characterize subsurface textural properties using EMI mapping and geostatistical analysis techniques. The effect of variable temperature environments on EMI instrumental response, and EC a -- depth relationship were first determined. Then a procedure of repeated EMI mapping at varying soil water content was developed and integrated with temporal stability analysis to capture the time invariant properties of spatial soil texture on an agricultural field. In addition, an EMI imaging approach of densely sampling the subsurface of the Reynolds Mountain East watershed was presented using kriging to interpolate, and Sequential Gaussian Simulation to estimate the uncertainty in the maps. Due to the relative time-invariant characteristics of textural properties, it was possible to correlate clay samples collected over three seasons to ECa data of one mapping event. Kriging methods [ordinary kriging (OK), cokriging (CK), and regression kriging (RK)] were then used to integrate various levels of information (clay percentage, ECa

  9. Compact Local Directional Texture Pattern for Local Image Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zeng


    Full Text Available This paper presents an effective local image feature region descriptor, called CLDTP descriptor (Compact Local Directional Texture Pattern, and its application in image matching and object recognition. The CLDTP descriptor encodes the directional and contrast information in a local region, so it contains the gradient orientation information and the gradient magnitude information. As the dimension of the CLDTP histogram is much lower than the dimension of the LDTP histogram, the CLDTP descriptor has higher computational efficiency and it is suitable for image matching. Extensive experiments have validated the effectiveness of the designed CLDTP descriptor.

  10. Texture Properties of Fiber Spun from Soy Protein


    勝田, 啓子; 早川, 功


    The water retention of fiber spun from soy protein by using a trial wet spining machine and the texture properties of trial meat analogue prepared with the spun-fiber were studied for practical usage to prepare meat analogues. Fibers spun from soy protain by using the spinning machine had the suitable rigidity to prepare meat analogues as compared with a commercial fibrous soy protein (SP-90), and the meat analogue prepared with the spun-fiber showed the force-deformation curve like one of co...

  11. Topological Hall conductivity of vortex and skyrmion spin textures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalil, M. B. A., E-mail:; Ghee Tan, Seng [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 1 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Eason, Kwaku; Kong, Jian Feng [Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore)


    We analyze the topological Hall conductivity experienced by conduction electrons whose spins are strongly coupled to axially symmetric spin textures, such as magnetic vortex and skyrmion of types I and II, theoretically by gauge theory, and numerically via micromagnetic simulations. The numerical results are in agreement with the theoretical predictions. Divergence between the two is seen when the vortex/skyrmion core radius is comparable or larger than the element size, and when the skyrmion configuration breaks down at high Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction strength.

  12. Probabilistic latent semantic analysis for dynamic textures recognition and localization (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Hu, Shiqiang


    We present a framework for dynamic textures (DTs) recognition and localization by using a model developed in the text analysis literature: probabilistic latent semantic analysis (pLSA). The novelty is revealed in three aspects. First, chaotic feature vector is introduced and characterizes each pixel intensity series. Next, the pLSA model is employed to discover the topics by using the bag of words representation. Finally, the spatial layout of DTs can be found. Experimental results are conducted on the well-known DTs datasets. The results show that the proposed method can successfully build DTs models and achieve higher accuracies in DTs recognition and effectively localize DTs.

  13. Textured Al2024 alloy surface for super-hydrophobicity investigation (United States)

    Chen, Lijuan; Chen, Miao; Zhou, Huidi; Chen, Jianmin


    To mimic the lotus leaf structure, micro- and nanometer honeycomb-like porous hierarchical microstructures were constructed on the Al2024 alloy surface in which the average diameter of micro-pores was ca. 10 μm while those of nano-pores varied from 200 to 300 nm. Super-hydrophobicity was achieved with a water contact angle of 158° and the sliding angle of 4° by modifying the textured surface with HFTHTMS (HFTHTMS = (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrodecyl) trimethoxysilane).

  14. Changes in the texture of butternut squash following thermal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Samples of butternut squash were heated in a convection steam oven at the temperature of 80°C and 100°C without any/or with addition of steam. The most significant changes of texture properties in the pulp were registered regarding its hardness and chewiness, while the alterations of its springiness and cohesiveness occurred within a smaller range. The decisive influence on changing the hardness and chewiness of butternut pulp was observed for the addition of steam, and, to a lower extent, for the time and temperature of treatment; in case of springiness the vital factor was the temperature of the process.

  15. Ballistic missile precession frequency extraction by spectrogram's texture (United States)

    Wu, Longlong; Xu, Shiyou; Li, Gang; Chen, Zengping


    In order to extract precession frequency, an crucial parameter in ballistic target recognition, which reflected the kinematical characteristics as well as structural and mass distribution features, we developed a dynamic RCS signal model for a conical ballistic missile warhead, with a log-norm multiplicative noise, substituting the familiar additive noise, derived formulas of micro-Doppler induced by precession motion, and analyzed time-varying micro-Doppler features utilizing time-frequency transforms, extracted precession frequency by measuring the spectrogram's texture, verified them by computer simulation studies. Simulation demonstrates the excellent performance of the method proposed in extracting the precession frequency, especially in the case of low SNR.

  16. Scale-free texture of the fast solar wind (United States)

    Hnat, B.; Chapman, S. C.; Gogoberidze, G.; Wicks, R. T.


    The higher-order statistics of magnetic field magnitude fluctuations in the fast quiet solar wind are quantified systematically, scale by scale. We find a single global non-Gaussian scale-free behavior from minutes to over 5 h. This spans the signature of an inertial range of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and a ˜1/f range in magnetic field components. This global scaling in field magnitude fluctuations is an intrinsic component of the underlying texture of the solar wind and puts a strong constraint on any theory of solar corona and the heliosphere. Intriguingly, the magnetic field and velocity components show scale-dependent dynamic alignment outside of the inertial range.

  17. High friction and low wear properties of laser-textured ceramic surface under dry friction (United States)

    Xing, Youqiang; Deng, Jianxin; Wu, Ze; Wu, Fengfang


    Two kinds of grooved textures with different spacing were fabricated on Al2O3/TiC ceramic surface by an Nd:YAG laser. The dry tribological properties of the textured samples were investigated by carrying out unidirectional rotary sliding friction and wear tests using a ball-on-disk tribometer. Results show that the laser textured samples exhibit higher friction coefficient and excellent wear resistance compared with the smooth sample under dry friction conditions. Furthermore, the texture morphology and spacing have a significant influence on the tribological properties. The sample with small texture spacing may be beneficial to increasing the friction coefficient, and the wavy-grooved sample exhibits the highest friction coefficient and shallowest wear depth. The increasing friction coefficient and anti-wear properties are attributed to the combined effects of the increased surface roughness, reduced real contact area, micro-cutting effect by the texture edges and entrapment of wear debris.

  18. Mechanism of Texture and Precipitates Evolution in CGO Silicon Steel During High-Temperature Annealing Process (United States)

    Li, Zhi-chao; Dang, Ning; Jiang, Hai-tao; Xia, Zhen-hai


    Grain-oriented silicon steel is an important soft magnetic material for electrical applications. A conventional grain-oriented silicon steel with final thicknesses of 0.27, 0.23 and 0.20 mm was prepared separately by a two-stage cold rolling process. Texture evolution, precipitates distribution and Goss textures formed during secondary recrystallization were analyzed by electron backscattered diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The results show that plate thickness influences the distribution density of secondary phase particles and the content of favorable texture components such as {111} , {111} and {112} texture. Decreasing plate thickness increases the areal density of secondary phase particles, the temperature of secondary recrystallization, which also increases the content of favorable texture component, and the strength of Goss texture in secondary recrystallization. Goss grains have higher particle density than the grains with other orientations, which facilitates their abnormal growth by swallowing surrounding grains with lower particle density.

  19. Silicon solar cells textured by reactive ion etching with natural lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgers, A.R.; Bultman, J.H. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Beneking, C.; Nositschka, W.A.; Voigt, O.; Kurz, H. [Institute of Semiconductor Technology II, RWTH, Aachen (Germany)


    Several groups have demonstrated that Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) can texture multi- crystalline silicon very well. Moreover RIE texturing can be integrated quite easily into existing process sequences. Whether this can be done cost effectively is still uncertain. In this work we apply RIE etching after deposition of a mask. The mask is a well defined microscopic mask that is created by self-organised processes. The mask geometry and etch conditions can be varied to create different kinds of periodic textures. Using these techniques we achieved a reproducible and homogeneous RIE texture on full size multi-crystalline silicon wafers. We achieved a .24% absolute efficiency gain by RIE over non- textured cells. RIE textured cells with an efficiency of 14.8% were made using an industrial type process sequence. 16 refs.

  20. Texture and microstructure evolution in nickel electrodeposited from an additive-free Watts electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alimadadi, Hossein; da Silva Fanta, Alice Bastos; Kasama, Takeshi


    Nickel layers with 〈100〉, 〈210〉, 〈110〉 and 〈211〉 fiber textures were electrodeposited from additive-free Watts type electrolytes by adjusting both the pH and the applied current density. Quantitative crystallographic texture analysis by XRD was supplemented by micro-texture analysis applying EBSD....... While XRD results correspond to absorption-weighted averages over the top part of the layer, EBSD on the cross section allowed studying the texture evolution as a function of distance to the substrate. Although layer growth started on amorphous substrates, implying that nucleation occurs unbiased...... by the substrate, often relatively strong fiber textures develop already at the early stage of growth. These fiber textures can further develop into other preferred fiber axis further away from the substrate. The experimental results demonstrate that already in an early stage of deposition there are major...

  1. Textural characterization through image analysis: application to prehistoric pottery from Mallorca (1750-50 BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Albero Santacreu


    Full Text Available Textural analyses of ceramic pastes are essential to the study of the technological choices carried out by potters in the past. In this paper, we focus on defining the significance of textural studies for the characterization of ceramics and we briefly review some of the different methodologies which have been applied to undertake textural analysis. We also present a case study of the textural characterization through image analysis of 132 vessels from several archaeological sites from Mallorca dated to the Bronze and Iron Ages. Statistical analysis allowed us to classify the ceramic assemblage in various textural groups that are closely related to different technological choices. A diachronic analysis of these groups indicates that the textural differences found using this technique must be related to changes in paste recipes and technological traditions over the course of the prehistory of the Balearic Islands.

  2. Mechanism of Texture and Precipitates Evolution in CGO Silicon Steel During High-Temperature Annealing Process (United States)

    Li, Zhi-chao; Dang, Ning; Jiang, Hai-tao; Xia, Zhen-hai


    Grain-oriented silicon steel is an important soft magnetic material for electrical applications. A conventional grain-oriented silicon steel with final thicknesses of 0.27, 0.23 and 0.20 mm was prepared separately by a two-stage cold rolling process. Texture evolution, precipitates distribution and Goss textures formed during secondary recrystallization were analyzed by electron backscattered diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The results show that plate thickness influences the distribution density of secondary phase particles and the content of favorable texture components such as {111} , {111} and {112} texture. Decreasing plate thickness increases the areal density of secondary phase particles, the temperature of secondary recrystallization, which also increases the content of favorable texture component, and the strength of Goss texture in secondary recrystallization. Goss grains have higher particle density than the grains with other orientations, which facilitates their abnormal growth by swallowing surrounding grains with lower particle density.

  3. Early classification of Alzheimer's disease using hippocampal texture from structural MRI (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Ding, Yanhui; Wang, Pan; Dou, Xuejiao; Zhou, Bo; Yao, Hongxiang; An, Ningyu; Zhang, Yongxin; Zhang, Xi; Liu, Yong


    Convergent evidence has been collected to support that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with reduction in hippocampal volume based on anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and impaired functional connectivity based on functional MRI. Radiomics texture analysis has been previously successfully used to identify MRI biomarkers of several diseases, including AD, mild cognitive impairment and multiple sclerosis. In this study, our goal was to determine if MRI hippocampal textures, including the intensity, shape, texture and wavelet features, could be served as an MRI biomarker of AD. For this purpose, the texture marker was trained and evaluated from MRI data of 48 AD and 39 normal samples. The result highlights the presence of hippocampal texture abnormalities in AD, and the possibility that texture may serve as a neuroimaging biomarker for AD.

  4. RHEED transmission mode and pole figures thin film and nanostructure texture analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Gwo-Ching


    This unique book covers the fundamental principle of electron diffraction, basic instrumentation of RHEED, definitions of textures in thin films and nanostructures, mechanisms and control of texture formation, and examples of RHEED transmission mode measurements of texture and texture evolution of thin films and nanostructures. Also presented is a new application of RHEED in the transmission mode called RHEED pole figure technique that can be used to monitor the texture evolution in thin film growth and nanostructures and is not limited to single crystal epitaxial film growth. Details of the construction of RHEED pole figures and the interpretation of observed pole figures are presented.  Materials covered include metals, semiconductors, and thin insulators. This book also: Presents a new application of RHEED in the transmission mode Introduces a variety of textures from metals, semiconductors, compound semiconductors, and their characteristics in RHEED pole figures Provides examples of RHEED measurements o...

  5. The effect of extrusion conditions on the properties and textures of AZ31B alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu


    Full Text Available The effect of extrusion conditions on the tensile properties and texture of AZ31B alloy has been investigated by means of optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD and tensile tests. It is found that the ultimate tensile strength (UTS, the yield strength (YS and elongation (EN of the extruded AZ31B alloy are more significantly influenced by extrusion velocities in contrast with temperature. Although the extrusion conditions are different, the {112¯0} 〈011¯0〉 texture is the chief texture in the AZ31B after extrusion. Moreover, the extrusion textures become scattered with increasing the temperatures at the same extrusion velocity. As the extrusion velocity is raised at the same temperature, the orientation density of textures increases and the separated textures become relatively concentrated. This leads to the changes of tensile properties at different extrusion conditions.

  6. A Novel Technique of Error Concealment Method Selection in Texture Images Using ALBP Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Tothova


    Full Text Available There are many error concealment techniques for image processing. In the paper, the focus is on restoration of image with missing blocks or macroblocks. Different methods can be optimal for different kinds of images. In recent years, great attention was dedicated to textures, and specific methods were developed for their processing. Many of them use classification of textures as an integral part. It is also of an advantage to know the texture classification to select the best restoration technique. In the paper, selection based on texture classification with advanced local binary patterns and spatial distribution of dominant patterns is proposed. It is shown, that for classified textures, optimal error concealment method can be selected from predefined ones, resulting then in better restoration. For testing, three methods of extrapolation and texture synthesis were used.

  7. Image Inpainting Algorithm Based on Low-Rank Approximation and Texture Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjiang Li


    Full Text Available Existing image inpainting algorithm based on low-rank matrix approximation cannot be suitable for complex, large-scale, damaged texture image. An inpainting algorithm based on low-rank approximation and texture direction is proposed in the paper. At first, we decompose the image using low-rank approximation method. Then the area to be repaired is interpolated by level set algorithm, and we can reconstruct a new image by the boundary values of level set. In order to obtain a better restoration effect, we make iteration for low-rank decomposition and level set interpolation. Taking into account the impact of texture direction, we segment the texture and make low-rank decomposition at texture direction. Experimental results show that the new algorithm is suitable for texture recovery and maintaining the overall consistency of the structure, which can be used to repair large-scale damaged image.

  8. Parenchymal Texture Analysis in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis for Breast Cancer Risk Estimation: A Preliminary Study (United States)

    Kontos, Despina; Bakic, Predrag R.; Carton, Ann-Katherine; Troxel, Andrea B.; Conant, Emily F.; Maidment, Andrew D.A.


    Rationale and Objectives Studies have demonstrated a relationship between mammographic parenchymal texture and breast cancer risk. Although promising, texture analysis in mammograms is limited by tissue superimposition. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a novel tomographic x-ray breast imaging modality that alleviates the effect of tissue superimposition, offering superior parenchymal texture visualization compared to mammography. Our study investigates the potential advantages of DBT parenchymal texture analysis for breast cancer risk estimation. Materials and Methods DBT and digital mammography (DM) images of 39 women were analyzed. Texture features, shown in studies with mammograms to correlate with cancer risk, were computed from the retroareolar breast region. We compared the relative performance of DBT and DM texture features in correlating with two measures of breast cancer risk: (i) the Gail and Claus risk estimates, and (ii) mammographic breast density. Linear regression was performed to model the association between texture features and increasing levels of risk. Results No significant correlation was detected between parenchymal texture and the Gail and Claus risk estimates. Significant correlations were observed between texture features and breast density. Overall, the DBT texture features demonstrated stronger correlations with breast percent density (PD) than DM (p ≤0.05). When dividing our study population in groups of increasing breast PD, the DBT texture features appeared to be more discriminative, having regression lines with overall lower p-values, steeper slopes, and higher R2 estimates. Conclusion Although preliminary, our results suggest that DBT parenchymal texture analysis could provide more accurate characterization of breast density patterns, which could ultimately improve breast cancer risk estimation. PMID:19201357

  9. Digital Mapping of Soil Texture Using Regression Tree and Artificial Neural Network in Bijar, Kurdistan


    kamal nabiollahi; ahmad haidari; rohollah taghizade mehrjardi


    Soil texture is an important soil physical property that governs most physical, chemical, biological, and hydrological processes in soils. Detailed information on soil texture variability is crucial for proper crop and land management and environmental studies. Therefore, at present research, 103 soil profiles were dogged and then sampled in order to prepare digital map of soil texture in Bijar, Kurdistan. Auxiliary data used in this study to represent predictive soil forming factors were ter...

  10. Topological stripelike coreless textures with inner incommensurability in two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet


    Sinitsyn, E. V.; Bostrem, I. G.; Ovchinnikov, A. S.


    For two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet we present an analysis of topological coreless excitations having a stripe form. These textures are characterized by singularities at boundaries. A detailed classification of the stripe textures results in a certain analogy with the coreless excitations in $^3He-A$ phase: Mermin-Ho and Anderson-Toulouse coreless vortices. The excitations of the last type may have a low bulk energy. The stripe textures may be observed as an occurrence of short-ran...

  11. Effect of grilling and baking on physicochemical and textural properties of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish burger


    Bainy, Eduarda Molardi; Bertan, Larissa Canhadas; Corazza, Marcos Lucio; Lenzi, Marcelo Kaminski


    The influence of two common cooking methods, grilling and baking, on chemical composition, water retention, fat retention, cooking yield, diameter reduction, expressible water, color and mechanical texture of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish burgers was investigated. Texture analyses were performed using a Warner-Bratzler test. The fish burger had a softer texture with a lower shear force than other meat products reported in the literature. There were no significant differences in proxima...

  12. Robustness Assessment of Texture Features for the Segmentation of Ancient Documents


    Mehri, Maroua; Kieu, Van Cuong; Mohamed MHIRI; Héroux, Pierre; Gomez-Krämer, Petra; Mahjoub, Mohamed Ali; Mullot, Rémy


    International audience; For the segmentation of ancient digitized document images, it has been shown that texture feature analysis is a consis-tent choice for meeting the need to segment a page layout under significant and various degradations. In addition, it has been proven that the texture-based approaches work effectively without hypothesis on the document structure, neither on the document model nor the typographical parameters. Thus, by investigating the use of texture as a tool for aut...

  13. Optimal exploitation of client texture hardware capabilities on a client-server remote visualization framework


    Boada, Imma; Navazo Álvaro, Isabel


    Given a client-server communication network, with workstations equipped with 3D texture hardware, we propose a technique that guarantees the optimal use of the client texture hardware. We consider the best representation of a data model that has to be rendered on the client side as the one that requires the minimal texture space while preserving image quality. Taking into account this consideration the basis of the proposed technique is the selection of the best multiresolution representat...

  14. Performance evaluation of wavelet scattering network in image texture classification in various color spaces


    Wu, Jiasong; Jiang, Longyu,; Han, Xu; Senhadji, Lotfi; Shu, Huazhong


    Texture plays an important role in many image analysis applications. In this paper, we give a performance evaluation of color texture classification by performing wavelet scattering network in various color spaces. Experimental results on the KTH_TIPS_COL database show that opponent RGB based wavelet scattering network outperforms other color spaces. Therefore, when dealing with the problem of color texture classification, opponent RGB based wavelet scattering network is recommended.

  15. Categories of dicompact BI- T 2 texture spaces and a Banach-stone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The principal aim of this paper is to consider various aspects of the theory of dicompact bi-T2 texture spaces, and place them in a categorical setting. It culminates in a version of the Banach-Stone theorem. On the way, a new class of textures, called here nearly plain textures, is seen to play a crucial role in the development ...

  16. Preparation of textured Ni-Mn-Ga alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poetschke, Martin; Gaitzsch, Uwe; Huerrich, Claudia; Thoss, Franziska; Roth, Stefan; Rellinghaus, Bernd; Schultz, Ludwig [IFW Dresden, Helmholzstr. 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany)


    NiMnGa alloys have gained large research interest because of their possible application as magnetic shape memory materials. This effect is caused by the motion of twin boundaries in a magnetic field. Up to now most of the research was concentrated on single crystals. However, the preparation of single crystals is a time consuming and cost intensive process and compositional changes along the growth axis as well as segregations may occur. This is why for technical applications there is a great interest in polycrystals. To extend this effect to polycrystals, directional solidification was applied in order to prepare coarse grained, textured samples. Stationary casting in a pre-heated ceramic mold mounted on a copper plate was employed to generate a heat flow towards the bottom of the sample and thereby a directional solidification in the opposite direction. The martensitic transformation temperature which strongly depends on the composition was monitored by DSC, and it is shown that the chemical homogeneity along the sample axis is improved in likewise treated samples. The preferred solidification-induced growth direction was determined by EBSD. Investigations on the influence of MnS - precipitates in the samples, originating from the used rare Manganese, are discussed. The results are compared to samples, which were prepared by a Bridgeman method with draw rates in the range of several 100 mm/h to obtain a texture.

  17. Chewing Duration Time Of Various Food Textures In Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raísa Coutinho Vitcel


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To obtain reference values of chewing time of several food textures in young adults. METHOD: descriptive study with a quantitative approach that was developed in a clinical reference, being the population composed of 40 young adults between 18-30 years of age, of both genres. As exclusion criteria: those with neuromuscular and / or degenerative diseases or consequences thereof, as well as subjects who were making use of any orthodontic / orthopedic resource. We conducted a dental evaluation, followed by a clinical assessment. One at a time, the following foods were offered: French bread, wafer biscuit, roasted cashews, for voluntary chewing.  To measure the food chewing time, we used a stopwatch, and this collection procedure was filmed. Data analysis was performed by means of the SPSS statistics 20.0 (IBM® program. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 between the medians of chewing time of French bread, wafer biscuit and cashew nuts, which were 33.0s (interquartile amplitude 29.0 - 40.0, 10.0s (interquartile amplitude 8.25-12.0 and 18.5s (interquartile amplitude 15.0-23.75, respectively. CONCLUSION: The texture of foods influences the length of mastication. The more rigid is the food, the more cycles and mandibular movements, and therefore the longer the duration of chewing.

  18. Textural and sensorial characterization of a new oat based product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina STURZA


    Full Text Available Oat it is known as a cereal which provides numerous health benefits due to its composition. Likewise, hemp, flax and olive oils are rich in compounds required for the wellness maintenance and in prevention and treatment of various diseases. Thanks to advances of last decades in the food industry, it can be said that the rheological measurements have become indispensable in order to obtain a quality product. The aim of this work was to develop and optimize a technology for obtaining  unfermented dough, respectively, to obtain oat based unleavened bread. The characterization of the final product from a sensorial point of view was performed, analysis very important for assessing the consumers acceptance. In the meantime the texture properties of all samples were instrumentally determined. Textural profile showed that samples containing higher percent of oil content had a lower hardness than those with reduced percent of oil. The most appreciated unleavened oat bread was dried at 150˚C and had a low content of oil.

  19. Efficient iris texture analysis method based on Gabor ordinal measures (United States)

    Tajouri, Imen; Aydi, Walid; Ghorbel, Ahmed; Masmoudi, Nouri


    With the remarkably increasing interest directed to the security dimension, the iris recognition process is considered to stand as one of the most versatile technique critically useful for the biometric identification and authentication process. This is mainly due to every individual's unique iris texture. A modestly conceived efficient approach relevant to the feature extraction process is proposed. In the first place, iris zigzag "collarette" is extracted from the rest of the image by means of the circular Hough transform, as it includes the most significant regions lying in the iris texture. In the second place, the linear Hough transform is used for the eyelids' detection purpose while the median filter is applied for the eyelashes' removal. Then, a special technique combining the richness of Gabor features and the compactness of ordinal measures is implemented for the feature extraction process, so that a discriminative feature representation for every individual can be achieved. Subsequently, the modified Hamming distance is used for the matching process. Indeed, the advanced procedure turns out to be reliable, as compared to some of the state-of-the-art approaches, with a recognition rate of 99.98%, 98.12%, and 95.02% on CASIAV1.0, CASIAV3.0, and IIT Delhi V1 iris databases, respectively.

  20. Application of texture analysis method for mammogram density classification (United States)

    Nithya, R.; Santhi, B.


    Mammographic density is considered a major risk factor for developing breast cancer. This paper proposes an automated approach to classify breast tissue types in digital mammogram. The main objective of the proposed Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system is to investigate various feature extraction methods and classifiers to improve the diagnostic accuracy in mammogram density classification. Texture analysis methods are used to extract the features from the mammogram. Texture features are extracted by using histogram, Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM), Gray Level Run Length Matrix (GLRLM), Gray Level Difference Matrix (GLDM), Local Binary Pattern (LBP), Entropy, Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT), Gabor transform and trace transform. These extracted features are selected using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The features selected by ANOVA are fed into the classifiers to characterize the mammogram into two-class (fatty/dense) and three-class (fatty/glandular/dense) breast density classification. This work has been carried out by using the mini-Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) database. Five classifiers are employed namely, Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Naive Bayes (NB), K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), and Support Vector Machine (SVM). Experimental results show that ANN provides better performance than LDA, NB, KNN and SVM classifiers. The proposed methodology has achieved 97.5% accuracy for three-class and 99.37% for two-class density classification.