WorldWideScience

Sample records for textual information overload

  1. Information overload and data overload in lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven; Gouws, Rufus H.

    2017-01-01

    the often uncritical inclusion of too much data. This paper discusses the general term information overload and its lexicographical counterpart data overload. Different types of data overload are identified and the problems users have when retrieving the necessary information from dictionary articles......Too often online dictionaries still display too many features determined by the restrictions that applied to printed dictionaries. Data overload in dictionary articles can be regarded as one such relic from the past. However, the idea that online dictionaries have unlimited space has furthered...

  2. Interdisciplinary Research and Information Overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Discusses information overload and examines several ways in which actual and potential overload affects research choices for the solo researcher in interdisciplinary areas. Topics include information overload and teamwork; entry barriers to certain specialties, including necessary background knowledge; and information utilization and knowledge…

  3. The Mythology of Information Overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidline, Tonyia J.

    1999-01-01

    Combines ideas from mythology, folklore, and library and information science to conclude that information overload is a myth of modern culture. Reports results of a pilot project intended to describe information overload experienced by a particular folk group composed of future library and information professionals. (Author/LRW)

  4. Death by information overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemp, Paul

    2009-09-01

    The value of information in the knowledge economy is indisputable, but so is its capacity to overwhelm consumers of it. HBR contributing editor Hemp reports on practical ways for individuals and organizations to avoid getting too much of a good thing. Ready access to useful information comes at a cost: As the volume increases, the line between the worthwhile and the distracting starts to blur. And ready access to you--via e-mail, social networking, and so on--exacerbates the situation: On average, Intel executives get 300 e-mails a day, and Microsoft workers need 24 minutes to return to work after each e-mail interruption. Clearly, productivity is taking a hit. Technological aids can help, such as e-mail management software for you, a message-volume regulation system for your organization, or even more-sophisticated solutions being developed by Microsoft, IBM, and others. Yet, battling technological interruptions on their own turf only goes so far. You also need to change your mind-set, perhaps by seeking help from personal-productivity experts or by simply accepting that you can't respond to every distraction that flits across your screen. Similarly, organizations must change their cultures, for instance by establishing clear e-communication protocols. In the end, only a multipronged approach will help you and your organization subdue the multiheaded monster of information overload. The secret is to manage the beast while still respecting it for the beautiful creature it is.

  5. Information overload in medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeldes, Nathan; Baum, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Most practices are inundated with an excess of information. This information overload, or "infoglut," results in distractions and a loss of productivity. This article will discuss the concept of infoglut and what every practice can do to manage the tsunami of information that threatens to consume our practices.

  6. Textual information access statistical models

    CERN Document Server

    Gaussier, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This book presents statistical models that have recently been developed within several research communities to access information contained in text collections. The problems considered are linked to applications aiming at facilitating information access:- information extraction and retrieval;- text classification and clustering;- opinion mining;- comprehension aids (automatic summarization, machine translation, visualization).In order to give the reader as complete a description as possible, the focus is placed on the probability models used in the applications

  7. Textual Analysis of Intangible Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Moniz (Andy)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractTraditionally, equity investors have relied upon the information reported in firms’ financial accounts to make their investment decisions. Due to the conservative nature of accounting standards, firms cannot value their intangible assets such as corporate culture, brand value and

  8. Information Overload in Monopsony Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S. Ficco (Stefano)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractI consider a situation in which heterogenous senders (applicants) compete in order to be selected by one receiver (employer). Productivity is private information to the senders, and the receiver processes imperfect signals (applications) to screen among applicants. The

  9. [Navigation aid through the information overload].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Judith; Schindler, Birgit; Suter, Katja

    2014-10-01

    We live in the modern information society. "To be informed" has a crucial impact on the personal, professional, economic and social development. The knowledge of things and their relationships is essential for acute decisions as well as for long-term planning. And at no time it was easier to get the information required within shorter time periods--no matter to whatsoever. The offer of information of the World Wide Web is inexhaustible. This also applies to information about all possible therapeutic and pharmaceutical issues. But is the information found reliable, too? And are easily accessible sources credible? Can we deal with the information overload at these days or do we actually risk paddling only on the surface of the "information-sea", without ever perceiving the actual information depth and width, less to use it? How can we protect being taken in by marketing strategies? The present article describes a structured proceed when seeking literature to find useful medical and pharmaceutical information in a time saving manner.

  10. Comparing the quality of accessing medical literature using content-based visual and textual information retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Henning; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Kahn, Charles E., Jr.; Hersh, William

    2009-02-01

    Content-based visual information (or image) retrieval (CBIR) has been an extremely active research domain within medical imaging over the past ten years, with the goal of improving the management of visual medical information. Many technical solutions have been proposed, and application scenarios for image retrieval as well as image classification have been set up. However, in contrast to medical information retrieval using textual methods, visual retrieval has only rarely been applied in clinical practice. This is despite the large amount and variety of visual information produced in hospitals every day. This information overload imposes a significant burden upon clinicians, and CBIR technologies have the potential to help the situation. However, in order for CBIR to become an accepted clinical tool, it must demonstrate a higher level of technical maturity than it has to date. Since 2004, the ImageCLEF benchmark has included a task for the comparison of visual information retrieval algorithms for medical applications. In 2005, a task for medical image classification was introduced and both tasks have been run successfully for the past four years. These benchmarks allow an annual comparison of visual retrieval techniques based on the same data sets and the same query tasks, enabling the meaningful comparison of various retrieval techniques. The datasets used from 2004-2007 contained images and annotations from medical teaching files. In 2008, however, the dataset used was made up of 67,000 images (along with their associated figure captions and the full text of their corresponding articles) from two Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) scientific journals. This article describes the results of the medical image retrieval task of the ImageCLEF 2008 evaluation campaign. We compare the retrieval results of both visual and textual information retrieval systems from 15 research groups on the aforementioned data set. The results show clearly that, currently

  11. News and the overloaded consumer: factors influencing information overload among news consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Avery E; Chyi, Hsiang Iris

    2012-11-01

    News producers continue to increase their volume of production and delivery platforms in an effort to reach and maintain news consumers. However, consumers may not necessarily find more news desirable. Previous studies have suggested that information surplus can lead to negative outcomes for consumers, but research of outcomes related to news production and consumption has been scant. This study explores novel areas of news surplus and overload, empirically examining factors associated with the degree of perceived overload across a broad spectrum of news delivery platforms. The findings reveal that the majority of today's news consumers feel overloaded with the amount of news they are confronted with. Gender, news interest, and the use of specific news platforms and outlets predict the degree of that overload. News access through platforms and outlets such as computers, e-readers, and Facebook is positively associated with overload, whereas other platforms such as television and the iPhone are negatively associated with overload. Implications for media psychology and news consumption are discussed.

  12. Influence, information overload, and information technology in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebitzer, James B; Rege, Mari; Shepard, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    We investigate whether information technology (IT) can help physicians more efficiently acquire new knowledge in a clinical environment characterized by information overload. We combine analysis of data from a randomized trial with a theoretical model of the influence that IT has on the acquisition of new medical knowledge. Although the theoretical framework we develop is conventionally microeconomic, the model highlights the non-market and non-pecuniary influence activities that have been emphasized in the sociological literature on technology diffusion. We report three findings. First, empirical evidence and theoretical reasoning suggests that computer-based decision support will speed the diffusion of new medical knowledge when physicians are coping with information overload. Second, spillover effects will likely lead to "underinvestment" in this decision support technology. Third, alternative financing strategies common to new IT, such as the use of marketing dollars to pay for the decision support systems, may lead to undesirable outcomes if physician information overload is sufficiently severe and if there is significant ambiguity in how best to respond to the clinical issues identified by the computer. This is the first paper to analyze empirically and theoretically how computer-based decision support influences the acquisition of new knowledge by physicians.

  13. Information Overload in Multi-Stage Selection Procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S. Ficco (Stefano); V.A. Karamychev (Vladimir)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe paper studies information processing imperfections in a fully rational decision-making network. It is shown that imperfect information transmission and imperfect information acquisition in a multi-stage selection game yield information overload. The paper analyses the mechanisms

  14. Information Overload and Viral Marketing: Countermeasures and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiesi; Sun, Aaron; Zeng, Daniel

    Studying information diffusion through social networks has become an active research topic with important implications in viral marketing applications. One of the fundamental algorithmic problems related to viral marketing is the Influence Maximization (IM) problem: given an social network, which set of nodes should be considered by the viral marketer as the initial targets, in order to maximize the influence of the advertising message. In this work, we study the IM problem in an information-overloaded online social network. Information overload occurs when individuals receive more information than they can process, which can cause negative impacts on the overall marketing effectiveness. Many practical countermeasures have been proposed for alleviating the load of information on recipients. However, how these approaches can benefit viral marketers is not well understood. In our work, we have adapted the classic Information Cascade Model to incorporate information overload and study its countermeasures. Our results suggest that effective control of information overload has the potential to improve marketing effectiveness, but the targeting strategy should be re-designed in response to these countermeasures.

  15. Knowledge representation and management: transforming textual information into useful knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassinoux, A-M

    2010-01-01

    To summarize current outstanding research in the field of knowledge representation and management. Synopsis of the articles selected for the IMIA Yearbook 2010. Four interesting papers, dealing with structured knowledge, have been selected for the section knowledge representation and management. Combining the newest techniques in computational linguistics and natural language processing with the latest methods in statistical data analysis, machine learning and text mining has proved to be efficient for turning unstructured textual information into meaningful knowledge. Three of the four selected papers for the section knowledge representation and management corroborate this approach and depict various experiments conducted to .extract meaningful knowledge from unstructured free texts such as extracting cancer disease characteristics from pathology reports, or extracting protein-protein interactions from biomedical papers, as well as extracting knowledge for the support of hypothesis generation in molecular biology from the Medline literature. Finally, the last paper addresses the level of formally representing and structuring information within clinical terminologies in order to render such information easily available and shareable among the health informatics community. Delivering common powerful tools able to automatically extract meaningful information from the huge amount of electronically unstructured free texts is an essential step towards promoting sharing and reusability across applications, domains, and institutions thus contributing to building capacities worldwide.

  16. Designing a Personalized Guide Recommendation System to Mitigate Information Overload in Museum Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yong-Ming Huang; Chien-Hung Liu; Chun-Yi Lee; Yueh-Min Huang

    2012-01-01

    .... However, a problem with information overload has caused in engaging in such learning. Information overload signifies that users encounter a mass of information and need to determine whether certain information needs to be retained...

  17. Symmetrical and overloaded effect of diffusion in information filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Chen, Guilin; Cai, Shimin

    2017-10-01

    In physical dynamics, mass diffusion theory has been applied to design effective information filtering models on bipartite network. In previous works, researchers unilaterally believe objects' similarities are determined by single directional mass diffusion from the collected object to the uncollected, meanwhile, inadvertently ignore adverse influence of diffusion overload. It in some extent veils the essence of diffusion in physical dynamics and hurts the recommendation accuracy and diversity. After delicate investigation, we argue that symmetrical diffusion effectively discloses essence of mass diffusion, and high diffusion overload should be published. Accordingly, in this paper, we propose an symmetrical and overload penalized diffusion based model (SOPD), which shows excellent performances in extensive experiments on benchmark datasets Movielens and Netflix.

  18. Natural history and information overload: The case of Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Wille, Staffan; Charmantier, Isabelle

    2012-03-01

    Natural History can be seen as a discipline paradigmatically engaged in 'data-driven research.' Historians of early modern science have begun to emphasize its crucial role in the Scientific Revolution, and some observers of present day genomics see it as engaged in a return to natural history practices. A key concept that was developed to understand the dynamics of early modern natural history is that of 'information overload.' Taxonomic systems, rules of nomenclature, and technical terminologies were developed in botany and zoology to catch up with the ever increasing amount of information on hitherto unknown plant and animal species. In our contribution, we want to expand on this concept. After all, the same people who complain about information overload are usually the ones who contribute to it most significantly. In order to understand this complex relationship, we will turn to the annotation practices of the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778). The very tools that Linnaeus developed to contain and reduce information overload, as we aim to demonstrate, facilitated a veritable information explosion that led to the emergence of a new research object in botany: the so-called 'natural' system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Spreading the Load: Mobile Information and Communications Technologies and Their Effect on Information Overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David K.; Shoard, M.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: We report on a small-scale research project which examined the impact of mobile technologies on the users' experience of information overload. The project focused on a group of worker who have had relatively little attention in both the mobile technology and information overload literatures: senior managers. Method: The case study…

  20. Information overload in healthcare: too much of a good thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerings, Irma; Weinhandl, Alexandra S; Thaler, Kylie J

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly growing production of healthcare information - both scientific and popular - increasingly leads to a situation of information overload affecting all actors of the healthcare system and threatening to impede the adoption of evidence-based practice. In preparation for the 2015 Cochrane Colloquium in Vienna, we discuss the issues faced by three major actors of this system: patients, healthcare practitioners, and systematic reviewers. We analyze their situation through the concept of "filter failure", positing that the main problem is not that there is "too much information", but that the traditional means of managing and evaluating information are ill-suited to the realities of the digital age. Some of the major instances of filter failure are inadequate information retrieval systems for point-of-care settings, the problem of identifying all relevant evidence in an exceedingly diverse landscape of information resources, and the very basic lack of health information literacy, concerning not only the general public. Finally, we give an overview of proposed solutions to the problem of information overload. These new or adapted filtering systems include adapting review literature to the specific needs of practitioners or patients, technological improvements to information systems, strengthening the roles of intermediaries, as well as improving health literacy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. Information overload within the health care system: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amanda; Walton, Graham

    2004-06-01

    There is a widespread view held by health clinicians that their work effectiveness is impaired by 'information overload.' Building upon a previous work by Wilson, a review of the literature was undertaken to look for the evidence of this. It was found that the literature, particularly in the context of the clinical environment, was limited. This review explores the diverse overarching theories of information overload, effects of the phenomenon that are perceived to occur and proposed solutions to this problem. Many of the papers noted an information explosion but only three authors explicitly attempted to measure both the quantity and the complexity of this information. It was also found that the typology of the information studied was severely limited with most studies exploring information such as guidelines, access to journals, research findings and other knowledge intensive areas. Solutions proposed seem to concentrate on technological means rather than exploring the use of humans either in management of information or as a step in the filtering process.

  2. Competing for Attention in Social Media under Information Overload Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ling; Hu, Yanqing; Li, Baowen; Stanley, H Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo; Braunstein, Lidia A

    2015-01-01

    Modern social media are becoming overloaded with information because of the rapidly-expanding number of information feeds. We analyze the user-generated content in Sina Weibo, and find evidence that the spread of popular messages often follow a mechanism that differs from the spread of disease, in contrast to common belief. In this mechanism, an individual with more friends needs more repeated exposures to spread further the information. Moreover, our data suggest that for certain messages the chance of an individual to share the message is proportional to the fraction of its neighbours who shared it with him/her, which is a result of competition for attention. We model this process using a fractional susceptible infected recovered (FSIR) model, where the infection probability of a node is proportional to its fraction of infected neighbors. Our findings have dramatic implications for information contagion. For example, using the FSIR model we find that real-world social networks have a finite epidemic threshold in contrast to the zero threshold in disease epidemic models. This means that when individuals are overloaded with excess information feeds, the information either reaches out the population if it is above the critical epidemic threshold, or it would never be well received.

  3. Textual and chemical information processing: different domains but similar algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Willett

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the extent to which algorithms developed for the processing of textual databases are also applicable to the processing of chemical structure databases, and vice versa. Applications discussed include: an algorithm for distribution sorting that has been applied to the design of screening systems for rapid chemical substructure searching; the use of measures of inter-molecular structural similarity for the analysis of hypertext graphs; a genetic algorithm for calculating term weights for relevance feedback searching for determining whether a molecule is likely to exhibit biological activity; and the use of data fusion to combine the results of different chemical similarity searches.

  4. Information Diffusion in Facebook-Like Social Networks Under Information Overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Xing, Kai; Wang, Dapeng; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Hui

    2013-07-01

    Research on social networks has received remarkable attention, since many people use social networks to broadcast information and stay connected with their friends. However, due to the information overload in social networks, it becomes increasingly difficult for users to find useful information. This paper takes Facebook-like social networks into account, and models the process of information diffusion under information overload. The term view scope is introduced to model the user information-processing capability under information overload, and the average number of times a message appears in view scopes after it is generated is proposed to characterize the information diffusion efficiency. Through theoretical analysis, we find that factors such as network structure and view scope number have no impact on the information diffusion efficiency, which is a surprising result. To verify the results, we conduct simulations and provide the simulation results, which are consistent with the theoretical analysis results perfectly.

  5. Designing a Personalized Guide Recommendation System to Mitigate Information Overload in Museum Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Ming; Liu, Chien-Hung; Lee, Chun-Yi; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2012-01-01

    Museum learning has received a lot of attention in recent years. Museum learning refers to people's use of museums to acquire knowledge. However, a problem with information overload has caused in engaging in such learning. Information overload signifies that users encounter a mass of information and need to determine whether certain information…

  6. Managing Information Overload for Senior Leaders in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    Information overload is a state where information input exceeds processing capability by an individual, and adverse effects of information overload, such as becoming less productive, making bad decisions, and becoming highly selective, are growing. Guided by Glaser and Strauss' work on grounded theory, this study examined adverse impact of…

  7. When Enough Is Not Enough: Information Overload and Metacognitive Decisions to Stop Studying Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kou; Blake, Adam B.; Kerr, Tyson; Castel, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    People are often exposed to more information than they can actually remember. Despite this frequent form of information overload, little is known about how much information people choose to remember. Using a novel "stop" paradigm, the current research examined whether and how people choose to stop receiving new--possibly…

  8. A New Framework for Textual Information Mining over Parse Trees. CRESST Report 805

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Hamid; Kerr, Deirdre; Iseli, Markus R.

    2011-01-01

    Textual information mining is a challenging problem that has resulted in the creation of many different rule-based linguistic query languages. However, these languages generally are not optimized for the purpose of text mining. In other words, they usually consider queries as individuals and only return raw results for each query. Moreover they…

  9. Information Structure and Practice as Facilitators of Deaf Users' Navigation in Textual Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, I.; Canas, J. J.; Salmeron, L.; Abascal, J.

    2009-01-01

    Deaf users might find it difficult to navigate through websites with textual content which, for many of them, constitutes the written representation of a non-native oral language. With the aim of testing how the information structure could compensate for this difficulty, 27 prelingual deaf users of sign language were asked to search a set of…

  10. The Use of Graphs as Decision Aids in Relation to Information Overload and Managerial Decision Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Y.

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of information overload focuses on a study of masters degree students at a Hong Kong university that investigated the effectiveness of graphs as decision aids to reduce adverse effects of information overload on decision quality. Results of a simulation of a business prediction task with a sample of business managers are presented.…

  11. Designing immersive surgical training against information technology-related overload in the operating room

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluyter, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    On a theoretical level, this dissertation demonstrates that the “classical” conceptualization of overload in the field of Information Systems being an excessive amount of information is too simplistic. Based on the Emotional-Cognitive Overload Model by Rutkowski and Saunders (2011) this dissertation

  12. Information Overload in the New World of Work: Qualitative Study into the Reasons and Countermeasures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Heerdt, Jeroen; Bondarouk, Tatiana; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter the authors present a revision of the information overload concept elaborated by Eppler and Mengis (2004). The main elements of our approach are literature synopsis and analysis, qualitative semi-structured interviews, and discussion. Their review of the information overload concept

  13. Learners' Perceived Information Overload in Online Learning via Computer-Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Ying; Pedersen, Susan; Murphy, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies report information overload as one of the main problems that students encounter in online learning via computer-mediated communication. This study aimed to explore the sources of online students' information overload and offer suggestions for increasing students' cognitive resources for learning. Participants were 12 graduate students…

  14. Competing for Attention in Social Media under Information Overload Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Ling; Li, Baowen; Stanley, H Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo; Braunstein, Lidia A

    2014-01-01

    Although the many forms of modern social media have become major channels for the dissemination of information, they are becoming overloaded because of the rapidly-expanding number of information feeds. We analyze the expanding user-generated content in Sina Weibo, the largest micro-blog site in China, and find evidence that popular messages often follow a mechanism that differs from that found in the spread of disease, in contrast to common believe. In this mechanism, an individual with more friends needs more repeated exposures to spread further the information. Moreover, our data suggest that in contrast to epidemics, for certain messages the chance of an individual to share the message is proportional to the fraction of its neighbours who shared it with him/her. Thus the greater the number of friends an individual has the greater the number of repeated contacts needed to spread the message, which is a result of competition for attention. We model this process using a fractional susceptible infected recove...

  15. Quantifying Information Overload in Social Media and its Impact on Social Contagions

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Manuel Gomez; Gummadi, Krishna; Schoelkopf, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Information overload has become an ubiquitous problem in modern society. Social media users and microbloggers receive an endless flow of information, often at a rate far higher than their cognitive abilities to process the information. In this paper, we conduct a large scale quantitative study of information overload and evaluate its impact on information dissemination in the Twitter social media site. We model social media users as information processing systems that queue incoming informati...

  16. Game-Theoretic Models of Information Overload in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgs, Christian; Chayes, Jennifer; Karrer, Brian; Meeder, Brendan; Ravi, R.; Reagans, Ray; Sayedi, Amin

    We study the effect of information overload on user engagement in an asymmetric social network like Twitter. We introduce simple game-theoretic models that capture rate competition between celebrities producing updates in such networks where users non-strategically choose a subset of celebrities to follow based on the utility derived from high quality updates as well as disutility derived from having to wade through too many updates. Our two variants model the two behaviors of users dropping some potential connections (followership model) or leaving the network altogether (engagement model). We show that under a simple formulation of celebrity rate competition, there is no pure strategy Nash equilibrium under the first model. We then identify special cases in both models when pure rate equilibria exist for the celebrities: For the followership model, we show existence of a pure rate equilibrium when there is a global ranking of the celebrities in terms of the quality of their updates to users. This result also generalizes to the case when there is a partial order consistent with all the linear orders of the celebrities based on their qualities to the users. Furthermore, these equilibria can be computed in polynomial time. For the engagement model, pure rate equilibria exist when all users are interested in the same number of celebrities, or when they are interested in at most two. Finally, we also give a finite though inefficient procedure to determine if pure equilibria exist in the general case of the followership model.

  17. Choosing To Examine Electronic Information: A Message Ranking Model To Minimize Information Overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losee, Robert M., Jr.

    Designed to minimize information overload in telecommunications systems, the formal model developed in this paper predicts the usefulness of a message based on the available message features, and may be used to rank messages by expected importance or economic worth. The assumptions of binary and two Poisson independent probabilistic distributions…

  18. Agent-based method for distributed clustering of textual information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potok, Thomas E [Oak Ridge, TN; Reed, Joel W [Knoxville, TN; Elmore, Mark T [Oak Ridge, TN; Treadwell, Jim N [Louisville, TN

    2010-09-28

    A computer method and system for storing, retrieving and displaying information has a multiplexing agent (20) that calculates a new document vector (25) for a new document (21) to be added to the system and transmits the new document vector (25) to master cluster agents (22) and cluster agents (23) for evaluation. These agents (22, 23) perform the evaluation and return values upstream to the multiplexing agent (20) based on the similarity of the document to documents stored under their control. The multiplexing agent (20) then sends the document (21) and the document vector (25) to the master cluster agent (22), which then forwards it to a cluster agent (23) or creates a new cluster agent (23) to manage the document (21). The system also searches for stored documents according to a search query having at least one term and identifying the documents found in the search, and displays the documents in a clustering display (80) of similarity so as to indicate similarity of the documents to each other.

  19. Information overload an international challenge to professional engineers and technical communicators

    CERN Document Server

    Ulijn, J M; Fazal, Zohra

    2012-01-01

    "This book covers the ever-increasing problem of information overload from both the professional and academic perspectives. Focusing on the needs of practicing engineers and professional communicators, it addresses the causes and costs of information overload, along with strategies and techniques for reducing and minimizing its negative effects. The theoretical framework of information overload and ideas for future research are also presented. The book brings together an international group of authors, providing a truly global point of view on this important, rarely covered topic"--

  20. Modeling of Information Diffusion in Twitter-Like Social Networks under Information Overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the existence of information overload in social networks, it becomes increasingly difficult for users to find useful information according to their interests. This paper takes Twitter-like social networks into account and proposes models to characterize the process of information diffusion under information overload. Users are classified into different types according to their in-degrees and out-degrees, and user behaviors are generalized into two categories: generating and forwarding. View scope is introduced to model the user information-processing capability under information overload, and the average number of times a message appears in view scopes after it is generated by a given type user is adopted to characterize the information diffusion efficiency, which is calculated theoretically. To verify the accuracy of theoretical analysis results, we conduct simulations and provide the simulation results, which are consistent with the theoretical analysis results perfectly. These results are of importance to understand the diffusion dynamics in social networks, and this analysis framework can be extended to consider more realistic situations.

  1. Modeling of information diffusion in Twitter-like social networks under information overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Li, Wei; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Due to the existence of information overload in social networks, it becomes increasingly difficult for users to find useful information according to their interests. This paper takes Twitter-like social networks into account and proposes models to characterize the process of information diffusion under information overload. Users are classified into different types according to their in-degrees and out-degrees, and user behaviors are generalized into two categories: generating and forwarding. View scope is introduced to model the user information-processing capability under information overload, and the average number of times a message appears in view scopes after it is generated by a given type user is adopted to characterize the information diffusion efficiency, which is calculated theoretically. To verify the accuracy of theoretical analysis results, we conduct simulations and provide the simulation results, which are consistent with the theoretical analysis results perfectly. These results are of importance to understand the diffusion dynamics in social networks, and this analysis framework can be extended to consider more realistic situations.

  2. Does information overload prevent chronic patients from reading self-management educational materials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chung-Feng; Kuo, Kuang-Ming

    2016-05-01

    Self-care management is becoming an important part of care for chronic patients. However, various kinds of self-management educational materials which government or healthcare institutions provide for patients may not achieve the expected outcome. One of the critical reasons affecting patients' use intention could be patients' perceived information overload regarding the self-management educational materials. This study proposed an extended model of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), which incorporated perceived information overload, to explore if information overload will prevent chronic patients from reading educational materials for self-care management. The independent variables are attitude, subject norm, perceived behavior control and perceived information overload while the dependent variable is behavior intention to use the self-management educational materials. Perceived information overload is also referred to as an antecedent variable which may has impacts on attitude and perceived behavior control. The cross-sectional study interviewed newly diagnosed chronic patients with coronary artery disease, who are the potential users of the self-management educational materials, in a medical center in Taiwan. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics of the basic information distribution of the respondents, and structural equation modeling to study the reliability and validity for testing hypotheses. A total of 110 respondents were enrolled in this study and successful interview data were collected from 106 respondents. The result indicates that the patients' perceived information overload of self-management educational materials was validated to have impacts on attitude and perceived behavioral control constructs of the TPB as well as contributing a direct impact on patients' intentions to use self-management educational materials. Besides, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control constructs were validated to have significant impacts on

  3. Spreading the load: mobile information and communications technologies and their effect on information overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Allan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We report on a small-scale research project which examined the impact of mobile technologies on the users' experience of information overload. The project focused on a group of worker who have had relatively little attention in both the mobile technology and information overload literatures: senior managers. Method. The case study approach was adopted, as complementary to an incremental approach to theory building. An inductive approach is adopted, in which data are collected and the findings are interpreted in the light of previous work. The case site was West Yorkshire Police Force in the UK where BlackBerry handhelds were being used by senior officers. Analysis. A semi-structured interview schedule was developed and applied in face-to-face interviews with the Senior Management Team and their secretaries. All interviews were recorded and the transcripts of the interviews analysed, using qualitative coding. Results. A conceptual model of the interactions and relationships among the key elements that drive and mediate the information flows and information behaviour within a complex organizational environment was developed. Managers' information behaviour and coping strategies were found to have changed since the introduction of mobile devices. Officers are more likely to deal with information received sooner, thereby resulting in less queuing of messages (although filtering strategies still prevail. Approximation (responding in a non-precise way was also found to have increased. In this particular implementation, the mobile technology has not altered the information-pull behaviour of managers. Conclusion. The main finding is that personal information management is now distributed more evenly throughout the day. Thus, the technology has enabled officers to 'spread the load' and, in doing so, has helped to ease some of the pressures created by information overload.

  4. Psychological distance can improve decision making under information overload via gist memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukukura, Jun; Ferguson, Melissa J; Fujita, Kentaro

    2013-08-01

    Making a decision can be especially difficult when it is based upon a large amount of information. A number of demonstrations in the literature suggest that decision making under information overload leads to suboptimal outcomes. In this article, we draw on construal level theory (Trope & Liberman, 2003) and fuzzy-trace theory (Brainerd & Reyna, 1993) to suggest that psychologically distancing oneself from the information can be beneficial to decision making under information overload. Specifically, we propose that distancing prompts organization of information in terms of its gist. Across 4 studies, we demonstrated that increasing spatial distance, temporal distance, and abstraction lead to better decision outcomes when decision makers were overloaded with many pieces of information per decision. Furthermore, we showed that the relationship between psychological distance and decision outcome is mediated by gist memory. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Learners' perceived information overload in online learning via computer-mediated communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Murphy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many studies report information overload as one of the main problems that students encounter in online learning via computer-mediated communication. This study aimed to explore the sources of online students' information overload and offer suggestions for increasing students' cognitive resources for learning. Participants were 12 graduate students from two online courses in the United States. Their learning experiences in both online discussions and on the course website were explored through semi-structured interviews. They also completed a background questionnaire that assessed three constructs that limit learner readiness and are likely to lead to online students' perceived information overload: inadequate prior knowledge, inadequate English proficiency, and lack of technical skills for participating in computer-mediated communications. The findings suggest that varied learner characteristics led some students to be more susceptible than others to information overload. Emerging data-driven risk factors were: lack of efficiency in reading from computer screens, visual and auditory learning preferences, and time constraints. Difficulties associated with students' perceptions of information overload are addressed and implications for course design are offered.

  6. Investigating Differential Learning Outcomes of Students in Physics Using Animation and Textual Information Teaching Strategies in Ondo State Secondary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing Eguabor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe study investigated the main effects of animation information and textual information on students'performance and improving students' attitude towards physics.Material and methodsThe study adopted the pre-test post-test control group design. The population was made up of SSS 2 students inOndo State. Three Local Government Areas were randomly selected from the 18 Local Government Areas ofOndo State. Simple random technique was used to select three schools in the selected Local Government Areas.The schools were randomly assigned to two experimental groups namely animation and, textual informationstrategy and one control group. Two instruments were used for the study.ResultsOne-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, Scheffe Post-Hoc pair-wise comparison Analysis, and two-way Analysisof Variance was used. The results showed that there was a significant main effect of animation and textual strategieson students performance in physics. The results also showed that there was a significant difference in the post testattitudinal score of students' exposed to the strategies with the effectiveness in the order of animation, textual, andconventional strategiesConclusionsThe study concluded that computer- based instruction such as animation and textual strategies could enhancelearning outcomes in Physics in senior secondary school irrespective of students' sex.

  7. Exploring the Influence of Information Overload on Middle Management Decision-Making in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlevale, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study was an exploration of information overload and how it influenced middle management decision-making in a single organization. In-depth interviews were used to gather lived experiences of 22 middle managers at XYZ Defense Company in California. Data were analyzed using both HyperRESEARCH TM 2.8 software and a manual…

  8. Mitigating Information Overload: The Impact of "Context-Based Approach" to the Design of Tools for Intelligence Analysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Reference Meetings Allen G. Schick, Lawrence A. Gordon, and Susan Haka , “Information overload: A temporal approach,” Accounting Organizations and...conversations Allen G. Schick, Lawrence A. Gordon, and Susan Haka , “Information overload: A temporal approach,” Accounting Organizations and

  9. The Impact of Information Overload on Task Completion: A Study of Scientists and Engineers in a Typical Work Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyers, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01

    As use of technology has increasingly infiltrated the daily lives of many Americans, information overload has become a more prevalent fixture for men and women both at home and in the workplace. While information overload has been established in the field of psychology in various forms, it lacks a universal definition within the discipline.…

  10. Novel Representation of Clinical Information in the ICU: Developing User Interfaces which Reduce Information Overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, B W; Herasevich, V; Ahmed, A; Gajic, O

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of electronic medical records (EMR) and computerized physician order entry (CPOE) into the intensive care unit (ICU) is transforming the way health care providers currently work. The challenge facing developers of EMR's is to create products which add value to systems of health care delivery. As EMR's become more prevalent, the potential impact they have on the quality and safety, both negative and positive, will be amplified. In this paper we outline the key barriers to effective use of EMR and describe the methodology, using a worked example of the output. AWARE (Ambient Warning and Response Evaluation), is a physician led, electronic-environment enhancement program in an academic, tertiary care institution's ICU. The development process is focused on reducing information overload, improving efficiency and eliminating medical error in the ICU.

  11. Information overload or search-amplified risk? Set size and order effects on decisions from experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Thomas T; Noguchi, Takao; Gibbert, Michael

    2013-10-01

    How do changes in choice-set size influence information search and subsequent decisions? Moreover, does information overload influence information processing with larger choice sets? We investigated these questions by letting people freely explore sets of gambles before choosing one of them, with the choice sets either increasing or decreasing in number for each participant (from two to 32 gambles). Set size influenced information search, with participants taking more samples overall, but sampling a smaller proportion of gambles and taking fewer samples per gamble, when set sizes were larger. The order of choice sets also influenced search, with participants sampling from more gambles and taking more samples overall if they started with smaller as opposed to larger choice sets. Inconsistent with information overload, information processing appeared consistent across set sizes and choice order conditions, reliably favoring gambles with higher sample means. Despite the lack of evidence for information overload, changes in information search did lead to systematic changes in choice: People who started with smaller choice sets were more likely to choose gambles with the highest expected values, but only for small set sizes. For large set sizes, the increase in total samples increased the likelihood of encountering rare events at the same time that the reduction in samples per gamble amplified the effect of these rare events when they occurred-what we call search-amplified risk. This led to riskier choices for individuals whose choices most closely followed the sample mean.

  12. WAX ActiveLibrary: a tool to manage information overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanka, R; O'Brien, C; Heathfield, H; Buchan, I E

    1999-11-01

    WAX Active-Library (Cambridge Centre for Clinical Informatics) is a knowledge management system that seeks to support doctors' decision making through the provision of electronic books containing a wide range of clinical knowledge and locally based information. WAX has been piloted in several regions in the United Kingdom and formally evaluated in 17 GP surgeries based in Cambridgeshire. The evaluation has provided evidence that WAX Active-Library significantly improves GPs' access to relevant information sources and by increasing appropriate patient management and referrals this might also lead to an improvement in clinical outcomes.

  13. Estimating User Influence in Online Social Networks Subject to Information Overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Sun, Yunchuan; Chen, Yingwen; Tian, Zhi

    2014-11-01

    Online social networks have attracted remarkable attention since they provide various approaches for hundreds of millions of people to stay connected with their friends. Due to the existence of information overload, the research on diffusion dynamics in epidemiology cannot be adopted directly to that in online social networks. In this paper, we consider diffusion dynamics in online social networks subject to information overload, and model the information-processing process of a user by a queue with a batch arrival and a finite buffer. We use the average number of times a message is processed after it is generated by a given user to characterize the user influence, which is then estimated through theoretical analysis for a given network. We validate the accuracy of our estimation by simulations, and apply the results to study the impacts of different factors on the user influence. Among the observations, we find that the impact of network size on the user influence is marginal while the user influence decreases with assortativity due to information overload, which is particularly interesting.

  14. Correlates of Cancer Information Overload: Focusing on Individual Ability and Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Jiyoung; Lee, Chul-joo; Jensen, Jakob D

    2016-01-01

    The present study defined cancer information overload (CIO) as an aversive disposition wherein a person is confused and overwhelmed by cancer information, which occurs when he or she fails to effectively categorize new information due to a lack of resources for effective learning. Based on the definition and informed by previous studies on information overload and the cognitive mediation model, we hypothesized that low ability and motivation to process cancer information would lead to CIO. We used education level and trait anxiety as factors related to ability. Cancer history and the use of active media channels (such as the Internet and print media) were adopted as motivational factors. Four samples (three from the United States and one from South Korea) were used to explore the relationship between ability/motivation and CIO. Among them, only Sample 4 participants answered questions about stomach cancer, and other participants were asked about cancer in general. In all four samples, trait anxiety was positively associated with CIO. Health information use from active media channels (print or the Internet) was negatively associated with CIO in three samples. The associations between family history and CIO, and between education and CIO, were found in two samples. In short, the present study demonstrated that CIO partly depends on individual ability and motivation, thereby showing that CIO is influenced by personal characteristics as well as environmental factors.

  15. Adapting Semantic Natural Language Processing Technology to Address Information Overload in Influenza Epidemic Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselman, Alla; Rosemblat, Graciela; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Jin, Honglan; Shin, Dongwook; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2010-12-01

    Explosion of disaster health information results in information overload among response professionals. The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of applying semantic natural language processing (NLP) technology to addressing this overload. The project characterizes concepts and relationships commonly used in disaster health-related documents on influenza pandemics, as the basis for adapting an existing semantic summarizer to the domain. Methods include human review and semantic NLP analysis of a set of relevant documents. This is followed by a pilot-test in which two information specialists use the adapted application for a realistic information seeking task. According to the results, the ontology of influenza epidemics management can be described via a manageable number of semantic relationships that involve concepts from a limited number of semantic types. Test users demonstrate several ways to engage with the application to obtain useful information. This suggests that existing semantic NLP algorithms can be adapted to support information summarization and visualization in influenza epidemics and other disaster health areas. However, additional research is needed in the areas of terminology development (as many relevant relationships and terms are not part of existing standardized vocabularies), NLP, and user interface design.

  16. Influence of Perceived Information Overload on Learning in Computer-Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Ying

    Information overload (IO) is frequently reported as one of the main problems caused by computer-mediated communication (CMC), yet the literature is unclear about the impact of IO on student learning. This study therefore aimed to investigate the influence of online students’ perceived IO on quality learning in CMC. Quality learning was defined as learning that is achievable by (a) reflective thinking through a deep level of information processing, and by (b) active learning through interaction with other people. The results suggest that students’ perceived IO does not influence their deep processing as observed in their discussion messages, but might influence their participation and interaction with others in online discussions. Students’ amount of invested mental effort put into study was observed as a major determinant of levels of information processing in this study.

  17. Business continuity strategies for cyber defence: battling time and information overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streufert, John

    2010-11-01

    Can the same numbers and letters which are the life blood of modern business and government computer systems be harnessed to protect computers from attack against known information security risks? For the past seven years, Foreign Service officers and technicians of the US Government have sought to maintain diplomatic operations in the face of rising cyber attacks and test the hypothesis that an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. As eight out of ten attacks leverage known computer security vulnerabilities or configuration setting weaknesses, a pound of cure would seem to be easy to come by. Yet modern security tools present an unusually consequential threat to business continuity - too much rather than too little information on cyber problems is presented, harking back to a phenomenon cited by social scientists in the 1960s called 'information overload'. Experience indicates that the longer the most serious cyber problems go untreated, the wider the attack surface adversaries can find. One technique used at the Department of State, called 'risk scoring', resulted in an 89 per cent overall reduction in measured risk over 12 months for the Department of State's servers and personal computers. Later refinements of risk scoring enabled technicians to correct unique security threats with unprecedented speed. This paper explores how the use of metrics, special care in presenting information to technicians and executives alike, as well as tactical use of organisational incentives can result in stronger cyber defences protecting modern organisations.

  18. The Influence of Perceived Information Overload on Student Participation and Knowledge Construction in Computer-Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Ying; Pedersen, Susan; Murphy, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Computer-mediated communication (CMC) has been used widely to engage learners in academic discourse for knowledge construction. Due to the features of the task environment, one of the main problems caused by the medium is information overload (IO). Yet the literature is unclear about the impact of IO on student learning. This study therefore…

  19. The cancer information overload (CIO) scale: establishing predictive and discriminant validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jakob D; Carcioppolo, Nick; King, Andy J; Scherr, Courtney L; Jones, Christina L; Niederdieppe, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Survey data suggests that approximately three-fourths of adults are overwhelmed by cancer information - a construct we label cancer information overload (CIO). A significant limitation of existing research is that it relies on a single-item measure. The objective of the current study is to develop and validate a multi-item measure of CIO. Study 1 (N=209) surveyed healthcare and manufacturing employees at eight worksites. Colonoscopy insurance claims data were culled eighteen months later to evaluate the predictive validity of CIO. Study 2 (N=399) surveyed adults at seven shopping malls. CIO and cancer fatalism were measured to examine the properties of the two constructs. Study 1 identified a reliable 8-item CIO scale that significantly predicted colonoscopy insurance claims 18 months after the initial survey. Study 2 confirmed the factor structure identified in Study 1, and demonstrated that CIO, cancer fatalism about prevention, and cancer fatalism about treatment are best modeled as three distinct constructs. The perception that there are too many recommendations about cancer prevention to know which ones to follow is an indicator of CIO, a widespread disposition that predicts colon cancer screening and is related to, but distinct from, cancer fatalism. Many adults exhibit high CIO, a disposition that undermines health efforts. Communication strategies that mitigate CIO are a priority. In the short-term, health care providers and public health professionals should monitor the amount of information provided to patients and the public. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Health information seeking and scanning among US adults aged 50-75 years: Testing a key postulate of the information overload model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jakob D; Liu, Miao; Carcioppolo, Nick; John, Kevin K; Krakow, Melinda; Sun, Ye

    2017-06-01

    Past research has found that older US adults (aged 50-75 years) exhibit high levels of cancer information overload and cancer worry; however, no study to date has examined whether these perceptions are related to information seeking/scanning. To explore this relationship, older adults ( N = 209, Mage = 55.56, SD = 4.24) were recruited to complete a survey measuring seeking, scanning, cancer information overload, and cancer worry. Most participants were high-scan/seekers (40.2%) followed by low-scan/seekers (21.1%), high-scan/no seekers (19.6%), and low-scan/no seekers (19.1%). Low-scan/no seekers had significantly higher cancer information overload compared to all other groups, consistent with the postulate that overload and seeking/scanning are negatively related. Low-scan/no seekers and high-scan/seekers both exhibited higher cancer worry severity, consistent with past research suggesting that cancer worry explains high levels of activity/inactivity.

  1. Co-creating healthful eating behaviors with very young children: The impact of information overload on primary caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Julie L; Raciti, Maria M

    2017-01-01

    Primary caregivers of very young children are subject to excessive and often disparate information regarding the instilling of healthful eating behaviors. Our study focuses on the integration of the operant resources of primary caregivers (i.e., their knowledge and modeling skills) and that of their very young children (i.e., their self-regulation of energy intake and food preferences) to co-create healthful eating behaviors as a measure to curb overweight and obesity in adulthood. Our two-stage qualitative study makes original contributions demonstrating that primary caregivers' efforts to co-create healthful eating behaviors with their very young children are adversely affected by information overload.

  2. Textual and Visual Information in eWOM: A Gap Between Preferences in Information Search and Diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Geunhee; Tussyadiah, Iis

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the gap between travel-related information search and diffusion by online users in order to better understand the important role of visual information in electronic word of mouth (eWOM). Several analyses were conducted to investigate differences in travelers' preferences...... spreading eWOM. This study discusses the reasons for this gap and the individual differences in travelers' information format preferences when retrieving and diffusing travel-related information online. Managerial implications for destination marketers and user-generated content platform managers...

  3. Textuality: Power and Pleasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Offers several reasons why English teachers should set aside the notion of literature and center teaching around the related but distinct notion of textuality. Discusses why the study of textuality should play a major role in a full curriculum aimed toward the development of alert, aware citizens. (JD)

  4. Managers’ Information Overload the impact of coping strategies on decision-making performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.V. Iastrebova (Ksenia)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAt the beginning of the 20th century, information was a scarce resource. The expansion of information and communication technologies, however, brought dramatic changes in terms of volume of information, driving society into the information age with new economic, social, and ethical

  5. The dark side of information: overload, anxiety and other paradoxes and pathologies

    OpenAIRE

    Bawden, D.; Robinson, L.

    2009-01-01

    This review article identifies and discusses some of main issues and potential problems — paradoxes and pathologies — around the communication of recorded information, and points to some possible solutions. The article considers the changing contexts of information communication, with some caveats about the identification of `pathologies of information', and analyses the changes over time in the way in which issues of the quantity and quality of information available have been regarded. Two m...

  6. Medication safety and knowledge-based functions: a stepwise approach against information overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patapovas, Andrius; Dormann, Harald; Sedlmayr, Brita; Kirchner, Melanie; Sonst, Anja; Müller, Fabian; Pfistermeister, Barbara; Plank-Kiegele, Bettina; Vogler, Renate; Maas, Renke; Criegee-Rieck, Manfred; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Bürkle, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The aim was to improve medication safety in an emergency department (ED) by enhancing the integration and presentation of safety information for drug therapy. Based on an evaluation of safety of drug therapy issues in the ED and a review of computer-assisted intervention technologies we redesigned an electronic case sheet and implemented computer-assisted interventions into the routine work flow. We devised a four step system of alerts, and facilitated access to different levels of drug information. System use was analyzed over a period of 6 months. In addition, physicians answered a survey based on the technology acceptance model TAM2. The new application was implemented in an informal manner to avoid work flow disruption. Log files demonstrated that step I, 'valid indication' was utilized for 3% of the recorded drugs and step II 'tooltip for well-known drug risks' for 48% of the drugs. In the questionnaire, the computer-assisted interventions were rated better than previous paper based measures (checklists, posters) with regard to usefulness, support of work and information quality. A stepwise assisting intervention received positive user acceptance. Some intervention steps have been seldom used, others quite often. We think that we were able to avoid over-alerting and work flow intrusion in a critical ED environment. © 2013 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Improved Situation Awareness for Public Safety Workers while Avoiding Information Overload (extended abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lignie, M.; Hu, B.B.; Wijngaards, N.

    2008-01-01

    This research stems from the MOSAIC project, a part of the valorization and knowledge transfer effort of the Interactive Collaborative Information Systems (ICIS) research programme (http://www.icis.decis.nl/), supported by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, grant no.: BSIK03024. ICIS is hosted

  8. Information Overload in Group Communication: From Conversation to Cacophony in the Twitch Chat

    OpenAIRE

    Nematzadeh, Azadeh; Ciampaglia, Giovanni Luca; Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Flammini, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Online communication channels, especially social web platforms, are rapidly replacing traditional ones. Online platforms allow users to overcome physical barriers, enabling worldwide participation. However, the power of online communication bears an important negative consequence --- we are exposed to too much information to process. Too many participants, for example, can turn online public spaces into noisy, overcrowded fora where no meaningful conversation can be held. Here we analyze a la...

  9. Development of a Standardized Rating Tool for Drug Alerts to Reduce Information Overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfistermeister, Barbara; Sedlmayr, Brita; Patapovas, Andrius; Suttner, Gerald; Tektas, Ozan; Tarkhov, Aleksey; Kornhuber, Johannes; Fromm, Martin F; Bürkle, Thomas; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Maas, Renke

    2016-12-07

    A well-known problem in current clinical decision support systems (CDSS) is the high number of alerts, which are often medically incorrect or irrelevant. This may lead to the so-called alert fatigue, an overriding of alerts, including those that are clinically relevant, and underuse of CDSS in general. The aim of our study was to develop and to apply a standardized tool that allows its users to evaluate the quality of system-generated drug alerts. The users' ratings can subsequently be used to derive recommendations for developing a filter function to reduce irrelevant alerts. We developed a rating tool for drug alerts and performed a web-based evaluation study that also included a user review of alerts. In this study the following categories were evaluated: "data linked correctly", "medically correct", "action required", "medication change", "critical alert", "information gained" and "show again". For this purpose, 20 anonymized clinical cases were randomly selected and displayed in our customized CDSS research prototype, which used the summary of product characteristics (SPC) for alert generation. All the alerts that were provided were evaluated by 13 physicians. The users' ratings were used to derive a filtering algorithm to reduce overalerting. In total, our CDSS research prototype generated 399 alerts. In 98 % of all alerts, medication data were rated as linked correctly to drug information; in 93 %, the alerts were assessed as "medically correct"; 19.5 % of all alerts were rated as "show again". The interrater-agreement was, on average, 68.4 %. After the application of our filtering algorithm, the rate of alerts that should be shown again decreased to 14.8 %. The new standardized rating tool supports a standardized feedback of user-perceived clinical relevance of CDSS alerts. Overall, the results indicated that physicians may consider the majority of alerts formally correct but clinically irrelevant and override them. Filtering may help to reduce

  10. Avoid information overload. Now that you have data, What do you do with it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Grey

    2009-08-01

    This article only begins to describe how to use and apply data from an ePCR systems. having a date system is not the same as using a data system. The success of any data system depends on how the information is used. Don't accept poor-quality data when you make operational decisions. Make sure the report you generate answer the specific question you have. Remember, you can manage what you can measure. I encourage to seek out other agencies in your area. Everyone can benefit as best practices are identified, and as each develop reports, the design can be shared. This also set up a great opportunity for benchmarking. The ability to generate reports will ultimately be based on the capabilities and reporting tools associated with either the software you purchase and update or the state EMS data system. As a baseline, any software considered should be certified as NEMSIS Gold Compliant. A list of NEMSIS Gold Compliant Software can be found at www.NEMSIS.org.

  11. A Mobile Phone App Intervention Targeting Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: The Efficacy of Textual and Auditory Tailored Health Information Tested in a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbert, Sarah Pietertje; Dijkstra, Arie; Oenema, Anke

    2016-06-10

    Mobile phone apps are increasingly used to deliver health interventions, which provide the opportunity to present health information via different communication modes. However, scientific evidence regarding the effects of such health apps is scarce. In a randomized controlled trial, we tested the efficacy of a 6-month intervention delivered via a mobile phone app that communicated either textual or auditory tailored health information aimed at stimulating fruit and vegetable intake. A control condition in which no health information was given was added. Perceived own health and health literacy were included as moderators to assess for which groups the interventions could possibly lead to health behavior change. After downloading the mobile phone app, respondents were exposed monthly to either text-based or audio-based tailored health information and feedback over a period of 6 months via the mobile phone app. In addition, respondents in the control condition only completed the baseline and posttest measures. Within a community sample (online recruitment), self-reported fruit and vegetable intake at 6-month follow-up was our primary outcome measure. In total, 146 respondents (ranging from 40 to 58 per condition) completed the study (attrition rate 55%). A significant main effect of condition was found on fruit intake (P=.049, partial η(2)=0.04). A higher fruit intake was found after exposure to the auditory information, especially in recipients with a poor perceived own health (P=.003, partial η(2)=0.08). In addition, health literacy moderated the effect of condition on vegetable intake 6 months later (P<.001, partial η(2)=.11). A higher vegetable intake was found for recipients with high health literacy after exposure to the textual or auditory intervention compared to the control condition (contrasts P=.07 and P=.004, respectively). In the case of relatively low health literacy, vegetable intake was the highest in the control condition (contrasts text control

  12. From drought to deluge: how information overload saturated absorption capacity in a disrupted health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, Mark; Cometto, Giorgio; Pavignani, Enrico

    2011-11-01

    Provision of technical assistance is a common form of support to health sectors emerging from prolonged conflicts. But what actions signal that the Ministry of Health (MoH) is, or is not, actively analysing and digesting the output of this assistance? Where are the boundaries between doing with and doing for? This article presents a qualitative description of an early post-conflict policy process in southern Sudan, which represented an opportunity to test these boundaries. The methodology of provision of technical assistance to the MoH in the formulation of a human resource plan is reviewed. Initial objectives are compared with the results accomplished. Shortcomings are discussed and recommendations for technical assistance programmes in similar contexts are provided. Between October 2005 and May 2006, World Health Organization advisers supported the MoH in conducting a human resources assessment to lay the grounds for a human resources development plan. The study employed three consultants, ten data collectors and entailed questionnaires, field visits, interviews and a review of literature. The survey shed new important evidence on the human resources situation in southern Sudan, both in quantitative and qualitative terms, and formulated specific recommendations. The formulation of the human resources plan, however, took another direction, apparently unrelated to the findings of the survey. Various factors contributed to the scope and methodology of the survey being inappropriate to the reality of southern Sudan. In the presence of systemic capacity gaps, including uncertain governance and precarious management systems, the benefit of one-off comprehensive surveys is likely to be negligible. Inaction is not always rooted in the lack of information, as too often assumed; this case study exposes the limits of a rationalistic approach to policy formulation and planning in the field of human resources for health. An alternative approach that entails incremental steps

  13. Sexuality and textuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litowitz, Bonnie E

    2002-01-01

    Post-Freudian theories have been criticized for abandoning what is basic to psychoanalysis: the biological body and sexuality as the source of intrapsychic motivation. Arguably, however, they are more present than ever before-for example, in explanations by theorists who propose therapeutic actions beyond interpretation, presymbolic enactments of procedural memories, or disclosures of the analyst's bodily states as an aspect of intersubjectivity. By contrast, the Freudian body was always a text whose mediated meanings require interpretation, for which Freud provided eloquent guides. It is this textuality, and not sexuality, that distinguishes a psychoanalytic approach: a psycho-logic constructed according to a grammar of desire that mediates experience and creates interpretable behavior, both in action and in speech. Theoretical changes in psychoanalysis are traced historically along the dimension of textuality, the example of perversion is invoked, and the conclusion drawn that any theoretical approach, traditional or post-Freudian, that expands an understanding of textuality contributes to the science of psychoanalysis.

  14. Exploring textual data

    CERN Document Server

    Lebart, Ludovic; Berry, Lisette

    1998-01-01

    Researchers in a number of disciplines deal with large text sets requiring both text management and text analysis. Faced with a large amount of textual data collected in marketing surveys, literary investigations, historical archives and documentary data bases, these researchers require assistance with organizing, describing and comparing texts. Exploring Textual Data demonstrates how exploratory multivariate statistical methods such as correspondence analysis and cluster analysis can be used to help investigate, assimilate and evaluate textual data. The main text does not contain any strictly mathematical demonstrations, making it accessible to a large audience. This book is very user-friendly with proofs abstracted in the appendices. Full definitions of concepts, implementations of procedures and rules for reading and interpreting results are fully explored. A succession of examples is intended to allow the reader to appreciate the variety of actual and potential applications and the complementary processin...

  15. Connecting textual segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2017-01-01

    history than just the years of the emergence of the web, the chapter traces the history of how segments of text have deliberately been connected to each other by the use of specific textual and media features, from clay tablets, manuscripts on parchment, and print, among others, to hyperlinks on stand......-alone computers and in local and global digital networks....

  16. [Infoxication in health. Health information overload on the Internet and the risk of important information becoming invisible].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D Agostino, Marcelo; Mejía, Felipe Medina; Martí, Myrna; Novillo-Ortiz, David; Hazrum, Flavio; de Cosío, Federico G

    2018-02-19

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) raise awareness of the volume of quality health information on the Internet; 2) explore perceptions of information professionals with regard to the use of qualified sources for health decision-making; and 3) make recommendations that facilitate strengthening health worker capacities and institutional competencies related to digital literacy. A non-experimental, descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with a non-probability sample of 32 information professionals from nine countries. Internet information was compiled on the volume of content in Internet tools, social networks, and health information sources. Searches in English and Spanish were carried out using the keywords Ebola, Zika, dengue, chikungunya, safe food, health equity, safe sex, and obesity. Finally, information was obtained on opportunities for formal education on the subjects of digital literacy, information management, and other related topics. Selecting only four diseases with a high impact on public health in May 2016 and averaging minimum review time for each information product, it would take more than 50 years without sleeping to consult everything that is published online about dengue, Zika, Ebola, and chikungunya. We conclude that public health would benefit from: health institutions implementing formal knowledge management strategies; academic health sciences institutions incorporating formal digital literacy programs; and having health workers who are professionally responsible and functional in the information society.

  17. "It Should at Least Seem Scientific!" Textual Features of "Scientificness" and Their Impact on Lay Assessments of Online Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomm, Eva; Bromme, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The Internet is a convenient source of information about science-based topics (e.g., health matters). Whereas experts are familiar with the conventions of "true" scientific discourse and the assessment of scientific information, laypeople may have great difficulty choosing among, evaluating, and deciding on the vast amount of information…

  18. Cross-Lingual Textual Entailment and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdad, Yashar

    2012-01-01

    Textual Entailment (TE) has been proposed as a generic framework for modeling language variability. The great potential of integrating (monolingual) TE recognition components into NLP architectures has been reported in several areas, such as question answering, information retrieval, information extraction and document summarization. Mainly due to the absence of cross-lingual TE (CLTE) recognition components, similar improvements have not yet been achieved in any corresponding cross-lingual a...

  19. Sharing Health Information and Influencing Behavioral Intentions: The Role of Health Literacy, Information Overload, and the Internet in the Diffusion of Healthy Heart Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Brittani; Stephens, Keri K; Pastorek, Angie E; Mackert, Michael; Donovan, Erin E

    2016-01-01

    Low health literacy remains an extremely common and problematic issue, given that individuals with lower health literacy are more likely to experience health challenges and negative health outcomes. In this study, we use the first three stages of the innovation-decision process found in the theory of diffusion of innovations (Rogers, 2003). We incorporate health literacy into a model explaining how perceived health knowledge, information sharing, attitudes, and behavior are related. Results show that health information sharing explains 33% of the variance in behavioral intentions, indicating that the communicative practice of sharing information can positively impact health outcomes. Further, individuals with high health literacy tend to share less information about heart health than those with lower health literacy. Findings also reveal that perceived heart-health knowledge operates differently than health literacy to predict health outcomes.

  20. Chapter 15 - Information requirements overload? Assessing disclosure duties under the E-commerce Directive, Services Directive and Consumer Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodder, A.R.; Savin, Andrej; Trzaskowski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on information requirements in the context of e-commerce. It considers the Consumer Directive 2011/83 that recently replaced Directive 97/7 on distance selling. In between, two other directives were enacted and are discussed in this chapter: Directive 2000/31 on E-commerce and

  1. Grow Your Personal Learning Network: New Technologies Can Keep You Connected and Help You Manage Information Overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlick, David

    2009-01-01

    Personal learning networks (PLNs) are not new. People have long relied on their families, friends, colleagues, and acquaintances to supplement their knowledge about the world. But the times are changing. Information and communication technologies (ICT), including an ever-growing repertoire of open source applications, have freed content from the…

  2. Tanshinone IIA inhibits myocardial remodeling induced by pressure overload via suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation: Possible role of silent information regulator 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun; Li, Shusheng; Chen, Huawen

    2016-11-15

    Tanshinone IIA (Tan) exerts potential protective effects against cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in cardiac hypertrophy. Activation of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) signaling has been suggested to attenuate cardiac hypertrophy. This study aims to evaluate the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of Tan treatment in pressure overload-induced myocardial remodeling and elucidated its potential mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with Tan in the absence or presence of the SIRT1 inhibitor sirtinol (Snl) and then subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Tan conferred cardioprotective effects by improving cardiac function, reducing apoptosis and myocardial remodeling, upregulating SIRT1, Bcl-2 expressions, and downregulating Bax and caspase-3 expressions. Snl attenuated these effects by inhibiting SIRT1 signaling. Tan treatment also reduced myocardium malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and cardiac inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and increased myocardium superoxide dismutase (SOD) level. However, these effects were also abolished by Snl. In conclusion, these results indicate that Tan significantly attenuates TAC-induced myocardial remodeling possibly due to its strong anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity. Importantly, SIRT1 signaling activation is involved in this process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Design of vehicle overload detection system based on geophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Siquan; Kong, Min; She, Chundong

    2017-08-01

    A vehicle overload detection system is proposed based on geophone. Under normal circumstances, when overloaded vehicles and ordinary vehicles pass through the road, the amplitude of the ground vibration will be different, and the geophone sensor can detect tiny vibrations of the ground. The system includes information acquisition module, signal conditioning module and wireless transmission module. The collected vibration data is transmitted through the wireless transmission module to the background, and the SVM algorithm is used to classify the information and determine whether the vehicle is overloaded. Experiments show that the system can detect overload accurately.

  4. Hermeneutics, Textuality, and Communication Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetz, Stanley

    The fundamental shifts in thinking about communication theory and research that are suggested in the hermeneutic writing made available during the last decade are reviewed in this paper. The issues reviewed include a consideration of hermeneutics as a philosophy of social science, the modern conception of textuality, and the status of interpretive…

  5. Cultural Backgrounds and Textual Appropriation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ling

    2006-01-01

    This study examines interviews with 46 undergraduates to explore if participants with differing language and cultural backgrounds view plagiarism or textual appropriation primarily as a) a language problem because of a lack of words of one's own, or b) a cultural challenge as a result of either some first language (L1) cultural training to…

  6. Aproximación cultural y textual a los informes médico forenses en la traducción especializada francés/español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Olmo Cazevieille

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En el ámbito de la traducción judicial francés-español, los informes forenses se han estudiado muy poco por ser documentos confidenciales de acceso limitado. No obstante, su estudio resulta de gran interés para los profesionales de la traducción especializada pues están relacionados con varias disciplinas, entre otras, el derecho y la medicina. Para caracterizarlos mejor, estudiaremos el contexto cultural de estos documentos, comprobaremos las variaciones en cuanto a su denominación en las dos lenguas y analizaremos su macroestructura mediante un estudio contrastivo de documentos originales para aportar datos que caractericen este género textual y su tipología en Francia y en España.

  7. Recognizing textual entailment models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dagan, Ido; Sammons, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years, a number of NLP researchers have developed and participated in the task of Recognizing Textual Entailment (RTE). This task encapsulates Natural Language Understanding capabilities within a very simple interface: recognizing when the meaning of a text snippet is contained in the meaning of a second piece of text. This simple abstraction of an exceedingly complex problem has broad appeal partly because it can be conceived also as a component in other NLP applications, from Machine Translation to Semantic Search to Information Extraction. It also avoids commitment to any sp

  8. Homonyms's complex networks to semantic analysis textual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadson da Silva Santos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Study centres in natural language processing already spread and the study have several applications. Relate with this research area, it is common the use technic for manipulation a text. These technic is be able to determine the word morphology and the word syntax. There are tools that do this work, however adding engines for semantic identification of the words is essential for increase the automatic understanding the used language. Objective: On the basis of that, This paper present the process of using complex networks as a comparative database to determine by context the meaning of words that express different positions. Moreover, they are classified as same morphology and syntax , as with some homonyms. Methodology: Through of a experimental methodology, the model proposed it is based in consolidate researches in Natural Language Processing for building a Complex Network that receives as vertices the words of a certain text and establishes its connections from the occurrence of adjacency between these terms. Therefore, observing the variations of network, it is identified how to textual namesakes are related and through an context analyzed how if be there, check whether it is used to express more than one meaning. Results: A generic process with stages of preprocessing, building of a Complex Network used to Natural Language Processing for the building of a network homonyms to extract semantic information textual. Conclusions: The analyze of homonyms selected and labeled is the process not only morphosyntatic, adding semantic in the phrase, paragraph or text where the words are applied. However, with Natural Language Processing an events and philosophical facts can be better analyzed through of a world written textually, for example, the power of argument and the writing of an author profile.

  9. A Mobile Phone App Intervention Targeting Fruit and Vegetable Consumption : The Efficacy of Textual and Auditory Tailored Health Information Tested in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbert, Sarah Pietertje; Dijkstra, Arie; Oenema, Anke

    Background: Mobile phone apps are increasingly used to deliver health interventions, which provide the opportunity to present health information via different communication modes. However, scientific evidence regarding the effects of such health apps is scarce. Objective: In a randomized controlled

  10. Formalizing biomedical concepts from textual definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Alina; Ma, Yue; Tsatsaronis, George; Kissa, Maria; Distel, Felix; Baader, Franz; Schroeder, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ontologies play a major role in life sciences, enabling a number of applications, from new data integration to knowledge verification. SNOMED CT is a large medical ontology that is formally defined so that it ensures global consistency and support of complex reasoning tasks. Most biomedical ontologies and taxonomies on the other hand define concepts only textually, without the use of logic. Here, we investigate how to automatically generate formal concept definitions from textual ones. We develop a method that uses machine learning in combination with several types of lexical and semantic features and outputs formal definitions that follow the structure of SNOMED CT concept definitions. We evaluate our method on three benchmarks and test both the underlying relation extraction component as well as the overall quality of output concept definitions. In addition, we provide an analysis on the following aspects: (1) How do definitions mined from the Web and literature differ from the ones mined from manually created definitions, e.g., MeSH? (2) How do different feature representations, e.g., the restrictions of relations' domain and range, impact on the generated definition quality?, (3) How do different machine learning algorithms compare to each other for the task of formal definition generation?, and, (4) What is the influence of the learning data size to the task? We discuss all of these settings in detail and show that the suggested approach can achieve success rates of over 90%. In addition, the results show that the choice of corpora, lexical features, learning algorithm and data size do not impact the performance as strongly as semantic types do. Semantic types limit the domain and range of a predicted relation, and as long as relations' domain and range pairs do not overlap, this information is most valuable in formalizing textual definitions. The analysis presented in this manuscript implies that automated methods can provide a valuable contribution to the

  11. A Multimodal Perspective on Textuality and Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewitt, Carey

    2007-01-01

    Textuality is often thought of in linguistic terms; for instance, the talk and writing that circulate in the classroom. In this paper I take a multimodal perspective on textuality and context. I draw on illustrative examples from school Science and English to examine how image, colour, gesture, gaze, posture and movement--as well as writing and…

  12. Sexuality, Textuality: The Cultural Work of Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca Moore

    2000-01-01

    Considers how plagiarism continues to elude definition because teachers cannot possibly formulate and act on a definition of plagiarism that articulates both its textual and sexual work. Discusses linking sexual property to textual transgression and rejecting metaphors in relationship to rejecting plagiarism. Suggests educators stop using the term…

  13. Verified Visualisation of Textual Modelling Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fairmichael, Fintan; Kiniry, Joseph Roland

    2011-01-01

    that their relationship is clearly and precisely defined. This paper details a formal relationship between the textual and graph- ical forms of a high-level modelling language called the Business Object Notation (BON). We describe the semantics of the graphical and textual representations and the relationship that holds...

  14. Verified Visualisation of Textual Modelling Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fairmichael, Fintan; Kiniry, Joseph Roland

    that their relationship is clearly and precisely defined. This paper details a formal relationship between the textual and graph- ical forms of a high-level modelling language called the Business Object Notation (BON). We describe the semantics of the graphical and textual representations and the relationship that holds...

  15. METHODOLOGICAL STRATEGIES FOR TEXTUAL DATA ANALYSIS:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Rincón-Vásquez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a classification methodology for studies of textual data. Thisclassification is based on the two predominant methodologies for social scienceresearch: qualitative and quantitative. The basic assumption is that the researchprocess involves three main features: 1 Structure Research, 2 Collection of informationand, 3 Analysis and Interpretation of Data. In each, there are generalguidelines for textual studies.

  16. MISSING MATTHEW'S MEANING. WITH 'TEXTUAL MEANING' 203 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    communication and of textual meaning are inadequate. Let me pause to emphasize the two "phenomena" involved here. One is the vast phenomenon of linguistic, or if you like, verbal communication. The other is the marginally less vast phenomenon of textual meaning. So what, you may be wondering, are the relevance.

  17. Origin Tracking + Text Differencing = Textual Model Differencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Rozen (Riemer); T. van der Storm (Tijs)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractIn textual modeling, models are created through an intermediate parsing step which maps textual representations to abstract model structures. Therefore, the identify of elements is not stable across different versions of the same model. Existing model differencing algorithms, therefore,

  18. Introduction: Textual and contextual voices of translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Voices – marks of the tangle of subjectivities involved in textual processes – constitute the very fabric of texts in general and translations in particular. The title of this book, Textual and Contextual Voices of Translation, refers both to textual voices, that is, the voices found within...... the translated texts, and to contextual voices, that is, the voices of those involved in shaping, commenting, or otherwise influencing the textual voices. The latter appear in prefaces, reviews, and other texts that surround the translated texts and provide them with a context. Our main claim is that studying...... both the textual and contextual voices helps us better understand and explain the complexity of both the translation process and the translation product. The dovetailed approach to translation research that is advocated in this book aims at highlighting the diversity of participants, power positions...

  19. Classifying unstructed textual data using the Product Score Model: an alternative text mining algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Qiwei; Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.

    2012-01-01

    Unstructured textual data such as students’ essays and life narratives can provide helpful information in educational and psychological measurement, but often contain irregularities and ambiguities, which creates difficulties in analysis. Text mining techniques that seek to extract useful

  20. The Instructional Text like a Textual Genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiane Fogali Marinello

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the instructional text as a textual genre and is part of the research called Reading and text production from the textual genre perspective, done at Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Campus Universitário da Região dos Vinhedos. Firstly, some theoretical assumptions about textual genre are presented, then, the instructional text is characterized. After that an instructional text is analyzed and, finally, some activities related to reading and writing of the mentioned genre directed to High School and University students are suggested.

  1. Overload road damage model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, MP

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available .02 1.07 1.02 1.07 1.05 Current Condition: Provincial 1.07 1.17 1.03 1.08 1.05 1.12 1.05 1.12 1.09 Deteriorated Condition 1.14 1.27 1.06 1.14 1.10 1.18 1.10 1.20 1.15 TR 2005/26 - TBP51: Overload Road Damage Model Report – March 2005 CSIR... million Ave. O/L E80s/vehicle (n=4) Low High Average 1996 50,595 14,220 16% 1.28 19.7 40.4 30.1 1997 45,657 13,691 15% 1.31 18.8 38.9 28.9 1998 33,235 14,291 15% 1.22 17.6 36.2 26.9 1999 72,546 25,788 15% 1.13 16.3 33.4 24.9 2000 135...

  2. Textual emotion recognition for enhancing enterprise computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Changqin; Ren, Fuji

    2016-05-01

    The growing interest in affective computing (AC) brings a lot of valuable research topics that can meet different application demands in enterprise systems. The present study explores a sub area of AC techniques - textual emotion recognition for enhancing enterprise computing. Multi-label emotion recognition in text is able to provide a more comprehensive understanding of emotions than single label emotion recognition. A representation of 'emotion state in text' is proposed to encompass the multidimensional emotions in text. It ensures the description in a formal way of the configurations of basic emotions as well as of the relations between them. Our method allows recognition of the emotions for the words bear indirect emotions, emotion ambiguity and multiple emotions. We further investigate the effect of word order for emotional expression by comparing the performances of bag-of-words model and sequence model for multi-label sentence emotion recognition. The experiments show that the classification results under sequence model are better than under bag-of-words model. And homogeneous Markov model showed promising results of multi-label sentence emotion recognition. This emotion recognition system is able to provide a convenient way to acquire valuable emotion information and to improve enterprise competitive ability in many aspects.

  3. Iron overload patients with unknown etiology from national survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuta, Katsuya; Hatayama, Mayumi; Addo, Lynda; Toki, Yasumichi; Sasaki, Katsunori; Tatsumi, Yasuaki; Hattori, Ai; Kato, Ayako; Kato, Koichi; Hayashi, Hisao; Suzuki, Takahiro; Kobune, Masayoshi; Tsutsui, Miyuki; Gotoh, Akihiko; Aota, Yasuo; Matsuura, Motoo; Hamada, Yuzuru; Tokuda, Takahiro; Komatsu, Norio; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2017-03-01

    Transfusion is believed to be the main cause of iron overload in Japan. A nationwide survey on post-transfusional iron overload subsequently led to the establishment of guidelines for iron chelation therapy in this country. To date, however, detailed clinical information on the entire iron overload population in Japan has not been fully investigated. In the present study, we obtained and studied detailed clinical information on the iron overload patient population in Japan. Of 1109 iron overload cases, 93.1% were considered to have occurred post-transfusion. There were, however, 76 cases of iron overload of unknown origin, which suggest that many clinicians in Japan may encounter some difficulty in correctly diagnosing and treating iron overload. Further clinical data were obtained for 32 cases of iron overload of unknown origin; median of serum ferritin was 1860.5 ng/mL. As occurs in post-transfusional iron overload, liver dysfunction was found to be as high as 95.7% when serum ferritin levels exceeded 1000 ng/mL in these patients. Gene mutation analysis of the iron metabolism-related genes in 27 cases of iron overload with unknown etiology revealed mutations in the gene coding hemojuvelin, transferrin receptor 2, and ferroportin; this indicates that although rare, hereditary hemochromatosis does occur in Japan.

  4. Textual Rhetorics and Textual Carnivals: Susan Miller and the "Subjects" of Rhetoric and Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Nedra

    1991-01-01

    Reviews two books by Susan Miller: "Rescuing the Subject: A Critical Introduction to Rhetoric and the Writer" (1989) and "Textual Carnivals: The Politics of Composition" (1991). Notes how she rereads dominant histories of rhetoric and writing instruction, argues for a theory of textuality, and illustrates how attention to…

  5. Genetics Home Reference: African iron overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beer develop African iron overload , and not all individuals of African descent with iron overload drink the beer. Therefore, researchers are seeking genetic differences that affect the risk of developing this condition. ...

  6. Stress 2.0: Social Media Overload among Swiss Teenagers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, Christoph; Ranzini, Giulia; Meckel, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Technostress and information overload are serious challenges of the information age. An alarming number of people exhibit dangerously intensive media consumption, while Internet and mobile phone addictions are a widespread phenomenon. At the same time, new media overexposure among young people is

  7. Investigating the Structuraland Textual Characteristics of Internet Physicians Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsin Phoebe Chiu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Internet increases information transparency in several ways, and one way is to allow patients and caregivers access to needed information. It improves the autonomy of medical decision-making, and further creates better physician-patient communication. Internet physician review, as a type of popular medical and health information, improves patients and caregivers’ understanding of doctor selection and supports proactive health decision-making. This study collects Internet physician reviews from two Taiwan-based health information websites - Good Doctor and Health, and DocHos. The analysis framework comprises both structural and textual aspects, each with distinct analytical focuses. The structural analysis includes length of reviews and paragraph structure. The textual analysis includes nature of the reviews, when in the clinical encounter process is reviewed, intent of the reviews, themes of the review, and review strategies. This study hopes to understand the role and function of the Internet physician reviews in the process of health information communication, as well as the applications on physicians’ practice of clinical medicine and patients and caregivers’ medical decision-making process. It may provide insight into the development of patient-centered rather than institution-centered evaluation criteria for healthcare quality.

  8. A Gaze Interactive Textual Smartwatch Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; Biermann, Florian; Askø Madsen, Janus

    2015-01-01

    , but not where on the screen they are looking. To counter the motor noise we present a word-by-word textual UI that shows temporary command options to be executed by gaze-strokes. Twenty-seven participants conducted a simulated smartwatch task and were able to reliably perform commands that would adjust...

  9. Children's Detection and Awareness of Textual Anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Two reading experiments demonstrated that 11-year-old children were more likely than 8-year-old children to identify textual anomalies. Results also indicated that an age change in comprehension monitoring need not be contingent upon a parallel age change in constructive processing as indexed by modulation of reading rate. (Author/DB)

  10. A Textual Case-Based Mobile Phone Diagnosis Support System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Java Cases and Ontology Libraries Integration for Building Reasoning Infrastructures (jCOLIBRI) is a framework which makes the development of Textual Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) applications easier by providing the preprocessing of text methods, textual similarity methods and appropriate representation for textual ...

  11. Aproximación al documento textual desde la perspectiva de los estudios sobre el discurso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montesi, Michela

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical work introduces the areas of research and the topics of studies on the design and discourse of information that highlight the less often examined and less well known features of textual documents, thus redefining their conception. The role of typographic elements in the configuration of messages is discussed, as is multimodality or the coexistence of different modes within the same document, and the interaction of prose and images. The need to conceive textual documents as part of a dynamic process of consumption that includes document readers with all their expectations, knowledge and experiences is underscored. We argue that a different understanding of textual documents can have important implications for documentation science, especially with regard to the modes of interaction between document and documentation professional.

    Este estudio teórico introduce áreas de investigación y temáticas de los estudios sobre el discurso y el diseño de información que permiten ver aspectos menos estudiados o conocidos de los documentos textuales y redefinir su concepción. En concreto, discute el papel de los elementos tipográficos en la configuración del mensaje; la multimodalidad, o la coexistencia de más modos en el mismo documento textual; y la interacción de prosa e imágenes. Insiste, además, en la necesidad de concebir los documentos textuales dentro de un proceso dinámico de consumición del que también forman parte los destinatarios con sus expectativas, conocimientos, y experiencias. Concluye planteando las implicaciones de un nuevo concepto de documento textual para la documentación especialmente por lo que concierne a las modalidades de interacción entre documentalista y documento.

  12. Using textual clues to improve metaphor processing

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, S

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a textual clue approach to help metaphor detection, in order to improve the semantic processing of this figure. The previous works in the domain studied the semantic regularities only, overlooking an obvious set of regularities. A corpus-based analysis shows the existence of surface regularities related to metaphors. These clues can be characterized by syntactic structures and lexical markers. We present an object oriented model for representing the textual clues that were found. This representation is designed to help the choice of a semantic processing, in terms of possible non-literal meanings. A prototype implementing this model is currently under development, within an incremental approach allowing step-by-step evaluations. AUPELF-UREF (Francophone Agency For Education and Research)}

  13. Emotion models for textual emotion classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna, O.; Avetisyan, H.; Holub, J.

    2016-11-01

    This paper deals with textual emotion classification which gained attention in recent years. Emotion classification is used in user experience, product evaluation, national security, and tutoring applications. It attempts to detect the emotional content in the input text and based on different approaches establish what kind of emotional content is present, if any. Textual emotion classification is the most difficult to handle, since it relies mainly on linguistic resources and it introduces many challenges to assignment of text to emotion represented by a proper model. A crucial part of each emotion detector is emotion model. Focus of this paper is to introduce emotion models used for classification. Categorical and dimensional models of emotion are explained and some more advanced approaches are mentioned.

  14. How will you need me, how will you read me, when I'm 64 (or more!)?: volume computed tomographic scanning and information overload in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chason, David P; Anderson, Jon A; Stephens, Jason S; Suss, Richard A; Guild, Jeffrey B; Blackburn, Timothy J; Champine, Julie G; Lane, Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) scanning technology now employs up to 320 detector rows of 0.5-mm width and allows rapid acquisition of isotropic volume datasets over the entire body. Data from a single CT acquisition can be reconstructed into image series that would formerly have required multiple acquisitions. Small isotropic voxels permit scan parameters to be general while reconstruction algorithms remain specific to anatomy. While this results in more efficient operation in the Emergency Department, it necessitates new ways of displaying, interpreting, and archiving the information. Critical decisions include how much of the patient to scan and how to time contrast injections when imaging multiple organs. These choices must be made in light of dose considerations to the patient and the general population of patients. The technical basis of high-density CT scanning is discussed, including detector configurations and reconstruction techniques. Volumetric scanning in the Emergency Department can improve patient care but requires a change of technical habits. 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ontology Maintenance using Textual Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine Gargouri

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Ontologies are continuously confronted to evolution problem. Due to the complexity of the changes to be made, a maintenance process, at least a semi-automatic one, is more and more necessary to facilitate this task and to ensure its reliability. In this paper, we propose a maintenance ontology model for a domain, whose originality is to be language independent and based on a sequence of text processing in order to extract highly related terms from corpus. Initially, we deploy the document classification technique using GRAMEXCO to generate classes of texts segments having a similar information type and identify their shared lexicon, agreed as highly related to a unique topic. This technique allows a first general and robust exploration of the corpus. Further, we apply the Latent Semantic Indexing method to extract from this shared lexicon, the most associated terms that has to be seriously considered by an expert to eventually confirm their relevance and thus updating the current ontology. Finally, we show how the complementarity between these two techniques, based on cognitive foundation, constitutes a powerful refinement process.

  16. Over-exposed portraits : Technology overload and the identities of the young

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, Christoph; Ranzini, Giulia; Meckel, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Technostress and information overload represent serious challenges of the Information Age. An alarming number of people exhibit dangerously intensive media consumption, while Internet and mobile phone addictions are a widespread phenomenon, especially among teens. Despite increasing evidence for technostress and information overload within the literature, the consequences of new media overexposure on young individuals are so far understudied. When it comes to Social Network Sites (SNS), in pa...

  17. Intelligent Overload Control for Composite Web Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenhoff, P.J.; Ostendorf, D.R.; Zivkovic, Miroslav; Meeuwissen, H.B.; Gijsen, B.M.M.

    In this paper, we analyze overload control for composite web services in service oriented architectures by an orchestrating broker, and propose two practical access control rules which effectively mitigate the effects of severe overloads at some web services in the composite service. These two rules

  18. Intelligent overload control for composite web services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenhoff, P.J.; Ostendorf, D.R.; Živković, M.; Meeuwissen, H.B.; Gijsen, B.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze overload control for composite web services in service oriented architectures by an orchestrating broker, and propose two practical access control rules which effectively mitigate the effects of severe overloads at some web services in the composite service. These two rules

  19. Intelligent Overload Control for Composite Web Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenhoff, P.J.; Ostendorf, D.R.; Zivkovic, Miroslav; Meeuwissen, H.B.; Gijsen, B.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze overload control for composite web services in service oriented architectures by an orchestrating broker, and propose two practical access control rules which effectively mitigate the effects of severe overloads at some web services in the composite service. These two rules

  20. A Test of the Urban Overload Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Clark R.

    This paper briefly discusses three studies aimed at exploring the overload hypothesis posited by Stanley Milgram. That hypothesis suggests that impoverished social interaction in the city is an adaptation to overload of interpersonal contacts. The three studies examine various aspects of the phenomenon using different methodologies. Comparing city…

  1. Datos textuales como elementos activos en sensometría = Textual data as active elements in sensometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Álvarez Esteban

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de datos textuales en estudios estadísticos sobre sensometría generalmente se ha realizado tratando de explicar e interpretar los resultados alcanzados a partir de datos cuantitativos. Este trabajo muestra una metodología que permite utilizar datos textuales como elementos activos. Dos catas de vinos ilustran el procedimiento.The use of textual data in statistical studies into sensometric field has been conducted generally seeking to explain and interpret results obtained from quantitative data. This work shows a methodology that allows use textual data as active elements. Two wine tastings illustrate the procedure.

  2. Datos textuales como elementos activos en sensometría = Textual data as active elements in sensometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Álvarez Esteban

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de datos textuales en estudios estadísticos sobre sensometría generalmente se ha realizado tratando de explicar e interpretar los resultados alcanzados a partir de datos cuantitativos. Este trabajo muestra una metodología que permite utilizar datos textuales como elementos activos. Dos catas de vinos ilustran el procedimiento. The use of textual data in statistical studies into sensometric field has been conducted generally seeking to explain and interpret results obtained from quantitative data. This work shows a methodology that allows use textual data as active elements. Two wine tastings illustrate the procedure.

  3. Frequency shifting approach towards textual transcription of heartbeat sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safar Khorasani Ehsan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Auscultation is an approach for diagnosing many cardiovascular problems. Automatic analysis of heartbeat sounds and extraction of its audio features can assist physicians towards diagnosing diseases. Textual transcription allows recording a continuous heart sound stream using a text format which can be stored in very small memory in comparison with other audio formats. In addition, a text-based data allows applying indexing and searching techniques to access to the critical events. Hence, the transcribed heartbeat sounds provides useful information to monitor the behavior of a patient for the long duration of time. This paper proposes a frequency shifting method in order to improve the performance of the transcription. The main objective of this study is to transfer the heartbeat sounds to the music domain. The proposed technique is tested with 100 samples which were recorded from different heart diseases categories. The observed results show that, the proposed shifting method significantly improves the performance of the transcription.

  4. Textual Condensation in Printed Dictionaries. A Theoretical Draft ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents an excerpt from a theory of lexicographic texts which deals particularly with dictionary articles. Almost all characteristics of dictionary articles considered as typically lexicographic may be regarded as results of textual condensation processes. A theory of textual condensation in lexicography thus makes it ...

  5. New Testament Textual Criticism is dead! Long live New Testament ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores the notion that some of the basic assumptions upon which textual criticism is built, like the quest for an “original text”, have serious flaws and that much of what has been attempted the last 300 years is actually an exercise in futility. In this sense New Testament textual criticism can be declared dead.

  6. Essjay's "Ethos": Rethinking Textual Origins and Intellectual Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James J., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Discussions of intellectual property are often the focus of rhetoric and composition research, and the question of textual origins grounds these discussions. Through an examination of Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia anyone can edit, this essay addresses disciplinary concerns about textual origins and intellectual property through a discussion…

  7. Textual Condensation in Printed Dictionaries. A Theoretical Draft·

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tual condensation in lexicography thus makes it possible to analyse the lexicographic textual con- densation from a uniform perspective; it allows us to calculate exactly the degree of textual con- densation, it contributes to the construction of a scientific predicate user-friendlier as, and gives us insights which will make the ...

  8. Towards a textual history of La Galatea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Montero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying the different printings and editions of La Galatea allows one to establish the work’s textual history. The present study seeks to accomplish this, following this pattern: a the princeps of 1585; b early printings from 1590-1618 and from the book’s editorial resurgence from 1736-1846; c the editions from 1863 until today and the foundations of a critical edition. The following conclusions are proposed: a the princeps is the closest text to the author’s intention, but contains errors that any editor should identify and correct, if possible; b the editions that date from 1590-1846 include useful readings in that endeavor; c modern editions of La Galatea have erred in general in an exaggerated fidelity to the princeps, with the exception of the one by C. Rosell in 1863, in which other printings were taken into account and the text was emended, even excessively.

  9. Antiabecedarian Desires: Odd Narratology and Digital Textuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asunción López-Varela Azcárate

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de escritura rompen barreras temporales y permiten compartir conocimiento y preservarlo. Como si fuesen organismos vivos, las estructuras narratológicas que conforman la comunicación textual crecen a partir de principios de orden y formas de codificación cuyas raíces retroceden hasta un proto-alfabeto de origen semítico. Sin embargo, la historia literaria incluye muchos ejemplos que, cual virus, han buscado quebrantar el cuerpo de la textualidad alfabética. Este ensayo estudia tres artistas fundamentales, James Joyce, Jorge Luis Borges,William Burroughs, junto con varias obras contemporáneas de literatura electrónica. Todos ellos ponen en cuestión los principios organizativos alfabéticos y anticipan el debate sobre la importancia o no de las estructuras lineales en los sistemas de representación.

  10. Textual reading comprehension and naming in Alzheimer's disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juciclara Rinaldi

    Full Text Available Abstract Among linguistic-cognitive failures, the retelling of stories and lexical disorders occur from the onset of AD. Recent studies have discussed whether lexical failures in AD patients include naming actions. Objectives: The aims of this study were to verify naming and reformulation of action difficulties in AD patients and their relationship with the retelling of stories. Our main questions were: Are there two linguistic abilities impaired in the early stages of AD? Is there some correlation between the capacity of naming actions and the retelling of stories? Methods: We assessed 28 elderly participants: 17 with probable AD and 11 control subjects, with schooling ³4 years. The textual reading comprehension was measured using four stories with descriptive and narrative textual structure. The lexical production was verified by 17 actions on video, assessed by the participants' first and second verbal emissions. Results: The results showed that the retelling of stories is a task that discriminates patients with AD from healthy individuals. The naming and reformulation of actions tasks did not show significant differences among the patients and their controls. A positive correlation was found between the difficulties in retelling stories and the reformulation of the naming of actions. Conclusions: These results confirm previous findings that show the preservation of naming actions in patients with AD, which involve familiar actions, and that the retelling of short stories is an instrument that discriminates patients with AD from healthy elders. Results also suggest that the difficulties in retelling are related a breakdown in reformulating information, perhaps stemming from mechanisms of decreased memory work.

  11. A study on adolescents to assess the impact of pictorial and textual warnings on panels of smoked and smokeless tobacco products in Western Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Thakur; K M Shivakumar; Snehal Patil; K V Suresh; Vidya Kadashetti

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Various pictorial and textual warnings are depicted with a hope that they will deter the individuals from using tobacco and inform them regarding the risks of tobacco. Yet there is lack of information regarding the comprehension of these signs by the adolescents. Aims: The aim was to explore the perception of the adolescents regarding the pictorial and textual warnings on tobacco packs. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 500 adolescents of Satara ...

  12. Thermal Characterization of the Overload Carbon Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Kostić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In many applications, the electronic component is not continuously but only intermittently overloaded (e.g., inrush current, short circuit, or discharging interference. With this paper, we provide insight into carbon resistors that have to hold out a rarely occurring transient overload. Using simple electrical circuit, the resistor is overheating with higher current than declared, and dissipation is observed by a thermal camera.

  13. Interactive SIGHT: textual access to simple bar charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Seniz; Oliver, David; Schwartz, Edward; Elzer, Stephanie; Carberry, Sandra; Mccoy, Kathleen F.; Chester, Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Information graphics, such as bar charts and line graphs, are an important component of many articles from popular media. The majority of such graphics have an intention (a high-level message) to communicate to the graph viewer. Since the intended message of a graphic is often not repeated in the accompanying text, graphics together with the textual segments contribute to the overall purpose of an article and cannot be ignored. Unfortunately, these visual displays are provided in a format which is not readily accessible to everyone. For example, individuals with sight impairments who use screen readers to listen to documents have limited access to the graphics. This article presents a new accessibility tool, the Interactive SIGHT (Summarizing Information GrapHics Textually) system, that is intended to enable visually impaired users to access the knowledge that one would gain from viewing information graphics found on the web. The current system, which is implemented as a browser extension that works on simple bar charts, can be invoked by a user via a keystroke combination while navigating the web. Once launched, Interactive SIGHT first provides a brief summary that conveys the underlying intention of a bar chart along with the chart's most significant and salient features, and then produces history-aware follow-up responses to provide further information about the chart upon request from the user. We present two user studies that were conducted with sighted and visually impaired users to determine how effective the initial summary and follow-up responses are in conveying the informational content of bar charts, and to evaluate how easy it is to use the system interface. The evaluation results are promising and indicate that the system responses are well-structured and enable visually impaired users to answer key questions about bar charts in an easy-to-use manner. Post-experimental interviews revealed that visually impaired participants were very satisfied with

  14. Extracting the Textual and Temporal Structure of Supercomputing Logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, S; Singh, I; Chandra, A; Zhang, Z; Bronevetsky, G

    2009-05-26

    Supercomputers are prone to frequent faults that adversely affect their performance, reliability and functionality. System logs collected on these systems are a valuable resource of information about their operational status and health. However, their massive size, complexity, and lack of standard format makes it difficult to automatically extract information that can be used to improve system management. In this work we propose a novel method to succinctly represent the contents of supercomputing logs, by using textual clustering to automatically find the syntactic structures of log messages. This information is used to automatically classify messages into semantic groups via an online clustering algorithm. Further, we describe a methodology for using the temporal proximity between groups of log messages to identify correlated events in the system. We apply our proposed methods to two large, publicly available supercomputing logs and show that our technique features nearly perfect accuracy for online log-classification and extracts meaningful structural and temporal message patterns that can be used to improve the accuracy of other log analysis techniques.

  15. Automatic extraction of geographic context from textual data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurijs Nikolajevs

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The amount of information on the internet grows exponentially. It isnot enough anymore just to have a general access to this huge amount of data,instead it is becoming a necessity to be able to use different kinds ofautomatic filters to retrieve just the information you actually want. Onesolution for the information filtering and retrieval is context analysis inwhich one of the contexts of interest is the geographic context. This paperstudies the problem and methodology of geoparsing – recognition of geographicnames in unstructured textual content for the aim of extracting geographiccontext. A prototype implementation of a geoparsing system, capable ofautomatically analyzing unstructured text, recognizing geographic informationand marking geographic names, is developed. Empirical evaluation of the systemusing articles from real-world news showed that the average quality of itsgeographic name recognition varies around 75-100%. Possible applications of thedeveloped prototype include automated grouping of any texts by their geographiccontexts (e.g., in news portals and location-based search. Preliminary resultsof empirical evaluation showed that the average rate of its geographic namerecognition varies around 75-100%.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15181/csat.v2i1.13

  16. Textual Harassment: A New Historicist Reappraisal of the Parol Evidence With Gender in Mind

    OpenAIRE

    Keren, Hila

    2004-01-01

    This year marks the four hundredth anniversary of the Parol Evidence Rule, the rule that dictates that the interpretation of a written contract should be determined solely according to its text and not influenced by prior contradictory external information. This article uses the occasion to offer a fresh interdisciplinary view of the Rule. The analysis presents a unique contribution to the heated debate regarding the desired levels of formalism and textualism in present-day contract law, by u...

  17. Knowledge Discovery in Textual Databases: A Concept-Association Mining Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mete, Mutlu; Yuruk, Nurcan; Xu, Xiaowei; Berleant, Daniel

    The number of scientific publications is exploding as online digital libraries and the World Wide Web grow. MEDLINE, the premier bibliographic database of the National Library of Medicine (NLM) , contains about 18 million records from more than 7,300 different publications dating from 1965; it is growing by about 400,000 citations each year. The explosive growth of information in textual documents creates great need for techniques for knowledge discovery from text collections.

  18. Anomaly Detection from ASRS Databases of Textual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our primary goal is to automatically analyze textual reports from the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database to detect/discover the anomaly categories...

  19. Extracting meronomy relations from domain-specific, textual corporate databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittoo, R.A.; Bouma, G.; Maruster, L.; Wortmann, J.C.; Hopfe, C.J.; Rezgui, Y.; Métais, E.; Preece, A.; Li, H.

    2010-01-01

    Various techniques for learning meronymy relationships from open-domain corpora exist. However, extracting meronymy relationships from domain-specific, textual corporate databases has been overlooked, despite numerous application opportunities particularly in domains like product development and/or

  20. Semiotic analysis of textual communication in Snow by Julia Alvarez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necat Kumral

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of literary texts in language classes does not find enough space within the scope of English languageteaching programs in English as a Foreign Language (EFL settings, where direct exposure to second language(L2 is considerably limited due to pseudo communicative language teaching environment. Literary texts provideample opportunity for the learner to study the target language in a natural way with all the necessary corpora richin powerful textual communication where linguistic, pragmatic and literary studies are presented in the samemedium concurrently. The whole idea behind this article is not to substitute criticism for literature, but to make itthe object of study in an inter-textual system of relations by connecting one text to the already existing onescreated in the same literary tradition. The relation between semiotic analysis and textual communication withreference to the seven standards of textuality is provided within a mellifluent blend for the sake ofcomprehensive understanding of the semiotic analysis of textual communication in the story. Textual analysis ofthe story by considering all the standards of textuality is displayed with all the necessary input in order for thelearner to move on to semiotic analysis of textual communication in the short story. Semiotic analysis of thestory is presented in line with the accepted strategies of the reading activity developed in consecutive steps.Having provided with the phases of the approach the reader is expected to develop a comprehensive view of howto become autonomous learner responsible for his own learning. The reader not only develops the interpretativeskills by acquiring the accepted strategies of semiotic analysis, but also enhances awareness of life, for literarystudies help develop a thorough perception of life by going through the private psychological experience of theprotagonist. The reader is expected to appreciate and acquire the sort of wisdom lying behind the moral

  1. Textual, Genre and Social Features of Spoken Grammar: A Corpus-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pérez-Llantada

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a corpus-based approach to teaching and learning spoken grammar for English for Academic Purposes with reference to Bhatia’s (2002 multi-perspective model for discourse analysis: a textual perspective, a genre perspective and a social perspective. From a textual perspective, corpus-informed instruction helps students identify grammar items through statistical frequencies, collocational patterns, context-sensitive meanings and discoursal uses of words. From a genre perspective, corpus observation provides students with exposure to recurrent lexico-grammatical patterns across different academic text types (genres. From a social perspective, corpus models can be used to raise learners’ awareness of how speakers’ different discourse roles, discourse privileges and power statuses are enacted in their grammar choices. The paper describes corpus-based instructional procedures, gives samples of learners’ linguistic output, and provides comments on the students’ response to this method of instruction. Data resulting from the assessment process and student production suggest that corpus-informed instruction grounded in Bhatia’s multi-perspective model can constitute a pedagogical approach in order to i obtain positive student responses from input and authentic samples of grammar use, ii help students identify and understand the textual, genre and social aspects of grammar in real contexts of use, and therefore iii help develop students’ ability to use grammar accurately and appropriately.

  2. Aspectos da pesquisa sobre tipologia textual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Travaglia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo chama a atenção dos pesquisadores sobre tipologiatextual, na área da Linguística Textual, sobre aspectos que sãoimportantes para que estas pesquisas gerem conclusões egeneralizações mais confiáveis. Os pontos comentados são: a anecessidade de uma teoria tipológica geral de textos que inclusivedetermine se as categorias de texto são todas da mesma natureza. Oautor propõe uma teoria geral; b a necessidade de estudos maishorizontalizados ou amplos que estabeleçam campos de pesquisa ede estudos mais verticalizados, que aprofundam o conhecimentode pontos específicos; c os aspectos metodológicos para superarproblemas no levantamento das categorias de texto existentes emuma sociedade e cultura, em suas diversas comunidades discursivase esferas de ação social; d a questão dos parâmetros e critérios paraconsiderar uma categoria de texto como sendo uma categoria e seela é de determinada natureza; e a questão dos critérios e parâmetrospara a caracterização das categorias de texto; f a necessidade deestudar as diversas relações de diferentes tipos que podem ocorrerentre as categorias de texto (de diferentes naturezas, tanto em suacomposição quanto em seu funcionamento sociodiscursivo; e g aatenção que merece a questão teminológica.

  3. Reading Glimpses of Life and Manners: A Textual Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Ghaderi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Through a textual scrutiny of Mary Sheil’s Glimpses of Life and Manners in Persia, this paper aims to examine the ways she represents the Persian women in her travel narrative.  Nineteenth century, as the high noon of British imperialism, saw the emergence of a huge corpus of colonial travel literature on Persia purported to be eye-witness accounts of the journeys made by their writers. Likewise, Mary Sheil claims that her narrative is an innocent transcription of the life and manners in Persia. However, a close analysis of her text reveals that the representations of women are informed by circulating discourses of the time in keeping with British imperialist ideologies. Further, it exposes the power structure embedded in Sheil’s scripting of Persian women. Far from being a monolithic picture, the text presents an ambivalent tableau of Persian women as objects of both derision and admiration. For its analytical framework, this study follows three successive readings focusing on the representation of the Persian women. The interpretation of the passages is guided by theories from Edward Said and Homi K. Bhabha among others.

  4. Textual Dualism and Augmented Reality in the Russian Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Antley

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available While the current focus on how digital technology alters our conception of the self and its place in the broader perceived reality yields fascinating insight into modern issues, there is much to be gained by analyzing the presence of dualist and augmented reality discourses in a pre-digital era. This essay will examine the ontological interplay of textual dualist norms in the Russian and Soviet states of the 19th and early 20th centuries and how those norms were challenged by augmented claims embodied in rumors, refrains, and the spelling of names. By utilizing the informational concepts of mobility and asynchronicity, three Russian historical vignettes—the Emancipation of the Serfs in 1861, the documentation of Jews in Imperial Russia, and the attempts by Trotsky to realize Soviet symchka—demonstrate that not only are dualist discourses prevalent in periods outside of the contemporary, but also that the way in which those conflicts framed themselves in the past directly influences their deployment in today’s digital world.

  5. Multimedia reviews: multimedia overload produces "symplexity".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingrone, Frank

    2003-03-01

    We humans "know" from information mediated through our "natural senses." All outside signals come to us through some medium-sound waves, pressure and touch, light waves, radio and television waves, and so forth. McLuhan's famous mantra "The medium is the message" paradoxically highlighted the critical transformation of meaning when each type of medium-radio, television, drums, hand signals-by its very nature modifies the message it is transmitting. In this month's column Dr. Zingrone brings challenging new ideas to the field of human communication and vividly describes the communication distortions that occur when the overload of increasingly complex modern media results in a paradoxical diminution of meaning itself. He has coined a term for this unintended consequence and given it to his exciting new book, The Media Symplex: At the Edge of Meaning in the Age of Chaos (1). Many of us may recognize the effect created by this accelerating phenomenon-our stupefaction as we experience the onslaught of sound and visual signals produced by a television news screen, where an avalanche of rapidly changing, overlapping, and distorted visual images flash at our eyes while screeching, undulating synthetic "music" crashes about our ears. And in that chaos we struggle to find meaning,Dr. Zingrone, who worked with McLuhan and who has written extensively about his work (2,3), has succeeded in his new book to move the pioneering work of human communication scientists forward and thereby help us all to understand the developing paradox and danger of more communication yet less meaning.

  6. “Famoso [y valiente] hidalgo”: sobre conjeturas y deturpaciones textuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencio Sevilla Arroyo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The textual manipulations to which the epigraph of the first chapter of El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha has recently been subjected to offer an obvious example of Textual Bibliography critical threats when handled carelessly. Although it is true that spurious textual “changes” caused by the “printing by forms” and its “count of the original text” were current in Golden Age manual presses, the risk of distortions that threaten its non-well-informed amendment is also evident. In this case, a restitution of a supposed involuntary omission by the compositors is pretended, famoso [y valiente] hidalgo, which runs away from the first chapter’s epigraph in the original text of the Quijote, under the evidence from the first edition “Tabla de los capítulos”. Nevertheless, there are many typographical evidences that lead to conclude exactly the opposite: it is rather an apocryphal appendix, introduced by the compositor of the “Tabla” from an original famoso y valiente, and aimed just to solve a remaining blank in the last gathering of the book. The amendment, thus, far from restoring the original text, distorts Cervantine writing replacing it for an evident typographical trap. It would be necessary to bear in mind that the only Cervantine text of the first Quijote with critical authority went out of Juan de la Cuesta’s printing presses around Christmas in 1604- 1605...

  7. On the Reconstruction of Text Phylogeny Trees: Evaluation and Analysis of Textual Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmerola, Guilherme D; Oikawa, Marina A; Dias, Zanoni; Goldenstein, Siome; Rocha, Anderson

    2016-01-01

    Over the history of mankind, textual records change. Sometimes due to mistakes during transcription, sometimes on purpose, as a way to rewrite facts and reinterpret history. There are several classical cases, such as the logarithmic tables, and the transmission of antique and medieval scholarship. Today, text documents are largely edited and redistributed on the Web. Articles on news portals and collaborative platforms (such as Wikipedia), source code, posts on social networks, and even scientific publications or literary works are some examples in which textual content can be subject to changes in an evolutionary process. In this scenario, given a set of near-duplicate documents, it is worthwhile to find which one is the original and the history of changes that created the whole set. Such functionality would have immediate applications on news tracking services, detection of plagiarism, textual criticism, and copyright enforcement, for instance. However, this is not an easy task, as textual features pointing to the documents' evolutionary direction may not be evident and are often dataset dependent. Moreover, side information, such as time stamps, are neither always available nor reliable. In this paper, we propose a framework for reliably reconstructing text phylogeny trees, and seamlessly exploring new approaches on a wide range of scenarios of text reusage. We employ and evaluate distinct combinations of dissimilarity measures and reconstruction strategies within the proposed framework, and evaluate each approach with extensive experiments, including a set of artificial near-duplicate documents with known phylogeny, and from documents collected from Wikipedia, whose modifications were made by Internet users. We also present results from qualitative experiments in two different applications: text plagiarism and reconstruction of evolutionary trees for manuscripts (stemmatology).

  8. Control over Permissible Short Emergency Overloads in Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Anischenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a method for determination a permissible duration of short intermittent overloads of power transformers that permits to avoid non-permissible over-heating of winding insulation and fully utilize overloading transformer ability.

  9. Overload blunts baroreflex only in overreached athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdillon, Nicolas; Yazdani, Sasan; Nilchian, Masih; Mariano, Alessio; Vesin, Jean-Marc; Millet, Grégoire P

    2018-01-31

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is commonly used to diagnose overreaching and monitor athletes' responses to training. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is modified by changes in training load and might be another means to detect overreaching. The goal of this study was to assess BRS and HRV changes in two groups of athletes responding either negatively (FOR) or positively (AF) to similar training overload. Fifteen athletes performed 2-week baseline (BSL) training followed by 3-week overload (+45%; OVL) and 2-week recovery (-20%; RCV). HRV, training load and subjective fatigue were measured daily via questionnaires. BRS, salivary cortisol and testosterone, and submaximal exercise and maximal 3-km run performances were measured at the end of each period. Based on their performance change during OVL, 8 athletes were diagnosed as FOR and 7 as AF. Subjective fatigue was increased in FOR athletes during OVL. BRS increased in AF but not in FOR athletes during RCV. At the end of RCV, cortisol and testosterone were higher than BSL in both groups. Three weeks of similar training overload can induce either performance enhancement or overreaching. The changes in submaximal exercise and maximal performances and in subjective fatigue were the fastest-responding parameters that distinguished the two groups of athletes during OVL. Training overload blunted the increase in BRS in FOR only. Most of the differences in BRS were observed during the recovery period. BRS appears to be a more sensitive parameter than HRV for early monitoring of responses to training. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Iron overload in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattermann, Norbert

    2018-01-01

    Iron overload (IOL) starts to develop in MDS patients before they become transfusion-dependent because ineffective erythropoiesis suppresses hepcidin production in the liver and thus leads to unrestrained intestinal iron uptake. However, the most important cause of iron overload in MDS is chronic transfusion therapy. While transfusion dependency by itself is a negative prognostic factor reflecting poor bone marrow function, the ensuing transfusional iron overload has an additional dose-dependent negative impact on the survival of patients with lower risk MDS. Cardiac dysfunction appears to be important in this context, as a consequence of chronic anemia, age-related cardiac comorbidity, and iron overload. Another potential problem is iron-related endothelial dysfunction. There is some evidence that with increasing age, high circulating iron levels worsen the atherosclerotic phenotype. Transfusional IOL also appears to aggravate bone marrow failure in MDS, through unfavorable effects on mesenchymal stromal cells as well a hematopoietic cells, particularly erythroid precursors. Patient series and clinical trials have shown that the iron chelators deferoxamine and deferasirox can improve hematopoiesis in a minority of transfusion-dependent patients. Analyses of registry data suggest that iron chelation provides a survival benefit for patients with MDS, but data from a prospective randomized clinical trial are still lacking.

  11. Aggradation in rivers due to overloading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribberink, J.S.; Van der Sande, J.T.M.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of aggradation in a river due to overloading is tackled with a mathematical model consisting of a set of one-dimensional (in space) basic equations in which the water motion is assumed to be quasi-steady and the sediment transport is determined by local conditions. Analytical solutions

  12. SIRT1 may play a crucial role in overload-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltai, Erika; Bori, Zoltán; Chabert, Clovis; Dubouchaud, Hervé; Naito, Hisashi; Machida, Shuichi; Davies, Kelvin Ja; Murlasits, Zsolt; Fry, Andrew C; Boldogh, Istvan; Radak, Zsolt

    2017-06-01

    Silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1) activity and content increased significantly in overload-induced hypertrophy. SIRT1-mediated signalling through Akt, the endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediated pathway, regulates anabolic process in the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. The regulation of catabolic signalling via forkhead box O 1 and protein ubiquitination is SIRT1 dependent. Overload-induced changes in microRNA levels regulate SIRT1 and insulin-like growth factor 1 signalling. Significant skeletal muscle mass guarantees functional wellbeing and is important for high level performance in many sports. Although the molecular mechanism for skeletal muscle hypertrophy has been well studied, it still is not completely understood. In the present study, we used a functional overload model to induce plantaris muscle hypertrophy by surgically removing the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles in rats. Two weeks of muscle ablation resulted in a 40% increase in muscle mass, which was associated with a significant increase in silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1) content and activity (P overload-induced hypertrophy. These findings, along with the well-known regulatory roles that SIRT1 plays in modulating both anabolic and catabolic pathways, allow us to propose the hypothesis that SIRT1 may actually play a crucial causal role in overload-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. This hypothesis will now require rigorous direct and functional testing. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  13. Effect of anabolic steroids on overloaded and overloaded suspended skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsika, R. W.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of treatment with an anabolic steroid (nandrolone decanoate) on the muscle mass, the subcellular protein content, and the myosin patterns of normal overloaded and suspended overloaded plantaris muscle in female rat was investigated, dividing rats into six groups: normal control (NC), overload (OV), OV steroid (OV-S), normal suspended (N-sus), OV suspended (OV-sus), and OV suspended steroid (OV-sus-S). Relative to control values, overload produced a sparing effect on the muscle weight of the OV-sus group as well as increases of muscle weight of the OV group; increased protein content; and an increased expression of slow myosin in both OV and OV-sus groups. Steroid treatment of OV animals did not after the response of any parameter analyzed for the OV group, but in the OV-sus group steroid treatment induced increases in muscle weight and in protein content of the OV-sus-S group. The treatment did not alter the pattern of isomyosin expression observed in the OV or the OV-sus groups. These result suggest that the steroid acts synergistically with functional overload only under conditions in which the effect of overload is minimized by suspension.

  14. Textual Dreaming: Dis-Ease in the Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Roe

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available New media presents us with a diverse range of texts which tend to manifest through the centrality of the interface. The interface is often argued as the most important part of any digital application – it becomes the surface upon or through which a range of forces and discourses converge and intersect. It can also be argued that these discourses are subsumed within a particular idea of the interface which in some instances can efface what is at stake in new media texts. In particular, and what this paper investigates, is the question of textuality itself, the limits and liberties of textual models. This paper problematises the notion of the interface with a notion of models of textuality, and considers some of the implications for the future of reading.

  15. A computational approach to qualitative analysis in large textual datasets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Evans

    Full Text Available In this paper I introduce computational techniques to extend qualitative analysis into the study of large textual datasets. I demonstrate these techniques by using probabilistic topic modeling to analyze a broad sample of 14,952 documents published in major American newspapers from 1980 through 2012. I show how computational data mining techniques can identify and evaluate the significance of qualitatively distinct subjects of discussion across a wide range of public discourse. I also show how examining large textual datasets with computational methods can overcome methodological limitations of conventional qualitative methods, such as how to measure the impact of particular cases on broader discourse, how to validate substantive inferences from small samples of textual data, and how to determine if identified cases are part of a consistent temporal pattern.

  16. The Family in Care for the Elderly: Managing the Overload and Coping with Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisete dos Santos Mendes Mónico

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Family is considered the main support of the elderly in a situation of dependency. Caregiving often results in overloading, leading to diverse problems. Aim: To evaluate the self-perception of the family caregiver’s overload and the strategies used to provide informal care to the dependent elderly considering their level of dependence. Method: The sample consisted of 21 children, 16 spouses, and nine other relatives of elderly dependents who responded to the Caregiver’s Overload Scale (Sequeira, 2007, the Portuguese version of Caregivers’ Assessment Management Index (CAMI, Nolan, Keady, & Grant, 1995 and the Barthel Index (Mahoney & Barthel, 1965. Results: The Barthel Index showed 34.8% of the elderly as severely dependent and 37.0% as totally dependent. The care most provided respected to medication, hygiene, food, and monitoring. Above 56.5% of the caregivers had an intense overload, both at the objective (impact of care and interpersonal relationship and subjective (F3-Expectations regarding care and F4-Perceived self-efficacy levels. The main reason for maintaining caregivers was family/personal obligation (95.7%. Caregivers reasonably assessed the effectiveness of their strategies in dealing with their dependent elderly (CAMI; M = 101.0, SD = 15.0. There was a negative relationship between the perception of the caregiver’s overload and the age and health status of the elderly, as well as between the number of strategies used by the caregiver to overcome difficulties and the self-perception of the overload. Conclusion: The multiplicity of daily tasks performed in support of a family member in a situation of severe dependence translates into situations of intense overload, negatively impacting on care, interpersonal relationship, expectations regarding caring, and perception of self-efficacy of care.

  17. Experiential Thinking in Creationism—A Textual Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Petteri; Ryökäs, Esko; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2015-01-01

    Creationism is a religiously motivated worldview in denial of biological evolution that has been very resistant to change. We performed a textual analysis by examining creationist and pro-evolutionary texts for aspects of “experiential thinking”, a cognitive process different from scientific thought. We observed characteristics of experiential thinking as follows: testimonials (present in 100% of sampled creationist texts), such as quotations, were a major form of proof. Confirmation bias (100% of sampled texts) was represented by ignoring or dismissing information that would contradict the creationist hypothesis. Scientifically irrelevant or flawed information was re-interpreted as relevant for the falsification of evolution (75–90% of sampled texts). Evolutionary theory was associated to moral issues by demonizing scientists and linking evolutionary theory to atrocities (63–93% of sampled texts). Pro-evolutionary rebuttals of creationist claims also contained testimonials (93% of sampled texts) and referred to moral implications (80% of sampled texts) but displayed lower prevalences of stereotypical thinking (47% of sampled texts), confirmation bias (27% of sampled texts) and pseudodiagnostics (7% of sampled texts). The aspects of experiential thinking could also be interpreted as argumentative fallacies. Testimonials lead, for instance, to ad hominem and appeals to authorities. Confirmation bias and simplification of data give rise to hasty generalizations and false dilemmas. Moral issues lead to guilt by association and appeals to consequences. Experiential thinking and fallacies can contribute to false beliefs and the persistence of the claims. We propose that science educators would benefit from the systematic analysis of experiential thinking patterns and fallacies in creationist texts and pro-evolutionary rebuttals in order to concentrate on scientific misconceptions instead of the scientifically irrelevant aspects of the creationist

  18. Utility-preserving privacy protection of textual healthcare documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, David; Batet, Montserrat; Viejo, Alexandre

    2014-12-01

    The adoption of ITs by medical organisations makes possible the compilation of large amounts of healthcare data, which are quite often needed to be released to third parties for research or business purposes. Many of this data are of sensitive nature, because they may include patient-related documents such as electronic healthcare records. In order to protect the privacy of individuals, several legislations on healthcare data management, which state the kind of information that should be protected, have been defined. Traditionally, to meet with current legislations, a manual redaction process is applied to patient-related documents in order to remove or black-out sensitive terms. This process is costly and time-consuming and has the undesired side effect of severely reducing the utility of the released content. Automatic methods available in the literature usually propose ad-hoc solutions that are limited to protect specific types of structured information (e.g. e-mail addresses, social security numbers, etc.); as a result, they are hardly applicable to the sensitive entities stated in current regulations that do not present those structural regularities (e.g. diseases, symptoms, treatments, etc.). To tackle these limitations, in this paper we propose an automatic sanitisation method for textual medical documents (e.g. electronic healthcare records) that is able to protect, regardless of their structure, sensitive entities (e.g. diseases) and also those semantically related terms (e.g. symptoms) that may disclose the former ones. Contrary to redaction schemes based on term removal, our approach improves the utility of the protected output by replacing sensitive terms with appropriate generalisations retrieved from several medical and general-purpose knowledge bases. Experiments conducted on highly sensitive documents and in coherency with current regulations on healthcare data privacy show promising results in terms of the practical privacy and utility of the

  19. Experiential thinking in creationism--a textual analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petteri Nieminen

    Full Text Available Creationism is a religiously motivated worldview in denial of biological evolution that has been very resistant to change. We performed a textual analysis by examining creationist and pro-evolutionary texts for aspects of "experiential thinking", a cognitive process different from scientific thought. We observed characteristics of experiential thinking as follows: testimonials (present in 100% of sampled creationist texts, such as quotations, were a major form of proof. Confirmation bias (100% of sampled texts was represented by ignoring or dismissing information that would contradict the creationist hypothesis. Scientifically irrelevant or flawed information was re-interpreted as relevant for the falsification of evolution (75-90% of sampled texts. Evolutionary theory was associated to moral issues by demonizing scientists and linking evolutionary theory to atrocities (63-93% of sampled texts. Pro-evolutionary rebuttals of creationist claims also contained testimonials (93% of sampled texts and referred to moral implications (80% of sampled texts but displayed lower prevalences of stereotypical thinking (47% of sampled texts, confirmation bias (27% of sampled texts and pseudodiagnostics (7% of sampled texts. The aspects of experiential thinking could also be interpreted as argumentative fallacies. Testimonials lead, for instance, to ad hominem and appeals to authorities. Confirmation bias and simplification of data give rise to hasty generalizations and false dilemmas. Moral issues lead to guilt by association and appeals to consequences. Experiential thinking and fallacies can contribute to false beliefs and the persistence of the claims. We propose that science educators would benefit from the systematic analysis of experiential thinking patterns and fallacies in creationist texts and pro-evolutionary rebuttals in order to concentrate on scientific misconceptions instead of the scientifically irrelevant aspects of the creationist

  20. Experiential thinking in creationism--a textual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Petteri; Ryökäs, Esko; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2015-01-01

    Creationism is a religiously motivated worldview in denial of biological evolution that has been very resistant to change. We performed a textual analysis by examining creationist and pro-evolutionary texts for aspects of "experiential thinking", a cognitive process different from scientific thought. We observed characteristics of experiential thinking as follows: testimonials (present in 100% of sampled creationist texts), such as quotations, were a major form of proof. Confirmation bias (100% of sampled texts) was represented by ignoring or dismissing information that would contradict the creationist hypothesis. Scientifically irrelevant or flawed information was re-interpreted as relevant for the falsification of evolution (75-90% of sampled texts). Evolutionary theory was associated to moral issues by demonizing scientists and linking evolutionary theory to atrocities (63-93% of sampled texts). Pro-evolutionary rebuttals of creationist claims also contained testimonials (93% of sampled texts) and referred to moral implications (80% of sampled texts) but displayed lower prevalences of stereotypical thinking (47% of sampled texts), confirmation bias (27% of sampled texts) and pseudodiagnostics (7% of sampled texts). The aspects of experiential thinking could also be interpreted as argumentative fallacies. Testimonials lead, for instance, to ad hominem and appeals to authorities. Confirmation bias and simplification of data give rise to hasty generalizations and false dilemmas. Moral issues lead to guilt by association and appeals to consequences. Experiential thinking and fallacies can contribute to false beliefs and the persistence of the claims. We propose that science educators would benefit from the systematic analysis of experiential thinking patterns and fallacies in creationist texts and pro-evolutionary rebuttals in order to concentrate on scientific misconceptions instead of the scientifically irrelevant aspects of the creationist-evolutionist debate.

  1. Integrating Animations, Narratives and Textual Information for Improving Physics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, Benson Adesina

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This article examined the effect of multimedia instruction on students' learning outcomes (achievement and interest) in secondary school physics. Method: The sample comprised of 517 (294 boys and 223 girls) students who came from 12 senior secondary schools in Ibadan Educational Zone 1, Oyo State, Nigeria. Their ages ranged between…

  2. TRANS-TEXTUALIZATION AND CARNIVALIZATION IN "WHISTLER," BY ONDJAKI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Miranda Campos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to observe the phenomenon of carnivalization and trans­textuality the novel The Whistler, the Angolan writer Ondjaki. Comprise the theoretical analysis of Bakhtin’s theory on carnivalization and its im­portance for social subversion of monologic discourse established by of­ficial bodies, the theory of Gérard Genette on transtextuality pointing five possible textual relationships. An understanding of the theories and car­nivalization transtextuality pervades the concepts of animism and taboo presented the theory of Sigmund Freud.

  3. Automatic generation of textual summaries from neonatal intensive care data

    OpenAIRE

    Portet, François; Reiter, Ehud; Gatt, Albert; Hunter, Jim; Sripada, Somayajulu; Freer, Yvonne; Sykes, Cindy

    2009-01-01

    AvImpFact=2.566 estim. in 2012.; International audience; Effective presentation of data for decision support is a major issue when large volumes of data are generated as happens in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Although the most common approach is to present the data graphically, it has been shown that textual summarisation can lead to improved decision making. As part of the BabyTalk project, we present a prototype, called BT-45, which generates textual summaries of about 45 minutes of cont...

  4. Tipos textuales expositivos, correos electrónicos y enseñanza de géneros textuales en ELE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucha Cuadros, Rosa M

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo indagamos acerca de la dificultad un tanto difusa que suponen para los aprendices de ELE (Español Lengua Extranjera los textos expositivos, hipotetizando, primero, que la causa de esa dificultad reside en la falta de sistematización de las características de cada tipo textual en general y de cada género en particular, así como de la presentación contrastada de los géneros textuales expositivos en relación con otros. En primer lugar, ¿cómo se identifica el tipo textual expositivo? ¿Cuál es la proporción de secuencias de este tipo necesarias para que el conjunto resultante sea todavía una macroestructura expositiva? Segundo, indagamos si esta carencia se da tanto en L1 como en L2. Por último, ponemos de manifiesto la falta de atención en la práctica docente acerca de las diferencias en la variación de los patrones entre la L1 y la L2 cuando de nivel textual se trata y las hay (intertextualidad intercultural. Asimismo, destacamos los problemas de adecuación más frecuentes detectados en alumnos con una alta competencia en la L2 (como son los B2 en la producción de secuencias expositivas y de dos géneros expositivos: los correos electrónicos de recomendación de un producto y un informe de producto (secuencia de una presentación oral con soporte visual de diapositivas o PowerPoint. Para ello, analizamos los textos que producen dos grupos de aprendices no nativos de niveles B2 del MCER (n=15 y un grupo de control nativo (n=20 en tareas que implican la producción de un género y de una secuencia expositivos distintos. A partir del corpus de aprendices reunido y de la comparación entre grupos no nativos y nativo se identifican las coincidencias y diferencias entre ellos (variación nativa y no nativa y se extraen implicaciones didácticas.

  5. CQ Switch Analysis under Traffic Overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Maljević

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of 2x2 crossbar packet switch with buffers at crosspoints and round robin scheduling algorithm is presented in this paper. The analysis is performed for a non-admissible traffic pattern, where output ports are overloaded. The case of full offered load is observed and output ports are loaded with packets that have different arrival probabilities. In addition to the parameters that are commonly observed in such an analysis (throughput and average packet delay, memory requirements for the implementation of the buffer, as well as fair representation when servicing the buffer - the so-called fairness are also analyzed. The results show that even for a switch with a small number of ports very large buffers should be implemented, if we want to achieve satisfactory performance under traffic overload.

  6. Textrous!: extracting semantic textual meaning from gene sets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Chen

    Full Text Available The un-biased and reproducible interpretation of high-content gene sets from large-scale genomic experiments is crucial to the understanding of biological themes, validation of experimental data, and the eventual development of plans for future experimentation. To derive biomedically-relevant information from simple gene lists, a mathematical association to scientific language and meaningful words or sentences is crucial. Unfortunately, existing software for deriving meaningful and easily-appreciable scientific textual 'tokens' from large gene sets either rely on controlled vocabularies (Medical Subject Headings, Gene Ontology, BioCarta or employ Boolean text searching and co-occurrence models that are incapable of detecting indirect links in the literature. As an improvement to existing web-based informatic tools, we have developed Textrous!, a web-based framework for the extraction of biomedical semantic meaning from a given input gene set of arbitrary length. Textrous! employs natural language processing techniques, including latent semantic indexing (LSI, sentence splitting, word tokenization, parts-of-speech tagging, and noun-phrase chunking, to mine MEDLINE abstracts, PubMed Central articles, articles from the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM, and Mammalian Phenotype annotation obtained from Jackson Laboratories. Textrous! has the ability to generate meaningful output data with even very small input datasets, using two different text extraction methodologies (collective and individual for the selecting, ranking, clustering, and visualization of English words obtained from the user data. Textrous!, therefore, is able to facilitate the output of quantitatively significant and easily appreciable semantic words and phrases linked to both individual gene and batch genomic data.

  7. Robust real-time synchronization between textual and graphical editors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rest, O.; Wachsmuth, G.H.; Steel, J.; Süss, J.G.; Visser, E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a pre-print of: Oskar van Rest, Guido Wachsmuth, Jim Steel, Jörn Guy Süß, Eelco Visser. Robust Real-Time Synchronization between Textual and Graphical Editors. In Keith Duddy, Gerti Kappel, editors, Theory and Practice of Model Transformations, Sixth International Conference, ICMT

  8. De(con)fining English: Literature, Composition, Textuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, James E.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the debate over writing instruction based on canonical literature, content, great ideas, and literary theory and the debate stressing the writing process and social science based models of teaching and learning. Proposes an integrated reading and writing program emphasizing textuality--the way meaning is produced in a text by the…

  9. On the metaphorical nature of intellectual capital: a textual analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Daan Andriessen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – To analyse common metaphors used in the intellectual capital (IC) and knowledge management literatures to conceptualise knowledge, in order to study the nature of the intellectual capital concept. Design/methodology/approach – A textual analysis methodology is used to analyse texts

  10. Lingüística textual: retrospecto e perspectivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingedore Grunfeld Villaça Koch

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo do presente trabalho é apresentar uma retrospectiva critica doque se fez no campo da Lingüística Textual nos últimos trinta anos, bem como apontaras perspectivas que se vêm abrindo na área para desenvolvimentos futuros.

  11. The struggle for textual conventions in a language support programme

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, the writer explores the experience of a group of South African learners with regard to a language support course that aims to facilitate their struggle to master English textual conventions in discipline specific contexts. The academic context of this study was that of a nursing science degree programme where ...

  12. Textual appropriation in engineering master's theses: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Edward J

    2011-09-01

    In the thesis literature review, an engineering graduate student is expected to place original research in the context of previous work by other researchers. However, for some students, particularly those for whom English is a second language, the literature review may be a mixture of original writing and verbatim source text appropriated without quotations. Such problematic use of source material leaves students vulnerable to an accusation of plagiarism, which carries severe consequences. Is such textual appropriation common in engineering master's writing? Furthermore, what, if anything, can be concluded when two texts have been found to have textual material in common? Do existing definitions of plagiarism provide a sufficient framework for determining if an instance of copying is transgressive or not? In a preliminary attempt to answer these questions, text strings from a random sample of 100 engineering master's theses from the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database were searched for appropriated verbatim source text using the Google search engine. The results suggest that textual borrowing may indeed be a common feature of the master's engineering literature review, raising questions about the ability of graduate students to synthesize the literature. The study also illustrates the difficulties of making a determination of plagiarism based on simple textual similarity. A context-specific approach is recommended when dealing with any instance of apparent copying.

  13. Finding Environmental Knowledge in SCUBA-Based Textual Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündogdu, Cemal; Aygün, Yalin; Ilkim, Mehmet

    2018-01-01

    As marine environments within the adventure domain are future key-settings for recreational SCUBA diving experience, SCUBA-based textual materials should provide insight into environmental knowledge that is well connected to the novice divers' behaviour and attitude. This research is concerned with a major recreational SCUBA diver manual for…

  14. Voice Construction, Assessment, and Extra-Textual Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of voice has long attracted the attention of teachers, but more recently has also been the focus of a growing body of research aiming to understand voice as self-representation in writing. Adopting a socio-cultural orientation to voice, studies have revealed much about how textual choices are used by readers to build images of…

  15. SECRETARIAT AND TEXTUAL PRODUCTION: ARGUMENTATION IN THE TEXTUAL GENRE LETTER OF DECLARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erivaldo Pereira do Nascimento

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at describing the semantic argumentative structure of the textual/discursive genre Letter of Declaration, one of the documents with which the executive secretary frequently deals. This investigation is based on the Argumention Theory in the Language proposed by Ducrot (1988,1987. We also used the studies about Discursive Modalization proposed by Koch (2002, Castilho e Castilho (1993, Nascimento (2005, among others. Modalization is considered here as a semantic argumentative strategy, as it enables the speaker to make a statement or to express a point of view about the content of his/her enunciation, according to the interlocution. This study about the previously mentioned gender is qualitative, quantitative and descriptive. The corpus used is composed of 20 (twenty Letters of Declaration issued by different organizations or private and public institutions. We perceived that in the Letters of Declaration analysed argumentation is achieved by the use of modalizers and argumentative operators, used by the speaker to produce different effects of meaning in the texts.

  16. Compensation for Overloads and Summer Employment: A Survey of Current Practice in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, James C.

    A survey was sent to 58 chief academic officers to gain information about compensation for instructional overloads and summer employment at public and private Texas colleges and universities. Responses were received from 42 institutions. Only two indicated that their institutions did not have a uniform policy guiding summer compensation amounts.…

  17. An Investigation of Data Overload in Team-Based Distributed Cognition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellar, David Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    The modern military command center is a hybrid system of computer automated surveillance and human oriented decision making. In these distributed cognition systems, data overload refers simultaneously to the glut of raw data processed by information technology systems and the dearth of actionable knowledge useful to human decision makers.…

  18. ESTUDIO SOBRE LOS ABSTRACTS DE ARTÍCULOS DE INVESTIGACIÓN INFORMÁTICOS: EVIDENCIALIDAD Y MODALIDAD TEXTUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivalla Ortega Barrera

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidentiality and textual modality are widely debated fi eld categories within the areas of linguistics and textual stylistics. The attitude of the author towards the topic indicates its commitment with the established proposition. In this way, his attitude can have either a rational/evaluative character (objective or an emotional/expressive character (subjective, which thus conveys the tonality of the discourse. The present paper, which forms part of the research project "Evidentiality in a multidisciplinary corpus of research papers in English" of the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, focuses on the genre "abstracts of research papers applied to computer science". In this paper we will analyse two types of characteristic functions: the communicative stamp of the markers which correspond to textual modality, both objective and subjective according to their relationship with the evidential and judgement markers, and the frequency of its use in the genre we are studying.

    La evidencialidad y la modalidad textual son categorías de campo muy debatidas dentro de la lingüística y la estilística textual. La actitud del autor hacia el texto indica el grado de compromiso que éste tiene en relación con su proposición. De este modo, su actitud puede tener carácter racional-valorativo (objetivo o carácter emotivo-expresivo (subjetivo, marcando así la tonalidad del discurso. El presente trabajo,
    enmarcado en el proyecto de investigación "Evidencialidad en un corpus multidisciplinar de artículos científi co-técnicos en lengua inglesa" de la Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, se centra en el género "abstracts de artículos de investigación aplicados a la informática", y analiza dos tipos de función característicos: la carga comunicativa de los marcadores correspondientes a la modalidad textual, tanto objetiva como subjetiva en cuanto a su relación con los marcadores evidenciales y de juicio, y su frecuencia de uso

  19. The informational turn in food politics: The US FDA's nutrition label as information infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Xaq

    2017-04-01

    This article traces the history of the US FDA regulation of nutrition labeling, identifying an 'informational turn' in the evolving politics of food, diet and health in America. Before nutrition labeling was introduced, regulators actively sought to segregate food markets from drug markets by largely prohibiting health information on food labels, believing such information would 'confuse' the ordinary food consumer. Nutrition labeling's emergence, first in the 1970s as consumer empowerment and then later in the 1990s as a solution to information overload, reflected the belief that it was better to manage markets indirectly through consumer information than directly through command-and-control regulatory architecture. By studying product labels as 'information infrastructure', rather than a 'knowledge fix', the article shows how labels are situated at the center of a legally constructed terrain of inter-textual references, both educational and promotional, that reflects a mix of market pragmatism and evolving legal thought about mass versus niche markets. A change to the label reaches out across a wide informational environment representing food and has direct material consequences for how food is produced, distributed, and consumed. One legacy of this informational turn has been an increasing focus by policymakers, industry, and arguably consumers on the politics of information in place of the politics of the food itself.

  20. Iron Overload in Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Pullarkat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT frequently have iron overload resulting from chronic transfusion therapy for anemia. In some cases, for example, in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and thalassemia, this can be further exacerbated by increased absorption of iron from the gut as a result of ineffective erythropoiesis. Accumulating evidence has established the negative impact of elevated pretransplantation serum ferritin, a surrogate marker of iron overload, on overall survival and nonrelapse mortality after HSCT. Complications of HSCT associated with iron overload include increased bacterial and fungal infections as well as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome and possibly other regimen-related toxicities. Based on current evidence, particular attention should be paid to prevention and management of iron overload in allogeneic HSCT candidates, especially in patients with thalassemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. The pathophysiology of iron overload in the HSCT patient and optimum strategies to deal with iron overload during and after HSCT require further study.

  1. The overloaded right heart and ventricular interdependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeije, Robert; Badagliacca, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    The right and the left ventricle are interdependent as both structures are nested within the pericardium, have the septum in common and are encircled with common myocardial fibres. Therefore, right ventricular volume or pressure overloading affects left ventricular function, and this in turn may affect the right ventricle. In normal subjects at rest, right ventricular function has negligible interaction with left ventricular function. However, the right ventricle contributes significantly to the normal cardiac output response to exercise. In patients with right ventricular volume overload without pulmonary hypertension, left ventricular diastolic compliance is decreased and ejection fraction depressed but without intrinsic alteration in contractility. In patients with right ventricular pressure overload, left ventricular compliance is decreased with initial preservation of left ventricular ejection fraction, but with eventual left ventricular atrophic remodelling and altered systolic function. Breathing affects ventricular interdependence, in healthy subjects during exercise and in patients with lung diseases and altered respiratory system mechanics. Inspiration increases right ventricular volumes and decreases left ventricular volumes. Expiration decreases both right and left ventricular volumes. The presence of an intact pericardium enhances ventricular diastolic interdependence but has negligible effect on ventricular systolic interdependence. On the other hand, systolic interdependence is enhanced by a stiff right ventricular free wall, and decreased by a stiff septum. Recent imaging studies have shown that both diastolic and systolic ventricular interactions are negatively affected by right ventricular regional inhomogeneity and prolongation of contraction, which occur along with an increase in pulmonary artery pressure. The clinical relevance of these observations is being explored. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights

  2. Mitochondrial DNA damage in iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xueshan; Campian, Jian Li; Qian, Mingwei; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Eaton, John W

    2009-02-20

    Chronic iron overload has slow and insidious effects on heart, liver, and other organs. Because iron-driven oxidation of most biologic materials (such as lipids and proteins) is readily repaired, this slow progression of organ damage implies some kind of biological "memory." We hypothesized that cumulative iron-catalyzed oxidant damage to mtDNA might occur in iron overload, perhaps explaining the often lethal cardiac dysfunction. Real time PCR was used to examine the "intactness" of mttDNA in cultured H9c2 rat cardiac myocytes. After 3-5 days exposure to high iron, these cells exhibited damage to mtDNA reflected by diminished amounts of near full-length 15.9-kb PCR product with no change in the amounts of a 16.1-kb product from a nuclear gene. With the loss of intact mtDNA, cellular respiration declined and mRNAs for three electron transport chain subunits and 16 S rRNA encoded by mtDNA decreased, whereas no decrements were found in four subunits encoded by nuclear DNA. To examine the importance of the interactions of iron with metabolically generated reactive oxygen species, we compared the toxic effects of iron in wild-type and rho(o) cells. In wild-type cells, elevated iron caused increased production of reactive oxygen species, cytostasis, and cell death, whereas the rho(o) cells were unaffected. We conclude that long-term damage to cells and organs in iron-overload disorders involves interactions between iron and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species resulting in cumulative damage to mtDNA, impaired synthesis of respiratory chain subunits, and respiratory dysfunction.

  3. The Army and the Academy as Textual Communities: Exploring Mismatches in the Concepts of Attribution, Appropriation, and Shared Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    writing manual, Student Text 22-1, provides information on plagiarism violations, which are "subject to review and may be referred to an academic board...charges of plagiarism were leveled by an academic who recognized in the manual various ideas and text from previous published sources. In many ways...worried about academic plagiarism may believe that revealing variations in textual practices "sends a message" to students that rules can be bent in

  4. Encouraging Editorial Flexibility in Cases of Textual Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Because many technical descriptions of scientific processes and phenomena are difficult to paraphrase and because an increasing proportion of contributors to the scientific literature are not sufficiently proficient at writing in English, it is proposed that journal editors re-examine their approaches toward instances of textual reuse (similarity). The plagiarism definition by the US Office of Research Integrity (ORI) is more suitable than other definitions for dealing with cases of ostensible plagiarism. Editors are strongly encouraged to examine cases of textual reuse in the context of both, the ORI guidance and the offending authors' proficiency in English. Editors should also reconsider making plagiarism determinations based exclusively on text similarity scores reported by plagiarism detection software. PMID:28244278

  5. Textual meaning and its place in a theory of language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffries Lesley

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the development of a framework for critical stylistics (Jeffries 2010 and the explication of some of the theoretical assumptions behind this framework (Jeffries 2014a, 2014b, 2015a, 2015b, the present article attempts to put this framework into a larger theoretical context as a way to approach textual meaning. Using examples from the popular U.S. television show, The Big Bang Theory, I examine the evidence that there is a kind of textual meaning which can be distinguished from the core propositional meaning on the one hand and from contextual, interpersonal meaning on the other. The specific aim, to demonstrate a layer of meaning belonging to text specifically, is set within an argument which claims that progress in linguistics can better be served by adherence to a rigorous scientific discipline.

  6. Understanding Infographics through Textual and Visual Tag Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Bylinskii, Zoya; Alsheikh, Sami; Madan, Spandan; Recasens, Adria; Zhong, Kimberli; Pfister, Hanspeter; Durand, Fredo; Oliva, Aude

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the problem of visual hashtag discovery for infographics: extracting visual elements from an infographic that are diagnostic of its topic. Given an infographic as input, our computational approach automatically outputs textual and visual elements predicted to be representative of the infographic content. Concretely, from a curated dataset of 29K large infographic images sampled across 26 categories and 391 tags, we present an automated two step approach. First, we extract the tex...

  7. [Chronic nicotinamide overload and type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shi-Sheng; Li, Da; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Sun, Wu-Ping; Liu, Xing-Xing; Lun, Yong-Zhi

    2010-02-25

    Type 2 diabetes is a major global health problem. It is generally accepted that type 2 diabetes is the result of gene-environmental interaction. However, the mechanism underlying the interaction is unclear. Diet change is known to play an important role in type 2 diabetes. The fact that the global high prevalence of type 2 diabetes has occurred following the spread of food fortification worldwide suggests a possible involvement of excess niacin intake. Our recent study found that nicotinamide overload and low nicotinamide detoxification may induce oxidative stress associated with insulin resistance. Based on the relevant facts, this review briefly summarized the relationship between the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and the nicotinamide metabolism changes induced by excess niacin intake, aldehyde oxidase inhibitors, liver diseases and functional defects of skin. We speculate that the gene-environmental interaction in type 2 diabetes may be a reflection of the outcome of the association of chronic nicotinamide overload-induced toxicity and the relatively low detoxification/excretion capacity of the body. Reducing the content of niacin in foods may be a promising strategy for the control of type 2 diabetes.

  8. Dietary Fat Overload Reprograms Brown Fat Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELE eLETTIERI BARBATO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulates health and lifespan.

  9. Punctuation as readability and textuality factor in technical discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sancho Guinda

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the incidence of punctuation on the reading comprehension of technical discourse and its role as a factor of textuality. Starting out from the notions of textuality and punctuation functions formulated by different linguistic approaches, an analysis has been made to quantify the decoding skills and punctuating competence of 60 Aeronautical Engineering students, as well as to determine the nature and effects of their punctuation errors. The survey has been focused on the Full Stop, the comma and the hyphen due to their highly conflicting uses as regards the identification of immediate sentence constituents and semantic relationships. The results obtained suggest that most students have a poor knowledge of punctuation rules and little awareness of punctuation as a textual elementaffecting readability. Errors are in the main related to comma use and produced by transference, either of Spanish punctuating habits into English, or of individual prosodic patterns into writing, while meaning appears to be the prevailing punctuating criterion over sound and syntax. Punctuation proves an effective tool for the anticipation of implicit meanings and an untapped resource in the teaching of the diverse communicative and stylistic possibilities offered by technical texts.

  10. Reading comprehension and textual consciousness on primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Wannmacher Pereira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The difficulties on reading comprehension in the primary school are evidenced by several official exams applied. Given these statistics and the evidences obtained through academic research and observations on children’s performance during the school life, there is acknowledgment of the situation as a problem that requires further development and finding solutions. The Psycholinguistics is giving its contribution, especially regarding the role of linguistic consciousness on reading learning. Many studies have been conducted specifically focusing on phonological consciousness. Studies on syntactic consciousness are also found, although less than phonological ones. Regarding the role of textual consciousness, few initiatives considers the students of the primary school. This makes the author proposes as the heartland of this communication the textual consciousness with support predominantly on Gombert (1992, aiming to examine the relationship between this level of consciousness and learning to read. Based on recent studies (PEREIRA; SCLIAR-CABRAL, 2012, the author presents in this paper: a the analysis of the context of learning and teaching of reading; b a theoretical exposition about reading learning and textual consciousness; c the pedagogical referrals for education based on the interaction between these two topics; and d the development of reflections on the possibility of the proposed path contribute to the solution of the worrying problem on read learning by the primary schools students.

  11. measurements of iron status and survival in african iron overload

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Dietary iron overload is common in southern. Africa and there is a misconception that the condition is benign. 'Early descriptions of the condition relied on autopsy studies, and the use of indirect measurements of iron status to diagnose this form of iron overload has not been clarified. Methods. The study ...

  12. Indexing the medical open access literature for textual and content-based visual retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggel, Ivan; Müller, Henning

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years an increasing amount of scientific journals have been created in an open access format. Particularly in the medical field the number of openly accessible journals is enormous making a wide body of knowledge available for analysis and retrieval. Part of the trend towards open access publications can be linked to funding bodies such as the NIH1 (National Institutes of Health) and the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF2) requiring funded projects to make all articles of funded research available publicly. This article describes an approach to make part of the knowledge of open access journals available for retrieval including the textual information but also the images contained in the articles. For this goal all articles of 24 journals related to medical informatics and medical imaging were crawled from the web pages of BioMed Central. Text and images of the PDF (Portable Document Format) files were indexed separately and a web-based retrieval interface allows for searching via keyword queries or by visual similarity queries. Starting point for a visual similarity query can be an image on the local hard disk that is uploaded or any image found via the textual search. Search for similar documents is also possible.

  13. Evaluation of thermal overload in boiler operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Camila Soares; Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; Campos, Julio César Costa; de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Minette, Luciano José; de Moraes, Angêlo Casali; Sensato, Guilherme Luciano

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilians educational institutions need a large energy demand for the operation of laundries, restaurants and accommodation of students. Much of that energy comes from steam generated in boilers with wood fuel. The laboral activity in boiler may present problems for the operator's health due to exposure to excessive heat, and its operation has a high degree of risk. This paper describes an analysis made the conditions of thermal environment in the operation of a B category boiler, located at a Higher Education Institution, located in the Zona da Mata Mineira The equipments used to collect data were Meter WBGT of the Heat Index; Meter of Wet Bulb Index and Globe Thermometer (WBGT); Politeste Instruments, an anemometer and an Infrared Thermometer. By the application of questionnaires, the second phase consisted of collecting data on environmental factors (temperature natural environment, globe temperature, relative humidity and air velocity). The study concluded that during the period evaluated, the activity had thermal overload.

  14. Planetary Overload, Limits to Growth and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Colin D

    2016-12-01

    Since the use of atomic weapons in 1945 visionaries have warned that without major changes the survival of global civilization is in question. These concerns deepened in following decades, during the Cold War, with The Limits to Growth, the best-selling environmental book of the 1970s. Yet, since then, most concern has faded, fuelled by technological developments and a shift in dominant global ideology. Public health, with a few exceptions (one of which is the book Planetary Overload), has been slow to recognize this debate, even as evidence emerges that civilization may indeed be at risk, driven by an increasingly ominous complex of events. This article outlines the key relevant literature and concepts, attempting to bring emerging and future health consequences to the attention of health workers, including the idea of a "social vaccine," conveying sufficient anxiety to provoke action for environmental protection, but insufficient to induce paralysis.

  15. Avoiding Program-Induced Cumulative Overload (PICO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Robin; Knapik, Joseph J; Pope, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    This article defines the concept of program-induced cumulative overload (PICO), provides examples, and advises ways to mitigate the adverse effects. PICO is the excessive cumulative physical workload that can be imparted to military personnel by a military training program with an embedded physical training component. PICO can be acute (accumulating within a single day) or chronic (accumulating across the entirety of the program) and results in adverse outcomes for affected personnel, including detrimental fatigue, performance degradation, injuries, or illness. Strategies to mitigate PICO include focusing administration and logistic practices during the development and ongoing management of a trainee program and implementing known musculoskeletal injury prevention strategies. More training is not always better, and trainers need to consider the total amount of physical activity that military personnel experience across both operational training and physical training if PICO is to be mitigated. 2016.

  16. Incidental splenic nodules found on MR imaging done for assessment of iron overload in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahyad, Rayan A; Lam, Christopher Z; Shearkhani, Omid; Navarro, Oscar M

    2017-06-01

    MR imaging is used to assess iron overload in patients with hemoglobinopathies and in those who have undergone multiple blood transfusions. Sometimes splenic nodules are found incidentally on these examinations and this may cause diagnostic uncertainty. To determine the prevalence, imaging characteristics and evolution of splenic nodules found on MR imaging for iron overload evaluation. Retrospective review of all MR imaging examinations performed for iron overload assessment from 2005 to 2015 in a tertiary pediatric hospital. The presence of focal splenic nodules including number, size, signal characteristics and changes on follow-up MR imaging were recorded. Relevant patient clinical information including underlying hematological disease was also documented. A total of 318 patients had MR imaging for iron overload assessment. Of these, 25 (8%) had at least one incidental splenic nodule. Sickle cell disease was present in 22 patients (88%) and thalassemia in 3 (12%). On intermediate-weighted spin-echo images, the nodules had high signal intensity compared to the remainder of the spleen in 23 patients (92%) and low signal intensity in the remaining 2 (8%). In all patients (100%) the nodules showed progressive loss of signal intensity with increasing echo time values. Follow-up MR imaging was performed in 20 (80%) patients, which showed an increase in the size of the splenic nodules in 7 patients (35%) stability in 11 (55%) and a decrease in size in 2 (10%). It is not uncommon to find splenic nodules during MR evaluation of iron overload. In patients with sickle cell disease, most of these nodules are thought to represent preserved splenic tissue and appear hyperintense compared to the remainder of the spleen. They frequently remain stable on follow-up imaging, although about a third of them may show growth. Awareness of these nodules is important to avoid concern for potential malignancy and unnecessary investigations.

  17. Incidental splenic nodules found on MR imaging done for assessment of iron overload in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahyad, Rayan A.; Lam, Christopher Z.; Navarro, Oscar M. [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Shearkhani, Omid [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2017-06-15

    MR imaging is used to assess iron overload in patients with hemoglobinopathies and in those who have undergone multiple blood transfusions. Sometimes splenic nodules are found incidentally on these examinations and this may cause diagnostic uncertainty. To determine the prevalence, imaging characteristics and evolution of splenic nodules found on MR imaging for iron overload evaluation. Retrospective review of all MR imaging examinations performed for iron overload assessment from 2005 to 2015 in a tertiary pediatric hospital. The presence of focal splenic nodules including number, size, signal characteristics and changes on follow-up MR imaging were recorded. Relevant patient clinical information including underlying hematological disease was also documented. A total of 318 patients had MR imaging for iron overload assessment. Of these, 25 (8%) had at least one incidental splenic nodule. Sickle cell disease was present in 22 patients (88%) and thalassemia in 3 (12%). On intermediate-weighted spin-echo images, the nodules had high signal intensity compared to the remainder of the spleen in 23 patients (92%) and low signal intensity in the remaining 2 (8%). In all patients (100%) the nodules showed progressive loss of signal intensity with increasing echo time values. Follow-up MR imaging was performed in 20 (80%) patients, which showed an increase in the size of the splenic nodules in 7 patients (35%) stability in 11 (55%) and a decrease in size in 2 (10%). It is not uncommon to find splenic nodules during MR evaluation of iron overload. In patients with sickle cell disease, most of these nodules are thought to represent preserved splenic tissue and appear hyperintense compared to the remainder of the spleen. They frequently remain stable on follow-up imaging, although about a third of them may show growth. Awareness of these nodules is important to avoid concern for potential malignancy and unnecessary investigations. (orig.)

  18. Textual conditioning in the evolution of manner adverbs in -mente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Company Company

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the evolution of manner adverbs in -mente in Spanish. These adverbs constitute a peculiar learned construction not only in their formation but also in their evolution. The variables examined are: the difference between written and spoken texts; the genre or textual conditioning of the syntactic-semantic change of manner adverbs; the early and fast inhibition of the vernacular variant -miente and the various causes of the generalization of -mente. The paper shows the statistical significance of the variables studied.

  19. The effects of question types in textual reading upon retention of biology concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, William H.; Lowery, Lawrence F.

    Do instructional questions to students enhance learning? If so, do certain types of questions cause greater learning outcomes than others? The area of instructional questions and questioning strategies has generated much research over the past two decades. A number of studies have found instructional questions to account for a large fraction of teaching time (Bellack et al., 1963; Schreiber, 1967; Moyer, 1967). Teacher use of oral questions in instruction, especially higher level cognitive questions, has consistently shown positive effects on student achievement (Redfield & Rousseau, 1981). Questions asked after oral prose presentations in psychology have been found to enhance recall of factual information (Sefkow & Meyers, 1980). Some large teacher training programs have specific instruction in questioning strategies (Lanier & Davis, 1972; Lowery, 1974). Questioning in textual reading has also been investigated, especially in the social sciences and languages, with respect to both the presence of questions in a text and the position and type of such questions. Although there are conflicting results, in general, questions placed within text materials have appeared to cause significantly higher performance than reading the materials without questions (Rothkopf & Bisbicos, 1967; Rothkopf & Bloom, 1970; Watts & Anderson, 1971; Quellmalz, 1972; Reynolds, Standiford, & Anderson, 1979; Corrozi, 1971). Questions placed after the reading have been found to be significantly more productive than prequestions, or questions placed immediately before the reading passages (Rothkopf & Bisbicos, 1967; Frase, Patrick, & Schumer, 1970; Watts & Anderson, 1971). In one study, placing questions before the associated information reduced paragraph reading time from the time required when questions followed the information passage (Morasky & Wilcox, 1970). Finally, higher level cognitive post- and prequestions (comprehensive and application) have consistently produced more learning than

  20. Investigating e-mail overload in the South African banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Burger

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The information workers of today have a wide range of information sources available to make valuable decisions, so much so that it can lead to information overload. The purpose of this research was to investigate the extent of information overload in the South African banking industry. The empirical part of this study was done at the Standard Bank of South Africa, where 115 questionnaires were distributed to three categories of employees. It was found that e-mail is one of the most used computer-mediated applications and is used more than the World-Wide Web, instant messaging or peer-to-peer file sharing. Of the respondents, 65% felt overwhelmed by the amount of e-mails they received as 25% received more than 60 e-mails per day. A third of the respondents dedicated three hours or more to e-mails per day. Respondents agreed that the implementation of policies is important to ensure compliance with legislation, protection of privacy rights and copyright, and the filtering of spam. In conclusion, the respondents indicated that formal training in e-mail management should make a significant difference in the usage of e-mail within the organization and reduce e-mail overload.

  1. Designing Of Overload Monitoring System In Public Transportation Based On Microcontrollerin Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariku Sinshaw

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been an issue of overload passenger monitoring despite having stationed police at different locations for manual checkups. This has led to many injuries and death due to passengers being overloaded. This project aims at developing a system for monitoring and reporting excess passengers in public transport. It is based on global system for mobile communication GSM modem. This paper includes GSM modem liquid crystal display LCD and buzzer alarm as output from microcontroller and passive infrared ray PIR sensor as input. If the number of passengers become above the required the microcontroller send datas to the GSM modem. GSM modem transmit the information to a database and then to the respective authority such as traffic police. The central database stores all information for the systemsuchas different traffic police stations with respective contact numbers user name and message sent by the system. This helps to control excessive passenger hence reduces the number of deaths and severe injuries.

  2. Spectrum Fatigue of 7075-T651 Aluminum Alloy under Overloading and Underloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-15

    REPORT NO. NAWCADPAX/TIM-2015/282 SPECTRUM FATIGUE OF 7075-T651 ALUMINUM ALLOY UNDER OVERLOADING AND UNDERLOADING by E. U. Lee R. E...REPORT TYPE Technical Information Memorandum 3. DATES COVERED 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Spectrum Fatigue of 7075-T651 Aluminum Alloy under...underload, stress ratio, and environment on fatigue crack growth. Fatigue crack growth tests were conducted with a 7075-T651 aluminum alloy under constant

  3. Mashup as temporal amalgam: Time, taste, and textuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Booth

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The mashup video is examined as a specific textual component of remix culture. Mashup videos represent one particular type of remix and require an intricate base of knowledge to understand and appreciate the complex reworking of textuality engendered by the form. The mashup video becomes a key symbol of the engaged 21st-century media creator because it speaks to a media-literate and active audience. If we are to particulate in a fully autonomous media environment as scholars and as practitioners of participatory media, then it behooves us to speak not just to the salience of the mashup through a particular methodology, but also with a Media Studies 2.0 knowledge base. The temporal fluidity of the mashup video is explored as it relates to the concept of social and cultural taste. Analyses of the mashup videos "Virgin O'Riley" (Mark Vidler, "Vogue" (Luminosity, and "The Grey Video" (Fauchere and Tinguely show how mashup videos remix new genres of cultural activity.

  4. Textual standardization and the DSM-5 "common language".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patty A

    2014-06-01

    In February 2010, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) launched their DSM-5 website with details about the development of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The APA invited "the general public" to review the draft diagnostic criteria and provide written comments and suggestions. This revision marks the first time the APA has solicited public review of their diagnostic manual. This article analyzes reported speech on the DSM-5 draft diagnostic criteria for the classification Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. It demonstrates how textual standardization facilitates the cultural portability of the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria such that a community of speakers beyond the borders of the APA come to be seen as exemplary speakers, writers, and revisers of the professional style. Furthermore, analysis shows how co-authoring practices recontextualize the "voice" and persona of putative patient reported speech on Criterion D2. As a consequence of textual standardization, spoken discourse becomes recontextualized as the product of scientific inquiry and the organization of psychiatric knowledge.

  5. STUDY OF WRITING PRODUCTION MATERIAL THROUGH TEXTUAL GENRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Inês Wittke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A great number of studies about the process of language teaching and learning have focused on the analyses of didactic materials. Even though the didactic material itself does not guarantee successful learning, it can be seen as the first step towards this aim. Taken this into account and based on a socio-discursive interactionism approach to language, this article analyses the “Portuguese Language Olympics – Writing the Future”(“Olímpiada de Língua Portuguesa – Escrevendo o Futuro”pedagogic material, in particular the sequences that make up the “Points of View “ (“Pontos de Vista” volume, in order to investigate whether its didactic activitiesand exercises are in line with good practices of writing production, especially considering that the pedagogic material claims to work with textual genres. After contextualizing historically and theoretically the material under study, the didactic sequences in which argumentative essays are dealt with are analyzed in order to look for textual, linguistic, discursive and enunciative elements that can define and characterize the writing project.

  6. Obesity versus osteoarthritis: beyond the mechanical overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori-Cintra, Angélica Rossi; Aikawa, Priscila; Cintra, Dennys Esper Correa

    2014-09-01

    Obesity is currently considered a major public health problem in the world, already reaching epidemic characteristics, according to the World Health Organization. Excess weight is the major risk factor associated with various diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia and osteometabolic diseases, including osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis is the most prevalent rheumatic disease and the leading cause of physical disability and reduced quality of life of the population over 65 years. It mainly involves the joints that bear weight - knees and hips. However, along with the cases of obesity, its prevalence is increasing, and even in other joints, such as hands. Thus, it is assumed that the influence of obesity on the development of OA is beyond mechanical overload. The purpose of this review was to correlate the possible mechanisms underlying the genesis and development of these two diseases. Increased fat mass is directly proportional to excessive consumption of saturated fatty acids, responsible for systemic low-grade inflammation condition and insulin and leptin resistance. At high levels, leptin assumes inflammatory characteristics and acts in the articular cartilage, triggering the inflammatory process and changing homeostasis this tissue with consequent degeneration. We conclude that obesity is a risk factor for osteoarthritis and that physical activity and changes in diet composition can reverse the inflammatory and leptin resistance, reducing progression or preventing the onset of osteoarthritis.

  7. VOLUME OVERLOAD IS ASSOCIATED WITH MALNUTRITION IN PERITONEAL DIALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Joo Cha

    2012-06-01

    Volume overload is associated with malnutrition and seems to be an independent predictor of mortality in PD population. Further study should evaluate the effects of intervention of volume control in PD patients.

  8. Overload truck wheel load distribution on bridge decks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    There is a need to accurately analyze the load effects on bridge decks from permitted overload trucks on : Michigans roads. The AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, 17th edition, provides a : distribution width of live loads when re...

  9. Chronic Kidney Disease, Fluid Overload and Diuretics: A Complicated Triangle

    OpenAIRE

    Yusra Habib Khan; Azmi Sarriff; Azreen Syazril Adnan; Amer Hayat Khan; Tauqeer Hussain Mallhi

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite promising role of diuretics to manage fluid overload among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, their use is associated with adverse renal outcomes. Current study aimed to determine the extent of renal deterioration with diuretic therapy. Methods A total 312 non-dialysis dependent CKD (NDD-CKD) patients were prospectively followed-up for one year. Fluid overload was assessed via bioimpedance spectroscopy. Estimated GFR (eGFR) was calculated from serum creatinine values by...

  10. Non-invasive diagnosis and follow-up of right ventricular overload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkens, Ivo Reinier

    2008-01-01

    Right ventricular overload covers a spectrum ranging from volume overload to pressure overload, and often is a combination of these, compromising cardiac function. Part I focuses on right ventricular volume overload in adults with Fallot’s tetralogy corrected in early childhood. We determined

  11. Une Analyse automatique en syntaxe textuelle (An Automated Analysis of Textual Syntax). Publication K-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Jacques

    This study reports the use of automated textual analysis on a French novel. An introductory section chronicles the history of artificial intelligence, focusing on its use with natural languages, and discusses its application to textual syntax. The first chapter examines computational linguistics in greater detail, looking at its relationship to…

  12. Reading under Cover of the Veil: Oral and Textual Literacies in Antebellum America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra Elaine

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between oral- and textual-literacy systems that existed during the antebellum period of United States history. I argue that African-American intellectual processes are more accurately understood as existing on a literacy continuum that reflects equality between oral literacy and textual literacy. A literacy…

  13. A Rhetoric of Textual Feminism: (Re)reading the Emotional in Virginia Woolf's "Three Guineas."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Krista

    1993-01-01

    Explores the concept of a rhetoric of textual feminism. Defines the concept and discusses its functions by citing Virginia Woolf and Kenneth Burke. Argues that a rhetoric of textual feminism reveals the emotional, and critiques Woolf's "Three Guineas" to reread the emotional. (HB)

  14. Textual Input Enhancement for Vowel Blindness: A Study with Arabic ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsadoon, Reem; Heift, Trude

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the impact of textual input enhancement on the noticing and intake of English vowels by Arabic L2 learners of English. Arabic L1 speakers are known to experience "vowel blindness," commonly defined as a difficulty in the textual decoding and encoding of English vowels due to an insufficient decoding of the word form.…

  15. The Target of the Question: A Taxonomy of Textual Features for Cambridge University "O" Levels English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Shanti Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the typical textual features that are most frequently targeted in short-answer reading comprehension questions of the Cambridge University "O" Level English Paper 2. Test writers' awareness of how textual features impact on understanding of meanings in text decisions will determine to great extent their decisions…

  16. The use of co-textual irony markers in written discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, C.F.; van Mulken, M.J.P.; Schellens, P.J.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Authors of written texts may mark the use of verbal irony in a variety of ways. One possibility for doing so is the use of so-called co-textual markers of irony (i.e., support strategies that open up a non-serious frame). This study aims to classify and categorize these co-textual irony markers. A

  17. The Effect of Different Textual Narrations on Students' Explanations at the Submicroscopic Level in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of different textual versions (macroscopic (control), submicroscopic, and guided imagery) of the explanation of a chemical phenomenon on students' submicroscopic explanation of a related phenomenon was examined. The sample included 152 pre-service science teachers. The three textual versions of the explanation were distributed randomly…

  18. Application of Chaos Theory in Trucks' Overloading Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mahmoudabadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trucks' overloading is considered as one of the most substantial concerns in road transport due to a possible road surface damage, as well as, are less reliable performance of trucks' braking system. Sufficient human resource and adequate time scheduling are to be planned for surveying trucks' overloading; hence, it seems required to prepare an all-around model to be able to predict the number of overloaded vehicles. In the present research work, the concept of chaos theory has been utilized to predict the ratio of trucks which might be guessed overloaded. The largest Lyapunov exponent is utilized to determine the presence of chaos using experimental data and concluded that the ratio of overloaded trucks reflects chaotic behavior. The prediction based on chaos theory is compared with the results of simple smoothing and moving average methods according to the well-known criterion of mean square errors. The results have also revealed that the chaotic prediction model would act more capably comparing the analogous methods including simple smoothing and moving average to predict the ratio of passing trucks to be possibly overloaded.

  19. A study on adolescents to assess the impact of pictorial and textual warnings on panels of smoked and smokeless tobacco products in Western Maharashtra, India

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    Anand Thakur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Various pictorial and textual warnings are depicted with a hope that they will deter the individuals from using tobacco and inform them regarding the risks of tobacco. Yet there is lack of information regarding the comprehension of these signs by the adolescents. Aims: The aim was to explore the perception of the adolescents regarding the pictorial and textual warnings on tobacco packs. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 500 adolescents of Satara district using simple random sampling technique. A specially designed questionnaire was administered to assess understanding, credibility and persuasiveness of the pictorial and textual warnings on panel of smoked and chewable tobacco. A model containing the pictorial and textual warnings on panel of smoked and smokeless tobacco products were shown to the study subjects. Chi-square test was used for intergroup comparisons based on gender and age of the participants. The statistical analysis of data were done using SPSS version 20.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. Results: Nearly one-third of the study participants had often noticed warnings on tobacco packs in the last month, had sometimes read or looked closely at the warnings on tobacco packs in the last month and had rarely talked with anyone about these warnings. About more than two-third of the study participants had found the warning related pictures as not easy to understand, not believable and that these images did not deter them from the likely use of tobacco, and it did not stop them from using tobacco. Conclusion: We can infer that the textual and pictorial warnings failed to have desired deterrent impact on the adolescent who tend to initiate or continue the tobacco use despite the warning.

  20. Deferasirox for managing iron overload in people with thalassaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollig, Claudia; Schell, Lisa K; Rücker, Gerta; Allert, Roman; Motschall, Edith; Niemeyer, Charlotte M; Bassler, Dirk; Meerpohl, Joerg J

    2017-08-15

    Thalassaemia is a hereditary anaemia due to ineffective erythropoiesis. In particular, people with thalassaemia major develop secondary iron overload resulting from regular red blood cell transfusions. Iron chelation therapy is needed to prevent long-term complications.Both deferoxamine and deferiprone are effective; however, a review of the effectiveness and safety of the newer oral chelator deferasirox in people with thalassaemia is needed. To assess the effectiveness and safety of oral deferasirox in people with thalassaemia and iron overload. We searched the Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 12 August 2016.We also searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Biosis Previews, Web of Science Core Collection and three trial registries: ClinicalTrials.gov; the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform; and the Internet Portal of the German Clinical Trials Register: 06 and 07 August 2015. Randomised controlled studies comparing deferasirox with no therapy or placebo or with another iron-chelating treatment. Two authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. Sixteen studies involving 1807 randomised participants (range 23 to 586 participants) were included. Twelve two-arm studies compared deferasirox to placebo (two studies) or deferoxamine (seven studies) or deferiprone (one study) or the combination of deferasirox and deferoxamine to deferoxamine alone (one study). One study compared the combination of deferasirox and deferiprone to deferiprone in combination with deferoxamine. Three three-arm studies compared deferasirox to deferoxamine and deferiprone (two studies) or the combination of deferasirox and deferiprone to deferiprone and deferasirox monotherapy respectively (one study). One four-arm study compared two different doses of deferasirox to matching placebo groups.The two studies (a pharmacokinetic and a dose-escalation study

  1. The Textuality of Stress: Drawing between Scientific and Everyday Accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S D

    1996-04-01

    Stress is a key term in health psychology, marking both conceptual possibilities and legislative failures. Rather than add a further global theory of stress, the term is examined as it operates in numerous kinds of practices. Drawing on qualitative material from varying sources I place emphasis on the role of concern and understanding in the definition of stress as the matter at hand. A discursive approach is used to worry the opposition of scientific and cultural practice in stress research and point instead to the notion of specific problematizations that appear in the rich fabric of the term's definition and description. I propose that attention to the details of a textuality of stress marks a step towards a 'modest' health psychology.

  2. Textual Transformations in Contemporary Black Writing in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawhar Ahmed Dhouib

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available While the first wave of Caribbean immigrant writers brilliantly explored race-related issues, black Britons like Andrea Levy, Zadie Smith and Caryl Phillips, among others, have sought to depart from earlier fiction, motivated in their project by the changing white face of Britain. In this article, I would like to argue that cultural change in Britain has deeply influenced literary production and has, consequently, laid the ground for a series of textual transformations. To capture instances of creative excess in contemporary black writing in Britain, I will bring under examination Caryl Phillips’s (2009 novel In the Falling Snow. My intention is to show to what extent Phillips’s work surpasses the ‘noose of race’ and already-familiar representations of multicultural Britain to celebrate a ‘post-racial’ society.

  3. [Textual pragmatics in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: argument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Paúls, B; Gimeno-Martínez, M; Moreno-Campos, V

    2010-03-03

    Clinical linguistics involves a study of linguistic deficits which focuses on a series of aspects that range from strictly formal, grammatical points to the effective and contextualised use of language. Thus, it is also inevitably concerned with the cognitive, i.e. mental, correlate of such language use, whose basic textual dimensions are narration and argument. To describe the argumentative skills in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to examine their relationship with academic achievement and sociability. We analysed 79 argumentative texts written by adolescents with ADHD, using a methodology from cognitive linguistics and from theories of argumentation with a dialogical foundation. Adolescents with ADHD provided a greater number of arguments than those in the control group, but with a higher predominance of emotional and negative sanction strategies compared with a greater use of fallacious or circular arguments in those in the control group; the difference between the use of rational arguments in the two groups is not significant.

  4. Textual healing: tailor-made kabbalistic therapeutics in Jerusalem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmen-Carmeli, Shlomo; Sharabi, Asaf

    2017-10-30

    This paper, based on fieldwork conducted in a Jerusalem yeshiva, describes how the yeshiva, a traditional institute of religious studies, also serves as an institution of healing and personal therapy in which sacred religious texts assume a central place. The article focuses on personal sessions between the rabbi who heads the yeshiva, and his audience of believers who turn to him for help in coping with personal hardships and tribulations. The paper contextualizes and elaborates upon the concept of 'deep healing' to describe how the rabbi uses his regular 'tool kit' to diagnose the problems of the person facing him and to offer optimal, personalized therapy. The rabbi uses religious texts to create textual deep healing processes that are tailor-made for the individual supplicant and are intended to accompany supplicants for a long period of time.

  5. Preparing for opening night: temporal boundary objects in textually-mediated professional practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Davies

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report on two projects in which the role of documents as temporal boundary objects mediating information practices across multiple timelines was explored. It has been suggested that studying workplace documents will uncover the information practices of professionals beyond traditional information needs and uses studies. Two workplaces were studied: a professional theatre production and a midwifery clinic. Both settings are communities constructed partly through textual dynamics and both have a pre-production phase leading to an opening night. In the theatre setting, qualitative interviews with the cast and crew and document analysis of the prompt book were the means of data collection. The midwifery clinic setting was investigated by means of interviews and follow-ups with sixteen midwife-client pairs and document analysis of the antenatal record. Preliminary thematic analysis pertaining to time and information was conducted on interview transcripts and the relevant documents. It was possible to show several instances of both the prompt book and the antenatal record being treated as a timeline by the various professionals using them. The authors conclude with a discussion of the temporal aspects of professionals' information practices as revealed by these two projects and encourage further document-focused research.

  6. Bioaugmentation of overloaded anaerobic digesters restores function and archaeal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tale, V P; Maki, J S; Zitomer, D H

    2015-03-01

    Adding beneficial microorganisms to anaerobic digesters for improved performance (i.e. bioaugmentation) has been shown to decrease recovery time after organic overload or toxicity upset. Compared to strictly anaerobic cultures, adding aerotolerant methanogenic cultures may be more practical since they exhibit higher methanogenic activity and can be easily dried and stored in ambient air for future shipping and use. In this study, anaerobic digesters were bioaugmented with both anaerobic and aerated, methanogenic propionate enrichment cultures after a transient organic overload. Digesters bioaugmented with anaerobic and moderately aerated cultures recovered 25 and 100 days before non-bioaugmented digesters, respectively. Increased methane production due to bioaugmentation continued a long time, with 50-120% increases 6 to 12 SRTs (60-120 days) after overload. In contrast to the anaerobic enrichment, the aerated enrichments were more effective as bioaugmentation cultures, resulting in faster recovery of upset digester methane and COD removal rates. Sixty days after overload, the bioaugmented digester archaeal community was not shifted, but was restored to one similar to the pre-overload community. In contrast, non-bioaugmented digester archaeal communities before and after overload were significantly different. Organisms most similar to Methanospirillum hungatei had higher relative abundance in well-operating, undisturbed and bioaugmented digesters, whereas organisms similar to Methanolinea tarda were more abundant in upset, non-bioaugmented digesters. Bioaugmentation is a beneficial approach to increase digester recovery rate after transient organic overload events. Moderately aerated, methanogenic propionate enrichment cultures were more beneficial augments than a strictly anaerobic enrichment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Processes of Self-Recovery in Film Capacitors in Overload Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belko V.O.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The advantage of modern metallized film capacitors is high reliability caused by so-called ability to self-recovery. Application of such capacitors in overload modes (at short lifetimes can significantly improve their technical and volumetric characteristics. In spite of the fact that self-recovery had been investigated over the last decades, the existing theoretical notions and the reported experimental results did not led to the commonly accepted model of the process of self-recovery. Moreover, there is no information on film capacitors performance in overload modes in the literature. In this paper, we present the results of experimental and theoretical study on processes of self-recovery of film capacitors in overload modes. The capacitors’ testing method is proposed. The method allows to record events of self-recovery over a wide range of voltages and times. It is shown that capacitors are able to operate at voltages 4-6 times higher than nominal value. The capacitors’ degradation mechanism is caused by multiple self-recovery events that lead to the gradual accumulation of highly conducting zones near the breakdown channels. Model of single event of self-recovery is developed. This allows estimating the energy of self-recovery for different levels of applied voltage. It is suggested to use the value of cumulative energy of self-recovery as a parameter for estimating the rate of degradation and predicting the film capacitor’s lifetime.

  8. Sustainability of Constructed Wetland under the Impact of Aquatic Organisms Overloading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chieh Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impacts, such as earthquakes, chemical pollution and anthropogenic factors can affect the stability and sustainability of an ecosystem. In this study, a long-term (3.7 years investigation experiment was conducted to estimate the sustainability of a constructed wetland (CW under the impact of aquatic organisms overloading. The situation of aquatic organisms overloading in this study meant that around 27,000 kg of fishes had to be moved and accommodated in a 4 ha water area of wetland for six months. Experimental results indicated that the pH value of CW water was slightly acidic and the Dissolved Oxygen (DO level decreased under the impact. On the other hand, the levels of Electrical Conductivity (EC, Suspended Solids (SS, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, and Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN of CW water were increased under the impact. The pathogen analysis revealed that total coliforms, Salmonella spp., Enterococcus spp., and Escherichia coli, in the wetland water increased under the impact. The analyzed factors of water quality and amount of pathogens were all returned to their original statuses soon after the impact ended. Eventually, the results of microbial community structure analysis showed that overloading of aquatic organisms slightly increased the specific richness (R of wetland bacteria, whereas higher structural biodiversity (H of CW could stabilize the whole microbial community and prevent the pathogens or other bacteria from increasing to become the dominant strains. These results were novel and could be possible to conclude that a CW environment could not only stabilize the water quality and amount of pathogens resulting from the impact of aquatic organisms overloading, but also they could stabilize the microbial community structures, allowing the biogeochemical cycles of the CW to function. They could provide the useful information for wetland sustainability.

  9. Fat overload syndrome after the rapid infusion of SMOFlipid emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojsak, Iva; Kolaček, Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Fat overload syndrome is a well-known complication of intravenous lipid emulsion therapy. It is characterized by headaches, fever, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, respiratory distress, and spontaneous hemorrhage. Other symptoms include anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, low fibrinogen levels, and coagulopathy. Several reports in the literature describe fat overload syndrome caused by rapid infusion of lipid emulsions, all with soybean-based lipid emulsions. We report fat overload syndrome in a 2-year-old girl with short bowel syndrome on home parenteral nutrition. Fat overload syndrome occurred as a result of accidental, very rapid infusion of a 20% soy oil, medium-chain triglyceride, olive and fish oil-based lipid emulsion (SMOFlipid) that showed the same complications seen with an earlier lipid emulsion (Intralipid). The patient was successfully treated with supportive care combining fluid infusion, transfusion of platelets, and substitution of serum albumin (0.5 g/kg/d) and fresh-frozen plasma (10 mL/kg). In the next couple of days, she received extra platelets, erythrocyte transfusion, and filgrastim (Neupogen; 5 µg/kg/d) due to a very low leukocyte count. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of fat overload syndrome caused by SMOFlipid emulsion described in the literature.

  10. Prevalence and predictors of cardiac and liver iron overload in patients with thalassemia: A multicenter study based on real-world data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krittayaphong, Rungroj; Viprakasit, Vip; Saiviroonporn, Pairash; Siritanaratkul, Noppadol; Siripornpitak, Suvipaporn; Meekaewkunchorn, Arunotai; Kirawittaya, Thawatchai; Sripornsawan, Pornpun; Jetsrisuparb, Arunee; Srinakarin, Jiraporn; Wong, Peerapon; Phalakornkul, Nuttaporntira; Sinlapamongkolkul, Phakatip; Wood, John

    2017-07-01

    Prevalence of cardiac and liver iron overload in patients with thalassemia in real-world practice may vary among different regions especially in the era of widely-used iron chelation therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cardiac and liver iron overload in and the management patterns of patients with thalassemia in real-world practice in Thailand. We established a multicenter registry for patients with thalassemia who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as part of their clinical evaluation. All enrolled patients underwent cardiac and liver MRI for assessment of iron overload. There were a total of 405 patients enrolled in this study. The mean age of patients was 18.8±12.5years and 46.7% were male. Two hundred ninety-six (73.1%) of patients received regular blood transfusion. Prevalence of cardiac iron overload (CIO) and liver iron overload (LIO) was 5.2% and 56.8%, respectively. Independent predictors for iron overload from laboratory information were serum ferritin and transaminase for both CIO and LIO. Serum ferritin can be used as a screening tool to rule-out CIO and to diagnose LIO. Iron chelation therapy was given in 74.6%; 15.3% as a combination therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Self-plagiarism and textual recycling: legitimate forms of research misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruton, Samuel V

    2014-01-01

    The concept of self-plagiarism frequently elicits skepticism and generates confusion in the research ethics literature, and the ethical status of what is often called "textual recycling" is particularly controversial. I argue that, in general, self-plagiarism is unethical because it is deceptive and dishonest. I then distinguish several forms of it and argue against various common rationalizations for textual recycling. I conclude with a discussion of two instances of textual recycling, distinguishing them in terms of their ethical seriousness but concluding that both are ethically problematic.

  12. Textual analysis and machine leaning: Crack unstructured data in finance and accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In finance and accounting, relative to quantitative methods traditionally used, textual analysis becomes popular recently despite of its substantially less precise manner. In an overview of the literature, we describe various methods used in textual analysis, especially machine learning. By comparing their classification performance, we find that neural network outperforms many other machine learning techniques in classifying news category. Moreover, we highlight that there are many challenges left for future development of textual analysis, such as identifying multiple objects within one single document.

  13. Diagnosis and quantification of the iron overload through Magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alústiza Echeverría, J M; Barrera Portillo, M C; Guisasola Iñiguiz, A; Ugarte Muño, A

    There are different magnetic resonance techniques and models to quantify liver iron concentration. T2 relaxometry methods evaluate the iron concentration in the myocardium, and they are able to discriminate all the levels of iron overload in the liver. Signal intensity ratio methods saturate with high levels of liver overload and can not assess iron concentration in the myocardium but they are more accessible and are very standardized. This article reviews, in different clinical scenarios, when Magnetic Resonance must be used to assess iron overload in the liver and myocardium and analyzes the current challenges to optimize the aplication of the technique and to be it included in the clinical guidelines. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Computers in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language: Access to the Diversity of Textual Genres and Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Roberto-Márcio; Sobrinho, Jerônimo Coura

    In the area of language teaching both language skills and textual genres can be worked with simultaneously (thus responding to the Brazilian Curricular Parameters and to the trends in contemporary education, which emphasize contextualized teaching) by means of computers. Computers can make the teaching process dynamic and rich, since they enable the access to the foreign language through virtual environments, which creates a larger number of learning contexts, with all their specific vocabulary and linguistic features in real communication. This study focuses on possible applications of this kind of approach. The computer online is a resource of diverse textual genres and can be an important tool in the language classroom as well as an access to authentic material produced in contextualized practice close to real-life communication. On the other hand, all these materials must be appropriately used without ever worshipping the technology as if it were a miraculous solution. After all, the professional pedagogic skills of the teacher should never be forgotten or taken for granted. In this study, a series of interviews with teachers was carried out - both with Brazilian teachers of the public sector (basic education) and language institutes (private English courses) as well as teacher trainers (university professors), in order to verify if the teachers were prepared to work with informatics in teaching practices, and check the professionals’ views on the subject. The ideas of Maingueneau and Marcuschi about textual genres are a theoretical base in this work, besides the concept of cognitive economy. The text and its typology are focused here as the basic material for teaching English, through digital technologies and hypermedia. The study is also based on Sharma and Barrett’s notion of blended learning as a balanced combination of technological resources and traditional practices in the classroom. Thus, this is an attempt to investigate the relevance of

  15. Overload Control in Smart Transformer-Fed Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni De Carne

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy resources and new loads—such as electric vehicles—challenge grid management. Among several scenarios, the smart transformer represents a solution for simultaneously managing low- and medium-voltage grids, providing ancillary services to the distribution grid. However, unlike conventional transformers, the smart transformer has a very limited overload capability, because the junction temperature—which must always be below its maximum limit—is characterized by a short time constant. In this work, an overload control for smart transformer by means of voltage and frequency variations has been proposed and verified by means of simulations and experiments.

  16. The Japanese Amateur Textual Production Scene: Activities and Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro David Hernández Hernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Animation, manga (Japanese comic books, and video games are some of the most popular media in Japan. The huge community of fans and amateur creators that concentrate twice a year at the massive event called Comic Market is one expression of this popularity. In this paper I focus on the Japanese culture of amateur manga, anime or other derivative texts, and present analysis of the way in which members relate to media texts and other members, in order to reveal two different orientations towards action within this culture: one that centers on individual activities, and the other on collective participation. To do this, I focus first on the Japanese amateur culture that is often called dōjin culture to find two basic perspectives. One regards this culture as forming communities or based on social interaction, and the other denies commonality in the relationships between members and stresses individual drive. Then, I focus on a similar distinction that shapes the main discourses concerning Japanese subculture and otaku, both categories within which dōjin culture can be categorized. Here I pay particular attention to two different orientations towards the value of media texts, which provide a reference for understanding the aforementioned opposition between commonality and individuality. In my conclusions, I suggest that this amateur culture can be regarded as an institution of textual appropriation, shaped by two orientations: activities and participation. 

  17. de análisis textual cinematográfico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vizcarra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un análisis textual del filme futurista Blade Runner (1982, de Ridley Scott. Busca, sobre todo, indagar cómo se representan los efectos radicalizados de la modernidad en el discurso cinematográfico y, concretamente, en la construcción fílmica de las identidades. ¿Qué elementos de representación de lo social se movilizan en esta película para expresar, mediante la ficción futurista, las consecuencias críticas de la modernidad en las sociedades contemporáneas? Ciertos componentes de la modernidad y la posmodernidad (que aquí trato como modernidades múltiples, tales como la expansión de la racionalidad y la consecuente crisis de sentido, las rearticulaciones del tiempo y del espacio, la creación de entornos de fiabilidad y riesgo, y los procesos de hibridación, se exploran en este ejercicio a la luz de los siguientes códigos identitarios revelados en Blade Runner: 1 mortalidad, 2 memoria y poder, 3 anomia y sentido, 4 solidaridad y 5 ironía.

  18. [Textual research on the edition of WU Kun's books].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-Guang; Lu, Xiang

    2013-03-01

    WU Kun is a famous physician of the Xin'an School. He wrote a 6-volume Yi fang kao (Textual Research on Recipes) in 1584, a 24-volume Wu zhu su wen (Wu's Annotation of Plain Questions) in 1594, a 6-volume Zhen fang liu ji (Six Collections of Acupuncture and Prescription) in 1618 block-printed and funded by CHENG Biao, and a 2-volume Mai yu (Language of Pulse) with writing date unknown. For Yi fang kao, there were 4 editions, including Ming-dynasty block-printed edition, Japanese and Korean block-printed edition, old hand-copied edition and modern printing edition. For Wu zhu su wen, there were 5 editions, Ming-Qing-dynasty block-printed edition, Japanese block-printed edition, old hand-copied edition, photocopy and modern edition. For Zhen fang liu ji, there were Ming-dynasty block-printed edition, hand-copied edition, photocopy and modern edition. Mai yu always was printed together with Yi fang kao, and its editions were same as those of Yi fang kao, except some modern printing edition with Mai yu excluded.

  19. Qur’an-related Intertextuality: Textual Potentiation in Translation

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    Aladdin Al-Kharabsheh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Qur’an-related intertextuality, envisaged as an enriching communicative act both monolingually and interlingually, represents a case of semantic complexity that is wired to present inconceivable translation challenges. Drawing on Derrida’s (1977 dichotomy iterability/citationality, Kristeva’s (1980 vertical intertextuality, Fairclough’s (1992a; 1992b; 1995 & 2011 manifest intertextuality, and Bakhtin’s (1986 double voicing or re-accentuation, the study argues that Qur’an-related intertextuality is conducive of conceptual densities, the ‘harnessing’ of which requires ‘mobilizing’ those translation strategies that should exceed the lexicographical equivalence (Venuti 2009 to establish intertextual relations relevant to the form and theme of the foreign text. To resolve the arising translation problems, the study basically proposes two synthetic approaches: the gist-paratextual and the gist-exegetical. Translation skopos has been found to be central to the production and reception of intertextuality and to determining which of the two proposed synthetic approaches to operationalize. Finally, analysis shows that Qur’an proved to be a virtual breeding ground for textual dynamism and potentiation.

  20. Taking Stock: Marie Nimier’s Textual Cabinet of Curiosities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many life-writing projects, the seemingly innocuous description of heteroclite objects and how those objects are stored and recalled in fact plays an important role in demonstrating their importance to the process of memory work. At once the lingering traces of one’s past and also an aggregation of stories evoked by an examination of them, these curios focus attention on the relationship between the individual and the storage of memories. This article will focus on certain collectibles, collections and collectors that appear throughout the fictional, autobiographical and autofictional world that Marie Nimier has scripted to date. This textual cabinet of curiosities and the act of collecting more generally serve as a trope to connect memory with materiality, despite the numerous narrative voices that Nimier assumes—voices that move from a first-person “Marie Nimier” to an unnamed, although clearly identifiable first-person and even float between genders. Despite this nominal and narrational fluidity, objects function to guarantee recognition, both for the reader, and, especially, for the author herself. What is at stake in this intertextual assemblage of objects is not only the roles that they play in allowing the narrator to revisit past traumas and loss, but also in connecting the author’s presence to other, more fictionalized voices that above all signify the primacy of life-writing in her corpus.

  1. "Like Oil and Water": Adaptation as Textuality, Intertextuality, and Metatextuality in Lady Snowblood (Fujita, 1973)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolton, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    ...—textuality, intertextuality, and metatextuality—that reveal both their nimble thinking about adaptation as an aesthetic process, but that also demonstrates the limitations of these strategies...

  2. Benjamin’s Dialectical Image and the Textuality of the Built Landscape

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ross Lipton

    2016-01-01

    .... In this paper, I will first discuss the textuality of the dialectical image as it emerges from Benjamin’s discussion of allegorical and symbolic images in his Trauerspiel study and the ‘wish symbol...

  3. The Text's the Thing: Using (Neglected) Issues of Textual Scholarship to Help Students Reimagine Shakespeare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Do individuals know what words Shakespeare actually wrote? Exploring these issues can yield dramatic interest. With references to Shakespeare's Quartos and Folios, the author examines key textual issues and discrepancies in classroom studies of "Hamlet." (Contains 8 notes.)

  4. A Textual Feedback Tool for Empowering Participants in Usability and UX Evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivaji, Ashok; Clemmensen, Torkil; Nielsen, Søren Feodor

    2017-01-01

    in Malaysia. The results indicate that the Textual Feedback tool may help participants to give their thoughts in UX evaluation in high power distance contexts. In particular, the Textual Feedback tool helps high status females and low status males express more UX problems than they can do with traditional CTA......The usability movement has historically always sought to empower end-users of computers, so that they understand what is happening and can control the outcome. In this paper, we develop and evaluate a ‘Textual feedback’ tool for usability and UX evaluation that can be used to empower well...... alone. We found that classic concurrent think aloud UX evaluation works fine in high power contexts, but only with the addition of Textual feedback to mitigate the effects of socio-economic status in certain user groups. We suggest that future research on UX evaluation look more into how to empower...

  5. Textual Analysis and Machine Leaning: Crack Unstructured Data in Finance and Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Li; Shi, Feng; Tu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    In finance and accounting, relative to quantitative methods traditionally used, textual analysis becomes popular recently despite of its substantially less precise manner. In an overview of the literature, we describe various methods used in textual analysis, especially machine learning. By comparing their classification performance, we find that neural network outperforms many other machine learning techniques in classifying news category. Moreover, we highlight that there are many challenge...

  6. Care episode retrieval: distributional semantic models for information retrieval in the clinical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Hans; Ginter, Filip; Marsi, Erwin; Peltonen, Laura-Maria; Salakoski, Tapio; Salanterä, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    Patients' health related information is stored in electronic health records (EHRs) by health service providers. These records include sequential documentation of care episodes in the form of clinical notes. EHRs are used throughout the health care sector by professionals, administrators and patients, primarily for clinical purposes, but also for secondary purposes such as decision support and research. The vast amounts of information in EHR systems complicate information management and increase the risk of information overload. Therefore, clinicians and researchers need new tools to manage the information stored in the EHRs. A common use case is, given a--possibly unfinished--care episode, to retrieve the most similar care episodes among the records. This paper presents several methods for information retrieval, focusing on care episode retrieval, based on textual similarity, where similarity is measured through domain-specific modelling of the distributional semantics of words. Models include variants of random indexing and the semantic neural network model word2vec. Two novel methods are introduced that utilize the ICD-10 codes attached to care episodes to better induce domain-specificity in the semantic model. We report on experimental evaluation of care episode retrieval that circumvents the lack of human judgements regarding episode relevance. Results suggest that several of the methods proposed outperform a state-of-the art search engine (Lucene) on the retrieval task.

  7. Rethinking Over Textuality of Digital Image: A Methodological Proposal for Pleasant Reading on Digital Screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Álvarez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It sets out the necessity about thinking over the instructional function of image in digital world under the light of the new opportunities of a methodological proposal to read as a game. First, for this reason it exams the perceptions of García Canclini about the reading of university students, and its problems on the context of new technologies: accumulation of information versus weakening of reflection. To this situation it adds the no appreciation of visual images. Faced with this problematic situation, and with the aim of sketching out options, it analyzes two experiences about books: the “tasty” reading of texts (the “good reading”, and the potentialities presented in the essential characteristics of playing. So, it proposes a methodology shaped for five steps to read images on digital screen. Its aim is seizing the possibilities of “good reading” to expand the comprehension of the visual information perceived through the screen. The proposal puts the accent in the textuality of representational surface of an image. Also it brings the attentive visual route about in order to enable to identify both significant forms and spaces. This proposal is illustrated with examples.

  8. Nuevas alfabetizaciones en un entorno multimodal: nuevas necesidades lectoras para un entorno textual múltiple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Patricio Sánchez-Claros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The new technologies of information, the development of the media and the massive presence of multimedia devices have brought a renewal of the traditional concept of literacy. Multimodality in the media, in the dissemination of knowledge and the communicat ion formats have brought a change in the system of reception of media objects and each of its integral elements. This multimodal environment is part of the daily life of students who access through a scenario of screens and images across a virtual environm ent in which both textual and visual are integrated as an informational continuum that requires to users new interpretation skills. And, consequently, a new approach to media literacy should be the subject of attention from educators. Media literac y implies the need to address new visual skills, new reading skills and especially new skills for integration and analysis, among those who cannot be set aside on the critical apparatus necessary. This paper discusses the content of these skills, some cri tical tools for multimodal approach speech as well as the role the four substrata of discourse, design, production and distribution , typical ofCritical Analysis of Multimodal Discourse are analysed .

  9. "What else are you worried about?" – Integrating textual responses into quantitative social science research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brümmer, Martin; Schmukle, Stefan C.; Goebel, Jan; Wagner, Gert G.

    2017-01-01

    Open-ended questions have routinely been included in large-scale survey and panel studies, yet there is some perplexity about how to actually incorporate the answers to such questions into quantitative social science research. Tools developed recently in the domain of natural language processing offer a wide range of options for the automated analysis of such textual data, but their implementation has lagged behind. In this study, we demonstrate straightforward procedures that can be applied to process and analyze textual data for the purposes of quantitative social science research. Using more than 35,000 textual answers to the question “What else are you worried about?” from participants of the German Socio-economic Panel Study (SOEP), we (1) analyzed characteristics of respondents that determined whether they answered the open-ended question, (2) used the textual data to detect relevant topics that were reported by the respondents, and (3) linked the features of the respondents to the worries they reported in their textual data. The potential uses as well as the limitations of the automated analysis of textual data are discussed. PMID:28759628

  10. Self regulation initiative to address the heavy vehicle overloading problem in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Heavy vehicle overloading continues to be a major problem in South Africa notwithstanding efforts at more effective overload control by the authorities. This paper describes a pilot project, funded by the Department of Trade and Industry...

  11. Development of an overload control strategy for the Republic of Senegal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available traffic in Senegal. An assessment of the commodities transported during the surveys found that cement; sand, steel and general goods are the cargoes that contribute most significantly to overloading of heavy vehicles. The overload control strategy...

  12. Fetal liver iron overload: the role of MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassart, Marie; Avni, Freddy Efraim [Erasme Hospital, Medical imaging, Brussels, Brabant (Belgium); Guibaud, Laurent [Hopital femme mere enfant, Imagerie Pediatrique et Foetale, Lyon-Bron (France); Molho, Marc [C.H.I Poissy/St Germain-en-Laye, Imagerie Medicale, Poissy (France); D' Haene, Nicky [Erasme Hospital, Anatomopathology Department, Brussels (Belgium); Paupe, Alain [C.H.I Poissy/St Germain-en-Laye, Pediatrie, Poissy (France)

    2011-02-15

    To assess the potential role of MR imaging in the diagnosis of fetal liver iron overload. We reviewed seven cases of abnormal liver signal in fetuses referred to MR imaging in a context of suspected congenital infection (n = 2), digestive tract anomalies (n = 3) and hydrops fetalis (n = 2). The average GA of the fetuses was 31 weeks. The antenatal diagnoses were compared with histological data (n = 6) and postnatal work-up (n = 1). Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated unexpected abnormal fetal liver signal suggestive of iron overload in all cases. The iron overload was confirmed on postnatal biopsy (n = 2) and fetopathology (n = 4). The final diagnosis was hepatic hemosiderosis (haemolytic anaemia (n = 2) and syndromal anomalies (n = 2)) and congenital haemochromatosis (n = 3). In all cases, the liver appeared normal on US. Magnetic resonance is the only imaging technique able to demonstrate liver iron overload in utero. Yet, the study outlines the fundamental role of MR imaging in cases of congenital haemochromatosis. The antenatal diagnosis of such a condition may prompt ante - (in the case of recurrence) or neonatal treatment, which might improve the prognosis. (orig.)

  13. Iron deficiency and overload in relation to nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjersberg MQI; Jansen EHJM; LEO

    2000-01-01

    Nutritional iron intake in the Netherlands has been reviewed with respect to both iron deficiency and iron overload. In general, iron intake and iron status in the Netherlands are adequate and therefore no change in nutrition policy is required. The following aspects and developments, however, need

  14. Dietary iron rural blacks overload In southern African

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-09-15

    Sep 15, 1990 ... This finding was ascribed to the fact that traditional brews are not only associated with alcohol- induced hepatic damage but are also a very rich source of ... liver/,J glucose intolerance;4 scurvy and osteoporosis;5 and possibly oesophageal carcinoma.6. There is also evidence to suggest that iron overload ...

  15. Mitochondrial dysfunction may explain the cardiomyopathy of chronic iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xueshan; Qian, Mingwei; Campian, Jian Li; Marshall, James; Zhou, Zhanxiang; Roberts, Andrew M; Kang, Y James; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Eaton, John W

    2010-08-01

    In patients with hemochromatosis, cardiac dysfunction may appear years after they have reached a state of iron overload. We hypothesized that cumulative iron-catalyzed oxidant damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) might explain the cardiomyopathy of chronic iron overload. Mice were given repetitive injections of iron dextran for a total of 4weeks after which the iron-loaded mice had elevated cardiac iron, modest cardiac hypertrophy, and cardiac dysfunction. qPCR amplification of near-full-length ( approximately 16kb) mtDNA revealed >50% loss of full-length product, whereas amounts of a qPCR product of a nuclear gene (13kb region of beta globin) were unaffected. Quantitative rtPCR analyses revealed 60-70% loss of mRNA for proteins encoded by mtDNA with no change in mRNA abundance for nuclear-encoded respiratory subunits. These changes coincided with proportionate reductions in complex I and IV activities and decreased respiration of isolated cardiac mitochondria. We conclude that chronic iron overload leads to cumulative iron-mediated damage to mtDNA and impaired synthesis of mitochondrial respiratory chain subunits. The resulting respiratory dysfunction may explain the slow development of cardiomyopathy in chronic iron overload and similar accumulation of damage to mtDNA may also explain the mitochondrial dysfunction observed in slowly progressing diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fatigue crack growth due to overloads in plain concrete using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The predicted results are compared with experimental crack growth data for variable amplitude loading and are found to capture the overload effect with sufficient accuracy. Through a sensitivity analysis, fracture toughness is found to be the most dominant parameter in accelerating the crack length due to application of ...

  17. Dietary iron overload in southern African rural blacks | Friedman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey conducted in rural southern African black subjects indicated that dietary iron overload remains a major health problem. A full blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum concentrations of iron, total iron-binding capacity, ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP), 1'-glutamyltransferase (GGn and serological screening ...

  18. Overload prevention in model supports for wind tunnel model testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton IVANOVICI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Preventing overloads in wind tunnel model supports is crucial to the integrity of the tested system. Results can only be interpreted as valid if the model support, conventionally called a sting remains sufficiently rigid during testing. Modeling and preliminary calculation can only give an estimate of the sting’s behavior under known forces and moments but sometimes unpredictable, aerodynamically caused model behavior can cause large transient overloads that cannot be taken into account at the sting design phase. To ensure model integrity and data validity an analog fast protection circuit was designed and tested. A post-factum analysis was carried out to optimize the overload detection and a short discussion on aeroelastic phenomena is included to show why such a detector has to be very fast. The last refinement of the concept consists in a fast detector coupled with a slightly slower one to differentiate between transient overloads that decay in time and those that are the result of aeroelastic unwanted phenomena. The decision to stop or continue the test is therefore conservatively taken preserving data and model integrity while allowing normal startup loads and transients to manifest.

  19. Shift Work, Role Overload, and the Transition to Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Jenkins, Maureen; Goldberg, Abbie E.; Pierce, Courtney P.; Sayer, Aline G.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines how the work hours, work schedules, and role overload of working-class couples are related to depressive symptoms and relationship conflict across the transition to parenthood. Data are from 132 dual-earner couples interviewed 5 times across the transition. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that working evening or night…

  20. Determination of Permissible Short-Time Emergency Overloading of Turbo-Generators and Synchronous Compensators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Anischenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that failure to take into account variable ratio of short-time emergency overloading of turbo-generators (synchronous compensators that can lead to underestimation of overloading capacity or impermissible insulation over-heating.A method has been developed for determination of permissible duration of short-time emergency over-loading that takes into account changes of over-loading ratio in case of a failure.

  1. Cytoskeletal mechanics in pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, H.; Wang, N.; Narishige, T.; Ingber, D. E.; Zile, M. R.; Cooper, G. 4th

    1997-01-01

    We have shown that the cellular contractile dysfunction characteristic of pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy results not from an abnormality intrinsic to the myofilament portion of the cardiocyte cytoskeleton but rather from an increased density of the microtubule component of the extramyofilament portion of the cardiocyte cytoskeleton. To determine how, in physical terms, this increased microtubule density mechanically overloads the contractile apparatus at the cellular level, we measured cytoskeletal stiffness and apparent viscosity in isolated cardiocytes via magnetic twisting cytometry, a technique by which magnetically induced force is applied directly to the cytoskeleton through integrin-coupled ferromagnetic beads coated with Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide. Measurements were made in two groups of cardiocytes from cats with right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy induced by pulmonary artery banding: (1) those from the pressure-overloaded RV and (2) those from the normally loaded same-animal control left ventricle (LV). Cytoskeletal stiffness increased almost twofold, from 8.53 +/- 0.77 dyne/cm2 in the normally loaded LV cardiocytes to 16.46 +/- 1.32 dyne/cm2 in the hypertrophied RV cardiocytes. Cytoskeletal apparent viscosity increased almost fourfold, from 20.97 +/- 1.92 poise in the normally loaded LV cardiocytes to 87.85 +/- 6.95 poise in the hypertrophied RV cardiocytes. In addition to these baseline data showing differing stiffness and, especially, apparent viscosity in the two groups of cardiocytes, microtubule depolymerization by colchicine was found to return both the stiffness and the apparent viscosity of the pressure overload-hypertrophied RV cells fully to normal. Conversely, microtubule hyperpolymerization by taxol increased the stiffness and apparent viscosity values of normally loaded LV cardiocytes to the abnormal values given above for pressure-hypertrophied RV cardiocytes. Thus, increased microtubule density constitutes primarily a viscous load on

  2. Iron-overload injury and cardiomyopathy in acquired and genetic models is attenuated by resveratrol therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subhash K; Wang, Wang; Zhabyeyev, Pavel; Basu, Ratnadeep; McLean, Brent; Fan, Dong; Parajuli, Nirmal; DesAulniers, Jessica; Patel, Vaibhav B; Hajjar, Roger J; Dyck, Jason R B; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2015-12-07

    Iron-overload cardiomyopathy is a prevalent cause of heart failure on a world-wide basis and is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with secondary iron-overload and genetic hemochromatosis. We investigated the therapeutic effects of resveratrol in acquired and genetic models of iron-overload cardiomyopathy. Murine iron-overload models showed cardiac iron-overload, increased oxidative stress, altered Ca(2+) homeostasis and myocardial fibrosis resulting in heart disease. Iron-overload increased nuclear and acetylated levels of FOXO1 with corresponding inverse changes in SIRT1 levels in the heart corrected by resveratrol therapy. Resveratrol, reduced the pathological remodeling and improved cardiac function in murine models of acquired and genetic iron-overload at varying stages of iron-overload. Echocardiography and hemodynamic analysis revealed a complete normalization of iron-overload mediated diastolic and systolic dysfunction in response to resveratrol therapy. Myocardial SERCA2a levels were reduced in iron-overloaded hearts and resveratrol therapy restored SERCA2a levels and corrected altered Ca(2+) homeostasis. Iron-mediated pro-oxidant and pro-fibrotic effects in human and murine cardiomyocytes and cardiofibroblasts were suppressed by resveratrol which correlated with reduction in iron-induced myocardial oxidative stress and myocardial fibrosis. Resveratrol represents a clinically and economically feasible therapeutic intervention to reduce the global burden from iron-overload cardiomyopathy at early and chronic stages of iron-overload.

  3. 30 CFR 75.518 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... electric equipment and circuits against short circuit and overloads. Three-phase motors on all electric equipment shall be provided with overload protection that will deenergize all three phases in the event that... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment and circuits; overload and...

  4. IT Development: Methodology Overload or Crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korac-Boisvert, Nada; Kouzmin, Alexander

    1995-01-01

    An examination of the management techniques that underlie the information technology (IT) industry reveals a common strategy of dividing organizational functions into tasks in a "top-down" fashion. The research and development approach is recommended for design-in-action development and an open-ended IT strategy to facilitate an…

  5. Análise textual discursiva: processo reconstrutivo de múltiplas faces Discursive textual analysis: a multiple face recontructive process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Moraes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo, resultado de pesquisa qualitativa de dissertações e relatos de mestres que utilizaram a análise textual discursiva como ferramenta analítica, descreve a análise textual discursiva como procedimento de pesquisa que permite quatro reconstruções concomitantes: 1. do entendimento de ciência e de seus caminhos de produção; 2. do objeto da pesquisa e de sua compreensão; 3. da competência de produção escrita; 4. do sujeito pesquisador. Argumenta-se que a análise textual discursiva cria espaços de reconstrução, envolvendo-se nisto diversificados elementos, especialmente a compreensão da produção de significados sobre os fenômenos investigados e a transformação do pesquisador.The paper describes the result of qualitative research of two graduate programs that used in their researches an analytical approach called “discursive textual analysis”. This methodology produced four simultaneous results: 1 a reconstruction of the understanding of science and its ways of production; 2 the reconstruction of the research object and its comprehension; 3 the reconstruction of the competence in writing; 4 the reconstruction of the research itself. The authors argue that discursive textual analysis produces an environment in which different elements are reconstructed, especially the understanding of meaning production in science and a continuous transformation of the research itself.

  6. New cultural writing practices, new perspectives of Textual Criticism: towards HyperEditing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrício Nunes Barreiros

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The advent of computer technology and its developments in the second half of the twentieth century was responsible for a new paradigm for the writing culture, enabling, for the first time, the existence of the text outside a physical surface. It is, therefore, a new condition of texts which has changed the cultural practices, production, circulation and appropriation of the text (Chartier, 2001. Philology is not oblivious to this new socio-cultural context and philologists have taken advantage of the potentialities that information technology and digital media provide for the editing of texts, especially of those that have been written and disseminated within the manuscript and/or printed culture. Jerome McGann (1997 used the term HyperEditing to name the editing that philologists are producing in digital media. This type of editing is a hypermedia which makes it possible to put image, sound and movement together in a same space, and other specific characteristics of computer language. In this article, I intend to discuss how textual criticism is being adapted to this paradigm shift through new editing models. This study is part of the theoretical and methodological framework developed for the pamphlets hyperediting of Eulalio Motta, www.eulaliliomotta.com.br (Barreiros, 2013.

  7. Textual and language flaws: problems for Spanish doctors in producing abstracts in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Divasson Cilveti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific journals are the primary source of information for researchers. The number of articles currently indexed in databases is so large that it has become almost impossible to read every relevant article in a particular field. Thus, research paper abstracts (RPAs have acquired increasing importance. Several studies have shown that they are the skipping point, particularly among non-native English speakers. To our knowledge, little research has been carried out on RPA writing by Spanish doctors. It is thus the objective of this article to analyse the way abstracts are structured and linguistically realized by these professionals. We selected 30 RPAs written in English by Spanish speaking doctors from three leading Spanish journals on internal medicine. We recorded their textual level flaws by measuring the degree of informativeness with regard to three main variables: move patterning, ordering and structuring, and their language use flaws under two broad categories: ortho-typographic and grammatical. Length, use of hedges and keywords were also identified. 86.6% of the abstracts were informative, 13.3% uninformative while none of them could be classified as highly informative. With regard to the authors' use of language, over 70% presented some kind of flaws: 21.55% of these mistakes were ortho-typographic while 78.44% were grammatical. Our results support the need of designing specific units geared on the one hand towards explicit teaching of structured abstracts and on the other, towards the difficulties found by doctors because they lack language competence. They would also benefit from clearer guidelines from journal editors.

  8. An RNAi therapeutic targeting Tmprss6 decreases iron overload in Hfe(-/-) mice and ameliorates anemia and iron overload in murine β-thalassemia intermedia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schmidt, Paul J; Toudjarska, Iva; Sendamarai, Anoop K; Racie, Tim; Milstein, Stuart; Bettencourt, Brian R; Hettinger, Julia; Bumcrot, David; Fleming, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    .... -thalassemia is a congenital anemia caused by partial or complete loss of -globin synthesis causing ineffective erythropoiesis, anemia, decreased hepcidin production, and secondary iron overload...

  9. Automating generation of textual class definitions from OWL to English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert; Malone, James; Williams, Sandra; Power, Richard; Third, Allan

    2011-05-17

    developers of EFO are sufficiently satisfied with the output that the generated definitions have been incorporated into EFO. Whilst not a substitute for hand-written textual definitions, our generated definitions are a useful starting point. An on-line version of the NLG text definition tool can be found at http://swat.open.ac.uk/tools/. The questionaire and sample generated text definitions may be found at http://mcs.open.ac.uk/nlg/SWAT/bio-ontologies.html.

  10. Sympathectomy or doxazosin, but not propranolol, blunt myocardial interstitial fibrosis in pressure-overload hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlini, Stefano; Palladini, Giuseppina; Ferrero, Ivana; Tozzi, Rossana; Fallarini, Silvia; Facoetti, Angelica; Nano, Rosanna; Clari, Francesca; Busca, Giuseppe; Fogari, Roberto; Ferrari, Alberto U

    2005-11-01

    The adaptive changes that develop in the pressure-overloaded left ventricular (LV) myocardium include cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Although the former is known to depend to a sizeable extent on sympathetic (over)activity, little information exists whether the same applies to the latter, ie, whether excess catecholamine exposure contributes to the imbalance between collagen deposition by fibroblasts and degradation by matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), eventually leading to LV collagen accumulation. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to abdominal aortic banding (B) or sham operation (S) and treated with beta-blockade (Bb, oral propranolol, 40 mg/kg per day), chemical sympathectomy (Sx, 6-hydroxydopamine, 150 mg/kg intraperitoneal twice per week) or vehicle (Vh). Ten weeks later, systolic blood pressure, LV weight, collagen abundance (computer-aided histology), zymographic matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 activity and its specific tissue inhibitor concentration (TIMP-2) were measured. Both sympathectomy and beta-blockade failed to attenuate the banding-induced blood pressure elevation but significantly attenuated the attendant LV hypertrophy. As expected, pressure-overload hypertrophy was associated with interstitial fibrosis (collagen: 4.37+/-1.23% BVh versus 1.23+/-0.44% SVh, P<0.05), which was abolished by sympathectomy (2.55+/-1.31%, P=not significant versus SSx) but left unchanged by beta-blockade (4.11+/-1.23%, P<0.05 versus both SBb and BSx). beta-blockade, but not sympathectomy, was also associated with an increased TIMP-2/MMP-2 ratio (P<0.05), indicating reduced interstitial collagenolytic activity. In separate groups of banded and sham-operated rats, treatment with the alpha-receptor blocker doxazosin (10 mg/kg per day) displayed similar antifibrotic and biochemical effects as sympathectomy. Thus in the course of experimental pressure overload, the sympathetic nervous system plays a major pro-fibrotic role, which is mediated via alpha

  11. Exploratory analysis of textual data from the Mother and Child Handbook using a text mining method (II): Monthly changes in the words recorded by mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Miki; Matsuda, Yoshio; Manaka, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Makiko; Ohwada, Michitaka; Matsubara, Shigeki

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the possibility of converting subjective textual data written in the free column space of the Mother and Child Handbook (MCH) into objective information using text mining and to compare any monthly changes in the words written by the mothers. Pregnant women without complications (n = 60) were divided into two groups according to State-Trait Anxiety Inventory grade: low trait anxiety (group I, n = 39) and high trait anxiety (group II, n = 21). Exploratory analysis of the textual data from the MCH was conducted by text mining using the Word Miner software program. Using 1203 structural elements extracted after processing, a comparison of monthly changes in the words used in the mothers' comments was made between the two groups. The data was mainly analyzed by a correspondence analysis. The structural elements in groups I and II were divided into seven and six clusters, respectively, by cluster analysis. Correspondence analysis revealed clear monthly changes in the words used in the mothers' comments as the pregnancy progressed in group I, whereas the association was not clear in group II. The text mining method was useful for exploratory analysis of the textual data obtained from pregnant women, and the monthly change in the words used in the mothers' comments as pregnancy progressed differed according to their degree of unease. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. A Dynamic Ensemble Framework for Mining Textual Streams with Class Imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Textual stream classification has become a realistic and challenging issue since large-scale, high-dimensional, and non-stationary streams with class imbalance have been widely used in various real-life applications. According to the characters of textual streams, it is technically difficult to deal with the classification of textual stream, especially in imbalanced environment. In this paper, we propose a new ensemble framework, clustering forest, for learning from the textual imbalanced stream with concept drift (CFIM. The CFIM is based on ensemble learning by integrating a set of clustering trees (CTs. An adaptive selection method, which flexibly chooses the useful CTs by the property of the stream, is presented in CFIM. In particular, to deal with the problem of class imbalance, we collect and reuse both rare-class instances and misclassified instances from the historical chunks. Compared to most existing approaches, it is worth pointing out that our approach assumes that both majority class and rareclass may suffer from concept drift. Thus the distribution of resampled instances is similar to the current concept. The effectiveness of CFIM is examined in five real-world textual streams under an imbalanced nonstationary environment. Experimental results demonstrate that CFIM achieves better performance than four state-of-the-art ensemble models.

  13. Securing OFDM over Wireless Time-Varying Channels Using Subcarrier Overloading with Joint Signal Constellations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill R. Tsouri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of overloading subcarriers by multiple transmitters to secure OFDM in wireless time-varying channels is proposed and analyzed. The method is based on reverse piloting, superposition modulation, and joint decoding. It makes use of channel randomness, reciprocity, and fast decorrelation in space to secure OFDM with low overheads on encryption, decryption, and key distribution. These properties make it a good alternative to traditional software-based information security algorithms in systems where the costs associated with such algorithms are an implementation obstacle. A necessary and sufficient condition for achieving information theoretic security in accordance with channel and system parameters is derived. Security by complexity is assessed for cases where the condition for information theoretic security is not satisfied. In addition, practical means for implementing the method are derived including generating robust joint constellations, decoding data with low complexity, and mitigating the effects of imperfections due to mobility, power control errors, and synchronization errors.

  14. CHIP protects against cardiac pressure overload through regulation of AMPK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schisler, Jonathan C.; Rubel, Carrie E.; Zhang, Chunlian; Lockyer, Pamela; Cyr, Douglas M.; Patterson, Cam

    2013-01-01

    Protein quality control and metabolic homeostasis are integral to maintaining cardiac function during stress; however, little is known about if or how these systems interact. Here we demonstrate that C terminus of HSC70-interacting protein (CHIP), a regulator of protein quality control, influences the metabolic response to pressure overload by direct regulation of the catalytic α subunit of AMPK. Induction of cardiac pressure overload in Chip–/– mice resulted in robust hypertrophy and decreased cardiac function and energy generation stemming from a failure to activate AMPK. Mechanistically, CHIP promoted LKB1-mediated phosphorylation of AMPK, increased the specific activity of AMPK, and was necessary and sufficient for stress-dependent activation of AMPK. CHIP-dependent effects on AMPK activity were accompanied by conformational changes specific to the α subunit, both in vitro and in vivo, identifying AMPK as the first physiological substrate for CHIP chaperone activity and establishing a link between cardiac proteolytic and metabolic pathways. PMID:23863712

  15. Culinary plants and their potential impact on metabolic overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Kwon, Oran

    2011-07-01

    Contemporary human behavior has led a large proportion of the population to metabolic overload and obesity. Postprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia evoke redox imbalance in the short term and lead to complex chronic disease in the long term with repeated occurrence. Complex diseases are best prevented with complex components of plants; thus, current nutrition research has begun to focus on the development of plant-based functional foods and dietary supplements for health and well-being. Furthermore, given the wide range of species, parts, and secondary metabolites, culinary plants can contribute significant variety and complexity to the human diet. Although understanding the health benefits of culinary plants has been one of the great challenges in nutritional science due to their inherent complexity, it is an advantageous pursuit. This review will address the challenges and opportunities relating to studies of the health benefits of culinary plants, with an emphasis on obesity attributed to metabolic overload. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. Indecisiveness, Undesirability and Overload Revealed Through Rational Choice Deferral

    OpenAIRE

    Gerasimou, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Three reasons why decision makers may defer choice are *indecisiveness* between various feasible options, *unattractiveness* of these options, and *choice overload*. This paper provides a choice-theoretic explanation for each of these phenomena by means of three deferral-permitting models of decision making that are driven by preference incompleteness, undesirability and complexity constraints, respectively. These models feature *rational* choice deferral in the sense that whenever the indivi...

  17. Baroreflex function in conscious rats submitted to iron overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Cardoso

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Our hypothesis is that iron accumulated in tissue, rather than in serum, may compromise cardiovascular control. Male Fischer 344 rats weighing 180 to 220 g were divided into 2 groups. In the serum iron overload group (SIO, N = 12, 20 mg elemental iron was injected ip daily for 7 days. In the tissue iron overload group (TIO, N = 19, a smaller amount of elemental iron was injected (10 mg, daily for 5 days followed by a resting period of 7 days. Reflex heart rate responses were elicited by iv injections of either phenylephrine (0.5 to 5.0 µg/kg or sodium nitroprusside (1.0 to 10.0 µg/kg. Baroreflex curves were determined and fitted to sigmoidal equations and the baroreflex gain coefficient was evaluated. To evaluate the role of other than a direct effect of iron on tissue, acute treatment with the iron chelator deferoxamine (20 mg/kg, iv was performed on the TIO group and the baroreflex was re-evaluated. At the end of the experiments, evaluation of iron levels in serum confirmed a pronounced overload for the SIO group (30-fold, in contrast to the TIO group (2-fold. Tissue levels of iron, however, were higher in the TIO group. The SIO protocol did not produce significant alterations in the baroreflex curve response, while the TIO protocol produced a nearly 2-fold increase in baroreflex gain (-4.34 ± 0.74 and -7.93 ± 1.08 bpm/mmHg, respectively. The TIO protocol animals treated with deferoxamine returned to sham levels of baroreflex gain (-3.7 ± 0.3 sham vs -3.6 ± 0.2 bpm/mmHg 30 min after the injection. Our results indicate an effect of tissue iron overload on the enhancement of baroreflex sensitivity.

  18. Congenital sideroblastic anemia without clinical iron overload. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignon, J M; Breton-Gorius, J; Bachir, D; Rochant, H

    1990-01-01

    An 18 year old boy presented with microcytic hypochromic anemia. Erythrocytic abnormalities and family studies suggested congenital sideroblastic anemia (CSA), but atypical features included absence of clinical iron overload, scanty iron deposits in mitochondria of late erythroblasts and reticulocytes, and a high platelet count. An unusual adhesion between bone marrow macrophages and reticulocytes was observed by electron microscopy. Haematological response was seen following pyridoxine administration, thus fending support to the diagnosis of CSA.

  19. Formal Constraints on Memory Management for Composite Overloaded Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian W.I. Rouson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The memory management rules for abstract data type calculus presented by Rouson, Morris & Xu [15] are recast as formal statements in the Object Constraint Language (OCL and applied to the design of a thermal energy equation solver. One set of constraints eliminates memory leaks observed in composite overloaded expressions with three current Fortran 95/2003 compilers. A second set of constraints ensures economical memory recycling. The constraints are preconditions, postconditions and invariants on overloaded operators and the objects they receive and return. It is demonstrated that systematic run-time assertion checking inspired by the formal constraints facilitated the pinpointing of an exceptionally hard-to-reproduce compiler bug. It is further demonstrated that the interplay between OCL's modeling capabilities and Fortran's programming capabilities led to a conceptual breakthrough that greatly improved the readability of our code by facilitating operator overloading. The advantages and disadvantages of our memory management rules are discussed in light of other published solutions [11,19]. Finally, it is demonstrated that the run-time assertion checking has a negligible impact on performance.

  20. RCAN1 overexpression exacerbates calcium overloading-induced neuronal apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulian Sun

    Full Text Available Down Syndrome (DS patients develop characteristic Alzheimer's Disease (AD neuropathology after their middle age. Prominent neuronal loss has been observed in the cortical regions of AD brains. However, the underlying mechanism leading to this neuronal loss in both DS and AD remains to be elucidated. Calcium overloading and oxidative stress have been implicated in AD pathogenesis. Two major isoforms of regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1, RCAN1.1 and RCAN1.4, are detected in human brains. In this report we defined the transcriptional regulation of RCAN1.1 and RCAN1.4 by two alternative promoters. Calcium overloading upregulated RCAN1.4 expression by activating RCAN1.4 promoter through calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway, thus forming a negative feedback loop in isoform 4 regulation. Furthermore, RCAN1.4 overexpression exacerbated calcium overloading-induced neuronal apoptosis, which was mediated by caspase-3 apoptotic pathway. Our results suggest that downregulating RCAN1.4 expression in neurons could be beneficial to AD patients.

  1. RCAN1 overexpression exacerbates calcium overloading-induced neuronal apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiulian; Wu, Yili; Herculano, Bruno; Song, Weihong

    2014-01-01

    Down Syndrome (DS) patients develop characteristic Alzheimer's Disease (AD) neuropathology after their middle age. Prominent neuronal loss has been observed in the cortical regions of AD brains. However, the underlying mechanism leading to this neuronal loss in both DS and AD remains to be elucidated. Calcium overloading and oxidative stress have been implicated in AD pathogenesis. Two major isoforms of regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1), RCAN1.1 and RCAN1.4, are detected in human brains. In this report we defined the transcriptional regulation of RCAN1.1 and RCAN1.4 by two alternative promoters. Calcium overloading upregulated RCAN1.4 expression by activating RCAN1.4 promoter through calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway, thus forming a negative feedback loop in isoform 4 regulation. Furthermore, RCAN1.4 overexpression exacerbated calcium overloading-induced neuronal apoptosis, which was mediated by caspase-3 apoptotic pathway. Our results suggest that downregulating RCAN1.4 expression in neurons could be beneficial to AD patients.

  2. Acute Effects of Eccentric Overload on Concentric Front Squat Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, Cameron N; Archer, David C; Leyva, Whitney D; Wong, Megan A; Coburn, Jared W; Costa, Pablo B; Brown, Lee E

    2017-05-01

    Munger, CN, Archer, DC, Leyva, WD, Wong, MA, Coburn, JW, Costa, PB, and Brown, LE. Acute effects of eccentric overload on concentric front squat performance. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1192-1197, 2017-Eccentric overload is used to enhance performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of eccentric overload on concentric front squat performance. Twenty resistance-trained men (age = 23.80 ± 1.82 years, height = 176.95 ± 5.21 cm, mass = 83.49 ± 10.43 kg, 1 repetition maximum [1RM] front squat = 131.02 ± 21.32 kg) volunteered. A dynamic warm-up and warm-up sets of front squat were performed. Eccentric hooks were added to the barbell. They descended for 3 seconds, until eccentric hooks released, and performed the concentric phase as fast as possible. There were 3 randomly ordered conditions with the concentric phase always at 90% 1RM and the eccentric phase at 105, 110, and 120% of 1RM. Two repetitions were performed for each condition. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to determine differences. For peak velocity, there were main effects for time and condition (p front squat is a precursor.

  3. The Enhancement of German Language Teaching and Learning: Textual Combinations with Noun Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Leipnitz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available By collecting and exploring corpora, we generated a list of compounds, the starting point to observe texts in our study. Our goal is to look for textual combinations to such nominal compounds by exploring the COSMAS (Corpus Search, Management and Analysis System project database, from the University of Manheim. We have been looking for empirical evidence of textual combinations that will be further described and classified, aiming at employing the results in the enhancement of German language teaching and learning in undergraduate courses. We intend to apply such knowledge to support the development of the architecture and implementation of an on-line computational tool, which would identify bilingual textual combinations.

  4. Aligning ontologies and integrating textual evidence for pathway analysis of microarray data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalan, Banu; Posse, Christian; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Stenzel-Poore, Mary; Stevens, S.L.; Castano, Jose; Beagley, Nathaniel; Riensche, Roderick M.; Baddeley, Bob; Simon, R.P.; Pustejovsky, James

    2006-10-08

    Expression arrays are introducing a paradigmatic change in biology by shifting experimental approaches from single gene studies to genome-level analysis, monitoring the ex-pression levels of several thousands of genes in parallel. The massive amounts of data obtained from the microarray data needs to be integrated and interpreted to infer biological meaning within the context of information-rich pathways. In this paper, we present a methodology that integrates textual information with annotations from cross-referenced ontolo-gies to map genes to pathways in a semi-automated way. We illustrate this approach and compare it favorably to other tools by analyzing the gene expression changes underlying the biological phenomena related to stroke. Stroke is the third leading cause of death and a major disabler in the United States. Through years of study, researchers have amassed a significant knowledge base about stroke, and this knowledge, coupled with new technologies, is providing a wealth of new scientific opportunities. The potential for neu-roprotective stroke therapy is enormous. However, the roles of neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and other proliferative re-sponses in the recovery process following ischemia and the molecular mechanisms that lead to these processes still need to be uncovered. Improved annotation of genomic and pro-teomic data, including annotation of pathways in which genes and proteins are involved, is required to facilitate their interpretation and clinical application. While our approach is not aimed at replacing existing curated pathway databases, it reveals multiple hidden relationships that are not evident with the way these databases analyze functional groupings of genes from the Gene Ontology.

  5. El historiador y la Novela: De la complicidad mimética a la mediación textual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Montilla V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article suggests the need for a shift in the historian's traditional outlook on literature, according to which the latter is a provider of «useful knowledge and information.» This point of view is based on the conception of the literary work—the novel, in particular— as a faithful representación of reality. Nevertheless, a critique of this mimetic ability of the novel is perceived as early as the mid-nineteenth century. The article explores how several canonical nineteenth-century authors began to question the mimetic capacity of the novel. It also discusses later developments in literary theory concomitant with Modernism's break with realism. Beginning with the Avant-garde, the novel demanded a different kind of reader, one able to perceive and interrógate those unresolved textual processes and problems that the novel itself evidences and therefore demand from the historian an opening to new forms of reading.

  6. Noninvasive assessment of filling pressure and left atrial pressure overload in severe aortic valve stenosis: relation to ventricular remodeling and clinical outcome after aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jordi S; Videbæk, Lars; Poulsen, Mikael K

    2011-01-01

    One of the hemodynamic consequences of aortic valve stenosis is pressure overload leading to left atrial dilatation. Left atrial size is a known risk factor providing prognostic information in several cardiac conditions. It is not known if this is also the case in patients with aortic valve...

  7. [Textual research on history of introduction [corrected] and herbal medicine of Pogostemon cablin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, You-Gen; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Zheng, Huan-Qiang

    2007-10-01

    To study the history of introduction and herbal medicine of Pogostemon cablin by textual researches and clarify the confusion in literatures. Textual research on historical literatures, practical applications and field investigation were adopted. The varieties of P. cablin for therapeutic uses were not chaotic, however there has existed confusion between P. cablin and Agastache rugosus in descriptions of appellation, habitat and characteristic of the original plants. It was proved that the term "Huoxiang" in Chinese medicinal works before Ming Dynasty was pointed to P. cablin. The cultivation history of P. cablin in China was traced to Liang Dynasty or before.

  8. Plaisir and jouissance. The case of potential and textual reading of Barthes’ theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta KOŁDRZAK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt of the analysis and the interpretation of the categories ‘pleasure’ (Fr. plaisir and ‘delight’ (Fr. jouissance, in the context of philosophically oriented theoretical‑literary considerations of Roland Barthes, sacrificed to the mystery of experiencing of the love. The part first, referring mainly to Barthes’ works, recognises the range of the semantic field plaisir and jouissance, as categories basic for the textual language of the outstanding theoretician. The second part introduces three examples of western cultural practices which illustrate the manner of use plaisir and jouissance as the factors of textual structures.

  9. Automatic Authorship Detection Using Textual Patterns Extracted from Integrated Syntactic Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Adorno, Helena; Sidorov, Grigori; Pinto, David; Vilariño, Darnes; Gelbukh, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We apply the integrated syntactic graph feature extraction methodology to the task of automatic authorship detection. This graph-based representation allows integrating different levels of language description into a single structure. We extract textual patterns based on features obtained from shortest path walks over integrated syntactic graphs and apply them to determine the authors of documents. On average, our method outperforms the state of the art approaches and gives consistently high results across different corpora, unlike existing methods. Our results show that our textual patterns are useful for the task of authorship attribution. PMID:27589740

  10. THE POTENCIALITY OF TRANSMEDIA NARRATIVE AND THE PRACTICE OF READING AND TEXTUAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella de Jesus Lima

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we have reflect on the digital culture and its implications in education field, emphasizing the characteristics of the transmedia narrative. The objectives were to discuss the relationship between transmediation and the education, based on the methodology of teaching of textual genres with students of the social communication course - journalism of a private university in the brazilian northeast. We also used as methodology the bibliographic research and participant observation. As a result, we conclude that the elements of the transmedia narrative in the students's textual production have presented advantages and improvements for the educational process.

  11. Choice Overload and Height Ranking of Menus in Partially-Ordered Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Basili

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When agents face incomplete information and their knowledge about the objects of choice is vague and imprecise, they tend to consider fewer choices and to process a smaller portion of the available information regarding their choices. This phenomenon is well-known as choice overload and is strictly related to the existence of a considerable amount of option-pairs that are not easily comparable. Thus, we use a finite partially-ordered set (poset to model the subset of easily-comparable pairs within a set of options/items. The height ranking, a new ranking rule for menus, namely subposets of a finite poset, is then introduced and characterized. The height ranking rule ranks subsets of options in terms of the size of the longest chain that they include and is therefore meant to assess menus of available options in terms of the maximum number of distinct and easily-comparable alternative options that they offer.

  12. ML-Ask: Open Source Affect Analysis Software for Textual Input in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Ptaszynski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present ML-Ask – the first Open Source Affect Analysis system for textual input in Japanese. ML-Ask analyses the contents of an input (e.g., a sentence and annotates it with information regarding the contained general emotive expressions, specific emotional words, valence-activation dimensions of overall expressed affect, and particular emotion types expressed with their respective expressions. ML-Ask also incorporates the Contextual Valence Shifters model for handling negation in sentences to deal with grammatically expressible shifts in the conveyed valence. The system, designed to work mainly under Linux and MacOS, can be used for research on, or applying the techniques of Affect Analysis within the framework Japanese language. It can also be used as an experimental baseline for specific research in Affect Analysis, and as a practical tool for written contents annotation.   Funding statement: This research has been supported by: a Research Grant from the Nissan Science Foundation (years 2009–2010, The GCOE Program founded by Japan’s Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (years 2009–2010, (JSPS KAKENHI Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows (Project Number: 22-00358 (years 2010–2012, (JSPS KAKENHI Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Project Number: 24600001 (years 2012–2015, (JSPS KAKENHI Grant-in-Aid for Research Activity Start-up (Project Number: 25880003 (years 2013–2015, and (JSPS KAKENHI Grant-in-Aid for Encouragement of Young Scientists (B (Project Number: 15K16044 (years 2015-present, project estimated to end in March 2018.

  13. Caregiver’s overload as a result of the admission of mental patients to a subacute unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosario Andueza Doce

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: Knowing the level of emotional overload which the main informal caregiver of a mentally ill person has to undergo when admitted to a subacute unit, and valuing the existence of mood disorders (anxiety or depression in the caregiver himself/herself, along with the impact for the caregiver of the patient admitted in a subacute unit. Method: A descriptive and transversal study carried out from a sample of 32 main caregivers of patients in the Unite of the Subacute in the Psyquiatric Hospital of Zaldibar, during 2010, being the measure instruments for that purpose the Zarit Scales for Caregiver Burden and the Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale (GADS. Results: The level of overload presented by a 53% of these caregivers is intense, coupled by a predominantly anxious mood with an average of 5.34 on the Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale (GADS. After admission, 69% of these caregivers reduce the overlead, and 59.5% improve in both anxiety and depression. Conclusions: The task of caring falls primarily on parents who expressed particularly fear for the future of their sons and daughters, and feel that they depend heavely on them wich generate a lot of overload.

  14. How Well Do Student Nurses Write Case Studies? A Cohesion-Centered Textual Complexity Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dascalu, Mihai; Dessus, Philippe; Thuez, Laurent; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Starting from the presumption that writing style is proven to be a reliable predictor of comprehension, this paper investigates the extent to which textual complexity features of nurse students’ essays are related to the scores they were given. Thus, forty essays about case studies on infectious

  15. Text and Inter-Textuality in Contemporary Yorùbá Literary Works ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interface between oral and written forms of literature is predominant in Yorùbá textual creativities. The inclusion of oral genres in the written form of Yorùbá creative writings is purposive because it lends color to its rhythm, plot, characterization, setting, and aesthetic values. In this paper, the border-crossing between the ...

  16. Negotiating the Textuality of Further Education: Issues of Agency and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Zoe

    2008-01-01

    Students in Further Education colleges in England read and write in many different kinds of ways in different areas of their everyday lives. As part of their participation in Further Education, these students face a multitude of literacy demands: through the bureaucracies of the college, the pedagogic content of their courses, the textual nature…

  17. Complicating Predictability: Textuality, Intertextuality, and Intercontextuality in Beginning Reading and Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Richard; Martens, Prisca; Flurkey, Alan; Udell, Risa

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the nature and role of predictable texts for beginning readers and writers in first grade. Examines ways three children used texts to support their early-literacy development. Finds diverse and complex activities, as children made links within a text (textuality), between texts (intertextuality), and between texts and contexts…

  18. Students' Mind Wandering in Macroscopic and Submicroscopic Textual Narrations and Its Relationship with Their Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Harthy, Ibrahim S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate students' mind wandering while reading different types of textual narrations (macroscopic and submicroscopic) in chemistry. Another goal was to determine the relationship between mind wandering and students' reading comprehension. The participants were 65 female ninth grade students in Oman. Using a…

  19. Predicting Learning-Related Emotions from Students' Textual Classroom Feedback via Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altrabsheh, Nabeela; Cocea, Mihaela; Fallahkhair, Sanaz

    2015-01-01

    Teachers/lecturers typically adapt their teaching to respond to students' emotions, e.g. provide more examples when they think the students are confused. While getting a feel of the students' emotions is easier in small settings, it is much more difficult in larger groups. In these larger settings textual feedback from students could provide…

  20. The Textualization of Problem Handling: Lean Discourses Meet Professional Competence in Eldercare and the Manufacturing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Anna-Malin; Nikolaidou, Zoe

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on research addressing the role of incident reporting at the workplace as a textual representation of lean management techniques. It draws on text and discourse analysis as well as on ethnographic data, including interviews, recorded interaction, and observations, from two projects on workplace literacy in Sweden: a study in…

  1. Establishing Derived Textual Control in Activity Schedules with Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Caio F.; Yang, Heejean G.; Finn, Heather E.; Ahearn, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Activity schedules are often used to facilitate task engagement and transition for children with autism. This study evaluated whether conditional discrimination training would serve to transfer the control from activity-schedule pictures to printed words (i.e., derived textual control). Two preschoolers with autism were taught to select pictures…

  2. In Limine - Património textual e Humanidades Digitais: da antiga à nova Filologia

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Maria Filomena; Banza, Ana Paula

    2013-01-01

    Neste texto de introdução à colectãnea "Património Textual e Humanidades Digitais: da antiga à nova Filologia", além de apresentarem as contribuições nela reunidas, as coordenadoras do volume traçam um breve "estado da arte" das relações entre a Filologia e as Humanidades Digitais.

  3. Multimedia and Textual Reading Comprehension: Multimedia as Personal Learning Environment's Enriching Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J. Daniel; Rigo, Eduardo; Jiménez, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    In this article we will discuss part of a piece of research that was conducted with two 4ESO groups. Textual learning is opposed to multimedia learning within the context of PLE's (Personal Learning Environment) reading tools and strategies. In the research an analysis was made of whether it would be possible to improve the reading process through…

  4. A Linguistic Approach to Identify the Affective Dimension Expressed in Textual Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, Sandro José; da Rosa Alves, Isa Mara; Victória Barbosa, Jorge Luis

    2015-01-01

    The digital mediation resources used in Distance Education can hinder the teacher's perception about the student's state of mind. However, the textual expression in natural language is widely encouraged in most Distance Education courses, through the use of Virtual Learning Environments and other digital tools. This fact has motivated research…

  5. Discourses of Plagiarism: Moralist, Proceduralist, Developmental and Inter-Textual Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaposi, David; Dell, Pippa

    2012-01-01

    This paper reconstructs prevalent academic discourses of student plagiarism: moralism, proceduralism, development, and writing/inter-textuality. It approaches the discourses from three aspects: intention, interpretation and the nature of the academic community. It argues that the assumptions of the moralistic approach regarding suspect intention,…

  6. Written Textual Production and Consumption (WTPC) in Vernacular and English-Medium Settings in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Vaidehi

    2003-01-01

    Sketches key facets in the larger socioeducational machinery that shapes the written textual production and consumption (WTPC) of English-medium (EM) and "vernacular-medium" (VM) students in Gujarat, India. Lays out ways in which articulator macro-structures align together to produce and shape conditions that privilege the WTPC of EM…

  7. Teach for America's Long Arc: A Critical Race Theory Textual Analysis of Wendy Kopp's Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Michael C.; Germain, Emily K.; Valenzuela, Angela

    2016-01-01

    We read and analyzed 165,000 words and uncover a series of counter-stories buried within a textual corpus, authored by Teach For America (TFA) founder Wendy Kopp (Kopp, 1989, 2001; Kopp & Farr, 2011), that offers insight into the forms of racism endemic to Teach For America. All three counter-stories align with a critical race theory (CRT)…

  8. Comparison of CTA and Textual Feedback in Usability Testing for Malaysian Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivaji, Ashok; Clemmensen, Torkil; Nielsen, Søren Feodor

    Usability moderators found that the concurrent think-aloud (CTA) method has some cultural limitation that impacts usability testing with Malaysian users. This gives rise to proposing a new method called textual feedback. The research question is to determine whether there are any differences in t...... the null hypothesis of "no difference" in feedback and therefore conclude that textual feedback reported significantly more usability defects than CTA, as the difference is positive t(208) = 4.791, p=0.01.......Usability moderators found that the concurrent think-aloud (CTA) method has some cultural limitation that impacts usability testing with Malaysian users. This gives rise to proposing a new method called textual feedback. The research question is to determine whether there are any differences...... in terms of usability defects found by employing the new method. Due to the high power distance, it is hypothesized that the CTA method may not be sufficient and hence a textual feedback method is recommended instead. Hence, the objective of this study is to determine if there are any differences...

  9. SEPARATE.BAS: A Microcomputer Program to Assist in the Textual Analysis of Qualitative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winograd, Edward B.; Winograd, Gaynell Rothermel

    1987-01-01

    Presents the computer program SEPARATE.BAS. and discusses how the use of microcomputer technology for processing textual data offers increased capabilities for the qualitative researcher in speech communication. Discusses how SEPARATE.BAS. assists in the research task of dividing transcripts of interviews or discussions into separate text files…

  10. Exploration of Textual Interactions in CALL Learning Communities: Emerging Research and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jonathan R.

    2017-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) has greatly enhanced the realm of online social interaction and behavior. In language classrooms, it allows the opportunity for students to enhance their learning experiences. "Exploration of Textual Interactions in CALL Learning Communities: Emerging Research and Opportunities" is an ideal…

  11. Analyzing Student Performance and Attitudes toward Textual versus Iconic Programming Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Janet Mei-Chuen; Yang, Mei-Ching

    2009-01-01

    In this study half of 52 sixth graders learned to program in MSWLogo and the other half in Drape. An analysis of students' test scores revealed that Drape (an iconic language) seemed to have a steeper learning curve than MSWLogo (a textual language). However, as students gradually became more familiar with either language, the difference in…

  12. "Do screen captures in manuals make a difference?" A comparison between textual and visual manuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gellevij, M.R.M.; van der Meij, Hans; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.; Pieters, Julius Marie

    1998-01-01

    Examines the use of screen captures in manuals. Three types of manuals were compared: one textual and two visual. The two visual manuals differed in the type of screen capture that was used. One had screen captures that showed only the relevant part of the screen, whereas the other consisted of

  13. The Aesthetics of Textual Production: Reading and Writing with Umberto Eco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonas, Peter Pericles

    2007-01-01

    In "The Name of the Rose," Umberto Eco essentially presents an educative vision of some basic semiotic principles that infuse the textual form of a popular fictional genre--the detective story. In effect, it characterizes the postmodernization of the traditional "whodunnit" moving the genre from the realm of "the real" or the plausible into the…

  14. Students' Proficiency and Textual Computer Gloss Use in Facilitating Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Mohamad A.; Sim, Tam S.; Su'ad A.

    2014-01-01

    Learning vocabulary forms a major part for any language learner. Apart from direct teaching of vocabulary, language teachers are always searching for ways to increase their students' vocabulary to enable them to use the language more effectively. Therefore, this study sets out to investigate whether the use of computer textual glosses can aid…

  15. On TCP-based Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Server Overload Control

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Charles; Schulzrinne, Henning

    2010-01-01

    The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) server overload management has attracted interest since SIP is being widely deployed in the Next Generation Networks (NGN) as a core signaling protocol. Yet all existing SIP overload control work is focused on SIP-over-UDP, despite the fact that TCP is increasingly seen as the more viable choice of SIP transport. This paper answers the following questions: is the existing TCP flow control capable of handling the SIP overload problem? If not, why and how c...

  16. Music Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, J. Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Identifies MIR (Music Information Retrieval) computer system problems, historic influences, current state-of-the-art, and future MIR solutions through an examination of the multidisciplinary approach to MIR. Highlights include pitch; temporal factors; harmonics; tone; editorial, textual, and bibliographic facets; multicultural factors; locating…

  17. Bi-ventricular finite element model of right ventricle overload in the healthy rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masithulela, Fulufhelo

    2016-11-25

    The recognition of RV overpressure is critical to human life, as this may signify morbidity and mortality. Right ventricle (RV) dysfunction is understood to have an impact on the performance of the left ventricle (LV), but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. It is understood that ventricular compliance has the ability to affect cardiac performance. In this study, a bi-ventricular model of the rat heart was used in preference to other, single-ventricle models. Finite element analysis (FEA) of the bi-ventricular model provides important information on the function of the healthy heart. The passive myocardium was modelled as a nearly incompressible, hyperelastic, transversely isotropic material using finite element (FE) methods. Bi-ventricular geometries of healthy rat hearts reconstructed from magnetic resonance images were imported in Abaqus©. In simulating the normal passive filling of the rat heart, pressures of 4.8 kPa and 0.0098 kPa were applied to the inner walls of the LV and RV respectively. In addition, to simulate the overpressure of the RV, pressures of 2.4 kPa and 4.8 kPa were applied to the endocardial walls of the LV and RV respectively. As boundary conditions, the circumferential and longitudinal displacements at the base were set to zero. The radial displacements at the base were left free. The results show that the average circumferential stress at the mid-wall in the overloaded model increased from 2.8 kPa to 18.2 kPa. The average longitudinal stress increased from 1.5 kPa to 9.7 kPa. Additionally, in the radial direction, the average stress increased from 0.1 kPa to 0.6 kPa in the mid-wall. The average circumferential strain was found to be 0.138 and 0.100 on the endocardium of the over pressured and healthy model respectively. The average circumferential stress at the epicardium, mid-wall and endocardium in the case of a normal heart is 10 times lower than in the overloaded heart model. The finite analysis method is able to provide

  18. Crossing textual and visual content in different application scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Ah-Pine, Julien; Bressan, Marco; Clinchant, Stephane; Csurka, Gabriela; Hoppenot, Yves; Renders, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    International audience; This paper deals with multimedia information access. We propose two new approaches for hybrid text-image information processing that can be straightforwardly generalized to the more general multimodal scenario. Both approaches fall in the trans-media pseudo-relevance feedback category. Our first method proposes using a mixture model of the aggregate components, considering them as a single relevance concept. In our second approach, we define trans-media similarities as...

  19. Stress overload: a new approach to the assessment of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirkhan, James H

    2012-03-01

    The link between stress and health has not received strong empirical support, possibly due to problems in the stress measures used. Here, the first wholly empirical development of a new "Stress Overload Scale" is described. A pool of 150 items was formed to reflect "overload", a common denominator in stress theories. Then, the results of five sequenced studies, conducted in heterogeneous community samples, were used to pare the item pool. Exploratory (n = 431) and confirmatory (n = 433) analyses revealed two factors (Event Load and Personal Vulnerability) corresponding to theoretical constructs; only the best factor markers were submitted to further construct validity (n = 310) and reliability tests (n = 342). The 24 strongest items were selected for the SOS, which demonstrated criterion validity in predicting who (n = 285) would become sick following a common stressor. The SOS is (1) psychometrically strong, especially in its validity relative to popular measures; (2) appropriate to community research, due to its brevity and fit to a broad demographic spectrum; (3) unique in its ability to cross-section individuals into risk categories. It should prove useful to community psychologists in determining etiology, diagnosing risk for pathology, and evaluating the efficacy of interventions.

  20. Chronic Kidney Disease, Fluid Overload and Diuretics: A Complicated Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Yusra Habib; Sarriff, Azmi; Adnan, Azreen Syazril; Khan, Amer Hayat; Mallhi, Tauqeer Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Despite promising role of diuretics to manage fluid overload among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, their use is associated with adverse renal outcomes. Current study aimed to determine the extent of renal deterioration with diuretic therapy. A total 312 non-dialysis dependent CKD (NDD-CKD) patients were prospectively followed-up for one year. Fluid overload was assessed via bioimpedance spectroscopy. Estimated GFR (eGFR) was calculated from serum creatinine values by using Chronic Kidney Disease- Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Out of 312 patients, 64 (20.5%) were hypovolemic while euvolemia and hypervolemia were observed in 113 (36.1%) and 135 (43.4%) patients. Overall 144 patients were using diuretics among which 98 (72.6%) were hypervolemic, 35 (30.9%) euvolemic and 11 (17.2%) were hypovolemic. The mean decline in estimated GFR of entire cohort was -2.5 ± 1.4 ml/min/1.73m2 at the end of follow up. The use of diuretics was significantly associated with decline in eGFR. A total of 36 (11.5%) patients initiated renal replacement therapy (RRT) and need of RRT was more profound among diuretic users. The use of diuretics was associated with adverse renal outcomes indicated by decline in eGFR and increasing risk of RRT initiation in our cohort of NDD-CKD patients. Therefore, it is cautiously suggested to carefully prescribe diuretics by keeping in view benefit versus harm for each patient.

  1. Iron Loading and Overloading due to Ineffective Erythropoiesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko Tanno

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoiesis describes the hematopoietic process of cell proliferation and differentiation that results in the production of mature circulating erythrocytes. Adult humans produce 200 billion erythrocytes daily, and approximately 1 billion iron molecules are incorporated into the hemoglobin contained within each erythrocyte. Thus, iron usage for the hemoglobin production is a primary regulator of plasma iron supply and demand. In many anemias, additional sources of iron from diet and tissue stores are needed to meet the erythroid demand. Among a subset of anemias that arise from ineffective erythropoiesis, iron absorption and accumulation in the tissues increases to levels that are in excess of erythropoiesis demand even in the absence of transfusion. The mechanisms responsible for iron overloading due to ineffective erythropoiesis are not fully understood. Based upon data that is currently available, it is proposed in this review that loading and overloading of iron can be regulated by distinct or combined mechanisms associated with erythropoiesis. The concept of erythroid regulation of iron is broadened to include both physiological and pathological hepcidin suppression in cases of ineffective erythropoiesis.

  2. Immune overload: Parental attitudes toward combination and single antigen vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsey, Ella; Bland, Tami

    2015-05-21

    Parental concerns have led to a recent decline in immunization coverage, resulting in outbreaks of diseases that were once under control in the US. As the CDC vaccination schedule continues to increase in complexity, the number of required injections per office visit increases as well. Some parents perceive that there is trauma associated with the administration of multiple injections, and research shows that having multiple vaccines due in a single visit is associated with delays and lower immunization rates. Combination vaccines make vaccination more efficient by incorporating the antigens of several different diseases into a single injection, but many parents worry that they may overload the child's developing immune system and leave him or her susceptible to secondary infections. This literature review synthesizes current evidence regarding the parental fear of vaccine-induced immune system overload and the fear of vaccine-associated trauma, in an attempt to understand the scope and nature of these fears. Despite the wealth of knowledge about each of these fears individually, it is still unknown which is of greater concern and how this affects parental decision-making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrochemical sensor for predicting transformer overload by phenol measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosworth, Timothy; Setford, Steven; Saini, Selwayan [Cranfield Centre for Analytical Science, Cranfield University, Silsoe, Beds MK45 4DT (United Kingdom); Heywood, Richard [National Grid Company Plc, Kelvin Avenue, Leatherhead, Surrey KT22 7ST (United Kingdom)

    2003-03-10

    Transformer overload is a significant problem to the power transmission industry, with severe safety and cost implications. Overload may be predicted by measuring phenol levels in the transformer-insulating oil, arising from the thermolytic degradation of phenol-formaldehyde resins. The development of two polyphenol oxidase (PPO) sensors, based on monitoring the enzymatic consumption of oxygen using an oxygen electrode, or reduction of enzymatically generated o-quinone at a screen-printed electrode (SPE), for the measurement of phenol in transformer oil is reported. Ex-service oils were prepared either by extraction into aqueous electrolyte-buffer, or by direct dilution in propan-2-ol, the latter method being more amenable to simple at-line operation. The oxygen electrode, with a sensitivity of 2.87 nA {mu}g{sup -1} ml{sup -1}, RSD of 7.0-19.9% and accuracy of {+-}8.3% versus the industry standard International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) method, proved superior to the SPE (sensitivity: 3.02 nA {mu}g{sup -1} ml{sup -1}; RSD: 8.9-18.3%; accuracy: {+-}7.9%) and was considerably more accurate at low phenol concentrations. However, the SPE approach is more amenable to field-based usage for reasons of device simplicity. The method has potential as a rapid and simple screening tool for the at-site monitoring of phenol in transformer oils, thereby reducing incidences of transformer failure.

  4. Criterion validation of a stress measure: the Stress Overload Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirkhan, James H; Urizar, Guido G; Clark, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Validating stress scales poses problems beyond those of other psychological measures. Here, 3 studies were conducted to address those problems and assess the criterion validity of scores from a new theory-derived measure, the Stress Overload Scale (SOS; Amirkhan, 2012). In Study 1, the SOS was tested for its ability to predict postsemester illness in a sample of college students (n = 127). Even with precautions to minimize criterion contamination, scores were found to predict health problems in the month following a final exam on all of 5 different criteria. In Study 2, a community sample (n = 231) was used to test the SOS' ability to differentiate people in stressful circumstances from those in more relaxed contexts. SOS scores demonstrated excellent sensitivity (96%) and specificity (100%) in this general population application. In Study 3, the SOS was tested for its ability to differentiate salivary cortisol responses to a laboratory stressor in a group of pregnant women (n = 40). High scores were found to be associated with a blunted cortisol response, which is indicative of HPA-axis overload and typical of persons suffering chronic stress and stress-related pathology. Across all 3 studies, despite variations in the stressor, criterion, population, and methods, SOS scores emerged as valid indicators of stress. However, each study also introduced new problems that beg additional corrective steps in future stress-scale validity tests. These strategies, and the SOS' utility as a research and diagnostic tool in varied applications and populations, are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Functional Overload Enhances Satellite Cell Properties in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Fujimaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle represents a plentiful and accessible source of adult stem cells. Skeletal-muscle-derived stem cells, termed satellite cells, play essential roles in postnatal growth, maintenance, repair, and regeneration of skeletal muscle. Although it is well known that the number of satellite cells increases following physical exercise, functional alterations in satellite cells such as proliferative capacity and differentiation efficiency following exercise and their molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we found that functional overload, which is widely used to model resistance exercise, causes skeletal muscle hypertrophy and converts satellite cells from quiescent state to activated state. Our analysis showed that functional overload induces the expression of MyoD in satellite cells and enhances the proliferative capacity and differentiation potential of these cells. The changes in satellite cell properties coincided with the inactivation of Notch signaling and the activation of Wnt signaling and likely involve modulation by transcription factors of the Sox family. These results indicate the effects of resistance exercise on the regulation of satellite cells and provide insight into the molecular mechanism of satellite cell activation following physical exercise.

  6. Two sides of the coin: measuring and communicating the trustworthiness of online information

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nurse, Jason RC; Agrafiotis, Ioannis; Goldsmith, Michael; Creese, Sadie; Lamberts, Koen

    2014-01-01

    .... Most notably, the substantial increase in the amount of content available online has introduced an information overload problem, while also exposing content with largely unknown levels of quality...

  7. The C57BL/6 genetic background confers cardioprotection in iron-overloaded mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Marco; Maccari, Sonia; Sestili, Paola; Massimi, Alessia; Corritore, Elisa; Marano, Giuseppe; Catalano, Liviana

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic transfusion therapy causes a progressive iron overload that damages many organs including the heart. Recent evidence suggests that L-type calcium channels play an important role in iron uptake by cardiomyocytes under conditions of iron overload. Given that beta-adrenergic stimulation significantly enhances L-type calcium current, we hypothesised that beta-adrenergic blocking drugs could reduce the deleterious effects of iron overload on the heart. Methods Iron overload was generated by intraperitoneal injections of iron dextran (1g/kg) administered once a week for 8 weeks in male C57bl/6 mice, while propranolol was administered in drinking water at the dose of 40 mg/kg/day. Cardiac function and ventricular remodelling were evaluated by echocardiography and histological methods. Results As compared to placebo, iron injection caused cardiac iron deposition. Surprisingly, despite iron overload, myocardial function and ventricular geometry in the iron-treated mice resulted unchanged as compared to those in the placebo-treated mice. Administration of propranolol increased cardiac performance in iron-overloaded mice. Specifically, as compared to the values in the iron-overloaded group, in iron-overloaded animals treated with propranolol left ventricular fractional shortening increased (from 31.6% to 44.2%, P =0.01) whereas left ventricular end-diastolic diameter decreased (from 4.1±0.1 mm to 3.5±0.1 mm, P =0.03). Propranolol did not alter cardiac systolic function or left ventricular sizes in the placebo group. Conclusions These results demonstrate that C57bl/6 mice are resistant to iron overload-induced myocardial injury and that treatment with propranolol is able to increase cardiac performance in iron-overloaded mice. However, since C57bl/6 mice were resistant to iron-induced injury, it remains to be evaluated further whether propranolol could prevent iron-overload cardiomyopathy. PMID:22790263

  8. On Region Algebras, XML Databases, and Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlovic, V.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Apers, Peter M.G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes some new ideas on developing a logical algebra for databases that manage textual data and support information retrieval functionality. We describe a first prototype of such a system.

  9. Evaluation of English Textbooks in Terms of Textuality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Gürbüz; Baysal, Emine Akkas

    2016-01-01

    Putting a number of sentences together in order to build a text, the sentences must comply with the criteria such as cohesion, coherence, intentionality, acceptability, contextualization, informativeness and intertextuality. The text should bear these criteria in order to fulfil the intended communicative features. Therefore, in this study, it is…

  10. Age-Related Differences in the Production of Textual Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Andrea; Boewe, Anke; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlomagno, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Narratives produced by 69 healthy Italian adults were analyzed for age-related changes of microlinguistic, macrolinguistic and informative aspects. The participants were divided into five age groups (20-24, 25-39, 40-59, 60-74, 75-84). One single-picture stimulus and two cartoon sequences were used to elicit three stories per subject. Age-related…

  11. Mobile medical visual information retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depeursinge, Adrien; Duc, Samuel; Eggel, Ivan; Müller, Henning

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose mobile access to peer-reviewed medical information based on textual search and content-based visual image retrieval. Web-based interfaces designed for limited screen space were developed to query via web services a medical information retrieval engine optimizing the amount of data to be transferred in wireless form. Visual and textual retrieval engines with state-of-the-art performance were integrated. Results obtained show a good usability of the software. Future use in clinical environments has the potential of increasing quality of patient care through bedside access to the medical literature in context.

  12. Las disciplinas del discurso: hermenéutica, semiótica y análisis textual

    OpenAIRE

    Villegas i Besora, Manuel

    1993-01-01

    En este articulo se aborda el análisis del discurso desde una perspectiva semiótica y hermenéutica y se desarrolla una metodologia para su análisis basada en la lingüística textual. Para ello se consideran los procesos de producció y comprensión de los textos y se especifican con abundantes ejemplos los procedimientos de análisis textual. Se apuntan igualmente distintas aplicaciones del método de análisis textual en el ámbito de la psicologia clínica y de las ciencias humanas y sociales en ge...

  13. De un tipo textual memoria: ¿primer documento judicial mestizo en el Perú del siglo XVI?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Huamanchumo de la Cuba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the constituent features of the textual type calledmemoria, in the context of the legal-administrative sphere of the ColonialEra. This textual type is embedded in both the Spanish and the native American legal tradition, so it is of particular interest for the history ofthe Spanish language, for the textual linguistics studies and for pragmaticsstudies. The research also aims to demonstrate that in the Peruvian judicial system of the 16th Century there was a particular type of memoria, modeledby the convergence of the Western way of recording data and the useof quipus as Andean recording medium.

  14. Cockpit data link displays - An evaluation of textual formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgann, Alison; Lozito, Sandra; Corker, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    Data link technologies are being investigated for air/ground information transfer for commercial aircraft operation. This study was designed to measure which of four alpha-numeric display formats for display of data link information would lead to the quickest and most accurate memory retrieval in a part-task simulation environment. Pilots viewed a clearance for 10-15 seconds and were subsequently queried about the content of that clearance. Speed and accuracy of responses were measured across three retention tasks. The three retention tasks included free recall of a particular clearance. recognition of a previous clearance, and the comparison of element values between a previously displayed and current clearance. Each format was tested with and without a distraction task. Subjective ratings of each format were also collected. The analyses revealed no significant differences for reaction time or accuracy among the four formats. Explanations for these results as well as alternative methodologies are discussed.

  15. Constructing and Analyzing Uncertain Social Networks from Unstructured Textual Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Fredrik; Svenson, Pontus

    Social network analysis and link diagrams are popular tools among intelligence analysts for analyzing and understanding criminal and terrorist organizations. A bottleneck in the use of such techniques is the manual effort needed to create the network to analyze from available source information. We describe how text mining techniques can be used for extraction of named entities and the relations among them, in order to enable automatic construction of networks from unstructured text. Since the text mining techniques used, viz. algorithms for named entity recognition and relation extraction, are not perfect, we also describe a method for incorporating information about uncertainty when constructing the networks and when doing the social network analysis. The presented approach is applied on text documents describing terrorist activities in Indonesia.

  16. Reliability Analysis and Overload Capability Assessment of Oil-Immersed Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart grids have been constructed so as to guarantee the security and stability of the power grid in recent years. Power transformers are a most vital component in the complicated smart grid network. Any transformer failure can cause damage of the whole power system, within which the failures caused by overloading cannot be ignored. This research gives a new insight into overload capability assessment of transformers. The hot-spot temperature of the winding is the most critical factor in measuring the overload capacity of power transformers. Thus, the hot-spot temperature is calculated to obtain the duration running time of the power transformers under overloading conditions. Then the overloading probability is fitted with the mature and widely accepted Weibull probability density function. To guarantee the accuracy of this fitting, a new objective function is proposed to obtain the desired parameters in the Weibull distributions. In addition, ten different mutation scenarios are adopted in the differential evolutionary algorithm to optimize the parameter in the Weibull distribution. The final comprehensive overload capability of the power transformer is assessed by the duration running time as well as the overloading probability. Compared with the previous studies that take no account of the overloading probability, the assessment results obtained in this research are much more reliable.

  17. "Something's Gotta Give:" Advanced-Degree Seeking Women's Experiences of Sexism, Role Overload, and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Lindsey M.

    2014-01-01

    With the rise in advanced-degree seeking women and the minimal research on the dual impact of sexism and role overload, the current study aims to better understand the impact of sexism and role overload on psychological distress in a particular sample of advanced-degree seeking women. Seventy-six female medical student participants (mean age 24.7)…

  18. Data Overload Impact on Project Management: How Knowledge Management Systems Can Improve Federal Agencies Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jacinto

    2013-01-01

    This mixed method exploratory case study was used to explore the effect data overload has on project management, how data overload affects project management effectiveness, how prepared program office staff is to manage multiple projects effectively, and how the program office's organizational structure and data management systems affect project…

  19. Choice overload and the quaterlife phase : Do higher educated quaterlifers experience more stress?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Launspach, T.; Deijl, M. van der; Spiering, M.; Heemskerk, M.M.; Maas, E.N.; Marckelbach, D.

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis that higher educated twenty-somethings experience more choice overload than lower educated twenty-somethings was tested. 146 participants, either in university or in community college, filled in questionnaires asserting their levels of choice overload. As expected, higher educated

  20. Static axial overloading primes lumbar caprine intervertebral discs for posterior herniation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, Cornelis P. L.; de Graaf, Magda; Bisschop, Arno; Holewijn, Roderick M.; van de Ven, Peter M.; van Royen, Barend J.; Mullender, Margriet G.; Smit, Theodoor H.; Helder, Marco N.

    2017-01-01

    Lumbar hernias occur mostly in the posterolateral region of IVDs and mechanical loading is an important risk factor. Studies show that dynamic and static overloading affect the nucleus and annulus of the IVD differently. We hypothesize there is also variance in the effect of overloading on the IVD's

  1. Crack tip strain evolution and crack closure during overload of a growing fatigue crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Qiang Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that fatigue crack growth is retarded after an overload, which has been explained either by plasticity-induced crack closure or near-tip residual stress. However, any interpretation of overload effect is insufficient if strain evolution in front of crack tip is not properly considered. The current understanding of overload-induced retardation lacks the clarification of the relationship between crack closure at crack wake and strain evolution at crack tip. In this work, a material with low work hardening coefficient was used to study the effect of overload on crack tip strain evolution and crack closure by in-situ SEM observation and digital image correlation technique. Crack opening displacement (COD and crack tip strain were measured before and after the overload. It was observed that the evolution of crack tip strain follows the crack opening behaviour behind the crack tip, indicating a smaller influence of overload on micro-mechanical behaviour of fatigue crack growth. After the overload, plastic strain accumulation was responsible for crack growth. The strain at a certain distance to crack tip was mapped, and it was found that the crack tip plastic zone size correlated well with crack growth rate during post-overload fatigue crack propagation.

  2. Eccentric overload training in patients with a chronic Achilles tendinopathy: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Knikker; T. Takken; J.J. Kingma; Dr. H.M. Wittink

    2007-01-01

    Background: Eccentric overload training seems to be a promising conservative intervention in patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy. The efficacy of eccentric overload training on the outcome measures of pain and physical functioning are not exactly clear. Study design: Systematic review of the

  3. Coping with Overload and Stress: Men and Women in Dual-Earner Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Chris A.; Duxbury, Linda E.; Lyons, Sean T.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested gender differences in a model positing relationships between work and family demands, overload, 4 coping mechanisms, and stress. The coping mechanisms were hypothesized to moderate the relationship between overload and stress. The sample consisted of 1,404 men and 1,623 women in dual-earner families. Respondents relied on 2…

  4. STATISTICAL RELATIONAL LEARNING AND SCRIPT INDUCTION FOR TEXTUAL INFERENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    take advantage of logical concepts such as negation as well as weighted information on word meaning. APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION...results on their performance for a shared set of queries. We had been using performance data for systems in the KBP competition in year N to provide...training data for training a stacker that combines them for the competition in year N+1. Although systems change from year to year, we found that

  5. [160 activities analyzed by the risk of biomechanical overload on the upper limbs in small industry, handicrafts, services and agriculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Ugo; Breschi, Chiara; Compagnonil, Raffaella; De Filippo, Laura; Gogliettino, Maria Angela; Guerrera, Elena; Mameli, Marina; Mastrominico, Eleonora; Mochi, Silvia; Sarto, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed 160 work activities in the sectors of small industries, handicrafts, services and agriculture to evaluate the risk of biomnechanical overload of the upper limbs with the OCRA Checklist. The aim was to provide a tool available for the risk assessment in activities generally underestimnated for this risk and typical of the Italian production. The information was provided in the form of cards containing easily accessible data, risk scenarios in different timing, along with some of the key prevention interventions that can be realized.

  6. Use of a Modified Chaining Procedure with Textual Prompts to Establish Intraverbal Storytelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Amber L; Conine, Daniel E; Delfs, Caitlin H; Furlow, Christopher M

    2015-06-01

    Echoic, tact, and textual transfer procedures have been proven successful in establishing simple intraverbals (Braam and Poling Applied Research in Mental Retardation, 4, 279-302, 1983; Luciano Applied Research in Mental Retardation, 102, 346-357, 1986; Watkins et al. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 7, 69-81, 1989). However, these strategies may be ineffective for some children due to the complexity of the targeted intraverbals. The current study investigated the use of a novel procedure which included a modified chaining procedure and textual prompts to establish intraverbal behavior in the form of telling short stories. Visual prompts and rule statements were used with some of the participants in order to produce the desired behavior change. Results indicated that the procedure was effective for teaching retelling of short stories in three children with autism.

  7. Linnaeus' restless system: translation as textual engineering in eighteenth-century botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Bettina

    2016-04-01

    In this essay, translations of Linnaeus' Systema naturae into various European languages will be placed into the context of successively expanded editions of Linnaeus' writings. The ambition and intention of most translators was not only to make the Systema naturae accessible for practical botanical use by a wider readership, but also to supplement and correct it, and thus to shape it. By recruiting more users, translations made a significant contribution to keeping the Systema up to date and thus maintaining its practical value for decades. The need to incorporate countless additions and corrections into an existing text, to document their provenance, to identify inconsistencies, and to refer to relevant observations, descriptions, and illustrations in the botanical literature all helped to develop and refine techniques of textual montage. This form of textual engineering, becoming increasingly complex with each translation cycle, shaped the external appearance of new editions of the Systema, and reflected the modular architecture of a botanical system designed for expansion.

  8. Rethinking information handling: designing for information offload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed; Pedersen, Peter Dalsgård; Eriksson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces information offload as a supplement way of responding to and designing for information. By presenting iFlush, a design concept aiming at providing the user with a possibility to offload information and then instantly dispose of it, the paper presents an approach towards...... designing for reflection and also serves as a critique towards information overload. Furthermore, the absence of reflection on the role played by HCI community in the constant augmenting of all spaces is addressed....

  9. Biological tissue magnetism in the frame of iron overload diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, Francisco J. [Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales y Fluidos, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza 50018 (Spain) and Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza 50009 (Spain)]. E-mail: osoro@unizar.es; Gutierrez, Lucia [Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales y Fluidos, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza 50018 (Spain); Abadia, Ana R. [Departamento de Farmacologia y Fisiologia, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza 50013 (Spain); Romero, Maria S. [Departamento de Medicina y Psiquiatria, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza 50009 (Spain); Lopez, A. [CNAM-Salesianos Zaragoza, Zaragoza 50009 (Spain)

    2007-09-15

    The conspicuous magnetic properties of iron, paradoxically, rarely participate in the methods routinely employed in the clinical environment to detect iron containing species in tissues. In the organism iron is just a trace metal and it mostly occurs as part of haemoproteins or ferritin, which show paramagnetic, diamagnetic or antiferromagnetic behaviour, hence resulting in a very low contribution to the tissue susceptibility. Detailed magnetic measurements make it nowadays possible to identify such species in tissues that correspond to individuals with iron overload pathologies. Since, as alternatives to the conventional biopsy, magnetism-based noninvasive techniques to diagnose and manage such diseases are recently under development, the deep knowledge of the magnetic properties of the different forms of iron in tissues is of high applied interest.

  10. Iron overload in the liver diagnostic and quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alustiza, Jose M. [Osatek SA, P Dr. Beguiristain 109, 20014, San Sebastian, Guipuzcoa (Spain)]. E-mail: jmalustiza@osatek.es; Castiella, Agustin [Osatek SA, P Dr. Beguiristain 109, 20014, San Sebastian, Guipuzcoa (Spain); Juan, Maria D. de [Osatek SA, P Dr. Beguiristain 109, 20014, San Sebastian, Guipuzcoa (Spain); Emparanza, Jose I. [Osatek SA, P Dr. Beguiristain 109, 20014, San Sebastian, Guipuzcoa (Spain); Artetxe, Jose [Osatek SA, P Dr. Beguiristain 109, 20014, San Sebastian, Guipuzcoa (Spain); Uranga, Maite [Osatek SA, P Dr. Beguiristain 109, 20014, San Sebastian, Guipuzcoa (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    Hereditary Hemochromatosis is the most frequent modality of iron overload. Since 1996 genetic tests have facilitated significantly the non-invasive diagnosis of the disease. There are however many cases of negative genetic tests that require confirmation by hepatic iron quantification which is traditionally performed by hepatic biopsy. There are many studies that have demonstrated the possibility of performing hepatic iron quantification with Magnetic Resonance. However, a consensus has not been reached yet regarding the technique or the possibility to reproduce the same method of calculus in different machines. This article reviews the state of the art of the question and delineates possible future lines to standardise this non-invasive method of hepatic iron quantification.

  11. Iron excretion in iron dextran-overloaded mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Marco; Maccari, Sonia; Massimi, Alessia; Stati, Tonino; Sestili, Paola; Corritore, Elisa; Pastorelli, Augusto; Stacchini, Paolo; Marano, Giuseppe; Catalano, Liviana

    2014-10-01

    Iron homeostasis in humans is tightly regulated by mechanisms aimed to conserve iron for reutilisation, with a negligible role played by excretory mechanisms. In a previous study we found that mice have an astonishing ability to tolerate very high doses of parenterally administered iron dextran. Whether this ability is linked to the existence of an excretory pathway remains to be ascertained. Iron overload was generated by intraperitoneal injections of iron dextran (1 g/kg) administered once a week for 8 weeks in two different mouse strains (C57bl/6 and B6D2F1). Urinary and faecal iron excretion was assessed by inductively coupling plasma-mass spectrometry, whereas cardiac and liver architecture was evaluated by echocardiography and histological methods. For both strains, 24-hour faeces and urine samples were collected and iron concentration was determined on days 0, 1 and 2 after iron administration. In iron-overloaded C57bl/6 mice, the faecal iron concentration increased by 218% and 157% on days 1 and 2, respectively (piron excreted represented a loss of 14% of total iron administered. Similar but smaller changes was also found in B6D2F1 mice. Conversely, we found no significant changes in the concentration of iron in the urine in either of the strains of mice. In both strains, histological examination showed accumulation of iron in the liver and heart which tended to decrease over time. This study indicates that mice have a mechanism for removal of excess body iron and provides insights into the possible mechanisms of excretion.

  12. [Excessive fluoride inducing calcium overload and apoptosis of ameloblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Zhang; Lin, Ma; Jian, Li; Ming, Zhong; Kaiqiang, Zhang; Hefeng, Gu

    2014-12-01

    To study the effect of excessive fluoride on calcium overload and apoptosis in cultured rat ameloblasts in vitro. Logarithmic-phase ameloblasts (HAT-7) were treated with 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, and 6.4 mmol · L(-1) sodium fluoride (NaF) solution. Cell activities were detected by using a Cell Counting Kit 8 (CCK-8) assay after 48 h of treatment. The effect of fluoride on cell apoptosis was analyzed by using flow cytometry. Excessive fluoride-induced calcium concentration and calreticulin expression changes in ameloblasts were detected by using laser scanning confocal microscopy, Western blot analysis, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. NaF inhibited ameloblast activity at 1.6, 3.2, and 6.4 mmol · L(-1) (dose-dependent) after 48 h of induction. The Ca2+ fluorescence intensity of HAT-7 cells incubated with 1.6 and 3.2 mmol · L(-1) NaF was higher than that in the control group. The fluoride-induced early-stage apoptosis of ameloblasts after 48 h of induction and the early-stage apoptosis rate was positively correlated with fluoride concentration. Calreticulin mRNA expression in HAT-7 cells was higher than that in the control group after 48 h of incubation with 0.8, 1.2, and 1.6 mmol · L(-1) NaF. Excessive fluoride-induced calcium overload in ameloblasts and further caused endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis.

  13. Fluoride induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and calcium overload in ameloblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, KaiQiang; Ma, Lin; Gu, HeFeng; Li, Jian; Lei, Shuang

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress and intracellular calcium overload on the development of dental fluorosis. We cultured and exposed rat ameloblast HAT-7 cells to various concentrations of fluoride and measured apoptosis with flow cytometry and intracellular Ca2+ changes using confocal microscopy, investigated the protein levels of GRP78, calreticulin, XBP1 and CHOP by western blotting, and their transcriptional levels with RT-PCR. We also created an in vivo model of dental fluorosis by exposing animals to various concentrations of fluoride. Subsequently, thin dental tissue slices were analyzed with H&E staining, immunohistochemical staining, and transmission electron microscopy, TUNEL assay was also performed on dental tissue slices for assessment of apoptosis. High fluoride concentration was associated with decreased ameloblast proliferation, elevated ameloblast apoptosis, and increased intracellular Ca2+ in vitro. The translation and transcription of the proteins associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress were significantly elevated with high concentrations of fluoride. Based on immunohistochemical staining, these proteins were also highly expressed in animals exposed to high fluoride concentrations. Histologically, we found significant fluorosis-like changes in tissues from animals exposed to high fluoride concentrations. Transmission electron microscopy cytology indicated significant apoptotic changes in tissues exposed to high concentrations of fluoride. These results indicate that exposure to high levels of fluoride led to endoplasmic reticulum stress which induced apoptosis in cultured ameloblasts and in vivo rat model, suggesting an important role of calcium overload and endoplasmic reticulum stress triggered by high concentrations of fluoride in the development of dental fluorosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Iron excretion in iron dextran-overloaded mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Marco; Maccari, Sonia; Massimi, Alessia; Stati, Tonino; Sestili, Paola; Corritore, Elisa; Pastorelli, Augusto; Stacchini, Paolo; Marano, Giuseppe; Catalano, Liviana

    2014-01-01

    Background Iron homeostasis in humans is tightly regulated by mechanisms aimed to conserve iron for reutilisation, with a negligible role played by excretory mechanisms. In a previous study we found that mice have an astonishing ability to tolerate very high doses of parenterally administered iron dextran. Whether this ability is linked to the existence of an excretory pathway remains to be ascertained. Materials and methods Iron overload was generated by intraperitoneal injections of iron dextran (1 g/kg) administered once a week for 8 weeks in two different mouse strains (C57bl/6 and B6D2F1). Urinary and faecal iron excretion was assessed by inductively coupling plasma-mass spectrometry, whereas cardiac and liver architecture was evaluated by echocardiography and histological methods. For both strains, 24-hour faeces and urine samples were collected and iron concentration was determined on days 0, 1 and 2 after iron administration. Results In iron-overloaded C57bl/6 mice, the faecal iron concentration increased by 218% and 157% on days 1 and 2, respectively (p<0.01). The iron excreted represented a loss of 14% of total iron administered. Similar but smaller changes was also found in B6D2F1 mice. Conversely, we found no significant changes in the concentration of iron in the urine in either of the strains of mice. In both strains, histological examination showed accumulation of iron in the liver and heart which tended to decrease over time. Conclusions This study indicates that mice have a mechanism for removal of excess body iron and provides insights into the possible mechanisms of excretion. PMID:24960657

  15. A Comparative Study of Textual and Visual Contextualization on Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Zoghi; Mehdi Mirzaei

    2014-01-01

    Language teaching practioners are curently puting increasing emphasis on L2 vocabulary learning in the language teaching curiculum. Aditonaly, with the emergence and prevalence of growing technologies, language teachers are asumed to take advantage of these technologies in prompting L2 learning vocabulary. The present comparative study investigates the efect of using two types of vocabulary contextualization; textual and visual, in teaching vocabulary. The participants were seventy lear...

  16. Reflecting on Reflexivity: Reflexive Textual Practices in Organization and Management Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Alvesson, M.; Hardy, C; B. Harley

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies four sets of textual practices that researchers in the field of organization and management theory (OMT) have used in their attempts to be reflexive. We characterize them as multi-perspective, multi-voicing, positioning and destabilizing. We show how each set of practices can help to produce reflexive research, but also how each embodies limitations and paradoxes. Finally, we consider the interplay among these sets of practices to develop ideas for new avenues for reflex...

  17. Creating modular and reusable DSL textual syntax definitions with Grammatic/ANTLR

    OpenAIRE

    Breslav, Andrey

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present Grammatic -- a tool for textual syntax definition. Grammatic serves as a front-end for parser generators (and other tools) and brings modularity and reuse to their development artifacts. It adapts techniques for separation of concerns from Apsect-Oriented Programming to grammars and uses templates for grammar reuse. We illustrate usage of Grammatic by describing a case study: bringing separation of concerns to ANTLR parser generator, which is achieved without a common...

  18. Expressing emotions in blogs : The role of textual paralinguistic cues in online venting and social sharing posts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Carmina; Tan, Ed S.H.; Verlegh, Peeter W.J.

    2017-01-01

    Textual paralanguage cues (TPC) have been signaled as effective emotion transmitters online. Though several studies have investigated their properties and occurrence, there remains a gap concerning their communicative impact within specific psychological processes, such as the social sharing of

  19. Expressing emotions in blogs: the role of textual paralinguistic cues in online venting and social sharing posts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez-Hidalgo, C.; Tan, E.S.H.; Verlegh, P.W.J.

    Textual paralanguage cues (TPC) have been signaled as effective emotion transmitters online. Though several studies have investigated their properties and occurrence, there remains a gap concerning their communicative impact within specific psychological processes, such as the social sharing of

  20. Benjamin’s Dialectical Image and the Textuality of the Built Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Lipton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In The Arcades Project, Walter Benjamin describes the architectural expression of nineteenth century Paris as a dialectical manifestation of backwards-looking historicism and the dawn of modern industrial production (in the form of cast iron and mass produced plate glass. Yet in the same text, Benjamin refers to the dialectical image as occurring within the medium of written language. In this paper, I will first discuss the textuality of the dialectical image as it emerges from Benjamin’s discussion of allegorical and symbolic images in his Trauerspiel study and the ‘wish symbol’ in The Arcades Project. I will then discuss the ‘textual reductionism’ implicit in Benjamin’s theory of the dialectical image, in which the dense pluralities of urban space are reduced to a finite script to be pieced together through Benjamin’s constructivist method of historical observation. The textuality of the dialectical image will be elaborated on by discussing it in relation to the practice of translation. This discussion will be further contextualised by discussing a cadre of German/Austrian planners and architects who attempted to translate architectural idioms between cultural identities in Kemalist Era Turkey. The article concludes with a short recapitulation on the dialectical image as both an object of scrutiny and a method of observation, one which also takes into consideration the specific historicity of the observer.

  1. In Defence of the Textual Integrity of the Old English Resignation

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    Sobol Helena W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bliss & Frantzen’s (1976 paper against the previously assumed textual integrity of Resignation has been a watershed in research upon the poem. Nearly all subsequent studies and editions have followed their theory, the sole dissenting view being expressed by Klinck (1987, 1992. The present paper offers fresh evidence for the textual unity of the poem. First examined are codicological issues, whether the state of the manuscript suggests that a folio might be missing. Next analysed are the spellings of Resignation and its phonology, here the paper discusses peculiarities which both differentiate Resignation from its manuscript context and connect the two hypothetical parts of the text. Then the paper looks at the assumed cut-off point at l.69 to see if it may provide any evidence for textual discontinuity. Finally the whole Resignation, seen as a coherent poem, is placed in the history of Old English literature, with special attention being paid to the traditions of devotional texts and the Old English elegies.

  2. Information Overload or Information under Siege: Filipino Faculty Extendees' Concept, Motivation and Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Corpuz, Jacky Q.; Creencia, Jam R.; Crisostomo, Mary Joy S.; Cristobal, David John Gabriel E.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have quantified the extent of usage, knowledge, and relationship of people's behavior in regard to food supplements--particularly in developed countries such as the United States. Despite the prevalence of supplements use and the issues surrounding its use, there has been little or no study of supplement use in a developing…

  3. Musical Manifestations of Textual Patterning in Estonian Regilaul

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    Janika Oras

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the marking of song text patterns by means of musical devices in the performances of Estonian regilaul. The article examines which variants of musical rhythm and melodic contour are preferred by four singers in their performance of verses that have different functions within the song structure. In both the text and the musical rhythm, a greater number of syllables, and the attendant changes in musical rhythm, mark the verses that have an initiating function and which communicate entirely new information. In performing such verses, rather than the extension verses of parallelism groups or verse repetitions, in the short melodies with narrow pitch range, the singers prefer more "intense" variants of melody contours in which the higher notes of the scale are predominantly used. In two-line melodies, the singer's patterning of the song text is largely determined by the musical logic, attempting to align the beginnings of the melodic strophes and verse groups.

  4. Musical Manifestations of Textual Patterning in Estonian Regilaul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janika Oras

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the marking of song text patterns by means of musical devices in the performances of Estonian regilaul. The article examines which variants of musical rhythm and melodic contour are preferred by four singers in their performance of verses that have different functions within the song structure. In both the text and the musical rhythm, a greater number of syllables, and the attendant changes in musical rhythm, mark the verses that have an initiating function and which communicate entirely new information. In performing such verses, rather than the extension verses of parallelism groups or verse repetitions, in the short melodies with narrow pitch range, the singers prefer more "intense" variants of melody contours in which the higher notes of the scale are predominantly used. In two-line melodies, the singer's patterning of the song text is largely determined by the musical logic, attempting to align the beginnings of the melodic strophes and verse groups.

  5. Textual representations of diversity in COAMFTE accredited doctoral programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, John J; Brooks, Stephanie; Julye, Stacey

    2006-01-01

    The use of the Internet is growing at a staggering pace. One significant use of the Internet is for potential students and the parents of potential students to explore educational possibilities. Along these lines potential marriage and family therapy students may have many questions that include a program's commitment to cultural diversity. This study utilized qualitative content analysis methodology in combination with critical race theory to examine how Commission On Accreditation for Marriage and Family Therapy Education (COAMFTE) accredited doctoral programs represented cultural text on their World Wide Web pages. Findings indicate that many COAMFTE-accredited doctoral programs re-present programmatic information about diversity that appear to be incongruent with cultural sensitivity. These apparent incongruities are highlighted by the codification, inconsistent, and isolated use of cultural text. In addition, cultural text related to social justice was absent. Implications and suggestions are discussed.

  6. La construcción textual: necesidad de su desarrollo para los profesores en formación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanire Chacón Vivas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Algunos de los textos escritos por estudiantes de distintos niveles y subsistemas presentan profundas carencias (conceptuales, textuales, sintácticas, semánticas y ortográficas, que imposibilitan su comprensión. Se hace una propuesta para estudiar la construcción textual, como una herramienta científico-metodológica que consolide y motive la redacción y facilite lo comprendido, analizado, aprendido durante el proceso cognitivo.

  7. Requirements and Their Impact Downstream: Improving Casual Analysis Processes Through Measurement and Analysis of Textual Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    army-usawc/mcmaster_foundation.pdf [Meyers 2006] Craig Meyers, James D. Smith, Peter Capell , & Patrick Place. Requirements Management in a System-of...2003_ontohandbook_ens.pdf [Monarch 2008] Ira Monarch, Dennis Goldenson, Peter Capell , and Jim Wessel. “Tailoring and Combining the CMMI-ACQ and Quality

  8. Extraction of chemical-induced diseases using prior knowledge and textual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Ewoud; Becker, Benedikt F H; Akhondi, Saber A; Afzal, Zubair; van Mulligen, Erik M; Kors, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    We describe our approach to the chemical-disease relation (CDR) task in the BioCreative V challenge. The CDR task consists of two subtasks: automatic disease-named entity recognition and normalization (DNER), and extraction of chemical-induced diseases (CIDs) from Medline abstracts. For the DNER subtask, we used our concept recognition tool Peregrine, in combination with several optimization steps. For the CID subtask, our system, which we named RELigator, was trained on a rich feature set, comprising features derived from a graph database containing prior knowledge about chemicals and diseases, and linguistic and statistical features derived from the abstracts in the CDR training corpus. We describe the systems that were developed and present evaluation results for both subtasks on the CDR test set. For DNER, our Peregrine system reached anF-score of 0.757. For CID, the system achieved anF-score of 0.526, which ranked second among 18 participating teams. Several post-challenge modifications of the systems resulted in substantially improvedF-scores (0.828 for DNER and 0.602 for CID). RELigator is available as a web service athttp://biosemantics.org/index.php/software/religator. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Mining for Meaning: The Use of Unstructured Textual Data in Information Systems Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Janea Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to demonstrate how text was used in (1) developing a theory to examine collaborative interaction in virtual worlds, (2) creating a framework for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of dealing with large text datasets for social network analysis, and (3) approaching an understanding of the role of meaning…

  10. 30 CFR 75.518-1 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... protection against overload which does not conform to the provisions of the National Electric Code, 1968... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment and circuits; overload and...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.518-1 Electric equipment and circuits; overload and...

  11. Study of overload effects in bainitic steel by synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lopez-Crespo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an in-situ characterisation of crack-tip strain fields following an overload by means of synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The study is made on very fine grained bainitic steel, thus allowing a very high resolution so that small changes occurring around the crack-tip were captured along the crack plane at the mid-thickness of the specimen. We have followed the crack as it grew through the overload location. Once the crack-tip has progressed past the overload event there is strong evidence that the crack faces contact in the region of the overload event (though not in the immediate vicinity of the current locations of the crack tip at Kmin even when the crack has travelled 1mm beyond the overload location. It was also found that at Kmax the peak tensile strain ahead of the crack-tip decreases soon after the overload is applied and then gradually recovers as the crack grows past the compressive region created by the overload.

  12. Modulation of overload-induced inflammation by aging and anabolic steroid administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Raymond W; McClung, Joseph M; Baltgalvis, Kristen A; Davis, J Mark; Carson, James A

    2006-11-01

    Aging can alter the skeletal muscle growth response induced by overload. The initiation of overload induces muscle extracellular matrix expansion, increased cellularity, and inflammatory gene expression, which are all related to processes important for myofiber growth. These remodeling processes are also biological targets of testosterone. It is not certain how aging affects the inflammatory response to functional overload and whether anabolic steroid administration can alter this response. The effect of anabolic steroid administration on inflammatory processes during functional overload is not known. The purpose of this study was to determine if age altered the skeletal muscle inflammatory response at the onset of functional overload and whether anabolic steroid administration would modulate this response in young or older animals. Five-month and 25 month F344 x BRN rats were given nandrolone decanoate (ND) (6 mg/kg bw/wk) or sham injections for 3 weeks, and then the soleus muscle was overloaded (OV) for 3 days by synergist ablation. ND alone induced a 230% increase in ED1(+) cells in 5 month muscle. Three days of OV had no effect on ED1(+) cell number at either age. OV combined with ND induced a 90% increase in ED2(+) cells in 5 month muscle, while there was no effect of either treatment alone at this age. In 25 month muscle, OV induced a 40% increase in ED2(+) cells. Regardless of age, OV induced muscle TNF-alpha mRNA expression (300%) and IL-6 mRNA expression (900%). ND attenuated OV-induced IL-6 mRNA but not TNF-alpha expression in both age groups. The overload induction of IL-1beta mRNA was 3-fold greater in 25 month muscle (1400%), compared to 5 month muscle (400%). ND administration ablated the overload IL-1beta mRNA induction in 25 month muscle. Anabolic steroid administration can suppress inflammatory cytokine gene expression at the onset of overload and this effect is age dependent.

  13. Sex differences in volume overload in skinned fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bening, C; Hamouda, K; Leyh, R

    2016-10-14

    The impact of sex on cardiac morphology and function in chronic volume overload has been described in detail. However, the relation between sex and contractile properties at the actin-myosin level has not been well defined. Therefore, we evaluated the influence of sex on the contractile capacities of patients with chronic volume overload. In 36 patients (18 males, 65 ± 9 years; 18 females, 65 ± 13 years) scheduled for elective mitral valve surgery due to severe mitral regurgitation (MR) with preserved left ventricular function, right auricle samples were obtained prior to extracorporal circulation. The fibers were prepared and skinned and exposed to a gradual increase in the calcium concentration (from pCa of 6.5-4.0) for calcium-induced force-developing measurements. Calcium sensitivity was also measured and recorded. The pCa-force relationship of the fibers obtained from males and females was significantly different, with the force values of the female fibers greater than those of male fibers at maximum calcium concentrations (pCa of 4.0: 3.6 ± 0.3 mN versus 3.2 ± 0.4 mN, p 0.02) and pCa of 4.5 2.6 ± 0.6 versus 2.0 ± 0.5, p 0.002). In contrast, the force values of female fibers were lower at mean calcium concentrations compared to those of male fibers (at 5.5 and pCa of 6.0: 1.0 ± 0.3 mN versus 1.2 ± 0.5 mN, p 0.04; 0.61 ± 0.05 versus 0.88 ± 0.09, p 0.04). Calcium sensitivity was observed at pCa of 5.0 in females and pCa of 4.5 in males. This study demonstrated that female fibers from patients exposed to chronic volume overload developed higher force values at a given calcium concentration compared to fibers from male patients. We assume that female patients might tap the full force potential, which is required when exposed to the highest calcium concentrations in our experimental cycle. The calcium sensitivity among genders was significantly different, with the results suggesting that males have higher calcium

  14. Gênero textual exposição oral na educação de jovens e adultos Oral exposition textual genre in adult education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Rocha Baltar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta resultados do trabalho com o gênero textual Exposição Oral (EO em uma turma da modalidade EJA - Ensino Médio de uma escola pública da cidade de Caxias do Sul. O propósito deste trabalho é auxiliar estudantes a ampliar seu repertório de gêneros de textos orais e subsidiar os professores a elaborar um trabalho didático-pedagógico sistematizado, sequência didática (SD, para a apropriação do gênero exposição oral. Também inserimos a exposição oral no conjunto de gêneros que podem ser trabalhados na implantação/implementação de uma rádio escolar, proporcionando um desempenho satisfatório nesse ambiente discursivo. Este estudo integra a pesquisa-ação Mídias e escola: letramentos e gêneros textuais e utiliza os dispositivos de problematização, ação, reflexão, ação, transformação.This article presents findings from a work with oral exposition genre in an adult education class in Caxias do Sul - RS, Brazil. Our purpose in this study is to help students to increase their oral genre repertoire and give support to teachers to elaborate a systematic pedagogical work, a Didactic Sequence, for the learning of oral exposition genre. We have also included oral exposition in the group of genres that can be studied for the implementation of a school radio in order to develop a good performance in that discursive sphere. This study is part of the action research project Medias and School: literacies and textual genres and follows the steps: action, problematization, reflection, action, and transformation.

  15. SECRETARIAT AND TEXTUAL PRODUCTION: ARGUMENTATION IN THE TEXTUAL GENRE LETTER OF DECLARATION O SECRETARIADO E A PRODUÇÃO TEXTUAL: A ARGUMENTAÇÃO NO GÊNERO DECLARAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erivaldo Pereira do Nascimento

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available

    This article aims at describing the semantic argumentative structure of the textual/discursive genre Letter of Declaration, one of the documents with which the executive secretary frequently deals. This investigation is based on the Argumention Theory in the Language proposed by Ducrot (1988,1987. We also used the studies about Discursive Modalization proposed by Koch (2002, Castilho e Castilho (1993, Nascimento (2005, among others. Modalization is considered here as a semantic argumentative strategy, as it enables the speaker to make a statement or to express a point of view about the content of his/her enunciation, according to the interlocution. This study about the previously mentioned gender is qualitative, quantitative and descriptive. The corpus used is composed of 20 (twenty Letters of Declaration issued by different organizations or private and public institutions. We perceived that in the Letters of Declaration analysed argumentation is achieved by the use of modalizers and argumentative operators, used by the speaker to produce different effects of meaning in the texts.

    Este artigo tem como objetivo descrever a estrutura semântico-argumentativa do gênero textual/discursivo declaração, um dos documentos com o qual o profissional de Secretariado lida frequentemente. Essa investigação tem como base a Teoria da Argumentação na Língua, proposta por Ducrot (1988, 1987. Utilizamos também os estudos de Modalização Discursiva, proposta por Koch (2002, Castilho e Castilho (1993, Nascimento (2005, entre outros. A modalização é aqui considerada como uma estratégia semântico-argumentativa, uma vez que permite ao locutor imprimir uma avaliação ou ponto de vista sobre o conteúdo de seu enunciado, em função da interlocução. A investigação realizada a respeito do referido gênero é de natureza qualitativa e quantitativa, de cunho descritivo, e o corpus utilizado é constituído por 20

  16. Overload and neovascularization of shoulder tendons in volleyball players

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In overhead sports like volleyball, the onset of a rotator cuff tendinopathy due to functional overload is a common observation. An angiofibroblastic etiopathogenesis has been hypothesized, whereby a greater anaerobic metabolism occurs in critical zones of the tendon with a lower degree of vascularization; this would induce collagen and extracellular matrix degradation, that could then trigger a compensatory neovascularization response. We performed a clinical observational study of 80 elite volleyball players, monitoring the perfusion values of the supraspinatus tendons by oximetry. Results No statistically significant differences were found between the oximetry data and age, sex or years of sports activity, nor when comparing the right and left arm or the dominant and non-dominant arm. A statistically significant difference was found for the dominant arm values in relation to the competitive role, higher values being obtained in outside hitters (62.7%) than middle hitters (53.7%) (p = 0.01), opposite hitters (55.5%) (p = 0.02) and libero players (54.4%) (p = 0.008), whereas there were no differences in setters (56.2%) (p > 0.05). Conclusions The different tendon vascularization values found in players with different roles in the team may be attributed to a response to the specific biomechanical demands posed by the different overhead throwing roles. PMID:22853746

  17. Overload and neovascularization of shoulder tendons in volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, Angela; Fischetti, Francesco; Gallone, Donato; Moretti, Lorenzo; Pignataro, Pasquale; Tafuri, Silvio; Moretti, Biagio

    2012-08-01

    In overhead sports like volleyball, the onset of a rotator cuff tendinopathy due to functional overload is a common observation. An angiofibroblastic etiopathogenesis has been hypothesized, whereby a greater anaerobic metabolism occurs in critical zones of the tendon with a lower degree of vascularization; this would induce collagen and extracellular matrix degradation, that could then trigger a compensatory neovascularization response. We performed a clinical observational study of 80 elite volleyball players, monitoring the perfusion values of the supraspinatus tendons by oximetry. No statistically significant differences were found between the oximetry data and age, sex or years of sports activity, nor when comparing the right and left arm or the dominant and non-dominant arm. A statistically significant difference was found for the dominant arm values in relation to the competitive role, higher values being obtained in outside hitters (62.7%) than middle hitters (53.7%) (p = 0.01), opposite hitters (55.5%) (p = 0.02) and libero players (54.4%) (p = 0.008), whereas there were no differences in setters (56.2%) (p > 0.05). The different tendon vascularization values found in players with different roles in the team may be attributed to a response to the specific biomechanical demands posed by the different overhead throwing roles.

  18. Semicircular Canals Circumvent Brownian Motion Overload of Mechanoreceptor Hair Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mees Muller

    Full Text Available Vertebrate semicircular canals (SCC first appeared in the vertebrates (i.e. ancestral fish over 600 million years ago. In SCC the principal mechanoreceptors are hair cells, which as compared to cochlear hair cells are distinctly longer (70 vs. 7 μm, 10 times more compliant to bending (44 vs. 500 nN/m, and have a 100-fold higher tip displacement threshold (< 10 μm vs. <400 nm. We have developed biomechanical models of vertebrate hair cells where the bundle is approximated as a stiff, cylindrical elastic rod subject to friction and thermal agitation. Our models suggest that the above differences aid SCC hair cells in circumventing the masking effects of Brownian motion noise of about 70 nm, and thereby permit transduction of very low frequency (<10 Hz signals. We observe that very low frequency mechanoreception requires increased stimulus amplitude, and argue that this is adaptive to circumvent Brownian motion overload at the hair bundles. We suggest that the selective advantage of detecting such low frequency stimuli may have favoured the evolution of large guiding structures such as semicircular canals and otoliths to overcome Brownian Motion noise at the level of the mechanoreceptors of the SCC.

  19. Fluid overload in a South African pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketharanathan, Naomi; McCulloch, Mignon; Wilson, Clare; Rossouw, Beyra; Salie, Shamiel; Ahrens, Johan; Morrow, Brenda M; Argent, Andrew C

    2014-12-01

    Fluid resuscitation is integral to resuscitation guidelines and critical care. However, fluid overload (FO) yields increased morbidity. Prospective observational study of Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital pediatric intensive care unit admissions (February to March 2013). FO % = (fluid in minus fluid out) [liters]/weight [kg] × 100%. FO ≥ 10%, 28 day mortality. Median [interquartile range (IQR)] age: 9.5 (2.0-39.0) months, median (IQR) admission weight: 7.9 (3.6-13.7) kg. Median (IQR) FO with admission weight: 3.5 (2.1-4.9)%; three patients had FO ≥ 10%. The 28 day mortality was 10% (n = 10). Patients who died had higher mean (IQR) FO using admission weight [4.9 (2.9-9.3)% vs. 3.4 (1.9-4.8)%; p = 0.04]. Low FO ≥ 10% prevalence with 28 day mortality 10%. Higher FO% with admission weight associated with mortality (p = 0.04). We advocate further investigation of FO% as a simple bedside tool. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Overload and neovascularization of shoulder tendons in volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Notarnicola Angela

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In overhead sports like volleyball, the onset of a rotator cuff tendinopathy due to functional overload is a common observation. An angiofibroblastic etiopathogenesis has been hypothesized, whereby a greater anaerobic metabolism occurs in critical zones of the tendon with a lower degree of vascularization; this would induce collagen and extracellular matrix degradation, that could then trigger a compensatory neovascularization response. We performed a clinical observational study of 80 elite volleyball players, monitoring the perfusion values of the supraspinatus tendons by oximetry. Results No statistically significant differences were found between the oximetry data and age, sex or years of sports activity, nor when comparing the right and left arm or the dominant and non-dominant arm. A statistically significant difference was found for the dominant arm values in relation to the competitive role, higher values being obtained in outside hitters (62.7% than middle hitters (53.7% (p = 0.01, opposite hitters (55.5% (p = 0.02 and libero players (54.4% (p = 0.008, whereas there were no differences in setters (56.2% (p > 0.05. Conclusions The different tendon vascularization values found in players with different roles in the team may be attributed to a response to the specific biomechanical demands posed by the different overhead throwing roles.

  1. Performance Analysis of Novel Overload Control with Threshold Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo Il Choi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel overload control method with hysteresis property; that is, we analyze the M/G/1/K queueing system where the service and arrival rates are varied depending on the queue-length. We use two threshold values: L1(≤L2 and L2(≤K. When the queue-length increases by an amount between L1 and L2, we apply one of the following two strategies to reduce the queue-length, either we decrease the mean service time or we decrease the arrival rate. If the queue-length exceeds L2 with one strategy, we apply the other; thus, there are two models that depend on the method that was applied first. We derive the queue-length distribution at departure and at arbitrary epochs using the embedded Markov chain method and the supplementary variable method. We investigate performance measures including the loss probability and mean waiting time using various numerical examples.

  2. Iron overload in adults with sickle cell disease who have received intermittent red blood cell transfusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pack-Mabien, Ardie; Brown, Brittany; Herbert, Donald E; Haynes, Johnson

    2015-10-01

    To assess the prevalence of iron overload in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) not on a chronic transfusion protocol. Retrospective chart review. University of South Alabama Comprehensive Sickle Cell Center adult outpatient clinic. There was no significant difference in units transfused across the four genotypes (HbSS, HbSC, HbSβ(0)-thalassemia, and HbSβ(+)-thalassemia). Only individuals with HbSS (n = 63) met criteria for iron overload with ferritins of ≥1500 ng/mL. Forty-eight had ferritins clinical significance of iron overload in SCD can be established and guide the healthcare provider's management in the prevention of iron overload. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  3. Iron overload in a teenager with xerocytosis: the importance of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, Reijâne Alves de; Kassab, Carolina; Seguro, Fernanda Salles [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Costa, Fernando Ferreira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Silveira, Paulo Augusto Achucarro [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Wood, John [University of Southern California, California (United States); Hamerschlak, Nelson [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    To report a case of iron overload secondary to xerocytosis, a rare disease in a teenager, diagnosed, by T2* magnetic resonance imaging. We report the case of a symptomatic patient with xerocytosis, a ferritin level of 350ng/mL and a significant cardiac iron overload. She was diagnosed by T2* magnetic resonance imaging and received chelation therapy Ektacytometric analysis confirmed the diagnosis of hereditary xerocytosis. Subsequent T2* magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated complete resolution of the iron overload in various organs, as a new echocardiography revealed a complete resolution of previous cardiac alterations. The patient remains in chelation therapy. Xerocytosis is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by dehydrated stomatocytosis. The patient may present with intense fatigue and iron overload. We suggest the regular use of T2* magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis and control of the response to iron chelation in xerocytosis, and we believe it can be used also in other hemolytic anemia requiring transfusions.

  4. Effects of fluid overload on heart rate variability in chronic kidney disease patients on hemodialysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferrario, Manuela; Moissl, Ulrich; Garzotto, Francesco; Cruz, Dinna N; Clementi, Anna; Brendolan, Alessandra; Tetta, Ciro; Gatti, Emanuele; Signorini, Maria G; Cerutti, Sergio; Ronco, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    While fluid overload (FO) and alterations in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) such as hypersympathetic activity, are known risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD...

  5. Volume Overload in Heart Failure: An Evidence-Based Review of Strategies for Treatment and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Brian A; Kalathiya, Rohan J; Kim, Daniel A; Zakaria, Sammy

    2015-09-01

    Acute decompensated heart failure is the leading cause of hospital admission in the United States, with a high risk of readmission within 30 days. Most acute decompensated heart failure admissions are driven by congestive signs and symptoms resulting from fluid and sodium overload. We reviewed the evidence base addressing the management and prevention of fluid overload in heart failure, focusing on recent clinical trials. All the references in this review were obtained through PubMed and had at least 1 of the following key words: heart failure and volume overload, congestion, loop diuretics, thiazide diuretics, aldosterone antagonists, dopamine, cardiorenal syndrome, nesiritide, vasopressin antagonists, ultrafiltration, sodium restriction, fluid restriction, telemonitoring, and invasive hemodynamic monitoring. We also reviewed relevant references cited in the obtained articles, especially articles addressing methods of treating or preventing volume overload in patients with heart failure. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. WORK OVERLOAD AND TURNOVER INTENTION OF JUNIOR AUDITORS IN GREATER JAKARTA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andika Pradana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze how work overload influences turnover intentions of newly hired junior auditors in public accounting offices. Job satisfaction, work related stress and work life conflicts are used as mediating variables between work overload and turnover intention. This study employed 141 auditors from several accounting firms operating in the Greater Jakarta region. The sample was selected using purposive sampling. Three mediation hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The results show that work overload has a significant effect on increas- ing turnover intention through both job satisfaction and work related stress. In comparison, work overload does not influence turnover intention through work life balance. This may be due to the nature of the respondents, in which a majority of the newly hired accountants employed in this study are unmarried.

  7. Iron overload in a teenager with xerocytosis: the importance of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Reijâne Alves de; Kassab, Carolina; Seguro, Fernanda Salles; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; Silveira, Paulo Augusto Achucarro; Wood, John; Hamerschlak, Nelson

    2013-12-01

    To report a case of iron overload secondary to xerocytosis, a rare disease in a teenager, diagnosed, by T2* magnetic resonance imaging. We report the case of a symptomatic patient with xerocytosis, a ferritin level of 350ng/mL and a significant cardiac iron overload. She was diagnosed by T2* magnetic resonance imaging and received chelation therapy Ektacytometric analysis confirmed the diagnosis of hereditary xerocytosis. Subsequent T2* magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated complete resolution of the iron overload in various organs, as a new echocardiography revealed a complete resolution of previous cardiac alterations. The patient remains in chelation therapy. Xerocytosis is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by dehydrated stomatocytosis. The patient may present with intense fatigue and iron overload. We suggest the regular use of T2* magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis and control of the response to iron chelation in xerocytosis, and we believe it can be used also in other hemolytic anemia requiring transfusions.

  8. Method study of improving overload characteristic of counter type nuclear instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong Jian Ping

    2002-01-01

    The output characteristic of GM counter can be improved by changing bias voltage of advanced circuit, so that makes overload characteristic of nuclear instrument is well improved. Above mentioned method is introduced

  9. Better than Text? Textuality as Sexuality in Postmodern North American Prose Poems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    This lecture analyses the relationship between textuality and sexuality in two recent prose poems: Margaret Atwood's In Love with Raymond Chandler (1992; in Good Bones and Simple Murders ) & Nin Andrews' Notes on the Orgasm (1993; in The Book of Orgasms (2000)). These poems use the vehicle of prose...... Chandler - a meetable subject) with the body of his work (which can also be referred to as "Raymond Chandler" - a readable subject). Next Atwood blurs the line between reading and screwing the author by sexualizing his descriptions of furniture, embodying, gendering and feminizing for instance Chandler...

  10. Analyzing Cultural Usability of Mobile Keypad and Displays for Textual Communication in Internationalization and Localization Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orngreen, Rikke; Katre, Dinesh; Sandeep, Mulagapati

    The aim of this paper is to identify the cultural usability aspects that need to be considered while internationalizing or localizing the interaction design of mobile keypads and displays for textual communication. The analysis is based primarily on heuristics tests, where: Hindi, Arabic and Danish mobile phones are evaluated based on assumptions of user needs, and in comparison to English. We have also referred the existing research on Chinese mobile phones to further complement our work. The study provides an insight into the much needed local-language centred approach in contrast with the current English centred approach of existing mobile keypad designs and display of text.

  11. Redemptive Family Narratives: Olga Lengyel and the Textuality of the Holocaust: In Memoriam Elie Wiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turda, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Memoirs written by Holocaust survivors and (in some cases) their testimonies retain a salience unmatched by other historical sources. This article discusses one such memoir, Olga Lengyel's Five Chimneys, alongside her 1998 testimony, aiming to engage with broader methodological issues relating to the history of the Holocaust, particularly those about memory, narrative and textuality. Through a detailed discussion of certain moments shaping Olga Lengyel's personal experience, both pre-and post-arrival in Auschwitz, the article captures the tensions and contradictions characterizing the harrowing story of one woman's loss of family in the Holocaust.

  12. Lingüística textual: quo vadis? Textlinguistics: quo vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingedore Grunfeld Villaça Koch

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir o futuro -- e a própria sobrevivência -- da Lingüística Textual neste milênio e os desafios que terá de enfrentar para contribuir para o desenvolvimento das Ciências Humanas numa nova era.This paper aims to discuss the future -- and the proper survival of Textlinguistics this millenium, and the challenges it has to face in order to contribute to the development of Human Sciences in a new era.

  13. Integrating Ontological Knowledge and Textual Evidence in Estimating Gene and Gene Product Similarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Posse, Christian; Gopalan, Banu; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-08

    With the rising influence of the Gene On-tology, new approaches have emerged where the similarity between genes or gene products is obtained by comparing Gene Ontology code annotations associ-ated with them. So far, these approaches have solely relied on the knowledge en-coded in the Gene Ontology and the gene annotations associated with the Gene On-tology database. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that improvements to these approaches can be obtained by integrating textual evidence extracted from relevant biomedical literature.

  14. Media(ting Textual Therapies in David Lodge’s Therapy and Deaf Sentence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Mihaela Necula

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available What the present article attempts at is mediating the image of a ‘discarnate man’ who inlays a discursive medium, itself a message. In so doing, it embarks upon two of David Lodge’s novels, Therapy (1995 and Deaf Sentence (2008 respectively as best implying and suggesting for a mode of survival: the exorcising writing act, manifest at the level of the text under the form of diary pages, letters or emails, seems to work as the best therapeutic treatment for depression (personal or textual, so that the poetics of the text is gradually traded for and replaced by the politics of the fictional game.

  15. Redemptive Family Narratives: Olga Lengyel and the Textuality of the Holocaust*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turda, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Memoirs written by Holocaust survivors and (in some cases) their testimonies retain a salience unmatched by other historical sources. This article discusses one such memoir, Olga Lengyel’s Five Chimneys, alongside her 1998 testimony, aiming to engage with broader methodological issues relating to the history of the Holocaust, particularly those about memory, narrative and textuality. Through a detailed discussion of certain moments shaping Olga Lengyel’s personal experience, both pre-and post-arrival in Auschwitz, the article captures the tensions and contradictions characterizing the harrowing story of one woman’s loss of family in the Holocaust. PMID:27959969

  16. [Fasting insulinemie levels and after overload with oral glucose in overweight children (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, M J; Colomer, J; Borrajo, E; Alpera, R

    1978-02-01

    Fasting insulinemie levels and after overload with oral glucose are studied in a group of 30 overweight children aged between 2--12 years. The results are: An increase in insulin secretion according to the age only in the overload test. The insulin and glucose areas in the overweight child is statistically bigger than in the healthy child. We conclude that hyperinsulinism in obesity, may be related with a insuline-resistance and with some kind of glucose intolerance.

  17. Haemochromatosis genotype and iron overload: association with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, C; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A; Appleyard, M

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that there is an association between haemochromatosis genotype C282Y/C282Y and/or iron overload and risk of hypertension and/or left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH).......We hypothesized that there is an association between haemochromatosis genotype C282Y/C282Y and/or iron overload and risk of hypertension and/or left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH)....

  18. Static axial overloading primes lumbar caprine intervertebral discs for posterior herniation

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Cornelis P. L.; Magda de Graaf; Arno Bisschop; Holewijn, Roderick M.; van de Ven, Peter M.; van Royen, Barend J; Mullender, Margriet G.; Smit, Theodoor H.; Helder, Marco N.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Lumbar hernias occur mostly in the posterolateral region of IVDs and mechanical loading is an important risk factor. Studies show that dynamic and static overloading affect the nucleus and annulus of the IVD differently. We hypothesize there is also variance in the effect of overloading on the IVD?s anterior, lateral and posterior annulus, which could explain the predilection of herniations in the posterolateral region. We assessed the regional mechanical and cellular responses o...

  19. Static axial overloading primes lumbar caprine intervertebral discs for posterior herniation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis P L Paul

    Full Text Available Lumbar hernias occur mostly in the posterolateral region of IVDs and mechanical loading is an important risk factor. Studies show that dynamic and static overloading affect the nucleus and annulus of the IVD differently. We hypothesize there is also variance in the effect of overloading on the IVD's anterior, lateral and posterior annulus, which could explain the predilection of herniations in the posterolateral region. We assessed the regional mechanical and cellular responses of lumbar caprine discs to dynamic and static overloading.IVDs (n = 125 were cultured in a bioreactor and subjected to simulated-physiological loading (SPL, high dynamic (HD, or high static (HS overloading. The effect of loading was determined in five disc regions: nucleus, inner-annulus and anterior, lateral and posterior outer-annulus. IVD height loss and external pressure transfer during loading were measured, cell viability was mapped and quantified, and matrix integrity was assessed.During culture, overloaded IVDs lost a significant amount of height, yet the distribution of axial pressure remained unchanged. HD loading caused cell death and disruption of matrix in all IVD regions, whereas HS loading particularly affected cell viability and matrix integrity in the posterior region of the outer annulus.Axial overloading is detrimental to the lumbar IVD. Static overloading affects the posterior annulus more strongly, while the nucleus is relatively spared. Hence, static overloading predisposes the disc for posterior herniation. These findings could have implications for working conditions, in particular of sedentary occupations, and the design of interventions aimed at prevention and treatment of early intervertebral disc degeneration.

  20. Static axial overloading primes lumbar caprine intervertebral discs for posterior herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Cornelis P L; de Graaf, Magda; Bisschop, Arno; Holewijn, Roderick M; van de Ven, Peter M; van Royen, Barend J; Mullender, Margriet G; Smit, Theodoor H; Helder, Marco N

    2017-01-01

    Lumbar hernias occur mostly in the posterolateral region of IVDs and mechanical loading is an important risk factor. Studies show that dynamic and static overloading affect the nucleus and annulus of the IVD differently. We hypothesize there is also variance in the effect of overloading on the IVD's anterior, lateral and posterior annulus, which could explain the predilection of herniations in the posterolateral region. We assessed the regional mechanical and cellular responses of lumbar caprine discs to dynamic and static overloading. IVDs (n = 125) were cultured in a bioreactor and subjected to simulated-physiological loading (SPL), high dynamic (HD), or high static (HS) overloading. The effect of loading was determined in five disc regions: nucleus, inner-annulus and anterior, lateral and posterior outer-annulus. IVD height loss and external pressure transfer during loading were measured, cell viability was mapped and quantified, and matrix integrity was assessed. During culture, overloaded IVDs lost a significant amount of height, yet the distribution of axial pressure remained unchanged. HD loading caused cell death and disruption of matrix in all IVD regions, whereas HS loading particularly affected cell viability and matrix integrity in the posterior region of the outer annulus. Axial overloading is detrimental to the lumbar IVD. Static overloading affects the posterior annulus more strongly, while the nucleus is relatively spared. Hence, static overloading predisposes the disc for posterior herniation. These findings could have implications for working conditions, in particular of sedentary occupations, and the design of interventions aimed at prevention and treatment of early intervertebral disc degeneration.

  1. Interactions of Aging, Overload, and Creatine Supplementation in Rat Plantaris Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Schuenke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuation of age-related sarcopenia by creatine supplementation has been equivocal. In this study, plantaris muscles of young (Y; 5m and aging (A; 24m Fisher 344 rats underwent four weeks of either control (C, creatine supplementation (Cr, surgical overload (O, or overload plus creatine (OCr. Creatine alone had no effect on muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA or heat shock protein (HSP70 and increased myonuclear domain (MND only in young rats. Overload increased CSA and HSP70 content in I and IIA fibers, regardless of age, and MND in IIA fibers of YO rats. CSA and MND increased in all fast fibers of YOCr, and CSA increased in I and IIA fibers of AOCr. OCR did not alter HSP70, regardless of age. MND did not change in aging rats, regardless of treatment. These data indicate creatine alone had no significant effect. Creatine with overload produced no additional hypertrophy relative to overload alone and attenuated overload-induced HSP70 expression.

  2. Correlation between volume overload, chronic inflammation, and left ventricular dysfunction in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Muzamil Olamide; Duarte, Raquel; Dix-Peek, Therese; Vachiat, Ahmed; Naidoo, Sagren; Dickens, Caroline; Grinter, Sacha; Manga, Pravin; Naicker, Saraladevi

    Fluid overload is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, potentially driving chronic inflammation and left ventricular dysfunction. We investigated the association between volume overload, chronic inflammation, and left ventricular dysfunction across subgroups of CKD patients. The study included 160 participants, comprising peritoneal dialysis (PD), hemodialysis (HD), stage-3 CKD patients, and age- and sex-matched controls (40 in each group). Fluid status was assessed using a body composition monitor (BCM); serum endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), C-reactive protein (CRP). and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were measured as markers of inflammation. Echocardiography was done to assess left ventricular dimension and function. Endotoxemia and volume overload were common across the spectrum of CKD patients and were aggravated by worsening kidney function. Among HD cohorts, postdialysis endotoxemia was increased among patients with dialysis-induced hemodynamic instability and was also closely related to ultrafiltration volume. Endotoxin, IL-6, CRP, and LBP levels were elevated in patients with volume overload compared to euvolemic patients (p < 0.05). Patients with elevated circulating endotoxemia had higher left ventricular mass index (LVMI) compared to patients with lower endotoxin levels. Fluid overload correlated with endotoxin levels, IL-6, and LVMI; while LVMI correlated weakly with LBP and CRP. CKD patients typically presented with significant endotoxemia and overt volume overload, which may contribute significantly to chronic low-grade inflammation and left ventricular dysfunction. An additive contribution from hemodialysis treatment may strongly enhance the severity of endotoxemia in HD patients.

  3. When more is less: An examination of the relationship between hours in telework and role overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duxbury, Linda; Halinski, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Proponents of telework arrangements assert that those who telework have more control over their work and family domains than their counterparts who are not permitted to work from home. Using Karasek's theory we hypothesized that the relationship between demands (hours in work per week; hours in childcare per week) and strain (work role overload; family role overload) would be moderated by the number of hours the employee spent per week teleworking (control). To determine how the number of telework hours relates to work role overload and family role overload, we follow the test for moderation and mediation using hierarchical multiple regression analysis as outlined by Frazier et al. [50] We used survey data collected from 1,806 male and female professional employees who spent at least one hour per week working from home during regular hours (i.e. teleworking). As hypothesized, the number of hours in telework per week negatively moderated the relation between work demands (total hours in paid employment per week) and work strain (work role overload). Contrary to our hypothesis, the number of hours in telework per week only partially mediated the relation between family demands (hours a week in childcare) and family role overload (strain). The findings from this study support the idea that the control offered by telework is domain specific (helps employees meet demands at work but not at home).

  4. “Hydraulic Cushion” Type Overload Protection Devices Usable in Mechanical Presses. A Patent Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioară, R.

    2016-11-01

    The possible consequences of machine-tool overload are well-known. In order to prevent such, machine-tools are equipped with various overload protection devices. Mechanical presses, intensively strained machine-tools, are typically equipped with three protection systems: against accidental access to the working area during machine deployment, against torque overload and force overload. Force overload protection systems include either destructible parts and are used in small to medium nominal force mechanical presses, or non-destructible ones used mostly in medium to large nominal force (H-frame) presses. A particular class of force overload protection systems without destructible parts are “hydraulic cushion” type devices. While such systems do not necessarily cause the machine to stop, the slide's stroke does not reach the initial dead centre and consequently cannot exert the designed technological force on the workpiece. By a patent study referencing 19 relevant patents the paper captures both the diversity of the constrictive solutions of “hydraulic cushion” type protection devices and their positioning modalities within the structure of a mechanical press. An important aim of the study is to highlight the reserve of creativity existing in this field, at least from the viewpoint of the hydraulic cushion positioning, as well as to emphasize the essential requirement of a relative motion between the mobile and the fixed parts of the tool, a motion of opposite sense to that of the slide-crank mechanism.

  5. Damage in Total Knee Replacements from Mechanical Overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, William F.; Miller, Mark A.; Cleary, Richard J.; Izant, Timothy H.; Mann, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical loads acting across the knee joint following total knee replacements (TKR) during activities of daily living have recently been measured using instrumented TKRs. Using a series of postmortem retrieved TKR constructs we investigated whether these mechanical loads could result in damage to the implant bone interface or supporting bone in the tibia. Eighteen cemented en bloc tibial components (0 to 22 years in service) were loaded under axial compression in increments from 1 to 10 times body weight and digital image correlation was used to measure bone strain and interface micromotion during loading and unloading. Failure was considered to occur when micromotion exceeded 150 μm or compressive bone strain exceeded 7300 με. The results show that all retrieved specimens had sufficient bone strength to support most activities of daily living, but ~40% would be at risk under larger physiologic loads that might occur secondary to a higher impacts such as jogging or a stumble. The tray-bone micromotion (regression model R2=0.48, p=0.025) was greater for donors with lower age at implantation (p=0.0092). Proximal bone strain (model R2=0.46, p=0.03) was greater for donors with longer time in service (p=0.021). Distal bone strain (model R2=0.58, p=0.005) was greater for donors with more time in service (p=0.0054) and lower peri-implant BMD (p=0.049). High mechanical overload of a single or repetitive nature may be an initiating factor in aseptic loosening of total joint arthroplasties and should be avoided in order to prolong the life of the implant. PMID:27237382

  6. Cinnamaldehyde attenuates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Wu, Qing-Qing; Liu, Yuan; Hu, Zhe-Fu; Bian, Zhou-Yan; Tang, Qi-Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamaldehyde is a major bioactive compound isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum osmophloeum. Studies have demonstrated that cinnamaldehyde has anti-bacterial activity, anti-tumorigenic effect, immunomodulatory effect, anti-fungal activity, anti-oxidative effect, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effect. It has been proven that Cinnamaldehyde improves ischemia/reperfusion injury of pre-treatment. However, little is known about the effect of cinnamaldehyde on cardiac hypertrophy. Aortic banding (AB) was performed to induce cardiac hypertrophy in mice. Cinnamaldehyde premixed in diets was administered to mice after one week of AB. Echocardiography and catheter-based measurements of hemodynamic parameters were performed at week 7 after starting cinnamaldehyde (8 weeks after surgery). The extent of cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by pathological and molecular analyses of heart samples. Meanwhile, the effect of cinnamaldehyde on myocardial hypertrophy, fibrosis and dysfunction induced by AB was investigated, as was assessed by heart weigh/body weight, lung weight/body weight, heart weight/tibia length, echocardiographic and haemodynamic parameters, histological analysis, and gene expression of hypertrophic and fibrotic markers. Our data demonstrated that echocardiography and catheter-based measurements of hemodynamic parameters at week 7 revealed the amelioration of systolic and diastolic abnormalities by cinnamaldehyde intervention. Cardiac fibrosis in AB mice was also decreased by cinnamaldehyde. Moreover, the beneficial effect of cinnamaldehyde was associated with the normalization in gene expression of hypertrophic and fibrotic markers. Further studies showed that pressure overload significantly induced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway, which was blocked by cinnamaldehyde. Cinnamaldehyde may be able to retard the progression of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, probably via blocking ERK signaling pathway.

  7. Mechanisms of cardiac hypertrophy in canine volume overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, T.; Carabello, B. A.; Nagatomo, Y.; Koide, M.; Hamawaki, M.; Zile, M. R.; McDermott, P. J.

    1998-01-01

    This study tested whether the modest hypertrophy that develops in dogs in response to mitral regurgitation is due to a relatively small change in the rate of protein synthesis or, alternatively, is due to a decreased rate of protein degradation. After 3 mo of severe experimental mitral regurgitation, the left ventricular (LV) mass-to-body weight ratio increased by 23% compared with baseline values. This increase in LV mass occurred with a small, but not statistically significant, increase in the fractional rate of myosin heavy chain (MHC) synthesis (Ks), as measured using continuous infusion with [3H]leucine in dogs at 2 wk, 4 wk, and 3 mo after creation of severe mitral regurgitation. Translational efficiency was unaffected by mitral regurgitation as measured by the distribution of MHC mRNA in polysome gradients. Furthermore, there was no detectable increase in translational capacity as measured by either total RNA content or the rate of ribosome formation. These data indicate that translational mechanisms that accelerate the rate of cardiac protein synthesis are not responsive to the stimulus of mitral regurgitation. Most of the growth after mitral regurgitation was accounted for by a decrease in the fractional rate of protein degradation, calculated by subtracting fractional rates of protein accumulation at each time point from the corresponding Ks values. We conclude that 1) volume overload produced by severe mitral regurgitation does not trigger substantial increases in the rate of protein synthesis and 2) the modest increase in LV mass results primarily from a decrease in the rate of protein degradation.

  8. Cucurbitacin B Protects Against Pressure Overload Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yang; Yang, Zheng; Wu, Qing-Qing; Jiang, Xiao-Han; Yuan, Yuan; Chang, Wei; Bian, Zhou Yan; Zhu, Jin Xiu; Tang, Qi-Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Lack of effective anti-cardiac hypertrophy drugs creates a major cause for the increasing prevalence of heart failure. In the present study, we determined the anti-hypertrophy and anti-fibrosis potential of a natural plant triterpenoid, Cucurbitacin B both in vitro and in vivo. Aortic banding (AB) was performed to induce cardiac hypertrophy. After 1 week of surgery, mice were receive cucurbitacin B treatment (Gavage, 0.2 mg/kg body weight/2 day). After 4 weeks of AB, cucurbitacin B demonstrated a strong anti-hypertrophy and -fibrosis ability as evidenced by decreased of heart weight, myocardial cell cross-sectional area and interstitial fibrosis, ameliorated of systolic and diastolic abnormalities, normalized in gene expression of hypertrophic and fibrotic markers, reserved microvascular density in pressure overload induced hypertrophic mice. Cucurbitacin B also showed significant hypertrophy inhibitory effect in phenylephrine stimulated cardiomyocytes. The Cucurbitacin B-mediated mitigated cardiac hypertrophy was attributable to the increasing level of autophagy, which was associated with the blockade of Akt/mTOR/FoxO3a signal pathway, validated by SC79, MK2206, and 3-MA, the Akt agonist, inhibitor and autophagy inhibitor in vitro. The overexpression of constitutively active Akt completely abolished the Cucurbitacin B-mediated protection of cardiac hypertrophy in human cardiomyocytes AC16. Collectively, our findings suggest that cucurbitacin B protects against cardiac hypertrophy through increasing the autophagy level in cardiomyocytes, which is associated with the inhibition of Akt/mTOR/FoxO3a signal axis. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3899-3910, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Textual research on change of medicinal parts and herbal medicine of Prunella vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuhang; Guo, Qiaosheng; Wang, Chengya

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the herbal medicine of Prunella vulgaris by textual researches, and provide a theoretical basis for clinical medication, exploitation and protection of wild P. vulgaris resources. Textual research on medicinal works of past dynasties and field work were adopted. The natural distributions of P. vulgaris were concentrated distribution in Sichuan province, Huaihe river basin, and Middle-Lower Yangtze river valley in Chinese history. The indications of P. vulgaris in ancient and modern times were basically identical. While there were difference between the medicinal parts, harvest period and processing methods existed difference between ancient and modern. Three periods that whole grass of P. vulgaris as medicinal parts (from late Ming dynasty to late Qing dynasty and early stage of Republic of China), both whole grass and spicas as medicinal parts (from mid-term Republic of China to 1963), and the semi-maturity or maturity of spicas as medicinal parts (from 1963 to today) existed. The processing method for medicinal parts of P. vulgaris adopted sun drying and shady drying in ancient China, but only the sun drying was only used in modern times.

  10. El concepto de ficcionalidad: Teoría y representaciones textuales

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    Álamo Felices, Francisco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is an updated tour —scientific, terminological and bibliographical— of the concept of fictionality and its fundamental textual representations. The structure of this article is drawn from a prior state of the issue and moves on to a theoretical exposition of these fictional forms, to which a sampler of narrative examples applied to each of the analyzed narratives is added. All of this is complemented by recent contributions made within the field of fictionality by both literary critics and the novelists themselves.Este trabajo es un recorrido actualizado —científico, terminológico y bibliográfico— acerca del concepto de ficcionalidad y sus representaciones textuales fundamentales. La estructura del artículo se traza desde un estado previo de la cuestión para continuar con una exposición teórica de dichas modalidades ficcionales a lo que se añade un muestrario de ejemplos narrativos aplicados a cada caso analizado. Todo lo anterior se complementa con las últimas aportaciones que, en el campo de la ficcionalidad, han realizado tanto la crítica literaria como los propios novelistas.

  11. An analysis of the textual practices of undergraduate and postgraduate novice writers in law

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    Greenbaum, Lesley Anne

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Criticisms in the media and in the law professions about the writing skills of law graduates have drawn attention to the challenges that novice law students experience in acquiring these skills at the foundation level. Our research project attempts to understand the nature of these challenges from multiple perspectives: firstly, by sourcing students’ understandings of their challenges with legal writing through semi-structured interviews, followed by a close textual analysis of samples of their writing, as well as through feedback from teaching staff. In this paper, we present the findings of our textual analysis of their writing. We illustrate how their difficulties with legal writing manifest at the levels of content, concept and lexico-grammar and how the students’ struggles with legal concepts had implications for their overall engagement with the content of the subject matter. At the level of content, students exhibited problems with the appropriate presentation of subject matter, achieving precision in their writing and showing evidence of an appreciation of what counts as tacit knowledge within the discipline, while at the lexico-grammatical level they struggled with tense, preposition and article use. The paper concludes by recommending some strategies for responding to these challenges while taking into account their resource implications.

  12. A Didatic Reflection on Distribution of Textual Genres to the Primary School

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    João Bosco Figueiredo-Gomes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the interest on the studies about textual genre and its teaching in the three last decades, the present article presents a report of an analysis of collection of didactic books of Portuguese language of the Primary School II, which aimed at verifying if the didactic book enables a comprehension about different textual genres as for the student, in relation to the context and social use, as well as for the teacher, in relation to parameters in order to do an analysis and choice of didactic collection books. The theoretical methodological framework based mainly in the contributions of Interactionism Socio-discursive: Bronckart (1999, 2003 and Schneuwly and Dolz (2004; in the studies by Marcuschi (2002, 2008 and in the orientations about the teaching of mother language contained in the National Curriculum Guidelines – PCN (BRASIL, 1998. The results provided a reflection that offers param-eters to the analysis, choice and organization of didactic collections, as well as suggestions of pedagogic implementation towards the teaching of Portuguese language.

  13. Objetos textuales y dispositivos colaborativos: de la etnografía como plataforma pública

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    Marrero Guillamón, Isaac

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the unexpected becoming-collaborative of an ethnographic project in Hackney Wick (London which looked at the role of art in the critique to the urban transformations brought about by the 2012 Olympics. The derailment of what should have been a conventional fieldwork exercise led to a reformulation of the ethnographic practice as a collaborative device aimed at the production of textual objects which in turn acted as public forums or platforms. This process is here discussed as a recursive (or parasitic gesture which appropriates native ways of doing.Este artículo traza el inesperado devenir colaborativo acontecido en el transcurso de una investigación etnográfica en Hackney Wick (Londres en torno al rol del arte en la crítica a la transformación urbana asociada a los Juegos Olímpicos de Londres 2012. El descarrilamiento de lo que debía haber sido un ejercicio clásico de trabajo de campo condujo a una reformulación del ejercicio etnográfico como dispositivo colaborativo orientado a la producción de objetos textuales que a su vez actuaban como foro o plataforma pública. Este proceso se discute aquí como un gesto recursivo (o parasítico que se apropia, y versiona, prácticas y modos de hacer propios del campo.

  14. Textual and visual content-based anti-phishing: a Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haijun; Liu, Gang; Chow, Tommy W S; Liu, Wenyin

    2011-10-01

    A novel framework using a Bayesian approach for content-based phishing web page detection is presented. Our model takes into account textual and visual contents to measure the similarity between the protected web page and suspicious web pages. A text classifier, an image classifier, and an algorithm fusing the results from classifiers are introduced. An outstanding feature of this paper is the exploration of a Bayesian model to estimate the matching threshold. This is required in the classifier for determining the class of the web page and identifying whether the web page is phishing or not. In the text classifier, the naive Bayes rule is used to calculate the probability that a web page is phishing. In the image classifier, the earth mover's distance is employed to measure the visual similarity, and our Bayesian model is designed to determine the threshold. In the data fusion algorithm, the Bayes theory is used to synthesize the classification results from textual and visual content. The effectiveness of our proposed approach was examined in a large-scale dataset collected from real phishing cases. Experimental results demonstrated that the text classifier and the image classifier we designed deliver promising results, the fusion algorithm outperforms either of the individual classifiers, and our model can be adapted to different phishing cases. © 2011 IEEE

  15. Deficits of cognitive restructuring in major depressive disorder: Measured by textual micro-counseling dialogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nengzhi; Yu, Fei; Zhang, Wencai; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-04-30

    Cognitive restructuring is an important strategy in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The present study aimed to observe cognitive restructuring in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients using textual micro-counseling dialogue situations. A set of textual micro-counseling dialogues was used to trigger cognitive restructuring in 25 MDD patients and 27 healthy adults. The participants read descriptions ("problems") and explanations ("solutions") for psychologically distressing situations. High-, low-, and zero-restructuring solutions were randomly matched to the problems. The participants evaluated the adaptability and emotional valence of the problems and the insightfulness, adaptability, novelty, and emotional valence of the solutions. Insightfulness ratings for high-restructuring solutions were significantly higher relative to those of low-restructuring solutions in healthy adults, while adaptability ratings for low-restructuring solutions were significantly higher relative to those of high-restructuring solutions in MDD patients. Insightfulness ratings for the solutions were significantly predicted by novelty and adaptability in healthy adults and emotional valence in MDD patients. Lower insightfulness in high-restructuring solutions and higher adaptability in low-restructuring solutions in MDD patients may reflect deficits in cognitive control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Extending the GEM model to support knowledge extraction from textual guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georg, Gersende; Séroussi, Brigitte; Bouaud, Jacques

    2005-03-01

    Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) are being developed as a tool to promote best practice in medicine. However, the diffusion of paper guidelines has been shown to only have a limited impact. This is why computerization of CPGs has recently been suggested as a means to improve their dissemination as well as physicians' compliance. The Guideline Elements Model (GEM) has been proposed to facilitate the encoding of CPGs and support the automatic processing of marked-up documents. In this paper, we explore the automatic generation of a rule base from a textual guideline using GEM. In this study, we propose an extension of the GEM model that introduces additional levels of structuring centered on decision variables. This allows a more efficient representation of the decision processes, which supports the automatic generation of decision rules from textual guidelines. The 1999 Canadian recommendations for the management of hypertension have been marked-up as a GEM-encoded instance of our extended DTD. We derived a rule base using an XML parser to extract the relevant elements to instantiate the IF and THEN clauses of decision rules. The rule base automatically generated compares favourably with the manual generation of decision rules in the ASTI project. This approach is an interesting case study in the computerization of CPGs, as it illustrates processing steps that are relevant to the various aspects of CPGs life-cycle, from production to consultation and use.

  17. Simulation model for overloaded monoclonal antibody variants separations in ion-exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guélat, Bertrand; Ströhlein, Guido; Lattuada, Marco; Delegrange, Lydia; Valax, Pascal; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2012-08-31

    A model was developed for the design of a monoclonal antibody charge variants separation process based on ion-exchange chromatography. In order to account for a broad range of operating conditions in the simulations, an explicit pH and salt concentration dependence has been included in the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The reliability of this model was tested using experimental chromatographic retention times as well as information about the structural characteristics of the different charge variants, e.g. C-terminal lysine groups and deamidated groups. Next, overloaded isocratic elutions at various pH and salt concentrations have been performed to determine the saturation capacity of the ion-exchanger. Furthermore, the column simulation model was applied for the prediction of monoclonal antibody variants separations with both pH and salt gradient elutions. A good prediction of the elution times and peak shapes was observed, even though none of the model parameters was adjusted to fit the experimental data. The trends in the separation performance obtained through the simulations were generally sufficient to identify the most promising operating conditions. The predictive column simulation model thus developed in this work, including a set of parameters determined through specific independent experiments, was experimentally validated and offers a useful basis for a rational optimization of monoclonal antibody variants separation processes on ion-exchange chromatography. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. THE EFFECTS OF TEXTUAL ENHANCEMENT AND STRUCTURED INPUT ACTIVITIES ON THE ACQUISITION OF THE ITALIAN NOUN-ADJECTIVE AGREEMENT

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    Monica Zanotto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available La concordanza tra genere e aggettivo è una caratteristica morfologica presente nella lingua italiana che è di difficile acquisizione da parte degli studenti che hanno familiarità solo con lingue in cui la concordanza è del tutto assente. Il presente articolo presenta uno studio condotto presso l’Università degli Studi di Milano che si propone di comparare l’efficacia di due diversi modelli di didattica nell’acquisizione della capacità di utilizzare correttamente la concordanza di genere tra nome e aggettivo da parte di discenti di L2 di madrelingua cinese. I due metodi utilizzati nella sperimentazione sono il Textual Enhancement (Sharwood Smith, 1991e le Structured Input Activities (Van Patten 1996,2004. La sperimentazione, strutturata in tre fasi (Benati, 2004, è stata condotta presso il Centro Marco Polo su un gruppo di sinofoni, studenti di italiano L2 di livello A2-B1. I risultati hanno confermato che sia il Textual Enhancement che le Structured Input Activities sono metodi d’insegnamento validi che aiutano i discenti ad elaborare particolari strutture morfologiche come la concordanza di genere. Tuttavia è emerso che il gruppo sottoposto al test con trattamento Structured Input Activities ha ottenuto risultati migliori rispetto al gruppo sottoposto a Textual Enhancement  The present study seeks to explore the effects that different types of instructions, namely Textual Enhancement and Structured Input Activities, can have on the acquisition of noun-adjective gender agreement by L2 Italian learners. A view of the theoretical backgrounds together with a review of the studies conducted on textual enhancement and structure input activities provide an overview of the main topics of the research. The present research aims to investigate whether textual enhancement and structured input activities help learners to make significant grammatical gains when exposed to these types of instruction and also which one facilitate better

  19. Principles of Textual Communication. On the Basis of Polish Press Reports after President Obama’s 2009 Inauguration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr P. Chruszczewski

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the assumption that any discourse is a highly context-dependent, and dynamically changing phenomenon of textual nature, and with reference to the fact that there may be used in linguistic research certain standards of textuality, the paper shows that the standards can be grouped into, e.g., three general sections (text-oriented, sender-oriented and context-oriented which can be used as a starting point for further research in the study of textlinguistics and journalistic discourse.

  20. An improvement in approximating the writing date of Jaameâ-os-settin using textual criticism methods

    OpenAIRE

    Sassan Zand Moqaddam

    2015-01-01

      This study shows that it is possible to correct or improve, by means of textual criticism, the results obtained from less accurate stylistic methods the result is the introduction of a new method for accuracy of stylistic deductions by assisting textual criticism. The exact date of the writing of Jaameâ-os-settin, known also as âthe exegesis of Sura Josephâ and written by Abubakr Ahmad ibn Mohammad ibn Zayd al-Tusi, is not known. There has been estimates based on stylistics criteria, and b...

  1. El discurso periodístico a través de la lingüística textual

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Franco M.

    2004-01-01

    Partiendo de una concepción funcionalista del lenguaje y considerando el texto como una unidad comunicativa (evento comunicativo),el presente artículo revisa las características del discurso periodístico a través de la lingüística textual. El modelo lingüístico comunicativo(Pottier, 1992; Molero, 1998; Franco, 2002) sirve de fundamento para la integración de diversas subfases: modelo cognitivo, modelo lingüístico-textual, modelo de contexto(VanDijk, 1990-1999), los principios constitutivos de...

  2. ASCERTAINMENT OF ADMISSIBLE SYSTEMATIC OVERLOADS IN THE DISTRIBUTIVE OIL-TRANSFORMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Anishchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of power-distributive oil-transformers is selected on the basis of their operational mode cost-effectiveness and power-supply reliability of the electrical recipients on condition that the transformers duty should not lead to reduction of their normal life-in-service. Unconscionable and protracted overloads intrinsically decrease reliability and respectively service life of the transformers owing to increased wear of the winding insulation because of the excessive heat. The unaccounted previous loading history and possible changes of the risen overload in the course of its further development can lead to poor accuracy in the admissible overload time estimation. Therefore, that may lead to intolerable excessive heat in the winding insulation or underutilization of the potential overload capacity of the transformers. Which limits the potentiality of complete demand satisfaction of the electrical consumers. This is exactly why the acting GOST 14209–97 strongly recommends the consumers to make their own calculations of the load-carrying capacity based on the real load curves.The authors present a method for ascertainment of the admissible duration of the systematic non-emergency overload of a distributive oil-transformer. The ascertainment method accounts for the overload repetition-factor alteration on the time-interval of its occurrence and respectively the variation in the transformer thermal state. The employment of this method will allow improving accuracy in ascertainment of the admissible duration of the systematic non-emergency overloads and eventually the reliability of the transformer operation and the power-supply system in its entirety. The method realization is intended by means of the transformer-load monitoring as one of the tasks of the electric-energy automated control and accounting system.

  3. Clinical outcomes of transfusion-associated iron overload in patients with refractory chronic anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao C

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chong Gao, Li Li, Baoan Chen, Huihui Song, Jian Cheng, Xiaoping Zhang, Yunyu SunDepartment of Hematology and Oncology, Key Department of Jiangsu Medicine, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of transfusion-associated iron overload in patients with chronic refractory anemia.Methods: Clinical manifestations, main organ function, results of computed tomography (CT, endocrine evaluation, and serum ferritin levels were analyzed retrospectively in 13 patients who were transfusion-dependent for more than 1 year (receiving >50 units of red blood cells to determine the degree of iron overload and efficacy of iron-chelating therapy.Results: Serum ferritin levels increased to 1,830–5,740 ng/mL in all patients. Ten patients had abnormal liver function. The CT Hounsfield units in the liver increased significantly in eleven patients, and were proportional to their serum ferritin levels. Skin pigmentation, liver dysfunction, and endocrine dysfunction were observed in nine patients with serum ferritin >3,500 ng/mL, eight of whom have since died. Interestingly, serum ferritin levels did not decrease significantly in nine transfusion-dependent patients who had received 15–60 days of iron-chelating therapy.Conclusion: Transfusion-dependent patients may progress to secondary iron overload with organ impairment, which may be fatal in those who are heavily iron-overloaded. The CT Hounsfield unit is a sensitive indicator of iron overload in the liver. Iron chelation therapy should be initiated when serum ferritin is >1,000 ng/mL and continued until it is <1,000 ng/mL in transfusional iron-overloaded patients.Keywords: anemia, aplastic, iron overload, myelodysplastic syndromes

  4. Protective effects of deferasirox and N-acetyl-L-cysteine on iron overload-injured bone marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Shen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Using an iron overload mouse model, we explored the protective effect of deferasirox (DFX and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC on injured bone marrow hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC induced by iron overload. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with 25 mg iron dextran every 3 days for 4 weeks to establish an iron overload (Fe model. DFX or NAC were co-administered with iron dextran in two groups of mice (Fe+DFX and Fe+NAC, and the function of HSPCs was then examined. Iron overload markedly decreased the number of murine HSPCs in bone marrow. Subsequent colony-forming cell assays showed that iron overload also decreased the colony forming capacity of HSPCs, the effect of which could be reversed by DFX and NAC. The bone marrow hematopoiesis damage caused by iron overload could be alleviated by DFX and NAC.

  5. Adaptive Visualization for Focused Personalized Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae-wook

    2010-01-01

    The new trend on the Web has totally changed today's information access environment. The traditional information overload problem has evolved into the qualitative level beyond the quantitative growth. The mode of producing and consuming information is changing and we need a new paradigm for accessing information. Personalized search is one of…

  6. Attitudes and emotions through written text: the case of textual deformation in internet chat rooms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Yus Ramos

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Los chats españoles de Internet son visitados por muchos jóvenes que usan el lenguaje de una forma muy creativa (ej. repetición de letras y signos de puntuación. En este artículo se evalúan varias hipótesis sobre el uso de la deformación textual respecto a su eficacia comunicativa. Se trata de comprobar si estas deformaciones favorecen una identificación y evaluación más adecuada de las actitudes (proposicionales o afectivas y emociones de sus autores. Las respuestas a un cuestionario revelan que a pesar de la información adicional que la deformación textual aporta, los lectores no suelen coincidir en la cualidad exacta de estas actitudes y emociones, ni establecen grados de intensidad relacionados con la cantidad de texto tecleada. Sin embargo, y a pesar de estos resultados, la deformación textual parece jugar un papel en la interpretación que finalmente se elige de estos mensajes enviados a los chats.

  7. Lactate dehydrogenase regulation in aged skeletal muscle: Regulation by anabolic steroids and functional overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Tyrone A; Healey, Julie M; Thompson, Raymond W; Lowe, Larry L; Carson, James A

    2014-09-01

    Aging alters the skeletal muscle response to overload-induced growth. The onset of functional overload is characterized by increased myoblast proliferation and an altered muscle metabolic profile. The onset of functional overload is associated with increased energy demands that are met through the interconversion of lactate and pyruvate via the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Testosterone targets many of the processes activated at the onset of functional overload. However, the effect of aging on this metabolic plasticity at the onset of functional overload and how anabolic steroid administration modulates this response is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine if aging would alter overload-induced LDH activity and expression at the onset of functional overload and whether anabolic steroid administration would modulate this response. Five-month and 25-month male Fischer 344xF1 BRN were given nandrolone decanoate (ND) or sham injections for 14days and then the plantaris was functionally overloaded (OV) for 3days by synergist ablation. Aging reduced muscle LDH-A & LDH-B activity 70% (pmuscle, both ND and OV decreased LDH-A and LDH-B activity. However, there was no synergistic or additive effect. In 5-month muscle, ND and OV decreased LDH-A mRNA expression with no change in LDH-B expression. In 25-month muscle, ND and OV increased LDH-A and LDH-B activity. LDH-A mRNA expression was not altered by ND or OV in aged muscle. However, there was a main effect of OV to decrease LDH-B mRNA expression. There was also an age-induced LDH isoform shift. ND and OV treatment increased the "fast" LDH isoforms in aged muscle, whereas ND and OV increased the "slow" isoforms in young muscle. Our study provides evidence that aging alters aspects of skeletal muscle metabolic plasticity normally induced by overload and anabolic steroid administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Food and medicines in the Mediterranean tradition. A systematic analysis of the earliest extant body of textual evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touwaide, Alain; Appetiti, Emanuela

    2015-06-05

    that humans have long been in contact with them, something that the medical uses of these species confirm, as they are multiple and finely distinguished. A pilot analysis of archeological remains of medicines confirms that textual evidence corresponds to physical evidence, that is, to the practice of medicine. As a consequence, textual information can be accepted as reflecting actual practice. Although the pseudo-aphorism according to which food are medicines and medicines are food does not appear as such in the Hippocratic Collection, it aptly expresses a fundamental element of the Hippocratic approach to therapeutics, without being, however, a creation of neither Hippocrates nor his followers and the physicians who practiced a form of medicine in the way of Hippocrates. A vast majority of the core group of plant species used for the preparation of medicines were also consumed as foodstuff. Knowledge and use of these plants probably resulted from a long co-existence in the same environment and also from multiple experiences of trial and error over millennia, whose results accumulated over time and contributed to the formation of the Mediterranean medical tradition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Web-based textual analysis of free-text patient experience comments from a survey in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maramba, Inocencio Daniel; Davey, Antoinette; Elliott, Marc N; Roberts, Martin; Roland, Martin; Brown, Finlay; Burt, Jenni; Boiko, Olga; Campbell, John

    2015-05-06

    Open-ended questions eliciting free-text comments have been widely adopted in surveys of patient experience. Analysis of free text comments can provide deeper or new insight, identify areas for action, and initiate further investigation. Also, they may be a promising way to progress from documentation of patient experience to achieving quality improvement. The usual methods of analyzing free-text comments are known to be time and resource intensive. To efficiently deal with a large amount of free-text, new methods of rapidly summarizing and characterizing the text are being explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using freely available Web-based text processing tools (text clouds, distinctive word extraction, key words in context) for extracting useful information from large amounts of free-text commentary about patient experience, as an alternative to more resource intensive analytic methods. We collected free-text responses to a broad, open-ended question on patients' experience of primary care in a cross-sectional postal survey of patients recently consulting doctors in 25 English general practices. We encoded the responses to text files which were then uploaded to three Web-based textual processing tools. The tools we used were two text cloud creators: TagCrowd for unigrams, and Many Eyes for bigrams; and Voyant Tools, a Web-based reading tool that can extract distinctive words and perform Keyword in Context (KWIC) analysis. The association of patients' experience scores with the occurrence of certain words was tested with logistic regression analysis. KWIC analysis was also performed to gain insight into the use of a significant word. In total, 3426 free-text responses were received from 7721 patients (comment rate: 44.4%). The five most frequent words in the patients' comments were "doctor", "appointment", "surgery", "practice", and "time". The three most frequent two-word combinations were "reception staff", "excellent service

  10. Shape-memory alloy overload protection device for osseointegrated transfemoral implant prosthetic limb attachment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Shao, Fei; Hughes, Steven

    2002-11-01

    The osseointegrated trans-femoral implant system provides a direct anchoring technique to attach prosthetic limb. This technique was first introduced PI Brenmark in Sweden. The UK had the first clinical trial in 1997 and currently has 6 active limb wearers. The success of this procedure has the potential for improved gait function and mobility, increased employability and significant long-term improvements in the quality of life for above knee amputees. However, the significant load involved in the trans-femoral implant system has caused permanent deformation and/or fractures of the implant abutment in several occasions. To protect the implant system, the implant abutment in particularly, an overloading protection device was introduced. The device uses mechanical mechanism to release torsion overload on the abutment. However, the bending overload protection remains unsolved. To solve the problem, a new overload protection device was developed. This device uses SMA component for bending overload protection. In this paper, the results of non-linear finite element modelling of the SMA and steel (AISI 1040) components were presented. Experiments were also carried out using steel components to assess the design which is based on the non-linear property of the materials.

  11. Update on the use of deferasirox in the management of iron overload

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    Ali Taher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ali Taher,1 Maria Domenica Cappellini21American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Universitá di Milano, Policlinico Foundation IRCCS, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Regular blood transfusions as supportive care for patients with chronic anemia inevitably lead to iron overload as humans cannot actively remove excess iron. The cumulative effects of iron overload cause significant morbidity and mortality if not effectively treated with chelation therapy. Based on a comprehensive clinical development program, the once-daily, oral iron chelator deferasirox (Exjade® is approved for the treatment of transfusional iron overload in adult and pediatric patients with various transfusion-dependent anemias, including β-thalassemia and the myelodysplastic syndromes. Deferasirox dose should be titrated for each individual patient based on transfusional iron intake, current iron burden and whether the goal is to decrease or maintain body iron levels. Doses of >30 mg/kg/day have been shown to be effective with a safety profile consistent with that observed at doses <30 mg/kg/day. Recent data have highlighted the ability of deferasirox to decrease cardiac iron levels and to prevent the accumulation of iron in the heart. The long-term efficacy and safety of deferasirox for up to 5 years of treatment have now been established. The availability of this effective and generally well tolerated oral therapy represents a significant advance in the management of transfusional iron overload. Keywords: deferasirox, Exjade, oral, iron chelation, iron overload, cardiac iron 

  12. Oral exfoliative cytology as a screening tool for iron overload in β-thalassemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Ajit Singh; Keshri, Neha; Shetty, Devi Charan; Juneja, Saurabh

    2016-01-01

    Increased iron overload is frequent problem in thalassemia patients, and this is monitored by serum ferritin levels or chemical assessment of the iron levels in liver tissue. However, repeated monitoring of serum ferritin levels to assess the iron overload is an invasive procedure associated with practical problems. To use Perl's Prussian blue reaction to evaluate the iron overload in beta-thalassemia patients by staining the oral cytosmears. The study comprised 35 patients diagnosed with beta-thalassemia. Cytosmears were prepared from exfoliated oral epithelial cells, fixed in 70% ethanol and stained with Perl's Prussian blue stain for detection of blue colored granules in the cytoplasm. 29/35 (82.9%) cases showed a positive reaction for Perl's Prussian blue reaction while 6/35 (17%) cases did not show the presence of blue colored granules in the oral cytosmears. The presence of iron detected by Perl's Prussian blue reaction correlated with serum ferritin level (P < 0.05). Perl's Prussian blue reaction can be used to evaluate the iron overload in beta-thalassemia patients by staining the oral cytosmears. It is a simple and noninvasive method for assessment of iron overload in such patients.

  13. Iron overload detection in rats by means of a susceptometer operating at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinelli, M; Gianesin, B [Department of Physics, University of Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genoa (Italy); Avignolo, C; Parodi, S [Department of Oncology, Biology and Genetics, Largo R Benzi 10, 16132 (Italy); Minganti, V [Department of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical and Alimentary Technology, Via Brigata Salerno 13, 16147 Genoa (Italy)

    2008-12-07

    Biosusceptometry is a non-invasive procedure for determination of iron overload in a human body; it is essentially an assessment of the diamagnetic (water) and paramagnetic (iron) properties of tissues. We measured in vivo iron overload in the liver region of 12 rats by a room temperature susceptometer. The rats had been injected with sub-toxic doses of iron dextran. A quantitative relationship has been observed between the measurements and the number of treatments. The assessment of iron overload requires evaluating the magnetic signal corresponding to the same rat ideally without the overload. This background value was extrapolated on the basis of the signal measured in control rats versus body weight (R{sup 2} = 0.73). The mean iron overload values for the treated rats, obtained after each iron injection, were significantly different from the means of the corresponding control rats (p < 0.01). The in vivo measurements have been complemented by chemical analysis on excised livers and other organs (R{sup 2} = 0.89). The magnetic moment of iron atoms in liver tissues was measured to be 3.6 Bohr magneton. Evaluation of the background signal is the limit to the measure; the error corresponds to about 30 mg (1 SD) of iron while the instrument sensitivity is more than a factor of 10 better.

  14. Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza injection suppresses kidney injury induced by iron overload in mice.

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    Shengjiang Guan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Excessive iron can accumulate in the kidney and induce tissue damage. Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza injection is a traditional Chinese medicinal preparation used for preventing and treating chronic renal failure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with Danshen injection on iron overload-induced kidney damage. METHODS: Mice were mock-treated with saline (control group or given a single dose of iron dextran without treatment (iron overload group, 50 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks or with daily treatments of low-dose Danshen (3 g/kg/day, high-dose Danshen (6 g/kg/day or deferoxamine (100 mg/kg/day. RESULTS: Treatment of iron-overloaded mice with Danshen injection led to significant improvements of body weight and decreased iron levels in the kidney. Danshen injection treatment also reduced concentrations of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and malondialdehyde and enhanced glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Histopathological examinations showed that Danshen injection ameliorated pathological changes and reduced iron deposition in kidneys of iron overloaded mice. Furthermore, the treatment was demonstrated to suppress apoptosis in nephrocytes. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that Danshen injection exerted significant renal protective effects in iron-overloaded mice, which were closely associated with the decrease of iron deposition and suppression of lipid peroxidation and apoptosis in the kidney.

  15. Resilience of electricity grids against transmission line overloads under wind power injection at different nodes.

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    Schiel, Christoph; Lind, Pedro G; Maass, Philipp

    2017-09-14

    A steadily increasing fraction of renewable energy sources for electricity production requires a better understanding of how stochastic power generation affects the stability of electricity grids. Here, we assess the resilience of an IEEE test grid against single transmission line overloads under wind power injection based on the dc power flow equations and a quasi-static grid response to wind fluctuations. Thereby we focus on the mutual influence of wind power generation at different nodes. We find that overload probabilities vary strongly between different pairs of nodes and become highly affected by spatial correlations of wind fluctuations. An unexpected behaviour is uncovered: for a large number of node pairs, increasing wind power injection at one node can increase the power threshold at the other node with respect to line overloads in the grid. We find that this seemingly paradoxical behaviour is related to the topological distance of the overloaded line from the shortest path connecting the wind nodes. In the considered test grid, it occurs for all node pairs, where the overloaded line belongs to the shortest path.

  16. Intertextualidade e produção textual: análise das narrativas do CELLIJ

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    Edna Mara da Silva de Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The textual construction already stated Bakhtin (2006 is permeated with intertextuality, ie a text takes from other texts, from this perspective, this study examines the intertextuality and the representation of narrative structure presented by students who participated in the workshops creative production of texts after storytime at the Centre for Studies in Reading and Children's and Youth Literature Betty Maria Coelho Silva (CELLIJ at UNESP campus of Presidente Prudente - SP. This paper presents a reflection on the importance of offering new narratives, whether through storytelling or reading literary texts, to build the child repertoire. From the reading of the corpus nine selected texts, we observed a strong influence of the heroes of commercial films and television series in child production, as well as a tendency writing conditional structure of fairy tales.

  17. La comprensión textual a partir del enfoque cognitivo comunicativo y sociocultural

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    Idolka Viera Bayeaux

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo profundiza en la necesidad de perfeccionar la enseñanza de la Lengua y la Literatura, insertándola dentro de una interpretación discursiva de la realidad. Se aplica el enfoque cognitivo, comunicativo y sociocultural de la enseñanza del Español- Literatura y su Metodología, en la carrera de Ciencias Humanísticas, mediante la propuesta de una estrategia para la comprensión textual con una selección de textos literarios y no literarios, que permiten una comprensión y producción, acorde con las necesidades de comunicación que presentan los alumnos.

  18. Multimedia and Textual Reading Comprehension: Multimedia as Personal Learning Environment’s Enriching Format

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    Jose Daniel García Martínez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will discuss part of a piece of research that was conducted with two 4ESO groups. Textual learning is opposed to multimedia learning within the context of PLE’s (Personal Learning Environment reading tools and strategies. In the research an analysis was made of whether it would be possible to improve the reading process through multimedia over a school term in two different aspects; one evolutionary with six classroom exercises and one evaluation with a final exercise. Concretely, this article states the number of question mistakes that the students made. The data indicates that there is a better evolution in students that performed the multimedia dynamic, although there are not any relevant differences in the final evaluation.

  19. Josip Bersa's Dubrovačke slike i prilike (1800. - 1880.: One textual analysis

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    Mladenović Jelena S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the cultural study entitled Dubrovačke slike i prilike (1880 - 1880 written by Josipa Bersa, which deals with the post-republic nineteenth-century history of -Dubrovnik, with a view to considering this text in cultural and political context. Two texts are taken into consideration: the first one about Sir Ivan Stojanović, published by Bersa in Serbian Literary -Magazine and the same text which is, on the author's own initiative, integrated in the latter book, published posthumously by Matica Hrvatska. By means of the textual analysis and the comparative study of the two texts in question, the paper seeks to highlight the problem of changing the original text, resulting from the publisher's possible -cultural policy impact. This paper brings into question the integrity of Bersa's study, written with the aim of preserving the particular -cultural identity of Dubrovnik.

  20. Write Like a Visual Artist: Tracing artists’ work in Canada’s textually mediated art world

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    Janna Klostermann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the social organisation of Canada’s art world from the standpoint of practising visual artists. Bringing together theories of literacy and institutional ethnography, the article investigates the literacy practices of visual artists, making visible how artists use written texts to participate in public galleries and in the social and institutional relations of the art world. Drawing on extended ethnographic research, including interviews, observational field notes and textual analyses, this study sheds light on the ways visual artists enact particular texts, enact organisational processes, and to enact the social and conceptual worlds they are a part of. Through the lens of visual artists, this study locates two particular texts – the artist statement and the bio statement – in the extended social and institutional relations of the art world.

  1. Write like a visual artist: Tracing the textually mediated art world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Klostermann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the social organisation of Canada’s art world from the standpoint of practising visual artists. Bringing together theories of literacy and institutional ethnography, the article investigates the literacy practices of visual artists, making visible how artists use written texts to participate in public galleries and in the social and institutional relations of the art world. Drawing on extended ethnographic research, including interviews, observational field notes and textual analyses, this study sheds light on the ways visual artists enact particular texts, enact organisational processes, and to enact the social and conceptual worlds they are a part of. Through the lens of visual artists, this study locates two particular texts – the artist statement and the bio statement – in the extended social and institutional relations of the art world.

  2. Itinerarios textuales del "Quijote" en América (siglos XVII a XIX

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    Eva Marìa Valero Juan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting with a brief description of the journey taken by the first editions of the Quixote which were sent to America, this article aims to review the textual biography of don Quixote in America between the 17th and 19th centuries. This selective review starts with the accounts of popular festivities that give evidence of the first appearances of don Quixote and Sancho in the texts. The selection of texts goes from 1607 to the Spanish Emancipation century, paying particular attention to its final years, with the analysis of some of the texts that Ruben Dario devoted to the Quixote, and of the rise of Don Quixote as a Spanish American symbol of identity.

  3. Texture, Textuality and Political Discourse: A Study of Lexical Cohesion in Nigeria's President Goodluck Jonathan's Inaugural Address, May, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enyi, Amaechi Uneke; Chitulu, Mark Ononiwu

    2015-01-01

    This study, entitled, "Texture and textuality in Political Discourse: A Study of Cohesive Devices in President Goodluck Jonathan's Inaugural Address-May, 2011" was an analysis of the lexical cohesive devices employed by Nigeria's President Goodluck Jonathan in crafting his May, 2011's Presidential Inaugural Address (PIA). Guided by the…

  4. A Cross Cultural Analysis of Textual and Interpersonal Metadiscourse Markers: The Case of Economic Articles in English and Persian Newspapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshrabadi, Abbas Mehrabi; Biria, Reza; Zavari, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    This study was an attempt to investigate the functional role of textual and interpersonal metadiscourse markers in English and Persian Economic news reports. To this end, 10 news articles, 5 in each language, were randomly selected from the Economic sections of the leading newspapers published in 2013-2014 in Iran and the United States. Based on…

  5. Translation Competence and Translation Performance: Lexical, Syntactic and Textual Patterns in Student Translations of a Specialized EU Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, Adrienn

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study aiming to reveal the recurring patterns of lexical, syntactic and textual errors in student translations of a specialized EU genre from English into Hungarian. By comparing the student translations to the official translation of the text, this article uncovers the most frequent errors that students made…

  6. Journeys toward Textual Relevance: Male Readers of Color and the Significance of Malcolm X and Harry Potter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciurba, Katie

    2017-01-01

    This article combines interview data from a group of boys of color at an urban single-sex school and content analysis of "The Autobiography of Malcolm X" and "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone" to demonstrate the complexities of readers' responses to literature. Textual relevance, or the ability to construct personal…

  7. Textual Self-branding: the Rhetorical Ethos in Mallarmé’s Divagations

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    Arild Michel Bakken

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines, from a rhetorical perspective, the textual presence of the auctorial figure in Mallarmé’s collection of prose writings, Divagations. It challenges the traditional and structuralist idea of Mallarmé as a poet eager to exclude his own persona from his work, and even as the initiator of the “death of the author.” Recent Mallarméan studies have been shifting the field’s attention away from the myth of the ivory tower to focus on the poet’s social project as it appears in the Divagations. Such a project presupposes a rhetorical commitment, and thus an auctorial presence in the text. The question that is raised here is then what role the figure of the poet plays in Mallarmé’s rhetorical strategy. A close rhetorical analysis of the Divagations reveals that the poet constantly, although discreetly, writes his own persona into the text. Throughout the Divagations, Mallarmé deploys much effort to give his persona qualities likely to win the support of his audience. It is argued that this manifest ethos preoccupation has a double function. The rhetorically efficient image of the poet is obviously intended to add authority to his social project. However, the poet’s constant cultivation of his textual figure shows that the ethos has gained a certain autonomy. An important preoccupation for the poet is in fact to brand himself as an author: contrary to the traditional idea of the absent poet, the auctorial figure seems to be one of the primary subjects of the Divagations. The argument thus invites us, in order to avoid overlooking this central aspect of Mallarmé’s project, to take the ethos perspective into account in any approach to Mallarmé’s prose work.

  8. Machine learning approaches to analysing textual injury surveillance data: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallmuur, Kirsten

    2015-06-01

    To synthesise recent research on the use of machine learning approaches to mining textual injury surveillance data. Systematic review. The electronic databases which were searched included PubMed, Cinahl, Medline, Google Scholar, and Proquest. The bibliography of all relevant articles was examined and associated articles were identified using a snowballing technique. For inclusion, articles were required to meet the following criteria: (a) used a health-related database, (b) focused on injury-related cases, AND used machine learning approaches to analyse textual data. The papers identified through the search were screened resulting in 16 papers selected for review. Articles were reviewed to describe the databases and methodology used, the strength and limitations of different techniques, and quality assurance approaches used. Due to heterogeneity between studies meta-analysis was not performed. Occupational injuries were the focus of half of the machine learning studies and the most common methods described were Bayesian probability or Bayesian network based methods to either predict injury categories or extract common injury scenarios. Models were evaluated through either comparison with gold standard data or content expert evaluation or statistical measures of quality. Machine learning was found to provide high precision and accuracy when predicting a small number of categories, was valuable for visualisation of injury patterns and prediction of future outcomes. However, difficulties related to generalizability, source data quality, complexity of models and integration of content and technical knowledge were discussed. The use of narrative text for injury surveillance has grown in popularity, complexity and quality over recent years. With advances in data mining techniques, increased capacity for analysis of large databases, and involvement of computer scientists in the injury prevention field, along with more comprehensive use and description of quality

  9. Harm reduction in U.S. tobacco control: Constructions in textual news media.

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    Eversman, Michael H

    2015-06-01

    U.S. tobacco control has long emphasized abstinence, yet quitting smoking is hard and cessation rates low. Tobacco harm reduction alternatives espouse substituting cigarettes with safer nicotine and tobacco products. Policy shifts embracing tobacco harm reduction have increased media attention, yet it remains controversial. Discourse theory posits language as fluid, and socially constructed meaning as neither absolute nor neutral, elevating certain views over others while depicting "discursive struggle" between them. While an abstinence-based framework dominates tobacco policy, discourse theory suggests constructions of nicotine and tobacco use can change, for example by positioning tobacco harm reduction more favorably. Textual discourse analysis was used to explore constructions of tobacco harm reduction in 478 (308 original) U.S. textual news media articles spanning 1996-2014. Using keyword database sampling, retrieved articles were analyzed first as discrete recording units and then to identify emergent thematic content. Constructions of tobacco harm reduction shifted over this time, revealing tension among industry and policy interests through competing definitions of tobacco harm reduction, depictions of its underlying science, and accounts of regulatory matters including tobacco industry support for harm reduction and desired marketing and taxation legislation. Heightened salience surrounding tobacco harm reduction and electronic cigarettes suggests their greater acceptance in U.S. tobacco control. Various media depictions construct harm reduction as a temporary means to cessation, and conflict with other constructions of it that place no subjective value on continued "safer" tobacco/nicotine use. Constructions of science largely obscure claims of the veracity of tobacco harm reduction, with conflict surrounding appropriate public health benchmarks for tobacco policy and health risks of nicotine use. Taxation policies and e-cigarette pricing relative to

  10. Effects of Inertial Setting on Power, Force, Work, and Eccentric Overload During Flywheel Resistance Exercise in Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Aranda, Luis M; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo

    2017-06-01

    Exercise load is a key component in determining end-point adaptations to resistance exercise. Yet, there is no information regarding the use of different inertia (i.e., loads) during isoinertial flywheel resistance exercise, a very popular high-intensity training model. Thus, this study examined power, work, force, and eccentric overload produced during flywheel resistance exercise with different inertial settings in men and women. Twenty-two women (n = 11) and men (n = 11) performed unilateral (in both legs) isolated concentric (CON) and coupled CON and eccentric (ECC) exercise in a flywheel knee extension device employing 6 inertias (0.0125, 0.025, 0.0375, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1 kg·m). Power decreased as higher inertias were used, with men showing greater (p ≤ 0.05) decrements than women (-36 vs. -29% from lowest to highest inertia). In contrast, work increased as higher inertias were employed, independent of sex (p ≤ 0.05; ∼48% from lowest to highest inertia). Women increased CON and ECC mean force (46-55%, respectively) more (p ≤ 0.05) than men (34-50%, respectively) from the lowest to the highest inertia evaluated, although the opposite was found for peak force data (i.e., peak force increased more in men than in women as inertia was increased). Men, but not women, increased ECC overload from inertia 0.0125 to 0.0375 kg·m2. Although estimated stretch-shorting cycle use during flywheel exercise was higher (p ≤ 0.05) in men (6.6%) than women (4.9%), values were greater for both sexes when using low-to-medium inertias. The information gained in this study could help athletes and sport and health professionals to better understand the impact of different inertial settings on skeletal muscle responses to flywheel resistance exercise.

  11. [The use of gravitation overloading in the treatment of obliterative atherosclerosis of lower extremity arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, R A; Kotel'nikov, G P; Makarov, I V; Oparin, A N

    2003-01-01

    The article sums up results of treatment of 152 patients with obliterating atherosclerosis of the lower extremity arteries which were exposed to 2-3 G gravitation overloading made in a centrifuge of a short radius in direction head--pelvis. The gravitation overloading in the regimen followed were not found to have negative effects of central hemodynamics. Peripheral circulation was noted to considerably improve which is confirmed: 1) by clinical data showing 2-5 times longer distance of painless walking; 2) by the data of ultrasound dopplerography manifested as larger volume rate of blood flow and regional perfusion index; 3) by thermographic explorations evidencing the recovery of the thermoprophile of the legs and feet. Thus, the application of gravitation overloading is a new effective method of conservative treatment of patients with the pathology in question.

  12. Hepatoprotective Potential of Caesalpinia crista against Iron-Overload-Induced Liver Toxicity in Mice

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    Rhitajit Sarkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the ameliorating effect of Caesalpinia crista Linn. (CCME extract on iron-overload-induced liver injury. Iron overload was induced by intraperitoneal administration of iron dextran into mice. CCME attenuated the percentage increase in liver iron and serum ferritin levels when compared to control group. CCME also showed a dose-dependent inhibition of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and liver fibrosis. The serum enzyme markers were found to be less, whereas enhanced levels of liver antioxidant enzymes were detected in CCME-treated group. In presence of CCME, the reductive release of ferritin iron was increased significantly. Furthermore, CCME exhibited DPPH radical scavenging and protection against Fe2+-mediated oxidative DNA damage. The current study confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of CCME against the model hepatotoxicant iron overload and the activity is likely related to its potent antioxidant and iron-chelating property.

  13. Uncoupling and oxidative stress in liver mitochondria isolated from rats with acute iron overload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo Andreu, G.L. [Centro de Quimica Farmaceutica, Departamento de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba); Inada, N.M.; Vercesi, A.E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Departamento de Patologia Clinica, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Curti, C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2009-01-15

    One hypothesis for the etiology of cell damage arising from iron overload is that its excess selectively affects mitochondria. Here we tested the effects of acute iron overload on liver mitochondria isolated from rats subjected to a single dose of i.p. 500 mg/kg iron-dextran. The treatment increased the levels of iron in mitochondria (from 21{+-}4 to 130{+-}7 nmol/mg protein) and caused both lipid peroxidation and glutathione oxidation. The mitochondria of iron-treated rats showed lower respiratory control ratio in association with higher resting respiration. The mitochondrial uncoupling elicited by iron-treatment did not affect the phosphorylation efficiency or the ATP levels, suggesting that uncoupling is a mitochondrial protective mechanism against acute iron overload. Therefore, the reactive oxygen species (ROS)/H{sup +} leak couple, functioning as a mitochondrial redox homeostatic mechanism could play a protective role in the acutely iron-loaded mitochondria. (orig.)

  14. Correlation between Ribosome Biogenesis and the Magnitude of Hypertrophy in Overloaded Skeletal Muscle.

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    Satoshi Nakada

    Full Text Available External loads applied to skeletal muscle cause increases in the protein translation rate, which leads to muscle hypertrophy. Although some studies have demonstrated that increases in the capacity and efficiency of translation are involved in this process, it remains unclear how these two factors are related to the magnitude of muscle hypertrophy. The present study aimed to clarify the roles played by the capacity and efficiency of translation in muscle hypertrophy. We used an improved synergist ablation in which the magnitude of compensatory hypertrophy could be controlled by partial removal of synergist muscles. Male rats were assigned to four groups in which the plantaris muscle was unilaterally subjected to weak (WK, moderate (MO, middle (MI, and strong (ST overloading by four types of synergist ablation. Fourteen days after surgery, the weight of the plantaris muscle per body weight increased by 8%, 22%, 32% and 45%, in the WK, MO, MI and ST groups, respectively. Five days after surgery, 18+28S rRNA content (an indicator of translational capacity increased with increasing overload, with increases of 1.8-fold (MO, 2.2-fold (MI, and 2.5-fold (ST, respectively, relative to non-overloaded muscle (NL in the WK group. rRNA content showed a strong correlation with relative muscle weight measured 14 days after surgery (r = 0.98. The phosphorylated form of p70S6K (a positive regulator of translational efficiency showed a marked increase in the MO group, but no further increase was observed with further increase in overload (increases of 22.6-fold (MO, 17.4-fold (MI, and 18.2-fold (ST, respectively, relative to NL in the WK group. These results indicate that increases in ribosome biogenesis at the early phase of overloading are strongly dependent on the amount of overloading, and may play an important role in increasing the translational capacity for further gain of muscular size.

  15. Assessment of Iron Overload in Homozygous and Heterozygous Beta Thalassemic Children below 5 Years of Age

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    Dhiraj J. Trivedi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thalassemia is a genetic disease having 3-7% carrier rate in Indians. It is transfusion dependent anemia having high risk of iron overloading. A clinical symptom of iron overload becomes detectable in second decade causing progressive liver, heart and endocrine glands damage. There is a need to assess iron overload in thalassemics below 5 years of age to protect them from complications at later age of life. Aims and objectives: Present study was undertaken to estimate serum iron status and evaluate serum transferrin saturation in both homozygous & heterozygous form of thalassemia as an index of iron overload among children of one to five years of age. Materials and Methods: Clinically diagnosed thirty cases of β thalassemia major & thirty cases of β thalassemia minor having severe anemia, hepatospleenomegaly and between 1 year to 5 years of age were included in study group and same age matched healthy controls were included in the study. RBC indices and HbA, HbA2 and HbF were estimated along with serum iron & serum Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC and serum transferrin levels. Results: Significant difference was observed in hemoglobin levels between control and both beta thalassemia groups. Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH values were reduced. Hemoglobin electrophoresis showed the elevated levels of HbF and HbA2 in both beta thalassemia groups. Among serum iron parameters, serum iron, TIBC and transferrin saturation were elevated whereas serum transferrin levels were low in thalassemia major in children below 5 years of age. Conclusion: Although clinical symptoms of iron overload have been absent in thalassemic children below five years of age, biochemical iron overloading has started at much lower age which is of great concern.

  16. Ablation of biglycan attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis after left ventricular pressure overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetz, Nadine; Rommel, Carolin; Schnick, Tilman; Neumann, Elena; Lother, Achim; Monroy-Ordonez, Elsa Beatriz; Zeeb, Martin; Preissl, Sebastian; Gilsbach, Ralf; Melchior-Becker, Ariane; Rylski, Bartosz; Stoll, Monika; Schaefer, Liliana; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Stiller, Brigitte; Hein, Lutz

    2016-12-01

    Biglycan, a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, has been shown to play an important role in stabilizing fibrotic scars after experimental myocardial infarction. However, the role of biglycan in the development and regression of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis during cardiac pressure overload and unloading remains elusive. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of biglycan on cardiac remodeling in a mouse model of left ventricular pressure overload and unloading. Left ventricular pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in mice resulted in left ventricular dysfunction, fibrosis and increased biglycan expression. Fluorescence- and magnetic-assisted sorting of cardiac cell types revealed upregulation of biglycan in the fibroblast population, but not in cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells or leukocytes after TAC. Removal of the aortic constriction (rTAC) after short-term pressure overload (3weeks) improved cardiac contractility and reversed ventricular hypertrophy but not fibrosis in wild-type (WT) mice. Biglycan ablation (KO) enhanced functional recovery but did not resolve cardiac fibrosis. After long-term TAC for 9weeks, ablation of biglycan attenuated the development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. In vitro, biglycan induced hypertrophy of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and led to activation of a hypertrophic gene program. Putative downstream mediators of biglycan signaling include Rcan1, Abra and Tnfrsf12a. These genes were concordantly induced by TAC in WT but not in biglycan KO mice. Left ventricular pressure overload induces biglycan expression in cardiac fibroblasts. Ablation of biglycan improves cardiac function and attenuates left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis after long-term pressure overload. In vitro biglycan induces hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes, suggesting that biglycan may act as a signaling molecule between cell types to modulate cardiac remodeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. Worse cardiac remodeling in response to pressure overload in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, N; Gomes-Ferreira, C; Moura, C; Roncon-Albuquerque, R; Leite-Moreira, A F; Falcão-Pires, I

    2016-08-15

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is characterized by cardiac structural and functional abnormalities. Additionally, chronic pressure overload conditions are highly prevalent amongst diabetic population and this association leads to a more severe myocardial impairment. The differences in myocardial pathophysiology between type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) still remain to be clarified. Thus, we aimed to investigate biventricular structural and functional changes promoted by the two types of DM and the impact of concomitant chronic pressure overload. Wistar rats were injected with streptozotocin (Type 1 DM, T1DM) or fed with a hypercaloric diet (Type 2 DM, T2DM). Pressure overload was imposed in DM animals by aortic constriction and after 5weeks of DM the cardiac function and structure were evaluated. Both types of DM promoted hypertrophy, increased fibrosis and advanced glycation end-products deposition, in the two ventricles. Interestingly, the induced myocardial alterations were distinct. While T1DM stimulated a pronounced hypertrophy and extracellular matrix remodeling, T2DM induced functional impairment. The negative impact of the association of DM with aortic constriction was more pronounced in T2DM, promoting impaired function and increased stiffness, particularly in the right ventricle. Our study demonstrated that the two types of diabetes induce distinct cardiac alterations per se or when combined with chronic pressure overload. T1DM promoted a more extensive remodeling in cardiac structure while T2DM significantly impaired ventricular function. The impact of pressure overload was more notorious in T2DM as observed by worse myocardial remodeling, suggesting a higher susceptibility to the deleterious effects of chronic pressure overload, namely hypertension, among this diabetic population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Conexões entre produção textual e consciência lingüística

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroka, Jaqueline Golbspan

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina a conexão entre consciência lingüística e produção textual, enfatizando os mecanismos coesivos e as etapas subjacentes ao processo de organização textual. Trata-se de uma investigação interdisciplinar a tipo exploratório, baseada nos pressupostos teóricos da psicologia cognitiva, da psicolingüística e da lingüística textual. Com o objetivo de verificar se o desempenho na produção textual - em termos de uso dos mecanismos coesivos - relaciona-se positivamente com o desenvolvimento da consciência lingüística, e se escritores com déficit na escrita redacional poderiam se beneficiar com uma abordagem terapêutica que estimule suas habilidades para refletir sobre a libguagem, foi desenvolvida nesta pesquisa uma etapa de 30 sessões de tratamento psicopedagógico grupal. Três sujeitos pré-adolescentes, de 11 a 14 anos de idade, integram o grupo (um dos sujeitos encontrava-se repetindo a 5ª série e os demais cursavam a 6ª série do 1º grau. Concluímos que a estimulação das habilidades metalingüísticas podem auxiliar os sujeitos com dificuldades escolares e desenvolver proficiência na produção textual, no que diz respeito ao monitoramento do uso dos mecanismos coesivos

  19. Implementing Filters to Identify and Prioritize Industrial Base Risk: Rules of Thumb to Reduce Cognitive Overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Thumb to Reduce Cognitive Overload Sally Sleeper, ODASD[M&IBP] John F. Starns, Northrop Grumman Published April 30, 2015 Disclaimer: The views...Prioritize Industrial Base Risk: Rules of Thumb to Reduce Cognitive Overload 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...ãW= `êÉ~íáåÖ=póåÉêÖó=Ñçê=fåÑçêãÉÇ=`Ü~åÖÉ= - 337 - Implementing Filters to Identify and Prioritize Industrial Base Risk: Rules of Thumb to Reduce

  20. Controlling Price-Responsive Heat Pumps for Overload Elimination in Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csetvei, Zsuzsa; Østergaard, Jacob; Nyeng, Preben

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of applying electric heat pumps with the control-by-price-concept in order to avoid overload in a local distribution system. The proposed control algorithm is based upon a centrally dispatched real-time market price, reflecting the state of a larger power...... system, and is extended with a local price control for overload elimination on the corresponding feeder. The paper presents the mathematical models of a two-node system with price-responsive heat pumps, the chosen methodology of the central price calculation, and the proposed local feedback control...

  1. Iron Overload Leading to Torsades de Pointes in β-Thalassemia and Long QT Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refaat, Marwan M; El Hage, Lea; Steffensen, Annette Buur

    2016-01-01

    The authors present a unique case of torsades de pointes in a β-thalassemia patient with early iron overload in the absence of any structural abnormalities as seen in hemochromatosis. Genetic testing showed a novel KCNQ1 gene mutation 1591C>T [Gln531Ter(X)]. Testing of the gene mutation in Xenopus...... laevis oocytes showed loss of function of the IKs current. The authors hypothesize that iron overload combined with the KCNQ1 gene mutation leads to prolongation of QTc and torsades de pointes....

  2. Predictors of postdischarge outcomes from information acquired shortly after admission for acute heart failure: a report from the Placebo-Controlled Randomized Study of the Selective A1 Adenosine Receptor Antagonist Rolofylline for Patients Hospitalized With Acute Decompensated Heart Failure and Volume Overload to Assess Treatment Effect on Congestion and Renal Function (PROTECT) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, John G; Chiswell, Karen; Teerlink, John R; Stevens, Susanna; Fiuzat, Mona; Givertz, Michael M; Davison, Beth A; Mansoor, George A; Ponikowski, Piotr; Voors, Adriaan A; Cotter, Gad; Metra, Marco; Massie, Barry M; O'Connor, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    Acute heart failure is a common reason for admission, and outcome is often poor. Improved prognostic risk stratification may assist in the design of future trials and in patient management. Using data from a large randomized trial, we explored the prognostic value of clinical variables, measured at hospital admission for acute heart failure, to determine whether a few selected variables were inferior to an extended data set. The prognostic model included 37 clinical characteristics collected at baseline in PROTECT, a study comparing rolofylline and placebo in 2033 patients admitted with acute heart failure. Prespecified outcomes at 30 days were death or rehospitalization for any reason; death or rehospitalization for cardiovascular or renal reasons; and, at both 30 and 180 days, all-cause mortality. No variable had a c-index>0.70, and few had values>0.60; c-indices were lower for composite outcomes than for mortality. Blood urea was generally the strongest single predictor. Eighteen variables contributed independent prognostic information, but a reduced model using only 8 items (age, previous heart failure hospitalization, peripheral edema, systolic blood pressure, serum sodium, urea, creatinine, and albumin) performed similarly. For prediction of all-cause mortality at 180 days, the model c-index using all variables was 0.72 and for the simplified model, also 0.72. A few simple clinical variables measured on admission in patients with acute heart failure predict a variety of adverse outcomes with accuracy similar to more complex models. However, predictive models were of only moderate accuracy, especially for outcomes that included nonfatal events. Better methods of risk stratification are required. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT00328692 and NCT00354458.

  3. Employment of vasopressin receptor antagonists in management of hyponatraemia and volume overload in some clinical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urso, C; Brucculeri, S; Caimi, G

    2015-08-01

    Hyponatraemia, the most common electrolyte imbalance occurring in hospitalized subjects, is usually classified as hypovolaemic, euvolaemic or hypervolaemic. Hyponatraemia is a predictor of death among subjects with chronic heart failure and cirrhosis. The inappropriate secretion of the antidiuretic hormone (AVP) seems to be of pivotal importance in the decline of serum sodium concentration in these clinical conditions. The objective of this review was to summarize recent progress in management of hyponatraemia in SIADH, cirrhosis and heart failure. Literature searches were conducted on the topics of hyponatraemia and vasopressin receptor antagonists, using PubMed, pharmaceutical company websites and news reports. The information was evaluated for relevance and quality, critically assessed and summarized. The initial treatment of severe hyponatraemia is directed towards the prevention or management of neurological manifestations and consists of an intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline. Fluid restriction is indicated in oedematous states. Diuretics alone or in combination with other specific drugs remain the main strategy in the management of volume overload in heart failure. In resistant cases, ultrafiltration can lead to effective removal of isotonic fluid preventing new episodes of decompensation; however, aquapheresis is associated with increased costs and other limits. In several trials, the efficacy of vasopressin receptor antagonists in euvolaemic patients (inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion) or in hypervolaemic hyponatraemia (chronic heart failure, cirrhosis) has been evaluated. It was found that vaptans, which promote aquaresis, were superior to a placebo in raising and maintaining serum sodium concentrations in these subjects. Combined with conventional therapy, vasopressin receptor antagonists (AVP-R antagonists) are able to increase the excretion of electrolyte-free water and the sodium concentration. Further studies are needed to assess

  4. Implementing Filters to Identify and Prioritize Industrial Base Risk: Rules of Thumb to Reduce Cognitive Overload (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Month Day, Year Implementing Filters to Identify and Prioritize Industrial Base Risk: Rules of Thumb to Reduce Cognitive Overload May 2015...Base Risk: Rules of Thumb to Reduce Cognitive Overload 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  5. Suitable Method of Overloading for Fast Primary Frequency Control from Offshore Wind Power Plants in Multi-Terminal DC Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit

    2017-01-01

    Increased penetration of offshore wind power plants (OWPPs) demands frequency control services from them. Overloading the wind turbine, for few seconds after the under frequency event, to utilize its kinetic energy seems promising option for fast primary frequency control. Two methods of overload...

  6. Coordinated and Interactive Expression of Genes of Lipid Metabolism and Inflammation in Adipose Tissue and Liver during Metabolic Overload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, W.; Tonini, G.; Mulder, P.; Kelder, T.; Erk, M. van; Hoek, A.M. van den; Mariman, R.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Baccini, M.; Kooistra, T.; Biggeri, A.; Kleemann, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background:Chronic metabolic overload results in lipid accumulation and subsequent inflammation in white adipose tissue (WAT), often accompanied by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In response to metabolic overload, the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and inflammatory

  7. Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn-Evans, Erin; Gregory, Kevin; Arsintescu, Lucia; Whitmire, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    situations necessitate that crewmembers wake from sleep and make quick decisions. A recently completed BHP investigation assesses the effects of sleep inertia upon abrupt awakening, with and without hypnotics currently used in spaceflight; results from this investigation will help to inform strategies relative to sleep inertia effects on performance. Circadian desynchrony has been observed during spaceflight. Circadian desynchrony during spaceflight develops due to schedule constraints requiring non-24 operations or 'slam-shifts' and due to insufficient or mis-timed light exposure. In addition, circadian misalignment has been associated with reduced sleep duration and increased medication use. In ground-based studies, circadian desynchrony has been associated with significant performance impairment and increased risk of accidents when operations coincide with the circadian nadir. There is a great deal of information available on how to manage circadian misalignment, however, there are currently no easily collected biomarkers that can be used during spaceflight to determine circadian phase. Current research efforts are addressing this gap. Work overload has been documented during current spaceflight operations. NASA has established work hour guidelines that limit shift duration, however, schedule creep, where duty requirements necessitate working beyond scheduled work hours, has been reported. This observation warrants the documentation of actual work hours in order to improve planning and in order to ensure that astronauts receive adequate down time. In addition to concerns about work overload, ground based evidence suggests that work underload may be a concern during deep space missions, where torpor may develop and physically demanding workload will be exchanged for monitoring of autonomous systems. Given that increased automation is anticipated for exploration vehicles, fatigue effects in the context of such systems needs to be further understood. Performance metrics are

  8. Interpretive analysis of the textual codes in the Parrot and Merchant story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Najafi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Narratology is a brunch of semiology which considers any kind of narrative, literary or non literary, verbal or visual, story or non story and after this specifies the plot. One of the most important subjects in narratology is the interpretation of textual cods which based on can be understood a lot of hidden meanings. Molavi expresses a lot of mystic points in Mathnavi in narrative form which some of his ideas can be realized in the first study but these ideas aren’t all of subjects which he wants to say and a complex of different meaning is hidden in any narrative which can be revealed by consideration of cods.     In terminology of semiology, code is a special situation in historical process of all of indexes and signs which specified for synchronized analyze. In review of literary texts textual cods are more important. Textual cods are the cods which their ambit is more extended than few special text and links these texts to each other in an interpretational form. Aesthetic cods are a group of textual cods which are used in different arts like: poem, painting, theater, music and so on.       The style of expression of aesthetic cods is the same style of art and literature. In the review of Mathnavi's narratives paying attention to narrative cods and using them can be considered as paralinguistic signs. Narrative cods contain interpretational form which used by authors and commentators of texts. In the story of parrot and merchant the textual cods are as follows:   - Parrot: in this story parrot is a symbolic code which shows all of human soul's features.   - Merchant: in this story merchant act as a cultural code which indicates rich who always are solicitous about their finance and are unaware of spiritual world.    - India: in this story India as a signifier code indicates spiritual world. Hermeneutic cods   Molana uses codes which act as turning point and addressed can understand hidden meanings which haven

  9. Diagnosis, management and response criteria of iron overload in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS): updated recommendations of the Austrian MDS platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Peter; Stauder, Reinhard; Theurl, Igor; Geissler, Klaus; Sliwa, Thamer; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Bettelheim, Peter; Sill, Heinz; Pfeilstöcker, Michael

    2018-01-02

    Despite the availability of effective iron chelators, transfusion-related morbidity is still a challenge in chronically transfused patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). In these patients, transfusion-induced iron overload may lead to organ dysfunction or even organ failure. In addition, iron overload is associated with reduced overall survival in MDS. Areas covered: During the past 10 years, various guidelines for the management of MDS patients with iron overload have been proposed. In the present article, we provide our updated recommendations for the diagnosis, prevention and therapy of iron overload in MDS. In addition, we propose refined treatment response criteria. As in 2006 and 2007, recommendations were discussed and formulated by participants of our Austrian MDS platform in a series of meetings in 2016 and 2017. Expert commentary: Our updated recommendations should support early recognition of iron overload, optimal patient management and the measurement of clinical responses to chelation treatment in daily practice.

  10. GLUT4 Is Not Necessary for Overload-Induced Glucose Uptake or Hypertrophic Growth in Mouse Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Shawna L; Schmidt, Denise L; Kahn, Barbara B; Witczak, Carol A

    2017-06-01

    GLUT4 is necessary for acute insulin- and contraction-induced skeletal muscle glucose uptake, but its role in chronic muscle loading (overload)-induced glucose uptake is unknown. Our goal was to determine whether GLUT4 is required for overload-induced glucose uptake. Overload was induced in mouse plantaris muscle by unilateral synergist ablation. After 5 days, muscle weights and ex vivo [3H]-2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake were assessed. Overload-induced muscle glucose uptake and hypertrophic growth were not impaired in muscle-specific GLUT4 knockout mice, demonstrating that GLUT4 is not necessary for these processes. To assess which transporters mediate overload-induced glucose uptake, chemical inhibitors were used. The facilitative GLUT inhibitor cytochalasin B, but not the sodium-dependent glucose cotransport inhibitor phloridzin, prevented overload-induced uptake demonstrating that GLUTs mediate this effect. To assess which GLUT, hexose competition experiments were performed. Overload-induced [3H]-2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake was not inhibited by d-fructose, demonstrating that the fructose-transporting GLUT2, GLUT5, GLUT8, and GLUT12 do not mediate this effect. To assess additional GLUTs, immunoblots were performed. Overload increased GLUT1, GLUT3, GLUT6, and GLUT10 protein levels twofold to fivefold. Collectively, these results demonstrate that GLUT4 is not necessary for overload-induced muscle glucose uptake or hypertrophic growth and suggest that GLUT1, GLUT3, GLUT6, and/or GLUT10 mediate overload-induced glucose uptake. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  11. 30 CFR 75.518-2 - Incandescent lamps, overload and short circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... protection, if the lamp is not more than 8 feet in distance from such circuits. ... protection. 75.518-2 Section 75.518-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-General § 75.518-2 Incandescent lamps, overload and short circuit protection. Incandescent lamps installed...

  12. Iron overload in very low birth weight infants: Serum Ferritin and adverse outcomes

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barrett, M

    2011-11-01

    Adequate iron isessential for growth and haematpoiesis. Oral iron supplementation is the standard of care in VLBW infants. Post mortem evidence has confirmed significant iron overload. Excessive free iron has been associated with free radical formation and brain injury in term infants.

  13. Fear of Success: A Personality Trait or a Response to Occupational Deviance and Role Overload?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Teresa Hargrave; Wittig, Michele Andrisin

    1980-01-01

    Clarifies the extent to which an individual's fear of success scores may vary with the presence or absence of occupational deviance and/or role overload in stimulus materials describing situations of female competitive success. Results suggest that fear of success is a misnomer for responses to women's role descriptions. (Author/JLF)

  14. Estimation of iron overloads using oral exfoliative cytology in beta-thalassemia major patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekha, Swati; Nayar, Amit Kumar; Bakshi, Preeti; Sharma, Aman; Parhar, Swati; Soni, Sugandhi

    2016-01-01

    Iron overload is a medical condition that occurs when too much of the mineral iron builds up inside the body and produces a toxic reaction. Thalassemia is a genetic disorder of hemoglobin synthesis, which requires regular blood transfusion therapy, and the lack of specific excretory pathways for iron in humans leads to iron overload in the body tissues. It is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. The estimation of iron levels in exfoliated buccal mucosal cells may provide a simple, noninvasive, and a safe procedure for estimating the iron overload by using the Perls' Prussian blue stain. Smears were obtained from buccal mucosa of 40 randomly selected beta-thalassemia major patients and 40 healthy subjects as controls. Smears were stained with Perls' Prussian blue method. Blood samples were taken for estimation of serum ferritin levels. Images of smears were analyzed using the software image J software version 1.47v and correlated with serum ferritin. Perls' positivity was observed in 87.5% of thalassemic patients with a positive correlation to serum ferritin levels. The use of exfoliative buccal mucosal cells for the evaluation of iron overloads in the body provides us with a diagnostic medium that is noninvasive, easy to collect, store, and transport, cost effective, and above all reliable.

  15. Estimation of iron overloads using oral exfoliative cytology in beta-thalassemia major patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Leekha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron overload is a medical condition that occurs when too much of the mineral iron builds up inside the body and produces a toxic reaction. Thalassemia is a genetic disorder of hemoglobin synthesis, which requires regular blood transfusion therapy, and the lack of specific excretory pathways for iron in humans leads to iron overload in the body tissues. It is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. The estimation of iron levels in exfoliated buccal mucosal cells may provide a simple, noninvasive, and a safe procedure for estimating the iron overload by using the Perls′ Prussian blue stain. Methods: Smears were obtained from buccal mucosa of 40 randomly selected beta-thalassemia major patients and 40 healthy subjects as controls. Smears were stained with Perls′ Prussian blue method. Blood samples were taken for estimation of serum ferritin levels. Images of smears were analyzed using the software image J software version 1.47v and correlated with serum ferritin. Results: Perls′ positivity was observed in 87.5% of thalassemic patients with a positive correlation to serum ferritin levels. Conclusion: The use of exfoliative buccal mucosal cells for the evaluation of iron overloads in the body provides us with a diagnostic medium that is noninvasive, easy to collect, store, and transport, cost effective, and above all reliable.

  16. Biochemical Competition Makes Fatty-Acid beta-Oxidation Vulnerable to Substrate Overload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eunen, Karen; Simons, Sereh M. J.; Gerding, Albert; Bleeker, Aycha; den Besten, Gijs; Touw, Catharina M. L.; Houten, Sander M.; Groen, Bert K.; Krab, Klaas; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Bakker, Barbara M.

    Fatty-acid metabolism plays a key role in acquired and inborn metabolic diseases. To obtain insight into the network dynamics of fatty-acid beta-oxidation, we constructed a detailed computational model of the pathway and subjected it to a fat overload condition. The model contains reversible and

  17. Electrophysiologic Remodeling of the Left Ventricle in Pressure Overload-Induced Right Ventricular Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardziyenka, Maxim; Campian, Maria E.; Verkerk, Arie O.; Surie, Sulaiman; van Ginneken, Antoni C. G.; Hakim, Sara; Linnenbank, André C.; de Bruin-Bon, Rianne H. A. C. M.; Beekman, Leander; van der Plas, Mart N.; Remme, Carol A.; van Veen, Toon A. B.; Bresser, Paul; de Bakker, Jacques M. T.; Tan, Hanno L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to analyze the electrophysiologic remodeling of the atrophic left ventricle (LV) in right ventricular (RV) failure (RVF) after RV pressure overload. Background The LV in pressure-induced RVF develops dysfunction, reduction in mass, and altered gene

  18. The Effects of Technological Overload on Children: An Art Therapist's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klorer, P. Gussie

    2009-01-01

    Children today are continually bombarded with visual and auditory stimulation, and many make their connections in cyberspace to the detriment of real-time face-to-face encounters with other people. The negative effects of multitasking and technological overload on children and adolescents are discussed in this viewpoint article from the…

  19. Association between filial responsibility when caring for parents and the caregivers overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinês Aires

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the association between filial responsibility and the overload of the children when caring for their older parents. Method: Cross-sectional study with 100 caregiver children of older adults. Filial liability was assessed by the attitudes of the responsible child (scale of expectation and filial duty and by care behaviors (assistance in activities of daily living, emotional and financial support, and keeping company. The overload was assessed by the Caregiver Burden Inventory. To assess the associations, the correlation coefficients of Pearson and Spearman, Kruskal-Wallis Test, and Mann-Whitney were employed. Variables that presented p-value<0.20 in the bivariate analysis were inserted in a multivariate linear regression model. Results: The factors associated with overload were: formal employment (p=0.002, feelings regarding family life (p<0.001, financial support (p=0.027, and assistance with Activities of Daily Living (ADLs (p<0.001. Conclusion: Children who were more involved with the ADLs and provided financial support showed higher levels of overload.

  20. Population pharmacokinetic modeling of furosemide in patients with hypertension and fluid overload conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodati, Devender; Yellu, Narsimhareddy

    2017-06-01

    Furosemide is a loop diuretic drug frequently indicated in hypertension and fluid overload conditions such as congestive heart failure and hepatic cirrhosis. The purpose of the study was to establish a population pharmacokinetic model for furosemide in Indian hypertensive and fluid overload patients, and to evaluate effects of covariates on the volume of distribution (V/F) and oral clearance (CL/F) of furosemide. A total of 188 furosemide plasma sample concentrations from 63 patients with hypertension or fluid overload conditions were collected in this study. The population pharmacokinetic model for furosemide was built using Phoenix NLME 1.3 software. The covariates included age, sex, body surface area, bodyweight, height and creatinine clearance (CRCL). The pharmacokinetic data of furosemide was adequately explained by a two-compartment linear pharmacokinetic model with first-order absorption and an absorption lag-time. The mean values of CL/F and Vd/F of furosemide in the patients were 15.054Lh -1 and 4.419L, respectively. Analysis of covariates showed that CRCL was significantly influencing the clearance of furosemide. The final population pharmacokinetic model was demonstrated to be appropriate and effective and it can be used to assess the pharmacokinetic parameters of furosemide in Indian patients with hypertension and fluid overload conditions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  1. Media Overload in Instructional Web Pages and the Impact on Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Kendall W.

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of the use of the Internet to deliver instruction and multimedia opportunities for Web-page design focuses on working memory and its implications for Web-based instruction. Topics include media overload; cognitive load theory; static visual displays; animations; audio; and research questions. (Author/LRW)

  2. Load characterization, overload prediction, and anomaly detection for voice over IP traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandjes, Michel; Saniee, Iraj; Stolyar, Alexander; Heidelberger, P.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the problem of traffic anomaly detection in IP networks. Traffic anomalies arise when there is overload due to failures in a network. We present general formulae for the variance of the cumulative traffic over a fixed time interval and show how the derived analytical expression

  3. Peak rates of diuresis in healthy humans during oral fluid overload ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine whether rates of intestinal fluid absorption and renal diuresis can match high rates of fluid ingestion in healthy humans exposed to oral fluid overload, thereby preventing the development of hyponatraemia either by reverse sodium movement across the intestine (the Priestley-Haldane effect) or by ...

  4. Iron overload of human colon adenocarcinoma cells studied by synchrotron-based X-ray techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihucz, Victor G.; Meirer, Florian; Polgári, Zsófia; Réti, Andrea; Pepponi, Giancarlo; Ingerle, Dieter; Szoboszlai, Norbert; Streli, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Fast- and slow-proliferating human adenocarcinoma colorectal cells, HT-29 and HCA-7, respectively, overloaded with transferrin (Tf), Fe(III) citrate, Fe(III) chloride and Fe(II) sulfate were studied by synchrotron radiation total-reflection X-ray spectrometry (TXRF), TXRF-X-ray absorption near edge

  5. Recent advances in the understanding of iron overload in sideroblastic myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuijpers, Maria L H; Raymakers, Reinier A P; Mackenzie, Marius A; de Witte, Theo J M; Swinkels, Dorine W

    2010-05-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of clonal haematopoietic stem cell malignancies. A subgroup, the so-called sideroblastic MDS, shows ring sideroblasts in the bone marrow aspirate that represent mitochondrial iron accumulation. Patients with sideroblastic MDS also develop systemic iron overload and generally have a low-risk MDS. Therefore it is important to understand the mechanisms responsible for iron accumulation and the associated toxicity in these patients. Recently, low levels of the iron-regulatory peptide hepcidin were found to contribute to body iron overload in beta-thalassaemia patients. A similar mechanism may account for systemic iron accumulation in sideroblastic MDS. Mitochondrial iron accumulation is observed in several subtypes of MDS, and predominantly in refractory anaemia with ring sideroblasts. The presence of ring sideroblasts is also the diagnostic hallmark in patients with inherited forms of sideroblastic anaemia. The ever-increasing insights into the affected pathways in inherited sideroblastic anaemia may lead to a better comprehension of the pathogenesis of mitochondrial iron accumulation in MDS patients. Overall, an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for iron overload in MDS will lead to novel treatment strategies to reduce both systemic and mitochondrial iron overload, resulting in less tissue damage and more effective erythropoiesis.

  6. 77 FR 11598 - Thermal Overload Protection for Electric Motors on Motor-Operated Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... COMMISSION Thermal Overload Protection for Electric Motors on Motor-Operated Valves AGENCY: Nuclear... for Electric Motors on Motor-Operated Valves.'' This regulatory guide describes a method acceptable to... devices that are integral with the motor starter for electric motors on motor-operated valves. ADDRESSES...

  7. Tackling Fluid Overload in a High-transporter Diabetic Patient on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CAPD) are more prone to fluid overload than non-diabetic patients, but the use of hypertonic glucose solutions to improve their ultrafiltration (UF) may hamper their glycemic control. Maintaining euvolemia in such patients may be tricky and needs ...

  8. The Influence of Fluid Overload on the Length of Mechanical Ventilation in Pediatric Congenital Heart Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Tatiana Z A L; O'Hearn, Katie; Reddy, Deepti; Menon, Kusum

    2015-12-01

    Fluid overload and prolonged mechanical ventilation lead to worse outcomes in critically ill children. However, the association between these variables in children following congenital heart surgery is unknown. The objectives of this study were to describe the association between fluid overload and duration of mechanical ventilation, oxygen requirement and radiologic findings of pulmonary and chest wall edema. This study is a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent congenital heart surgery between June 2010 and December 2013. Univariate and multivariate associations between maximum cumulative fluid balance and length of mechanical ventilation and OI were tested using the Spearman correlation test and multiple linear regression models, respectively. There were 85 eligible patients. Maximum cumulative fluid balance was associated with duration of mechanical ventilation (adjusted analysis beta coefficient = 0.53, CI 0.38-0.66, P mechanical ventilation (P = 0.012 and 0.014, respectively). Fluid overload is associated with prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation and PICU length of stay after congenital heart surgery. Fluid overload was also associated with physiological markers of respiratory restriction. A randomized controlled trial of a restrictive versus liberal fluid replacement strategy is necessary in this patient population, but in the meantime, accumulating observational evidence suggests that cautious use of fluid in the postoperative care may be warranted.

  9. Dynamic Operator Overload Estimation during Supervisory Control of Multiple UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    of attention seemingly precedes an eye movement to the target of a saccade , eye movements can serve as a direct measure of attention [10]. In... reading ?," in From eye to mind. Information acquisition in perception, search, and reading , R. Groner, D. d’Ydewalle, and R. Parham, Eds. Amsterdam...North-Holland, 1990, pp. 191-204. [6] K. Rayner, "Eye movements in reading and information processing: 20 years of research," Psychological

  10. Fluid Overload and Cumulative Thoracostomy Output Are Associated With Surgical Site Infection After Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochet, Anthony A; Nyhan, Aoibhinn; Spaeder, Michael C; Cartron, Alexander M; Song, Xiaoyan; Klugman, Darren; Brown, Anna T

    2017-08-01

    To determine the impact of cumulative, postoperative thoracostomy output, amount of bolus IV fluids and peak fluid overload on the incidence and odds of developing a deep surgical site infection following pediatric cardiothoracic surgery. A single-center, nested, retrospective, matched case-control study. A 26-bed cardiac ICU in a 303-bed tertiary care pediatric hospital. Cases with deep surgical site infection following cardiothoracic surgery were identified retrospectively from January 2010 through December 2013 and individually matched to controls at a ratio of 1:2 by age, gender, Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery score, Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery category, primary cardiac diagnosis, and procedure. None. Twelve cases with deep surgical site infection were identified and matched to 24 controls without detectable differences in perioperative clinical characteristics. Deep surgical site infection cases had larger thoracostomy output and bolus IV fluid volumes at 6, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively compared with controls. For every 1 mL/kg of thoracostomy output, the odds of developing a deep surgical site infection increase by 13%. By receiver operative characteristic curve analysis, a cutoff of 49 mL/kg of thoracostomy output at 48 hours best discriminates the development of deep surgical site infection (sensitivity 83%, specificity 83%). Peak fluid overload was greater in cases than matched controls (12.5% vs 6%; p analysis, a threshold value of 10% peak fluid overload was observed to identify deep surgical site infection (sensitivity 67%, specificity 79%). Conditional logistic regression of peak fluid overload greater than 10% on the development of deep surgical site infection yielded an odds ratio of 9.4 (95% CI, 2-46.2). Increased postoperative peak fluid overload and cumulative thoracostomy output were associated with deep surgical site infection after pediatric cardiothoracic surgery. We

  11. Text in context: a textual-linguistic approach to Amos 4: 7-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Barco del Barco, Francisco Javier

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This article will study Amos 4:7-8 from a textlinguistic approach: the form of this section will be analyzed within the structure of the chapter in which it is inserted. Such an analysis is needed because the set of verb forms used seems to be different from the rest of verb forms used in the chapter. While the whole chapter tends to be structured as a brief chain of narrative passages with wayyiqtol, the structure of Amos 4:7-8 seems to be a predictive section -developed through weqatal- inserted or pasted in the middle of the chapter. Translations usually do not note the difference between the set of verb forms used. A textlinguistic analysis of Amos 4:7-8 will show that the kind of discourse used here is different from the one used in the rest of the chapter, and, therefore, this difference should be reflected in the translation. The specific function of some discourse types is also discussed.

    En este artículo se presenta un análisis de Amos 4:7-8 a partir de los presupuestos de la lingüística textual. La forma del texto se analizará tomando en cuenta la estructura del capítulo en el que se halla inserto. Este análisis resulta necesario porque el grupo de formas verbales utilizado en la sección propuesta no parece ser el mismo que el del resto del capítulo. Mientras el capítulo en su conjunto es un discurso narrativo estructurado en torno a wayyiqtol, Amos 4:7-8 parece responder al esquema del discurso predictivo desarrollado a partir de weqatal. Un análisis textual se hace necesario porque las traducciones bíblicas no parecen hacerse eco del cambio en el uso de las formas verbales. Además de este análisis, se trata también de la función específica de algunos tipos de discurso.

  12. Cardiac iron overload in chronically transfused patients with thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, or myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane de Montalembert

    Full Text Available The risk and clinical significance of cardiac iron overload due to chronic transfusion varies with the underlying disease. Cardiac iron overload shortens the life expectancy of patients with thalassemia, whereas its effect is unclear in those with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS. In patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA, iron does not seem to deposit quickly in the heart. Our primary objective was to assess through a multicentric study the prevalence of cardiac iron overload, defined as a cardiovascular magnetic resonance T2*8 ECs in the past year, and age older than 6 years. We included from 9 centers 20 patients with thalassemia, 41 with SCA, and 25 with MDS in 2012-2014. Erythrocytapharesis did not consistently prevent iron overload in patients with SCA. Cardiac iron overload was found in 3 (15% patients with thalassemia, none with SCA, and 4 (16% with MDS. The liver iron content (LIC ranged from 10.4 to 15.2 mg/g dry weight, with no significant differences across groups (P = 0.29. Abnormal T2* was not significantly associated with any of the measures of transfusion or chelation. Ferritin levels showed a strong association with LIC. Non-transferrin-bound iron was high in the thalassemia and MDS groups but low in the SCA group (P<0.001. Hepcidin was low in thalassemia, normal in SCA, and markedly elevated in MDS (P<0.001. Two mechanisms may explain that iron deposition largely spares the heart in SCA: the high level of erythropoiesis recycles the iron and the chronic inflammation retains iron within the macrophages. Thalassemia, in contrast, is characterized by inefficient erythropoiesis, unable to handle free iron. Iron accumulation varies widely in MDS syndromes due to the competing influences of abnormal erythropoiesis, excess iron supply, and inflammation.

  13. The impact of pressure overload on coronary vascular changes following myocardial infarction in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiqiu; Petrov, Artiom; Yaniz-Galende, Elisa; Liang, Lifan; de Haas, Hans J.; Narula, Jagat

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of pressure overload on vascular changes after myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. To evaluate the effect of pressure overload, MI was induced in three groups: 1) left coronary artery ligation for 1 mo (MI-1m), 2) ischemia 30 min/reperfusion for 1 mo (I/R-1m), and 3) ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) was performed after pressure overload induced by aortic banding for 2 mo; 1 mo post-I/R, aortic constriction was released (Ab+I/R+DeAb). Heart function was assessed by echocardiography and in vivo hemodynamics. Resin casting and three-dimensional imaging with microcomputed tomography were used to characterize changes in coronary vasculature. TTC (triphenyltetrazohum chloride) staining and Masson's Trichrome were conducted in parallel experiments. In normal rats, MI induced by I/R and permanent occlusion was transmural or subendocardial. Occluded arterial branches vanished in MI-1m rats. A short residual tail was retained, distal to the occluded site in the ischemic area in I/R-1m hearts. Vascular pathological changes in transmural MI mostly occurred in ischemic areas and remote vasculature remained normal. In pressure overloaded rats, I/R injury induced a sub-MI in which ischemia was transmural, but myocardium in the involved area had survived. The ischemic arterial branches were preserved even though the capillaries were significantly diminished and the pathological changes were extended to remote areas, characterized by fibrosis, atrial thrombus, and pulmonary edema in the Ab+I/R+DeAb group. Pressure overload could increase vascular tolerance to I/R injury, but also trigger severe global ventricular fibrosis and results in atrial thrombus and pulmonary edema. PMID:23275620

  14. Differential requirement for satellite cells during overload-induced muscle hypertrophy in growing versus mature mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murach, Kevin A; White, Sarah H; Wen, Yuan; Ho, Angel; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E; McCarthy, John J; Peterson, Charlotte A

    2017-07-10

    Pax7+ satellite cells are required for skeletal muscle fiber growth during post-natal development in mice. Satellite cell-mediated myonuclear accretion also appears to persist into early adulthood. Given the important role of satellite cells during muscle development, we hypothesized that the necessity of satellite cells for adaptation to an imposed hypertrophic stimulus depends on maturational age. Pax7(CreER)-R26R(DTA) mice were treated for 5 days with vehicle (satellite cell-replete, SC+) or tamoxifen (satellite cell-depleted, SC-) at 2 months (young) and 4 months (mature) of age. Following a 2-week washout, mice were subjected to sham surgery or 10 day synergist ablation overload of the plantaris (n = 6-9 per group). The surgical approach minimized regeneration, de novo fiber formation, and fiber splitting while promoting muscle fiber growth. Satellite cell density (Pax7+ cells/fiber), embryonic myosin heavy chain expression (eMyHC), and muscle fiber cross sectional area (CSA) were evaluated via immunohistochemistry. Myonuclei (myonuclei/100 mm) were counted on isolated single muscle fibers. Tamoxifen treatment depleted satellite cells by ≥90% and prevented myonuclear accretion with overload in young and mature mice (p Satellite cells did not recover in SC- mice after overload. Average muscle fiber CSA increased ~20% in young SC+ (p = 0.07), mature SC+ (p satellite cells for overload-induced hypertrophy is dependent on maturational age, and global responses to overload differ in young versus mature mice.

  15. Genistein alleviates pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction and interstitial fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Du, Ning; Zhang, Longyin; Wu, Xianxian; Hu, Yingying; Li, Xiaoguang; Shen, Nannan; Li, Yang; Yang, Baofeng; Xu, Chaoqian; Fang, Zhiwei; Lu, Yanjie; Zhang, Yong; Du, Zhimin

    2015-12-01

    Pressure overload-induced cardiac interstitial fibrosis is viewed as a major cause of heart failure in patients with hypertension or aorta atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and the underlying mechanisms of genistein, a natural phytoestrogen found in soy bean extract, on pressure overload-induced cardiac fibrosis. Genisten was administered to mice with pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction. Eight weeks later, its effects on cardiac dysfunction, hypertrophy and fibrosis were determined. Its effects on proliferation, collagen production and myofibroblast transformation of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) and the signalling pathways were also assessed in vitro. Pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction, hypertrophy and fibrosis were markedly attenuated by genistein. In cultured CFs, genistein inhibited TGFβ1-induced proliferation, collagen production and myofibroblast transformation. Genistein suppressed TGFβ-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) expression and produced anti-fibrotic effects by blocking the TAK1/MKK4/JNK pathway. Further analysis indicated that it up-regulated oestrogen-dependent expression of metastasis-associated gene 3 (MTA3), which was found to be a negative regulator of TAK1. Silencing MTA3 by siRNA, or inhibiting the activity of the MTA3-NuRD complex with trichostatin A, abolished genistein's anti-fibrotic effects. Genistein improved cardiac function and inhibited cardiac fibrosis in response to pressure overload. The underlying mechanism may involve regulation of the MTA3/TAK1/MKK4/JNK signalling pathway. Genistein may have potential as a novel agent for prevention and therapy of cardiac disorders associated with fibrosis. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Calcium overload injury of rats' enterocyte IEC-6 by heat stress in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan GENG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of gradient heat stress on calcium overload of rats' enterocyte IEC-6 and calcium overload-related cell injury in vitro. Methods Thermal gradient was set in culturing IEC-6 cells in vitro. After thermal stimulation, Fluo-3Am probe with fluorescence microscope or flow cytometry was used to detect the change in intracellular Ca2+ concentration of IEC-6 cells. Phase contrast microscope was used to observe the morphological change in IEC-6. Coomassie blue dying method was employed to test the change in IEC-6 cytoskeleton. CCK-8 assay was used to assess cellular viability. Adhesion assay was applied to test the change in basilar membrane adhesiveness of IEC-6 cells. Results Compared with normal control group, cells of heat stress groups showed a thermal-dependent increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration (P<0.01. Cells of heat stress groups were rounded in shape, the pseudopod was shorter, and cell space was enlarged. These phenomena were more obvious in 45℃ culture than in that of 43℃. Coomassie blue dying showed that the cytoskeleton of cells in heat stress groups became thickened and disordered, and stress fibers appeared. These phenomena were also more obvious in 45℃ culture than in that of 43℃. A thermal-dependant decline of cell viability in heat stress groups was observed via CCK-8 assay (P<0.01, and a thermal-dependant decline of basilar membrane adhesiveness in heat stress groups was observed via adhesion assay (P<0.01. Conclusion Heat stress may cause calcium overload of IEC-6 cells, and thus resulting in a series of calcium overload-related cell injury. Further investigation of the effect and mechanism of heat stress on calcium overload of intestinal mucosa endothelial cells may help further understand the mechanism of the pathogenesis of heat stroke.

  17. Ultrasound Changes in Achilles Tendon and Gastrocnemius Medialis Muscle on Squat Eccentric Overload and Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-López, Fernando; Berzosa Sánchez, César; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Cruz-Diaz, David; Martínez-Amat, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Sanz-López, F, Berzosa Sánchez, C, Hita-Contreras, F, Cruz-Diaz, D, and Martínez-Amat, A. Ultrasound changes in Achilles tendon and gastrocnemius medialis muscle on squat eccentric overload and running performance. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2015-Previous studies have proven the adaptation to load in the Achilles tendon and gastrocnemius muscle after different types of exercise, such as running, heel drop training, and a variety of sports. These findings have been applied to improve performance and in the treatment and prevention of overuse injuries. However, the effects that squat performance may have on the Achilles tendon and gastrocnemius muscle are still unknown. Squats are a widely used training exercise that involves calf-muscle activation. Similarly, no reports have been published regarding the adaptation to load of trained and untrained subjects during several consecutive days of running. The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in the Achilles tendon and in the pennation angles of the gastrocnemius medialis after eccentric overload training and within 3 days of running. Twenty healthy males who volunteered for this study were divided into 2 groups. Subjects in the eccentric overload training (ECC) group performed 6 weeks of eccentric overload training (twice weekly, 4 sets of 7 repetitions in a Yoyo squat device) before the running intervention. All participants, ECC and control (CONT) groups, ran on 3 consecutive days. After the eccentric training, an increase in the cross-sectional area of the Achilles tendon and in the pennation angle was observed. As for the running intervention, the behavior of tissues in both groups was similar. These results suggest that eccentric overload training with squats promotes changes in the Achilles tendon and in the pennation angle of the gastrocnemius medialis muscle. Nevertheless, significant changes in the tissue do not appear between the running performance of trained and untrained subjects.

  18. The Critical Role Of Libraries In The Information Society ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Library Automation as issues that affect availability of information. It further states that information overload and pollution are what we expect to experience in the information age and that information literacy is essential for the optimum use of the deluge of information from the Internet. It states that the recently introduced ...

  19. Monitoring overloaded vehicles: Improving traffic control centre performance by using management information systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Muronga, K

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available SALLIE*; V DE FRANCA** and A NIEUWOUDT*** CSIR Built Environment, Transport Systems and Operations, PO Box 321, Pretoria, 0001 Tel: 012 841-2337, Email: kmuronga@csir.co.za. *Tel: 012 841-2906, Email: isallie@csir.co.za. **Tel: 012 841-4643, Email...: vdfranca@csir.co.za. ***Datron Rekenaardienste BK, PO Box 1670, Wingate Park, 0153 Tel: 012 751-6315, Email: malmanarno@gmail.com. Abstract Decision making is an important function of management and to facilitate decision making that is relevant...

  20. Dealing with Information Overload: Ockham’s Razor in the Hands of the Joint Force Commander

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-17

    sunt multiplicanda entia praeter necessitatem” (entities are not to be multiplied beyond necessity) 4 William of Ockham Put into context, this was...4 The New Encyclopaedia Brittanica. 15th ed., s.v.. “William of Ockham ...30 May 1995. “William of Ockham .” The New Encyclopaedia Brittanica. Micropaedia, 15th ed., 1998. Ignatieff, Michael. Virtual War: Kosovo and Beyond