WorldWideScience

Sample records for textual information overload

  1. Information overload and data overload in lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gouws, Rufus H.; Tarp, Sven

    2017-01-01

    the often uncritical inclusion of too much data. This paper discusses the general term information overload and its lexicographical counterpart data overload. Different types of data overload are identified and the problems users have when retrieving the necessary information from dictionary articles...

  2. Textual information access statistical models

    CERN Document Server

    Gaussier, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This book presents statistical models that have recently been developed within several research communities to access information contained in text collections. The problems considered are linked to applications aiming at facilitating information access:- information extraction and retrieval;- text classification and clustering;- opinion mining;- comprehension aids (automatic summarization, machine translation, visualization).In order to give the reader as complete a description as possible, the focus is placed on the probability models used in the applications

  3. Textual Analysis of Intangible Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Moniz (Andy)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractTraditionally, equity investors have relied upon the information reported in firms’ financial accounts to make their investment decisions. Due to the conservative nature of accounting standards, firms cannot value their intangible assets such as corporate culture, brand value and

  4. Information Overload in Multi-Stage Selection Procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S. Ficco (Stefano); V.A. Karamychev (Vladimir)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe paper studies information processing imperfections in a fully rational decision-making network. It is shown that imperfect information transmission and imperfect information acquisition in a multi-stage selection game yield information overload. The paper analyses the mechanisms

  5. Information Overload and Viral Marketing: Countermeasures and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiesi; Sun, Aaron; Zeng, Daniel

    Studying information diffusion through social networks has become an active research topic with important implications in viral marketing applications. One of the fundamental algorithmic problems related to viral marketing is the Influence Maximization (IM) problem: given an social network, which set of nodes should be considered by the viral marketer as the initial targets, in order to maximize the influence of the advertising message. In this work, we study the IM problem in an information-overloaded online social network. Information overload occurs when individuals receive more information than they can process, which can cause negative impacts on the overall marketing effectiveness. Many practical countermeasures have been proposed for alleviating the load of information on recipients. However, how these approaches can benefit viral marketers is not well understood. In our work, we have adapted the classic Information Cascade Model to incorporate information overload and study its countermeasures. Our results suggest that effective control of information overload has the potential to improve marketing effectiveness, but the targeting strategy should be re-designed in response to these countermeasures.

  6. Textual and chemical information processing: different domains but similar algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Willett

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the extent to which algorithms developed for the processing of textual databases are also applicable to the processing of chemical structure databases, and vice versa. Applications discussed include: an algorithm for distribution sorting that has been applied to the design of screening systems for rapid chemical substructure searching; the use of measures of inter-molecular structural similarity for the analysis of hypertext graphs; a genetic algorithm for calculating term weights for relevance feedback searching for determining whether a molecule is likely to exhibit biological activity; and the use of data fusion to combine the results of different chemical similarity searches.

  7. Symmetrical and overloaded effect of diffusion in information filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Chen, Guilin; Cai, Shimin

    2017-10-01

    In physical dynamics, mass diffusion theory has been applied to design effective information filtering models on bipartite network. In previous works, researchers unilaterally believe objects' similarities are determined by single directional mass diffusion from the collected object to the uncollected, meanwhile, inadvertently ignore adverse influence of diffusion overload. It in some extent veils the essence of diffusion in physical dynamics and hurts the recommendation accuracy and diversity. After delicate investigation, we argue that symmetrical diffusion effectively discloses essence of mass diffusion, and high diffusion overload should be published. Accordingly, in this paper, we propose an symmetrical and overload penalized diffusion based model (SOPD), which shows excellent performances in extensive experiments on benchmark datasets Movielens and Netflix.

  8. A New Framework for Textual Information Mining over Parse Trees. CRESST Report 805

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Hamid; Kerr, Deirdre; Iseli, Markus R.

    2011-01-01

    Textual information mining is a challenging problem that has resulted in the creation of many different rule-based linguistic query languages. However, these languages generally are not optimized for the purpose of text mining. In other words, they usually consider queries as individuals and only return raw results for each query. Moreover they…

  9. Sharing information books with kindergartners: The role of parents’ extra-textual talk and socioeconomic status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, S.E.; Neuman, S.B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore how features of parent-child extra-textual talk during information book-sharing might vary across different socioeconomic backgrounds, and to determine if certain interactional patterns might mediate their effects on children's receptive and expressive

  10. Using Textual Prompts to Teach Mands for Information Using "Who?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillingsburg, M. Alice; Gayman, Cassondra M.; Walton, William

    2016-01-01

    Recent research on teaching mands for information to children with language deficits has focused on manipulating establishing operations (EOs). However, only a few of those studies have programmed both EO conditions (in which information is needed) and abolishing operation (AO) conditions (in which information has already been provided) to ensure…

  11. Competing for Attention in Social Media under Information Overload Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ling; Hu, Yanqing; Li, Baowen; Stanley, H Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo; Braunstein, Lidia A

    2015-01-01

    Modern social media are becoming overloaded with information because of the rapidly-expanding number of information feeds. We analyze the user-generated content in Sina Weibo, and find evidence that the spread of popular messages often follow a mechanism that differs from the spread of disease, in contrast to common belief. In this mechanism, an individual with more friends needs more repeated exposures to spread further the information. Moreover, our data suggest that for certain messages the chance of an individual to share the message is proportional to the fraction of its neighbours who shared it with him/her, which is a result of competition for attention. We model this process using a fractional susceptible infected recovered (FSIR) model, where the infection probability of a node is proportional to its fraction of infected neighbors. Our findings have dramatic implications for information contagion. For example, using the FSIR model we find that real-world social networks have a finite epidemic threshold in contrast to the zero threshold in disease epidemic models. This means that when individuals are overloaded with excess information feeds, the information either reaches out the population if it is above the critical epidemic threshold, or it would never be well received.

  12. Competing for Attention in Social Media under Information Overload Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Feng

    Full Text Available Modern social media are becoming overloaded with information because of the rapidly-expanding number of information feeds. We analyze the user-generated content in Sina Weibo, and find evidence that the spread of popular messages often follow a mechanism that differs from the spread of disease, in contrast to common belief. In this mechanism, an individual with more friends needs more repeated exposures to spread further the information. Moreover, our data suggest that for certain messages the chance of an individual to share the message is proportional to the fraction of its neighbours who shared it with him/her, which is a result of competition for attention. We model this process using a fractional susceptible infected recovered (FSIR model, where the infection probability of a node is proportional to its fraction of infected neighbors. Our findings have dramatic implications for information contagion. For example, using the FSIR model we find that real-world social networks have a finite epidemic threshold in contrast to the zero threshold in disease epidemic models. This means that when individuals are overloaded with excess information feeds, the information either reaches out the population if it is above the critical epidemic threshold, or it would never be well received.

  13. A quantitative approach to modeling the information processing of NPP operators under input information overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a quantitative approach to modeling the information processing of NPP operators. The aim of this work is to derive the amount of the information processed during a certain control task under input information overload. We primarily develop the information processing model having multiple stages, which contains information flow. Then the uncertainty of the information is quantified using the Conant's model, a kind of information theory. We also investigate the applicability of this approach to quantifying the information reduction of operators under the input information overload

  14. Agent-based method for distributed clustering of textual information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potok, Thomas E [Oak Ridge, TN; Reed, Joel W [Knoxville, TN; Elmore, Mark T [Oak Ridge, TN; Treadwell, Jim N [Louisville, TN

    2010-09-28

    A computer method and system for storing, retrieving and displaying information has a multiplexing agent (20) that calculates a new document vector (25) for a new document (21) to be added to the system and transmits the new document vector (25) to master cluster agents (22) and cluster agents (23) for evaluation. These agents (22, 23) perform the evaluation and return values upstream to the multiplexing agent (20) based on the similarity of the document to documents stored under their control. The multiplexing agent (20) then sends the document (21) and the document vector (25) to the master cluster agent (22), which then forwards it to a cluster agent (23) or creates a new cluster agent (23) to manage the document (21). The system also searches for stored documents according to a search query having at least one term and identifying the documents found in the search, and displays the documents in a clustering display (80) of similarity so as to indicate similarity of the documents to each other.

  15. Information Diffusion in Facebook-Like Social Networks Under Information Overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Xing, Kai; Wang, Dapeng; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Hui

    2013-07-01

    Research on social networks has received remarkable attention, since many people use social networks to broadcast information and stay connected with their friends. However, due to the information overload in social networks, it becomes increasingly difficult for users to find useful information. This paper takes Facebook-like social networks into account, and models the process of information diffusion under information overload. The term view scope is introduced to model the user information-processing capability under information overload, and the average number of times a message appears in view scopes after it is generated is proposed to characterize the information diffusion efficiency. Through theoretical analysis, we find that factors such as network structure and view scope number have no impact on the information diffusion efficiency, which is a surprising result. To verify the results, we conduct simulations and provide the simulation results, which are consistent with the theoretical analysis results perfectly.

  16. Managing Information Overload for Senior Leaders in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    Information overload is a state where information input exceeds processing capability by an individual, and adverse effects of information overload, such as becoming less productive, making bad decisions, and becoming highly selective, are growing. Guided by Glaser and Strauss' work on grounded theory, this study examined adverse impact of…

  17. Designing a Personalized Guide Recommendation System to Mitigate Information Overload in Museum Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Ming; Liu, Chien-Hung; Lee, Chun-Yi; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2012-01-01

    Museum learning has received a lot of attention in recent years. Museum learning refers to people's use of museums to acquire knowledge. However, a problem with information overload has caused in engaging in such learning. Information overload signifies that users encounter a mass of information and need to determine whether certain information…

  18. When Enough Is Not Enough: Information Overload and Metacognitive Decisions to Stop Studying Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kou; Blake, Adam B.; Kerr, Tyson; Castel, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    People are often exposed to more information than they can actually remember. Despite this frequent form of information overload, little is known about how much information people choose to remember. Using a novel "stop" paradigm, the current research examined whether and how people choose to stop receiving new--possibly…

  19. Designing immersive surgical training against information technology-related overload in the operating room

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluyter, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    On a theoretical level, this dissertation demonstrates that the “classical” conceptualization of overload in the field of Information Systems being an excessive amount of information is too simplistic. Based on the Emotional-Cognitive Overload Model by Rutkowski and Saunders (2011) this dissertation

  20. Learners' Perceived Information Overload in Online Learning via Computer-Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Ying; Pedersen, Susan; Murphy, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies report information overload as one of the main problems that students encounter in online learning via computer-mediated communication. This study aimed to explore the sources of online students' information overload and offer suggestions for increasing students' cognitive resources for learning. Participants were 12 graduate students…

  1. Information Overload in the New World of Work: Qualitative Study into the Reasons and Countermeasures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Heerdt, Jeroen; Bondarouk, Tatiana; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter the authors present a revision of the information overload concept elaborated by Eppler and Mengis (2004). The main elements of our approach are literature synopsis and analysis, qualitative semi-structured interviews, and discussion. Their review of the information overload concept

  2. Information overload an international challenge to professional engineers and technical communicators

    CERN Document Server

    Ulijn, J M; Fazal, Zohra

    2012-01-01

    "This book covers the ever-increasing problem of information overload from both the professional and academic perspectives. Focusing on the needs of practicing engineers and professional communicators, it addresses the causes and costs of information overload, along with strategies and techniques for reducing and minimizing its negative effects. The theoretical framework of information overload and ideas for future research are also presented. The book brings together an international group of authors, providing a truly global point of view on this important, rarely covered topic"--

  3. Designing immersive surgical training against information technology-related overload in the operating room

    OpenAIRE

    Pluyter, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    On a theoretical level, this dissertation demonstrates that the “classical” conceptualization of overload in the field of Information Systems being an excessive amount of information is too simplistic. Based on the Emotional-Cognitive Overload Model by Rutkowski and Saunders (2011) this dissertation outlines the importance of the personal mental organization of Long-Term Memory (LTM) and the congruence of the information stimulus with cognitive schemata encoded in LTM.

  4. Investigating Differential Learning Outcomes of Students in Physics Using Animation and Textual Information Teaching Strategies in Ondo State Secondary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing Eguabor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe study investigated the main effects of animation information and textual information on students'performance and improving students' attitude towards physics.Material and methodsThe study adopted the pre-test post-test control group design. The population was made up of SSS 2 students inOndo State. Three Local Government Areas were randomly selected from the 18 Local Government Areas ofOndo State. Simple random technique was used to select three schools in the selected Local Government Areas.The schools were randomly assigned to two experimental groups namely animation and, textual informationstrategy and one control group. Two instruments were used for the study.ResultsOne-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, Scheffe Post-Hoc pair-wise comparison Analysis, and two-way Analysisof Variance was used. The results showed that there was a significant main effect of animation and textual strategieson students performance in physics. The results also showed that there was a significant difference in the post testattitudinal score of students' exposed to the strategies with the effectiveness in the order of animation, textual, andconventional strategiesConclusionsThe study concluded that computer- based instruction such as animation and textual strategies could enhancelearning outcomes in Physics in senior secondary school irrespective of students' sex.

  5. Does information overload prevent chronic patients from reading self-management educational materials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chung-Feng; Kuo, Kuang-Ming

    2016-05-01

    Self-care management is becoming an important part of care for chronic patients. However, various kinds of self-management educational materials which government or healthcare institutions provide for patients may not achieve the expected outcome. One of the critical reasons affecting patients' use intention could be patients' perceived information overload regarding the self-management educational materials. This study proposed an extended model of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), which incorporated perceived information overload, to explore if information overload will prevent chronic patients from reading educational materials for self-care management. The independent variables are attitude, subject norm, perceived behavior control and perceived information overload while the dependent variable is behavior intention to use the self-management educational materials. Perceived information overload is also referred to as an antecedent variable which may has impacts on attitude and perceived behavior control. The cross-sectional study interviewed newly diagnosed chronic patients with coronary artery disease, who are the potential users of the self-management educational materials, in a medical center in Taiwan. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics of the basic information distribution of the respondents, and structural equation modeling to study the reliability and validity for testing hypotheses. A total of 110 respondents were enrolled in this study and successful interview data were collected from 106 respondents. The result indicates that the patients' perceived information overload of self-management educational materials was validated to have impacts on attitude and perceived behavioral control constructs of the TPB as well as contributing a direct impact on patients' intentions to use self-management educational materials. Besides, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control constructs were validated to have significant impacts on

  6. Spreading the load: mobile information and communications technologies and their effect on information overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Allan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We report on a small-scale research project which examined the impact of mobile technologies on the users' experience of information overload. The project focused on a group of worker who have had relatively little attention in both the mobile technology and information overload literatures: senior managers. Method. The case study approach was adopted, as complementary to an incremental approach to theory building. An inductive approach is adopted, in which data are collected and the findings are interpreted in the light of previous work. The case site was West Yorkshire Police Force in the UK where BlackBerry handhelds were being used by senior officers. Analysis. A semi-structured interview schedule was developed and applied in face-to-face interviews with the Senior Management Team and their secretaries. All interviews were recorded and the transcripts of the interviews analysed, using qualitative coding. Results. A conceptual model of the interactions and relationships among the key elements that drive and mediate the information flows and information behaviour within a complex organizational environment was developed. Managers' information behaviour and coping strategies were found to have changed since the introduction of mobile devices. Officers are more likely to deal with information received sooner, thereby resulting in less queuing of messages (although filtering strategies still prevail. Approximation (responding in a non-precise way was also found to have increased. In this particular implementation, the mobile technology has not altered the information-pull behaviour of managers. Conclusion. The main finding is that personal information management is now distributed more evenly throughout the day. Thus, the technology has enabled officers to 'spread the load' and, in doing so, has helped to ease some of the pressures created by information overload.

  7. Reducing Information Overload in Large Seismic Data Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAMPTON,JEFFERY W.; YOUNG,CHRISTOPHER J.; MERCHANT,BION J.; CARR,DORTHE B.; AGUILAR-CHANG,JULIO

    2000-08-02

    Event catalogs for seismic data can become very large. Furthermore, as researchers collect multiple catalogs and reconcile them into a single catalog that is stored in a relational database, the reconciled set becomes even larger. The sheer number of these events makes searching for relevant events to compare with events of interest problematic. Information overload in this form can lead to the data sets being under-utilized and/or used incorrectly or inconsistently. Thus, efforts have been initiated to research techniques and strategies for helping researchers to make better use of large data sets. In this paper, the authors present their efforts to do so in two ways: (1) the Event Search Engine, which is a waveform correlation tool and (2) some content analysis tools, which area combination of custom-built and commercial off-the-shelf tools for accessing, managing, and querying seismic data stored in a relational database. The current Event Search Engine is based on a hierarchical clustering tool known as the dendrogram tool, which is written as a MatSeis graphical user interface. The dendrogram tool allows the user to build dendrogram diagrams for a set of waveforms by controlling phase windowing, down-sampling, filtering, enveloping, and the clustering method (e.g. single linkage, complete linkage, flexible method). It also allows the clustering to be based on two or more stations simultaneously, which is important to bridge gaps in the sparsely recorded event sets anticipated in such a large reconciled event set. Current efforts are focusing on tools to help the researcher winnow the clusters defined using the dendrogram tool down to the minimum optimal identification set. This will become critical as the number of reference events in the reconciled event set continually grows. The dendrogram tool is part of the MatSeis analysis package, which is available on the Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering Program Web Site. As part of the research

  8. Learners' perceived information overload in online learning via computer-mediated communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Murphy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many studies report information overload as one of the main problems that students encounter in online learning via computer-mediated communication. This study aimed to explore the sources of online students' information overload and offer suggestions for increasing students' cognitive resources for learning. Participants were 12 graduate students from two online courses in the United States. Their learning experiences in both online discussions and on the course website were explored through semi-structured interviews. They also completed a background questionnaire that assessed three constructs that limit learner readiness and are likely to lead to online students' perceived information overload: inadequate prior knowledge, inadequate English proficiency, and lack of technical skills for participating in computer-mediated communications. The findings suggest that varied learner characteristics led some students to be more susceptible than others to information overload. Emerging data-driven risk factors were: lack of efficiency in reading from computer screens, visual and auditory learning preferences, and time constraints. Difficulties associated with students' perceptions of information overload are addressed and implications for course design are offered.

  9. Information overload, choice deferral, and moderating role of need for cognition: Empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Pilli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Choice deferral due to information overload is an undesirable result of competitive environments. The neoclassical maximization models predict that choice avoidance will not increase as more information is offered to consumers. The theories developed in the consumer behavior field predict that some properties of the environment may lead to behavioral effects and an increase in choice avoidance due to information overload. Based on stimuli generated experimentally and tested among 1,000 consumers, this empirical research provides evidence for the presence of behavioral effects due to information overload and reveals the different effects of increasing the number of options or the number of attributes. This study also finds that the need for cognition moderates these behavioral effects, and it proposes psychological processes that may trigger the effects observed.

  10. Information Literacy on the Web: How College Students Use Visual and Textual Cues to Assess Credibility on Health Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina L. Pariera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important literacy skills in today’s information society is the ability to determine the credibility of online information. Users sort through a staggering number of websites while discerning which will provide satisfactory information. In this study, 70 college students assessed the credibility of health websites with a low and high design quality, in either low or high credibility groups. The study’s purpose was to understand if students relied more on textual or visual cues in determining credibility, and to understand if this affected their recall of those cues later. The results indicate that when viewing a high credibility website, high design quality will bolster the credibility perception, but design quality will not compensate for a low credibility website. The recall test also indicated that credibility does impact the participants’ recall of visual and textual cues. Implications are discussed in light of the Elaboration Likelihood Model.

  11. Combining textual and visual information for image retrieval in the medical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkoufas, Yiannis; Morou, Anna; Kalamboukis, Theodore

    2011-01-01

    In this article we have assembled the experience obtained from our participation in the imageCLEF evaluation task over the past two years. Exploitation on the use of linear combinations for image retrieval has been attempted by combining visual and textual sources of images. From our experiments we conclude that a mixed retrieval technique that applies both textual and visual retrieval in an interchangeably repeated manner improves the performance while overcoming the scalability limitations of visual retrieval. In particular, the mean average precision (MAP) has increased from 0.01 to 0.15 and 0.087 for 2009 and 2010 data, respectively, when content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is performed on the top 1000 results from textual retrieval based on natural language processing (NLP).

  12. TRENDS IN A SOUTH AFRICAN INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH JOURNAL: A TEXTUAL INFORMATION ANALYSIS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.W. Uys

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Industrial engineering (IE is a multi-disciplinary field, with its research borders broadening into a wide range of sub-disciplines. The South African Journal of Industrial Engineering (SAJIE has been the official voice of IE research in South Africa for the past 22 years. In the interests of evaluating research scope, it is worth determining how IE fields have been covered by this journal. What are the current topics in IE, and how do they align with IE publication trends in other countries? This article attempts to investigate these issues in an objective way by using a text analytical technique to analyse the SAJIE publication collection. Due to the growth in the quantity of accessible textual information, and the growing importance of this type of information to business people and industrial engineers alike, the relevant text analytical method is also outlined.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Bedryfsingenieurswese is ’n multidissiplinêre veld, met navorsingsgrense wat strek oor ’n wye reeks sub-dissiplines. Die Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Bedryfsingenieurswese (SAJIE was oor die afgelope 22 jaar die amptelike mondstuk vir bedryfsingenieurswese-gerigte navorsing in Suid-Afrika. Dit is betekenisvol om te bepaal in watter hoedanigheid bedryfsingenieurswesevelde deur die SAJIE gedek word, ten einde die bestek van navorsing te evalueer. Wat is die huidige temas van bedryfsingenieurswese, en hoe vergelyk dit met bedryfsingenieurswese-publikasieneigings in ander lande? Hierdie artikel poog om die vraagstuk op ’n objektiewe wyse na te vors deur die toepassing van ’n teksanalitiese tegniek om die SAJIE publikasie versameling te ontleed. Weens die toename in die hoeveelheid beskikbare tekstuele inligting, asook die toenemende belang van hierdie tipe inligting vir besigheidspersone asook bedryfsingenieurs, word die betrokke teksanalitiese metode ook bespreek.

  13. Technologies for dealing with information overload : an engineers' point of view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calders, T.G.K.; Fletcher, G.H.L.; Kamiran, F.; Pechenizkiy, M.; Strother, J.B.; Ulijn, J.M.; Fazal, Z.

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we provide an overview of the technological side of the information overload problem. We discuss the challenges and opportunities offered by the ever-growing and emerging stream of information from an engineering point of view. More concretely, we survey storage and querying

  14. Information overload or search-amplified risk? Set size and order effects on decisions from experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Thomas T; Noguchi, Takao; Gibbert, Michael

    2013-10-01

    How do changes in choice-set size influence information search and subsequent decisions? Moreover, does information overload influence information processing with larger choice sets? We investigated these questions by letting people freely explore sets of gambles before choosing one of them, with the choice sets either increasing or decreasing in number for each participant (from two to 32 gambles). Set size influenced information search, with participants taking more samples overall, but sampling a smaller proportion of gambles and taking fewer samples per gamble, when set sizes were larger. The order of choice sets also influenced search, with participants sampling from more gambles and taking more samples overall if they started with smaller as opposed to larger choice sets. Inconsistent with information overload, information processing appeared consistent across set sizes and choice order conditions, reliably favoring gambles with higher sample means. Despite the lack of evidence for information overload, changes in information search did lead to systematic changes in choice: People who started with smaller choice sets were more likely to choose gambles with the highest expected values, but only for small set sizes. For large set sizes, the increase in total samples increased the likelihood of encountering rare events at the same time that the reduction in samples per gamble amplified the effect of these rare events when they occurred-what we call search-amplified risk. This led to riskier choices for individuals whose choices most closely followed the sample mean.

  15. WAX ActiveLibrary: a tool to manage information overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanka, R; O'Brien, C; Heathfield, H; Buchan, I E

    1999-11-01

    WAX Active-Library (Cambridge Centre for Clinical Informatics) is a knowledge management system that seeks to support doctors' decision making through the provision of electronic books containing a wide range of clinical knowledge and locally based information. WAX has been piloted in several regions in the United Kingdom and formally evaluated in 17 GP surgeries based in Cambridgeshire. The evaluation has provided evidence that WAX Active-Library significantly improves GPs' access to relevant information sources and by increasing appropriate patient management and referrals this might also lead to an improvement in clinical outcomes.

  16. Correlates of Cancer Information Overload: Focusing on Individual Ability and Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Jiyoung; Lee, Chul-joo; Jensen, Jakob D

    2016-01-01

    The present study defined cancer information overload (CIO) as an aversive disposition wherein a person is confused and overwhelmed by cancer information, which occurs when he or she fails to effectively categorize new information due to a lack of resources for effective learning. Based on the definition and informed by previous studies on information overload and the cognitive mediation model, we hypothesized that low ability and motivation to process cancer information would lead to CIO. We used education level and trait anxiety as factors related to ability. Cancer history and the use of active media channels (such as the Internet and print media) were adopted as motivational factors. Four samples (three from the United States and one from South Korea) were used to explore the relationship between ability/motivation and CIO. Among them, only Sample 4 participants answered questions about stomach cancer, and other participants were asked about cancer in general. In all four samples, trait anxiety was positively associated with CIO. Health information use from active media channels (print or the Internet) was negatively associated with CIO in three samples. The associations between family history and CIO, and between education and CIO, were found in two samples. In short, the present study demonstrated that CIO partly depends on individual ability and motivation, thereby showing that CIO is influenced by personal characteristics as well as environmental factors.

  17. Visualizing information across multidimensional post-genomic structured and textual databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ying; Friedman, Carol; Lussier, Yves A

    2005-04-15

    Visualizing relationships among biological information to facilitate understanding is crucial to biological research during the post-genomic era. Although different systems have been developed to view gene-phenotype relationships for specific databases, very few have been designed specifically as a general flexible tool for visualizing multidimensional genotypic and phenotypic information together. Our goal is to develop a method for visualizing multidimensional genotypic and phenotypic information and a model that unifies different biological databases in order to present the integrated knowledge using a uniform interface. We developed a novel, flexible and generalizable visualization tool, called PhenoGenesviewer (PGviewer), which in this paper was used to display gene-phenotype relationships from a human-curated database (OMIM) and from an automatic method using a Natural Language Processing tool called BioMedLEE. Data obtained from multiple databases were first integrated into a uniform structure and then organized by PGviewer. PGviewer provides a flexible query interface that allows dynamic selection and ordering of any desired dimension in the databases. Based on users' queries, results can be visualized using hierarchical expandable trees that present views specified by users according to their research interests. We believe that this method, which allows users to dynamically organize and visualize multiple dimensions, is a potentially powerful and promising tool that should substantially facilitate biological research. PhenogenesViewer as well as its support and tutorial are available at http://www.dbmi.columbia.edu/pgviewer/ Lussier@dbmi.columbia.edu.

  18. The Influence of Perceived Information Overload on Student Participation and Knowledge Construction in Computer-Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Ying; Pedersen, Susan; Murphy, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Computer-mediated communication (CMC) has been used widely to engage learners in academic discourse for knowledge construction. Due to the features of the task environment, one of the main problems caused by the medium is information overload (IO). Yet the literature is unclear about the impact of IO on student learning. This study therefore…

  19. Business continuity strategies for cyber defence: battling time and information overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streufert, John

    2010-11-01

    Can the same numbers and letters which are the life blood of modern business and government computer systems be harnessed to protect computers from attack against known information security risks? For the past seven years, Foreign Service officers and technicians of the US Government have sought to maintain diplomatic operations in the face of rising cyber attacks and test the hypothesis that an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. As eight out of ten attacks leverage known computer security vulnerabilities or configuration setting weaknesses, a pound of cure would seem to be easy to come by. Yet modern security tools present an unusually consequential threat to business continuity - too much rather than too little information on cyber problems is presented, harking back to a phenomenon cited by social scientists in the 1960s called 'information overload'. Experience indicates that the longer the most serious cyber problems go untreated, the wider the attack surface adversaries can find. One technique used at the Department of State, called 'risk scoring', resulted in an 89 per cent overall reduction in measured risk over 12 months for the Department of State's servers and personal computers. Later refinements of risk scoring enabled technicians to correct unique security threats with unprecedented speed. This paper explores how the use of metrics, special care in presenting information to technicians and executives alike, as well as tactical use of organisational incentives can result in stronger cyber defences protecting modern organisations.

  20. Work Overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Thomas S.

    1980-01-01

    To investigate managerial use of work (or role) overload to increase productivity, the author studied 77 nonclerical white-collar employees and found that work overload had negative effects on productivity, supervisors' ratings, employee attitudes, job satisfaction, and health. He recommends ways for managers and employees to reduce work overload.…

  1. Textual and Visual Information in eWOM: A Gap Between Preferences in Information Search and Diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Geunhee; Tussyadiah, Iis

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the gap between travel-related information search and diffusion by online users in order to better understand the important role of visual information in electronic word of mouth (eWOM). Several analyses were conducted to investigate differences in travelers' preferences...

  2. Co-creating healthful eating behaviors with very young children: The impact of information overload on primary caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Julie L; Raciti, Maria M

    2017-01-01

    Primary caregivers of very young children are subject to excessive and often disparate information regarding the instilling of healthful eating behaviors. Our study focuses on the integration of the operant resources of primary caregivers (i.e., their knowledge and modeling skills) and that of their very young children (i.e., their self-regulation of energy intake and food preferences) to co-create healthful eating behaviors as a measure to curb overweight and obesity in adulthood. Our two-stage qualitative study makes original contributions demonstrating that primary caregivers' efforts to co-create healthful eating behaviors with their very young children are adversely affected by information overload.

  3. Exploring textual data

    CERN Document Server

    Lebart, Ludovic; Berry, Lisette

    1998-01-01

    Researchers in a number of disciplines deal with large text sets requiring both text management and text analysis. Faced with a large amount of textual data collected in marketing surveys, literary investigations, historical archives and documentary data bases, these researchers require assistance with organizing, describing and comparing texts. Exploring Textual Data demonstrates how exploratory multivariate statistical methods such as correspondence analysis and cluster analysis can be used to help investigate, assimilate and evaluate textual data. The main text does not contain any strictly mathematical demonstrations, making it accessible to a large audience. This book is very user-friendly with proofs abstracted in the appendices. Full definitions of concepts, implementations of procedures and rules for reading and interpreting results are fully explored. A succession of examples is intended to allow the reader to appreciate the variety of actual and potential applications and the complementary processin...

  4. Connecting textual segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2017-01-01

    history than just the years of the emergence of the web, the chapter traces the history of how segments of text have deliberately been connected to each other by the use of specific textual and media features, from clay tablets, manuscripts on parchment, and print, among others, to hyperlinks on stand......In “Connecting textual segments: A brief history of the web hyperlink” Niels Brügger investigates the history of one of the most fundamental features of the web: the hyperlink. Based on the argument that the web hyperlink is best understood if it is seen as another step in a much longer and broader...

  5. [Overload in the informal caregivers of patients with multiple comorbidities in an urban area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Tello, Margarita; Casado-Mejía, Rosa; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Ruiz-Arias, Esperanza

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was, to determine the profile of the family caregiver of patients with multiple pathologies, identify factors associated with overload, and construct predictive models using items from the Caregiver Strain Index (CSI). A cross-sectional study of caregivers of patients with multiple comorbidities who attended an urban health centre. Data were collected from health records and questionnaires (Barthel index, Pfeiffer index, and CSI). Statistical analysis was performed using measures of central tendency and dispersion, and by building multivariate models with binary logistic regression with the CSI items as predictors (program R version 2.14.0). The sample included 67 caregivers, with a mean age of 64.69 years (standard deviation=12.71, median 62 years), of whom 74.6% were women, 35.8% were wives, and 32.8% were daughters. The level of dependence of the patients cared for was total/severe in 77.6%, and moderate in 12% (Barthel), and 47.8% had some level of cognitive impairment (Pfeiffer). A CSI equal or greater than 7 was seen in 47.8% of caregivers, identifying life problems in more than 40% of them such as, restriction of social life, physical exertion, discomfort with change, bad behaviour, personal and family emotional changes, and sleep disturbances. Item 4 of the CSI, analysing the social restriction, was the one that showed a greater significance in the predictive multivariate model. Item 12 (economic burden) was the most significant with age in patients with cognitive impairment. Women tend to take the role of caregiver at an earlier age than men in the urban environment studied, and items from CSI showed that items 4 (social restrictions) and 12 (economic burden) have more significance in the predictive models constructed with Binary Logistic Regression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Managers’ Information Overload the impact of coping strategies on decision-making performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.V. Iastrebova (Ksenia)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAt the beginning of the 20th century, information was a scarce resource. The expansion of information and communication technologies, however, brought dramatic changes in terms of volume of information, driving society into the information age with new economic, social, and ethical

  7. A Mobile Phone App Intervention Targeting Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: The Efficacy of Textual and Auditory Tailored Health Information Tested in a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbert, Sarah Pietertje; Dijkstra, Arie; Oenema, Anke

    2016-06-10

    Mobile phone apps are increasingly used to deliver health interventions, which provide the opportunity to present health information via different communication modes. However, scientific evidence regarding the effects of such health apps is scarce. In a randomized controlled trial, we tested the efficacy of a 6-month intervention delivered via a mobile phone app that communicated either textual or auditory tailored health information aimed at stimulating fruit and vegetable intake. A control condition in which no health information was given was added. Perceived own health and health literacy were included as moderators to assess for which groups the interventions could possibly lead to health behavior change. After downloading the mobile phone app, respondents were exposed monthly to either text-based or audio-based tailored health information and feedback over a period of 6 months via the mobile phone app. In addition, respondents in the control condition only completed the baseline and posttest measures. Within a community sample (online recruitment), self-reported fruit and vegetable intake at 6-month follow-up was our primary outcome measure. In total, 146 respondents (ranging from 40 to 58 per condition) completed the study (attrition rate 55%). A significant main effect of condition was found on fruit intake (P=.049, partial η(2)=0.04). A higher fruit intake was found after exposure to the auditory information, especially in recipients with a poor perceived own health (P=.003, partial η(2)=0.08). In addition, health literacy moderated the effect of condition on vegetable intake 6 months later (Pmobile health app. The app seems to have the potential to change fruit and vegetable intake up to 6 months later, at least for specific groups. We found different effects for fruit and vegetable intake, respectively, suggesting that different underlying psychological mechanisms are associated with these specific behaviors. Based on our results, it seems worthwhile

  8. Monitoring overloaded vehicles: Improving traffic control centre performance by using management information systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Muronga, K

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision making is an important function of management and to facilitate decision making that is relevant to any organisation, it is imperative that managers have the correct information at the right time. Since the 1990’s, the Transport Systems...

  9. Measuring Information Glut: Applying Systems Thinking to the Problem of E-mail Overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    136 Albert Bandura , Social Learning Theory (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1977), 22. 137...http://emailcharter.org/about.html. Bandura , Albert . Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1977. Bessler, Manuel. Civil...Infoglut,” 16. 32 David S Alberts , John J Garstka, and Frederick P. Stein, Network Centric Warfare: Developing and Leveraging Information Superiority

  10. Getting “cyber organized” : Information overload and collaborative action in a small scale economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nobrega, K.M.; Rutkowski, Anne-Francoise

    Risks to cyber infrastructure are rising and becoming ever more complex. In that respect, situational awareness, knowledge and understanding are key factors when dealing with cyber threats. Information Technology managers and practitioners are faced with enormous computer-processed data coming in at

  11. Information Overload in Group Communication: From Conversation to Cacophony in the Twitch Chat

    OpenAIRE

    Nematzadeh, Azadeh; Ciampaglia, Giovanni Luca; Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Flammini, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Online communication channels, especially social web platforms, are rapidly replacing traditional ones. Online platforms allow users to overcome physical barriers, enabling worldwide participation. However, the power of online communication bears an important negative consequence --- we are exposed to too much information to process. Too many participants, for example, can turn online public spaces into noisy, overcrowded fora where no meaningful conversation can be held. Here we analyze a la...

  12. Big Textual Data in Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beheshti-Kashi, Samaneh; Buch, Rasmus Brødsgaard; Lachaize, Maxime

    2018-01-01

    applications have been converting to utilizable and meaningful insights. However, prior to this, the availability of textual sources relevant for logistics and transportation has to be examined. Accordingly, the identification of potential textual sources and their evaluation in terms of extraction barriers...

  13. [Infoxication in health. Health information overload on the Internet and the risk of important information becoming invisible].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D Agostino, Marcelo; Mejía, Felipe Medina; Martí, Myrna; Novillo-Ortiz, David; Hazrum, Flavio; de Cosío, Federico G

    2018-02-19

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) raise awareness of the volume of quality health information on the Internet; 2) explore perceptions of information professionals with regard to the use of qualified sources for health decision-making; and 3) make recommendations that facilitate strengthening health worker capacities and institutional competencies related to digital literacy. A non-experimental, descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with a non-probability sample of 32 information professionals from nine countries. Internet information was compiled on the volume of content in Internet tools, social networks, and health information sources. Searches in English and Spanish were carried out using the keywords Ebola, Zika, dengue, chikungunya, safe food, health equity, safe sex, and obesity. Finally, information was obtained on opportunities for formal education on the subjects of digital literacy, information management, and other related topics. Selecting only four diseases with a high impact on public health in May 2016 and averaging minimum review time for each information product, it would take more than 50 years without sleeping to consult everything that is published online about dengue, Zika, Ebola, and chikungunya. We conclude that public health would benefit from: health institutions implementing formal knowledge management strategies; academic health sciences institutions incorporating formal digital literacy programs; and having health workers who are professionally responsible and functional in the information society.

  14. La busqueda textual por computadora (Textual Search by Computer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Ned J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the use of the computer program EDIT for textual searches to locate a certain programmed word or word root. In the examples explained here, the vocabulary search is performed on poetry and allows examination of the metaphorical and conceptual poetic atmosphere achieved through word use. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  15. Recognizing textual entailment models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dagan, Ido; Sammons, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years, a number of NLP researchers have developed and participated in the task of Recognizing Textual Entailment (RTE). This task encapsulates Natural Language Understanding capabilities within a very simple interface: recognizing when the meaning of a text snippet is contained in the meaning of a second piece of text. This simple abstraction of an exceedingly complex problem has broad appeal partly because it can be conceived also as a component in other NLP applications, from Machine Translation to Semantic Search to Information Extraction. It also avoids commitment to any sp

  16. Aproximación cultural y textual a los informes médico forenses en la traducción especializada francés/español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Olmo Cazevieille

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En el ámbito de la traducción judicial francés-español, los informes forenses se han estudiado muy poco por ser documentos confidenciales de acceso limitado. No obstante, su estudio resulta de gran interés para los profesionales de la traducción especializada pues están relacionados con varias disciplinas, entre otras, el derecho y la medicina. Para caracterizarlos mejor, estudiaremos el contexto cultural de estos documentos, comprobaremos las variaciones en cuanto a su denominación en las dos lenguas y analizaremos su macroestructura mediante un estudio contrastivo de documentos originales para aportar datos que caractericen este género textual y su tipología en Francia y en España.

  17. Sharing Health Information and Influencing Behavioral Intentions: The Role of Health Literacy, Information Overload, and the Internet in the Diffusion of Healthy Heart Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Brittani; Stephens, Keri K; Pastorek, Angie E; Mackert, Michael; Donovan, Erin E

    2016-01-01

    Low health literacy remains an extremely common and problematic issue, given that individuals with lower health literacy are more likely to experience health challenges and negative health outcomes. In this study, we use the first three stages of the innovation-decision process found in the theory of diffusion of innovations (Rogers, 2003). We incorporate health literacy into a model explaining how perceived health knowledge, information sharing, attitudes, and behavior are related. Results show that health information sharing explains 33% of the variance in behavioral intentions, indicating that the communicative practice of sharing information can positively impact health outcomes. Further, individuals with high health literacy tend to share less information about heart health than those with lower health literacy. Findings also reveal that perceived heart-health knowledge operates differently than health literacy to predict health outcomes.

  18. A Mobile Phone App Intervention Targeting Fruit and Vegetable Consumption : The Efficacy of Textual and Auditory Tailored Health Information Tested in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbert, Sarah Pietertje; Dijkstra, Arie; Oenema, Anke

    Background: Mobile phone apps are increasingly used to deliver health interventions, which provide the opportunity to present health information via different communication modes. However, scientific evidence regarding the effects of such health apps is scarce. Objective: In a randomized controlled

  19. Combating information overload: a six-month pilot evaluation of a knowledge management system in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, C; Cambouropoulos, P

    2000-01-01

    A six-month prospective study was conducted on the usefulness and usability of a representative electronic knowledge management tool, the WAX Active Library, for 19 general practitioners (GPs) evaluated using questionnaires and audit trail data. The number of pages accessed was highest in the final two months, when over half of the access trails were completed within 40 seconds. Most GPs rated the system as easy to learn, fast to use, and preferable to paper for providing information during consultations. Such tools could provide a medium for the activities of knowledge officers, help demand management, and promote sharing of information within primary care groups and across NHSnet or the Internet. PMID:10962792

  20. Classifying unstructed textual data using the Product Score Model: an alternative text mining algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Qiwei; Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.

    2012-01-01

    Unstructured textual data such as students’ essays and life narratives can provide helpful information in educational and psychological measurement, but often contain irregularities and ambiguities, which creates difficulties in analysis. Text mining techniques that seek to extract useful

  1. Integrating textual and model-based process descriptions for comprehensive process search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, Henrik; van der Aa, Han; Pittke, Fabian; Raffel, Manuel; Mendling, Jan; Reijers, Hajo A.

    2016-01-01

    Documenting business processes using process models is common practice in many organizations. However, not all process information is best captured in process models. Hence, many organizations complement these models with textual descriptions that specify additional details. The problem with this

  2. The Instructional Text like a Textual Genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiane Fogali Marinello

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the instructional text as a textual genre and is part of the research called Reading and text production from the textual genre perspective, done at Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Campus Universitário da Região dos Vinhedos. Firstly, some theoretical assumptions about textual genre are presented, then, the instructional text is characterized. After that an instructional text is analyzed and, finally, some activities related to reading and writing of the mentioned genre directed to High School and University students are suggested.

  3. Overload road damage model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, MP

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Not only do overloaded vehicles pose an increased safety risk on the road (reduced stability and braking efficiency etc.), but they also accelerate the rate of deterioration of the road network and increase road maintenance costs, which in turn...

  4. Computer-Assisted Search Of Large Textual Data Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, James R.

    1995-01-01

    "QA" denotes high-speed computer system for searching diverse collections of documents including (but not limited to) technical reference manuals, legal documents, medical documents, news releases, and patents. Incorporates previously available and emerging information-retrieval technology to help user intelligently and rapidly locate information found in large textual data bases. Technology includes provision for inquiries in natural language; statistical ranking of retrieved information; artificial-intelligence implementation of semantics, in which "surface level" knowledge found in text used to improve ranking of retrieved information; and relevance feedback, in which user's judgements of relevance of some retrieved documents used automatically to modify search for further information.

  5. Inventions on presenting textual items in Graphical User Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Umakant

    2014-01-01

    Although a GUI largely replaces textual descriptions by graphical icons, the textual items are not completely removed. The textual items are inevitably used in window titles, message boxes, help items, menu items and popup items. Textual items are necessary for communicating messages that are beyond the limitation of graphical messages. However, it is necessary to harness the textual items on the graphical interface in such a way that they complement each other to produce the best effect. One...

  6. Textual emotion recognition for enhancing enterprise computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Changqin; Ren, Fuji

    2016-05-01

    The growing interest in affective computing (AC) brings a lot of valuable research topics that can meet different application demands in enterprise systems. The present study explores a sub area of AC techniques - textual emotion recognition for enhancing enterprise computing. Multi-label emotion recognition in text is able to provide a more comprehensive understanding of emotions than single label emotion recognition. A representation of 'emotion state in text' is proposed to encompass the multidimensional emotions in text. It ensures the description in a formal way of the configurations of basic emotions as well as of the relations between them. Our method allows recognition of the emotions for the words bear indirect emotions, emotion ambiguity and multiple emotions. We further investigate the effect of word order for emotional expression by comparing the performances of bag-of-words model and sequence model for multi-label sentence emotion recognition. The experiments show that the classification results under sequence model are better than under bag-of-words model. And homogeneous Markov model showed promising results of multi-label sentence emotion recognition. This emotion recognition system is able to provide a convenient way to acquire valuable emotion information and to improve enterprise competitive ability in many aspects.

  7. Pictorial, Textual, and Picto-Textual Glosses in E-Reading: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalmani, Hamed Babaie; Sabet, Masoud Khalili

    2010-01-01

    This research explored the effects of three types of multimedia glosses on the reading comprehension of learners in an EFL context. From among the three experimental groups under study, one received treatment on five academic reading passages through picto-textual glosses where both textual definitions and relevant images of words popped up, thus…

  8. Second Language Incidental Vocabulary Learning: The Effect of Online Textual, Pictorial, and Textual Pictorial Glosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrokni, Seyyed Abdollah

    2009-01-01

    This empirical study investigates the effect of online textual, pictorial, and textual pictorial glosses on the incidental vocabulary learning of 90 adult elementary Iranian EFL learners. The participants were selected from a pool of 140 volunteers based on their performance on an English placement test as well as a knowledge test of the target…

  9. Analyzing textual databases using data mining to enable fast product development processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, Rakesh; Tong, Loh Han; Sathiyakeerthi, S.

    2005-01-01

    Currently, companies active in the design of high-tech products are confronted with a number of, often conflicting, challenges. Not only do they have to develop increasingly complex products in ever-shorter amounts of time but they also have to produce them cheaply for the local as well as global markets. In order to manage these conflicting trends adequately, as this paper will demonstrate, companies need to have high quality information at the right moment and at the right location. This serves as the motivation of this paper in which various databases within the product life cycle are examined. Due to the fact that unanticipated information plays a more and more dominant role, especially in highly innovative business processes, we focus our attention on textual databases since textual databases offer the best possibility to handle unanticipated free-formatted information. Also their treatment in the literature has thus far been scant. As will be demonstrated in this paper these databases have a huge potential for valuable information. Further, an analysis tool, data mining that could be used to analyse these textual databases so that we could extract information from them quickly and hence be able to access them at the right time when needed, is presented. We also highlight some of the difficulties faced when analyzing textual databases. Thus with the right information from the textual databases and the tools to deliver this information at the right time companies, would definitely be able to shorten development times and hence gain a competitive edge

  10. Spatio-textual search on Spark

    OpenAIRE

    Kloster, Tord

    2017-01-01

    The amount of spatially aware data is growing at a rapid rate, and challenges both processing and organizing such data is in focus in the scientific world and the industry. But spatial data seldom exists alone, usually accompanied by some form of textual property. The challenges increase as we attempt to process the spatio-textual documents that are created, and the usage of Big Data platforms become a necessity. This paper provides an insight into different approaches on how to meet the spat...

  11. Textual Enhancement of Input: Issues and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, ZhaoHong; Park, Eun Sung; Combs, Charles

    2008-01-01

    The input enhancement hypothesis proposed by Sharwood Smith (1991, 1993) has stimulated considerable research over the last 15 years. This article reviews the research on textual enhancement of input (TE), an area where the majority of input enhancement studies have aggregated. Methodological idiosyncrasies are the norm of this body of research.…

  12. Rating prediction using textual reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    NithyaKalyani, A.; Ushasukhanya, S.; Nagamalleswari, TYJ; Girija, S.

    2018-04-01

    Information today is present in the form of opinions. Two & a half quintillion bytes are exchanged today in Internet everyday and a large amount consists of people’s speculation and reflection over an issue. It is the need of the hour to be able to mine this information that is presented to us. Sentimental analysis refers to mining of this raw information to make sense. The discipline of opinion mining has seen a lot of encouragement in the past few years augmented by involvement of social media like Instagram, Facebook, and twitter. The hidden message in this web of information is useful in several fields such as marketing, political polls, product review, forecast market movement, Identifying detractor and promoter. In this endeavor, we introduced sentiment rating system for a particular text or paragraph to determine the opinions polarity. Firstly we resolve the searching problem, tokenization, classification, and reliable content identification. Secondly we extract probability for given text or paragraph for both positive & negative sentiment value using naive bayes classifier. At last we use sentiment dictionary (SD), sentiment degree dictionary (SDD) and negation dictionary (ND) for more accuracy. Later we blend all above mentioned factor into given formula to find the rating for the review.

  13. Iron overload: what is the role of public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulihan, Mary M; Sayers, Cindy A; Grosse, Scott D; Garrison, Cheryl; Grant, Althea M

    2011-12-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis type 1, also known as hereditary hemochromatosis classical (HHC), is an iron overload disorder associated, in most cases, with mutations of the hemochromatosis (HFE) gene. Although suggested algorithms for diagnosing iron overload are available, there are still questions about options for genetic and biochemical screening for hemochromatosis and duration of treatment. This article provides a summary of an expert workgroup meeting convened on September 24-25, 2009, entitled "Iron Overload: What is the Role of Public Health?" The purpose of the meeting was to enable subject matter experts to share their most recent clinical and scientific iron overload information and to facilitate the discussion of future endeavors, with special emphasis on the role of public health in this field. The two main topics were the research priorities of the field, including clinical, genetic, and public health issues, and the concerns about the validity of current screening recommendations for the condition. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Emotion models for textual emotion classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna, O.; Avetisyan, H.; Holub, J.

    2016-11-01

    This paper deals with textual emotion classification which gained attention in recent years. Emotion classification is used in user experience, product evaluation, national security, and tutoring applications. It attempts to detect the emotional content in the input text and based on different approaches establish what kind of emotional content is present, if any. Textual emotion classification is the most difficult to handle, since it relies mainly on linguistic resources and it introduces many challenges to assignment of text to emotion represented by a proper model. A crucial part of each emotion detector is emotion model. Focus of this paper is to introduce emotion models used for classification. Categorical and dimensional models of emotion are explained and some more advanced approaches are mentioned.

  15. Iron overload patients with unknown etiology from national survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuta, Katsuya; Hatayama, Mayumi; Addo, Lynda; Toki, Yasumichi; Sasaki, Katsunori; Tatsumi, Yasuaki; Hattori, Ai; Kato, Ayako; Kato, Koichi; Hayashi, Hisao; Suzuki, Takahiro; Kobune, Masayoshi; Tsutsui, Miyuki; Gotoh, Akihiko; Aota, Yasuo; Matsuura, Motoo; Hamada, Yuzuru; Tokuda, Takahiro; Komatsu, Norio; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2017-03-01

    Transfusion is believed to be the main cause of iron overload in Japan. A nationwide survey on post-transfusional iron overload subsequently led to the establishment of guidelines for iron chelation therapy in this country. To date, however, detailed clinical information on the entire iron overload population in Japan has not been fully investigated. In the present study, we obtained and studied detailed clinical information on the iron overload patient population in Japan. Of 1109 iron overload cases, 93.1% were considered to have occurred post-transfusion. There were, however, 76 cases of iron overload of unknown origin, which suggest that many clinicians in Japan may encounter some difficulty in correctly diagnosing and treating iron overload. Further clinical data were obtained for 32 cases of iron overload of unknown origin; median of serum ferritin was 1860.5 ng/mL. As occurs in post-transfusional iron overload, liver dysfunction was found to be as high as 95.7% when serum ferritin levels exceeded 1000 ng/mL in these patients. Gene mutation analysis of the iron metabolism-related genes in 27 cases of iron overload with unknown etiology revealed mutations in the gene coding hemojuvelin, transferrin receptor 2, and ferroportin; this indicates that although rare, hereditary hemochromatosis does occur in Japan.

  16. Ontology Maintenance using Textual Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine Gargouri

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Ontologies are continuously confronted to evolution problem. Due to the complexity of the changes to be made, a maintenance process, at least a semi-automatic one, is more and more necessary to facilitate this task and to ensure its reliability. In this paper, we propose a maintenance ontology model for a domain, whose originality is to be language independent and based on a sequence of text processing in order to extract highly related terms from corpus. Initially, we deploy the document classification technique using GRAMEXCO to generate classes of texts segments having a similar information type and identify their shared lexicon, agreed as highly related to a unique topic. This technique allows a first general and robust exploration of the corpus. Further, we apply the Latent Semantic Indexing method to extract from this shared lexicon, the most associated terms that has to be seriously considered by an expert to eventually confirm their relevance and thus updating the current ontology. Finally, we show how the complementarity between these two techniques, based on cognitive foundation, constitutes a powerful refinement process.

  17. Joint Textual And Visual Cues For Retrieving Images Using Latent Semantic Indexing

    OpenAIRE

    Pecenovic, Zoran; Ayer, Serge; Vetterli, Martin

    2001-01-01

    In this article we present a novel approach of integrating textual and visual descriptors of images in a unified retrieval structure. The methodology, inspired from text retrieval and information filtering is based on Latent Semantic Indexing (LS1).

  18. Sensory overload: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheydt, Stefan; Müller Staub, Maria; Frauenfelder, Fritz; Nielsen, Gunnar H; Behrens, Johann; Needham, Ian

    2017-04-01

    In the context of mental disorders sensory overload is a widely described phenomenon used in conjunction with psychiatric interventions such as removal from stimuli. However, the theoretical foundation of sensory overload as addressed in the literature can be described as insufficient and fragmentary. To date, the concept of sensory overload has not yet been sufficiently specified or analyzed. The aim of the study was to analyze the concept of sensory overload in mental health care. A literature search was undertaken using specific electronic databases, specific journals and websites, hand searches, specific library catalogues, and electronic publishing databases. Walker and Avant's method of concept analysis was used to analyze the sources included in the analysis. All aspects of the method of Walker and Avant were covered in this concept analysis. The conceptual understanding has become more focused, the defining attributes, influencing factors and consequences are described and empirical referents identified. The concept analysis is a first step in the development of a middle-range descriptive theory of sensory overload based on social scientific and stress-theoretical approaches. This specification may serve as a fundament for further research, for the development of a nursing diagnosis or for guidelines. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  19. Beyond Sleep – a case study on textual instability and challenges for textual scholarship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kegel, P.W.

    2016-01-01

    Although W.F. Hermans’ novel Nooit meer slapen (Beyond Sleep) has been published within the multi-volume Complete Works edition already in 2010, the work remains a challenge for textual scholarship. First published in 1966, it has been revised by the author many times. Next to that, the actual

  20. Stress 2.0: Social Media Overload among Swiss Teenagers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, Christoph; Ranzini, Giulia; Meckel, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Technostress and information overload are serious challenges of the information age. An alarming number of people exhibit dangerously intensive media consumption, while Internet and mobile phone addictions are a widespread phenomenon. At the same time, new media overexposure among young people is

  1. Frequency shifting approach towards textual transcription of heartbeat sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvin, Farshad; Doraisamy, Shyamala; Safar Khorasani, Ehsan

    2011-10-04

    Auscultation is an approach for diagnosing many cardiovascular problems. Automatic analysis of heartbeat sounds and extraction of its audio features can assist physicians towards diagnosing diseases. Textual transcription allows recording a continuous heart sound stream using a text format which can be stored in very small memory in comparison with other audio formats. In addition, a text-based data allows applying indexing and searching techniques to access to the critical events. Hence, the transcribed heartbeat sounds provides useful information to monitor the behavior of a patient for the long duration of time. This paper proposes a frequency shifting method in order to improve the performance of the transcription. The main objective of this study is to transfer the heartbeat sounds to the music domain. The proposed technique is tested with 100 samples which were recorded from different heart diseases categories. The observed results show that, the proposed shifting method significantly improves the performance of the transcription.

  2. Frequency shifting approach towards textual transcription of heartbeat sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safar Khorasani Ehsan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Auscultation is an approach for diagnosing many cardiovascular problems. Automatic analysis of heartbeat sounds and extraction of its audio features can assist physicians towards diagnosing diseases. Textual transcription allows recording a continuous heart sound stream using a text format which can be stored in very small memory in comparison with other audio formats. In addition, a text-based data allows applying indexing and searching techniques to access to the critical events. Hence, the transcribed heartbeat sounds provides useful information to monitor the behavior of a patient for the long duration of time. This paper proposes a frequency shifting method in order to improve the performance of the transcription. The main objective of this study is to transfer the heartbeat sounds to the music domain. The proposed technique is tested with 100 samples which were recorded from different heart diseases categories. The observed results show that, the proposed shifting method significantly improves the performance of the transcription.

  3. Dealing with behavioral ambiguity in textual process descriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, Han; Leopold, Henrik; Reijers, Hajo A.

    2016-01-01

    Textual process descriptions are widely used in organizations since they can be created and understood by virtually everyone. The inherent ambiguity of natural language, however, impedes the automated analysis of textual process descriptions. While human readers can use their context knowledge to

  4. Textual Condensation in Printed Dictionaries. A Theoretical Draft ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents an excerpt from a theory of lexicographic texts which deals particularly with dictionary articles. Almost all characteristics of dictionary articles considered as typically lexicographic may be regarded as results of textual condensation processes. A theory of textual condensation in lexicography thus makes it ...

  5. Towards a textual history of La Galatea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Montero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying the different printings and editions of La Galatea allows one to establish the work’s textual history. The present study seeks to accomplish this, following this pattern: a the princeps of 1585; b early printings from 1590-1618 and from the book’s editorial resurgence from 1736-1846; c the editions from 1863 until today and the foundations of a critical edition. The following conclusions are proposed: a the princeps is the closest text to the author’s intention, but contains errors that any editor should identify and correct, if possible; b the editions that date from 1590-1846 include useful readings in that endeavor; c modern editions of La Galatea have erred in general in an exaggerated fidelity to the princeps, with the exception of the one by C. Rosell in 1863, in which other printings were taken into account and the text was emended, even excessively.

  6. Antiabecedarian Desires: Odd Narratology and Digital Textuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asunción López-Varela Azcárate

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de escritura rompen barreras temporales y permiten compartir conocimiento y preservarlo. Como si fuesen organismos vivos, las estructuras narratológicas que conforman la comunicación textual crecen a partir de principios de orden y formas de codificación cuyas raíces retroceden hasta un proto-alfabeto de origen semítico. Sin embargo, la historia literaria incluye muchos ejemplos que, cual virus, han buscado quebrantar el cuerpo de la textualidad alfabética. Este ensayo estudia tres artistas fundamentales, James Joyce, Jorge Luis Borges,William Burroughs, junto con varias obras contemporáneas de literatura electrónica. Todos ellos ponen en cuestión los principios organizativos alfabéticos y anticipan el debate sobre la importancia o no de las estructuras lineales en los sistemas de representación.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of splenic iron overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrive, L.; Thurnher, S.; Hricak, H.; Price, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    The value of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in assessing iron overload in the spleen was retrospectively investigated in 40 consecutive patients. MR appearance, mesaure of signal intensity and T1-and T2-relaxation times were correlated with the histologically determined level of iron in the spleen in each patient. Histologic examination revealed no iron overload in 19 patients, mild iron overload in seven, moderate iron overload in six, and severe iron overload in eight. All 19 patients with no splenic iron overload and 11 of the other 21 patients with splenic iron overload were correctly identified by MR imaging (sensitivity 52%, specificity 100%, accuracy 75%). Splenic iron overload was diagnosed when a decrease of signal intensity of the spleen compared with those of adipose tissue and renal cortex was demonstrated. MR images demonstrated all eight cases of severe, three of the six cases of moderate, and none of the seven cases of mild iron overload. Only spleens with severe iron overload had a significant mean decrease in signal intensity and T1- and T2-relaxation times. Although specific, MR imaging is poorly sensitive to splenic iron overload. (author). 15 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

  8. Elbow arthroscopy: valgus extension overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Christopher S; Conway, John E

    2011-01-01

    Valgus torque combined with deceleration produces high compression and shear forces acting on the posteromedial olecranon and the posteromedial trochlea. This valgus extension overload process may cause posteromedial trochlea chondromalacia, chondral flap formation, osteochondrosis, subchondral erosion, a subchondral insufficiency fracture, and marginal exostosis formation. Olecranon pathologies include proximal stress reaction, a posteromedial tip stress fracture, a transverse proximal process stress fracture, exostosis formation, exostosis fragmentation, and intra-articular loose bodies. Symptoms include posteromedial elbow pain during the deceleration phase of the throwing motion. The extension impingement test reproduces posterior or posteromedial pain similar to that experienced while throwing. Special radiographic techniques and CT scans can show loose bodies and osteophyte fragmentation. Surgical treatment is indicated when symptoms persist despite nonsurgical management. Based on clinical and basic science research, all patients with valgus extension overload should be comprehensively evaluated for medial ulnar collateral ligament insufficiency. Surgical treatment is limited to the resection of osteophytes only; normal olecranon should not be resected.

  9. Interactive SIGHT: textual access to simple bar charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Seniz; Oliver, David; Schwartz, Edward; Elzer, Stephanie; Carberry, Sandra; Mccoy, Kathleen F.; Chester, Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Information graphics, such as bar charts and line graphs, are an important component of many articles from popular media. The majority of such graphics have an intention (a high-level message) to communicate to the graph viewer. Since the intended message of a graphic is often not repeated in the accompanying text, graphics together with the textual segments contribute to the overall purpose of an article and cannot be ignored. Unfortunately, these visual displays are provided in a format which is not readily accessible to everyone. For example, individuals with sight impairments who use screen readers to listen to documents have limited access to the graphics. This article presents a new accessibility tool, the Interactive SIGHT (Summarizing Information GrapHics Textually) system, that is intended to enable visually impaired users to access the knowledge that one would gain from viewing information graphics found on the web. The current system, which is implemented as a browser extension that works on simple bar charts, can be invoked by a user via a keystroke combination while navigating the web. Once launched, Interactive SIGHT first provides a brief summary that conveys the underlying intention of a bar chart along with the chart's most significant and salient features, and then produces history-aware follow-up responses to provide further information about the chart upon request from the user. We present two user studies that were conducted with sighted and visually impaired users to determine how effective the initial summary and follow-up responses are in conveying the informational content of bar charts, and to evaluate how easy it is to use the system interface. The evaluation results are promising and indicate that the system responses are well-structured and enable visually impaired users to answer key questions about bar charts in an easy-to-use manner. Post-experimental interviews revealed that visually impaired participants were very satisfied with

  10. Over-exposed portraits : Technology overload and the identities of the young

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, Christoph; Ranzini, Giulia; Meckel, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Technostress and information overload represent serious challenges of the Information Age. An alarming number of people exhibit dangerously intensive media consumption, while Internet and mobile phone addictions are a widespread phenomenon, especially among teens. Despite increasing evidence for technostress and information overload within the literature, the consequences of new media overexposure on young individuals are so far understudied. When it comes to Social Network Sites (SNS), in pa...

  11. Textual Data Mining Applications in the Service Chain Knowledge Management of e-Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Rezaeenour

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Systems related to knowledge management can improve quality and efficiency of knowledge used for decision making process. Approximately 80 percent of corporate information are in textual data formats. That is why text mining is useful and important in service chain knowledge management. For example, one of the most important applications of text mining is in managing on-line source of digital documents and the analysis of internal documents. This research is based on text-based documents and textual information and interviews processed by Grounded theory. In this research clustering techniques were applied at first step. In the second step, Apriori association rules techniques for discovering and extracting the most useful association rules were applied. In other words, integration of datamining techniques was emphasized to improve the accuracy and precision of classification. Using decision tree technique for classification may result in reducing classification precision. But, the proposed method showed a significant improvement in classification precision.

  12. Extracting the Textual and Temporal Structure of Supercomputing Logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, S; Singh, I; Chandra, A; Zhang, Z; Bronevetsky, G

    2009-05-26

    Supercomputers are prone to frequent faults that adversely affect their performance, reliability and functionality. System logs collected on these systems are a valuable resource of information about their operational status and health. However, their massive size, complexity, and lack of standard format makes it difficult to automatically extract information that can be used to improve system management. In this work we propose a novel method to succinctly represent the contents of supercomputing logs, by using textual clustering to automatically find the syntactic structures of log messages. This information is used to automatically classify messages into semantic groups via an online clustering algorithm. Further, we describe a methodology for using the temporal proximity between groups of log messages to identify correlated events in the system. We apply our proposed methods to two large, publicly available supercomputing logs and show that our technique features nearly perfect accuracy for online log-classification and extracts meaningful structural and temporal message patterns that can be used to improve the accuracy of other log analysis techniques.

  13. Textual Harassment: A New Historicist Reappraisal of the Parol Evidence With Gender in Mind

    OpenAIRE

    Keren, Hila

    2004-01-01

    This year marks the four hundredth anniversary of the Parol Evidence Rule, the rule that dictates that the interpretation of a written contract should be determined solely according to its text and not influenced by prior contradictory external information. This article uses the occasion to offer a fresh interdisciplinary view of the Rule. The analysis presents a unique contribution to the heated debate regarding the desired levels of formalism and textualism in present-day contract law, by u...

  14. Extracting meronomy relations from domain-specific, textual corporate databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittoo, R.A.; Bouma, G.; Maruster, L.; Wortmann, J.C.; Hopfe, C.J.; Rezgui, Y.; Métais, E.; Preece, A.; Li, H.

    2010-01-01

    Various techniques for learning meronymy relationships from open-domain corpora exist. However, extracting meronymy relationships from domain-specific, textual corporate databases has been overlooked, despite numerous application opportunities particularly in domains like product development and/or

  15. Textual, Genre and Social Features of Spoken Grammar: A Corpus-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pérez-Llantada

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a corpus-based approach to teaching and learning spoken grammar for English for Academic Purposes with reference to Bhatia’s (2002 multi-perspective model for discourse analysis: a textual perspective, a genre perspective and a social perspective. From a textual perspective, corpus-informed instruction helps students identify grammar items through statistical frequencies, collocational patterns, context-sensitive meanings and discoursal uses of words. From a genre perspective, corpus observation provides students with exposure to recurrent lexico-grammatical patterns across different academic text types (genres. From a social perspective, corpus models can be used to raise learners’ awareness of how speakers’ different discourse roles, discourse privileges and power statuses are enacted in their grammar choices. The paper describes corpus-based instructional procedures, gives samples of learners’ linguistic output, and provides comments on the students’ response to this method of instruction. Data resulting from the assessment process and student production suggest that corpus-informed instruction grounded in Bhatia’s multi-perspective model can constitute a pedagogical approach in order to i obtain positive student responses from input and authentic samples of grammar use, ii help students identify and understand the textual, genre and social aspects of grammar in real contexts of use, and therefore iii help develop students’ ability to use grammar accurately and appropriately.

  16. Intelligent Overload Control for Composite Web Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenhoff, P.J.; Ostendorf, D.R.; Zivkovic, Miroslav; Meeuwissen, H.B.; Gijsen, B.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze overload control for composite web services in service oriented architectures by an orchestrating broker, and propose two practical access control rules which effectively mitigate the effects of severe overloads at some web services in the composite service. These two rules

  17. Recognizing Textual Entailment: Challenges in the Portuguese Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Rocha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing textual entailment comprises the task of determining semantic entailment relations between text fragments. A text fragment entails another text fragment if, from the meaning of the former, one can infer the meaning of the latter. If such relation is bidirectional, then we are in the presence of a paraphrase. Automatically recognizing textual entailment relations captures major semantic inference needs in several natural language processing (NLP applications. As in many NLP tasks, textual entailment corpora for English abound, while the same is not true for more resource-scarce languages such as Portuguese. Exploiting what seems to be the only Portuguese corpus for textual entailment and paraphrases (the ASSIN corpus, in this paper, we address the task of automatically recognizing textual entailment (RTE and paraphrases from text written in the Portuguese language, by employing supervised machine learning techniques. We employ lexical, syntactic and semantic features, and analyze the impact of using semantic-based approaches in the performance of the system. We then try to take advantage of the bi-dialect nature of ASSIN to compensate its limited size. With the same aim, we explore modeling the task of recognizing textual entailment and paraphrases as a binary classification problem by considering the bidirectional nature of paraphrases as entailment relationships. Addressing the task as a multi-class classification problem, we achieve results in line with the winner of the ASSIN Challenge. In addition, we conclude that semantic-based approaches are promising in this task, and that combining data from European and Brazilian Portuguese is less straightforward than it may initially seem. The binary classification modeling of the problem does not seem to bring advantages to the original multi-class model, despite the outstanding results obtained by the binary classifier for recognizing textual entailments.

  18. Polysynovitis after oligofructose overload in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danscher, A M; Enemark, H L; Andersen, P H; Aalbaek, B; Nielsen, O L

    2010-01-01

    Acute bovine laminitis is a systemic disease with local manifestations primarily affecting the claws. However, distension of the tarsocrural joints has been observed after experimental oligofructose overload in dairy heifers as a part of the complex interpreted as acute, clinical laminitis. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to study bovine synovial joints and tendon sheaths after oligofructose overload. Ten dairy heifers received oral oligofructose overload (17 g/kg body weight); four were killed 24h after overload and six after 72 h. Six control heifers received tap water and were killed after 72 or 96 h. Clinical examination included locomotion scoring and palpation of the tarsocrural joints. Ruminal fluid and blood was collected for measurements of pH and hydration status. Total protein concentrations and white blood cell (WBC) counts were determined in synovial fluid collected from tarsocrural joints after death. Synovial joints and tendon sheaths were examined and synovial membranes were studied microscopically. Swabs taken from the synovial cavities were subject to bacteriological culture. Heifers with oligofructose overload developed signs of ruminal and systemic acidosis. Lameness was observed in three of ten heifers 24h after overload and in all remaining heifers after 72 h. Distension of tarsocrural joints was observed from 18 h after overload and peaked at 30 h when all examined joints were moderately or severely distended. The synovial fluid was turbid and protein content and WBC counts were increased at both 24 and 72 h compared with controls. Bacterial culture was negative. Synovial membranes 24 and 72 h after overload had a fibrinous and neutrophil inflammatory reaction that regressed in severity between 24 and 72 h after overload. Heifers subjected to oligofructose overload therefore developed generalized sterile neutrophilic polysynovitis. Focus on this aspect of bovine laminitis may shed new light on the pathogenesis of this complex

  19. “Famoso [y valiente] hidalgo”: sobre conjeturas y deturpaciones textuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencio Sevilla Arroyo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The textual manipulations to which the epigraph of the first chapter of El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha has recently been subjected to offer an obvious example of Textual Bibliography critical threats when handled carelessly. Although it is true that spurious textual “changes” caused by the “printing by forms” and its “count of the original text” were current in Golden Age manual presses, the risk of distortions that threaten its non-well-informed amendment is also evident. In this case, a restitution of a supposed involuntary omission by the compositors is pretended, famoso [y valiente] hidalgo, which runs away from the first chapter’s epigraph in the original text of the Quijote, under the evidence from the first edition “Tabla de los capítulos”. Nevertheless, there are many typographical evidences that lead to conclude exactly the opposite: it is rather an apocryphal appendix, introduced by the compositor of the “Tabla” from an original famoso y valiente, and aimed just to solve a remaining blank in the last gathering of the book. The amendment, thus, far from restoring the original text, distorts Cervantine writing replacing it for an evident typographical trap. It would be necessary to bear in mind that the only Cervantine text of the first Quijote with critical authority went out of Juan de la Cuesta’s printing presses around Christmas in 1604- 1605...

  20. Experiential thinking in creationism--a textual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Petteri; Ryökäs, Esko; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2015-01-01

    Creationism is a religiously motivated worldview in denial of biological evolution that has been very resistant to change. We performed a textual analysis by examining creationist and pro-evolutionary texts for aspects of "experiential thinking", a cognitive process different from scientific thought. We observed characteristics of experiential thinking as follows: testimonials (present in 100% of sampled creationist texts), such as quotations, were a major form of proof. Confirmation bias (100% of sampled texts) was represented by ignoring or dismissing information that would contradict the creationist hypothesis. Scientifically irrelevant or flawed information was re-interpreted as relevant for the falsification of evolution (75-90% of sampled texts). Evolutionary theory was associated to moral issues by demonizing scientists and linking evolutionary theory to atrocities (63-93% of sampled texts). Pro-evolutionary rebuttals of creationist claims also contained testimonials (93% of sampled texts) and referred to moral implications (80% of sampled texts) but displayed lower prevalences of stereotypical thinking (47% of sampled texts), confirmation bias (27% of sampled texts) and pseudodiagnostics (7% of sampled texts). The aspects of experiential thinking could also be interpreted as argumentative fallacies. Testimonials lead, for instance, to ad hominem and appeals to authorities. Confirmation bias and simplification of data give rise to hasty generalizations and false dilemmas. Moral issues lead to guilt by association and appeals to consequences. Experiential thinking and fallacies can contribute to false beliefs and the persistence of the claims. We propose that science educators would benefit from the systematic analysis of experiential thinking patterns and fallacies in creationist texts and pro-evolutionary rebuttals in order to concentrate on scientific misconceptions instead of the scientifically irrelevant aspects of the creationist-evolutionist debate.

  1. Experiential Thinking in Creationism—A Textual Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Petteri; Ryökäs, Esko; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2015-01-01

    Creationism is a religiously motivated worldview in denial of biological evolution that has been very resistant to change. We performed a textual analysis by examining creationist and pro-evolutionary texts for aspects of “experiential thinking”, a cognitive process different from scientific thought. We observed characteristics of experiential thinking as follows: testimonials (present in 100% of sampled creationist texts), such as quotations, were a major form of proof. Confirmation bias (100% of sampled texts) was represented by ignoring or dismissing information that would contradict the creationist hypothesis. Scientifically irrelevant or flawed information was re-interpreted as relevant for the falsification of evolution (75–90% of sampled texts). Evolutionary theory was associated to moral issues by demonizing scientists and linking evolutionary theory to atrocities (63–93% of sampled texts). Pro-evolutionary rebuttals of creationist claims also contained testimonials (93% of sampled texts) and referred to moral implications (80% of sampled texts) but displayed lower prevalences of stereotypical thinking (47% of sampled texts), confirmation bias (27% of sampled texts) and pseudodiagnostics (7% of sampled texts). The aspects of experiential thinking could also be interpreted as argumentative fallacies. Testimonials lead, for instance, to ad hominem and appeals to authorities. Confirmation bias and simplification of data give rise to hasty generalizations and false dilemmas. Moral issues lead to guilt by association and appeals to consequences. Experiential thinking and fallacies can contribute to false beliefs and the persistence of the claims. We propose that science educators would benefit from the systematic analysis of experiential thinking patterns and fallacies in creationist texts and pro-evolutionary rebuttals in order to concentrate on scientific misconceptions instead of the scientifically irrelevant aspects of the creationist

  2. Experiential thinking in creationism--a textual analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petteri Nieminen

    Full Text Available Creationism is a religiously motivated worldview in denial of biological evolution that has been very resistant to change. We performed a textual analysis by examining creationist and pro-evolutionary texts for aspects of "experiential thinking", a cognitive process different from scientific thought. We observed characteristics of experiential thinking as follows: testimonials (present in 100% of sampled creationist texts, such as quotations, were a major form of proof. Confirmation bias (100% of sampled texts was represented by ignoring or dismissing information that would contradict the creationist hypothesis. Scientifically irrelevant or flawed information was re-interpreted as relevant for the falsification of evolution (75-90% of sampled texts. Evolutionary theory was associated to moral issues by demonizing scientists and linking evolutionary theory to atrocities (63-93% of sampled texts. Pro-evolutionary rebuttals of creationist claims also contained testimonials (93% of sampled texts and referred to moral implications (80% of sampled texts but displayed lower prevalences of stereotypical thinking (47% of sampled texts, confirmation bias (27% of sampled texts and pseudodiagnostics (7% of sampled texts. The aspects of experiential thinking could also be interpreted as argumentative fallacies. Testimonials lead, for instance, to ad hominem and appeals to authorities. Confirmation bias and simplification of data give rise to hasty generalizations and false dilemmas. Moral issues lead to guilt by association and appeals to consequences. Experiential thinking and fallacies can contribute to false beliefs and the persistence of the claims. We propose that science educators would benefit from the systematic analysis of experiential thinking patterns and fallacies in creationist texts and pro-evolutionary rebuttals in order to concentrate on scientific misconceptions instead of the scientifically irrelevant aspects of the creationist

  3. Utility-preserving privacy protection of textual healthcare documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, David; Batet, Montserrat; Viejo, Alexandre

    2014-12-01

    The adoption of ITs by medical organisations makes possible the compilation of large amounts of healthcare data, which are quite often needed to be released to third parties for research or business purposes. Many of this data are of sensitive nature, because they may include patient-related documents such as electronic healthcare records. In order to protect the privacy of individuals, several legislations on healthcare data management, which state the kind of information that should be protected, have been defined. Traditionally, to meet with current legislations, a manual redaction process is applied to patient-related documents in order to remove or black-out sensitive terms. This process is costly and time-consuming and has the undesired side effect of severely reducing the utility of the released content. Automatic methods available in the literature usually propose ad-hoc solutions that are limited to protect specific types of structured information (e.g. e-mail addresses, social security numbers, etc.); as a result, they are hardly applicable to the sensitive entities stated in current regulations that do not present those structural regularities (e.g. diseases, symptoms, treatments, etc.). To tackle these limitations, in this paper we propose an automatic sanitisation method for textual medical documents (e.g. electronic healthcare records) that is able to protect, regardless of their structure, sensitive entities (e.g. diseases) and also those semantically related terms (e.g. symptoms) that may disclose the former ones. Contrary to redaction schemes based on term removal, our approach improves the utility of the protected output by replacing sensitive terms with appropriate generalisations retrieved from several medical and general-purpose knowledge bases. Experiments conducted on highly sensitive documents and in coherency with current regulations on healthcare data privacy show promising results in terms of the practical privacy and utility of the

  4. TRANS-TEXTUALIZATION AND CARNIVALIZATION IN "WHISTLER," BY ONDJAKI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Miranda Campos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to observe the phenomenon of carnivalization and trans­textuality the novel The Whistler, the Angolan writer Ondjaki. Comprise the theoretical analysis of Bakhtin’s theory on carnivalization and its im­portance for social subversion of monologic discourse established by of­ficial bodies, the theory of Gérard Genette on transtextuality pointing five possible textual relationships. An understanding of the theories and car­nivalization transtextuality pervades the concepts of animism and taboo presented the theory of Sigmund Freud.

  5. Overload protection system for power inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, S. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An overload protection system for a power inverter utilized a first circuit for monitoring current to the load from the power inverter to detect an overload and a control circuit to shut off the power inverter, when an overload condition was detected. At the same time, a monitoring current inverter was turned on to deliver current to the load at a very low power level. A second circuit monitored current to the load, from the monitoring current inverter, to hold the power inverter off through the control circuit, until the overload condition was cleared so that the control circuit may be deactivated in order for the power inverter to be restored after the monitoring current inverter is turned off completely.

  6. Overload Control in a SIP Signaling Network

    OpenAIRE

    Masataka Ohta

    2007-01-01

    The Internet telephony employs a new type of Internet communication on which a mutual communication is realized by establishing sessions. Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is used to establish sessions between end-users. For unreliable transmission (UDP), SIP message should be retransmitted when it is lost. The retransmissions increase a load of the SIP signaling network, and sometimes lead to performance degradation when a network is overloaded. The paper proposes an overload control for a S...

  7. Thermal Characterization of the Overload Carbon Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Kostić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In many applications, the electronic component is not continuously but only intermittently overloaded (e.g., inrush current, short circuit, or discharging interference. With this paper, we provide insight into carbon resistors that have to hold out a rarely occurring transient overload. Using simple electrical circuit, the resistor is overheating with higher current than declared, and dissipation is observed by a thermal camera.

  8. SECRETARIAT AND TEXTUAL PRODUCTION: ARGUMENTATION IN THE TEXTUAL GENRE LETTER OF DECLARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erivaldo Pereira do Nascimento

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at describing the semantic argumentative structure of the textual/discursive genre Letter of Declaration, one of the documents with which the executive secretary frequently deals. This investigation is based on the Argumention Theory in the Language proposed by Ducrot (1988,1987. We also used the studies about Discursive Modalization proposed by Koch (2002, Castilho e Castilho (1993, Nascimento (2005, among others. Modalization is considered here as a semantic argumentative strategy, as it enables the speaker to make a statement or to express a point of view about the content of his/her enunciation, according to the interlocution. This study about the previously mentioned gender is qualitative, quantitative and descriptive. The corpus used is composed of 20 (twenty Letters of Declaration issued by different organizations or private and public institutions. We perceived that in the Letters of Declaration analysed argumentation is achieved by the use of modalizers and argumentative operators, used by the speaker to produce different effects of meaning in the texts.

  9. Textual appropriation in engineering master's theses: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Edward J

    2011-09-01

    In the thesis literature review, an engineering graduate student is expected to place original research in the context of previous work by other researchers. However, for some students, particularly those for whom English is a second language, the literature review may be a mixture of original writing and verbatim source text appropriated without quotations. Such problematic use of source material leaves students vulnerable to an accusation of plagiarism, which carries severe consequences. Is such textual appropriation common in engineering master's writing? Furthermore, what, if anything, can be concluded when two texts have been found to have textual material in common? Do existing definitions of plagiarism provide a sufficient framework for determining if an instance of copying is transgressive or not? In a preliminary attempt to answer these questions, text strings from a random sample of 100 engineering master's theses from the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database were searched for appropriated verbatim source text using the Google search engine. The results suggest that textual borrowing may indeed be a common feature of the master's engineering literature review, raising questions about the ability of graduate students to synthesize the literature. The study also illustrates the difficulties of making a determination of plagiarism based on simple textual similarity. A context-specific approach is recommended when dealing with any instance of apparent copying.

  10. The struggle for textual conventions in a language support programme

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, the writer explores the experience of a group of South African learners with regard to a language support course that aims to facilitate their struggle to master English textual conventions in discipline specific contexts. The academic context of this study was that of a nursing science degree programme where ...

  11. Shaping Up? Three Acts of Education Studies as Textual Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Julian; Walker, Stephen; Kendall, Alex

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a study of dominant educational discourses through textual critique and argues that such an approach enables education studies to preserve an important distinction from teacher training. The texts deconstructed here are specific to English education, but the discourses at work have international relevance as the rhetorics of…

  12. Textual Condensation in Printed Dictionaries. A Theoretical Draft·

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    applying procedures of textual condensation in relation to a respective full text. The full text ..... and, if one does not consider the inserted wordforms, of the same number of letters. .... soccer clogging: the match turned into a rough game da32.

  13. An Integrated Textual Case-Based System A. Almu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Almu: An Integrated Textual Case-Based System. 66. The semantic relationship in WordNet links the Four-. Part-Of-Speech of Nouns, Verbs, Adverbs and. Adjectives together to synonyms sets (Miller 1995). Therefore, the words or terms of the problem have to be tagged with their appropriate POS before passing them to the ...

  14. On the metaphorical nature of intellectual capital: a textual analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Daan Andriessen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – To analyse common metaphors used in the intellectual capital (IC) and knowledge management literatures to conceptualise knowledge, in order to study the nature of the intellectual capital concept. Design/methodology/approach – A textual analysis methodology is used to analyse texts

  15. Legitimate Textual Borrowing: Direct Quotation in L2 Student Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petric, Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Using textual analysis and interviews with student writers, this study aims to provide an insight into second language students' use of direct quotations in their MA theses by comparing direct quotations in high-rated and low-rated Master's theses, and by exploring student writers' own motivations to quote directly from sources. The corpus…

  16. Finding Environmental Knowledge in SCUBA-Based Textual Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündogdu, Cemal; Aygün, Yalin; Ilkim, Mehmet

    2018-01-01

    As marine environments within the adventure domain are future key-settings for recreational SCUBA diving experience, SCUBA-based textual materials should provide insight into environmental knowledge that is well connected to the novice divers' behaviour and attitude. This research is concerned with a major recreational SCUBA diver manual for…

  17. DISCURSO POLÍTICO DE RENÚNCIA: UMA ANÁLISE TEXTUAL / Political speech of resignation: a textual analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eliete de Queiroz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O presente artigo analisa a estrutura composicional do gênero discurso político de renúncia do senador Antônio Carlos Magalhães (ACM. A teoria da pesquisa pauta-se na Linguística Textual e na Análise Textual dos Discursos – ATD –  em Adam (2011. O procedimento metodológico e analítico volta-se para a forma de constituição das sequências textuais e do plano de texto do discurso de renúncia. Pela análise, observamos que o discurso de renúncia apresenta uma estrutura composicional composta por blocos temáticos diversos que formam as proposições enunciadas no aspecto global do texto. As etapas que seguem o plano de texto obedecem a seguinte ordem: abertura, parte intermediária e encerramento intermediário conclusivo que são construídas pela mesclagem de sequências narrativas, descritivas, explicativas e argumentativas. A sequência argumentativa é a predominante na construção da materialidade textual. Nesse sentido, o discurso de renúncia leva em conta as especificidades do nível textual e apresenta a genericidade complexa de um discurso político de renúncia. Palavras-chave: Discurso político. Estrutura composicional do gênero. Plano de texto. ABSTRACT This paper analizes the compositional structure of the genre political speech of resignation delivered by the Senator Antonio Carlos Magalhães (ACM. The research theory is based on text linguistics and textual analysis of discourses - TAD - in Adam (2011. The methodological and analysis procedures were conducted according to the constitution of textual sequences and the resignation speech text plan. In this analysis, we were able to see that the resignation speech presents a compositional structure made up of several thematic blocks which form the propositions stated in the global  aspect of the text.  The steps which follow the text plan are the following: opening, intermediate part and intermediate closing which are built by blending the narrative

  18. ESTUDIO SOBRE LOS ABSTRACTS DE ARTÍCULOS DE INVESTIGACIÓN INFORMÁTICOS: EVIDENCIALIDAD Y MODALIDAD TEXTUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivalla Ortega Barrera

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidentiality and textual modality are widely debated fi eld categories within the areas of linguistics and textual stylistics. The attitude of the author towards the topic indicates its commitment with the established proposition. In this way, his attitude can have either a rational/evaluative character (objective or an emotional/expressive character (subjective, which thus conveys the tonality of the discourse. The present paper, which forms part of the research project "Evidentiality in a multidisciplinary corpus of research papers in English" of the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, focuses on the genre "abstracts of research papers applied to computer science". In this paper we will analyse two types of characteristic functions: the communicative stamp of the markers which correspond to textual modality, both objective and subjective according to their relationship with the evidential and judgement markers, and the frequency of its use in the genre we are studying.

    La evidencialidad y la modalidad textual son categorías de campo muy debatidas dentro de la lingüística y la estilística textual. La actitud del autor hacia el texto indica el grado de compromiso que éste tiene en relación con su proposición. De este modo, su actitud puede tener carácter racional-valorativo (objetivo o carácter emotivo-expresivo (subjetivo, marcando así la tonalidad del discurso. El presente trabajo,
    enmarcado en el proyecto de investigación "Evidencialidad en un corpus multidisciplinar de artículos científi co-técnicos en lengua inglesa" de la Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, se centra en el género "abstracts de artículos de investigación aplicados a la informática", y analiza dos tipos de función característicos: la carga comunicativa de los marcadores correspondientes a la modalidad textual, tanto objetiva como subjetiva en cuanto a su relación con los marcadores evidenciales y de juicio, y su frecuencia de uso

  19. Oligofructose overload induces lameness in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danscher, A M; Enemark, J M D; Telezhenko, E; Capion, N; Ekstrøm, C T; Thoefner, M B

    2009-02-01

    The aim was to describe the clinical orthopedic implications of oligofructose overload. A group of 8 nonpregnant dairy heifers were given an oral dose of oligofructose (17 g/kg of body weight). At predefined times during a period spanning 3 d before and 9 d after oligofructose overload, the heifers underwent a clinical examination including locomotion scoring, hoof-testing, and palpation of tarso-crural joints, as well as the collection of blood and ruminal fluid samples. Locomotion sessions were videotaped; subsequently, locomotion was blind-scored. Locomotion scores increased after oligofructose overload and declined toward the end of the study period. The greatest locomotion scores were recorded on d 3 to 5 (60 to 120 h) where 12 of 42 (29%) locomotion scores were 3 and 13 of 42 (32%) were score 2. Positive reactions to hoof-testing were observed from 30 h after oligofructose overload and reached a maximum on d 7 and 9 where 12 of 28 (43%) reactions were marked positive. Distension of the tarso-crural joints was observed from 24 h after oligofructose overload, with maximum distension being observed on d 2, in which 44 of 56 (79%) of observed joints were either moderately or severely distended. The heifers developed classic signs of acute ruminal and systemic acidosis after the oligofructose overload (ruminal pH 4.3 +/- 0.07, standard base excess -10.8 +/- 2.3 at 18 h). With few exceptions, clinical and laboratory variables returned to normal within 9 d of oligofructose overload. But, good body condition and previous feeding with grass apparently predisposed the heifers to more severe systemic affection. Oligofructose overload in dairy heifers induced ruminal and systemic acidosis, diarrhea, dehydration, and, subsequently, lameness, claw pain, and joint effusion, collectively interpreted as signs of acute laminitis. Oligofructose overload at 17 g/kg of body weight represented a relatively mild laminitis model in cattle, as demonstrated by a reasonably quick

  20. Physical activity behavior and role overload in mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Geoff P; Butler, Frances R

    2015-01-01

    We examined physical activity stages of change, physical activity behavior, and role overload in different stages of motherhood in a predominantly Australian sample. Neither physical activity behavior, stages of physical activity change, nor role overload significantly differed across motherhood groups. Role overload was significantly higher for mothers in the contemplation, planning, and action stages of physical activity than in the maintenance stage of change. Role overload had a weak, although significant, negative correlation with leisure-time physical activity. We conclude that strategies focused upon reducing role overload or perceived role overload have only limited potential to meaningfully increase leisure-time physical activity in mothers.

  1. Textual meaning and its place in a theory of language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffries Lesley

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the development of a framework for critical stylistics (Jeffries 2010 and the explication of some of the theoretical assumptions behind this framework (Jeffries 2014a, 2014b, 2015a, 2015b, the present article attempts to put this framework into a larger theoretical context as a way to approach textual meaning. Using examples from the popular U.S. television show, The Big Bang Theory, I examine the evidence that there is a kind of textual meaning which can be distinguished from the core propositional meaning on the one hand and from contextual, interpersonal meaning on the other. The specific aim, to demonstrate a layer of meaning belonging to text specifically, is set within an argument which claims that progress in linguistics can better be served by adherence to a rigorous scientific discipline.

  2. A computational framework for converting textual clinical diagnostic criteria into the quality data model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Na; Li, Dingcheng; Yu, Yue; Xiu, Qiongying; Liu, Hongfang; Jiang, Guoqian

    2016-10-01

    Constructing standard and computable clinical diagnostic criteria is an important but challenging research field in the clinical informatics community. The Quality Data Model (QDM) is emerging as a promising information model for standardizing clinical diagnostic criteria. To develop and evaluate automated methods for converting textual clinical diagnostic criteria in a structured format using QDM. We used a clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP) tool known as cTAKES to detect sentences and annotate events in diagnostic criteria. We developed a rule-based approach for assigning the QDM datatype(s) to an individual criterion, whereas we invoked a machine learning algorithm based on the Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) for annotating attributes belonging to each particular QDM datatype. We manually developed an annotated corpus as the gold standard and used standard measures (precision, recall and f-measure) for the performance evaluation. We harvested 267 individual criteria with the datatypes of Symptom and Laboratory Test from 63 textual diagnostic criteria. We manually annotated attributes and values in 142 individual Laboratory Test criteria. The average performance of our rule-based approach was 0.84 of precision, 0.86 of recall, and 0.85 of f-measure; the performance of CRFs-based classification was 0.95 of precision, 0.88 of recall and 0.91 of f-measure. We also implemented a web-based tool that automatically translates textual Laboratory Test criteria into the QDM XML template format. The results indicated that our approaches leveraging cTAKES and CRFs are effective in facilitating diagnostic criteria annotation and classification. Our NLP-based computational framework is a feasible and useful solution in developing diagnostic criteria representation and computerization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. STATISTICAL RELATIONAL LEARNING AND SCRIPT INDUCTION FOR TEXTUAL INFERENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    compensate for parser errors. We replace deterministic conjunction by an average combiner, which encodes causal independence. Our framework was the...sentence similarity (STS) and sentence paraphrasing, but not Textual Entailment, where deeper inferences are required. As the formula for conjunction ...When combined, our algorithm learns to rely on systems that not just agree on an output but also the provenance of this output in conjunction with the

  4. Acute iron overload and oxidative stress in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piloni, Natacha E.; Fermandez, Virginia; Videla, Luis A.; Puntarulo, Susana

    2013-01-01

    h of Fe overload. This information has potential clinical relevance, as it could be the key to understand specific brain damage occurring in conditions of Fe overload

  5. The Army and the Academy as Textual Communities: Exploring Mismatches in the Concepts of Attribution, Appropriation, and Shared Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    writing manual, Student Text 22-1, provides information on plagiarism violations, which are "subject to review and may be referred to an academic board...charges of plagiarism were leveled by an academic who recognized in the manual various ideas and text from previous published sources. In many ways...worried about academic plagiarism may believe that revealing variations in textual practices "sends a message" to students that rules can be bent in

  6. Reading comprehension and textual consciousness on primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Wannmacher Pereira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The difficulties on reading comprehension in the primary school are evidenced by several official exams applied. Given these statistics and the evidences obtained through academic research and observations on children’s performance during the school life, there is acknowledgment of the situation as a problem that requires further development and finding solutions. The Psycholinguistics is giving its contribution, especially regarding the role of linguistic consciousness on reading learning. Many studies have been conducted specifically focusing on phonological consciousness. Studies on syntactic consciousness are also found, although less than phonological ones. Regarding the role of textual consciousness, few initiatives considers the students of the primary school. This makes the author proposes as the heartland of this communication the textual consciousness with support predominantly on Gombert (1992, aiming to examine the relationship between this level of consciousness and learning to read. Based on recent studies (PEREIRA; SCLIAR-CABRAL, 2012, the author presents in this paper: a the analysis of the context of learning and teaching of reading; b a theoretical exposition about reading learning and textual consciousness; c the pedagogical referrals for education based on the interaction between these two topics; and d the development of reflections on the possibility of the proposed path contribute to the solution of the worrying problem on read learning by the primary schools students.

  7. Punctuation as readability and textuality factor in technical discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sancho Guinda

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the incidence of punctuation on the reading comprehension of technical discourse and its role as a factor of textuality. Starting out from the notions of textuality and punctuation functions formulated by different linguistic approaches, an analysis has been made to quantify the decoding skills and punctuating competence of 60 Aeronautical Engineering students, as well as to determine the nature and effects of their punctuation errors. The survey has been focused on the Full Stop, the comma and the hyphen due to their highly conflicting uses as regards the identification of immediate sentence constituents and semantic relationships. The results obtained suggest that most students have a poor knowledge of punctuation rules and little awareness of punctuation as a textual elementaffecting readability. Errors are in the main related to comma use and produced by transference, either of Spanish punctuating habits into English, or of individual prosodic patterns into writing, while meaning appears to be the prevailing punctuating criterion over sound and syntax. Punctuation proves an effective tool for the anticipation of implicit meanings and an untapped resource in the teaching of the diverse communicative and stylistic possibilities offered by technical texts.

  8. Control over Permissible Short Emergency Overloads in Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Anischenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a method for determination a permissible duration of short intermittent overloads of power transformers that permits to avoid non-permissible over-heating of winding insulation and fully utilize overloading transformer ability.

  9. SIRT1 may play a crucial role in overload-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltai, Erika; Bori, Zoltán; Chabert, Clovis; Dubouchaud, Hervé; Naito, Hisashi; Machida, Shuichi; Davies, Kelvin Ja; Murlasits, Zsolt; Fry, Andrew C; Boldogh, Istvan; Radak, Zsolt

    2017-06-01

    Silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1) activity and content increased significantly in overload-induced hypertrophy. SIRT1-mediated signalling through Akt, the endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediated pathway, regulates anabolic process in the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. The regulation of catabolic signalling via forkhead box O 1 and protein ubiquitination is SIRT1 dependent. Overload-induced changes in microRNA levels regulate SIRT1 and insulin-like growth factor 1 signalling. Significant skeletal muscle mass guarantees functional wellbeing and is important for high level performance in many sports. Although the molecular mechanism for skeletal muscle hypertrophy has been well studied, it still is not completely understood. In the present study, we used a functional overload model to induce plantaris muscle hypertrophy by surgically removing the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles in rats. Two weeks of muscle ablation resulted in a 40% increase in muscle mass, which was associated with a significant increase in silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1) content and activity (P overload-induced hypertrophy. These findings, along with the well-known regulatory roles that SIRT1 plays in modulating both anabolic and catabolic pathways, allow us to propose the hypothesis that SIRT1 may actually play a crucial causal role in overload-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. This hypothesis will now require rigorous direct and functional testing. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  10. The informational turn in food politics: The US FDA's nutrition label as information infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Xaq

    2017-04-01

    This article traces the history of the US FDA regulation of nutrition labeling, identifying an 'informational turn' in the evolving politics of food, diet and health in America. Before nutrition labeling was introduced, regulators actively sought to segregate food markets from drug markets by largely prohibiting health information on food labels, believing such information would 'confuse' the ordinary food consumer. Nutrition labeling's emergence, first in the 1970s as consumer empowerment and then later in the 1990s as a solution to information overload, reflected the belief that it was better to manage markets indirectly through consumer information than directly through command-and-control regulatory architecture. By studying product labels as 'information infrastructure', rather than a 'knowledge fix', the article shows how labels are situated at the center of a legally constructed terrain of inter-textual references, both educational and promotional, that reflects a mix of market pragmatism and evolving legal thought about mass versus niche markets. A change to the label reaches out across a wide informational environment representing food and has direct material consequences for how food is produced, distributed, and consumed. One legacy of this informational turn has been an increasing focus by policymakers, industry, and arguably consumers on the politics of information in place of the politics of the food itself.

  11. The Family in Care for the Elderly: Managing the Overload and Coping with Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisete dos Santos Mendes Mónico

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Family is considered the main support of the elderly in a situation of dependency. Caregiving often results in overloading, leading to diverse problems. Aim: To evaluate the self-perception of the family caregiver’s overload and the strategies used to provide informal care to the dependent elderly considering their level of dependence. Method: The sample consisted of 21 children, 16 spouses, and nine other relatives of elderly dependents who responded to the Caregiver’s Overload Scale (Sequeira, 2007, the Portuguese version of Caregivers’ Assessment Management Index (CAMI, Nolan, Keady, & Grant, 1995 and the Barthel Index (Mahoney & Barthel, 1965. Results: The Barthel Index showed 34.8% of the elderly as severely dependent and 37.0% as totally dependent. The care most provided respected to medication, hygiene, food, and monitoring. Above 56.5% of the caregivers had an intense overload, both at the objective (impact of care and interpersonal relationship and subjective (F3-Expectations regarding care and F4-Perceived self-efficacy levels. The main reason for maintaining caregivers was family/personal obligation (95.7%. Caregivers reasonably assessed the effectiveness of their strategies in dealing with their dependent elderly (CAMI; M = 101.0, SD = 15.0. There was a negative relationship between the perception of the caregiver’s overload and the age and health status of the elderly, as well as between the number of strategies used by the caregiver to overcome difficulties and the self-perception of the overload. Conclusion: The multiplicity of daily tasks performed in support of a family member in a situation of severe dependence translates into situations of intense overload, negatively impacting on care, interpersonal relationship, expectations regarding caring, and perception of self-efficacy of care.

  12. Iron overload in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattermann, Norbert

    2018-01-01

    Iron overload (IOL) starts to develop in MDS patients before they become transfusion-dependent because ineffective erythropoiesis suppresses hepcidin production in the liver and thus leads to unrestrained intestinal iron uptake. However, the most important cause of iron overload in MDS is chronic transfusion therapy. While transfusion dependency by itself is a negative prognostic factor reflecting poor bone marrow function, the ensuing transfusional iron overload has an additional dose-dependent negative impact on the survival of patients with lower risk MDS. Cardiac dysfunction appears to be important in this context, as a consequence of chronic anemia, age-related cardiac comorbidity, and iron overload. Another potential problem is iron-related endothelial dysfunction. There is some evidence that with increasing age, high circulating iron levels worsen the atherosclerotic phenotype. Transfusional IOL also appears to aggravate bone marrow failure in MDS, through unfavorable effects on mesenchymal stromal cells as well a hematopoietic cells, particularly erythroid precursors. Patient series and clinical trials have shown that the iron chelators deferoxamine and deferasirox can improve hematopoiesis in a minority of transfusion-dependent patients. Analyses of registry data suggest that iron chelation provides a survival benefit for patients with MDS, but data from a prospective randomized clinical trial are still lacking.

  13. Effect of anabolic steroids on overloaded and overloaded suspended skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsika, R. W.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of treatment with an anabolic steroid (nandrolone decanoate) on the muscle mass, the subcellular protein content, and the myosin patterns of normal overloaded and suspended overloaded plantaris muscle in female rat was investigated, dividing rats into six groups: normal control (NC), overload (OV), OV steroid (OV-S), normal suspended (N-sus), OV suspended (OV-sus), and OV suspended steroid (OV-sus-S). Relative to control values, overload produced a sparing effect on the muscle weight of the OV-sus group as well as increases of muscle weight of the OV group; increased protein content; and an increased expression of slow myosin in both OV and OV-sus groups. Steroid treatment of OV animals did not after the response of any parameter analyzed for the OV group, but in the OV-sus group steroid treatment induced increases in muscle weight and in protein content of the OV-sus-S group. The treatment did not alter the pattern of isomyosin expression observed in the OV or the OV-sus groups. These result suggest that the steroid acts synergistically with functional overload only under conditions in which the effect of overload is minimized by suspension.

  14. Methodology to build medical ontology from textual resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneyx, Audrey; Charlet, Jean; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2006-01-01

    In the medical field, it is now established that the maintenance of unambiguous thesauri goes through ontologies. Our research task is to help pneumologists code acts and diagnoses with a software that represents medical knowledge through a domain ontology. In this paper, we describe our general methodology aimed at knowledge engineers in order to build various types of medical ontologies based on terminology extraction from texts. The hypothesis is to apply natural language processing tools to textual patient discharge summaries to develop the resources needed to build an ontology in pneumology. Results indicate that the joint use of distributional analysis and lexico-syntactic patterns performed satisfactorily for building such ontologies.

  15. An Investigation of Data Overload in Team-Based Distributed Cognition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellar, David Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    The modern military command center is a hybrid system of computer automated surveillance and human oriented decision making. In these distributed cognition systems, data overload refers simultaneously to the glut of raw data processed by information technology systems and the dearth of actionable knowledge useful to human decision makers.…

  16. Textual standardization and the DSM-5 "common language".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patty A

    2014-06-01

    In February 2010, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) launched their DSM-5 website with details about the development of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The APA invited "the general public" to review the draft diagnostic criteria and provide written comments and suggestions. This revision marks the first time the APA has solicited public review of their diagnostic manual. This article analyzes reported speech on the DSM-5 draft diagnostic criteria for the classification Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. It demonstrates how textual standardization facilitates the cultural portability of the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria such that a community of speakers beyond the borders of the APA come to be seen as exemplary speakers, writers, and revisers of the professional style. Furthermore, analysis shows how co-authoring practices recontextualize the "voice" and persona of putative patient reported speech on Criterion D2. As a consequence of textual standardization, spoken discourse becomes recontextualized as the product of scientific inquiry and the organization of psychiatric knowledge.

  17. An Improved Overloading Scheme for Downlink CDMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Moeneclaey

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available An improved overloading scheme is presented for single-user detection in the downlink of multiple-access systems based on OCDMA/OCDMA (O/O. By displacing in time the orthogonal signatures of the two user sets that make up the overloaded system, the cross-correlation between the users of the two sets is reduced. For random O/O with square-root cosine rolloff chip pulses, the multiuser interference can be decreased by up to 50% (depending on the chip pulse bandwidth as compared to quasiorthogonal sequences (QOS that are presently part of the downlink standard of Cdma2000. This reduction of the multiuser interference gives rise to an increase of the achievable signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio for a particular channel load.

  18. Hepatic iron overload: Quantitative MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomori, J.M.; Horev, G.; Tamary, H.; Zandback, J.; Kornreich, L.; Zaizov, R.; Freud, E.; Krief, O.; Ben-Meir, J.; Rotem, H.

    1991-01-01

    Iron deposits demonstrate characteristically shortened T2 relaxation times. Several previously published studies reported poor correlation between the in vivo hepatic 1/T2 measurements made by means of midfield magnetic resonance (MR) units and the hepatic iron content of iron-overloaded patients. In this study, the authors assessed the use of in vivo 1/T2 measurements obtained by means of MR imaging at 0.5 T using short echo times (13.4 and 30 msec) and single-echo-sequences as well as computed tomographic (CT) attenuation as a measure of liver iron concentration in 10 severely iron-overloaded patients with beta-thalassemia major. The iron concentrations in surgical wedge biopsy samples of the liver, which varied between 3 and 9 mg/g of wet weight (normal, less than or equal to 0.5 mg/g), correlated well (r = .93, P less than or equal to .0001) with the preoperative in vivo hepatic 1/T2 measurements. The CT attenuation did not correlate with liver iron concentration. Quantitative MR imaging is a readily available noninvasive method for the assessment of hepatic iron concentration in iron-overloaded patients, reducing the need for needle biopsies of the liver

  19. Iron overload impact on P-ATPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Leilismara; Pessoa, Marco Tulio C; Costa, Tamara G F; Cortes, Vanessa F; Santos, Herica L; Barbosa, Leandro Augusto

    2018-03-01

    Iron is a chemical element that is active in the fundamental physiological processes for human life, but its burden can be toxic to the body, mainly because of the stimulation of membrane lipid peroxidation. For this reason, the action of iron on many ATPases has been studied, especially on P-ATPases, such as the Na + ,K + -ATPase and the Ca 2+ -ATPase. On the Fe 2+ -ATPase activity, the free iron acts as an activator, decreasing the intracellular Fe 2+ and playing a protection role for the cell. On the Ca 2+ -ATPase activity, the iron overload decreases the enzyme activity, raising the cytoplasmic Ca 2+ and decreasing the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus Ca 2+ concentrations, which could promote an enzyme oxidation, nitration, and fragmentation. However, the iron overload effect on the Na + ,K + -ATPase may change according to the tissue expressions. On the renal cells, as well as on the brain and the heart, iron promotes an enzyme inactivation, whereas its effect on the erythrocytes seems to be the opposite, directly stimulating the ATPase activity, or stimulating it by signaling pathways involving ROS and PKC. Modulations in the ATPase activity may impair the ionic transportation, which is essential for cell viability maintenance, inducing irreversible damage to the cell homeostasis. Here, we will discuss about the iron overload effect on the P-ATPases, such as the Na + ,K + -ATPase, the Ca 2+ -ATPase, and the Fe 2+ -ATPase.

  20. Telling the Holy Sepulchre. “Mises en scène” and textual representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joachim Schmidt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the Middle Ages, places and holy objects were concrete in their materiality and especially in their geographical location. However they could also proliferate in other places, in a real “multiplication of presence”. Indeed, texts and maps informed the reader and the spectator, but also put him in touch with the sphere of the holiness. The idea of the omnipresence of the salvation facilitated a relocation of the poles of worship, which was nevertheless based on material contacts. This contrast between dematerialization and attachment to things maintained a play of opposites between absence and presence. The material or textual reproduction of objects and holy places made sure they became accessible for all those who would not or could not travel to them. This contribution offers an analysis of maps and various stories of medieval authors which make a symbolic approach to the holy places in Jerusalem accessible to many believers.

  1. Combining textual and non-textual features for e-mail importance estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sappelli, M.; Verberne, S.; Kraaij, W.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present a binary classification problem in which we aim to identify those email messages that the receiver will reply to. The future goal is to develop a tool that informs a knowledge worker which emails are likely to need a reply. The Enron corpus was used to extract training

  2. Textual Input Enhancement for Vowel Blindness: A Study with Arabic ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsadoon, Reem; Heift, Trude

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the impact of textual input enhancement on the noticing and intake of English vowels by Arabic L2 learners of English. Arabic L1 speakers are known to experience "vowel blindness," commonly defined as a difficulty in the textual decoding and encoding of English vowels due to an insufficient decoding of the word form.…

  3. The Target of the Question: A Taxonomy of Textual Features for Cambridge University "O" Levels English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Shanti Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the typical textual features that are most frequently targeted in short-answer reading comprehension questions of the Cambridge University "O" Level English Paper 2. Test writers' awareness of how textual features impact on understanding of meanings in text decisions will determine to great extent their decisions…

  4. Técnicas aplicadas al reconocimiento de implicación textual.

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Jesús; Peñas, Anselmo; Verdejo, Felisa

    2005-01-01

    Tras establecer qué se entiende por implicación textual, se expone la situación actual y el futuro deseable de los sistemas dirigidos a reconocerla. Se realiza una identificación de las técnicas que implementan actualmente los principales sistemas de Reconocimiento de Implicación Textual.

  5. Textual and Pictorial Glosses: Effectiveness on Incidental Vocabulary Growth When Reading in a Foreign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Claudia R.; Foss, Pamelo; Lenzini, John J.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the effects of pictorial and textual glosses and a combination thereof on incidental vocabulary growth of foreign language learners. Subjects from second-semester German classes read a narrative text passage under one of three marginal gloss conditions: textual gloss (English translation); pictorial gloss; and text and pictures in the…

  6. Textual healing: tailor-made kabbalistic therapeutics in Jerusalem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmen-Carmeli, Shlomo; Sharabi, Asaf

    2017-10-30

    This paper, based on fieldwork conducted in a Jerusalem yeshiva, describes how the yeshiva, a traditional institute of religious studies, also serves as an institution of healing and personal therapy in which sacred religious texts assume a central place. The article focuses on personal sessions between the rabbi who heads the yeshiva, and his audience of believers who turn to him for help in coping with personal hardships and tribulations. The paper contextualizes and elaborates upon the concept of 'deep healing' to describe how the rabbi uses his regular 'tool kit' to diagnose the problems of the person facing him and to offer optimal, personalized therapy. The rabbi uses religious texts to create textual deep healing processes that are tailor-made for the individual supplicant and are intended to accompany supplicants for a long period of time.

  7. Textual Transformations in Contemporary Black Writing in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawhar Ahmed Dhouib

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available While the first wave of Caribbean immigrant writers brilliantly explored race-related issues, black Britons like Andrea Levy, Zadie Smith and Caryl Phillips, among others, have sought to depart from earlier fiction, motivated in their project by the changing white face of Britain. In this article, I would like to argue that cultural change in Britain has deeply influenced literary production and has, consequently, laid the ground for a series of textual transformations. To capture instances of creative excess in contemporary black writing in Britain, I will bring under examination Caryl Phillips’s (2009 novel In the Falling Snow. My intention is to show to what extent Phillips’s work surpasses the ‘noose of race’ and already-familiar representations of multicultural Britain to celebrate a ‘post-racial’ society.

  8. Algunas consideraciones sobre la economía textual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Carlos Lázaro Nodals García

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available l artículo aborda el fenómeno de la proliferación de nuevos textos en las redes sociales, otras plataformas interactivas y equipos donde se aplican las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación. Se hace un análisis de sus características, contextos en que se producen y la escritura con economía textual, como centro de un debate entre las posiciones que la rechazan o exponen los problemas que puede originar en el ámbito del respeto a la lengua materna, los que ven en los mismos un fenómeno objetivo, que es necesario asimilar además de contextualizar, entre los que se encuentran los autores del trabajo, que incluso aprecian su dominio, como parte de las competencias culturales y comunicativas del profesional proactivo del siglo XXI.

  9. [Textual pragmatics in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: argument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Paúls, B; Gimeno-Martínez, M; Moreno-Campos, V

    2010-03-03

    Clinical linguistics involves a study of linguistic deficits which focuses on a series of aspects that range from strictly formal, grammatical points to the effective and contextualised use of language. Thus, it is also inevitably concerned with the cognitive, i.e. mental, correlate of such language use, whose basic textual dimensions are narration and argument. To describe the argumentative skills in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to examine their relationship with academic achievement and sociability. We analysed 79 argumentative texts written by adolescents with ADHD, using a methodology from cognitive linguistics and from theories of argumentation with a dialogical foundation. Adolescents with ADHD provided a greater number of arguments than those in the control group, but with a higher predominance of emotional and negative sanction strategies compared with a greater use of fallacious or circular arguments in those in the control group; the difference between the use of rational arguments in the two groups is not significant.

  10. The Ubiquity of Humanity and Textuality in Human Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daihyun Chung

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The so-called “crisis of the humanities” can be understood in terms of an asymmetry between the natural and social sciences on the one hand and the humanities on the other. While the sciences approach topics related to human experience in quantificational or experimental terms, the humanities turn to ancient, canonical, and other texts in the search for truths about human experience. As each approach has its own unique limitations, it is desirable to overcome or remove the asymmetry between them. The present article seeks to do just that by advancing and defending the following two claims: (a that humanity is ubiquitous wherever language is used; and (b that anything that can be experienced by humans is in need of an interpretation. Two arguments are presented in support of these claims. The first argument concerns the nature of questions, which are one of the fundamental marks or manifestations of human language. All questions are ultimately attempts to find meanings or interpretations of what is presented. As such, in questioning phenomena, one seeks to transcend the negative space or oppression of imposed structures; in doing so, one reveals one’s humanity. Second, all phenomena are textual in nature: that which astrophysicists find in distant galaxies or which cognitive neuroscientists find in the structures of the human brain are no less in need of interpretation than the dialogues of Plato or the poems of Homer. Texts are ubiquitous. The implications of these two arguments are identified and discussed in this article. In particular, it is argued that the ubiquity of humanity and textuality points to a view of human nature that is neither individualistic nor collectivist but rather integrational in suggesting that the realization of oneself is inseparable from the realization of others.

  11. The effect of single overloading on stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Yuzuru; Saito, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    In the normal course of nuclear power plant operation in Japan, proof testing has been performed after periodic plant inspections. In this proof test procedure, the reactor pressure vessel and pipes of the primary coolant loop are subjected to a specified overload with a slightly higher hydraulic pressure than during normal operation. This specified overload is so called a single overload' in material testing. It is well known that the fatigue crack growth rate is decreased after a single overload has been applied to the specimen. However, it is not clear whether the stress corrosion cracking rate is also decreased after a single overload. In this study, the effect of a single overload on the stress corrosion cracking rate under simulated boiling water reactor environment was evaluated by examining a singly overloaded WOL (wedge opening load) specimen. The WOL specimen for the stress corrosion cracking test was machined from sensitized 304 type austenitic stainless steel. Since the crack extension length was 3.2% longer in the case of a more severely overloaded specimen, it was observed than the stress corrosion cracking rate is also decreased after the single overload has been applied to the specimen. (author)

  12. The overloaded right heart and ventricular interdependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeije, Robert; Badagliacca, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    The right and the left ventricle are interdependent as both structures are nested within the pericardium, have the septum in common and are encircled with common myocardial fibres. Therefore, right ventricular volume or pressure overloading affects left ventricular function, and this in turn may affect the right ventricle. In normal subjects at rest, right ventricular function has negligible interaction with left ventricular function. However, the right ventricle contributes significantly to the normal cardiac output response to exercise. In patients with right ventricular volume overload without pulmonary hypertension, left ventricular diastolic compliance is decreased and ejection fraction depressed but without intrinsic alteration in contractility. In patients with right ventricular pressure overload, left ventricular compliance is decreased with initial preservation of left ventricular ejection fraction, but with eventual left ventricular atrophic remodelling and altered systolic function. Breathing affects ventricular interdependence, in healthy subjects during exercise and in patients with lung diseases and altered respiratory system mechanics. Inspiration increases right ventricular volumes and decreases left ventricular volumes. Expiration decreases both right and left ventricular volumes. The presence of an intact pericardium enhances ventricular diastolic interdependence but has negligible effect on ventricular systolic interdependence. On the other hand, systolic interdependence is enhanced by a stiff right ventricular free wall, and decreased by a stiff septum. Recent imaging studies have shown that both diastolic and systolic ventricular interactions are negatively affected by right ventricular regional inhomogeneity and prolongation of contraction, which occur along with an increase in pulmonary artery pressure. The clinical relevance of these observations is being explored. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights

  13. Preparing for opening night: temporal boundary objects in textually-mediated professional practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Davies

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report on two projects in which the role of documents as temporal boundary objects mediating information practices across multiple timelines was explored. It has been suggested that studying workplace documents will uncover the information practices of professionals beyond traditional information needs and uses studies. Two workplaces were studied: a professional theatre production and a midwifery clinic. Both settings are communities constructed partly through textual dynamics and both have a pre-production phase leading to an opening night. In the theatre setting, qualitative interviews with the cast and crew and document analysis of the prompt book were the means of data collection. The midwifery clinic setting was investigated by means of interviews and follow-ups with sixteen midwife-client pairs and document analysis of the antenatal record. Preliminary thematic analysis pertaining to time and information was conducted on interview transcripts and the relevant documents. It was possible to show several instances of both the prompt book and the antenatal record being treated as a timeline by the various professionals using them. The authors conclude with a discussion of the temporal aspects of professionals' information practices as revealed by these two projects and encourage further document-focused research.

  14. 2D mapping of plane stress crack-tip fields following an overload

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    P. J. Withers

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of crack-tip strain fields in a thin (plane stress compact tension sample following an overload (OL event has been studied using two different experimental techniques. Surface behaviour has been characterised by Digital Image Correlation (DIC, while the bulk behaviour has been characterised by means of synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD. The combination of both surface and bulk information allowed us to visualise the through-thickness evolution of the strain fields before the OL event, during the overload event, just after OL and at various stages after it. Unlike previous work, complete 2D maps of strains around the crack-tip were acquired at 60m spatial resolution by XRD. The DIC shows less crack opening after overload and the XRD a lower crack-tip peak stress after OL until the crack has grown past the compressive crack-tip residual stress introduced by the overload after which the behaviour returned to that for the baseline fatigue response. While the peak crack-tip stress is supressed by the compressive residual stress, the crack-tip stress field changes over each cycle are nevertheless the same for all Kmax cycles except at OL.

  15. Dietary Fat Overload Reprograms Brown Fat Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELE eLETTIERI BARBATO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulates health and lifespan.

  16. Textual analysis and machine leaning: Crack unstructured data in finance and accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In finance and accounting, relative to quantitative methods traditionally used, textual analysis becomes popular recently despite of its substantially less precise manner. In an overview of the literature, we describe various methods used in textual analysis, especially machine learning. By comparing their classification performance, we find that neural network outperforms many other machine learning techniques in classifying news category. Moreover, we highlight that there are many challenges left for future development of textual analysis, such as identifying multiple objects within one single document.

  17. Self-plagiarism and textual recycling: legitimate forms of research misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruton, Samuel V

    2014-01-01

    The concept of self-plagiarism frequently elicits skepticism and generates confusion in the research ethics literature, and the ethical status of what is often called "textual recycling" is particularly controversial. I argue that, in general, self-plagiarism is unethical because it is deceptive and dishonest. I then distinguish several forms of it and argue against various common rationalizations for textual recycling. I conclude with a discussion of two instances of textual recycling, distinguishing them in terms of their ethical seriousness but concluding that both are ethically problematic.

  18. Iron overload following bone marrow transplantation in children: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornreich, L.; Horev, G.; Grunebaum, M.; Yaniv, I.; Stein, J.; Zaizov, R.

    1997-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of post-transfusional iron overload in children after bone marrow transplantation by reviewing their magnetic resonance imaging (MR) findings. Materials and methods. We reviewed the abdominal MR studies of 13 children after autologous bone marrow transplantation. Nine of the children had also undergone MR prior to transplantation. Iron deposition in the liver, spleen and bone marrow was graded semi-quantitatively on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Serum ferritin levels and number of blood units given after bone marrow transplantation were recorded. Results. None of the pre-transplantation MR studies revealed iron overload. After bone marrow transplantation, three children showed normal liver and spleen. Iron overload in the liver was noted in ten patients (77 %), six of whom also showed iron overload in the spleen (46 %) and five in the bone marrow (38.5 %). The degree of hepatic iron overload was correlated significantly and splenic iron overload was correlated weakly with the number of blood transfusions (P 0.01 and P > 0.01, respectively), but neither was correlated with the serum ferritin level. Conclusion. Iron overload commonly accompanies bone marrow transplantation. The observed pattern of iron deposition, in which the spleen was uninvolved in 40 % of patients demonstrating iron overload, is not typical of post-transfusional hemochromatosis. (orig.)

  19. Using Pattern Recognition Techniques for Server Overload Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, C.P.; Cheplygina, V.; Zaidman, A.

    2011-01-01

    One of the key factors in customer satisfaction is application performance. To be able to guarantee good performance, it is necessary to take appropriate measures before a server overload occurs. While in small systems it is usually possible to predict server overload using a subjective human

  20. A new approach for primary overloads allowance in ratcheting evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrillat, M.T.; Gatt, J.M.; Lejeail, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Seismic loading must be taken into account in ratchetting design analysis. In LMFBR structures it mainly produces primary overloads, which are characterised by severe magnitudes but a generally low number of occurrences. Other cases of several primary overloads can also observed in pipes during emptying operations for instance. In the RCC-MR design code rule, the maximum primary stress supported by a structure is considered as permanent. No allowance is made for temporary load. Experimental ratchetting tests conducted on different structures with and without overloads clearly point out that temporary overloads lead to less ratchetting effect. A method using the RCC-MR efficiency diagram framework is proposed. A general theoretical approach allows to extend its field of application of various cases of primary loading: constant or null primary loading or overloads. Experimental results are then used to check the validity of this new approach. (author). 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Effect of overloads on fatigue crack propagation rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogaev, V.P.; Bojtsov, B.V.; Petukhov, Yu.V

    1986-01-01

    An overload coefficient Q, the number of overload cycles Nsub(0), the value of the stress intensity coefficient swing of basic loading conditions ΔK are experimentally studied for their effect on the delay of the fatigue crack propagation Nsub(D) in 30KhGSNA steel. Results of the study are presented. It is shown that as a result of single overloads the value attains 60 - 10 thous. cycles. The delay Nsub(D) grows with the overload coefficient Q=Ksub(max)sup(0)/Ksub(max) and the number of the overload cycles Nsub(0). The regularity indicated is described by the equations valid within the limits of variation in Q and Nsub(0) values studied in the paper

  2. Iron overload and chelation therapy in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temraz, Sally; Santini, Valeria; Musallam, Khaled; Taher, Ali

    2014-07-01

    Iron overload remains a concern in MDS patients especially those requiring recurrent blood transfusions. The consequence of iron overload may be more relevant in patients with low and intermediate-1 risk MDS who may survive long enough to experience such manifestations. It is a matter of debate whether this overload has time to yield organ damage, but it is quite evident that cellular damage and DNA genotoxic effect are induced. Iron overload may play a critical role in exacerbating pre-existing morbidity or even unmask silent ones. Under these circumstances, iron chelation therapy could play an integral role in the management of these patients. This review entails an in depth analysis of iron overload in MDS patients; its pathophysiology, effect on survival, associated risks and diagnostic options. It also discusses management options in relation to chelation therapy used in MDS patients and the impact it has on survival, hematologic response and organ function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Left ventricular function in right ventricular overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanaga, Shiro; Handa, Shunnosuke; Abe, Sumihisa; Onishi, Shohei; Nakamura, Yoshiro; Kunieda, Etsuo; Ogawa, Koichi; Kubo, Atsushi

    1989-01-01

    This study clarified regional and global functions of the distorted left ventricle due to right ventricular overload by gated radionuclide ventriculography (RNV). Cardiac catheterization and RNV were performed in 13 cases of atrial septal defect (ASD), 13 of pure mitral stenosis (MS), 10 of primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), and 10 of normal subjects (NL). Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was 32.9±13.9, 45.0±12.2, 88.3±17.1, and 21.2±4.5 mmHg, respectively. The end-systolic LAO view of the left ventricle was halved into septal and free-wall sides. The end-diastolic halves were determined in the same plane. Ejection fractions of the global left ventricle (LVEF), global right ventricle (RVEF), the septal half of the left ventricle (SEPEF), and the free-wall half of the left ventricle (FWEF) were obtained. LVEF was 56.8±9.8% in NL, 52.8±10.5% in ASD, and 49.5±12.9% in PPH. In MS, LVEF (47.0±13.0%) was smaller than those in the other groups. RVEF was 37.0±5.2% in NL, 43.7±15.5% in ASD, and 32.8±11.5% in MS. In PPH, RVEF (25.0±10.6%) was smaller than those in the other groups. SEPEF was smaller in ASD (42.5±13.2%), MS (40.4±13.1%), PPH (40.5±12.5%) than in NL (53.5±8.5%). Systolic function of the septal half of the left ventricle was disturbed by right ventricular overload. RVEF (r=-0.35, p<0.05) and SEPEF (r=-0.51, p<0.01) had negative correlations with RVSP. As RVSP rose, systolic function of the septal half of the left ventricle was more severely disturbed. FWEF was the same among the four groups; NL (57.0±12.6%), ASD (48.6±15.2%), MS (50.5±12.0%), and PPH (51.1±12.3%). There was a good correlation between SEPEF and LVEF in NL (r=0.81), although in PPH this correlation was poor (r=0.64). These data showed that the distorted left ventricular due to right ventricular overload maintains its global function with preserved function of the free-wall side. (J.P.N.)

  4. The Japanese Amateur Textual Production Scene: Activities and Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro David Hernández Hernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Animation, manga (Japanese comic books, and video games are some of the most popular media in Japan. The huge community of fans and amateur creators that concentrate twice a year at the massive event called Comic Market is one expression of this popularity. In this paper I focus on the Japanese culture of amateur manga, anime or other derivative texts, and present analysis of the way in which members relate to media texts and other members, in order to reveal two different orientations towards action within this culture: one that centers on individual activities, and the other on collective participation. To do this, I focus first on the Japanese amateur culture that is often called dōjin culture to find two basic perspectives. One regards this culture as forming communities or based on social interaction, and the other denies commonality in the relationships between members and stresses individual drive. Then, I focus on a similar distinction that shapes the main discourses concerning Japanese subculture and otaku, both categories within which dōjin culture can be categorized. Here I pay particular attention to two different orientations towards the value of media texts, which provide a reference for understanding the aforementioned opposition between commonality and individuality. In my conclusions, I suggest that this amateur culture can be regarded as an institution of textual appropriation, shaped by two orientations: activities and participation. 

  5. de análisis textual cinematográfico

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    Fernando Vizcarra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un análisis textual del filme futurista Blade Runner (1982, de Ridley Scott. Busca, sobre todo, indagar cómo se representan los efectos radicalizados de la modernidad en el discurso cinematográfico y, concretamente, en la construcción fílmica de las identidades. ¿Qué elementos de representación de lo social se movilizan en esta película para expresar, mediante la ficción futurista, las consecuencias críticas de la modernidad en las sociedades contemporáneas? Ciertos componentes de la modernidad y la posmodernidad (que aquí trato como modernidades múltiples, tales como la expansión de la racionalidad y la consecuente crisis de sentido, las rearticulaciones del tiempo y del espacio, la creación de entornos de fiabilidad y riesgo, y los procesos de hibridación, se exploran en este ejercicio a la luz de los siguientes códigos identitarios revelados en Blade Runner: 1 mortalidad, 2 memoria y poder, 3 anomia y sentido, 4 solidaridad y 5 ironía.

  6. Qur’an-related Intertextuality: Textual Potentiation in Translation

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    Aladdin Al-Kharabsheh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Qur’an-related intertextuality, envisaged as an enriching communicative act both monolingually and interlingually, represents a case of semantic complexity that is wired to present inconceivable translation challenges. Drawing on Derrida’s (1977 dichotomy iterability/citationality, Kristeva’s (1980 vertical intertextuality, Fairclough’s (1992a; 1992b; 1995 & 2011 manifest intertextuality, and Bakhtin’s (1986 double voicing or re-accentuation, the study argues that Qur’an-related intertextuality is conducive of conceptual densities, the ‘harnessing’ of which requires ‘mobilizing’ those translation strategies that should exceed the lexicographical equivalence (Venuti 2009 to establish intertextual relations relevant to the form and theme of the foreign text. To resolve the arising translation problems, the study basically proposes two synthetic approaches: the gist-paratextual and the gist-exegetical. Translation skopos has been found to be central to the production and reception of intertextuality and to determining which of the two proposed synthetic approaches to operationalize. Finally, analysis shows that Qur’an proved to be a virtual breeding ground for textual dynamism and potentiation.

  7. Taking Stock: Marie Nimier’s Textual Cabinet of Curiosities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many life-writing projects, the seemingly innocuous description of heteroclite objects and how those objects are stored and recalled in fact plays an important role in demonstrating their importance to the process of memory work. At once the lingering traces of one’s past and also an aggregation of stories evoked by an examination of them, these curios focus attention on the relationship between the individual and the storage of memories. This article will focus on certain collectibles, collections and collectors that appear throughout the fictional, autobiographical and autofictional world that Marie Nimier has scripted to date. This textual cabinet of curiosities and the act of collecting more generally serve as a trope to connect memory with materiality, despite the numerous narrative voices that Nimier assumes—voices that move from a first-person “Marie Nimier” to an unnamed, although clearly identifiable first-person and even float between genders. Despite this nominal and narrational fluidity, objects function to guarantee recognition, both for the reader, and, especially, for the author herself. What is at stake in this intertextual assemblage of objects is not only the roles that they play in allowing the narrator to revisit past traumas and loss, but also in connecting the author’s presence to other, more fictionalized voices that above all signify the primacy of life-writing in her corpus.

  8. Incidental splenic nodules found on MR imaging done for assessment of iron overload in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahyad, Rayan A.; Lam, Christopher Z.; Navarro, Oscar M.; Shearkhani, Omid

    2017-01-01

    MR imaging is used to assess iron overload in patients with hemoglobinopathies and in those who have undergone multiple blood transfusions. Sometimes splenic nodules are found incidentally on these examinations and this may cause diagnostic uncertainty. To determine the prevalence, imaging characteristics and evolution of splenic nodules found on MR imaging for iron overload evaluation. Retrospective review of all MR imaging examinations performed for iron overload assessment from 2005 to 2015 in a tertiary pediatric hospital. The presence of focal splenic nodules including number, size, signal characteristics and changes on follow-up MR imaging were recorded. Relevant patient clinical information including underlying hematological disease was also documented. A total of 318 patients had MR imaging for iron overload assessment. Of these, 25 (8%) had at least one incidental splenic nodule. Sickle cell disease was present in 22 patients (88%) and thalassemia in 3 (12%). On intermediate-weighted spin-echo images, the nodules had high signal intensity compared to the remainder of the spleen in 23 patients (92%) and low signal intensity in the remaining 2 (8%). In all patients (100%) the nodules showed progressive loss of signal intensity with increasing echo time values. Follow-up MR imaging was performed in 20 (80%) patients, which showed an increase in the size of the splenic nodules in 7 patients (35%) stability in 11 (55%) and a decrease in size in 2 (10%). It is not uncommon to find splenic nodules during MR evaluation of iron overload. In patients with sickle cell disease, most of these nodules are thought to represent preserved splenic tissue and appear hyperintense compared to the remainder of the spleen. They frequently remain stable on follow-up imaging, although about a third of them may show growth. Awareness of these nodules is important to avoid concern for potential malignancy and unnecessary investigations. (orig.)

  9. Incidental splenic nodules found on MR imaging done for assessment of iron overload in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahyad, Rayan A.; Lam, Christopher Z.; Navarro, Oscar M. [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Shearkhani, Omid [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2017-06-15

    MR imaging is used to assess iron overload in patients with hemoglobinopathies and in those who have undergone multiple blood transfusions. Sometimes splenic nodules are found incidentally on these examinations and this may cause diagnostic uncertainty. To determine the prevalence, imaging characteristics and evolution of splenic nodules found on MR imaging for iron overload evaluation. Retrospective review of all MR imaging examinations performed for iron overload assessment from 2005 to 2015 in a tertiary pediatric hospital. The presence of focal splenic nodules including number, size, signal characteristics and changes on follow-up MR imaging were recorded. Relevant patient clinical information including underlying hematological disease was also documented. A total of 318 patients had MR imaging for iron overload assessment. Of these, 25 (8%) had at least one incidental splenic nodule. Sickle cell disease was present in 22 patients (88%) and thalassemia in 3 (12%). On intermediate-weighted spin-echo images, the nodules had high signal intensity compared to the remainder of the spleen in 23 patients (92%) and low signal intensity in the remaining 2 (8%). In all patients (100%) the nodules showed progressive loss of signal intensity with increasing echo time values. Follow-up MR imaging was performed in 20 (80%) patients, which showed an increase in the size of the splenic nodules in 7 patients (35%) stability in 11 (55%) and a decrease in size in 2 (10%). It is not uncommon to find splenic nodules during MR evaluation of iron overload. In patients with sickle cell disease, most of these nodules are thought to represent preserved splenic tissue and appear hyperintense compared to the remainder of the spleen. They frequently remain stable on follow-up imaging, although about a third of them may show growth. Awareness of these nodules is important to avoid concern for potential malignancy and unnecessary investigations. (orig.)

  10. Computers in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language: Access to the Diversity of Textual Genres and Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Roberto-Márcio; Sobrinho, Jerônimo Coura

    In the area of language teaching both language skills and textual genres can be worked with simultaneously (thus responding to the Brazilian Curricular Parameters and to the trends in contemporary education, which emphasize contextualized teaching) by means of computers. Computers can make the teaching process dynamic and rich, since they enable the access to the foreign language through virtual environments, which creates a larger number of learning contexts, with all their specific vocabulary and linguistic features in real communication. This study focuses on possible applications of this kind of approach. The computer online is a resource of diverse textual genres and can be an important tool in the language classroom as well as an access to authentic material produced in contextualized practice close to real-life communication. On the other hand, all these materials must be appropriately used without ever worshipping the technology as if it were a miraculous solution. After all, the professional pedagogic skills of the teacher should never be forgotten or taken for granted. In this study, a series of interviews with teachers was carried out - both with Brazilian teachers of the public sector (basic education) and language institutes (private English courses) as well as teacher trainers (university professors), in order to verify if the teachers were prepared to work with informatics in teaching practices, and check the professionals’ views on the subject. The ideas of Maingueneau and Marcuschi about textual genres are a theoretical base in this work, besides the concept of cognitive economy. The text and its typology are focused here as the basic material for teaching English, through digital technologies and hypermedia. The study is also based on Sharma and Barrett’s notion of blended learning as a balanced combination of technological resources and traditional practices in the classroom. Thus, this is an attempt to investigate the relevance of

  11. The Text's the Thing: Using (Neglected) Issues of Textual Scholarship to Help Students Reimagine Shakespeare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Do individuals know what words Shakespeare actually wrote? Exploring these issues can yield dramatic interest. With references to Shakespeare's Quartos and Folios, the author examines key textual issues and discrepancies in classroom studies of "Hamlet." (Contains 8 notes.)

  12. Evaluation of thermal overload in boiler operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Camila Soares; Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; Campos, Julio César Costa; de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Minette, Luciano José; de Moraes, Angêlo Casali; Sensato, Guilherme Luciano

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilians educational institutions need a large energy demand for the operation of laundries, restaurants and accommodation of students. Much of that energy comes from steam generated in boilers with wood fuel. The laboral activity in boiler may present problems for the operator's health due to exposure to excessive heat, and its operation has a high degree of risk. This paper describes an analysis made the conditions of thermal environment in the operation of a B category boiler, located at a Higher Education Institution, located in the Zona da Mata Mineira The equipments used to collect data were Meter WBGT of the Heat Index; Meter of Wet Bulb Index and Globe Thermometer (WBGT); Politeste Instruments, an anemometer and an Infrared Thermometer. By the application of questionnaires, the second phase consisted of collecting data on environmental factors (temperature natural environment, globe temperature, relative humidity and air velocity). The study concluded that during the period evaluated, the activity had thermal overload.

  13. La superación a los docentes para la producción textual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Hinojosa Legrá

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available La producción textual es uno de los componentes más afectados desde los primeros grados en la enseñanza de la Lengua Materna, entre las causas que lo provocan está la deficiente preparación de los docentes para ofrecer el tratamiento adecuado, este trabajo ofrece vías para la superación profesional respecto a la producción textual.

  14. An analysis for understanding the process of textual deconstruction as a motivator for learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Delia Barrera Jiménez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to analyze the potential of the process of textual understanding and construction, for the development of motivation towards learning in teacher trainees for Preuniversities. In this direction it advocates in the first place, to understand the dynamic relationship established between the process of textual attribution and production and the motivational one, which provides the indispensable condition for promoting the work with the text from all the subjects in the curriculum.

  15. Nuevas alfabetizaciones en un entorno multimodal: nuevas necesidades lectoras para un entorno textual múltiple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Patricio Sánchez-Claros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The new technologies of information, the development of the media and the massive presence of multimedia devices have brought a renewal of the traditional concept of literacy. Multimodality in the media, in the dissemination of knowledge and the communicat ion formats have brought a change in the system of reception of media objects and each of its integral elements. This multimodal environment is part of the daily life of students who access through a scenario of screens and images across a virtual environm ent in which both textual and visual are integrated as an informational continuum that requires to users new interpretation skills. And, consequently, a new approach to media literacy should be the subject of attention from educators. Media literac y implies the need to address new visual skills, new reading skills and especially new skills for integration and analysis, among those who cannot be set aside on the critical apparatus necessary. This paper discusses the content of these skills, some cri tical tools for multimodal approach speech as well as the role the four substrata of discourse, design, production and distribution , typical ofCritical Analysis of Multimodal Discourse are analysed .

  16. Rethinking Over Textuality of Digital Image: A Methodological Proposal for Pleasant Reading on Digital Screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Álvarez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It sets out the necessity about thinking over the instructional function of image in digital world under the light of the new opportunities of a methodological proposal to read as a game. First, for this reason it exams the perceptions of García Canclini about the reading of university students, and its problems on the context of new technologies: accumulation of information versus weakening of reflection. To this situation it adds the no appreciation of visual images. Faced with this problematic situation, and with the aim of sketching out options, it analyzes two experiences about books: the “tasty” reading of texts (the “good reading”, and the potentialities presented in the essential characteristics of playing. So, it proposes a methodology shaped for five steps to read images on digital screen. Its aim is seizing the possibilities of “good reading” to expand the comprehension of the visual information perceived through the screen. The proposal puts the accent in the textuality of representational surface of an image. Also it brings the attentive visual route about in order to enable to identify both significant forms and spaces. This proposal is illustrated with examples.

  17. In the Beginning was the Genome: Genomics and the Bi-textuality of Human Existence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, H A E Hub

    2018-04-01

    This paper addresses the cultural impact of genomics and the Human Genome Project (HGP) on human self-understanding. Notably, it addresses the claim made by Francis Collins (director of the HGP) that the genome is the language of God and the claim made by Max Delbrück (founding father of molecular life sciences research) that Aristotle must be credited with having predicted DNA as the soul that organises bio-matter. From a continental philosophical perspective I will argue that human existence results from a dialectical interaction between two types of texts: the language of molecular biology and the language of civilisation; the language of the genome and the language of our socio-cultural, symbolic ambiance. Whereas the former ultimately builds on the alphabets of genes and nucleotides, the latter is informed by primordial texts such as the Bible and the Quran. In applied bioethics deliberations on genomics, science is easily framed as liberating and progressive, religious world-views as conservative and restrictive (Zwart 1993). This paper focusses on the broader cultural ambiance of the debate to discern how the bi-textuality of human existence is currently undergoing a transition, as not only the physiological, but also the normative dimension is being reframed in biomolecular and terabyte terms.

  18. Dietary iron rural blacks overload In southern African

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-09-15

    Sep 15, 1990 ... suggest that iron overload from any cause may predispose to infection7 and there are .... consumption and acute inflammatory diseases. However, it ..... Addison GM, Beamish MR, Hales C ',Hodgkins M, Jacobs A, Llewellin P.

  19. VOLUME OVERLOAD IS ASSOCIATED WITH MALNUTRITION IN PERITONEAL DIALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Joo Cha

    2012-06-01

    Volume overload is associated with malnutrition and seems to be an independent predictor of mortality in PD population. Further study should evaluate the effects of intervention of volume control in PD patients.

  20. Fatigue crack growth due to overloads in plain concrete using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cation of overload on concrete structures, acceleration in the crack growth process .... study by the same authors, Ray & Chandra Kishen (2010), they have employed the population growth ...... Institute of Technology, University of Trondheim.

  1. [Role of melatonin in calcium overload-induced heart injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingheng; Wei, Ming; Sun, Na; Zhu, Juanxia; Su, Xingli

    2017-06-28

    To investigate the role of melatonin in calcium overload-induced heart injury.
 Methods: Thirty-two rats were divided into 4 groups: a control group (Control), a melatonin control group (Mel), a calcium overload group (CaP), and a calcium overload plus melatonin group (Mel+CaP). Isolated Sprague Dawley male rat hearts underwent Langendorff perfusion. Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) was calculated to evaluate the myocardial performance. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining was used to measure the infarct size of myocardium. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the coronary flow was determined. The expressions of caspase-3 and cytochrome c were determined by Western blot. The pathological morphological changes in myocardial fiber were analyzed by HE staining.
 Results: Compared with the control group, calcium overload significantly induced an enlarged infarct size (Poverload-induced heart injury.

  2. Textual and language flaws: problems for Spanish doctors in producing abstracts in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Divasson Cilveti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific journals are the primary source of information for researchers. The number of articles currently indexed in databases is so large that it has become almost impossible to read every relevant article in a particular field. Thus, research paper abstracts (RPAs have acquired increasing importance. Several studies have shown that they are the skipping point, particularly among non-native English speakers. To our knowledge, little research has been carried out on RPA writing by Spanish doctors. It is thus the objective of this article to analyse the way abstracts are structured and linguistically realized by these professionals. We selected 30 RPAs written in English by Spanish speaking doctors from three leading Spanish journals on internal medicine. We recorded their textual level flaws by measuring the degree of informativeness with regard to three main variables: move patterning, ordering and structuring, and their language use flaws under two broad categories: ortho-typographic and grammatical. Length, use of hedges and keywords were also identified. 86.6% of the abstracts were informative, 13.3% uninformative while none of them could be classified as highly informative. With regard to the authors' use of language, over 70% presented some kind of flaws: 21.55% of these mistakes were ortho-typographic while 78.44% were grammatical. Our results support the need of designing specific units geared on the one hand towards explicit teaching of structured abstracts and on the other, towards the difficulties found by doctors because they lack language competence. They would also benefit from clearer guidelines from journal editors.

  3. Fluid overload in the ICU: evaluation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claure-Del Granado, Rolando; Mehta, Ravindra L

    2016-08-02

    Fluid overload is frequently found in acute kidney injury patients in critical care units. Recent studies have shown the relationship of fluid overload with adverse outcomes; hence, manage and optimization of fluid balance becomes a central component of the management of critically ill patients. In critically ill patients, in order to restore cardiac output, systemic blood pressure and renal perfusion an adequate fluid resuscitation is essential. Achieving an appropriate level of volume management requires knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology, evaluation of volume status, and selection of appropriate solution for volume repletion, and maintenance and modulation of the tissue perfusion. Numerous recent studies have established a correlation between fluid overload and mortality in critically ill patients. Fluid overload recognition and assessment requires an accurate documentation of intakes and outputs; yet, there is a wide difference in how it is evaluated, reviewed and utilized. Accurate volume status evaluation is essential for appropriate therapy since errors of volume evaluation can result in either in lack of essential treatment or unnecessary fluid administration, and both scenarios are associated with increased mortality. There are several methods to evaluate fluid status; however, most of the tests currently used are fairly inaccurate. Diuretics, especially loop diuretics, remain a valid therapeutic alternative. Fluid overload refractory to medical therapy requires the application of extracorporeal therapies. In critically ill patients, fluid overload is related to increased mortality and also lead to several complications like pulmonary edema, cardiac failure, delayed wound healing, tissue breakdown, and impaired bowel function. Therefore, the evaluation of volume status is crucial in the early management of critically ill patients. Diuretics are frequently used as an initial therapy; however, due to their limited effectiveness the use of continuous

  4. Automating generation of textual class definitions from OWL to English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert; Malone, James; Williams, Sandra; Power, Richard; Third, Allan

    2011-05-17

    developers of EFO are sufficiently satisfied with the output that the generated definitions have been incorporated into EFO. Whilst not a substitute for hand-written textual definitions, our generated definitions are a useful starting point. An on-line version of the NLG text definition tool can be found at http://swat.open.ac.uk/tools/. The questionaire and sample generated text definitions may be found at http://mcs.open.ac.uk/nlg/SWAT/bio-ontologies.html.

  5. Network overload due to massive attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornbluth, Yosef; Barach, Gilad; Tuchman, Yaakov; Kadish, Benjamin; Cwilich, Gabriel; Buldyrev, Sergey V.

    2018-05-01

    We study the cascading failure of networks due to overload, using the betweenness centrality of a node as the measure of its load following the Motter and Lai model. We study the fraction of survived nodes at the end of the cascade pf as a function of the strength of the initial attack, measured by the fraction of nodes p that survive the initial attack for different values of tolerance α in random regular and Erdös-Renyi graphs. We find the existence of a first-order phase-transition line pt(α ) on a p -α plane, such that if p pt , pf is large and the giant component of the network is still present. Exactly at pt, the function pf(p ) undergoes a first-order discontinuity. We find that the line pt(α ) ends at a critical point (pc,αc) , in which the cascading failures are replaced by a second-order percolation transition. We find analytically the average betweenness of nodes with different degrees before and after the initial attack, we investigate their roles in the cascading failures, and we find a lower bound for pt(α ) . We also study the difference between localized and random attacks.

  6. Overloaded CDMA Systems with Displaced Binary Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanhaverbeke Frederik

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend three types of overloaded CDMA systems, by displacing in time the binary signature sequences of these systems: (1 random spreading (PN, (2 multiple-OCDMA (MO, and (3 PN/OCDMA (PN/O. For each of these systems, we determine the time shifts that minimize the overall multiuser interference power. The achievable channel load with coded and uncoded data is evaluated for the conventional (without displacement and improved (with displacement systems, as well as for systems based on quasi-Welch-bound-equality (QWBE sequences, by means of several types of turbo detectors. For each system, the best performing turbo detector is selected in order to compare the performance of these systems. It is found that the improved systems substantially outperform their original counterparts. With uncoded data, (improved PN/O yields the highest acceptable channel load. For coded data, MO allows for the highest acceptable channel load over all considered systems, both for the conventional and the improved systems. In the latter case, channel loads of about 280% are achievable with a low degradation as compared to a single user system.

  7. Myelodysplastic syndromes and the role of iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, R Donald

    2010-04-01

    The epidemiology of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and iron overload, recent clinical findings that highlight the importance of actively managing iron overload, and recommendations for initiating and maintaining iron chelation therapy (ICT) are summarized. MDS are a variety of hematological disorders with differing time courses. Disease morbidities are primarily due to cytopenias and evolution to acute myeloid leukemia. Iron overload is a serious complication in patients with MDS due to the long-term use of red blood cell transfusions in patients with symptomatic anemia. Clinical consequences of iron overload include end-organ damage and dysfunction, an increased frequency of transplant-related complications, and reduced survival rates. To prevent these complications, recommendations for initiating and maintaining ICT should be followed by clinicians caring for patients with MDS and iron overload. As current therapeutic options for patients with MDS do not always reduce the transfusion burden, many patients will still need long-term transfusion therapy. Strategies for the management of iron overload in MDS should be considered early in the disease course and in appropriate patients in order to prevent negative clinical outcomes associated with excessive iron accumulation.

  8. Application of Chaos Theory in Trucks' Overloading Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mahmoudabadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trucks' overloading is considered as one of the most substantial concerns in road transport due to a possible road surface damage, as well as, are less reliable performance of trucks' braking system. Sufficient human resource and adequate time scheduling are to be planned for surveying trucks' overloading; hence, it seems required to prepare an all-around model to be able to predict the number of overloaded vehicles. In the present research work, the concept of chaos theory has been utilized to predict the ratio of trucks which might be guessed overloaded. The largest Lyapunov exponent is utilized to determine the presence of chaos using experimental data and concluded that the ratio of overloaded trucks reflects chaotic behavior. The prediction based on chaos theory is compared with the results of simple smoothing and moving average methods according to the well-known criterion of mean square errors. The results have also revealed that the chaotic prediction model would act more capably comparing the analogous methods including simple smoothing and moving average to predict the ratio of passing trucks to be possibly overloaded.

  9. Research progress in role of iron overload in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    LI Guangming

    2013-01-01

    Iron overload is an important research focus in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The relationship between iron overload and NAFLD is summarized from the assessment method for iron overload, relationship between iron load and hemochromatosis gene mutations, incidence of iron load in NAFLD, and relationship between iron load and progression of NAFLD; the action mechanism of iron overload in the progression of NAFLD is reviewed from the causes of iron overload, relationship between iro...

  10. Exploratory analysis of textual data from the Mother and Child Handbook using a text mining method (II): Monthly changes in the words recorded by mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Miki; Matsuda, Yoshio; Manaka, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Makiko; Ohwada, Michitaka; Matsubara, Shigeki

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the possibility of converting subjective textual data written in the free column space of the Mother and Child Handbook (MCH) into objective information using text mining and to compare any monthly changes in the words written by the mothers. Pregnant women without complications (n = 60) were divided into two groups according to State-Trait Anxiety Inventory grade: low trait anxiety (group I, n = 39) and high trait anxiety (group II, n = 21). Exploratory analysis of the textual data from the MCH was conducted by text mining using the Word Miner software program. Using 1203 structural elements extracted after processing, a comparison of monthly changes in the words used in the mothers' comments was made between the two groups. The data was mainly analyzed by a correspondence analysis. The structural elements in groups I and II were divided into seven and six clusters, respectively, by cluster analysis. Correspondence analysis revealed clear monthly changes in the words used in the mothers' comments as the pregnancy progressed in group I, whereas the association was not clear in group II. The text mining method was useful for exploratory analysis of the textual data obtained from pregnant women, and the monthly change in the words used in the mothers' comments as pregnancy progressed differed according to their degree of unease. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Effects of pictures and textual arguments in sun protection public service announcements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Henk; Ter Huurne, Ellen; Taal, Erik

    2006-01-01

    The effect of public service announcements aimed at promoting primary prevention of skin cancer may be limited by superficial cognitive processing. The use of both pictures and textual arguments in sun protection public service announcements were evaluated for their potentially beneficial effects on judgment, cognitive processing and persuasiveness. In a 2 x 2 factorial experimental design individuals were shown public service announcements that advocated the advantages of sun protection measures in different versions in which a picture was present or not present and a textual argument was present or not present. The 159 participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. In each condition, participants were shown 12 different public service announcements designed according to the condition. Participants judged each public service announcement on attractiveness, credibility, clarity of communication and the required amount of reflection. After the judgment task, they completed a questionnaire to assess knowledge, perceived advantages and disadvantages of sun protection and intended use of sun protection measures. Pictures enhanced attractiveness, but diminished comprehension. Textual arguments enhanced attractiveness, credibility and comprehension. Pictures as well as textual arguments increased knowledge of sun protection measures. Pictures and textual arguments in public service announcements positively influence the individual's perception of the advantages of sun protection methods and the advantages of their adoption.

  12. Care episode retrieval: distributional semantic models for information retrieval in the clinical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Hans; Ginter, Filip; Marsi, Erwin; Peltonen, Laura-Maria; Salakoski, Tapio; Salanterä, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    Patients' health related information is stored in electronic health records (EHRs) by health service providers. These records include sequential documentation of care episodes in the form of clinical notes. EHRs are used throughout the health care sector by professionals, administrators and patients, primarily for clinical purposes, but also for secondary purposes such as decision support and research. The vast amounts of information in EHR systems complicate information management and increase the risk of information overload. Therefore, clinicians and researchers need new tools to manage the information stored in the EHRs. A common use case is, given a--possibly unfinished--care episode, to retrieve the most similar care episodes among the records. This paper presents several methods for information retrieval, focusing on care episode retrieval, based on textual similarity, where similarity is measured through domain-specific modelling of the distributional semantics of words. Models include variants of random indexing and the semantic neural network model word2vec. Two novel methods are introduced that utilize the ICD-10 codes attached to care episodes to better induce domain-specificity in the semantic model. We report on experimental evaluation of care episode retrieval that circumvents the lack of human judgements regarding episode relevance. Results suggest that several of the methods proposed outperform a state-of-the art search engine (Lucene) on the retrieval task.

  13. Cognitive overload and communication in two healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicourel, Aaron V

    2004-01-01

    The confluence of organizational social interaction and cognitive information processing constraints create 'noisy' conditions in institutionalized settings. Attentional and memory limitations always influence the ability of participants to comprehend each other's communication. Two organizational settings (a medical specialty clinic and periodontal office) will be used to explore a few features of healthcare delivery that are often ignored in studies of such systems. Scheduling appointments, for example, creates stress for both patients and healthcare personnel but is often an unexamined aspect of healthcare delivery that has become both challenging and often irritating for all concerned. For example, when patients call, someone at a general scheduling center or the particular clinic or office of an individual physician or dentist or a group practice will answer the call with a menu of options, or the caller may be asked to leave message. When a patient leaves a clinic or surgery office after a visit, they may be allowed to make a new appointment. The term 'cognitive overload' is a ubiquitous element of all healthcare systems and refers to organizationally induced and constrained limited capacity processing inherent in the way improvised discourse practices, and annotative devices or artifacts (such as written notes or some related strategy) become an integral part of everyday healthcare delivery.

  14. TNF-α as a potential mediator of cardiac dysfunction due to intracellular Ca2+-overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ming; Xu Yanjun; Saini, Harjot K.; Turan, Belma; Liu, Peter P.; Dhalla, Naranjan S.

    2005-01-01

    TNF-α has been shown to be involved in cardiac dysfunction during ischemia/reperfusion injury; however, no information regarding the status of TNF-α production in myocardial injury due to intracellular Ca 2+ -overload is available in the literature. The intracellular Ca 2+ -overload was induced in the isolated rat hearts subjected to 5 min Ca 2+ -depletion and 30 min Ca 2+ -repletion (Ca 2+ -paradox). The Ca 2+ -paradox hearts exhibited a dramatic depression in left ventricular developed pressure, a marked elevation in left ventricular end diastolic pressure, and more than a 4-fold increase in TNF-α content. The ratio of cytosolic to homogenate nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) was decreased whereas the ratio of phospho-NFκB to total NFκB was increased in the Ca 2+ -paradox hearts. All these changes due to Ca 2+ -paradox were significantly attenuated upon treating the hearts with 100 μM pentoxifylline. These results suggest that activation of NFκB and increased production of TNF-α may play an important role in cardiac injury due to intracellular Ca 2+ -overload

  15. A Textual Feedback Tool for Empowering Participants in Usability and UX Evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivaji, Ashok; Clemmensen, Torkil; Nielsen, Søren Feodor

    2017-01-01

    -educated, but low-status, users in UX evaluations in countries and contexts with high power distances. The proposed tool contributes to the HCI community’s pool of localized UX evaluation tools. We evaluate the tool with 40 users from two socio-economic groups in real-life UX usability evaluations setting...... in Malaysia. The results indicate that the Textual Feedback tool may help participants to give their thoughts in UX evaluation in high power distance contexts. In particular, the Textual Feedback tool helps high status females and low status males express more UX problems than they can do with traditional CTA...... alone. We found that classic concurrent think aloud UX evaluation works fine in high power contexts, but only with the addition of Textual feedback to mitigate the effects of socio-economic status in certain user groups. We suggest that future research on UX evaluation look more into how to empower...

  16. Aldosterone and mortality in hemodialysis patients: role of volume overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Szu-Chun; Lin, Yao-Ping; Huang, Hsin-Lei; Pu, Hsiao-Fung; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2013-01-01

    Elevated aldosterone is associated with increased mortality in the general population. In patients on dialysis, however, the association is reversed. This paradox may be explained by volume overload, which is associated with lower aldosterone and higher mortality. We evaluated the relationship between aldosterone and outcomes in a prospective cohort of 328 hemodialysis patients stratified by the presence or absence of volume overload (defined as extracellular water/total body water >48%, as measured with bioimpedance). Baseline plasma aldosterone was measured before dialysis and categorized as low (280 pg/mL). Overall, 36% (n = 119) of the hemodialysis patients had evidence of volume overload. Baseline aldosterone was significantly lower in the presence of volume overload than in its absence. During a median follow-up of 54 months, 83 deaths and 70 cardiovascular events occurred. Cox multivariate analysis showed that by using the low aldosterone as the reference, high aldosterone was inversely associated with decreased hazard ratios for mortality (0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.76) and first cardiovascular event (0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.78) in the presence of volume overload. In contrast, high aldosterone was associated with an increased risk for mortality (1.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.69-3.75) and first cardiovascular event (2.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-4.15) in the absence of volume overload. The inverse association of aldosterone with adverse outcomes in hemodialysis patients is due to the confounding effect of volume overload. These findings support treatment of hyperaldosteronemia in hemodialysis patients who have achieved strict volume control.

  17. Aligning ontologies and integrating textual evidence for pathway analysis of microarray data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalan, Banu; Posse, Christian; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Stenzel-Poore, Mary; Stevens, S.L.; Castano, Jose; Beagley, Nathaniel; Riensche, Roderick M.; Baddeley, Bob; Simon, R.P.; Pustejovsky, James

    2006-10-08

    Expression arrays are introducing a paradigmatic change in biology by shifting experimental approaches from single gene studies to genome-level analysis, monitoring the ex-pression levels of several thousands of genes in parallel. The massive amounts of data obtained from the microarray data needs to be integrated and interpreted to infer biological meaning within the context of information-rich pathways. In this paper, we present a methodology that integrates textual information with annotations from cross-referenced ontolo-gies to map genes to pathways in a semi-automated way. We illustrate this approach and compare it favorably to other tools by analyzing the gene expression changes underlying the biological phenomena related to stroke. Stroke is the third leading cause of death and a major disabler in the United States. Through years of study, researchers have amassed a significant knowledge base about stroke, and this knowledge, coupled with new technologies, is providing a wealth of new scientific opportunities. The potential for neu-roprotective stroke therapy is enormous. However, the roles of neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and other proliferative re-sponses in the recovery process following ischemia and the molecular mechanisms that lead to these processes still need to be uncovered. Improved annotation of genomic and pro-teomic data, including annotation of pathways in which genes and proteins are involved, is required to facilitate their interpretation and clinical application. While our approach is not aimed at replacing existing curated pathway databases, it reveals multiple hidden relationships that are not evident with the way these databases analyze functional groupings of genes from the Gene Ontology.

  18. The role of fluid overload in the prediction of outcome in acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selewski, David T; Goldstein, Stuart L

    2018-01-01

    Our understanding of the epidemiology and the impact of acute kidney injury (AKI) and fluid overload on outcomes has improved significantly over the past several decades. Fluid overload occurs commonly in critically ill children with and without associated AKI. Researchers in pediatric AKI have been at the forefront of describing the impact of fluid overload on outcomes in a variety of populations. A full understanding of this topic is important as fluid overload represents a potentially modifiable risk factor and a target for intervention. In this state-of-the-art review, we comprehensively describe the definition of fluid overload, the impact of fluid overload on kidney function, the impact of fluid overload on the diagnosis of AKI, the association of fluid overload with outcomes, the targeted therapy of fluid overload, and the impact of the timing of renal replacement therapy on outcomes.

  19. Viagem, identidade e memória textual em Antonio Tabucchi

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Cobra Torre

    2012-01-01

    Esta dissertação apresenta uma reflexão sobre a viagem, a identidade, o jogo e a memória textual na obra de Antonio Tabucchi, tendo em vista o romance 'Noturno Indiano' e os contos 'A frase a seguir é falsa. A frase anterior é verdadeira', 'Il gioco del rovescio', 'Piccoli equivoci senza importanza' e 'I treni che vanno a Madras'. Tem como objetivos repensar o tema da viagem em 'Noturno Indiano'; enfocar a questão da identidade no referido romance; discutir o jogo textual em 'Noturno Indiano'...

  20. Comparison of CTA and Textual Feedback in Usability Testing for Malaysian Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivaji, Ashok; Clemmensen, Torkil; Nielsen, Søren Feodor

    Usability moderators found that the concurrent think-aloud (CTA) method has some cultural limitation that impacts usability testing with Malaysian users. This gives rise to proposing a new method called textual feedback. The research question is to determine whether there are any differences...... in usability defects from the concurrent think-aloud (CTA) method (Condition 2) and textual feedback method (Condition 1) within the same group of Malaysian users. A pair-wise t-test was used, whereby users were subjected to performing usability task using both methods. Results reveal that we can reject...

  1. THE POTENCIALITY OF TRANSMEDIA NARRATIVE AND THE PRACTICE OF READING AND TEXTUAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella de Jesus Lima

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we have reflect on the digital culture and its implications in education field, emphasizing the characteristics of the transmedia narrative. The objectives were to discuss the relationship between transmediation and the education, based on the methodology of teaching of textual genres with students of the social communication course - journalism of a private university in the brazilian northeast. We also used as methodology the bibliographic research and participant observation. As a result, we conclude that the elements of the transmedia narrative in the students's textual production have presented advantages and improvements for the educational process.

  2. Mechanism Research of Arch Dam Abutment Forces during Overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research on the abutment forces of a double-curvature arch dam during overload based on numerical calculation results obtained through finite element method by Ansys. Results show that, with an increase in elevation, the abutment forces and bending moment of the arch dam increase first and then decrease from the bottom to the top of the dam. Abutment forces and bending moment reach their maximum at the middle or middle-down portion of the dam. The distributions of abutment forces and moment do not change during overload. The magnitude of each arch layer’s forces and moment increases linearly during overload. This result indicates that each arch layer transmits bearing loads to the rocks of the left and right banks steadily. This research explains the operating mechanism of an arch dam under normal and overload conditions. It provides a simple method to calculate the distribution of forces Fx and Fy and a new method to calculate the overload factor of an arch dam through the estimation of arch layers based on the redistribution characteristic of arch abutment forces.

  3. Towards multilingual access to textual databases in natural language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, Khaled

    1994-01-01

    The Cross-Lingual Information Retrieval system (CLIR) or Multilingual Information Retrieval (MIR) has become the key issue in electronic documents management systems in a multinational environment. We propose here a multilingual information retrieval system consisting of a morpho-syntactic analyser, a transfer system from source language to target language and an information retrieval system. A thorough investigation into the system architecture and the transfer mechanisms is proposed in that report, using two different performance evaluation methods. (author) [fr

  4. Variations in Textualization: A Cross-Generic and Cross-Disciplinary Study, Implications for Readability of the Academic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonabi, Mina Abbasi; Lotfipour-Saedi, Kazem; Hemmati, Fatemeh; Jafarigohar, Manoochehr

    2018-01-01

    According to discoursal views on language, variations in textualization strategies are always sociocontextually motivated and never happen at random. The textual forms employed in a text, along with many other discoursal and contextual factors, could certainly affect the readability of the text, making it more or less processable for the same…

  5. ML-Ask: Open Source Affect Analysis Software for Textual Input in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Ptaszynski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present ML-Ask – the first Open Source Affect Analysis system for textual input in Japanese. ML-Ask analyses the contents of an input (e.g., a sentence and annotates it with information regarding the contained general emotive expressions, specific emotional words, valence-activation dimensions of overall expressed affect, and particular emotion types expressed with their respective expressions. ML-Ask also incorporates the Contextual Valence Shifters model for handling negation in sentences to deal with grammatically expressible shifts in the conveyed valence. The system, designed to work mainly under Linux and MacOS, can be used for research on, or applying the techniques of Affect Analysis within the framework Japanese language. It can also be used as an experimental baseline for specific research in Affect Analysis, and as a practical tool for written contents annotation.   Funding statement: This research has been supported by: a Research Grant from the Nissan Science Foundation (years 2009–2010, The GCOE Program founded by Japan’s Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (years 2009–2010, (JSPS KAKENHI Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows (Project Number: 22-00358 (years 2010–2012, (JSPS KAKENHI Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Project Number: 24600001 (years 2012–2015, (JSPS KAKENHI Grant-in-Aid for Research Activity Start-up (Project Number: 25880003 (years 2013–2015, and (JSPS KAKENHI Grant-in-Aid for Encouragement of Young Scientists (B (Project Number: 15K16044 (years 2015-present, project estimated to end in March 2018.

  6. Testing of camera performance standards at steady and local overloading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keszthelyine Landori, S.; Adorjanne Farkas, M.; Csirik, J.

    1983-01-01

    Camera performance standards are usually given for low count rates and uniform irradiation. A conventional analog gamma camera system (Gamma MB 9100 manufactured under the know-how of Picker DC 4/12 in Hungary) was studied on the basis of the Picker test procedure and the NEMA standard system. Uniformity, linearity, spatial and energy resolution were measured at high count rates and uniform irradiation (steady overloading). Linearity was studied at local overloading. Linearity, spatial and energy resolution were measured by a 1024-channel analyzer-computer system of KFKI, Hungary. The data were evaluated on the basis of NEMA standards, while uniformity was measured by the Gamma data processing system and evaluated by special SEGAMS programs. Performance variations were studied between 7500 cps and 75.000 cps pulse rates. Spatial and energy resolution were influenced strongly, uniformity slightly by pulse rates, while linearity did not change at all. Linearity was not influenced even by local overloading. (author)

  7. Do tipo textual ao gênero de texto. A redação no vestibular / From textual type to textual genre. The essay in the university entrance exam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Cruz Pistori

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Os atuais documentos oficiais elaborados pelo Ministério da Educação no Brasil têm preconizado o ensino da produção textual por meio do gênero - discursivo ou textual. Seguindo essa linha, o exame vestibular de ingresso a uma das maiores universidades paulistas de 2011 também solicitou dos candidatos a elaboração de três textos, de diferentes gêneros. Com o objetivo de verificar que horizontes teórico-metodológicos fundamentaram a elaboração daquele exame, analisamos os textos do (1 Manual do Candidato, da (2 Prova de redação e da (3 Expectativa da banca. Nosso parâmetro teórico é o conceito de gênero discursivo conforme desenvolvido pelos membros do Círculo de Bakhtin desde 1920. Observamos, então, como essa nova proposta visa avaliar as características que a Universidade espera encontrar em cada um de seus alunos; como utiliza o arsenal teórico nos textos analisados e como garante a avaliação da capacidade argumentativa dos candidatos. Finalmente, sugerimos a possibilidade de trabalho com o gênero “dissertação escolar”.Today's official documents drawn up by the Ministry of Education in Brazil have advocated that textual production should be taught by the concepts of speech genre or textual genre. Following this guideline, the 2011 edition of the entrance exam, vestibular, of one of the most important universities in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, asked its candidates to write three texts, each one belonging to a different genre. In order to verify the theoretical-methodological horizons that motivated the elaboration of that exam, we analyzed the texts of (1 the candidate's guidelines, (2 the examination essay and (3 the expectations set by the examiners. Our theoretical perspective is the concept of discursive genre as developed by the members of the Bakhtin Circle since 1920. Then, we observe how this new proposal aims at evaluating the characteristics that the University expects to find in each one of

  8. Predicting Learning-Related Emotions from Students' Textual Classroom Feedback via Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altrabsheh, Nabeela; Cocea, Mihaela; Fallahkhair, Sanaz

    2015-01-01

    Teachers/lecturers typically adapt their teaching to respond to students' emotions, e.g. provide more examples when they think the students are confused. While getting a feel of the students' emotions is easier in small settings, it is much more difficult in larger groups. In these larger settings textual feedback from students could provide…

  9. The Textualization of Problem Handling: Lean Discourses Meet Professional Competence in Eldercare and the Manufacturing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Anna-Malin; Nikolaidou, Zoe

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on research addressing the role of incident reporting at the workplace as a textual representation of lean management techniques. It draws on text and discourse analysis as well as on ethnographic data, including interviews, recorded interaction, and observations, from two projects on workplace literacy in Sweden: a study in…

  10. The Effects of Visual and Textual Annotations on Spanish Listening Comprehension, Vocabulary Acquisition and Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottam, Michael Evan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of textual and visual annotations on Spanish listening comprehension and vocabulary acquisition in the context of an online multimedia listening activity. 95 students who were enrolled in different sections of first year Spanish classes at a community college and a large…

  11. Absorbing stories : The effects of textual devices on absorption and evaluative responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, Moniek

    2014-01-01

    In previous research on absorption, the focus has been primarily on the reader
and only little systematic empirical investigation of the possible textual determinants of absorption has been conducted. Furthermore, no attention has been paid to the relationship between aesthetic experiences, such as

  12. Perceptions and Beliefs about Textual Appropriation and Source Use in Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polio, Charlene; Shi, Ling

    2012-01-01

    Perceptions and judgments on plagiarism or acceptable use of source texts are contingent on one's interpretations and experiences in reading and writing academic texts in a specific disciplinary context. The lack of consensus on what is acceptable textual appropriation in student writing has led to the scholarship on perceptions of textual…

  13. Teach for America's Long Arc: A Critical Race Theory Textual Analysis of Wendy Kopp's Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Michael C.; Germain, Emily K.; Valenzuela, Angela

    2016-01-01

    We read and analyzed 165,000 words and uncover a series of counter-stories buried within a textual corpus, authored by Teach For America (TFA) founder Wendy Kopp (Kopp, 1989, 2001; Kopp & Farr, 2011), that offers insight into the forms of racism endemic to Teach For America. All three counter-stories align with a critical race theory (CRT)…

  14. Arguing in L2: Discourse Structure and Textual Metadiscourse in Philippine Newspaper Editorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrayo, Veronico N.; Duque, Marie Claire T.

    2011-01-01

    This study described the discourse structure and textual metadiscourse in newspaper editorials in the Philippines where English is used as a second language or L2. Specifically, it sought answers to the following questions: (1) What discourse features characterize the structure of the following parts of Philippine newspaper editorials--orientation…

  15. Exploration of Textual Interactions in CALL Learning Communities: Emerging Research and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jonathan R.

    2017-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) has greatly enhanced the realm of online social interaction and behavior. In language classrooms, it allows the opportunity for students to enhance their learning experiences. "Exploration of Textual Interactions in CALL Learning Communities: Emerging Research and Opportunities" is an ideal…

  16. Discourses of Plagiarism: Moralist, Proceduralist, Developmental and Inter-Textual Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaposi, David; Dell, Pippa

    2012-01-01

    This paper reconstructs prevalent academic discourses of student plagiarism: moralism, proceduralism, development, and writing/inter-textuality. It approaches the discourses from three aspects: intention, interpretation and the nature of the academic community. It argues that the assumptions of the moralistic approach regarding suspect intention,…

  17. How Well Do Student Nurses Write Case Studies? A Cohesion-Centered Textual Complexity Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dascalu, Mihai; Dessus, Philippe; Thuez, Laurent; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Starting from the presumption that writing style is proven to be a reliable predictor of comprehension, this paper investigates the extent to which textual complexity features of nurse students’ essays are related to the scores they were given. Thus, forty essays about case studies on infectious

  18. Relational Data Modelling of Textual Corpora: The Skaldic Project and its Extensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Tarrin Jon

    2015-01-01

    Skaldic poetry is a highly complex textual phenomenon both in terms of the intricacy of the poetry and its contextual environment. Extensible Markup Language (XML) applications such as that of the Text Encoding Initiative provide a means of semantic representation of some of these complexities. XML...

  19. A Linguistic Approach to Identify the Affective Dimension Expressed in Textual Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, Sandro José; da Rosa Alves, Isa Mara; Victória Barbosa, Jorge Luis

    2015-01-01

    The digital mediation resources used in Distance Education can hinder the teacher's perception about the student's state of mind. However, the textual expression in natural language is widely encouraged in most Distance Education courses, through the use of Virtual Learning Environments and other digital tools. This fact has motivated research…

  20. Use of a Modified Chaining Procedure with Textual Prompts to Establish Intraverbal Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Amber L.; Conine, Daniel E.; Delfs, Caitlin H.; Furlow, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Echoic, tact, and textual transfer procedures have been proven successful in establishing simple intraverbals (Braam and Poling "Applied Research in Mental Retardation," 4, 279-302, 1983; Luciano "Applied Research in Mental Retardation," 102, 346-357, 1986; Watkins et al. "The Analysis of Verbal Behavior," 7, 69-81,…

  1. Effects of Textual Enhancement and Input Enrichment on L2 Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassaei, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Research on second language (L2) acquisition has recently sought to include formal instruction into second and foreign language classrooms in a more unobtrusive and implicit manner. Textual enhancement and input enrichment are two techniques which are aimed at drawing learners' attention to specific linguistic features in input and at the same…

  2. Analyzing Student Performance and Attitudes toward Textual versus Iconic Programming Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Janet Mei-Chuen; Yang, Mei-Ching

    2009-01-01

    In this study half of 52 sixth graders learned to program in MSWLogo and the other half in Drape. An analysis of students' test scores revealed that Drape (an iconic language) seemed to have a steeper learning curve than MSWLogo (a textual language). However, as students gradually became more familiar with either language, the difference in…

  3. Overloaded and stressed: A case study of women working in the health care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Maggie; Duxbury, Linda

    2018-04-23

    Although role overload has been shown to be prevalent and consequential, there has been little attempt to develop the associated theory. The fact that the consequences of role overload can be positive or negative implies that the relationship between role overload and perceived stress depends partly on the environment within which role overload is experienced (i.e., the perceived situation) and how the situation is evaluated (i.e., appraised). Guided by cognitive appraisal theory, this study applies qualitative methodology to identify the situation properties that contribute to variable stress reactions to role overload. In this in-depth examination, overloaded female hospital workers were asked to describe what makes role overload situations potentially stressful, to gain an insight into how role overload is appraised. A taxonomy listing 12 role overload situation properties was developed from the findings, providing the first known classification of the situation properties of role overload that can create the potential for stress. The results also reveal clues as to why some people suffer more stress during role overload than others, increase our understanding of the relationship between role overload and perceived stress, and provide a useful tool for examining the environment of role overload. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Overload Control in Smart Transformer-Fed Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni De Carne

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy resources and new loads—such as electric vehicles—challenge grid management. Among several scenarios, the smart transformer represents a solution for simultaneously managing low- and medium-voltage grids, providing ancillary services to the distribution grid. However, unlike conventional transformers, the smart transformer has a very limited overload capability, because the junction temperature—which must always be below its maximum limit—is characterized by a short time constant. In this work, an overload control for smart transformer by means of voltage and frequency variations has been proposed and verified by means of simulations and experiments.

  5. Training in Information Management for Army Brigade and Battalion Staff: Methods and Preliminary Findings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freeman, Jared

    1997-01-01

    Training, training Support software, and measurement instruments were developed to help Army brigade and below staff manage information and overcome information overload in a digital messaging environment...

  6. Intermittent cardiac overload results in adaptive hypertrophy and provides protection against left ventricular acute pressure overload insult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Gonçalves, Daniel; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago; Fonseca, Hélder; Ferreira, Rita; Padrão, Ana Isabel; Santa, Cátia; Vieira, Sara; Silva, Ana Filipa; Amado, Francisco; Leite-Moreira, Adelino; Duarte, José Alberto

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to test whether a chronic intermittent workload could induce an adaptive cardiac phenotype Chronic intermittent workload induced features of adaptive hypertrophy This was paralleled by protection against acute pressure overload insult The heart may adapt favourably to balanced demands, regardless of the nature of the stimuli. The present study aimed to test whether submitting the healthy heart to intermittent and tolerable amounts of workload, independently of its nature, could result in an adaptive cardiac phenotype. Male Wistar rats were subjected to treadmill running (Ex) (n = 20), intermittent cardiac overload with dobutamine (ITO) (2 mg kg(-1) , s.c.; n = 20) or placebo administration (Cont) (n = 20) for 5 days week(-1) for 8 weeks. Animals were then killed for histological and biochemical analysis or subjected to left ventricular haemodynamic evaluation under baseline conditions, in response to isovolumetric contractions and to sustained LV acute pressure overload (35% increase in peak systolic pressure maintained for 2 h). Baseline cardiac function was enhanced only in Ex, whereas the response to isovolumetric heartbeats was improved in both ITO and Ex. By contrast to the Cont group, in which rats developed diastolic dysfunction with sustained acute pressure overload, ITO and Ex showed increased tolerance to this stress test. Both ITO and Ex developed cardiomyocyte hypertrophy without fibrosis, no overexpression of osteopontin-1 or β-myosin heavy chain, and increased expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) protein. Regarding hypertrophic pathways, ITO and Ex showed activation of the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway but not calcineurin. Mitochondrial complex IV and V activities were also increased in ITO and Ex. Chronic submission to controlled intermittent cardiac overload, independently of its nature, results in an adaptive cardiac phenotype. Features of the cardiac overload, such as the duration and

  7. Can We Ever Escape from Data Overload? A Cognitive Systems Diagnosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, David

    1998-01-01

    Data overload is a generic and tremendously difficult problem. In this report, we diagnose why this is the case and how intelligence analysis presents a particularly difficult version of data overload...

  8. Stress, work overload, burnout, and satisfaction among paramedics in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirel, Nurit; Goldwag, Rachel; Feigenberg, Zvi; Abadi, David; Halpern, Pinchas

    2008-01-01

    The number of paramedics in Israel is increasing. Despite this growth and important role, the emergency medical organizations lack information about the characteristics of their work. The objective of this study was to examine the characteristics of the paramedics' work, the quality of their working lives, the factors that keep them in the profession, or conversely, draw them away from it. Cross-sectional study conducted through telephone interviews of a random sample of 50% of the graduates of paramedic courses in Israel (excluding conscripted soldiers). The factors that attract paramedics to the profession have much to do with the essence of the job-rescuing and saving-and a love of what it involves, as well as interest and variety. Pressures at work result from having to cope with a lack of administrative support, paperwork, long hours, imbalance between work and family life, and salary. They do not come from having to cope with responsibility, the pressure of working under uncertain conditions, and the sudden transition from calm situations to emergencies. Dissatisfaction at work is caused by burnout, work overload, and poor health. Physical and mental health that impedes their ability to work is related to a sense of burnout and the intention to change professions. The findings about the relationships between health, job satisfaction, and burnout, coupled with the fact that within a decade, half of the currently employed paramedics will reach an age at which it is hard for them to perform their job, lead to the conclusion that there is a need to reconsider the optimum length of service in the profession. There also is a need to form organizational arrangements to change the work procedures of aging paramedics.

  9. Magnetic and quadrupolar studies of the iron storage overload in livers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimbert, J.N.; Dumas, F.; Richardot, G.; Kellershohn, C.

    1986-01-01

    Absorption 57 Fe Moessbauer spectra, performed directly on tissues of liver with iron overload due to an excessive intestinal iron absorption or induced by hypertransfusional therapeutics, have pointed out a new high spin ferric storage iron besides the ferritin and hemosiderin. Moessbauer studies, carried out on ferritin and hemosiderin fractions isolated from normal and overloaded livers, show that this compound, only present in the secondary iron overload (transfusional pathway), seems characteristic of the physiological process which induces the iron overload. (Auth.)

  10. Iron overload of organism and current options of chelation treatment in onco haematology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guman, T.; Rothova, E.; Kafkova, A.; Fricova, M.; Dulova, I.; Stecova, N.; Hlebaskova, M.; Surova, M.; Takac, V.

    2011-01-01

    The article summarizes the biological importance of iron in the organism, primary and secondary causes of iron overload, complications in function of liver, heart and endocrine organs due to overload of iron, the pathophysiology of iron overload, transfusion risks associated with the iron overload, assessment of risk groups of patients suitable for chelation treatment fulfilling the indication criteria, treatment modalities of chelation therapy and its significance regarding the prevention and treatment effectiveness. (author)

  11. Determination of Permissible Short-Time Emergency Overloading of Turbo-Generators and Synchronous Compensators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Anischenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that failure to take into account variable ratio of short-time emergency overloading of turbo-generators (synchronous compensators that can lead to underestimation of overloading capacity or impermissible insulation over-heating.A method has been developed for determination of permissible duration of short-time emergency over-loading that takes into account changes of over-loading ratio in case of a failure.

  12. Iron deficiency and overload in relation to nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjersberg MQI; Jansen EHJM; LEO

    2000-01-01

    Nutritional iron intake in the Netherlands has been reviewed with respect to both iron deficiency and iron overload. In general, iron intake and iron status in the Netherlands are adequate and therefore no change in nutrition policy is required. The following aspects and developments, however, need

  13. The association between role overload and women's mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Keva; Maclean, Heather; Forte, Tonia; Cohen, Marsha

    2009-02-01

    To determine the importance of role overload (the extent to which a person feels overwhelmed by her total responsibilities) relative to other known social determinants of women's mental health. A Canadian national, random sample, cross-sectional telephone survey in 2003 assessed the association among role overload, types and quality of roles (parent, employee, spouse), sociodemographics, and mental health (using the SF-12) using linear regression. Analysis included 716 women aged 25-54 who indicated that their youngest child living in the household was aged < or =17 years. Perceptions of greater role overload were associated with poorer mental health (p < 0.0001). Women working <35 hours per week (p = 0.04) or 35-40 hours per week (p 5 0.002) reported better mental health than nonemployed women, as did women with the highest annual household income ($70,000+)(p = 0.001). Also associated with better mental health were higher marital status quality scores for both married and single women (p < 0.001), higher job quality scores among employed women (p = 0.02), greater homemaking quality scores among unemployed women (p = 0.03), and women reporting high parental quality (p = 0.04) Role overload showed a stronger relationship to mental health than other sociodemographic variables, including income. Our findings indicate the importance of measuring women's experience of their multiple roles rather than focusing on single roles. More research is warranted on the totality of women's experiences of their many social role obligations.

  14. Glycolytic overload and the genesis of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, J R

    1984-03-01

    It is suggested that the development of breast cancer is due to overloading of the glycolytic pathways. An excess of substrates or an excessive delivery rate of substrates to the Krebs Cycle is believed to result in the formation of acetyl CoA. Feedback mechanisms controlling the conversion of acetyl CoA to cholesterol may be overcome; the resulting high concentration of cholesterol induces the formation of pregnenolone which may then be converted into androgens, estrogens and progesterone. These steroids are in addition to those produced by gonads and adrenal glands. Glycolytic overload is also associated with an increase in fat stores which have been shown to be the site of interconversion of sex hormones. Excess sex hormones or abnormal sex hormones are believed to be the cause of breast cancer. The hypothesis presented links glycolytic overload with clinical biochemical phenomena and explains some of the anomalies observed in breast cancer experience in different ethnic groups. Changes in dietary habits during the history of man resulting in " gorging " and the consumption of highly refined sugars are possible causes of glycolytic overload. So, also, is impaired thermogenesis due to Brown Fat deficits in certain ethnic groups.

  15. Random fluid limit of an overloaded polling model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Frolkova (Masha); S.G. Foss (Sergey); A.P. Zwart (Bert)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the present paper, we study the evolution of an overloaded cyclic polling model that starts empty. Exploiting a connection with multitype branching processes, we derive fluid asymptotics for the joint queue length process. Under passage to the fluid dynamics, the server switches

  16. Random fluid limit of an overloaded polling model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Frolkova (Masha); S.G. Foss (Sergey); A.P. Zwart (Bert)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the present paper, we study the evolution of an~overloaded cyclic polling model that starts empty. Exploiting a~connection with multitype branching processes, we derive fluid asymptotics for the joint queue length process. Under passage to the fluid dynamics, the server switches

  17. Modeling of Unidirectional-Overloaded Transition in Catalytic Tubular Microjets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klingner, Anke; Khalil, Islam S. M.; Magdanz, Veronika; Fomin, Vladimir M.; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Misra, Sarthak

    2017-01-01

    A numerical time-resolved model is presented for predicting the transition between unidirectional and overloaded motion of catalytic tubular microjets (Ti/Fe/Pt rolled-up microtubes) in an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide. Unidirectional movement is achieved by periodic ejection of gas bubbles

  18. Fetal liver iron overload: the role of MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassart, Marie; Avni, Freddy Efraim; Guibaud, Laurent; Molho, Marc; D'Haene, Nicky; Paupe, Alain

    2011-01-01

    To assess the potential role of MR imaging in the diagnosis of fetal liver iron overload. We reviewed seven cases of abnormal liver signal in fetuses referred to MR imaging in a context of suspected congenital infection (n = 2), digestive tract anomalies (n = 3) and hydrops fetalis (n = 2). The average GA of the fetuses was 31 weeks. The antenatal diagnoses were compared with histological data (n = 6) and postnatal work-up (n = 1). Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated unexpected abnormal fetal liver signal suggestive of iron overload in all cases. The iron overload was confirmed on postnatal biopsy (n = 2) and fetopathology (n = 4). The final diagnosis was hepatic hemosiderosis (haemolytic anaemia (n = 2) and syndromal anomalies (n = 2)) and congenital haemochromatosis (n = 3). In all cases, the liver appeared normal on US. Magnetic resonance is the only imaging technique able to demonstrate liver iron overload in utero. Yet, the study outlines the fundamental role of MR imaging in cases of congenital haemochromatosis. The antenatal diagnosis of such a condition may prompt ante - (in the case of recurrence) or neonatal treatment, which might improve the prognosis. (orig.)

  19. Tools to Reduce Overload in the School Social Worker Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyba, Erin Gleason

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses how school social workers can decrease overload in their roles. A two-step process of envisioning an ideal role is outlined: (1) indentifying priorities and activities that are effective or in need of expansion and (2) weeding out activities that could be done differently or no longer serve their purpose. The author…

  20. Fetal liver iron overload: the role of MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassart, Marie; Avni, Freddy Efraim [Erasme Hospital, Medical imaging, Brussels, Brabant (Belgium); Guibaud, Laurent [Hopital femme mere enfant, Imagerie Pediatrique et Foetale, Lyon-Bron (France); Molho, Marc [C.H.I Poissy/St Germain-en-Laye, Imagerie Medicale, Poissy (France); D' Haene, Nicky [Erasme Hospital, Anatomopathology Department, Brussels (Belgium); Paupe, Alain [C.H.I Poissy/St Germain-en-Laye, Pediatrie, Poissy (France)

    2011-02-15

    To assess the potential role of MR imaging in the diagnosis of fetal liver iron overload. We reviewed seven cases of abnormal liver signal in fetuses referred to MR imaging in a context of suspected congenital infection (n = 2), digestive tract anomalies (n = 3) and hydrops fetalis (n = 2). The average GA of the fetuses was 31 weeks. The antenatal diagnoses were compared with histological data (n = 6) and postnatal work-up (n = 1). Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated unexpected abnormal fetal liver signal suggestive of iron overload in all cases. The iron overload was confirmed on postnatal biopsy (n = 2) and fetopathology (n = 4). The final diagnosis was hepatic hemosiderosis (haemolytic anaemia (n = 2) and syndromal anomalies (n = 2)) and congenital haemochromatosis (n = 3). In all cases, the liver appeared normal on US. Magnetic resonance is the only imaging technique able to demonstrate liver iron overload in utero. Yet, the study outlines the fundamental role of MR imaging in cases of congenital haemochromatosis. The antenatal diagnosis of such a condition may prompt ante - (in the case of recurrence) or neonatal treatment, which might improve the prognosis. (orig.)

  1. Shift Work, Role Overload, and the Transition to Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Jenkins, Maureen; Goldberg, Abbie E.; Pierce, Courtney P.; Sayer, Aline G.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines how the work hours, work schedules, and role overload of working-class couples are related to depressive symptoms and relationship conflict across the transition to parenthood. Data are from 132 dual-earner couples interviewed 5 times across the transition. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that working evening or night…

  2. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Reilly's Role Overload Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, Palaniappan; Chakrabarty, Subhra; Taylor, Ronald D.

    2006-01-01

    In 1982, Reilly developed a 13-item scale to measure role overload. This scale has been widely used, but most studies did not assess the unidimensionality of the scale. Given the significance of unidimensionality in scale development, the current study reports a confirmatory factor analysis of the 13-item scale in two samples. Based on the…

  3. Sport coaching officials and their stressors: Work overload, role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport officials' concerns over job stressors have become common due to the adverse effect on health. The study sought to examine the associations of work overload, role ambiguity and role conflict, as well as their predictive influence on job satisfaction of sport coaches in Gauteng, South Africa. Data were collected from a ...

  4. Overload prevention in model supports for wind tunnel model testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton IVANOVICI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Preventing overloads in wind tunnel model supports is crucial to the integrity of the tested system. Results can only be interpreted as valid if the model support, conventionally called a sting remains sufficiently rigid during testing. Modeling and preliminary calculation can only give an estimate of the sting’s behavior under known forces and moments but sometimes unpredictable, aerodynamically caused model behavior can cause large transient overloads that cannot be taken into account at the sting design phase. To ensure model integrity and data validity an analog fast protection circuit was designed and tested. A post-factum analysis was carried out to optimize the overload detection and a short discussion on aeroelastic phenomena is included to show why such a detector has to be very fast. The last refinement of the concept consists in a fast detector coupled with a slightly slower one to differentiate between transient overloads that decay in time and those that are the result of aeroelastic unwanted phenomena. The decision to stop or continue the test is therefore conservatively taken preserving data and model integrity while allowing normal startup loads and transients to manifest.

  5. Iron overload induces hypogonadism in male mice via extrahypothalamic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi, Chiara; Steffani, Liliana; Oleari, Roberto; Lettieri, Antonella; Valenti, Luca; Dongiovanni, Paola; Romero-Ruiz, Antonio; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Cariboni, Anna; Magni, Paolo; Ruscica, Massimiliano

    2017-10-15

    Iron overload leads to multiple organ damage including endocrine organ dysfunctions. Hypogonadism is the most common non-diabetic endocrinopathy in primary and secondary iron overload syndromes. To explore the molecular determinants of iron overload-induced hypogonadism with specific focus on hypothalamic derangements. A dysmetabolic male murine model fed iron-enriched diet (IED) and cell-based models of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons were used. Mice fed IED showed severe hypogonadism with a significant reduction of serum levels of testosterone (-83%) and of luteinizing hormone (-86%), as well as reduced body weight gain, body fat and plasma leptin. IED mice had a significant increment in iron concentration in testes and in the pituitary. Even if iron challenge of in vitro neuronal models (GN-11 and GT1-7 GnRH cells) resulted in 10- and 5-fold iron content increments, respectively, no iron content changes were found in vivo in hypothalamus of IED mice. Conversely, mice placed on IED showed a significant increment in hypothalamic GnRH gene expression (+34%) and in the intensity of GnRH-neuron innervation of the median eminence (+1.5-fold); similar changes were found in the murine model HFE -/- , resembling human hemochromatosis. IED-fed adult male mice show severe impairment of hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis without a relevant contribution of the hypothalamic compartment, which thus appears sufficiently protected from systemic iron overload. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 30 CFR 75.518-2 - Incandescent lamps, overload and short circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incandescent lamps, overload and short circuit...-General § 75.518-2 Incandescent lamps, overload and short circuit protection. Incandescent lamps installed... or direct current feeder circuits, need not be provided with separate short circuit or overload...

  7. Dependency-based paraphrasing for recognizing textual entailment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsi, E.C.; Krahmer, E.J.; Bosma, W.E.

    In this article we address the usefulness of linguistic-independent methods in extractive Automatic Summarization, arguing that linguistic knowledge is not only useful, but may be necessary to improve the informativeness of automatic extracts. An assessment of four diverse AS methods on Brazilian

  8. Recognizing Textual Entailment with Attentive Reading and Writing Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Liang; Huo, Huan; Liu, Xiufeng

    2018-01-01

    -range dependency. In this paper, we propose to facilitate the conventional attentive reading operations with two sophisticated writing operations - forget and update. Instead of utilizing a single vector that accommodates the attention history, we write the past attention information directly into the sentence...

  9. Evaluation of English Textbooks in Terms of Textuality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Gürbüz; Baysal, Emine Akkas

    2016-01-01

    Putting a number of sentences together in order to build a text, the sentences must comply with the criteria such as cohesion, coherence, intentionality, acceptability, contextualization, informativeness and intertextuality. The text should bear these criteria in order to fulfil the intended communicative features. Therefore, in this study, it is…

  10. Transplantation in patients with iron overload: is there a place for magnetic resonance imaging? : Transplantation in iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogeni, Sophie; Kolovou, Genovefa; Bigalke, Boris; Rigopoulos, Angelos; Noutsias, Michel; Adamopoulos, Stamatis

    2018-03-01

    In iron overload diseases (thalassemia, sickle cell, and myelodysplastic syndrome), iron is deposited in all internal organs, leading to functional abnormalities. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only treatment offering a potential cure in these diseases. Our aim was to describe the experience in the field and the role of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of iron overload before and after HSCT. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), using T2*, is the most commonly used tool to diagnose myocardial-liver iron overload and guide tailored treatment. Currently, HSCT offers complete cure in thalassemia major, after overcoming the immunologic barrier, and should be considered for all patients who have a suitable donor. The overall thalassemia-free survival of low-risk, HLA-matched sibling stem cell transplantation patients is 85-90%, with a 95% overall survival. The problems of rejection and engraftment are improving with the use of adequate immunosuppression. However, a detailed iron assessment of both heart and liver is necessary for pre- and post-transplant evaluation. In iron overload diseases, heart and liver iron evaluation is indispensable not only for the patients' survival, but also for evaluation before and after HSCT.

  11. Thermal overload protection for electric motors on safety-related motor-operated valves: Generic Issue II.E.6.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothberg, O.

    1988-06-01

    NRC regulatory positions, as stated in Regulatory Guide 1.106, Revision 1, have been identified by the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) as potential contributors to valve motor burnout. AEOD is particularly concerned about the allowed policy of bypassing thermal overload devices during normal or accident conditions. Regulatory Guide 1.106 favors compromising the function of thermal overload devices in favor of completing the safety-related action of valves. The purpose of this study was to determine if the guidance contained in Regulatory Guide 1.106 is appropriate and, if not, to recommend the necessary changes. This report describes thermal overload devices commonly used to protect safety-related valve operator motors. The regulatory guidelines stated in Regulatory Guide 1.106 along with the limitations of thermal overload protection are discussed. Supplements and alternatives to thermal overload protection are also described. Findings and conclusions of several AEOD reports are discussed. Information obtained from the standard review plan, standard technical specifications, technical specifications from representative plants, and several papers are cited

  12. Effect of overload on the fatigue crack propagation in metastable beta Ti-V alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabortty, S.B.; Starke, E.A. Jr.; Lee, E.W.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of overload on the fatigue crack propagation behavior of two Ti-V alloys having different deformation mechanisms were studied. The results are explained in terms of residual stress effects associated with the overload and the removal of these stresses during post-overload cycling. An additional effect occurs during multiple cycle overload when the deformation structure representative of the strain amplitude is believed to form in the overload reverse plastic zone. This structure must be rearranged during cycling at Delta Kb before the baseline FCGR is reached and the process is responsible for part of the delay period. 46 references

  13. Effects of overload on the threshold stress intensity factor for SCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Koji; Ando, Kotoji; Miyazaki, Yuji; Hashikura, Yasuaki

    2009-01-01

    The effects of overload on the threshold stress intensity factor for stress corrosion crack (K ISCC ) of stainless steel were studied. Tensile overload was applied to a wedge opening loaded (WOL) specimen of SUS316. Then, SCC tests were carried out to determine the resultant K ISCC . As a result, the apparent value of K ISCC increases as increasing a stress intensity factor by tensile overload (K OV ). The effects of tensile overload on K ISCC and the threshold stress intensity factor range for fatigue (ΔK th ) were compared. It was found that the effects of tensile overload on K ISCC were larger than that on ΔK th . (author)

  14. Biomedical Imaging Modality Classification Using Combined Visual Features and Textual Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Hua Han

    2011-01-01

    extraction from medical images and fuses the different extracted visual features and textual feature for modality classification. To extract visual features from the images, we used histogram descriptor of edge, gray, or color intensity and block-based variation as global features and SIFT histogram as local feature. For textual feature of image representation, the binary histogram of some predefined vocabulary words from image captions is used. Then, we combine the different features using normalized kernel functions for SVM classification. Furthermore, for some easy misclassified modality pairs such as CT and MR or PET and NM modalities, a local classifier is used for distinguishing samples in the pair modality to improve performance. The proposed strategy is evaluated with the provided modality dataset by ImageCLEF 2010.

  15. Biomedical imaging modality classification using combined visual features and textual terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xian-Hua; Chen, Yen-Wei

    2011-01-01

    We describe an approach for the automatic modality classification in medical image retrieval task of the 2010 CLEF cross-language image retrieval campaign (ImageCLEF). This paper is focused on the process of feature extraction from medical images and fuses the different extracted visual features and textual feature for modality classification. To extract visual features from the images, we used histogram descriptor of edge, gray, or color intensity and block-based variation as global features and SIFT histogram as local feature. For textual feature of image representation, the binary histogram of some predefined vocabulary words from image captions is used. Then, we combine the different features using normalized kernel functions for SVM classification. Furthermore, for some easy misclassified modality pairs such as CT and MR or PET and NM modalities, a local classifier is used for distinguishing samples in the pair modality to improve performance. The proposed strategy is evaluated with the provided modality dataset by ImageCLEF 2010.

  16. Textual and shape-based feature extraction and neuro-fuzzy classifier for nuclear track recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayat, Omid; Afarideh, Hossein

    2013-04-01

    Track counting algorithms as one of the fundamental principles of nuclear science have been emphasized in the recent years. Accurate measurement of nuclear tracks on solid-state nuclear track detectors is the aim of track counting systems. Commonly track counting systems comprise a hardware system for the task of imaging and software for analysing the track images. In this paper, a track recognition algorithm based on 12 defined textual and shape-based features and a neuro-fuzzy classifier is proposed. Features are defined so as to discern the tracks from the background and small objects. Then, according to the defined features, tracks are detected using a trained neuro-fuzzy system. Features and the classifier are finally validated via 100 Alpha track images and 40 training samples. It is shown that principle textual and shape-based features concomitantly yield a high rate of track detection compared with the single-feature based methods.

  17. Linnaeus' restless system: translation as textual engineering in eighteenth-century botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Bettina

    2016-04-01

    In this essay, translations of Linnaeus' Systema naturae into various European languages will be placed into the context of successively expanded editions of Linnaeus' writings. The ambition and intention of most translators was not only to make the Systema naturae accessible for practical botanical use by a wider readership, but also to supplement and correct it, and thus to shape it. By recruiting more users, translations made a significant contribution to keeping the Systema up to date and thus maintaining its practical value for decades. The need to incorporate countless additions and corrections into an existing text, to document their provenance, to identify inconsistencies, and to refer to relevant observations, descriptions, and illustrations in the botanical literature all helped to develop and refine techniques of textual montage. This form of textual engineering, becoming increasingly complex with each translation cycle, shaped the external appearance of new editions of the Systema, and reflected the modular architecture of a botanical system designed for expansion.

  18. Use of a Modified Chaining Procedure with Textual Prompts to Establish Intraverbal Storytelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Amber L; Conine, Daniel E; Delfs, Caitlin H; Furlow, Christopher M

    2015-06-01

    Echoic, tact, and textual transfer procedures have been proven successful in establishing simple intraverbals (Braam and Poling Applied Research in Mental Retardation, 4, 279-302, 1983; Luciano Applied Research in Mental Retardation, 102, 346-357, 1986; Watkins et al. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 7, 69-81, 1989). However, these strategies may be ineffective for some children due to the complexity of the targeted intraverbals. The current study investigated the use of a novel procedure which included a modified chaining procedure and textual prompts to establish intraverbal behavior in the form of telling short stories. Visual prompts and rule statements were used with some of the participants in order to produce the desired behavior change. Results indicated that the procedure was effective for teaching retelling of short stories in three children with autism.

  19. Generation of Natural-Language Textual Summaries from Longitudinal Clinical Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Ayelet; Shahar, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    Physicians are required to interpret, abstract and present in free-text large amounts of clinical data in their daily tasks. This is especially true for chronic-disease domains, but holds also in other clinical domains. We have recently developed a prototype system, CliniText, which, given a time-oriented clinical database, and appropriate formal abstraction and summarization knowledge, combines the computational mechanisms of knowledge-based temporal data abstraction, textual summarization, abduction, and natural-language generation techniques, to generate an intelligent textual summary of longitudinal clinical data. We demonstrate our methodology, and the feasibility of providing a free-text summary of longitudinal electronic patient records, by generating summaries in two very different domains - Diabetes Management and Cardiothoracic surgery. In particular, we explain the process of generating a discharge summary of a patient who had undergone a Coronary Artery Bypass Graft operation, and a brief summary of the treatment of a diabetes patient for five years.

  20. Music Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, J. Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Identifies MIR (Music Information Retrieval) computer system problems, historic influences, current state-of-the-art, and future MIR solutions through an examination of the multidisciplinary approach to MIR. Highlights include pitch; temporal factors; harmonics; tone; editorial, textual, and bibliographic facets; multicultural factors; locating…

  1. Improved medical image modality classification using a combination of visual and textual features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrovski, Ivica; Kocev, Dragi; Kitanovski, Ivan; Loskovska, Suzana; Džeroski, Sašo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the approach that we applied to the medical modality classification tasks at the ImageCLEF evaluation forum. More specifically, we used the modality classification databases from the ImageCLEF competitions in 2011, 2012 and 2013, described by four visual and one textual types of features, and combinations thereof. We used local binary patterns, color and edge directivity descriptors, fuzzy color and texture histogram and scale-invariant feature transform (and its variant opponentSIFT) as visual features and the standard bag-of-words textual representation coupled with TF-IDF weighting. The results from the extensive experimental evaluation identify the SIFT and opponentSIFT features as the best performing features for modality classification. Next, the low-level fusion of the visual features improves the predictive performance of the classifiers. This is because the different features are able to capture different aspects of an image, their combination offering a more complete representation of the visual content in an image. Moreover, adding textual features further increases the predictive performance. Finally, the results obtained with our approach are the best results reported on these databases so far. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. In Defence of the Textual Integrity of the Old English Resignation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobol Helena W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bliss & Frantzen’s (1976 paper against the previously assumed textual integrity of Resignation has been a watershed in research upon the poem. Nearly all subsequent studies and editions have followed their theory, the sole dissenting view being expressed by Klinck (1987, 1992. The present paper offers fresh evidence for the textual unity of the poem. First examined are codicological issues, whether the state of the manuscript suggests that a folio might be missing. Next analysed are the spellings of Resignation and its phonology, here the paper discusses peculiarities which both differentiate Resignation from its manuscript context and connect the two hypothetical parts of the text. Then the paper looks at the assumed cut-off point at l.69 to see if it may provide any evidence for textual discontinuity. Finally the whole Resignation, seen as a coherent poem, is placed in the history of Old English literature, with special attention being paid to the traditions of devotional texts and the Old English elegies.

  3. Benjamin’s Dialectical Image and the Textuality of the Built Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Lipton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In The Arcades Project, Walter Benjamin describes the architectural expression of nineteenth century Paris as a dialectical manifestation of backwards-looking historicism and the dawn of modern industrial production (in the form of cast iron and mass produced plate glass. Yet in the same text, Benjamin refers to the dialectical image as occurring within the medium of written language. In this paper, I will first discuss the textuality of the dialectical image as it emerges from Benjamin’s discussion of allegorical and symbolic images in his Trauerspiel study and the ‘wish symbol’ in The Arcades Project. I will then discuss the ‘textual reductionism’ implicit in Benjamin’s theory of the dialectical image, in which the dense pluralities of urban space are reduced to a finite script to be pieced together through Benjamin’s constructivist method of historical observation. The textuality of the dialectical image will be elaborated on by discussing it in relation to the practice of translation. This discussion will be further contextualised by discussing a cadre of German/Austrian planners and architects who attempted to translate architectural idioms between cultural identities in Kemalist Era Turkey. The article concludes with a short recapitulation on the dialectical image as both an object of scrutiny and a method of observation, one which also takes into consideration the specific historicity of the observer.

  4. Expressing emotions in blogs : The role of textual paralinguistic cues in online venting and social sharing posts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Carmina; Tan, Ed S.H.; Verlegh, Peeter W.J.

    2017-01-01

    Textual paralanguage cues (TPC) have been signaled as effective emotion transmitters online. Though several studies have investigated their properties and occurrence, there remains a gap concerning their communicative impact within specific psychological processes, such as the social sharing of

  5. Securing OFDM over Wireless Time-Varying Channels Using Subcarrier Overloading with Joint Signal Constellations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill R. Tsouri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of overloading subcarriers by multiple transmitters to secure OFDM in wireless time-varying channels is proposed and analyzed. The method is based on reverse piloting, superposition modulation, and joint decoding. It makes use of channel randomness, reciprocity, and fast decorrelation in space to secure OFDM with low overheads on encryption, decryption, and key distribution. These properties make it a good alternative to traditional software-based information security algorithms in systems where the costs associated with such algorithms are an implementation obstacle. A necessary and sufficient condition for achieving information theoretic security in accordance with channel and system parameters is derived. Security by complexity is assessed for cases where the condition for information theoretic security is not satisfied. In addition, practical means for implementing the method are derived including generating robust joint constellations, decoding data with low complexity, and mitigating the effects of imperfections due to mobility, power control errors, and synchronization errors.

  6. On Region Algebras, XML Databases, and Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlovic, V.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Apers, Peter M.G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes some new ideas on developing a logical algebra for databases that manage textual data and support information retrieval functionality. We describe a first prototype of such a system.

  7. Variations in Textualization: A Cross-generic and Cross-disciplinary Study, Implications for Readability of the Academic Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Abbasi Bonabi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to discoursal views on language, variations in textualization strategies are always socio-contextually motivated and never happen at random. The textual forms employed in a text, along with many other discoursal and contextual factors, could certainly affect the readability of the text, making it more or less processable for the same reader. On the basis of these assumptions, the present study set out to examine how our data varied across genres and disciplines in terms of our target textual forms. These forms are as follows: the magnitude of T-unit (MOTU, the degree of embeddedness of the main verb in T-unit (DE, the physical distance between the verb and its satellite elements (PD, the magnitude of the noun phrase appearing before the verb (MOX, and the magnitude of noun phrase appearing after the verb (MOY. Our data consisted of 20 research articles randomly selected from two different disciplines of Biology and Applied Linguistics, to be analyzed in terms of the above-named textual strategies. One way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests were used for data analyses. The results revealed cross-generic as well as cross-disciplinary differences in the employment of the above textual forms. These findings were discussed in terms of the academic concepts and discourse on the one hand and the possible effect of the required textual forms on the readability of the text on the other hand.

  8. Performance analysis of SS7 congestion controls under sustained overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfield, David R.; Millsteed, Gregory K.; Zukerman, Moshe

    1994-04-01

    Congestion controls are a key factor in achieving the robust performance required of common channel signaling (CCS) networks in the face of partial network failures and extreme traffic loads, especially as networks become large and carry high traffic volume. The CCITT recommendations define a number of types of congestion control, and the parameters of the controls must be well set in order to ensure their efficacy under transient and sustained signalling network overload. The objective of this paper is to present a modeling approach to the determination of the network parameters that govern the performance of the SS7 congestion controls under sustained overload. Results of the investigation by simulation are presented and discussed.

  9. Culinary plants and their potential impact on metabolic overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Kwon, Oran

    2011-07-01

    Contemporary human behavior has led a large proportion of the population to metabolic overload and obesity. Postprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia evoke redox imbalance in the short term and lead to complex chronic disease in the long term with repeated occurrence. Complex diseases are best prevented with complex components of plants; thus, current nutrition research has begun to focus on the development of plant-based functional foods and dietary supplements for health and well-being. Furthermore, given the wide range of species, parts, and secondary metabolites, culinary plants can contribute significant variety and complexity to the human diet. Although understanding the health benefits of culinary plants has been one of the great challenges in nutritional science due to their inherent complexity, it is an advantageous pursuit. This review will address the challenges and opportunities relating to studies of the health benefits of culinary plants, with an emphasis on obesity attributed to metabolic overload. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Formal Constraints on Memory Management for Composite Overloaded Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian W.I. Rouson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The memory management rules for abstract data type calculus presented by Rouson, Morris & Xu [15] are recast as formal statements in the Object Constraint Language (OCL and applied to the design of a thermal energy equation solver. One set of constraints eliminates memory leaks observed in composite overloaded expressions with three current Fortran 95/2003 compilers. A second set of constraints ensures economical memory recycling. The constraints are preconditions, postconditions and invariants on overloaded operators and the objects they receive and return. It is demonstrated that systematic run-time assertion checking inspired by the formal constraints facilitated the pinpointing of an exceptionally hard-to-reproduce compiler bug. It is further demonstrated that the interplay between OCL's modeling capabilities and Fortran's programming capabilities led to a conceptual breakthrough that greatly improved the readability of our code by facilitating operator overloading. The advantages and disadvantages of our memory management rules are discussed in light of other published solutions [11,19]. Finally, it is demonstrated that the run-time assertion checking has a negligible impact on performance.

  11. Iron overload in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes: An updated overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukalled, Nour M; El Rassi, Fuad A; Temraz, Sally N; Taher, Ali T

    2018-06-15

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) encompass a heterogeneous group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by a broad clinical spectrum related to ineffective hematopoiesis leading to unilineage or multilineage cytopenias, with a high propensity for transformation to acute myeloid leukemia. Iron overload has been recently identified as one of the important conditions complicating the management of these diverse disorders. The accumulation of iron is mainly related to chronic transfusions; however, evidence suggests a possible role for ineffective erythropoiesis and increased intestinal absorption of iron, related to altered hepcidin and growth differentiation factor-15 levels in the development of hemosiderosis in patients with MDS. In addition to its suggested role in the exacerbation of ineffective erythropoiesis, multiple reports have identified a prognostic implication for the development of iron overload in patients with MDS, with an improvement in overall survival after the initiation of iron chelation therapy. This review includes a detailed discussion of iron overload in patients with MDS whether they are undergoing supportive therapy or curative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, with a focus on the mechanism, diagnosis, and effect on survival as well as the optimal management of this highly variable complication. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  12. Mild iron overload in patients carrying the HFE S65C gene mutation: a retrospective study in patients with suspected iron overload and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Holmström, P; Marmur, J; Eggertsen, G; Gåfvels, M; Stål, P

    2002-01-01

    Background and aims: The role of the HFE S65C mutation in the development of hepatic iron overload is unknown. The aim of the present study was: (A) to determine the HFE S65C frequency in a Northern European population; and (B) to evaluate whether the presence of the HFE S65C mutation would result in a significant hepatic iron overload.

  13. Ischemic preconditioning improves mitochondrial tolerance to experimental calcium overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestanello, Juan A; Doliba, Nicolai M; Babsky, Andriy M; Doliba, Natalia M; Niibori, Koki; Whitman, Glenn J R; Osbakken, Mary D

    2002-04-01

    Ca(2+) overload leads to mitochondrial uncoupling, decreased ATP synthesis, and myocardial dysfunction. Pharmacologically opening of mitochondrial K(ATP) channels decreases mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, improving mitochondrial function during Ca(2+) overload. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC), by activating mitochondrial K(ATP) channels, may attenuate mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload and improve mitochondrial function during reperfusion. The purpose of these experiments was to study the effect of IPC (1) on mitochondrial function and (2) on mitochondrial tolerance to experimental Ca(2+) overload. Rat hearts (n = 6/group) were subjected to (a) 30 min of equilibration, 25 min of ischemia, and 30 min of reperfusion (Control) or (b) two 5-min episodes of ischemic preconditioning, 25 min of ischemia, and 30 min of reperfusion (IPC). Developed pressure (DP) was measured. Heart mitochondria were isolated at end-Equilibration (end-EQ) and at end-Reperfusion (end-RP). Mitochondrial respiratory function (state 2, oxygen consumption with substrate only; state 3, oxygen consumption stimulated by ADP; state 4, oxygen consumption after cessation of ADP phosphorylation; respiratory control index (RCI, state 3/state 4); rate of oxidative phosphorylation (ADP/Deltat), and ADP:O ratio) was measured with polarography using alpha-ketoglutarate as a substrate in the presence of different Ca(2+) concentrations (0 to 5 x 10(-7) M) to simulate Ca(2+) overload. IPC improved DP at end-RP. IPC did not improve preischemic mitochondrial respiratory function or preischemic mitochondrial response to Ca(2+) loading. IPC improved state 3, ADP/Deltat, and RCI during RP. Low Ca(2+) levels (0.5 and 1 x 10(-7) M) stimulated mitochondrial function in both groups predominantly in IPC. The Control group showed evidence of mitochondrial uncoupling at lower Ca(2+) concentrations (1 x 10(-7) M). IPC preserved state 3 at high Ca(2+) concentrations. The cardioprotective effect of IPC results, in part, from

  14. EXPERIENCIAS SIGNIFICATIVAS DE INTEGRACIÓN SOCIAL DE UNIVERSITARIOS MEDIANTE LA PRODUCCIÓN TEXTUAL DE RAP I SIGNIFICANT EXPERIENCES OF SOCIAL INTEGRATION OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS BY TEXTUAL PRODUCTION OF RAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana María Pérez Cedeño

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Universities are beginning to promote policies aimed at eliminating discrimination, promoting spaces for community, social and educational participation. Therefore, the incorporation of college students to their academic discourse community is encouraged, since they are young people with a particular history and complex social life, which are included in different ways into the educational system. The overall purpose is to assess the intercultural resource "rap" in the academic practice of textual compositions by new students in the Extensión Región Centro- Sur of the Universidad de Oriente. In this qualitative research, the content analysis is used to account for the experiences of eight key informants interviewed, students of Industrial Engineering or Systems Engineering. It is intended to understand the reasons for the behavior of these students, analyzing both the thematic as the overall quality of writing, the reality in which they arise, and how they express their living experiences. The findings indicate that, despite the difficulties in the writing of texts: a students, in addition to reporting, are identified with this musical style, because its main purpose lies in provoking reactions, b the strategy allows to cater a heterogeneous population academically and culturally, c university students may recognize, as any artistic expression, musical text resulting from this interpretation, which has a social impact in a given group of persons. This strategy provides an opportunity to reflect on the process of integral development and deepens in the construction of a new model of society

  15. SECRETARIAT AND TEXTUAL PRODUCTION: ARGUMENTATION IN THE TEXTUAL GENRE LETTER OF DECLARATION O SECRETARIADO E A PRODUÇÃO TEXTUAL: A ARGUMENTAÇÃO NO GÊNERO DECLARAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erivaldo Pereira do Nascimento

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    This article aims at describing the semantic argumentative structure of the textual/discursive genre Letter of Declaration, one of the documents with which the executive secretary frequently deals. This investigation is based on the Argumention Theory in the Language proposed by Ducrot (1988,1987. We also used the studies about Discursive Modalization proposed by Koch (2002, Castilho e Castilho (1993, Nascimento (2005, among others. Modalization is considered here as a semantic argumentative strategy, as it enables the speaker to make a statement or to express a point of view about the content of his/her enunciation, according to the interlocution. This study about the previously mentioned gender is qualitative, quantitative and descriptive. The corpus used is composed of 20 (twenty Letters of Declaration issued by different organizations or private and public institutions. We perceived that in the Letters of Declaration analysed argumentation is achieved by the use of modalizers and argumentative operators, used by the speaker to produce different effects of meaning in the texts.

    Este artigo tem como objetivo descrever a estrutura semântico-argumentativa do gênero textual/discursivo declaração, um dos documentos com o qual o profissional de Secretariado lida frequentemente. Essa investigação tem como base a Teoria da Argumentação na Língua, proposta por Ducrot (1988, 1987. Utilizamos também os estudos de Modalização Discursiva, proposta por Koch (2002, Castilho e Castilho (1993, Nascimento (2005, entre outros. A modalização é aqui considerada como uma estratégia semântico-argumentativa, uma vez que permite ao locutor imprimir uma avaliação ou ponto de vista sobre o conteúdo de seu enunciado, em função da interlocução. A investigação realizada a respeito do referido gênero é de natureza qualitativa e quantitativa, de cunho descritivo, e o corpus utilizado é constituído por 20

  16. Working memory overload: fronto-limbic interactions and effects on subsequent working memory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Richard J; Krystal, John H; Mathalon, Daniel H

    2010-03-01

    The human working memory system provides an experimentally useful model for examination of neural overload effects on subsequent functioning of the overloaded system. This study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging in conjunction with a parametric working memory task to characterize the behavioral and neural effects of cognitive overload on subsequent cognitive performance, with particular attention to cognitive-limbic interactions. Overloading the working memory system was associated with varying degrees of subsequent decline in performance accuracy and reduced activation of brain regions central to both task performance and suppression of negative affect. The degree of performance decline was independently predicted by three separate factors operating during the overload condition: the degree of task failure, the degree of amygdala activation, and the degree of inverse coupling between the amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest that vulnerability to overload effects in cognitive functioning may be mediated by reduced amygdala suppression and subsequent amygdala-prefrontal interaction.

  17. On TCP-based Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Server Overload Control

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Charles; Schulzrinne, Henning

    2010-01-01

    The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) server overload management has attracted interest since SIP is being widely deployed in the Next Generation Networks (NGN) as a core signaling protocol. Yet all existing SIP overload control work is focused on SIP-over-UDP, despite the fact that TCP is increasingly seen as the more viable choice of SIP transport. This paper answers the following questions: is the existing TCP flow control capable of handling the SIP overload problem? If not, why and how c...

  18. Role of work overload toward turnover intention among newly hired public accountants

    OpenAIRE

    Pradana, Andika; Salehudin, Imam

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze how work overload influences turnover intentions of newly hired public accountants. Job satisfaction, work related stress and work life conflicts are used as mediating variable between work overload and turnover intention. This study employed 141 auditors from several accounting firms operating in the Greater Jakarta region. Six proposed hypotheses was tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Results showed that work overload has significant effect in increa...

  19. TIMP3 deficiency exacerbates iron overload-mediated cardiomyopathy and liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhabyeyev, Pavel; Das, Subhash K; Basu, Ratnadeep; Shen, Mengcheng; Patel, Vaibhav B; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2018-05-01

    Chronic iron overload results in heart and liver diseases and is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with genetic hemochromatosis and secondary iron overload. We investigated the role of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3) in iron overload-mediated tissue injury by subjecting male mice lacking Timp3 ( Timp3 -/- ) and wild-type (WT) mice to 12 wk of chronic iron overload. Whereas WT mice with iron overload developed diastolic dysfunction, iron-overloaded Timp3 -/- mice showed worsened cardiac dysfunction coupled with systolic dysfunction. In the heart, loss of Timp3 was associated with increased myocardial fibrosis, greater Timp1, matrix metalloproteinase ( Mmp) 2, and Mmp9 expression, increased active MMP-2 levels, and gelatinase activity. Iron overload in Timp3 -/- mice showed twofold higher iron accumulation in the liver compared with WT mice because of constituently lower levels of ferroportin. Loss of Timp3 enhanced the hepatic inflammatory response to iron overload, leading to greater neutrophil and macrophage infiltration and increased hepatic fibrosis. Expression of inflammation-related MMPs (MMP-12 and MMP-13) and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) was elevated to a greater extent in iron-overloaded Timp3 -/- livers. Gelatin zymography demonstrated equivalent increases in MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels in WT and Timp3 -/- iron-overloaded livers. Loss of Timp3 enhanced the susceptibility to iron overload-mediated heart and liver injury, suggesting that Timp3 is a key protective molecule against iron-mediated pathology. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In mice, loss of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 ( Timp3) was associated with systolic and diastolic dysfunctions, twofold higher hepatic iron accumulation (attributable to constituently lower levels of ferroportin), and increased hepatic inflammation. Loss of Timp3 enhanced the susceptibility to iron overload-mediated injury, suggesting that Timp3 plays a key

  20. Reconsidering the Rhizome: A Textual Analysis of Web Search Engines as Gatekeepers of the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, A.

    Critical theorists have often drawn from Deleuze and Guattari's notion of the rhizome when discussing the potential of the Internet. While the Internet may structurally appear as a rhizome, its day-to-day usage by millions via search engines precludes experiencing the random interconnectedness and potential democratizing function. Through a textual analysis of four search engines, I argue that Web searching has grown hierarchies, or "trees," that organize data in tracts of knowledge and place users in marketing niches rather than assist in the development of new knowledge.

  1. Integrating Ontological Knowledge and Textual Evidence in Estimating Gene and Gene Product Similarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Posse, Christian; Gopalan, Banu; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-08

    With the rising influence of the Gene On-tology, new approaches have emerged where the similarity between genes or gene products is obtained by comparing Gene Ontology code annotations associ-ated with them. So far, these approaches have solely relied on the knowledge en-coded in the Gene Ontology and the gene annotations associated with the Gene On-tology database. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that improvements to these approaches can be obtained by integrating textual evidence extracted from relevant biomedical literature.

  2. Comprensión y producción textual narrativa en preescolares

    OpenAIRE

    Luz Stella López Silva; Claudia Patricia Duque Aristizabal; Gina Lizeth Camargo Deluque; Amalia Ovalle Parra

    2014-01-01

    Este estudio buscó identificar y describir las habilidades de comprensión y producción textual narrativa de 158 estudiantes de transición de estrato 1 y 2 de colegios públicos de la ciudad de Barranquilla (Colombia). Para evaluar esta capacidad se les pidió a los niños que narraran un texto que se les había leído anteriormente. Las muestras de lenguaje se analizaron utilizando el software SALT y posteriormente se utilizó el software SPSS para realizar los análisis descriptivos. Se consideró l...

  3. Cocuyo: Una Matriz de identidad y su despliegue en submunrlos textuales

    OpenAIRE

    Cristián Montes

    2016-01-01

    El presente artículo intenta actualizar una lectura coherente de la novela Cocuyo. Para esto, se ha trabajado con la idea de matriz propuesta por Michael Riffatene, y de mundo posible de Tomás Albaladejo Mayordomo. Ambas teorías permiten dar cuenta del problema de la identidad desde ángulos complementarios y a partir del motivo del viaje. De este modo puede apreciarse que la matríz propuesta es desplegada en los diversos submundos textuales los cuales, a su vez, develan la imagen de mundo y d...

  4. Caudal léxico en alumnos universitarios : Implicancias para la interacción textual

    OpenAIRE

    Piatti, Vanesa; Fernicola, Alfredo; Melillo, Oscar Roberto; Peralta, Diego

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se comunican los resultados preliminares de una investigación en curso. Específicamente se refiere a los resultados encontrados en pruebas de que examinan el caudal léxico, por el interés de sus relaciones con la interacción textual. En razón de ello en la elaboración de esta comunicación se ha tenido particularmente en cuenta el modelo de comprensión lectora proporcionado por Kintsch y Rawson (2005) sobre los diferentes niveles de procesamiento cuando se lee. Los autores d...

  5. Hypertext in Secondary School in Chile: ¿It is pertinent apply traditional textual approaches?

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala Pérez, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Los textos digitales constituyen parte importante de la comunicación en la sociedad de la información y recientemente han sido incluidos en los programas de Lenguaje y Comunicación de E.M. en Chile. Ante esta situación, cabe preguntarse si los tradicionales enfoques textuales, elaborados a partir del texto impreso en los años 70 y 80 y utilizados actualmente en Enseñanza Media, resultan aplicables al hipertexto. En este trabajo se describen algunos rasgos de este tipo de texto y se reflexiona...

  6. Redemptive Family Narratives: Olga Lengyel and the Textuality of the Holocaust*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turda, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Memoirs written by Holocaust survivors and (in some cases) their testimonies retain a salience unmatched by other historical sources. This article discusses one such memoir, Olga Lengyel’s Five Chimneys, alongside her 1998 testimony, aiming to engage with broader methodological issues relating to the history of the Holocaust, particularly those about memory, narrative and textuality. Through a detailed discussion of certain moments shaping Olga Lengyel’s personal experience, both pre-and post-arrival in Auschwitz, the article captures the tensions and contradictions characterizing the harrowing story of one woman’s loss of family in the Holocaust. PMID:27959969

  7. What Good’s a Text? Textuality, Orality, and Mathematical Astronomy in Early Imperial China

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Daniel Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Article submitted to Archives internationales d'histoire des sciences; International audience; This paper examines a 226 ce debate on li 曆 mathematical astronomy at the Cao-Wei (226–265) court as a case study in the role of orality and person-to-person exchange in the transmission of astronomical knowledge in early imperial China. The li- and mathematics-related manuscripts to have come down to us from the early imperial period often suffer from textual corruption, the form that this corrupti...

  8. Research progress in role of iron overload in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Guangming

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron overload is an important research focus in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The relationship between iron overload and NAFLD is summarized from the assessment method for iron overload, relationship between iron load and hemochromatosis gene mutations, incidence of iron load in NAFLD, and relationship between iron load and progression of NAFLD; the action mechanism of iron overload in the progression of NAFLD is reviewed from the causes of iron overload, relationship between iron overload and lipid metabolism, and relationship between type of iron deposition and liver damage; the significance of iron overload in the diagnosis and treatment of NAFLD is discussed from iron overload as a new marker of risk stratification and potential therapeutic target in NAFLD. It is currently considered that iron overload, whether the cause or result of NAFLD progression, will promote the progression of NAFLD once it occurs; as a new marker of risk stratification and potential therapeutic target in NAFLD, iron load is worthy of further study.

  9. Lactate dehydrogenase regulation in aged skeletal muscle: Regulation by anabolic steroids and functional overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Tyrone A; Healey, Julie M; Thompson, Raymond W; Lowe, Larry L; Carson, James A

    2014-09-01

    Aging alters the skeletal muscle response to overload-induced growth. The onset of functional overload is characterized by increased myoblast proliferation and an altered muscle metabolic profile. The onset of functional overload is associated with increased energy demands that are met through the interconversion of lactate and pyruvate via the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Testosterone targets many of the processes activated at the onset of functional overload. However, the effect of aging on this metabolic plasticity at the onset of functional overload and how anabolic steroid administration modulates this response is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine if aging would alter overload-induced LDH activity and expression at the onset of functional overload and whether anabolic steroid administration would modulate this response. Five-month and 25-month male Fischer 344xF1 BRN were given nandrolone decanoate (ND) or sham injections for 14days and then the plantaris was functionally overloaded (OV) for 3days by synergist ablation. Aging reduced muscle LDH-A & LDH-B activity 70% (pyoung muscle. Our study provides evidence that aging alters aspects of skeletal muscle metabolic plasticity normally induced by overload and anabolic steroid administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The body of women and the overload of sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cobo Bedia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is approaching to a historically recent social phenomenon: the hipersexualization of women. It looks into its origins and finds that the idea of the sexual freedom that is developed in the 60s, on one side, and the exaltation of the free market, which was developed from the 80s, on the other, come together in the goal of overloading women sexuality. The context in which this process takes place is a free and unlimited market which has understood that women`s bodies are a commodity from which are extracted necessaries appreciations for the social reproduction of contemporary patriarchy and neoliberal capitalism.

  11. Effects of Exogenous Antioxidants on Dietary Iron Overload

    OpenAIRE

    Asare, George A.; Kew, Michael C.; Mossanda, Kensese S.; Paterson, Alan C.; Siziba, Kwanele; Kahler-Venter, Christiana P.

    2008-01-01

    In dietary iron overload, excess hepatic iron promotes liver damage. The aim was to attenuate free radical-induced liver damage using vitamins. Four groups of 60 Wistar rats were studied: group 1 (control) was fed normal diet, group 2 (Fe) 2.5% pentacarbonyl iron (CI) followed by 0.5% Ferrocene, group 3 (Fe + V gp) CI, Ferrocene, plus vitamins A and E (42× and 10× RDA, respectively), group 4 (Fe – V gp) CI, Ferrocene diet, minus vitamins A and E. At 20 months, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), su...

  12. Protection of insulated cables and lines in case of overload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goltz, M

    1983-01-01

    After DIN 57100 Part 430/VDE 0100 part 430 for the protection of lines and cables was published in June 1981, the discussion flared up again whether this DIN/VDE-regulation is sufficient. Some papers have already been published on the right selection and arrangement of overload protection under normal operational conditions. The aim of this contribution is to explain abnormal operational conditions which are dealt with in DIN 57100 part 430/VDE 0100 part 430 in comments and the annex, and to supply some help for planning and projecting.

  13. Quantification of liver fat in the presence of iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, Debra E; Hernando, Diego; Reeder, Scott B

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of R2* models (1/T 2 * = R2*) for chemical shift-encoded magnetic resonance imaging (CSE-MRI)-based proton density fat-fraction (PDFF) quantification in patients with fatty liver and iron overload, using MR spectroscopy (MRS) as the reference standard. Two Monte Carlo simulations were implemented to compare the root-mean-squared-error (RMSE) performance of single-R2* and dual-R2* correction in a theoretical liver environment with high iron. Fatty liver was defined as hepatic PDFF >5.6% based on MRS; only subjects with fatty liver were considered for analyses involving fat. From a group of 40 patients with known/suspected iron overload, nine patients were identified at 1.5T, and 13 at 3.0T with fatty liver. MRS linewidth measurements were used to estimate R2* values for water and fat peaks. PDFF was measured from CSE-MRI data using single-R2* and dual-R2* correction with magnitude and complex fitting. Spectroscopy-based R2* analysis demonstrated that the R2* of water and fat remain close in value, both increasing as iron overload increases: linear regression between R2* W and R2* F resulted in slope = 0.95 [0.79-1.12] (95% limits of agreement) at 1.5T and slope = 0.76 [0.49-1.03] at 3.0T. MRI-PDFF using dual-R2* correction had severe artifacts. MRI-PDFF using single-R2* correction had good agreement with MRS-PDFF: Bland-Altman analysis resulted in -0.7% (bias) ± 2.9% (95% limits of agreement) for magnitude-fit and -1.3% ± 4.3% for complex-fit at 1.5T, and -1.5% ± 8.4% for magnitude-fit and -2.2% ± 9.6% for complex-fit at 3.0T. Single-R2* modeling enables accurate PDFF quantification, even in patients with iron overload. 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:428-439. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. Inherent overload protection for the series resonant converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, R. J.; Stuart, T. A.

    1983-01-01

    The overload characteristics of the full bridge series resonant power converter are considered. This includes analyses of the two most common control methods presently in use. The first of these uses a current zero crossing detector to synchronize the control signals and is referred to as the alpha controller. The second is driven by a voltage controlled oscillator and is referred to as the gamma controller. It is shown that the gamma controller has certain reliability advantages in that it can be designed with inherent short circuit protection. Experimental results are included for an 86 kHz converter using power metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs).

  15. Informationsöverflödets dystopi : En intertextuell diskursanalys från Future Shock till The Shallows

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Today it is common to state that we are living in an information overloaded society. But there are many different definitions of what can be said to constitute Information Overload and there is a lack of substantial research on the subject. Conclusions in the available literature on Information Overload are often drawn on anecdotal evidence and carries a dramatized picture of the causes and effects of the phenomenon. With the tools of discursive analysis this two years master’s thesis explore...

  16. Rethinking information handling: designing for information offload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed; Pedersen, Peter Dalsgård; Eriksson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces information offload as a supplement way of responding to and designing for information. By presenting iFlush, a design concept aiming at providing the user with a possibility to offload information and then instantly dispose of it, the paper presents an approach towards desi...... designing for reflection and also serves as a critique towards information overload. Furthermore, the absence of reflection on the role played by HCI community in the constant augmenting of all spaces is addressed....

  17. El concepto de ficcionalidad: Teoría y representaciones textuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álamo Felices, Francisco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is an updated tour —scientific, terminological and bibliographical— of the concept of fictionality and its fundamental textual representations. The structure of this article is drawn from a prior state of the issue and moves on to a theoretical exposition of these fictional forms, to which a sampler of narrative examples applied to each of the analyzed narratives is added. All of this is complemented by recent contributions made within the field of fictionality by both literary critics and the novelists themselves.Este trabajo es un recorrido actualizado —científico, terminológico y bibliográfico— acerca del concepto de ficcionalidad y sus representaciones textuales fundamentales. La estructura del artículo se traza desde un estado previo de la cuestión para continuar con una exposición teórica de dichas modalidades ficcionales a lo que se añade un muestrario de ejemplos narrativos aplicados a cada caso analizado. Todo lo anterior se complementa con las últimas aportaciones que, en el campo de la ficcionalidad, han realizado tanto la crítica literaria como los propios novelistas.

  18. A Didatic Reflection on Distribution of Textual Genres to the Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Bosco Figueiredo-Gomes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the interest on the studies about textual genre and its teaching in the three last decades, the present article presents a report of an analysis of collection of didactic books of Portuguese language of the Primary School II, which aimed at verifying if the didactic book enables a comprehension about different textual genres as for the student, in relation to the context and social use, as well as for the teacher, in relation to parameters in order to do an analysis and choice of didactic collection books. The theoretical methodological framework based mainly in the contributions of Interactionism Socio-discursive: Bronckart (1999, 2003 and Schneuwly and Dolz (2004; in the studies by Marcuschi (2002, 2008 and in the orientations about the teaching of mother language contained in the National Curriculum Guidelines – PCN (BRASIL, 1998. The results provided a reflection that offers param-eters to the analysis, choice and organization of didactic collections, as well as suggestions of pedagogic implementation towards the teaching of Portuguese language.

  19. Electrochemical sensor for predicting transformer overload by phenol measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosworth, Timothy; Setford, Steven; Saini, Selwayan [Cranfield Centre for Analytical Science, Cranfield University, Silsoe, Beds MK45 4DT (United Kingdom); Heywood, Richard [National Grid Company Plc, Kelvin Avenue, Leatherhead, Surrey KT22 7ST (United Kingdom)

    2003-03-10

    Transformer overload is a significant problem to the power transmission industry, with severe safety and cost implications. Overload may be predicted by measuring phenol levels in the transformer-insulating oil, arising from the thermolytic degradation of phenol-formaldehyde resins. The development of two polyphenol oxidase (PPO) sensors, based on monitoring the enzymatic consumption of oxygen using an oxygen electrode, or reduction of enzymatically generated o-quinone at a screen-printed electrode (SPE), for the measurement of phenol in transformer oil is reported. Ex-service oils were prepared either by extraction into aqueous electrolyte-buffer, or by direct dilution in propan-2-ol, the latter method being more amenable to simple at-line operation. The oxygen electrode, with a sensitivity of 2.87 nA {mu}g{sup -1} ml{sup -1}, RSD of 7.0-19.9% and accuracy of {+-}8.3% versus the industry standard International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) method, proved superior to the SPE (sensitivity: 3.02 nA {mu}g{sup -1} ml{sup -1}; RSD: 8.9-18.3%; accuracy: {+-}7.9%) and was considerably more accurate at low phenol concentrations. However, the SPE approach is more amenable to field-based usage for reasons of device simplicity. The method has potential as a rapid and simple screening tool for the at-site monitoring of phenol in transformer oils, thereby reducing incidences of transformer failure.

  20. Chronic Kidney Disease, Fluid Overload and Diuretics: A Complicated Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Yusra Habib; Sarriff, Azmi; Adnan, Azreen Syazril; Khan, Amer Hayat; Mallhi, Tauqeer Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Despite promising role of diuretics to manage fluid overload among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, their use is associated with adverse renal outcomes. Current study aimed to determine the extent of renal deterioration with diuretic therapy. A total 312 non-dialysis dependent CKD (NDD-CKD) patients were prospectively followed-up for one year. Fluid overload was assessed via bioimpedance spectroscopy. Estimated GFR (eGFR) was calculated from serum creatinine values by using Chronic Kidney Disease- Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Out of 312 patients, 64 (20.5%) were hypovolemic while euvolemia and hypervolemia were observed in 113 (36.1%) and 135 (43.4%) patients. Overall 144 patients were using diuretics among which 98 (72.6%) were hypervolemic, 35 (30.9%) euvolemic and 11 (17.2%) were hypovolemic. The mean decline in estimated GFR of entire cohort was -2.5 ± 1.4 ml/min/1.73m2 at the end of follow up. The use of diuretics was significantly associated with decline in eGFR. A total of 36 (11.5%) patients initiated renal replacement therapy (RRT) and need of RRT was more profound among diuretic users. The use of diuretics was associated with adverse renal outcomes indicated by decline in eGFR and increasing risk of RRT initiation in our cohort of NDD-CKD patients. Therefore, it is cautiously suggested to carefully prescribe diuretics by keeping in view benefit versus harm for each patient.

  1. Principles of Textual Communication. On the Basis of Polish Press Reports after President Obama’s 2009 Inauguration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr P. Chruszczewski

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the assumption that any discourse is a highly context-dependent, and dynamically changing phenomenon of textual nature, and with reference to the fact that there may be used in linguistic research certain standards of textuality, the paper shows that the standards can be grouped into, e.g., three general sections (text-oriented, sender-oriented and context-oriented which can be used as a starting point for further research in the study of textlinguistics and journalistic discourse.

  2. Development of an overload control strategy for the Republic of Senegal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available , particularly because there are currently no weighbridges in the country being used for overload control law enforcement. Recognising the need for an effective overload strategy for Senegal, the Ministry of Public Works and Transport decided to initiate a study...

  3. Data Overload Impact on Project Management: How Knowledge Management Systems Can Improve Federal Agencies Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jacinto

    2013-01-01

    This mixed method exploratory case study was used to explore the effect data overload has on project management, how data overload affects project management effectiveness, how prepared program office staff is to manage multiple projects effectively, and how the program office's organizational structure and data management systems affect project…

  4. 30 CFR 75.518 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... short circuit protection. 75.518 Section 75.518 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Equipment-General § 75.518 Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection... installed so as to protect all electric equipment and circuits against short circuit and overloads. Three...

  5. Predicting Role Conflict, Overload and Contagion in Adult Women University Students with Families and Jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home, Alice M.

    1998-01-01

    Data from 443 women combining work, family, and schooling showed that lower income increased their vulnerability to role conflict. Perceived intensity of student demands was the strongest predictor of role conflict, overload, and contagion (preoccupation with one role while performing another). Conflict and overload were eased somewhat by distance…

  6. Clinical consequences of iron overload in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes: the case for iron chelation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shammo, Jamile M; Komrokji, Rami S

    2018-06-14

    Patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are at increased risk of iron overload due to ineffective erythropoiesis and chronic transfusion therapy. The clinical consequences of iron overload include cardiac and/or hepatic failure, endocrinopathies, and infection risk. Areas covered: Iron chelation therapy (ICT) can help remove excess iron and ultimately reduce the clinical consequences of iron overload. The authors reviewed recent (last five years) English-language articles from PubMed on the topic of iron overload-related complications and the use of ICT (primarily deferasirox) to improve outcomes in patients with MDS. Expert Commentary: While a benefit of ICT has been more firmly established in other transfusion-dependent conditions such as thalassemia, its role in reducing iron overload in MDS remains controversial due to the lack of prospective controlled data demonstrating a survival benefit. Orally administered chelation agents (e.g., deferasirox), are now available, and observational and/or retrospective data support a survival benefit of using ICT in MDS. The placebo-controlled TELESTO trial (NCT00940602) is currently examining the use of deferasirox in MDS patients with iron overload, and is evaluating specifically whether use of ICT to alleviate iron overload can also reduce iron overload-related complications in MDS and improve survival.

  7. Role overload, pain and physical dysfunction in early rheumatoid or undifferentiated inflammatory arthritis in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Sally Sabry; Looper, Karl Julian; Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Purden, Margaret; Baron, Murray

    2012-05-03

    Inflammatory arthritis impairs participation in societal roles. Role overload arises when the demands by a given role set exceed the resources; time and energy, to carry out the required tasks. The present study examines the association between role overload and disease outcomes in early inflammatory arthritis (EIA). Patients (n = 104) of 7.61 months mean duration of inflammatory arthritis completed self-report questionnaires on sociodemographics, disease characteristics and role overload. Pain was assessed using the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and physical functioning was measured with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) physical functioning score. Role overload was measured by the Role Overload Scale. Patients indicated the number of social roles they occupied from a total of the three typical roles; marital, parental and paid work. Participants' mean age was 56 years and 70.2% were female. Role overload was not correlated to the number of social roles, however, it was positively associated with pain (p = 0.004) and negatively associated with physical functioning (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, role overload was negatively associated with physical functioning after controlling for the relevant sociodemographic variables. This study identifies a possible reciprocal relationship between role overload and physical functioning in patients with EIA.

  8. "Something's Gotta Give:" Advanced-Degree Seeking Women's Experiences of Sexism, Role Overload, and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Lindsey M.

    2014-01-01

    With the rise in advanced-degree seeking women and the minimal research on the dual impact of sexism and role overload, the current study aims to better understand the impact of sexism and role overload on psychological distress in a particular sample of advanced-degree seeking women. Seventy-six female medical student participants (mean age 24.7)…

  9. The evolution of crack-tip stresses during a fatigue overload event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steuwer, A.; Rahman, M.; Shterenlikht, A.; Fitzpatrick, M.E.; Edwards, L.; Withers, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the transient retardation or acceleration of fatigue crack growth subsequent to overloading are a matter of intense debate. Plasticity-induced closure and residual stresses have often been invoked to explain these phenomena, but closure mechanisms are disputed, especially under conditions approximating to generalised plane strain. In this paper we exploit synchrotron radiation to report very high spatial resolution two-dimensional elastic strain and stress maps at maximum and minimum loading measured under plane strain during a normal fatigue cycle, as well as during and after a 100% overload event, in ultra-fine grained AA5091 aluminium alloy. These observations provide direct evidence of the material stress state in the vicinity of the crack-tip in thick samples. Significant compressive residual stresses were found both in front of and behind the crack-tip immediately following the overload event. The effective stress intensity at the crack-tip was determined directly from the local stress field measured deep within the bulk (plane strain) by comparison with linear elastic fracture mechanical theory. This agrees well with that nominally applied at maximum load and 100% overload. After overload, however, the stress fields were not well described by classical K fields due to closure-related residual stresses. Little evidence of overload closure was observed sometime after the overload event, in our case possibly because the overload plastic zone was very small.

  10. Melatonin protects bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells against iron overload-induced aberrant differentiation and senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Yang, Lei; Li, Yuan; Yan, Gege; Feng, Chao; Liu, Tianyi; Gong, Rui; Yuan, Ye; Wang, Ning; Idiiatullina, Elina; Bikkuzin, Timur; Pavlov, Valentin; Li, Yang; Dong, Chaorun; Wang, Dawei; Cao, Yang; Han, Zhenbo; Zhang, Lai; Huang, Qi; Ding, Fengzhi; Bi, Zhengang; Cai, Benzhi

    2017-10-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are an expandable population of stem cells which can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Dysfunction of BMSCs in response to pathological stimuli contributes to bone diseases. Melatonin, a hormone secreted from pineal gland, has been proved to be an important mediator in bone formation and mineralization. The aim of this study was to investigate whether melatonin protected against iron overload-induced dysfunction of BMSCs and its underlying mechanisms. Here, we found that iron overload induced by ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) caused irregularly morphological changes and markedly reduced the viability in BMSCs. Consistently, osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs was significantly inhibited by iron overload, but melatonin treatment rescued osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Furthermore, exposure to FAC led to the senescence in BMSCs, which was attenuated by melatonin as well. Meanwhile, melatonin was able to counter the reduction in cell proliferation by iron overload in BMSCs. In addition, protective effects of melatonin on iron overload-induced dysfunction of BMSCs were abolished by its inhibitor luzindole. Also, melatonin protected BMSCs against iron overload-induced ROS accumulation and membrane potential depolarization. Further study uncovered that melatonin inhibited the upregulation of p53, ERK and p38 protein expressions in BMSCs with iron overload. Collectively, melatonin plays a protective role in iron overload-induced osteogenic differentiation dysfunction and senescence through blocking ROS accumulation and p53/ERK/p38 activation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Why cross-national differences in role overload? Don't overlook ambient temperature!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, E.; Van Yperen, N.W.

    The finding that, across nations, power distance (expected and accepted unequal interpersonal influence) Is positively related to role overload (Peterson et al., 1995) might he an artifact of the relation between role overload and ambient temperature or other third factors. We related data on power

  12. Role Overload, Job Satisfaction, Leisure Satisfaction, and Psychological Health among Employed Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Quinn M.

    2008-01-01

    Role overload, job satisfaction, leisure satisfaction, and psychological health were measured for 155 women who were employed full time. Role overload was negatively correlated with psychological health, job satisfaction, and leisure satisfaction. Job satisfaction and leisure satisfaction were positively correlated with psychological health.…

  13. Overload training inhibits phagocytosis and ROS generation of peritoneal macrophages: role of IGF-1 and MGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Weihua; Chen, Peijie; Wang, Ru; Dong, Jingmei

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that overload training inhibits the phagocytosis and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of peritoneal macrophages (Mϕs), and that insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1) and mechano-growth factor (MGF) produced by macrophages may contribute to this process. Rats were randomized to two groups, sedentary control group (n = 10) and overload training group (n = 10). The rats of overload training group were subjected to 11 weeks of experimental training protocol. Blood sample was used to determine the content of hemoglobin, testosterone, and corticosterone. The phagocytosis and the ROS generation of Mϕs were measured by the uptake of neutral red and the flow cytometry, respectively. IGF-1 and MGF mRNA levels in Mϕs were determined by real-time PCR. In addition, we evaluated the effects of IGF-1 and MGF peptide on phagocytosis and ROS generation of Mϕs in vitro. The data showed that overload training significantly decreased the body weight (19.3 %, P overload training significantly decreased the phagocytosis (27 %, P overload training group increased significantly compared with the control group (21-fold and 92-fold, respectively; P overload training inhibits the phagocytosis and the ROS generation of peritoneal macrophages, and that MGF produced by macrophages may play a key role in this process. This may represent a novel mechanism of immune suppression induced by overload training.

  14. Coping with Overload and Stress: Men and Women in Dual-Earner Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Chris A.; Duxbury, Linda E.; Lyons, Sean T.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested gender differences in a model positing relationships between work and family demands, overload, 4 coping mechanisms, and stress. The coping mechanisms were hypothesized to moderate the relationship between overload and stress. The sample consisted of 1,404 men and 1,623 women in dual-earner families. Respondents relied on 2…

  15. Reliability Analysis and Overload Capability Assessment of Oil-Immersed Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart grids have been constructed so as to guarantee the security and stability of the power grid in recent years. Power transformers are a most vital component in the complicated smart grid network. Any transformer failure can cause damage of the whole power system, within which the failures caused by overloading cannot be ignored. This research gives a new insight into overload capability assessment of transformers. The hot-spot temperature of the winding is the most critical factor in measuring the overload capacity of power transformers. Thus, the hot-spot temperature is calculated to obtain the duration running time of the power transformers under overloading conditions. Then the overloading probability is fitted with the mature and widely accepted Weibull probability density function. To guarantee the accuracy of this fitting, a new objective function is proposed to obtain the desired parameters in the Weibull distributions. In addition, ten different mutation scenarios are adopted in the differential evolutionary algorithm to optimize the parameter in the Weibull distribution. The final comprehensive overload capability of the power transformer is assessed by the duration running time as well as the overloading probability. Compared with the previous studies that take no account of the overloading probability, the assessment results obtained in this research are much more reliable.

  16. Fatigue crack growth behaviour of carbon steel piping material subjected to single overload/under-load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, Punit; Tripathi, R.; Singh, P.K.; Bhasin, V.; Vijayan, P.K.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to understand the Fatigue Crack Growth Rate (FCGR) behaviour after single over-load/ under-load event on carbon steel piping material. The tests have been carried out on standard Compact Tension (CT) specimens. The effect of different crack length to width ratio (a/W) of specimen and overload/under-load ratios on FCGR have been studied. The studies have shown significant reduction in FCG rate after overload event. The strain field has been measured using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique ahead of the crack tip to quantify the plastic zone size due to overload and constant amplitude load. In addition, plastic zone calculations have also been carried out using 3D finite element analyses for the prediction of post overload FCGR/ life. The predicted FCGR are in agreement with experimentally determined FCGR. (author)

  17. Attitudes and emotions through written text: the case of textual deformation in internet chat rooms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Yus Ramos

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Los chats españoles de Internet son visitados por muchos jóvenes que usan el lenguaje de una forma muy creativa (ej. repetición de letras y signos de puntuación. En este artículo se evalúan varias hipótesis sobre el uso de la deformación textual respecto a su eficacia comunicativa. Se trata de comprobar si estas deformaciones favorecen una identificación y evaluación más adecuada de las actitudes (proposicionales o afectivas y emociones de sus autores. Las respuestas a un cuestionario revelan que a pesar de la información adicional que la deformación textual aporta, los lectores no suelen coincidir en la cualidad exacta de estas actitudes y emociones, ni establecen grados de intensidad relacionados con la cantidad de texto tecleada. Sin embargo, y a pesar de estos resultados, la deformación textual parece jugar un papel en la interpretación que finalmente se elige de estos mensajes enviados a los chats.

  18. Changes in bacteria composition and efficiency of constructed wetlands under sustained overloads: A modeling experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boano, F; Rizzo, A; Samsó, R; García, J; Revelli, R; Ridolfi, L

    2018-01-15

    The average organic and hydraulic loads that Constructed Wetlands (CWs) receive are key parameters for their adequate long-term functioning. However, over their lifespan they will inevitably be subject to either episodic or sustained overloadings. Despite that the consequences of sustained overloading are well known (e.g., clogging), the threshold of overloads that these systems can tolerate is difficult to determine. Moreover, the mechanisms that might sustain the buffering capacity (i.e., the reduction of peaks in nutrient load) during overloads are not well understood. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of sudden but sustained organic and hydraulic overloads on the general functioning of CWs. To that end, the mathematical model BIO_PORE was used to simulate five different scenarios, based on the features and operation conditions of a pilot CW system: a control simulation representing the average loads; 2 simulations representing +10% and +30% sustained organic overloads; one simulation representing a sustained +30% hydraulic overload; and one simulation with sustained organic and hydraulic overloads of +15% each. Different model outputs (e.g., total bacterial biomass and its spatial distribution, effluent concentrations) were compared among different simulations to evaluate the effects of such operation changes. Results reveal that overloads determine a temporary decrease in removal efficiency before microbial biomass adapts to the new conditions and COD removal efficiency is recovered. Increasing organic overloads cause stronger temporary decreases in COD removal efficiency compared to increasing hydraulic loads. The pace at which clogging develops increases by 10% for each 10% increase on the organic load. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Enzymatically modified isoquercitrin supplementation intensifies plantaris muscle fiber hypertrophy in functionally overloaded mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, Akiko; Machida, Masanao; Setoguchi, Yuko; Ito, Ryouichi; Sugitani, Masanori; Maruki-Uchida, Hiroko; Inagaki, Hiroyuki; Ito, Tatsuhiko; Omi, Naomi; Takemasa, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    Enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ) is produced from rutin using enzymatic hydrolysis followed by treatment with glycosyltransferase in the presence of dextrin to add glucose residues. EMIQ is absorbed in the same way as quercetin, a powerful antioxidant reported to prevent disused muscle atrophy by targeting mitochondria and to have ergogenic effects. The present study investigated the effect of EMIQ on skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by functional overload. In Study 1, 6-week-old ICR male mice were divided into 4 groups: sham-operated control, sham-operated EMIQ, overload-operated control, and overload-operated EMIQ groups. In Study 2, mice were divided into 3 groups: overload-operated whey control, overload-operated whey/EMIQ (low dose), and overload-operated whey/EMIQ (high dose) groups. The functional overload of the plantaris muscle was induced by ablation of the synergist (gastrocnemius and soleus) muscles. EMIQ and whey protein were administered with food. Three weeks after the operation, the cross-sectional area and minimal fiber diameter of the plantaris muscle fibers were measured. In Study 1, functional overload increased the cross-sectional area and minimal fiber diameter of the plantaris muscle. EMIQ supplementation significantly increased the cross-sectional area and minimal fiber diameter of the plantaris muscle in both the sham-operated and overload-operated groups. In Study 2, EMIQ supplementation combined with whey protein administration significantly increased the cross-sectional area and minimal fiber diameter of the plantaris muscle. EMIQ, even when administered as an addition to whey protein supplementation, significantly intensified the fiber hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle in functionally overloaded mice. EMIQ supplementation also induced fiber hypertrophy of the plantaris in sham-operated mice.

  20. Functional overload attenuates plantaris atrophy in tumor-bearing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otis, Jeffrey S; Lees, Simon J; Williams, Jay H

    2007-01-01

    Late stage cancer malignancies may result in severe skeletal muscle wasting, fatigue and reduced quality of life. Resistance training may attenuate these derangements in cancer patients, but how this hypertrophic response relates to normal muscle adaptations in healthy subjects is unknown. Here, we determined the effect of resistance training on muscle mass and myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform composition in plantaris muscles from tumor-bearing (TB) rats. Age- and gender-matched Buffalo rats were used for all studies (n = 6/group). Suspensions of Morris Hepatoma MH7777 cells or normal saline were injected subcutaneously into the dorsum. Six weeks after cell implantation, muscles from TB rats were harvested, weighed and processed for ATP-independent proteasome activity assays. Once tumor-induced atrophy had been established, subgroups of TB rats underwent unilateral, functional overload (FO). Healthy, sham-operated rats served as controls. After six weeks, the extent of plantaris hypertrophy was calculated and MHC isoform compositions were determined by gel electrophoresis. Six weeks of tumor growth reduced body mass and the relative masses of gastrocnemius, plantaris, tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, and diaphragm muscles (p ≤ 0.05). Percent reductions in body mass had a strong, negative correlation to final tumor size (r = -0.78). ATP-independent proteasome activity was increased in plantaris muscles from TB rats (p ≤ 0.05). In healthy rats, functional overload (FO) increased plantaris mass ~44% compared to the contralateral control muscle, and increased the relative percentage of MHC type I and decreased the relative percentage of MHC type IIb compared to the sham-operated controls (p ≤ 0.05). Importantly, plantaris mass was increased ~24% in TB-FO rats and adaptations to MHC isoform composition were consistent with normal, resistance-trained muscles. Despite significant skeletal muscle derangements due to cancer, muscle retains the capacity to

  1. Exploration of overloaded cation exchange chromatography for monoclonal antibody purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui F; McCooey, Beth; Duarte, Tiago; Myers, Deanna E; Hudson, Terry; Amanullah, Ashraf; van Reis, Robert; Kelley, Brian D

    2011-09-28

    Cation exchange chromatography using conventional resins, having either diffusive or perfusive flow paths, operated in bind-elute mode has been commonly employed in monoclonal antibody (MAb) purification processes. In this study, the performance of diffusive and perfusive cation exchange resins (SP-Sepharose FF (SPSFF) and Poros 50HS) and a convective cation exchange membrane (Mustang S) and monolith (SO(3) Monolith) were compared. All matrices were utilized in an isocratic state under typical binding conditions with an antibody load of up to 1000 g/L of chromatographic matrix. The dynamic binding capacity of the cation exchange resins is typically below 100 g/L resin, so they were loaded beyond the point of anticipated MAb break through. All of the matrices performed similarly in that they effectively retained host cell protein and DNA during the loading and wash steps, while antibody flowed through each matrix after its dynamic binding capacity was reached. The matrices differed, though, in that conventional diffusive and perfusive chromatographic resins (SPSFF and Poros 50HS) demonstrated a higher binding capacity for high molecular weight species (HMW) than convective flow matrices (membrane and monolith); Poros 50HS displayed the highest HMW binding capacity. Further exploration of the conventional chromatographic resins in an isocratic overloaded mode demonstrated that the impurity binding capacity was well maintained on Poros 50HS, but not on SPSFF, when the operating flow rate was as high as 36 column volumes per hour. Host cell protein and HMW removal by Poros 50HS was affected by altering the loading conductivity. A higher percentage of host cell protein removal was achieved at a low conductivity of 3 mS/cm. HMW binding capacity was optimized at 5 mS/cm. Our data from runs on Poros 50HS resin also showed that leached protein A and cell culture additive such as gentamicin were able to be removed under the isocratic overloaded condition. Lastly, a MAb

  2. Food and medicines in the Mediterranean tradition. A systematic analysis of the earliest extant body of textual evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touwaide, Alain; Appetiti, Emanuela

    2015-06-05

    that humans have long been in contact with them, something that the medical uses of these species confirm, as they are multiple and finely distinguished. A pilot analysis of archeological remains of medicines confirms that textual evidence corresponds to physical evidence, that is, to the practice of medicine. As a consequence, textual information can be accepted as reflecting actual practice. Although the pseudo-aphorism according to which food are medicines and medicines are food does not appear as such in the Hippocratic Collection, it aptly expresses a fundamental element of the Hippocratic approach to therapeutics, without being, however, a creation of neither Hippocrates nor his followers and the physicians who practiced a form of medicine in the way of Hippocrates. A vast majority of the core group of plant species used for the preparation of medicines were also consumed as foodstuff. Knowledge and use of these plants probably resulted from a long co-existence in the same environment and also from multiple experiences of trial and error over millennia, whose results accumulated over time and contributed to the formation of the Mediterranean medical tradition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of MR imaging with T1 and T2* mapping for the determination of hepatic iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, B; Kremser, C; Rauch, S; Eder, R; Zoller, H; Finkenstedt, A; Michaely, H J; Schocke, M

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate MRI using T1 and T2* mapping sequences in patients with suspected hepatic iron overload (HIO). Twenty-five consecutive patients with clinically suspected HIO were retrospectively studied. All underwent MRI and liver biopsy. For the quantification of liver T2* values we used a fat-saturated multi-echo gradient echo sequence with 12 echoes (TR = 200 ms, TE = 0.99 ms +  n × 1.41 ms, flip angle 20°). T1 values were obtained using a fast T1 mapping sequence based on an inversion recovery snapshot FLASH sequence. Parameter maps were analysed using regions of interest. ROC analysis calculated cut-off points at 10.07 ms and 15.47 ms for T2* in the determination of HIO with accuracy 88 %/88 %, sensitivity 84 %/89.5 % and specificity 100 %/83 %. MRI correctly classified 20 patients (80 %). All patients with HIO only had decreased T1 and T2* relaxation times. There was a significant difference in T1 between patients with HIO only and patients with HIO and steatohepatitis (P = 0.018). MRI-based T2* relaxation diagnoses HIO very accurately, even at low iron concentrations. Important additional information may be obtained by the combination of T1 and T2* mapping. It is a rapid, non-invasive, accurate and reproducible technique for validating the evidence of even low hepatic iron concentrations. • Hepatic iron overload causes fibrosis, cirrhosis and increases hepatocellular carcinoma risk. • MRI detects iron because of the field heterogeneity generated by haemosiderin. • T2* relaxation is very accurate in diagnosing hepatic iron overload. • Additional information may be obtained by T1 and T2* mapping.

  4. Multimedia and Textual Reading Comprehension: Multimedia as Personal Learning Environment’s Enriching Format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Daniel García Martínez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will discuss part of a piece of research that was conducted with two 4ESO groups. Textual learning is opposed to multimedia learning within the context of PLE’s (Personal Learning Environment reading tools and strategies. In the research an analysis was made of whether it would be possible to improve the reading process through multimedia over a school term in two different aspects; one evolutionary with six classroom exercises and one evaluation with a final exercise. Concretely, this article states the number of question mistakes that the students made. The data indicates that there is a better evolution in students that performed the multimedia dynamic, although there are not any relevant differences in the final evaluation.

  5. Contributions of the textual analysis of speeches for the teaching in the virtual enviroments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Cristina Marquesi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at discussing theoretical aspects of Textual Analysis of Speeches which guide an autonomous learning methodology for university students. Having as a theoretical ground, mainly, the studies developed by Adam (2008, a thematic unit of theoretical content in the area of Exact Sciences will be discussed. Within this unit, explicative and descriptive sequences are constructed in such a way to promote the interaction between the text, presented in a virtual environment, and the student. Consequently, the new content of learning is facilitated. For doing so, activities – presented totally at distance - prepared for engineering students of a Brazilian university will be brought to discussion. The methodology establishes a dialogue between an issue that is central in dealing with learning in virtual environments – the interaction through language – and the role the student has to assume in these environments: a reader/ author who makes meaning and transfers knowledge.

  6. Itinerarios textuales del "Quijote" en América (siglos XVII a XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Marìa Valero Juan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting with a brief description of the journey taken by the first editions of the Quixote which were sent to America, this article aims to review the textual biography of don Quixote in America between the 17th and 19th centuries. This selective review starts with the accounts of popular festivities that give evidence of the first appearances of don Quixote and Sancho in the texts. The selection of texts goes from 1607 to the Spanish Emancipation century, paying particular attention to its final years, with the analysis of some of the texts that Ruben Dario devoted to the Quixote, and of the rise of Don Quixote as a Spanish American symbol of identity.

  7. Write like a visual artist: Tracing the textually mediated art world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Klostermann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the social organisation of Canada’s art world from the standpoint of practising visual artists. Bringing together theories of literacy and institutional ethnography, the article investigates the literacy practices of visual artists, making visible how artists use written texts to participate in public galleries and in the social and institutional relations of the art world. Drawing on extended ethnographic research, including interviews, observational field notes and textual analyses, this study sheds light on the ways visual artists enact particular texts, enact organisational processes, and to enact the social and conceptual worlds they are a part of. Through the lens of visual artists, this study locates two particular texts – the artist statement and the bio statement – in the extended social and institutional relations of the art world.

  8. Intertextualidade e produção textual: análise das narrativas do CELLIJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Mara da Silva de Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The textual construction already stated Bakhtin (2006 is permeated with intertextuality, ie a text takes from other texts, from this perspective, this study examines the intertextuality and the representation of narrative structure presented by students who participated in the workshops creative production of texts after storytime at the Centre for Studies in Reading and Children's and Youth Literature Betty Maria Coelho Silva (CELLIJ at UNESP campus of Presidente Prudente - SP. This paper presents a reflection on the importance of offering new narratives, whether through storytelling or reading literary texts, to build the child repertoire. From the reading of the corpus nine selected texts, we observed a strong influence of the heroes of commercial films and television series in child production, as well as a tendency writing conditional structure of fairy tales.

  9. Harm reduction in U.S. tobacco control: Constructions in textual news media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversman, Michael H

    2015-06-01

    U.S. tobacco control has long emphasized abstinence, yet quitting smoking is hard and cessation rates low. Tobacco harm reduction alternatives espouse substituting cigarettes with safer nicotine and tobacco products. Policy shifts embracing tobacco harm reduction have increased media attention, yet it remains controversial. Discourse theory posits language as fluid, and socially constructed meaning as neither absolute nor neutral, elevating certain views over others while depicting "discursive struggle" between them. While an abstinence-based framework dominates tobacco policy, discourse theory suggests constructions of nicotine and tobacco use can change, for example by positioning tobacco harm reduction more favorably. Textual discourse analysis was used to explore constructions of tobacco harm reduction in 478 (308 original) U.S. textual news media articles spanning 1996-2014. Using keyword database sampling, retrieved articles were analyzed first as discrete recording units and then to identify emergent thematic content. Constructions of tobacco harm reduction shifted over this time, revealing tension among industry and policy interests through competing definitions of tobacco harm reduction, depictions of its underlying science, and accounts of regulatory matters including tobacco industry support for harm reduction and desired marketing and taxation legislation. Heightened salience surrounding tobacco harm reduction and electronic cigarettes suggests their greater acceptance in U.S. tobacco control. Various media depictions construct harm reduction as a temporary means to cessation, and conflict with other constructions of it that place no subjective value on continued "safer" tobacco/nicotine use. Constructions of science largely obscure claims of the veracity of tobacco harm reduction, with conflict surrounding appropriate public health benchmarks for tobacco policy and health risks of nicotine use. Taxation policies and e-cigarette pricing relative to

  10. Machine learning approaches to analysing textual injury surveillance data: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallmuur, Kirsten

    2015-06-01

    To synthesise recent research on the use of machine learning approaches to mining textual injury surveillance data. Systematic review. The electronic databases which were searched included PubMed, Cinahl, Medline, Google Scholar, and Proquest. The bibliography of all relevant articles was examined and associated articles were identified using a snowballing technique. For inclusion, articles were required to meet the following criteria: (a) used a health-related database, (b) focused on injury-related cases, AND used machine learning approaches to analyse textual data. The papers identified through the search were screened resulting in 16 papers selected for review. Articles were reviewed to describe the databases and methodology used, the strength and limitations of different techniques, and quality assurance approaches used. Due to heterogeneity between studies meta-analysis was not performed. Occupational injuries were the focus of half of the machine learning studies and the most common methods described were Bayesian probability or Bayesian network based methods to either predict injury categories or extract common injury scenarios. Models were evaluated through either comparison with gold standard data or content expert evaluation or statistical measures of quality. Machine learning was found to provide high precision and accuracy when predicting a small number of categories, was valuable for visualisation of injury patterns and prediction of future outcomes. However, difficulties related to generalizability, source data quality, complexity of models and integration of content and technical knowledge were discussed. The use of narrative text for injury surveillance has grown in popularity, complexity and quality over recent years. With advances in data mining techniques, increased capacity for analysis of large databases, and involvement of computer scientists in the injury prevention field, along with more comprehensive use and description of quality

  11. Textual Self-branding: the Rhetorical Ethos in Mallarmé’s Divagations

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    Arild Michel Bakken

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines, from a rhetorical perspective, the textual presence of the auctorial figure in Mallarmé’s collection of prose writings, Divagations. It challenges the traditional and structuralist idea of Mallarmé as a poet eager to exclude his own persona from his work, and even as the initiator of the “death of the author.” Recent Mallarméan studies have been shifting the field’s attention away from the myth of the ivory tower to focus on the poet’s social project as it appears in the Divagations. Such a project presupposes a rhetorical commitment, and thus an auctorial presence in the text. The question that is raised here is then what role the figure of the poet plays in Mallarmé’s rhetorical strategy. A close rhetorical analysis of the Divagations reveals that the poet constantly, although discreetly, writes his own persona into the text. Throughout the Divagations, Mallarmé deploys much effort to give his persona qualities likely to win the support of his audience. It is argued that this manifest ethos preoccupation has a double function. The rhetorically efficient image of the poet is obviously intended to add authority to his social project. However, the poet’s constant cultivation of his textual figure shows that the ethos has gained a certain autonomy. An important preoccupation for the poet is in fact to brand himself as an author: contrary to the traditional idea of the absent poet, the auctorial figure seems to be one of the primary subjects of the Divagations. The argument thus invites us, in order to avoid overlooking this central aspect of Mallarmé’s project, to take the ethos perspective into account in any approach to Mallarmé’s prose work.

  12. Liver iron overloading in captive muriquis (Brachyteles spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Stéfanie V; Strefezzi, Ricardo De F; Pissinatti, Alcides; Catão-Dias, José L

    2011-04-01

    Iron accumulation was investigated qualitatively and quantitatively in the liver of 15 captive Brachyteles spp. Hepatic hemosiderosis index (HHI) was determined as the area percentage of the liver parenchyma occupied by hemosiderin and ferritin deposits, through computerized histomorphometric analysis of Prussian blue-stained histologic sections. All studied animals presented liver hemosiderosis, and HHI ranged from 0.2% to 41.7%. There were no significant differences in HHI between muriqui species or genders, and no correlations were detected among HHI and age, time in captivity or body mass. Iron deposits were accompanied by other hepatic disorders. This is the first study addressing the occurrence and consequences of iron overloading in the liver of muriquis. We propose that hemosiderosis may act as a contribute factor for the development of hepatic injuries. Further studies are advised to clarify the role of diet in the pathogenesis of hemosiderosis in these atelids. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Iron overload in the liver diagnostic and quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alustiza, Jose M.; Castiella, Agustin; Juan, Maria D. de; Emparanza, Jose I.; Artetxe, Jose; Uranga, Maite

    2007-01-01

    Hereditary Hemochromatosis is the most frequent modality of iron overload. Since 1996 genetic tests have facilitated significantly the non-invasive diagnosis of the disease. There are however many cases of negative genetic tests that require confirmation by hepatic iron quantification which is traditionally performed by hepatic biopsy. There are many studies that have demonstrated the possibility of performing hepatic iron quantification with Magnetic Resonance. However, a consensus has not been reached yet regarding the technique or the possibility to reproduce the same method of calculus in different machines. This article reviews the state of the art of the question and delineates possible future lines to standardise this non-invasive method of hepatic iron quantification

  14. Iron overload in the liver diagnostic and quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alustiza, Jose M. [Osatek SA, P Dr. Beguiristain 109, 20014, San Sebastian, Guipuzcoa (Spain)]. E-mail: jmalustiza@osatek.es; Castiella, Agustin [Osatek SA, P Dr. Beguiristain 109, 20014, San Sebastian, Guipuzcoa (Spain); Juan, Maria D. de [Osatek SA, P Dr. Beguiristain 109, 20014, San Sebastian, Guipuzcoa (Spain); Emparanza, Jose I. [Osatek SA, P Dr. Beguiristain 109, 20014, San Sebastian, Guipuzcoa (Spain); Artetxe, Jose [Osatek SA, P Dr. Beguiristain 109, 20014, San Sebastian, Guipuzcoa (Spain); Uranga, Maite [Osatek SA, P Dr. Beguiristain 109, 20014, San Sebastian, Guipuzcoa (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    Hereditary Hemochromatosis is the most frequent modality of iron overload. Since 1996 genetic tests have facilitated significantly the non-invasive diagnosis of the disease. There are however many cases of negative genetic tests that require confirmation by hepatic iron quantification which is traditionally performed by hepatic biopsy. There are many studies that have demonstrated the possibility of performing hepatic iron quantification with Magnetic Resonance. However, a consensus has not been reached yet regarding the technique or the possibility to reproduce the same method of calculus in different machines. This article reviews the state of the art of the question and delineates possible future lines to standardise this non-invasive method of hepatic iron quantification.

  15. Operator overloading as an enabling technology for automatic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corliss, G.F.; Griewank, A.

    1993-01-01

    We present an example of the science that is enabled by object-oriented programming techniques. Scientific computation often needs derivatives for solving nonlinear systems such as those arising in many PDE algorithms, optimization, parameter identification, stiff ordinary differential equations, or sensitivity analysis. Automatic differentiation computes derivatives accurately and efficiently by applying the chain rule to each arithmetic operation or elementary function. Operator overloading enables the techniques of either the forward or the reverse mode of automatic differentiation to be applied to real-world scientific problems. We illustrate automatic differentiation with an example drawn from a model of unsaturated flow in a porous medium. The problem arises from planning for the long-term storage of radioactive waste

  16. Assessing Online Textual Feedback to Support Student Intrinsic Motivation Using a Collaborative Text-Based Dialogue System: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Ronnie H.; Deneen, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses textual feedback to support student intrinsic motivation using a collaborative text-based dialogue system. A research model is presented based on research into intrinsic motivation, and the specific construct of feedback provides a framework for the model. A qualitative research methodology is used to validate the model.…

  17. Translation Competence and Translation Performance: Lexical, Syntactic and Textual Patterns in Student Translations of a Specialized EU Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, Adrienn

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study aiming to reveal the recurring patterns of lexical, syntactic and textual errors in student translations of a specialized EU genre from English into Hungarian. By comparing the student translations to the official translation of the text, this article uncovers the most frequent errors that students made…

  18. Texture, Textuality and Political Discourse: A Study of Lexical Cohesion in Nigeria's President Goodluck Jonathan's Inaugural Address, May, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enyi, Amaechi Uneke; Chitulu, Mark Ononiwu

    2015-01-01

    This study, entitled, "Texture and textuality in Political Discourse: A Study of Cohesive Devices in President Goodluck Jonathan's Inaugural Address-May, 2011" was an analysis of the lexical cohesive devices employed by Nigeria's President Goodluck Jonathan in crafting his May, 2011's Presidential Inaugural Address (PIA). Guided by the…

  19. How strong is your coffee? : The influence of visual metaphors and textual claims on consumers' flavor perception and product evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; de Vries, Roxan; van Rompay, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the relative impact of textual claims and visual metaphors displayed on the product's package on consumers' flavor experience and product evaluation. For consumers, strength is one of the most important sensory attributes of coffee. The 2 × 3 between-subjects experiment (N =

  20. Journeys toward Textual Relevance: Male Readers of Color and the Significance of Malcolm X and Harry Potter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciurba, Katie

    2017-01-01

    This article combines interview data from a group of boys of color at an urban single-sex school and content analysis of "The Autobiography of Malcolm X" and "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone" to demonstrate the complexities of readers' responses to literature. Textual relevance, or the ability to construct personal…

  1. A Cross Cultural Analysis of Textual and Interpersonal Metadiscourse Markers: The Case of Economic Articles in English and Persian Newspapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshrabadi, Abbas Mehrabi; Biria, Reza; Zavari, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    This study was an attempt to investigate the functional role of textual and interpersonal metadiscourse markers in English and Persian Economic news reports. To this end, 10 news articles, 5 in each language, were randomly selected from the Economic sections of the leading newspapers published in 2013-2014 in Iran and the United States. Based on…

  2. The Generator of the Event Structure Lexicon (GESL): Automatic Annotation of Event Structure for Textual Inference Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Seohyun

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation aims to develop the Generator of the Event Structure Lexicon (GESL) which is a tool to automate annotating the event structure of verbs in text to support textual inference tasks related to lexically entailed subevents. The output of the GESL is the Event Structure Lexicon (ESL), which is a lexicon of verbs in text which includes…

  3. The Impact of Textual Input Enhancement and Explicit Rule Presentation on Iranian Elementary EFL Learners' Intake of Simple Past Tense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahavandi, Naemeh; Mukundan, Jayakaran

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of textual input enhancement and explicit rule presentation on 93 Iranian EFL learners' intake of simple past tense. Three intact general English classes in Tabriz Azad University were randomly assigned to: 1) a control group; 2) a TIE group; and 3) a TIE plus explicit rule presentation group. All…

  4. Textual Enhancement and Simplified Input: Effects on L2 Comprehension and Acquisition of Non-Meaningful Grammatical Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wynne

    2003-01-01

    The study set out to investigate how textual enhancement (TE) as a form of input enhancement and increasing the comprehensibility of input via simplified input (SI) might impact adult L2 French learners' acquisition of the past participle agreement in relative clauses and their comprehension of three texts in which the target forms were embedded.…

  5. Effects of Lexical Features, Textual Properties, and Individual Differences on Word Processing Times during Second Language Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkyung; Crossley, Scott A.; Skalicky, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    This study examines whether lexical features and textual properties along with individual differences on the part of readers influence word processing times during second language (L2) reading comprehension. Forty-eight Spanish-speaking adolescent and adult learners of English read nine English passages in a self-paced word-by-word reading…

  6. Conexões entre produção textual e consciência lingüística

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroka, Jaqueline Golbspan

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina a conexão entre consciência lingüística e produção textual, enfatizando os mecanismos coesivos e as etapas subjacentes ao processo de organização textual. Trata-se de uma investigação interdisciplinar a tipo exploratório, baseada nos pressupostos teóricos da psicologia cognitiva, da psicolingüística e da lingüística textual. Com o objetivo de verificar se o desempenho na produção textual - em termos de uso dos mecanismos coesivos - relaciona-se positivamente com o desenvolvimento da consciência lingüística, e se escritores com déficit na escrita redacional poderiam se beneficiar com uma abordagem terapêutica que estimule suas habilidades para refletir sobre a libguagem, foi desenvolvida nesta pesquisa uma etapa de 30 sessões de tratamento psicopedagógico grupal. Três sujeitos pré-adolescentes, de 11 a 14 anos de idade, integram o grupo (um dos sujeitos encontrava-se repetindo a 5ª série e os demais cursavam a 6ª série do 1º grau. Concluímos que a estimulação das habilidades metalingüísticas podem auxiliar os sujeitos com dificuldades escolares e desenvolver proficiência na produção textual, no que diz respeito ao monitoramento do uso dos mecanismos coesivos

  7. Study of overload effects in bainitic steel by synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lopez-Crespo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an in-situ characterisation of crack-tip strain fields following an overload by means of synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The study is made on very fine grained bainitic steel, thus allowing a very high resolution so that small changes occurring around the crack-tip were captured along the crack plane at the mid-thickness of the specimen. We have followed the crack as it grew through the overload location. Once the crack-tip has progressed past the overload event there is strong evidence that the crack faces contact in the region of the overload event (though not in the immediate vicinity of the current locations of the crack tip at Kmin even when the crack has travelled 1mm beyond the overload location. It was also found that at Kmax the peak tensile strain ahead of the crack-tip decreases soon after the overload is applied and then gradually recovers as the crack grows past the compressive region created by the overload.

  8. The role of adenosine in preconditioning by brief pressure overload in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Hsiung; Tsai, Shen-Kou; Chiang, Shu-Chiung; Lai, Chang-Chi; Weng, Zen-Chung

    2015-08-01

    Brief pressure overload of the left ventricle reduced myocardial infarct (MI) size in rabbits has been previously reported. Its effects in other species are not known. This study investigates effects of pressure overload and the role of adenosine in rats in this study. MI was induced by 40-minute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery followed by 3-hour reperfusion. MI size was determined by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining. Brief pressure overload was induced by two 10-minute episodes of partial snaring of the ascending aorta. Systolic left ventricular pressure was raised 50% above the baseline value. Ischemic preconditioning was elicited by two 10-minute coronary artery occlusions. The MI size (mean ± standard deviation), expressed as percentage of area at risk, was significantly reduced in the pressure overload group as well as in the ischemic preconditioning group (17.4 ± 3.0% and 18.2 ± 1.5% vs. 26.6 ± 2.4% in the control group, p overload and ischemic preconditioning (18.3 ± 1.5% and 18.2 ± 2.0%, respectively, p overload of the left ventricle preconditioned rat myocardium against infarction. Because SPT did not significantly alter MI size reduction, our results did not support a role of adenosine in preconditioning by pressure overload in rats. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Changes in cardiac output and incidence of volume overload in cirrhotics receiving 20% albumin infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shasthry, Saggere M; Kumar, Manoj; Khumuckham, Jelen S; Sarin, Shiv Kumar

    2017-08-01

    Patients with cirrhosis are prone to develop volume over load, have increased capillary permeability and latent or overt cardiomyopathy. Whether albumin infusion causes volume overload in cirrhotics has not been adequately studied. Ninety nine consecutive cirrhotic patients receiving 1gm per kg albumin infusion were evaluated for development of volume overload. Clinical, echocardiographic and haemodynamic changes were closely monitored during and after albumin infusion. Thirty (30.30%) patients developed volume overload. Patients with higher BMI (P=.003), lower CTP (P=.01) and MELD (P=.034) were more often associated with the development of volume overload. Though baseline diastolic dysfunction was present in 82.8% of the patients, it did not influence the development of volume overload or changes in the cardiac output. The cardiac output increased significantly after albumin infusion (4.9±1.554 L/min to 5.86±1.85 L/min, Palbumin infusion develop volume overload, specially, those with higher BMI and lower severity of liver disease. Cardiac output increases after albumin infusion, and, baseline diastolic dysfunction has little effect on the development of volume overload or changes in cardiac output. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. PENGARUH WORK OVERLOAD DAN WORK FAMILY CONFLICT TERHADAP TURNOVER INTENTION YANG DIMEDIASI OLEH WORK EXHAUSTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hidayatin Nisa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine factors that determine turnover intention in medical representative at PT. APL. To be known before that medical representatives have high percentage in turnover. The research using work exhaustion as mediation to determine the relationship between works overload and work family conflict of turnover intention. Research method is quantitative approach in causal research. The analysis tools are AMOS and T-Sobel. Findings of this research are both work overload and work family conflict berpengaruh with work exhaustion and turnover intention, work exhaustion mediated work overload and work family conflict over turnover intention.

  11. Trust in management as a buffer of the relationships between overload and strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Steve; Kelloway, E Kevin; Duncan-Leiper, Leslie

    2003-10-01

    This study examined the role of trust in management as a moderating factor in work overload's impact on personal strain (i.e., burnout, psychological strain, and work's interference with family). Participants were 94 employees of an accounting firm responding to a survey. The results were supportive of all study propositions. Both work overload and trust in management had the expected negative and positive main effects on the outcomes variables, respectively. The impact of work overload on the outcome variables was moderated by employees' trust in management. The significance of these results and areas of future research are discussed. 2003 APA

  12. Effect of overload on SCC growth in stainless steels in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, He; Peng, Qunjia; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2009-01-01

    By incorporating the film slip-dissolution/oxidation model and the elastic-plastic finite element method (EPFEM), the effect of the overload on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) growth rate of stainless steel in high temperature water is discussed in this paper. Results show that SCC growth rate of a 20% cold worked 316L stainless steel in high temperature water decrease in the overload affected zone ahead of the growing crack tip. Therefore, a reasonable overload could availably reduce the SCC growth rate during a certain in-service period. (author)

  13. Interpretive analysis of the textual codes in the Parrot and Merchant story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Najafi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Narratology is a brunch of semiology which considers any kind of narrative, literary or non literary, verbal or visual, story or non story and after this specifies the plot. One of the most important subjects in narratology is the interpretation of textual cods which based on can be understood a lot of hidden meanings. Molavi expresses a lot of mystic points in Mathnavi in narrative form which some of his ideas can be realized in the first study but these ideas aren’t all of subjects which he wants to say and a complex of different meaning is hidden in any narrative which can be revealed by consideration of cods.     In terminology of semiology, code is a special situation in historical process of all of indexes and signs which specified for synchronized analyze. In review of literary texts textual cods are more important. Textual cods are the cods which their ambit is more extended than few special text and links these texts to each other in an interpretational form. Aesthetic cods are a group of textual cods which are used in different arts like: poem, painting, theater, music and so on.       The style of expression of aesthetic cods is the same style of art and literature. In the review of Mathnavi's narratives paying attention to narrative cods and using them can be considered as paralinguistic signs. Narrative cods contain interpretational form which used by authors and commentators of texts. In the story of parrot and merchant the textual cods are as follows:   - Parrot: in this story parrot is a symbolic code which shows all of human soul's features.   - Merchant: in this story merchant act as a cultural code which indicates rich who always are solicitous about their finance and are unaware of spiritual world.    - India: in this story India as a signifier code indicates spiritual world. Hermeneutic cods   Molana uses codes which act as turning point and addressed can understand hidden meanings which haven

  14. Suggestions toward some discourse-analytic approaches to text difficulty: with special reference to ‘T-unit configuration’ in the textual unfolding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Lotfipour-Saedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents some suggestions towards discourse-analytic approaches for ESL/EFL education, with the focus on identifying the textual forms which can contribute to the textual difficulty. Textual difficulty / comprehensibility, rather than being purely text-based or reader-dependent, is certainly a matter of interaction between text and reader. The paper will look at some of the textual factors which can be argued to make a text more or less readable for the same reader. The main focus here will be on academic texts. The high cognitive load and low readability of the expository texts in various academic disciplines will be argued to belong to certain textual strategies as well as variations in the configurations of the T-units as the prime scaffolding for the textualization process. Different categories of these variations to be discussed here will be exemplified from a few academic and expository registers. More extensive textual analyses will, of course, be necessary in order to be able to make evidential suggestions for possible correlations between certain types and clusters of T-unit configurations on the one hand, and cognitive load and readability indices on the other, across various academic registers, genres and disciplines.

  15. Quantitative assessment of iron load in myocardial overload rabbit model: preliminary study of MRI T2* map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Lu; Han Rui; Li Zhiwei; Yuan Sishu; Xia Liming

    2014-01-01

    feasible for MRI-T 2 * map to evaluate the myocardial iron load noninvasively. It may provide reliable information for detecting myocardial iron overload in patients with iron overload at an early stage. (authors)

  16. Text in context: a textual-linguistic approach to Amos 4: 7-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Barco del Barco, Francisco Javier

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This article will study Amos 4:7-8 from a textlinguistic approach: the form of this section will be analyzed within the structure of the chapter in which it is inserted. Such an analysis is needed because the set of verb forms used seems to be different from the rest of verb forms used in the chapter. While the whole chapter tends to be structured as a brief chain of narrative passages with wayyiqtol, the structure of Amos 4:7-8 seems to be a predictive section -developed through weqatal- inserted or pasted in the middle of the chapter. Translations usually do not note the difference between the set of verb forms used. A textlinguistic analysis of Amos 4:7-8 will show that the kind of discourse used here is different from the one used in the rest of the chapter, and, therefore, this difference should be reflected in the translation. The specific function of some discourse types is also discussed.

    En este artículo se presenta un análisis de Amos 4:7-8 a partir de los presupuestos de la lingüística textual. La forma del texto se analizará tomando en cuenta la estructura del capítulo en el que se halla inserto. Este análisis resulta necesario porque el grupo de formas verbales utilizado en la sección propuesta no parece ser el mismo que el del resto del capítulo. Mientras el capítulo en su conjunto es un discurso narrativo estructurado en torno a wayyiqtol, Amos 4:7-8 parece responder al esquema del discurso predictivo desarrollado a partir de weqatal. Un análisis textual se hace necesario porque las traducciones bíblicas no parecen hacerse eco del cambio en el uso de las formas verbales. Además de este análisis, se trata también de la función específica de algunos tipos de discurso.

  17. Influences of overload on low cycle fatigue behaviors of elbow pipe with local wall thinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kyohei; Ogino, Kanako; Takahashi, Koji; Ando, Kotoji; Urabe, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    Low cycle fatigue tests were conducted using 100A elbow pipe specimens with or without local wall thinning. Local wall thinning was machined on the inside of the extrados of test elbows to simulate metal loss due to flow-accelerated corrosion or liquid droplet impingement erosion. Low cycle fatigue tests were carried out under displacement control with an inner pressure of 9 MPa. To simulate seismic events, low cycle fatigue tests were carried out on elbow pipe subjected to cyclic overloads. Regardless of local wall thinning, fatigue life of overload pipe was not so different from that of the non-overload pipe in appearance. Miner's rule can be applied to evaluate fatigue life of the elbow pipes with and without wall thinning, even if overload is applied. (author)

  18. Iron overload in a teenager with xerocytosis: the importance of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, Reijâne Alves de; Kassab, Carolina; Seguro, Fernanda Salles; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; Silveira, Paulo Augusto Achucarro; Wood, John; Hamerschlak, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    To report a case of iron overload secondary to xerocytosis, a rare disease in a teenager, diagnosed, by T2* magnetic resonance imaging. We report the case of a symptomatic patient with xerocytosis, a ferritin level of 350ng/mL and a significant cardiac iron overload. She was diagnosed by T2* magnetic resonance imaging and received chelation therapy Ektacytometric analysis confirmed the diagnosis of hereditary xerocytosis. Subsequent T2* magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated complete resolution of the iron overload in various organs, as a new echocardiography revealed a complete resolution of previous cardiac alterations. The patient remains in chelation therapy. Xerocytosis is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by dehydrated stomatocytosis. The patient may present with intense fatigue and iron overload. We suggest the regular use of T2* magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis and control of the response to iron chelation in xerocytosis, and we believe it can be used also in other hemolytic anemia requiring transfusions

  19. Crack growth retardation due to micro-roughness: a mechanism for overload effects in fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh, S.

    1982-01-01

    A new mechanism for fatigue crack growth retardation following an overload is presented in this paper, based on a micro-roughness model. It is reasoned, with the aid of extensive experimental evidence available in the literature, that retardation following an overload is governed by the micromechanisms of near-threshold crack growth. This model is found to rationalize a number of hitherto unexplained experimental observations. Moreover, the present arguments, which suggest that plasticity-induced crack closure is not likely to be the primary mechanism for retardation following single overloads, do not exclude the role of residual stresses or blunting, but provide further mechanistic basis to account for the inconsistencies in the previous models. Additional sources of prolonged retardation, in terms of crack closure due to corrosion debris formed in moist environments, are suggested. It is pointed out that such environmental effects could play an important role in post-overload crack growth in certain alloy systems

  20. Work Overload and Turnover Intention of Junior Auditors in Greater Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andika Pradana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze how work overload influences turnover intentions of newly hired junior auditors in public accounting offices. Job satisfaction, work related stress and work life conflicts are used as mediating variables between work overload and turnover intention. This study employed 141 auditors from several accounting firms operating in the Greater Jakarta region. The sample was selected using purposive sampling. Three mediation hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The results show that work overload has a significant effect on increasing turnover intention through both job satisfaction and work related stress. In comparison, work overload does not influence turnover intention through work life balance. This may be due to the nature of the respondents, in which a majority of the newly hired accountants employed in this study are unmarried.

  1. WORK OVERLOAD AND TURNOVER INTENTION OF JUNIOR AUDITORS IN GREATER JAKARTA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andika Pradana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze how work overload influences turnover intentions of newly hired junior auditors in public accounting offices. Job satisfaction, work related stress and work life conflicts are used as mediating variables between work overload and turnover intention. This study employed 141 auditors from several accounting firms operating in the Greater Jakarta region. The sample was selected using purposive sampling. Three mediation hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The results show that work overload has a significant effect on increas- ing turnover intention through both job satisfaction and work related stress. In comparison, work overload does not influence turnover intention through work life balance. This may be due to the nature of the respondents, in which a majority of the newly hired accountants employed in this study are unmarried.

  2. Iron overload in a teenager with xerocytosis: the importance of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, Reijâne Alves de; Kassab, Carolina; Seguro, Fernanda Salles [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Costa, Fernando Ferreira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Silveira, Paulo Augusto Achucarro [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Wood, John [University of Southern California, California (United States); Hamerschlak, Nelson [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    To report a case of iron overload secondary to xerocytosis, a rare disease in a teenager, diagnosed, by T2* magnetic resonance imaging. We report the case of a symptomatic patient with xerocytosis, a ferritin level of 350ng/mL and a significant cardiac iron overload. She was diagnosed by T2* magnetic resonance imaging and received chelation therapy Ektacytometric analysis confirmed the diagnosis of hereditary xerocytosis. Subsequent T2* magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated complete resolution of the iron overload in various organs, as a new echocardiography revealed a complete resolution of previous cardiac alterations. The patient remains in chelation therapy. Xerocytosis is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by dehydrated stomatocytosis. The patient may present with intense fatigue and iron overload. We suggest the regular use of T2* magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis and control of the response to iron chelation in xerocytosis, and we believe it can be used also in other hemolytic anemia requiring transfusions.

  3. Iron overload in a teenager with xerocytosis: the importance of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Reijâne Alves de; Kassab, Carolina; Seguro, Fernanda Salles; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; Silveira, Paulo Augusto Achucarro; Wood, John; Hamerschlak, Nelson

    2013-12-01

    To report a case of iron overload secondary to xerocytosis, a rare disease in a teenager, diagnosed, by T2* magnetic resonance imaging. We report the case of a symptomatic patient with xerocytosis, a ferritin level of 350ng/mL and a significant cardiac iron overload. She was diagnosed by T2* magnetic resonance imaging and received chelation therapy Ektacytometric analysis confirmed the diagnosis of hereditary xerocytosis. Subsequent T2* magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated complete resolution of the iron overload in various organs, as a new echocardiography revealed a complete resolution of previous cardiac alterations. The patient remains in chelation therapy. Xerocytosis is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by dehydrated stomatocytosis. The patient may present with intense fatigue and iron overload. We suggest the regular use of T2* magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis and control of the response to iron chelation in xerocytosis, and we believe it can be used also in other hemolytic anemia requiring transfusions.

  4. I just want to be left alone: Daily overload and marital behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Meredith S; Repetti, Rena L; Robles, Theodore F; Reynolds, Bridget M

    2016-08-01

    Stressful, busy days have been linked with increases in angry and withdrawn marital behavior. The process by which stressors in 1 domain, such as work, affect an individual’s behavior in another domain, such as the marital relationship, is known as spillover . Using 56 days of daily diary reports in a diverse sample of 47 wives and 39 husbands, this study examined associations between daily experiences of overload and 3 marital behaviors: overt expressions of anger, disregard of the spouse’s needs (“disregard”), and reductions in affection and disclosure (“distancing”). Two potential mechanisms by which daily overload spills over into marital behavior were examined: negative mood and the desire to avoid social interaction. Among husbands, negative mood mediated the association between overload and angry behavior. Associations between overload and wives’ angry behavior, as well as overload and husbands’ and wives’ disregard of their partners’ needs, were mediated by both negative mood and the desire to withdraw socially. Desire to withdraw, but not negative mood, mediated the association between overload and distancing behavior among husbands and wives. In addition, associations between marital satisfaction and spouses’ typical marital behavior, as well as behavioral responses to overload, were examined. Husbands’ and wives’ average levels of expressed anger and disregard, and husbands’ distancing, were associated with lower marital satisfaction in 1 or both partners. Both spouses reported lower marital satisfaction if husbands tended to express marital anger, disregard, or distancing on busy, overloaded days. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Work Overload and Turnover Intention of Junior Auditors in Greater Jakarta, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Andika Pradana; Imam Salehudin

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze how work overload influences turnover intentions of newly hired junior auditors in public accounting offices. Job satisfaction, work related stress and work life conflicts are used as mediating variables between work overload and turnover intention. This study employed 141 auditors from several accounting firms operating in the Greater Jakarta region. The sample was selected using purposive sampling. Three mediation hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation M...

  6. Influence of subject choice, work overload and work stress on expatriate higher education teachers.

    OpenAIRE

    Naithani, Pranav

    2013-01-01

    Subject choice, work overload and work stress influence personal and professional lives of higher education teachers. Though the majority of higher education teachers in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries are expatriates, yet research on expatriate higher education teachers working in the GCC countries is limited. This paper presents one part of the work life balance survey and focuses on the influence of subject choice, work overload and work stress on higher education teachers in ...

  7. Role overload, pain and physical dysfunction in early rheumatoid or undifferentiated inflammatory arthritis in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Sally; Looper Karl; Zelkowitz Phyllis; Purden Margaret; Baron Murray

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Inflammatory arthritis impairs participation in societal roles. Role overload arises when the demands by a given role set exceed the resources; time and energy, to carry out the required tasks. The present study examines the association between role overload and disease outcomes in early inflammatory arthritis (EIA). Methods Patients (n = 104) of 7.61 months mean duration of inflammatory arthritis completed self-report questionnaires on sociodemographics, disease character...

  8. Dangers of bypassing thermal overload relays in nuclear power plant motor operated valve circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, F.D.

    1980-01-01

    Operation of motor operated valves is analyzed under various abnormal conditions such as frozen bearing, tight packing, mid-travel obstruction, torque switch failure, limit switch failure, and post-accident operation. Each condition has been reviewed to show that an adverse situation results if the thermal overload relays in the circuit are bypassed. In conclusion, there appears to be no technical basis for bypassing or oversizing the thermal overload relay provided it is selected correctly

  9. Overload and neovascularization of shoulder tendons in volleyball players

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In overhead sports like volleyball, the onset of a rotator cuff tendinopathy due to functional overload is a common observation. An angiofibroblastic etiopathogenesis has been hypothesized, whereby a greater anaerobic metabolism occurs in critical zones of the tendon with a lower degree of vascularization; this would induce collagen and extracellular matrix degradation, that could then trigger a compensatory neovascularization response. We performed a clinical observational study of 80 elite volleyball players, monitoring the perfusion values of the supraspinatus tendons by oximetry. Results No statistically significant differences were found between the oximetry data and age, sex or years of sports activity, nor when comparing the right and left arm or the dominant and non-dominant arm. A statistically significant difference was found for the dominant arm values in relation to the competitive role, higher values being obtained in outside hitters (62.7%) than middle hitters (53.7%) (p = 0.01), opposite hitters (55.5%) (p = 0.02) and libero players (54.4%) (p = 0.008), whereas there were no differences in setters (56.2%) (p > 0.05). Conclusions The different tendon vascularization values found in players with different roles in the team may be attributed to a response to the specific biomechanical demands posed by the different overhead throwing roles. PMID:22853746

  10. Overload cascading failure on complex networks with heterogeneous load redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yueyi; Xing, Xiaoyun; Li, Menghui; Zeng, An; Wang, Yougui

    2017-09-01

    Many real systems including the Internet, power-grid and financial networks experience rare but large overload cascading failures triggered by small initial shocks. Many models on complex networks have been developed to investigate this phenomenon. Most of these models are based on the load redistribution process and assume that the load on a failed node shifts to nearby nodes in the networks either evenly or according to the load distribution rule before the cascade. Inspired by the fact that real power-grid tends to place the excess load on the nodes with high remaining capacities, we study a heterogeneous load redistribution mechanism in a simplified sandpile model in this paper. We find that weak heterogeneity in load redistribution can effectively mitigate the cascade while strong heterogeneity in load redistribution may even enlarge the size of the final failure. With a parameter θ to control the degree of the redistribution heterogeneity, we identify a rather robust optimal θ∗ = 1. Finally, we find that θ∗ tends to shift to a larger value if the initial sand distribution is homogeneous.

  11. Overload protection: avoidance response to heavy plantar surface loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, S E; Hanna, A M; Gouw, G J

    1988-02-01

    Current footwear which are designed for use in running are examples of intentional biomechanical model integration into device design. The inadequacy of this footwear in protecting against injury is postulated to be due to fixation on inadequate models of locomotory biomechanics that do not provide for feedback control; in particular, an hypothesized plantar surface sensory-mediated feedback control system, which imparts overload protection during locomotion. A heuristic approach was used to identify the hypothesized system. A random series of loads (0 to 164 kg) was applied to the knee flexed at 90 degrees. In this testing system, plantar surface avoidance behavior was the difference between the sum of the leg weight and the load applied to the knee, and the load measured at the plantar surface; this was produced by activation of hip flexors. Significant avoidance behavior was found in all of the subjects (P less than 0.001). On all surfaces tested, including modern athletic footwear (P less than 0.001), its magnitude increased directly in relation to the load applied to the knee (P less than 0.001). There were significant differences in avoidance behavior in relation to the weight-bearing surfaces tested (P less than 0.05). With the identification of a feedback control system which would serve to moderate loading during locomotion, an explanation is provided as to why current athletic footwear do not protect and may be injurious; thus allowing the design of footwear which may be truly protective.

  12. Performance Analysis of Novel Overload Control with Threshold Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo Il Choi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel overload control method with hysteresis property; that is, we analyze the M/G/1/K queueing system where the service and arrival rates are varied depending on the queue-length. We use two threshold values: L1(≤L2 and L2(≤K. When the queue-length increases by an amount between L1 and L2, we apply one of the following two strategies to reduce the queue-length, either we decrease the mean service time or we decrease the arrival rate. If the queue-length exceeds L2 with one strategy, we apply the other; thus, there are two models that depend on the method that was applied first. We derive the queue-length distribution at departure and at arbitrary epochs using the embedded Markov chain method and the supplementary variable method. We investigate performance measures including the loss probability and mean waiting time using various numerical examples.

  13. In vivo cardiac role of migfilin during experimental pressure overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubner, Bernhard Johannes; Moik, Daniel; Schuetz, Thomas; Reiner, Martin F; Voelkl, Jakob G; Streil, Katrin; Bader, Kerstin; Zhao, Lei; Scheu, Claudia; Mair, Johannes; Pachinger, Otmar; Metzler, Bernhard

    2015-06-01

    Increased myocardial wall strain triggers the cardiac hypertrophic response by increasing cardiomyocyte size, reprogramming gene expression, and enhancing contractile protein synthesis. The LIM protein, migfilin, is a cytoskeleton-associated protein that was found to translocate in vitro into the nucleus in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, where it co-activates the pivotal cardiac transcription factor Csx/Nkx2.5. However, the in vivo role of migfilin in cardiac function and stress response is unclear. To define the role of migfilin in cardiac hypertrophy, we induced hypertension by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and compared cardiac morphology and function of migfilin knockout (KO) with wild-type (WT) hearts. Heart size and myocardial contractility were comparable in untreated migfilin KO and WT hearts, but migfilin-null hearts presented a reduced extent of hypertrophic remodelling in response to chronic hypertensile stress. Migfilin KO mice maintained their cardiac function for a longer time period compared with WT mice, which presented extensive fibrosis and death due to heart failure. Migfilin translocated into the nucleus of TAC-treated cardiomyocytes, and migfilin KO hearts showed reduced Akt activation during the early response to pressure overload. Our findings indicate an important role of migfilin in the regulation of cardiac hypertrophy upon experimental TAC. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Altered carnitine transport in pressure-overload hypertrophied rat hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, B.; Foster, K.; Reibel, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have previously observed reduced carnitine levels in hypertrophied hearts of rats subjected to aortic constriction. In an attempt to determine the mechanism for reduced myocardial carnitine content, carnitine transport was examined in isolated perfused hearts. Hearts were excised from sham-operated and aortic-constricted rats 3 weeks following surgery and perfused at 60 mm Hg aortic pressure with buffer containing various concentrations of L- 14 C-carnitine. Carnitine uptake by control and hypertrophied hearts was linear throughout 30 minutes of perfusion with 40 μM carnitine. Total carnitine uptake was significantly reduced by 25% in hypertrophied hearts at each time point examined. The reduction in uptake by hypertrophied hearts was also evident when hearts were perfused with 100 or 200 μM carnitine. When 0.05 mM mersalyl acid was included in the buffer to inhibit the carrier-mediated component of transport, no difference in carnitine uptake was observed indicating that the transport of carnitine by diffusion was unaltered in the hypertrophied myocardium. Carrier-mediated carnitine uptake (total uptake - uptake by diffusion) was significantly reduced by approximately 40% in hypertrophied hearts at all concentrations examined. Thus, the reduction in carnitine content in the pressure-overload hypertrophied rat heart appears to be due to a reduction in carrier-mediated carnitine uptake by the heart

  15. Adaptive Visualization for Focused Personalized Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae-wook

    2010-01-01

    The new trend on the Web has totally changed today's information access environment. The traditional information overload problem has evolved into the qualitative level beyond the quantitative growth. The mode of producing and consuming information is changing and we need a new paradigm for accessing information. Personalized search is one of…

  16. Fetal development and renal function in adult rats prenatally subjected to sodium overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Henriqueta D; Cabral, Edjair V; Vieira-Filho, Leucio D; Vieyra, Adalberto; Paixão, Ana D O

    2009-10-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate two factors that affect fetal development--placental oxidative stress (Ox) and plasma volume (PV)--in dams with sodium overload and (2) to correlate possible alterations in these factors with subsequent modifications in the renal function of adult offspring. Wistar dams were maintained on 0.17 M NaCl instead of water from 20 days before mating until either the twentieth pregnancy day/parturition or weaning. Colorimetric methods were used to measure Ox in maternal and offspring tissues, PV, 24-h urinary protein (U(Prot24 h)) and serum triacylglycerols (TG) and cholesterol (Chol). Renal hemodynamics was evaluated in the offspring at 90 days of age using a blood pressure transducer, a flow probe and inulin clearance to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), respectively. The number of nephrons (NN) was counted in kidney suspensions. Dams showed unchanged PV, placental Ox and fetal weight but increased U(Prot24 h) (150%, P sodium-overloaded pups showed increased U(Prot24 h) (45%, P sodium-overloaded rats showed increased U(Prot24 h) (27%, P sodium-overloaded group. We conclude that salt overload from the prenatal stage until weaning leads to alterations in lipid metabolism and in the renal function of the pups, which are additional to those alterations seen in rats only overloaded prenatally.

  17. Interactions of Aging, Overload, and Creatine Supplementation in Rat Plantaris Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Schuenke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuation of age-related sarcopenia by creatine supplementation has been equivocal. In this study, plantaris muscles of young (Y; 5m and aging (A; 24m Fisher 344 rats underwent four weeks of either control (C, creatine supplementation (Cr, surgical overload (O, or overload plus creatine (OCr. Creatine alone had no effect on muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA or heat shock protein (HSP70 and increased myonuclear domain (MND only in young rats. Overload increased CSA and HSP70 content in I and IIA fibers, regardless of age, and MND in IIA fibers of YO rats. CSA and MND increased in all fast fibers of YOCr, and CSA increased in I and IIA fibers of AOCr. OCR did not alter HSP70, regardless of age. MND did not change in aging rats, regardless of treatment. These data indicate creatine alone had no significant effect. Creatine with overload produced no additional hypertrophy relative to overload alone and attenuated overload-induced HSP70 expression.

  18. When more is less: An examination of the relationship between hours in telework and role overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duxbury, Linda; Halinski, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Proponents of telework arrangements assert that those who telework have more control over their work and family domains than their counterparts who are not permitted to work from home. Using Karasek's theory we hypothesized that the relationship between demands (hours in work per week; hours in childcare per week) and strain (work role overload; family role overload) would be moderated by the number of hours the employee spent per week teleworking (control). To determine how the number of telework hours relates to work role overload and family role overload, we follow the test for moderation and mediation using hierarchical multiple regression analysis as outlined by Frazier et al. [50] We used survey data collected from 1,806 male and female professional employees who spent at least one hour per week working from home during regular hours (i.e. teleworking). As hypothesized, the number of hours in telework per week negatively moderated the relation between work demands (total hours in paid employment per week) and work strain (work role overload). Contrary to our hypothesis, the number of hours in telework per week only partially mediated the relation between family demands (hours a week in childcare) and family role overload (strain). The findings from this study support the idea that the control offered by telework is domain specific (helps employees meet demands at work but not at home).

  19. Influence of overloads on dwell time fatigue crack growth in Inconel 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarimäki, Jonas, E-mail: jonas.saarimaki@liu.se [Division of Engineering Materials, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Moverare, Johan [Division of Engineering Materials, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Materials Technology, SE-61283 Finspång (Sweden); Eriksson, Robert; Johansson, Sten [Division of Engineering Materials, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden)

    2014-08-26

    Inconel 718 is one of the most commonly used superalloys for high temperature applications in gasturbines and aeroengines and is for example used for components such as turbine discs. Turbine discs can be subjected to temperatures up to ∼700 °C towards the outer radius of the disc. During service, the discs might start to develop cracks due to fatigue and long dwell times. Additionally, temperature variations during use can lead to large thermal transients during start-up and shutdown which can lead to overload peaks in the normal dwell time cycle. In this study, tests at 550 °C with an overload prior to the start of each dwell time, have been performed. The aim of the investigation was to get a better understanding of the effects of overloads on the microstructure and crack mechanisms. The microstructure was studied using electron channelling contrast imaging (ECCI). The image analysis toolbox in Matlab was used on cross sections of the cracks to quantify: crack length, branch length, and the number of branches in each crack. It was found that the amount of crack branching increases with an increasing overload and that the branch length decreases with an increasing overload. When the higher overloads were applied, the dwell time effect was almost cancelled out. There is a strong tendency for an increased roughness of the crack path with an increasing crack growth rate.

  20. Influence of overloads on dwell time fatigue crack growth in Inconel 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarimäki, Jonas; Moverare, Johan; Eriksson, Robert; Johansson, Sten

    2014-01-01

    Inconel 718 is one of the most commonly used superalloys for high temperature applications in gasturbines and aeroengines and is for example used for components such as turbine discs. Turbine discs can be subjected to temperatures up to ∼700 °C towards the outer radius of the disc. During service, the discs might start to develop cracks due to fatigue and long dwell times. Additionally, temperature variations during use can lead to large thermal transients during start-up and shutdown which can lead to overload peaks in the normal dwell time cycle. In this study, tests at 550 °C with an overload prior to the start of each dwell time, have been performed. The aim of the investigation was to get a better understanding of the effects of overloads on the microstructure and crack mechanisms. The microstructure was studied using electron channelling contrast imaging (ECCI). The image analysis toolbox in Matlab was used on cross sections of the cracks to quantify: crack length, branch length, and the number of branches in each crack. It was found that the amount of crack branching increases with an increasing overload and that the branch length decreases with an increasing overload. When the higher overloads were applied, the dwell time effect was almost cancelled out. There is a strong tendency for an increased roughness of the crack path with an increasing crack growth rate

  1. Effects of intracellular iron overload on cell death and identification of potent cell death inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shenglin; Yu, Xiaonan; Ding, Haoxuan; Han, Jianan; Feng, Jie

    2018-06-11

    Iron overload causes many diseases, while the underlying etiologies of these diseases are unclear. Cell death processes including apoptosis, necroptosis, cyclophilin D-(CypD)-dependent necrosis and a recently described additional form of regulated cell death called ferroptosis, are dependent on iron or iron-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, whether the accumulation of intracellular iron itself induces ferroptosis or other forms of cell death is largely elusive. In present study, we study the role of intracellular iron overload itself-induced cell death mechanisms by using ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) and a membrane-permeable Ferric 8-hydroxyquinoline complex (Fe-8HQ) respectively. We show that FAC-induced intracellular iron overload causes ferroptosis. We also identify 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) inhibitor GSK2334470 as a potent ferroptosis inhibitor. Whereas, Fe-8HQ-induced intracellular iron overload causes unregulated necrosis, but partially activates PARP-1 dependent parthanatos. Interestingly, we identify many phenolic compounds as potent inhibitors of Fe-8HQ-induced cell death. In conclusion, intracellular iron overload-induced cell death form might be dependent on the intracellular iron accumulation rate, newly identified cell death inhibitors in our study that target ferroptosis and unregulated oxidative cell death represent potential therapeutic strategies against iron overload related diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Thallium-201 myocardial imaging for evaluation of right-ventricular overloading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, M.; Kubo, A.; Yamazaki, H.; Ohsuzu, F.; Handa, S.; Tsugu, T.; Masaki, H.; Kinoshita, F.; Hashimoto, S.

    1978-01-01

    This study evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of Tl-201 myocardial imaging in the detection of right-ventricular (RV) overloading. Right-ventricular visualization (RVV) after administration of Tl-201 chloride was studied on 99 patients with various heart diseases. Tracer uptake in the free wall of the RV was graded in four degrees. The degree of RVV was compared with the findings of cardiac catheterization. The comparisons indicated that the uptake increased in step with the inreases in RV systolic pressure, RV end-diastolic pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, total pulmonary vascular resistance, and stroke-work index of the right ventricle (P < 0.05--P < 0.001). Of the patients with visible RV, all but three had RV overloading, and all but three of those without RVV had normal RV systolic pressure. Myocardial images also reflect the type of RV overloading. In patients with RV pressure overloading, the septum showed a tendency to appear straight. In patients with atrial septal defect leading to RV volume overloading, the RV cavity was dilated, the LV image small, and the septum convex toward the RV cavity. These results indicate that Tl-201 myocardial imaging is a sensitive and specific method for the study of RV overloading

  3. Effect of overloading types on fatigue crack growth threshold for stainless steel SUS316

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osada, Toshio; Sano, Hayato; Takahashi, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Effect of overloading types on the fatigue crack growth threshold of SUS316 was studied. Three types of overloading: tensile (type I), tensile+compression (type II), and tensile+compression+tensile (type III) were applied to compact tension specimens, then the fatigue tests were carried out to determine the apparent threshold stress intensity factor range Δ N K th . The results showed that the Δ N K th values increased with increasing the single tensile overload stress intensity factor K ov above the K ov > ΔK th . Additional compressive loading (type II) led to decrease in Δ N K th to the ΔK th =6MPa×m 1/2 within the all tested K ov values ranging from -45MPa×m 1/2 ≤K ov 1/2 . This is due to the fact that the compressive residual stress field at crack tip changed to the tensile stress field by the compressive loading. Furthermore, the Δ N K th values increased again by additional tensile overloading (type III) from ΔK th to the almost same Δ N K th values as that by Type I loading. This means that the almost same compressive residual stress field formed by type III overloading as the type I overloading. The experimental Δ N K th increasing behaviors were discussed by Finite Element Method (FEM). (author)

  4. Role of electrocardiographic changes in discriminating acute or chronic right ventricular pressure overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Mehmet Mustafa; Özveren, Olcay; Biteker, Murat; Şengül, Cihan; Uz, Ömer; Işılak, Zafer; Kırılmaz, Ata

    2013-06-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) and severe pulmonary stenosis (PS) are two distinct conditions accompanied by increased pressure load of the right ventricle (RV). Despite major advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of RV adaptation to the increased pressure, substantial gaps in our knowledge remain unsettled. One of much less known aspect of pressure overload of RV is its impact on electrocardiographic (ECG) changes. In this study, we aimed to study whether acute and chronic RV overload are accompanied by different ECG patterns. Thirty-eight patients with PE underwent ECG monitoring were compared with 20 matched patients with PS in this observational retrospective study. ECG abnormalities suggestive of RV overload were recorded and analyzed in both groups. Logistic regression analysis was used to define the predictors of chronic RV overload. Among the ECG changes studied, premature atrial contraction (OR-12.2, 95% CI, 1.3-107, p=0.008), right axis deviation (OR-20.4, 95% CI 4.2-98, poverload. Our data indicate that the ECG changes that attributed to the acute RV pressure loading states may be more prevalent in chronic RV overload as compared with acute RV overload.

  5. Pharmacokinetics study of Zr-89-labeled melanin nanoparticle in iron-overload mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Pengjun; Yue, Yuanyuan; Pan, Donghui; Yang, Runlin; Xu, Yuping; Wang, Lizhen; Yan, Junjie; Li, Xiaotian; Yang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Melanin, a natural biological pigment present in many organisms, has been found to exhibit multiple functions. An important property of melanin is its ability to chelate metal ions strongly, which might be developed as an iron chelator for iron overload therapy. Herein, we prepared the ultrasmall water-soluble melanin nanoparticle (MP) and firstly evaluate the pharmacokinetics of MP in iron-overload mice to provide scientific basis for treating iron-overload. To study the circulation time and biodistribution, MP was labeled with 89 Zr, a long half-life (78.4 h) positron-emitting metal which is suited for the labeling of nanoparticles and large bioactive molecule. MP was chelated with 89 Zr directly at pH 5, resulting in non-decay-corrected yield of 89.6% and a radiochemical purity of more than 98%. The specific activity was at least190 MBq/μmol. The 89 Zr-MP was stable in human plasma and PBS for at least 48 h. The half-life of 89 Zr-MP was about 15.70 ± 1.74 h in iron-overload mice. Biodistribution studies and MicroPET imaging showed that 89 Zr-MP mainly accumulated in liver and spleen, which are the target organ of iron-overload. The results indicate that the melanin nanoparticle is promising for further iron overload therapy.

  6. Differential requirement for satellite cells during overload-induced muscle hypertrophy in growing versus mature mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murach, Kevin A; White, Sarah H; Wen, Yuan; Ho, Angel; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E; McCarthy, John J; Peterson, Charlotte A

    2017-07-10

    Pax7+ satellite cells are required for skeletal muscle fiber growth during post-natal development in mice. Satellite cell-mediated myonuclear accretion also appears to persist into early adulthood. Given the important role of satellite cells during muscle development, we hypothesized that the necessity of satellite cells for adaptation to an imposed hypertrophic stimulus depends on maturational age. Pax7 CreER -R26R DTA mice were treated for 5 days with vehicle (satellite cell-replete, SC+) or tamoxifen (satellite cell-depleted, SC-) at 2 months (young) and 4 months (mature) of age. Following a 2-week washout, mice were subjected to sham surgery or 10 day synergist ablation overload of the plantaris (n = 6-9 per group). The surgical approach minimized regeneration, de novo fiber formation, and fiber splitting while promoting muscle fiber growth. Satellite cell density (Pax7+ cells/fiber), embryonic myosin heavy chain expression (eMyHC), and muscle fiber cross sectional area (CSA) were evaluated via immunohistochemistry. Myonuclei (myonuclei/100 mm) were counted on isolated single muscle fibers. Tamoxifen treatment depleted satellite cells by ≥90% and prevented myonuclear accretion with overload in young and mature mice (p overload. Average muscle fiber CSA increased ~20% in young SC+ (p = 0.07), mature SC+ (p overload (p overload-induced hypertrophy is dependent on maturational age, and global responses to overload differ in young versus mature mice.

  7. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside abrogates oxidative stress-induced damage in cardiac iron overload condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Puukila

    Full Text Available Cardiac iron overload is directly associated with cardiac dysfunction and can ultimately lead to heart failure. This study examined the effect of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG, a component of flaxseed, on iron overload induced cardiac damage by evaluating oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Cells were incubated with 50 μ5M iron for 24 hours and/or a 24 hour pre-treatment of 500 μ M SDG. Cardiac iron overload resulted in increased oxidative stress and gene expression of the inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-10 and interferon γ, as well as matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9. Increased apoptosis was evident by increased active caspase 3/7 activity and increased protein expression of Forkhead box O3a, caspase 3 and Bax. Cardiac iron overload also resulted in increased protein expression of p70S6 Kinase 1 and decreased expression of AMP-activated protein kinase. Pre-treatment with SDG abrogated the iron-induced increases in oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis, as well as the increased p70S6 Kinase 1 and decreased AMP-activated protein kinase expression. The decrease in superoxide dismutase activity by iron treatment was prevented by pre-treatment with SDG in the presence of iron. Based on these findings we conclude that SDG was cytoprotective in an in vitro model of iron overload induced redox-inflammatory damage, suggesting a novel potential role for SDG in cardiac iron overload.

  8. Plasma insulin levels are increased by sertraline in rats under oral glucose overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition and control of depression symptoms are important to increase patient compliance with treatment and to improve the quality of life of diabetic patients. Clinical studies indicate that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI are better antidepressants for diabetic patients than other drugs. However, preclinical trials have demonstrated that not all SSRI reduce plasma glucose levels. In fact, fluoxetine increases and sertraline decreases glycemia in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. In the present study we evaluated plasma insulin levels during fasting and after glucose overload after treatment with sertraline. Adult male Wistar rats were fasted and treated with saline or 30 mg/kg sertraline and submitted or not to glucose overload (N = 10. Blood was collected and plasma insulin was measured. The mean insulin levels were: fasting group: 25.9 ± 3.86, sertraline + fasting group: 31.10 ± 2.48, overload group: 34.1 ± 3.40, and overload + sertraline group: 43.73 ± 5.14 µU/ml. Insulinemia was significantly increased in the overload + sertraline group. There were no differences between the other groups. No difference in glucose/insulin ratios could be detected between groups. The overload + sertraline group was the only one in which a significant number of individuals exceeded the upper confidence limit of insulin levels. This study demonstrates that sertraline increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion without any change in peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  9. The language of racism. Textual testimonies of Jewish-Arab hostility in the Israeli Academia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Heger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The persistent Jewish Arab conflict is present in every aspect of life in Israeli society and its echoes penetrate the everyday reality of higher educational institutions. Feelings of mutual hostility among Arab and Jewish students, faculty and administration are common experiences on Israeli campuses. This article analyzes two textual expressions of this mutual resentment which were circulated in 2011 in Tel Hai College, Israel. One of the texts was produced by Muslim Arab student association and the other by a Zionist Jewish organization. Both groups are present on every campus in Israel. Despite the significant difference of the political location occupied by each organization in the Israeli power structure, we argue that these texts share similar attitudes to the conflict and parallel operational strategies. The paper demonstrates the attempts by these texts to encourage the mutual hostility between Jews and Arabs by employing racist and violent discourse. The article tries to explain the silence of the college administration and faculty in the face of these racist acts, subsequently outlining a vision of a responsible academia which will banish any acts of racism.

  10. Dis/Graceful Liberties: Textual Libertinism/ Libertine Texts in J.M. Coetzee’s Disgrace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driss Hager Ben

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay addresses J.M. Coetzee’s Disgrace, a Booker Prize winner in 1999. The novel captures South African political and cultural turmoil attending the post-apartheid transitional period. Far from overlooking the political allegory, I propose instead to expand on a topic only cursorily developed elsewhere, namely liberty and license. The two terms foreground the textual dynamics of the novel as they compete and/or negotiate meaning and ascendency. I argue that Disgrace is energized by Coetzee’s belief in a total liberty of artistic production. Sex is philosophically problematized in the text and advocated as a serious issue that deserves artistic investigation without restriction or censorship. This essay looks into the subtle libertinism in Coetzee’s text, which displays pornographic overtones without exhibiting a flamboyant libertinage. Disgrace acquires its libertine gesture from its dialogue with several literary works steeped in libertinism. The troubled relationship between the aesthetic and the ethical yields an ambiguous text that invites a responsible act of reading.

  11. Chawton Novels Online, Women’s Writing 1751-1834 and Computer-Aided Textual Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bandry-Scubbi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Using Chawton House Library’s “Novels Online,” several corpora have been set up for a computer-aided textual analysis of the use of vocabulary by women writing “domestic novels” from 1752 to 1834. This corpus stylistics approach makes it possible to map texts according to their word usage and to identify quantitative keywords which provide vocabulary profiles through comparison and contrast with contemporary male and female canonical texts. Items identified include pronouns, markers of dialogue and of intensity; others can be grouped into specific lexical fields such as feelings. One text from the collection then forms the object of a case-study to explore a paradox: although Jane Taylor’s use of vocabulary in her 1817 Rachel appears the most representative of the corpus made up of 42 novels by women, this Chawton text has been called “a highly original tale.” Methodology and findings are both presented to address the challenge of identifying features which constitute typicality.

  12. Location and Unlocation: Examining Gender and Telephony through Autoethnographic Textual and Visual Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Bryant BSW, PhD in Sociology

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies on gender and telephony tend to be quantitative and depict the purposes for which women and men use mobile telephones and landlines. Qualitative studies on the topic predominantly rely on face-to-face interviews to examine how telephone use genders space. We suggest these traditional methods of data collection leave unexamined the emotional and social relationships that emerge and are enabled by telephone use, which at times reconfigure and gender social spaces. In this article we present a collaborative autoethnographic inquiry based on our own telephone lives. We introduce a reflexive visual and textual methodological design, specifically diary notes, memory work, and photography, developed from our lives as researcher and researched. We examine an important theme in our findings, the physical placement of the telephone and the phone holder's awareness of the physicality of the telephone, which illustrates the importance of our methodological choices. We show how the placement of the phone by the users both genders space and creates emotional spaces.

  13. Comprensión y producción textual narrativa en preescolares

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    Luz Stella López Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio buscó identificar y describir las habilidades de comprensión y producción textual narrativa de 158 estudiantes de transición de estrato 1 y 2 de colegios públicos de la ciudad de Barranquilla (Colombia. Para evaluar esta capacidad se les pidió a los niños que narraran un texto que se les había leído anteriormente. Las muestras de lenguaje se analizaron utilizando el software SALT y posteriormente se utilizó el software SPSS para realizar los análisis descriptivos. Se consideró la estructura organizativa microestructura, macroestructura y superestructura desde el nivel de comprensión literal e inferencial. Se encontró que la mayoría de los niños tienen un desarrollo narrativo acorde con su edad, sin embargo, la elaboración inferencial fue escasa, lo que posiblemente afectó la comprensión de la historia por parte de los mismos.

  14. Consciência da "estrutura argumentativa" e produção textual

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    Regina Pinheiro

    Full Text Available A suposição cognitivista de que a consciência de um "esquema argumentativo" oriente as produções textuais dos indivíduos está longe de ser pacífica. Alternativamente, sugere-se que os elementos incluídos num texto seriam determinados pela consciência a respeito de parâmetros da situação de produção textual (finalidade, destinatário, etc.. Partindo-se desta controvérsia, investigou-se em que medida a reflexão sobre a "estrutura argumentativa" exerceria um impacto sobre os elementos que crianças e adultos jovens incorporariam a seus textos. A análise dos resultados mostrou que: ponto de vista e justificativa foram os elementos considerados indispensáveis a uma escrita argumentativa. Antecipação de contra-argumentos foi vista como relevante para a consecução do objetivo persuasivo do texto apenas quando eram rebatidos. A reflexão sobre elementos da "estrutura argumentativa" nem sempre correspondeu à inclusão destes nos textos produzidos. Tal inclusão dependeu primordialmente da avaliação dos elementos que mais contribuiriam para a consecução da finalidade persuasiva do texto - consciência retórica.

  15. Intercultural Passages in Ottó Tolnai’s Textual Universe

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    Ispánovics Csapó Julianna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The literary palette of Tolnai’s textual universe within the Hungarian literature from Vojvodina is based, among others, upon the intertwining of various cultural entities. The social and cultural spaces of “Big Yugoslavia,” the phenomena, figures, and works of the European-oriented Yugoslav and ethnic culture (literature, painting, book publishing, theatre, sports, etc., the mentalities of the migrant worker’s life, the legends of the Tito cult embed the narrative procedures of particular texts by Tolnai into a rich culture-historical context. Similarly to the model of Valery’s Mediterranean, the narrator’s Janus-faced Yugoslavia simultaneously generates concrete and utopian spaces, folding upon one another. Above the micro spaces (towns, houses, flats evolving along the traces of reality, there float the Proustian concepts of scent and colour of the Adriatic sea (salt, azure, mimosa, lavender, laurel. The nostalgia towards the lost Eden rises high and waves about the “grand form” of Big Yugoslavia, the related space of which is the Monarchy. The counterpoints of the grand forms are “the small, void forms,” provinces, regions (Vojvodina, North Bačka and the micro spaces coded into them. The text analyses of the paper examine the intercultural motions and identityforming culture-historical elements of the outlined space system.

  16. Discerning applicants’ interests in rural medicine: a textual analysis of admission essays

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    Carol L. Elam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite efforts to construct targeted medical school admission processes using applicant-level correlates of future practice location, accurately gauging applicants’ interests in rural medicine remains an imperfect science. This study explores the usefulness of textual analysis to identify rural-oriented themes and values underlying applicants’ open-ended responses to admission essays. Methods: The study population consisted of 75 applicants to the Rural Physician Leadership Program (RPLP at the University of Kentucky College of Medicine. Using WordStat, a proprietary text analysis program, applicants’ American Medical College Application Service personal statement and an admission essay written at the time of interview were searched for predefined keywords and phrases reflecting rural medical values. From these text searches, derived scores were then examined relative to interviewers’ subjective ratings of applicants’ overall acceptability for admission to the RPLP program and likelihood of practicing in a rural area. Results: The two interviewer-assigned ratings of likelihood of rural practice and overall acceptability were significantly related. A statistically significant relationship was also found between the rural medical values scores and estimated likelihood of rural practice. However, there was no association between rural medical values scores and subjective ratings of applicant acceptability. Conclusions: That applicants’ rural values in admission essays were not related to interviewers’ overall acceptability ratings indicates that other factors played a role in the interviewers’ assessments of applicants’ acceptability for admission.

  17. Discerning applicants' interests in rural medicine: a textual analysis of admission essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Carol L; Weaver, Anthony D; Whittler, Elmer T; Stratton, Terry D; Asher, Linda M; Scott, Kimberly L; Wilson, Emery A

    2015-01-01

    Despite efforts to construct targeted medical school admission processes using applicant-level correlates of future practice location, accurately gauging applicants' interests in rural medicine remains an imperfect science. This study explores the usefulness of textual analysis to identify rural-oriented themes and values underlying applicants' open-ended responses to admission essays. The study population consisted of 75 applicants to the Rural Physician Leadership Program (RPLP) at the University of Kentucky College of Medicine. Using WordStat, a proprietary text analysis program, applicants' American Medical College Application Service personal statement and an admission essay written at the time of interview were searched for predefined keywords and phrases reflecting rural medical values. From these text searches, derived scores were then examined relative to interviewers' subjective ratings of applicants' overall acceptability for admission to the RPLP program and likelihood of practicing in a rural area. The two interviewer-assigned ratings of likelihood of rural practice and overall acceptability were significantly related. A statistically significant relationship was also found between the rural medical values scores and estimated likelihood of rural practice. However, there was no association between rural medical values scores and subjective ratings of applicant acceptability. That applicants' rural values in admission essays were not related to interviewers' overall acceptability ratings indicates that other factors played a role in the interviewers' assessments of applicants' acceptability for admission.

  18. COERÊNCIA IMAGÉTICO-TEXTUAL NO GÊNERO QUADRINHOS?

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    Jack Brandão

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetiva o estudo analítico das linguagens verbal e não verbal presentes nas histórias em quadrinhos (tiras, com o intuito de verificar como a união das duas linguagens presentes no gênero é eficiente enquanto mecanismo auxiliador no processo de compreensão da mensagem transmitida. Enfatiza-se ainda a importância da parceria autor-leitor e de outros elementos como essenciais para que a leitura do (contexto aconteça, enfatizando-se a força do texto não verbal nesse processo. Esta investigação está alicerçada nos pressupostos teóricos da Linguística Textual e, em especial, do conceito de coerência, utilizando-se da leitura e análise de tiras elucidativas da personagem Mafalda, criação do cartunista argentino Quino, nos anos 60.

  19. The third language: A recurrent textual restriction that translators come across in audiovisual translation.

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    Montse Corrius Gimbert

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available If the process of translating is not at all simple, the process of translating an audiovisual text is still more complex. Apart rom technical problems such as lip synchronisation, there are other factors to be considered such as the use of the language and textual structures deemed appropriate to the channel of communication. Bearing in mind that most of the films we are continually seeing on our screens were and are produced in the United States, there is an increasing need to translate them into the different languages of the world. But sometimes the source audiovisual text contains more than one language, and, thus, a new problem arises: the ranslators face additional difficulties in translating this “third language” (language or dialect into the corresponding target culture. There are many films containing two languages in the original version but in this paper we will focus mainly on three films: Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969, Raid on Rommel (1999 and Blade Runner (1982. This paper aims at briefly illustrating different solutions which may be applied when we come across a “third language”.

  20. True Detective Stories: Media Textuality and the Anthology Format between Remediation and Transmedia Narratives

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    Cristina Demaria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the analysis of the recent HBO first season TV series True Detective (2014-, the essays focuses on the renewed anthology format of contemporary seriality as a way to inscribe the form of the novel in the transmedia imagination and its narrative models. While the first part of the essay concentrates on Media and Literary Studies’ debates on the statute of media texts, their materiality and the transformations of their contents in the participatory and convergent culture of prosumers, the second part is devoted to an in-depth reading of some of the main features of True Detective’s first season: from the ways it remediates many other genres and media, to how – as an audiovisual sychretyc text -  it plays with dialogues, cinematography, music and its temporal, spatial and seeing enunciative strategies and positions in order to construct a (quasidystopic narrative of America as an after-image, or, better, a post-collapse America and its Southern Gothic landscapes. In the lst paragraph, this writing briefly engages with how this particular format of TV series helps developing narrative models that fan we bpages and fanfic archives are still struggling not so much to comprehend, but to actually transform into an expanded textuality  able to tell a more ‘true’ story.

  1. Norman Fairclough’s Textually Oriented Discourse Analysis in Vladimir Nabokov’s Lolita

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    Pegah Sheibeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to use “textually oriented discourse analysis” of Norman Fairclough, (1941, to offer a new reading of Vladimir Nabokov’s Lolita (1955. The researcher found it quite appropriate to read the chosen work through Fairclough’s stylistic and discursive features in order to represent the identities of the main characters. Nabokov’s works represent an important portrayal of discursive challenges in the post-war American society that is largely invested in Fairclough’s theory. One of the most apparent aspects in Nabokov’s works is that of social identity and subject formation. As discourse theory denotes, a subject 'misrepresents' the world in ideology because he wants to do so, because there is some reward or benefit to him in doing so. Similarly Humbert Humbert in Lolita is looking for an imaginary world by which he can hide his suppressed identity. He fakes a new identity for himself through fiction. Considering the style of narration in Lolita, some reader consider Humbert as an unreliable narrator, he sometimes makes up some events and in some parts of the story he seems insane and uncertain. In Lolita Nabokov tries to show that each individual creates his/her reality and do not reflect reality. Humbert narrates his personal story from his point of view which might be different from people around him. Reality in Nabokov’s perspective is subjective and mixture of memory and imagination.

  2. Comprensión y Producción Textual Narrativa en Estudiantes de Educación Primaria

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    LEIDY TATIANA GUZMÁN TORRES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Por medio de un enfoque mixto, se caracterizó la comprensión y producción textual narrativa en estudiantes de educación primaria (primero y segundo grado, así como aspectos psicosociales (valor social de la lectura y hábito lector y contextuales (interacciones cognitivas y afectivas docente-niños en docentes de educación primaria de tres instituciones educativas. Se encontró que los estudiantes tuvieron un desempeño medio alto en producción textual y comprensión literal, y bajo en comprensión inferencial. Además, se observó que la mayoría de las docentes son lectoras ocasionales, emplean interacciones cognitivas unidireccionales, ofrecen un mediano apoyo emocional a sus estudiantes y valoran la lectura como una herramienta instrumental y lúdica.

  3. A Cross Cultural Analysis of Textual and Interpersonal Metadiscourse Markers: The Case of Economic Articles in English and Persian Newspapers

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    Abbas Mehrabi Boshrabadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was an attempt to investigate the functional role of textual and interpersonal metadiscourse markers in English and Persian Economic news reports. To this end, 10 news articles, 5 in each language, were randomly selected from the Economic sections of the leading newspapers published in 2013-2014 in Iran and the United States. Based on Kopple’s (1985 taxonomy, the type and frequency of metadiscourse markers used in the texts were analyzed to find out their functions in the text. The findings revealed that the textual markers used by Persian authors were considerably more frequent than those employed by the American writers. Interestingly, unlike the Persian writers, the American authors enlisted a larger number of interpersonal markers, which made their angle of the subject treatment different. It is evident that the differential use of metadiscourse markers by nationally different authors could be attributed to culture-specific norms governing the development and organization of discourse.

  4. How Strong Is Your Coffee? The Influence of Visual Metaphors and Textual Claims on Consumers’ Flavor Perception and Product Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenko, Anna; de Vries, Roxan; van Rompay, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the relative impact of textual claims and visual metaphors displayed on the product’s package on consumers’ flavor experience and product evaluation. For consumers, strength is one of the most important sensory attributes of coffee. The 2 × 3 between-subjects experiment (N = 123) compared the effects of visual metaphor of strength (an image of a lion located either on top or on the bottom of the package of coffee beans) and the direct textual claim (“extra strong”) on consumers’ responses to coffee, including product expectation, flavor evaluation, strength perception and purchase intention. The results demonstrate that both the textual claim and the visual metaphor can be efficient in communicating the product attribute of strength. The presence of the image positively influenced consumers’ product expectations before tasting. The textual claim increased the perception of strength of coffee and the purchase intention of the product. The location of the image also played an important role in flavor perception and purchase intention. The image located on the bottom of the package increased the perceived strength of coffee and purchase intention of the product compared to the image on top of the package. This result could be interpreted from the perspective of the grounded cognition theory, which suggests that a picture in the lower part of the package would automatically activate the “strong is heavy” metaphor. As heavy objects are usually associated with a position on the ground, this would explain why perceiving a visually heavy package would lead to the experience of a strong coffee. Further research is needed to better understand the relationships between a metaphorical image and its spatial position in food packaging design. PMID:29459840

  5. How Strong Is Your Coffee? The Influence of Visual Metaphors and Textual Claims on Consumers’ Flavor Perception and Product Evaluation

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    Anna Fenko

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relative impact of textual claims and visual metaphors displayed on the product’s package on consumers’ flavor experience and product evaluation. For consumers, strength is one of the most important sensory attributes of coffee. The 2 × 3 between-subjects experiment (N = 123 compared the effects of visual metaphor of strength (an image of a lion located either on top or on the bottom of the package of coffee beans and the direct textual claim (“extra strong” on consumers’ responses to coffee, including product expectation, flavor evaluation, strength perception and purchase intention. The results demonstrate that both the textual claim and the visual metaphor can be efficient in communicating the product attribute of strength. The presence of the image positively influenced consumers’ product expectations before tasting. The textual claim increased the perception of strength of coffee and the purchase intention of the product. The location of the image also played an important role in flavor perception and purchase intention. The image located on the bottom of the package increased the perceived strength of coffee and purchase intention of the product compared to the image on top of the package. This result could be interpreted from the perspective of the grounded cognition theory, which suggests that a picture in the lower part of the package would automatically activate the “strong is heavy” metaphor. As heavy objects are usually associated with a position on the ground, this would explain why perceiving a visually heavy package would lead to the experience of a strong coffee. Further research is needed to better understand the relationships between a metaphorical image and its spatial position in food packaging design.

  6. How Strong Is Your Coffee? The Influence of Visual Metaphors and Textual Claims on Consumers' Flavor Perception and Product Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenko, Anna; de Vries, Roxan; van Rompay, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the relative impact of textual claims and visual metaphors displayed on the product's package on consumers' flavor experience and product evaluation. For consumers, strength is one of the most important sensory attributes of coffee. The 2 × 3 between-subjects experiment ( N = 123) compared the effects of visual metaphor of strength (an image of a lion located either on top or on the bottom of the package of coffee beans) and the direct textual claim ("extra strong") on consumers' responses to coffee, including product expectation, flavor evaluation, strength perception and purchase intention. The results demonstrate that both the textual claim and the visual metaphor can be efficient in communicating the product attribute of strength. The presence of the image positively influenced consumers' product expectations before tasting. The textual claim increased the perception of strength of coffee and the purchase intention of the product. The location of the image also played an important role in flavor perception and purchase intention. The image located on the bottom of the package increased the perceived strength of coffee and purchase intention of the product compared to the image on top of the package. This result could be interpreted from the perspective of the grounded cognition theory, which suggests that a picture in the lower part of the package would automatically activate the "strong is heavy" metaphor. As heavy objects are usually associated with a position on the ground, this would explain why perceiving a visually heavy package would lead to the experience of a strong coffee. Further research is needed to better understand the relationships between a metaphorical image and its spatial position in food packaging design.

  7. Females Are Protected From Iron-Overload Cardiomyopathy Independent of Iron Metabolism: Key Role of Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subhash K; Patel, Vaibhav B; Basu, Ratnadeep; Wang, Wang; DesAulniers, Jessica; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2017-01-23

    Sex-related differences in cardiac function and iron metabolism exist in humans and experimental animals. Male patients and preclinical animal models are more susceptible to cardiomyopathies and heart failure. However, whether similar differences are seen in iron-overload cardiomyopathy is poorly understood. Male and female wild-type and hemojuvelin-null mice were injected and fed with a high-iron diet, respectively, to develop secondary iron overload and genetic hemochromatosis. Female mice were completely protected from iron-overload cardiomyopathy, whereas iron overload resulted in marked diastolic dysfunction in male iron-overloaded mice based on echocardiographic and invasive pressure-volume analyses. Female mice demonstrated a marked suppression of iron-mediated oxidative stress and a lack of myocardial fibrosis despite an equivalent degree of myocardial iron deposition. Ovariectomized female mice with iron overload exhibited essential pathophysiological features of iron-overload cardiomyopathy showing distinct diastolic and systolic dysfunction, severe myocardial fibrosis, increased myocardial oxidative stress, and increased expression of cardiac disease markers. Ovariectomy prevented iron-induced upregulation of ferritin, decreased myocardial SERCA2a levels, and increased NCX1 levels. 17β-Estradiol therapy rescued the iron-overload cardiomyopathy in male wild-type mice. The responses in wild-type and hemojuvelin-null female mice were remarkably similar, highlighting a conserved mechanism of sex-dependent protection from iron-overload-mediated cardiac injury. Male and female mice respond differently to iron-overload-mediated effects on heart structure and function, and females are markedly protected from iron-overload cardiomyopathy. Ovariectomy in female mice exacerbated iron-induced myocardial injury and precipitated severe cardiac dysfunction during iron-overload conditions, whereas 17β-estradiol therapy was protective in male iron-overloaded mice.

  8. Revisão textual: para além da revisão linguística

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    Sueli Maria Coelho

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende reforçar a ideia de que a revisão textual deve extrapolar a simples correção de questões gramaticais e ortográficas nos textos. Para além dessas questões, observar parâmetros como o gênero e a textualidade no material a ser revisado, bem como se ele está adequado em relação a normas de publicação, discussão do tema e aspectos gráficos faz-se fundamental para uma boa revisão textual. Após discussões teóricas a respeito de aspectos globais do texto, tais como a noção de gêneros textuais/discursivos e a de textualidade, buscou-se mostrar, por meio da análise de três textos (um resumo acadêmico, uma notícia retirada de um sítio e uma piada como os aspectos aqui discutidos influenciam na tomada de decisões do revisor.Palavras-Chave: Revisão textual; Revisão linguística e temática; Revisão gráfica e normalizadora; Gêneros textuais/discursivos.

  9. Treating thalassemia major-related iron overload: the role of deferiprone

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    Berdoukas V

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Vasilios Berdoukas,1 Kallistheni Farmaki,2 Susan Carson,1 John Wood,3 Thomas Coates11Division of Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Thalassemia Unit, General Hospital of Corinth, Corinth, Greece; 3Division of Cardiology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Over the last 20 years, management for thalassemia major has improved to the point where we predict that patients' life expectancy will approach that of the normal population. These outcomes result from safer blood transfusions, the availability of three iron chelators, new imaging techniques that allow specific organ assessment of the degree of iron overload, and improvement in the treatment of hepatitis. In October 2011, the Food and Drug Administration licensed deferiprone, further increasing the available choices for iron chelation in the US. The ability to prescribe any of the three chelators as well as their combinations has led to more effective reduction of total body iron. The ability to determine the amount of iron in the liver and heart by magnetic resonance imaging allows the prescription of the most appropriate chelation regime for patients and to reconsider what our aims with respect to total body iron should be. Recent evidence from Europe has shown that by normalizing iron stores not only are new morbidities prevented but also reversal of many complications such as cardiac failure, hypothyroidism, hypogonadism, impaired glucose tolerance, and type 2 diabetes can occur, improving survival and patients' quality of life. The most effective way to achieve normal iron stores seems to be with the combination of deferoxamine and deferiprone. Furthermore, outcomes should continue to improve in the future. Starting relative intensive chelation in younger children may prevent short stature and abnormal pubertal maturation as well as other iron-related morbidities. Also, further information should become available on the

  10. Comprensión y Producción Textual Narrativa en Estudiantes de Educación Primaria/ Narrative Textual Comprehension and Production in Primary School Students/ Compreensão e Produção Textual Narrativa em Estudantes de Educação Primária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy Tatiana Guzmán Torres

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Por medio de un enfoque mixto, se caracterizó la comprensión y producción textual narrativa en estudiantes de educación primaria (primero y segundo grado, así como aspectos psicosociales (valor social de la lectura y hábito lector y contextuales (interacciones cognitivas y afectivas docente-niños en docentes de educación primaria de tres instituciones educativas. Se encontró que los estudiantes tuvieron un desempeño medio alto en producción textual y comprensión literal, y bajo en comprensión inferencial. Además, se observó que la mayoría de las docentes son lectoras ocasionales, emplean interacciones cognitivas unidireccionales, ofrecen un mediano apoyo emocional a sus estudiantes y valoran la lectura como una herramienta instrumental y lúdica.

  11. Biosemiotics: Communication and Causation (Information included

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    Juan Ramon Álvarez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Pretensions of Biosemiotics as a unified approach to biological information are critically scrutinized within the study of different projects of semiotisation of nature and naturalization ot cultural processes. Main textual references and arguments are presented and critically pondered. Biosemiotics is here presented as an analytical method to study communication as founded in causality.

  12. On textual and contextual position of the ophthalmological treatise of bodhisattva nāgārjuna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seongsu; Kang, Sungyong

    2013-04-01

    Medical knowledge in India began to be introduced to China in earliest from the Later Han Dynasty period to the times of Wei-Qin and South & North Dynasties. This is proved by many Buddhist medical books appeared in those days. Of the contents of Indian medicine, the theory of four major elements affected Chinese medicine more than did the theory of body fluids. Based on the theory of four major elements that was began to be introduced in Fú shuō fú yī jīng, an attempt to establish a new medical system was made in Zhŏu hòu băi yīfāng written by Táo Hóng-jĭng and Sūn Sī-miăo who tried to develop etiology further but could not achieve any great outcomes. Unlike the foregoing situation, Indian medicine aroused a large echo in China in the field of ophthalmology with ophthalmological knowledge mentioned in Suśrutasa hitā and 'Jīnzhēn-shù'(cataract couching) introduced as a surgical treatment of cataract. The Suśrutasa hitā which is one of the three major texts of Indian medicine contains additional information on surgical operations not introduced in the Carakasa hitā. The technique of cataract surgery was particularly popular in the Tang and Song dynasty periods in China under the name Lóng shù pú sà yăn lùn(The Ophthalmological Treatise of Bodhisattva Nāgārjuna) or Lóng shù lùn and was even designated as a subject to educate medical officers. While the original text of Lóng shù pú sà yăn lùn was not handed down, the first testimony that show the trace of the introduction of this text into China was the Tiān zhú jīng lùn yăn mentioned in Wài tái mì yào(Arcane Essential from the Imperial Library) written by Wang Tao. Long shàng dào ren who was mentioned as the compiler of the book is assumed to be Lóng shù. Although Tiān zhú jīng lùn yăn introduced anatomical knowledge about the eyeball that could have not been in the traditional Chinese medicine, this book has only limited quantity of information in this

  13. Using near infrared spectroscopy and heart rate variability to detect mental overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durantin, G; Gagnon, J-F; Tremblay, S; Dehais, F

    2014-02-01

    Mental workload is a key factor influencing the occurrence of human error, especially during piloting and remotely operated vehicle (ROV) operations, where safety depends on the ability of pilots to act appropriately. In particular, excessively high or low mental workload can lead operators to neglect critical information. The objective of the present study is to investigate the potential of functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) - a non-invasive method of measuring prefrontal cortex activity - in combination with measurements of heart rate variability (HRV), to predict mental workload during a simulated piloting task, with particular regard to task engagement and disengagement. Twelve volunteers performed a computer-based piloting task in which they were asked to follow a dynamic target with their aircraft, a task designed to replicate key cognitive demands associated with real life ROV operating tasks. In order to cover a wide range of mental workload levels, task difficulty was manipulated in terms of processing load and difficulty of control - two critical sources of workload associated with piloting and remotely operating a vehicle. Results show that both fNIRS and HRV are sensitive to different levels of mental workload; notably, lower prefrontal activation as well as a lower LF/HF ratio at the highest level of difficulty, suggest that these measures are suitable for mental overload detection. Moreover, these latter measurements point toward the existence of a quadratic model of mental workload. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of secondary iron overload in patients with congenital anemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cario, H; Grosse, R; Janssen, G; Jarisch, A; Meerpohl, J; Strauss, G

    2010-11-01

    In Germany and Central Europe, congenital disorders leading to secondary hemochromatosis are rare. The majority of these patients are treated in peripheral medical institutions. As a consequence, the experience of each institution in the treatment of secondary hemochromatosis in patients with congenital anemia is limited. Recent developments concerning new chelating agents, their combination for intensified chelation and new possibilities to diagnose and monitor iron overload have important consequences for the management of patients with secondary hemochromatosis and increase its complexity enormously. Therefore, the development of a guideline for rational and efficient diagnostics and treatment was necessary. The new guideline was developed within a formal consensus process and finally approved by a consensus conference with participants from both the pediatric and adult German hematology societies (GPOH and DGHO). Apart from general information and recommendations, the guideline contains 9 consensus statements on diagnostics (iron status, siderotic complications, chelator side-effects), the start of chelation, indications for intensified chelation, iron elimination in specific disorders, and iron elimination after stem cell transplantation. Here, these consensus statements are presented and discussed in detail. For the complete text of the guideline, please visit the AWMF homepage at http://www.leitlinien.net . © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Understanding the heterogeneity in volume overload and fluid distribution in decompensated heart failure is key to optimal volume management: role for blood volume quantitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wayne L; Mullan, Brian P

    2014-06-01

    This study sought to quantitate total blood volume (TBV) in patients hospitalized for decompensated chronic heart failure (DCHF) and to determine the extent of volume overload, and the magnitude and distribution of blood volume and body water changes following diuretic therapy. The accurate assessment and management of volume overload in patients with DCHF remains problematic. TBV was measured by a radiolabeled-albumin dilution technique with intravascular volume, pre-to-post-diuretic therapy, evaluated at hospital admission and at discharge. Change in body weight in relation to quantitated TBV was used to determine interstitial volume contribution to total fluid loss. Twenty-six patients were prospectively evaluated. Two patients had normal TBV at admission. Twenty-four patients were hypervolemic with TBV (7.4 ± 1.6 liters) increased by +39 ± 22% (range, +9.5% to +107%) above the expected normal volume. With diuresis, TBV decreased marginally (+30 ± 16%). Body weight declined by 6.9 ± 5.2 kg, and fluid intake/fluid output was a net negative 8.4 ± 5.2 liters. Interstitial compartment fluid loss was calculated at 6.2 ± 4.0 liters, accounting for 85 ± 15% of the total fluid reduction. TBV analysis demonstrated a wide range in the extent of intravascular overload. Dismissal measurements revealed marginally reduced intravascular volume post-diuretic therapy despite large reductions in body weight. Mobilization of interstitial fluid to the intravascular compartment with diuresis accounted for this disparity. Intravascular volume, however, remained increased at dismissal. The extent, composition, and distribution of volume overload are highly variable in DCHF, and this variability needs to be taken into account in the approach to individualized therapy. TBV quantitation, particularly serial measurements, can facilitate informed volume management with respect to a goal of treating to euvolemia. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published

  16. Electrical short circuit and current overload tests on aircraft wiring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    The findings of electrical short circuit and current overload tests performed on commercial aircraft wiring are presented. A series of bench-scale tests were conducted to evaluate circuit breaker response to overcurrent and to determine if the wire showed any visible signs of thermal degradation due to overcurrent. Three types of wire used in commercial aircraft were evaluated: MIL-W-22759/34 (150 C rated), MIL-W-81381/12 (200 C rated), and BMS 1360 (260 C rated). A second series of tests evaluated circuit breaker response to short circuits and ticking faults. These tests were also meant to determine if the three test wires behaved differently under these conditions and if a short circuit or ticking fault could start a fire. It is concluded that circuit breakers provided reliable overcurrent protection. Circuit breakers may not protect wire from ticking faults but can protect wire from direct shorts. These tests indicated that the appearance of a wire subjected to a current that totally degrades the insulation looks identical to a wire subjected to a fire; however the 'fire exposed' conductor was more brittle than the conductor degraded by overcurrent. Preliminary testing indicates that direct short circuits are not likely to start a fire. Preliminary testing indicated that direct short circuits do not erode insulation and conductor to the extent that ticking faults did. Circuit breakers may not safeguard against the ignition of flammable materials by ticking faults. The flammability of materials near ticking faults is far more important than the rating of the wire insulation material.

  17. The attenuating effect of role overload on relationships linking self-efficacy and goal level to work performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven P; Jones, Eli; Leigh, Thomas W

    2005-09-01

    The reported research examines the moderating effects of role overload on the antecedents and consequences of self-efficacy and personal goal level in a longitudinal study conducted in an industrial selling context. The results indicate that role overload moderates the antecedent effect of perceived organizational resources on self-efficacy beliefs. They also show that role overload moderates the direct effects of both self-efficacy and goal level on performance, such that these relationships are positive when role overload is low but not significant when role overload is high. Further, the results reveal a pattern of moderated mediation, in which goal level mediates the indirect effect of self-efficacy on performance when role overload is low but not when it is high. Implications for theory and managerial practice are discussed. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Clinical outcomes of transfusion-associated iron overload in patients with refractory chronic anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao C

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chong Gao, Li Li, Baoan Chen, Huihui Song, Jian Cheng, Xiaoping Zhang, Yunyu SunDepartment of Hematology and Oncology, Key Department of Jiangsu Medicine, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of transfusion-associated iron overload in patients with chronic refractory anemia.Methods: Clinical manifestations, main organ function, results of computed tomography (CT, endocrine evaluation, and serum ferritin levels were analyzed retrospectively in 13 patients who were transfusion-dependent for more than 1 year (receiving >50 units of red blood cells to determine the degree of iron overload and efficacy of iron-chelating therapy.Results: Serum ferritin levels increased to 1,830–5,740 ng/mL in all patients. Ten patients had abnormal liver function. The CT Hounsfield units in the liver increased significantly in eleven patients, and were proportional to their serum ferritin levels. Skin pigmentation, liver dysfunction, and endocrine dysfunction were observed in nine patients with serum ferritin >3,500 ng/mL, eight of whom have since died. Interestingly, serum ferritin levels did not decrease significantly in nine transfusion-dependent patients who had received 15–60 days of iron-chelating therapy.Conclusion: Transfusion-dependent patients may progress to secondary iron overload with organ impairment, which may be fatal in those who are heavily iron-overloaded. The CT Hounsfield unit is a sensitive indicator of iron overload in the liver. Iron chelation therapy should be initiated when serum ferritin is >1,000 ng/mL and continued until it is <1,000 ng/mL in transfusional iron-overloaded patients.Keywords: anemia, aplastic, iron overload, myelodysplastic syndromes

  19. Both cardiomyocyte and endothelial cell Nox4 mediate protection against hemodynamic overload-induced remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Mongue-Din, Heloise; Martin, Daniel; Catibog, Norman; Smyrnias, Ioannis; Zhang, Xiaohong; Yu, Bin; Wang, Minshu; Brandes, Ralf P; Schröder, Katrin; Shah, Ajay M

    2018-03-01

    NADPH oxidase-4 (Nox4) is an important reactive oxygen species (ROS) source that is upregulated in the haemodynamically overloaded heart. Our previous studies using global Nox4 knockout (Nox4KO) mice demonstrated a protective role of Nox4 during chronic abdominal aortic banding, involving a paracrine enhancement of myocardial capillary density. However, other authors who studied cardiac-specific Nox4KO mice reported detrimental effects of Nox4 in response to transverse aortic constriction (TAC). It has been speculated that these divergent results are due to cell-specific actions of Nox4 (i.e. cardiomyocyte Nox4 detrimental but endothelial Nox4 beneficial) and/or differences in the model of pressure overload (i.e. abdominal banding vs. TAC). This study aimed to (i) investigate whether the effects of Nox4 on pressure overload-induced cardiac remodelling vary according to the pressure overload model and (ii) compare the roles of cardiomyocyte vs. endothelial cell Nox4. Global Nox4KO mice subjected to TAC developed worse cardiac remodelling and contractile dysfunction than wild-type littermates, consistent with our previous results with abdominal aortic banding. Next, we generated inducible cardiomyocyte-specific Nox4 KO mice (Cardio-Nox4KO) and endothelial-specific Nox4 KO mice (Endo-Nox4KO) and studied their responses to pressure overload. Both Cardio-Nox4KO and Endo-Nox4KO developed worse pressure overload-induced cardiac remodelling and dysfunction than wild-type littermates, associated with significant decrease in protein levels of HIF1α and VEGF and impairment of myocardial capillarization. Cardiomyocyte as well as endothelial cell Nox4 contributes to protection against chronic hemodynamic overload-induced cardiac remodelling, at least in part through common effects on myocardial capillary density. © The Author 2017 Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  20. Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyard, Pierre.

    1981-01-01

    The fear for nuclear energy and more particularly for radioactive wastes is analyzed in the sociological context. Everybody agree on the information need, information is available but there is a problem for their diffusion. Reactions of the public are analyzed and journalists, scientists and teachers have a role to play [fr

  1. Textual Analysis of General Surgery Residency Personal Statements: Topics and Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostapenko, Laura; Schonhardt-Bailey, Cheryl; Sublette, Jessica Walling; Smink, Douglas S; Osman, Nora Y

    2017-10-25

    Applicants to US general surgery residency training programs submit standardized applications. Applicants use the personal statement to express their individual rationale for a career in surgery. Our research explores common topics and gender differences within the personal statements of general surgery applicants. We analyzed the electronic residency application service personal statements of 578 applicants (containing 3,82,405 words) from Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited medical schools to a single ACGME-accredited general surgery program using an automated textual analysis program to identify common topics and gender differences. Using a recursive algorithm, the program identified common words and clusters, grouping them into topic classes, which are internally validated. We identified and labeled 8 statistically significant topic classes through independent review: "my story," "the art of surgery," "clinical vignettes," "why I love surgery," "residency program characteristics," "working as a team," "academics and research," and "global health and policy." Although some classes were common to all applications, we also identified gender-specific differences. Notably, women were significantly more likely than men to be represented within the class of "working as a team." (p differences between the statements of men and women. Women were more likely to discuss surgery as a team endeavor while men were more likely to focus on the details of their surgical experiences. Our work mirrors what has been found in social psychology research on gender-based differences in how men and women communicate their career goals and aspirations in other competitive professional situations. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Phrase Mining of Textual Data to Analyze Extracellular Matrix Protein Patterns Across Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, David Alexandre; Murali, Sanjana; Sigdel, Dibakar; Shi, Yu; Wang, Xuan; Shen, Jiaming; Choi, Howard; Caufield, J Harry; Wang, Wei; Ping, Peipei; Han, Jiawei

    2018-05-18

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins have been shown to play important roles regulating multiple biological processes in an array of organ systems, including the cardiovascular system. By using a novel bioinformatics text-mining tool, we studied six categories of cardiovascular disease (CVD), namely ischemic heart disease (IHD), cardiomyopathies (CM), cerebrovascular accident (CVA), congenital heart disease (CHD), arrhythmias (ARR), and valve disease (VD), anticipating novel ECM protein-disease and protein-protein relationships hidden within vast quantities of textual data. We conducted a phrase-mining analysis, delineating the relationships of 709 ECM proteins with the six groups of CVDs reported in 1,099,254 abstracts. The technology pipeline known as Context-aware Semantic Online Analytical Processing (CaseOLAP) was applied to semantically rank the association of proteins to each and all six CVDs, performing analyses to quantify each protein-disease relationship. We performed principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering of the data, where each protein is visualized as a six dimensional vector. We found that ECM proteins display variable degrees of association with the six CVDs; certain CVDs share groups of associated proteins whereas others have divergent protein associations. We identified 82 ECM proteins sharing associations with all six CVDs. Our bioinformatics analysis ascribed distinct ECM pathways (via Reactome) from this subset of proteins, namely insulin-like growth factor regulation and interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 signaling, suggesting their contribution to the pathogenesis of all six CVDs. Finally, we performed hierarchical clustering analysis and identified protein clusters associated with a targeted CVD; analyses revealed unexpected insights underlying ECM-pathogenesis of CVDs.

  3. Iron overload promotes erythroid apoptosis through regulating HIF-1a/ROS signaling pathway in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qing-Qing; Zhao, You-Shan; Guo, Juan; Zhao, Si-da; Song, Lu-Xi; Fei, Cheng-Ming; Zhang, Zheng; Li, Xiao; Chang, Chun-Kang

    2017-07-01

    Erythroid apoptosis increases significantly in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients with iron overload, but the underlying mechanism is not fully clear. In this study, we aim to explore the effect of HIF-1a/ROS on erythroid apoptosis in MDS patients with iron overload. We found that iron overload injured cellular functions through up-regulating ROS levels in MDS/AML cells, including inhibited cell viability, increased cell apoptosis and blocked cell cycle at G0/G1 phase. Interestingly, overexpression of hypoxia inducible factor-1a (HIF-1a), which was under-expressed in iron overload models, reduced ROS levels and attenuated cell damage caused by iron overload in MDS/AML cells. And gene knockdown of HIF-1a got the similar results as iron overload in MDS/AML cells. Furthermore, iron overload caused high erythroid apoptosis was closely related with ROS in MDS patients. Importantly, the HIF-1a protein levels of erythrocytes elevated obviously after incubation with desferrioxamine (DFO) from MDS patients with iron overload, accompanied by ROS levels inhibited and erythroid apoptosis reduced. Taken together, our findings determine that the HIF-1a/ROS signaling pathway plays a key role in promoting erythroid apoptosis in MDS patients with iron overload. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mitochondrial Ca2+ overload underlies Abeta oligomers neurotoxicity providing an unexpected mechanism of neuroprotection by NSAIDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Blasco, Sara; Valero, Ruth A; Rodríguez-Crespo, Ignacio; Villalobos, Carlos; Núñez, Lucía

    2008-07-23

    Dysregulation of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis may underlie amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) toxicity in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) but the mechanism is unknown. In search for this mechanism we found that Abeta(1-42) oligomers, the assembly state correlating best with cognitive decline in AD, but not Abeta fibrils, induce a massive entry of Ca(2+) in neurons and promote mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload as shown by bioluminescence imaging of targeted aequorin in individual neurons. Abeta oligomers induce also mitochondrial permeability transition, cytochrome c release, apoptosis and cell death. Mitochondrial depolarization prevents mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload, cytochrome c release and cell death. In addition, we found that a series of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) including salicylate, sulindac sulfide, indomethacin, ibuprofen and R-flurbiprofen depolarize mitochondria and inhibit mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload, cytochrome c release and cell death induced by Abeta oligomers. Our results indicate that i) mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload underlies the neurotoxicity induced by Abeta oligomers and ii) inhibition of mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload provides a novel mechanism of neuroprotection by NSAIDs against Abeta oligomers and AD.

  5. AMPKγ3 is dispensable for skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by functional overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Isabelle; Osler, Megan E; Björnholm, Marie; Egan, Brendan; Nader, Gustavo A; Chibalin, Alexander V; Zierath, Juleen R

    2016-03-15

    Mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle growth involve a balance between the activity of serine/threonine protein kinases, including the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The contribution of different AMPK subunits to the regulation of cell growth size remains inadequately characterized. Using AMPKγ3 mutant-overexpressing transgenic Tg-Prkag3(225Q) and AMPKγ3-knockout (Prkag3(-/-)) mice, we investigated the requirement for the AMPKγ3 isoform in functional overload-induced muscle hypertrophy. Although the genetic disruption of the γ3 isoform did not impair muscle growth, control sham-operated AMPKγ3-transgenic mice displayed heavier plantaris muscles in response to overload hypertrophy and underwent smaller mass gain and lower Igf1 expression compared with wild-type littermates. The mTOR signaling pathway was upregulated with functional overload but unchanged between genetically modified animals and wild-type littermates. Differences in AMPK-related signaling pathways between transgenic, knockout, and wild-type mice did not impact muscle hypertrophy. Glycogen content was increased following overload in wild-type mice. In conclusion, our functional, transcriptional, and signaling data provide evidence against the involvement of the AMPKγ3 isoform in the regulation of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Thus, the AMPKγ3 isoform is dispensable for functional overload-induced muscle growth. Mechanical loading can override signaling pathways that act as negative effectors of mTOR signaling and consequently promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Heat shock transcription factor 1-deficiency attenuates overloading-associated hypertrophy of mouse soleus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koya, Tomoyuki; Nishizawa, Sono; Ohno, Yoshitaka; Goto, Ayumi; Ikuta, Akihiro; Suzuki, Miho; Ohira, Tomotaka; Egawa, Tatsuro; Nakai, Akira; Sugiura, Takao; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Yoshioka, Toshitada; Beppu, Moroe; Goto, Katsumasa

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic stimuli, such as mechanical stress and overloading, induce stress response, which is mediated by heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1), and up-regulate heat shock proteins (HSPs) in mammalian skeletal muscles. Therefore, HSF1-associated stress response may play a key role in loading-associated skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of HSF1-deficiency on skeletal muscle hypertrophy caused by overloading. Functional overloading on the left soleus was performed by cutting the distal tendons of gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles for 4 weeks. The right muscle served as the control. Soleus muscles from both hindlimbs were dissected 2 and 4 weeks after the operation. Hypertrophy of soleus muscle in HSF1-null mice was partially inhibited, compared with that in wild-type (C57BL/6J) mice. Absence of HSF1 partially attenuated the increase of muscle wet weight and fiber cross-sectional area of overloaded soleus muscle. Population of Pax7-positive muscle satellite cells in HSF1-null mice was significantly less than that in wild-type mice following 2 weeks of overloading (pmuscle hypertrophy might be attributed to the greater and prolonged enhancement of IL-6 expression. HSF1 and/or HSF1-mediated stress response may, in part, play a key role in loading-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

  7. Mitochondrial Ca2+ overload underlies Abeta oligomers neurotoxicity providing an unexpected mechanism of neuroprotection by NSAIDs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Sanz-Blasco

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis may underlie amyloid beta peptide (Abeta toxicity in Alzheimer's Disease (AD but the mechanism is unknown. In search for this mechanism we found that Abeta(1-42 oligomers, the assembly state correlating best with cognitive decline in AD, but not Abeta fibrils, induce a massive entry of Ca(2+ in neurons and promote mitochondrial Ca(2+ overload as shown by bioluminescence imaging of targeted aequorin in individual neurons. Abeta oligomers induce also mitochondrial permeability transition, cytochrome c release, apoptosis and cell death. Mitochondrial depolarization prevents mitochondrial Ca(2+ overload, cytochrome c release and cell death. In addition, we found that a series of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs including salicylate, sulindac sulfide, indomethacin, ibuprofen and R-flurbiprofen depolarize mitochondria and inhibit mitochondrial Ca(2+ overload, cytochrome c release and cell death induced by Abeta oligomers. Our results indicate that i mitochondrial Ca(2+ overload underlies the neurotoxicity induced by Abeta oligomers and ii inhibition of mitochondrial Ca(2+ overload provides a novel mechanism of neuroprotection by NSAIDs against Abeta oligomers and AD.

  8. A study on fatigue crack growth behavior subjected to a single tensile overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Liaw, P.K.; Choo, H.; Rogge, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Neutron diffraction and electric potential experiments were carried out to investigate the growth behavior of a fatigue crack subjected to a single tensile overload. The specific objectives were to (i) probe the crack tip deformation and fracture behaviors under applied loads; (ii) examine the overload-induced transient crack growth micromechanism; (iii) validate the effective stress intensity factor range based on the crack closure approach as the fatigue crack tip driving force; and (iv) establish a quantitative relationship between the crack tip driving force and crack growth behavior. Immediately after a single tensile overload was introduced and then unloaded, the crack tip became blunt and enlarged compressive residual stresses in both magnitude and zone size were observed around the crack tip. The results show that the combined contributions of the overload-induced enlarged compressive residual stresses and crack tip blunting with secondary cracks are responsible for the observed changes in the crack opening load and the resultant post-overload transient crack growth behavior.

  9. Resilience of electricity grids against transmission line overloads under wind power injection at different nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiel, Christoph; Lind, Pedro G; Maass, Philipp

    2017-09-14

    A steadily increasing fraction of renewable energy sources for electricity production requires a better understanding of how stochastic power generation affects the stability of electricity grids. Here, we assess the resilience of an IEEE test grid against single transmission line overloads under wind power injection based on the dc power flow equations and a quasi-static grid response to wind fluctuations. Thereby we focus on the mutual influence of wind power generation at different nodes. We find that overload probabilities vary strongly between different pairs of nodes and become highly affected by spatial correlations of wind fluctuations. An unexpected behaviour is uncovered: for a large number of node pairs, increasing wind power injection at one node can increase the power threshold at the other node with respect to line overloads in the grid. We find that this seemingly paradoxical behaviour is related to the topological distance of the overloaded line from the shortest path connecting the wind nodes. In the considered test grid, it occurs for all node pairs, where the overloaded line belongs to the shortest path.

  10. Reducing unidentified MOV failures: An innovative approach to thermal overload monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, K.; Watson, M.E.; Ali, H.S.; Schlesinger, R.

    1991-01-01

    Historically the failure of motor-operated valves to actuate on demand has caused plant transients, reduced safety system reliability, and lost plant availability. The typical control and indication circuit design uses thermal overload contacts in the control circuit only. This has been recognized as a significant unidentified valve failure mode that may prevent the valve from performing its safety function when required. Different approaches have been evaluated to alert operations personnel to this thermal overload condition, but no cost-effective solution has provided indication of the thermal overload while maintaining valve position indication. Iowa Electric Light and Power Company's Duane Arnold Energy Center (DAEC) is utilizing a nuclear-qualified thermal overload monitor in valve control and indication circuits. This innovative approach has proven economical as no new cabling or indicating devices are required. Indication is provided using existing valve position indicating lights. The monitor is engineered to provide indication of a thermal overload trip as well as continuous indication of valve position, consistent with Regulatory Guide 1.97 and guidance provided by Generic Letter 89-10

  11. Update on the use of deferasirox in the management of iron overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Taher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ali Taher,1 Maria Domenica Cappellini21American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Universitá di Milano, Policlinico Foundation IRCCS, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Regular blood transfusions as supportive care for patients with chronic anemia inevitably lead to iron overload as humans cannot actively remove excess iron. The cumulative effects of iron overload cause significant morbidity and mortality if not effectively treated with chelation therapy. Based on a comprehensive clinical development program, the once-daily, oral iron chelator deferasirox (Exjade® is approved for the treatment of transfusional iron overload in adult and pediatric patients with various transfusion-dependent anemias, including β-thalassemia and the myelodysplastic syndromes. Deferasirox dose should be titrated for each individual patient based on transfusional iron intake, current iron burden and whether the goal is to decrease or maintain body iron levels. Doses of >30 mg/kg/day have been shown to be effective with a safety profile consistent with that observed at doses <30 mg/kg/day. Recent data have highlighted the ability of deferasirox to decrease cardiac iron levels and to prevent the accumulation of iron in the heart. The long-term efficacy and safety of deferasirox for up to 5 years of treatment have now been established. The availability of this effective and generally well tolerated oral therapy represents a significant advance in the management of transfusional iron overload. Keywords: deferasirox, Exjade, oral, iron chelation, iron overload, cardiac iron 

  12. Iron overload detection in rats by means of a susceptometer operating at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinelli, M; Gianesin, B; Avignolo, C; Parodi, S; Minganti, V

    2008-01-01

    Biosusceptometry is a non-invasive procedure for determination of iron overload in a human body; it is essentially an assessment of the diamagnetic (water) and paramagnetic (iron) properties of tissues. We measured in vivo iron overload in the liver region of 12 rats by a room temperature susceptometer. The rats had been injected with sub-toxic doses of iron dextran. A quantitative relationship has been observed between the measurements and the number of treatments. The assessment of iron overload requires evaluating the magnetic signal corresponding to the same rat ideally without the overload. This background value was extrapolated on the basis of the signal measured in control rats versus body weight (R 2 = 0.73). The mean iron overload values for the treated rats, obtained after each iron injection, were significantly different from the means of the corresponding control rats (p 2 = 0.89). The magnetic moment of iron atoms in liver tissues was measured to be 3.6 Bohr magneton. Evaluation of the background signal is the limit to the measure; the error corresponds to about 30 mg (1 SD) of iron while the instrument sensitivity is more than a factor of 10 better.

  13. Radionuclide stroke count ratios for assessment of right and left ventricular volume overload in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrish, M.D.; Graham, T.P. Jr.; Born, M.L.; Jones, J.P.; Boucek, R.J. Jr.; Artman, M.; Partain, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    The ratio of left ventricular to right ventricular stroke counts measured by radionuclide angiography has been used in adults to estimate the severity of left-sided valvular regurgitation. The validation of this technique in children for assessment of right and left ventricular volume overload is reported herein. Radionuclide stroke count ratios in 60 children aged 0.5 to 19 years (mean 11) were determined. Based on their diagnoses, the patients were divided into 3 groups: (1) normal--40 patients with no shunts or valvular regurgitation, (2) left ventricular volume overload--13 patients with mitral or aortic regurgitation, or both, and (3) right ventricular volume overload--7 patients, 2 with severe tricuspid regurgitation, 3 with atrial septal defects, and 2 with total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage. The radionuclide stroke count ratio clearly differentiated these groups (p less than 0.05): normal patients had a stroke count ratio of 1.04 +/- 0.17 (mean +/- 1 standard deviation), the left ventricular volume overload group had a stroke count ratio of 2.43 +/- 0.86, and the right ventricular volume overload group had a stroke count ratio of 0.44 +/- 0.17. In 22 of our 60 patients, radionuclide stroke count ratios were compared with cineangiographic stroke volume ratios, resulting in a correlation coefficient of 0.88. It is concluded that radionuclide ventriculography is an excellent tool for qualitative and quantitative assessment of valvular regurgitation in children

  14. Impact of iron overload and potential benefit from iron chelation in low-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Niraj; Vallumsetla, Nishanth; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer; Verma, Amit; Ginzburg, Yelena

    2014-08-07

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are a group of heterogeneous clonal bone marrow disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, peripheral blood cytopenias, and potential for malignant transformation. Lower/intermediate-risk MDSs are associated with longer survival and high red blood cell (RBC) transfusion requirements resulting in secondary iron overload. Recent data suggest that markers of iron overload portend a relatively poor prognosis, and retrospective analysis demonstrates that iron chelation therapy is associated with prolonged survival in transfusion-dependent MDS patients. New data provide concrete evidence of iron's adverse effects on erythroid precursors in vitro and in vivo. Renewed interest in the iron field was heralded by the discovery of hepcidin, the main serum peptide hormone negative regulator of body iron. Evidence from β-thalassemia suggests that regulation of hepcidin by erythropoiesis dominates regulation by iron. Because iron overload develops in some MDS patients who do not require RBC transfusions, the suppressive effect of ineffective erythropoiesis on hepcidin may also play a role in iron overload. We anticipate that additional novel tools for measuring iron overload and a molecular-mechanism-driven description of MDS subtypes will provide a deeper understanding of how iron metabolism and erythropoiesis intersect in MDSs and improve clinical management of this patient population. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  15. A composite mouse model of aplastic anemia complicated with iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dijiong; Wen, Xiaowen; Liu, Wenbin; Xu, Linlong; Ye, Baodong; Zhou, Yuhong

    2018-02-01

    Iron overload is commonly encountered during the course of aplastic anemia (AA), but no composite animal model has been developed yet, which hinders drug research. In the present study, the optimal dosage and duration of intraperitoneal iron dextran injection for the development of an iron overload model in mice were explored. A composite model of AA was successfully established on the principle of immune-mediated bone marrow failure. Liver volume, peripheral hemogram, bone marrow pathology, serum iron, serum ferritin, pathological iron deposition in multiple organs (liver, bone marrow, spleen), liver hepcidin, and bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6), SMAD family member 4 (SMAD4) and transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) mRNA expression levels were compared among the normal control, AA, iron overload and composite model groups to validate the composite model, and explore the pathogenesis and features of iron overload in this model. The results indicated marked increases in iron deposits, with significantly increased liver/body weight ratios as well as serum iron and ferritin in the iron overload and composite model groups as compared with the normal control and AA groups (Poverload and AA was successfully established, and AA was indicated to possibly have a critical role in abnormal iron metabolism, which promoted the development of iron deposits.

  16. Quantitative estimation of the right ventricular overloading by thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owada, Kenji; Machii, Kazuo; Tsukahara, Yasunori

    1982-01-01

    Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy was performed on 55 patients with various types of right ventricular overloading. The right ventricular (RV) free wall was visualized in 39 out of the 55 patients (71%). The mean values of right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and pulmonary artery mean pressure (PAMP) in the visualized cases (uptakers) were 54.6 +- 24.1 and 30.5 +- 15.3 mmHg, respectively. These values were significantly higher than those of the non-visualized cases (non-uptakers). There were 12 RVSP-''normotensive'' uptakers and 15 PAMP-''normotensive'' uptakers. The RV free wall images were classified into three types according to their morphological features. Type I was predominantly seen in cases of RV pressure overloading, type II in RV volume overloading and type III in combined ventricular overloading. RVSP in the type III group was significantly higher than that in other two groups. The radioactivity ratio in RV free wall and interventricular septum (IVS), the RV/IVS uptake ratio was calculated using left anterior oblique (LAO) view images. The RV/IVS uptake ratio closely correlated with RVSP and PAMP (r = 0.88 and 0.82, respectively). In each group of RV free wall image, there were also close correlations between the RV/IVS uptake ratio and both RVSP and PAMP. Our results indicate that the RV/IVS uptake ratio can be used as a parameter for the semi-quantitative estimation of right ventricular overloading. (author)

  17. Peculiarities on voltage - current characteristics of HTS tapes at overloading conditions cooled by liquid nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vysotsky, V S; Fetisov, S S; Sytnikov, V E

    2008-01-01

    Electro - technical devices are considered as the most prospective use for high temperature superconductors. For such devices the overload currents due to faults in grids are the operational reality. In these cases the fault currents may forcibly go to superconductors being sometimes dozens times more than the critical currents of HTS. Overloads are the working modes for fault current limiters also. To understand the behavior of HTS devices at overloads it is important to study voltage-current characteristics (VCC) of basic HTS tapes in real cooling conditions. The knowledge of VCC permits to model and to simulate properly HTS devices behavior at overloads. We performed the study of VCC of several HTS tapes at currents several times more than their critical ones. Both, 1-G and 2-G tapes were tested. There were found peculiarities or 'spikes' on VCC at rising currents that vanished at decaying currents. It was shown that such peculiarities are determined by the change of cooling conditions from the convective heat exchange to the nucleate boiling. Nucleate boiling activation and development times were determined. Their dependencies on heat release were measured. The data obtained can be used in simulation of heating of real superconducting devices at overload conditions

  18. Nursing management of sensory overload in psychiatry – Theoretical densification and modification of the framework model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheydt, Stefan; Needham, Ian; Behrens, Johann

    2017-01-01

    Background: Within the scope of the research project on the subjects of sensory overload and stimulus regulation, a theoretical framework model of the nursing care of patients with sensory overload in psychiatry was developed. In a second step, this theoretical model should now be theoretically compressed and, if necessary, modified. Aim: Empirical verification as well as modification, enhancement and theoretical densification of the framework model of nursing care of patients with sensory overload in psychiatry. Method: Analysis of 8 expert interviews by summarizing and structuring content analysis methods based on Meuser and Nagel (2009) as well as Mayring (2010). Results: The developed framework model (Scheydt et al., 2016b) could be empirically verified, theoretically densificated and extended by one category (perception modulation). Thus, four categories of nursing care of patients with sensory overload can be described in inpatient psychiatry: removal from stimuli, modulation of environmental factors, perceptual modulation as well as help somebody to help him- or herself / coping support. Conclusions: Based on the methodological approach, a relatively well-saturated, credible conceptualization of a theoretical model for the description of the nursing care of patients with sensory overload in stationary psychiatry could be worked out. In further steps, these measures have to be further developed, implemented and evaluated regarding to their efficacy.

  19. Information Retrieval in Biomedical Research: From Articles to Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Information retrieval techniques have been applied to biomedical research for a variety of purposes, such as textual document retrieval and molecular data retrieval. As biomedical research evolves over time, information retrieval is also constantly facing new challenges, including the growing number of available data, the emerging new data types,…

  20. Uncoupling and oxidative stress in liver mitochondria isolated from rats with acute iron overload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo Andreu, G.L. [Centro de Quimica Farmaceutica, Departamento de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba); Inada, N.M.; Vercesi, A.E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Departamento de Patologia Clinica, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Curti, C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2009-01-15

    One hypothesis for the etiology of cell damage arising from iron overload is that its excess selectively affects mitochondria. Here we tested the effects of acute iron overload on liver mitochondria isolated from rats subjected to a single dose of i.p. 500 mg/kg iron-dextran. The treatment increased the levels of iron in mitochondria (from 21{+-}4 to 130{+-}7 nmol/mg protein) and caused both lipid peroxidation and glutathione oxidation. The mitochondria of iron-treated rats showed lower respiratory control ratio in association with higher resting respiration. The mitochondrial uncoupling elicited by iron-treatment did not affect the phosphorylation efficiency or the ATP levels, suggesting that uncoupling is a mitochondrial protective mechanism against acute iron overload. Therefore, the reactive oxygen species (ROS)/H{sup +} leak couple, functioning as a mitochondrial redox homeostatic mechanism could play a protective role in the acutely iron-loaded mitochondria. (orig.)

  1. A new approach to quantify the additional effect of primary overloads on ratcheting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waeckel, N.; Faure, O.; Sperandio, M.; Cousin, M.; Taleb, L.

    1991-01-01

    Taking into account the temporary nature of overloads reduces the conservatism of the current RCC-MR rules for prevention of ratcheting. An empirical K factor determined by the BITUBE tests carried out at INSA LYON, permits to quantify the influence of short-term mechanical overloads by comparison with the case without overload. The prediction of ratcheting risks by the RCC-MR efficiency diagram using a fictitious increased primary load by a K-factor is more fitted to the design of structures submitted to seisms. From then on, taking advantage of the workability of the experimental device BITUBE a new tests program has begun to confirm the results expressed above. (author)

  2. The impact of faulty response of overload protection systems on the reliability of electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweigert, J.; Schnuerer, G.

    1988-01-01

    Protection equipment of the engineered safety system which is to prevent the triggering of actions via signals from the reactor protection system is to be made so reliable that it has no impact on the non-availability of the supplied systems. Design and functional mode of the various overload protection equipment and the relevant switching device and combinations are explained together with the requirements such as choice, design, and adjustment of the protection equipment, followed by a survey of possible causes of faulty response of overload protection device and of the means and measures available for improvement. The now presented version of September 1987 of the 'overload protection report deals basically with all main topics of the Juli 1985 version, but has been updated and extended by material taking into account practice-oriented data on the new developments in convoy power plant design. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Effect of short-term overloads on crack propagation under creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushok, V.V.; Sobolev, N.D.; Zolotukhin, S.Yu.

    1986-01-01

    Kinetics of crack propagation after overload has been studied using plane samples of Kh18N10T steel. Tests of samples with a notch have been carried out in the air at 293 K. Observation of the crack growth has been carried out by the microscope and the method of electric potential difference. It is established that during overload besides crack tip blunting, decrease of creep rate of the material stregthened near it, that leads to crack retardation, decrease of plasticity and formation of microcracks in front of the tip of the main-line crack occurs. It is marked that, estimating serviceability of a member, it is necessary to take into account the decrease of crack propagation rate after short term overloads

  4. Analysis of short and long crack behavior and single overload effect by crack opening stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sam Hong; Lee, Kyeong Ro

    1999-01-01

    The study analyzed the behaviors of short and long crack as well as the effect of single tensile overload on the crack behaviors by using fatigue crack opening behavior. Crack opening stress is measured by an elastic compliance method which may precisely and continuously provide many data using strain gages during experiment. The unusual growth behaviors of short crack and crack after the single tensile overload applied, was explained by the variations of crack opening stress. In addition, fatigue crack growth rate was expressed as a linear form for short crack as for long crack by using effective stress intensity factor range as fracture mechanical parameter, which is based on crack closure concept. And investigation is performed with respect to the relation between plastic zone size formed at the crack tip and crack retardation, crack length and the number of cycles promoted or retarded, and the overload effect on the fatigue life

  5. Informe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egon Lichetenberger

    1950-10-01

    Full Text Available Informe del doctor Egon Lichetenberger ante el Consejo Directivo de la Facultad, sobre el  curso de especialización en Anatomía Patológica patrocinado por la Kellogg Foundation (Departamento de Patología

  6. Overload-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy is not impaired in STZ-diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Marco Aurélio S; Pinheiro, Carlos Hermano J; Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; Vitzel, Kaio F; Vasconcelos, Diogo A A; Curi, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of overload-induced hypertrophy on extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The overload-induced hypertrophy and absolute tetanic and twitch forces increases in EDL and soleus muscles were not different between diabetic and control rats. Phospho-Akt and rpS6 contents were increased in EDL muscle after 7 days of overload and returned to the pre-overload values after 30 days. In the soleus muscle, the contents of total and phospho-Akt and total rpS6 were increased in both groups after 7 days. The contents of total Akt in controls and total rpS6 and phospho-Akt in the diabetic rats remained increased after 30 days. mRNA expression after 7 days of overload in the EDL muscle of control and diabetic animals showed an increase in MGF and follistatin and a decrease in myostatin and Axin2. The expression of FAK was increased and of MuRF-1 and atrogin-1 decreased only in the control group, whereas Ankrd2 expression was enhanced only in diabetic rats. In the soleus muscle caused similar changes in both groups: increase in FAK and MGF and decrease in Wnt7a, MuRF-1, atrogin-1, and myostatin. Differences between groups were observed only in the increased expression of follistatin in diabetic animals and decreased Ankrd2 expression in the control group. So, insulin deficiency does not impair the overload-induced hypertrophic response in soleus and EDL muscles. However, different mechanisms seem to be involved in the comparable hypertrophic responses of skeletal muscle in control and diabetic animals. PMID:26197932

  7. Correlation between Ribosome Biogenesis and the Magnitude of Hypertrophy in Overloaded Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Satoshi; Ogasawara, Riki; Kawada, Shigeo; Maekawa, Takahiro; Ishii, Naokata

    2016-01-01

    External loads applied to skeletal muscle cause increases in the protein translation rate, which leads to muscle hypertrophy. Although some studies have demonstrated that increases in the capacity and efficiency of translation are involved in this process, it remains unclear how these two factors are related to the magnitude of muscle hypertrophy. The present study aimed to clarify the roles played by the capacity and efficiency of translation in muscle hypertrophy. We used an improved synergist ablation in which the magnitude of compensatory hypertrophy could be controlled by partial removal of synergist muscles. Male rats were assigned to four groups in which the plantaris muscle was unilaterally subjected to weak (WK), moderate (MO), middle (MI), and strong (ST) overloading by four types of synergist ablation. Fourteen days after surgery, the weight of the plantaris muscle per body weight increased by 8%, 22%, 32% and 45%, in the WK, MO, MI and ST groups, respectively. Five days after surgery, 18+28S rRNA content (an indicator of translational capacity) increased with increasing overload, with increases of 1.8-fold (MO), 2.2-fold (MI), and 2.5-fold (ST), respectively, relative to non-overloaded muscle (NL) in the WK group. rRNA content showed a strong correlation with relative muscle weight measured 14 days after surgery (r = 0.98). The phosphorylated form of p70S6K (a positive regulator of translational efficiency) showed a marked increase in the MO group, but no further increase was observed with further increase in overload (increases of 22.6-fold (MO), 17.4-fold (MI), and 18.2-fold (ST), respectively, relative to NL in the WK group). These results indicate that increases in ribosome biogenesis at the early phase of overloading are strongly dependent on the amount of overloading, and may play an important role in increasing the translational capacity for further gain of muscular size.

  8. Hepatic iron overload is associated with hepatocyte apoptosis during Clonorchis sinensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Su; Tang, Qiaoran; Chen, Rui; Li, Yihong; Shu, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoli

    2017-08-01

    Hepatic iron overload has been implicated in many liver diseases; however, whether it is involved in clonorchiasis remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) infection causes hepatic iron overload, analyze the relationship between the iron overload and associated cell apoptosis, so as to determine the role of excess iron plays in C. sinensis-induced liver injury. The Perls' Prussian staining and atomic absorption spectrometry methods were used to investigate the iron overload in hepatic sections of wistar rats and patients infected with C. sinensis. The hepatic apoptosis was detected by transferase uridyl nick end labeling (TUNEL) methods. Spearman analysis was used for determining the correlation of the histological hepatic iron index and the apoptotic index. Blue iron particles were deposited mainly in the hepatocytes, Kupffer cells and endothelial cells, around the liver portal and central vein area of both patients and rats. The total iron score was found to be higher in the infected groups than the respective control from 8 weeks. The hepatic iron concentration was also significantly higher in treatment groups than in control rats from 8 weeks. The hepatocyte apoptosis was found to be significantly higher in the portal area of the liver tissue and around the central vein. However, spearman's rank correlation coefficient revealed that there was a mildly negative correlation between the iron index and hepatocyte apoptosis. This present study confirmed that hepatic iron overload was found during C. sinensis infection. This suggests that iron overload may be associated with hepatocyte apoptosis and involved in liver injury during C. sinensis infection. Further studies are needed to investigate the molecular mechanism involved here.

  9. Worse cardiac remodeling in response to pressure overload in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, N; Gomes-Ferreira, C; Moura, C; Roncon-Albuquerque, R; Leite-Moreira, A F; Falcão-Pires, I

    2016-08-15

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is characterized by cardiac structural and functional abnormalities. Additionally, chronic pressure overload conditions are highly prevalent amongst diabetic population and this association leads to a more severe myocardial impairment. The differences in myocardial pathophysiology between type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) still remain to be clarified. Thus, we aimed to investigate biventricular structural and functional changes promoted by the two types of DM and the impact of concomitant chronic pressure overload. Wistar rats were injected with streptozotocin (Type 1 DM, T1DM) or fed with a hypercaloric diet (Type 2 DM, T2DM). Pressure overload was imposed in DM animals by aortic constriction and after 5weeks of DM the cardiac function and structure were evaluated. Both types of DM promoted hypertrophy, increased fibrosis and advanced glycation end-products deposition, in the two ventricles. Interestingly, the induced myocardial alterations were distinct. While T1DM stimulated a pronounced hypertrophy and extracellular matrix remodeling, T2DM induced functional impairment. The negative impact of the association of DM with aortic constriction was more pronounced in T2DM, promoting impaired function and increased stiffness, particularly in the right ventricle. Our study demonstrated that the two types of diabetes induce distinct cardiac alterations per se or when combined with chronic pressure overload. T1DM promoted a more extensive remodeling in cardiac structure while T2DM significantly impaired ventricular function. The impact of pressure overload was more notorious in T2DM as observed by worse myocardial remodeling, suggesting a higher susceptibility to the deleterious effects of chronic pressure overload, namely hypertension, among this diabetic population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of Iron Overload in Homozygous and Heterozygous Beta Thalassemic Children below 5 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiraj J. Trivedi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thalassemia is a genetic disease having 3-7% carrier rate in Indians. It is transfusion dependent anemia having high risk of iron overloading. A clinical symptom of iron overload becomes detectable in second decade causing progressive liver, heart and endocrine glands damage. There is a need to assess iron overload in thalassemics below 5 years of age to protect them from complications at later age of life. Aims and objectives: Present study was undertaken to estimate serum iron status and evaluate serum transferrin saturation in both homozygous & heterozygous form of thalassemia as an index of iron overload among children of one to five years of age. Materials and Methods: Clinically diagnosed thirty cases of β thalassemia major & thirty cases of β thalassemia minor having severe anemia, hepatospleenomegaly and between 1 year to 5 years of age were included in study group and same age matched healthy controls were included in the study. RBC indices and HbA, HbA2 and HbF were estimated along with serum iron & serum Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC and serum transferrin levels. Results: Significant difference was observed in hemoglobin levels between control and both beta thalassemia groups. Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH values were reduced. Hemoglobin electrophoresis showed the elevated levels of HbF and HbA2 in both beta thalassemia groups. Among serum iron parameters, serum iron, TIBC and transferrin saturation were elevated whereas serum transferrin levels were low in thalassemia major in children below 5 years of age. Conclusion: Although clinical symptoms of iron overload have been absent in thalassemic children below five years of age, biochemical iron overloading has started at much lower age which is of great concern.

  11. Volume overload and adverse outcomes in chronic kidney disease: clinical observational and animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Szu-Chun; Lai, Yi-Shin; Kuo, Ko-Lin; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2015-05-05

    Volume overload is frequently encountered and is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the relationship between volume overload and adverse outcomes in CKD is not fully understood. A prospective cohort of 338 patients with stage 3 to 5 CKD was followed for a median of 2.1 years. The study participants were stratified by the presence or absence of volume overload, defined as an overhydration index assessed by bioimpedance spectroscopy exceeding 7%, the 90th percentile for the healthy population. The primary outcome was the composite of estimated glomerular filtration rate decline ≥50% or end-stage renal disease. The secondary outcome included a composite of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular causes. Animal models were used to simulate fluid retention observed in human CKD. We found that patients with volume overload were at a higher risk of the primary and secondary end points in the adjusted Cox models. Furthermore, overhydration appears to be more important than hypertension in predicting an elevated risk. In rats subjected to unilateral nephrectomy and a high-salt diet, the extracellular water significantly increased. This fluid retention was associated with an increase in blood pressure, proteinuria, renal inflammation with macrophage infiltration and tumor necrosis factor-α overexpression, glomerular sclerosis, and cardiac fibrosis. Diuretic treatment with indapamide attenuated these changes, suggesting that fluid retention might play a role in the development of adverse outcomes. Volume overload contributes to CKD progression and cardiovascular diseases. Further research is warranted to clarify whether the correction of volume overload would improve outcomes for CKD patients. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  12. Correlation between Ribosome Biogenesis and the Magnitude of Hypertrophy in Overloaded Skeletal Muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Nakada

    Full Text Available External loads applied to skeletal muscle cause increases in the protein translation rate, which leads to muscle hypertrophy. Although some studies have demonstrated that increases in the capacity and efficiency of translation are involved in this process, it remains unclear how these two factors are related to the magnitude of muscle hypertrophy. The present study aimed to clarify the roles played by the capacity and efficiency of translation in muscle hypertrophy. We used an improved synergist ablation in which the magnitude of compensatory hypertrophy could be controlled by partial removal of synergist muscles. Male rats were assigned to four groups in which the plantaris muscle was unilaterally subjected to weak (WK, moderate (MO, middle (MI, and strong (ST overloading by four types of synergist ablation. Fourteen days after surgery, the weight of the plantaris muscle per body weight increased by 8%, 22%, 32% and 45%, in the WK, MO, MI and ST groups, respectively. Five days after surgery, 18+28S rRNA content (an indicator of translational capacity increased with increasing overload, with increases of 1.8-fold (MO, 2.2-fold (MI, and 2.5-fold (ST, respectively, relative to non-overloaded muscle (NL in the WK group. rRNA content showed a strong correlation with relative muscle weight measured 14 days after surgery (r = 0.98. The phosphorylated form of p70S6K (a positive regulator of translational efficiency showed a marked increase in the MO group, but no further increase was observed with further increase in overload (increases of 22.6-fold (MO, 17.4-fold (MI, and 18.2-fold (ST, respectively, relative to NL in the WK group. These results indicate that increases in ribosome biogenesis at the early phase of overloading are strongly dependent on the amount of overloading, and may play an important role in increasing the translational capacity for further gain of muscular size.

  13. Evaluation Of The Overload Of Care In Families Of Psychiatric Patients In Psychosocial Care Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayron Morais Almeida

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The burden of care in family refers to the weight caused by the primary caregiver role to psychiatric patients and the difficulties encountered in performing this function in daily life. Objectives: Assessing the objective and subjective overload of family members who live with the reality of psychiatric disorder in a child day-care psychosocial care center. Methods: Cross-sectional study, descriptive-exploratory, of quantitative approach, with non-probabilistic samples of accidental type with 80 families of psychiatric patients held in a Psychosocial Care Center. For overload evaluation, the subscales "B" and "D" of the Family Overload Rating Scale (FBIS-BR were used. Results: The study was conducted with 80 families of psychiatric patients. The average age of female caregivers was 39,6 years old, and 40,7 years old for male caregivers, with female predominance (87,5% compared to men (12,5%, with low education for both genres. Family caregivers presented high objective burden due to excessive demand attention (p<0,001, heteroaggressiveness (p<0,001 and perplexing behavior of psychiatric patients regarding the supervision of problematic behaviors (p<0,001. The items on the impact on the family's daily routine have not helped to generate objective overload for the family members. On subjective overload, it was clear to observe familiar members with high degree of disturbance in all the dimensions assessed (p < 0,001. Conclusion: The high degree of care overload observed in family members indicates the need to develop contacts with the family of the psychiatric patient to answer questions, offer support and assistance to the family caregiver. Keywords: Caregivers. Patients. Mental Health Services.

  14. El hipertexto en la Enseñanza Media en Chile: ¿Es pertinente aplicar los enfoques textuales tradicionales?

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Ayala Pérez

    2012-01-01

    Los textos digitales constituyen parte importante de la comunicación en la sociedad de la información y recientemente han sido incluidos en los programas de Lenguaje y Comunicación de E.M. en Chile. Ante esta situación, cabe preguntarse si los tradicionales enfoques textuales, elaborados a partir del texto impreso en los años 70 y 80 y utilizados actualmente en Enseñanza Media, resultan aplicables al hipertexto. En este trabajo se describen algunos rasgos de este tipo de texto y se reflexiona...

  15. Controlling Price-Responsive Heat Pumps for Overload Elimination in Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csetvei, Zsuzsa; Østergaard, Jacob; Nyeng, Preben

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of applying electric heat pumps with the control-by-price-concept in order to avoid overload in a local distribution system. The proposed control algorithm is based upon a centrally dispatched real-time market price, reflecting the state of a larger power...... system, and is extended with a local price control for overload elimination on the corresponding feeder. The paper presents the mathematical models of a two-node system with price-responsive heat pumps, the chosen methodology of the central price calculation, and the proposed local feedback control...

  16. Geiger-mueller radiation detector with means for detecting and indicating the existence of radiation overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, T.; Mills, A.P.; Pfeiffer, L.N.

    1981-01-01

    When subjected to radiation overload existing geiger-mueller counters may give an erroneously low reading, resulting in possible hazard to personnel. The instant invention discloses simple and inexpensive apparatus to remedy this dangerous shortcoming. Depending on the geometry of the detector tube, two possible failure modes have been identified, and circuitry is disclosed to detect the existence of these respective failure modes. The disclosed apparatus indicates the absence of an overload condition, in addition to signaling, by both visible and audible means, the existence of excessive radiation that might result in erroneously low reading of the geiger-mueller counter

  17. Occlusal overload investigations by noninvasive technology: fluorescence microscopy and en-face optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcauteanu, Corina; Negrutiu, Meda; Sinescu, Cosmin; Demjan, Enikö; Hughes, Michael; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study is the early detection and monitoring of occlusal overload in bruxing patients. En-Face Optical coherence tomography (eF-OCT) and fluorescence microscopy (FM) were used for the imaging of several anterior teeth extracted from patients with light active bruxism. We found a characteristic pattern of enamel cracks, that reached the tooth surface. We concluded that the combination of the en-Face OCT and FM is a promising non-invasive alternative technique for reliable monitoring of occlusal overload.

  18. 30 CFR 77.506-1 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... short circuit protection; minimum requirements. 77.506-1 Section 77.506-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY...-1 Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection; minimum requirements. Devices providing either short circuit protection or protection against overload shall conform to the...

  19. Work Processes, Role Conflict, and Role Overload: The Case of Nurses and Engineers in the Public Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacharach, Samuel B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Study of five sets of work process variables and their relationship to role conflict and overload among public sector nurses and engineers found managerial strategies appropriate for minimizing role conflict not necessarily appropriate for minimizing role overload. Some work process predictors may be similar across professions, and managerial…

  20. As funções dos tipos textuais no interior do gênero discurso de propaganda The functions of the textual types in the gender advertising speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldivia Maria de Jesus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe refletir acerca do ensino de leitura e escrita pela abordagem de gêneros, com foco nas funções que os tipos textuais desempenham no interior do gênero discurso de propaganda. Reflete-se sobre problemas que envolvem a conceitualização de gênero textual / gênero de discurso, tipos textuais / formas textuais, com ênfase na definição de gênero mais adequada ao ensino. O corpus desses estudos constitui-se de uma peça publicitária veiculada no jornal Folha de S. Paulo. E as reflexões se ancoram no Funcionalismo (HALLIDAY, 1985, na Semântica Pragmática (VAN DIJK, 1978 e na Análise do Discurso (MAINGUENEAU, 2002.This article proposes a reflection about the teaching of reading and writing on the genre approach, focusing on the function that textual types play within the genre advertising discourse. It reflects on issues surrounding the conceptualization of textual genre / discourse genre, textual types / textual forms, observing the most appropriate definition of genre to teach mother language. The studied corpus is constituted by an advertising piece published in Folha de S. Paulo. And the reflections rest on the Functionalism (HALLIDAY, 1985, on the Semantic Pragmatic (VAN DIJK, 1979, on the Discourse Analysis (MAINGUENEAU, 2002.

  1. Diagnosis, management and response criteria of iron overload in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS): updated recommendations of the Austrian MDS platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Peter; Stauder, Reinhard; Theurl, Igor; Geissler, Klaus; Sliwa, Thamer; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Bettelheim, Peter; Sill, Heinz; Pfeilstöcker, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Despite the availability of effective iron chelators, transfusion-related morbidity is still a challenge in chronically transfused patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). In these patients, transfusion-induced iron overload may lead to organ dysfunction or even organ failure. In addition, iron overload is associated with reduced overall survival in MDS. Areas covered: During the past 10 years, various guidelines for the management of MDS patients with iron overload have been proposed. In the present article, we provide our updated recommendations for the diagnosis, prevention and therapy of iron overload in MDS. In addition, we propose refined treatment response criteria. As in 2006 and 2007, recommendations were discussed and formulated by participants of our Austrian MDS platform in a series of meetings in 2016 and 2017. Expert commentary: Our updated recommendations should support early recognition of iron overload, optimal patient management and the measurement of clinical responses to chelation treatment in daily practice.

  2. Fatigue History and in-situ Loading Studies of the overload Effect Using High Resolution X-ray Strain Profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, M.; Jisrawi, N.; Zhong, Z.; Holtz, R.; Sadananda, K.; Skaritka, J.; Tsakalakos, T.

    2007-01-01

    High-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments are used to perform local crack plane strain profiling of 4140 steel compact tension specimens fatigued at constant amplitude, subjected to a single overload cycle, then fatigued some more at constant amplitude. X-ray strain profiling results on a series of samples employing in-situ load cycling are correlated with the crack growth rate (da/dN) providing insight into the da/dN retardation known as the 'overload effect'. Immediately after the overload, the strain under maximum load is greatly reduced but the range of strain, between zero and maximum load, remains unchanged compared to the pre-overload values. At the point of maximum retardation, it is the strain range that is greatly reduced while the maximum-load strain has begun to recover to the pre-overload value. For a sample that has recovered to approximately half of the original da/dN value following the overload, the strain at maximum load is fully recovered while the strain range, though partially recovered, is still substantially reduced. The dominance of the strain range in the overload effect is clearly indicated. Subject to some assumptions, strong quantitative support for a crack growth rate driving force of the suggested form [(K max ) -p (ΔK) p ] γ is found. A dramatic nonlinear load dependence in the spatial distribution of the strain at maximum retardation is also demonstrated: at low load the response is dominantly at the overload position; whereas at high loads it is dominantly at the crack tip position. This transfer of load response away from the crack tip to the overload position appears fundamental to the overload effect for high R-ratio fatigue as studied here

  3. Hacia una biblioteca electrónica textual del teatro en español de 1868-1936 (BETTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Calvo Tello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-9288.2015v11n2p171 En este artículo se presenta el proyecto BETTE que consiste en la creación de una biblioteca electrónica textual del teatro en español de 1868-1936. Este proyecto lo lleva a cabo el grupo GHEDI (Grupo de Humanidades y edición digital de la Universidad Internacional de la Rioja (UNIR. El texto presenta un breve panorama de los cambios introducidos por el impacto de lo digital en el ámbito de la edición textual y  ofrece un estado de la cuestión de los proyectos que actualmente desarrollan las bibliotecas electrónicas que utilizan XML-TEI para codificar textos electrónicos. Asimismo, en él se presta atención  a los llamados lenguajes de marcado y se presentan algunas características de TEI (Text Encoding Initiative. Finalmente, se describen las particularidades de nuestro proyecto, objetivos y primeros avances.

  4. Hacia una didáctica de la composición textual en la escuela infantil y primaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita CASANUEVA HERNÁNDEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Parece urgente la necesidad de una didáctica del texto para ser aplicada en la enseñanza de la lengua en la Escuela, que tenga en cuenta el actual enfoque comunicativo, en el que se concibe al discurso como el nivel de desarrollo real y no teórico del lenguaje, y en el que, en este sentido, coinciden tres tipos de relaciones: semánticas, gramaticales (incluyendo los niveles de morfema, sintagma y oración y pragmáticas. Es de esperar que el nuevo planteamiento palie, en gran medida, problemas relativos a la comprensión y expresión oral y escrita, tales como la coherencia en la composición textual y la ortografía, que afectan a todos los niveles de enseñanza.ABSTRACT: There is a need for text instructions that keep in mind the actual communicative focus to be applied in the teaching of language in Elementary Schools in which the discourse is conceived as a level of real development and not a theoretical one thereby linking three relationships: semantic, grammatical (including levels of morphemes, syntagm and sentence and pragmatic. It is hoped that this new suggestion will greatly mitigate, those problems related to oral and written comprehension and expression such as coherence in a textual context and spelling, which affect all levels of teaching.

  5. The social organization of representations of history: the textual accomplishment of coming to terms with the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tileagă, Cristian

    2009-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the social organization of collective memory and representations of history in the context of how post-communist democracies reckon with former regimes. It specifically centres on the textual accomplishment of coming to terms with the past in the 'Tismăneanu Report' condemning Communism in Romania. The focus is on how the Report displays and shapes the ideological contours of coming to terms with the past around a particular 'social representation' of history. Several constitutive features of the Report that facilitate bringing off a particular 'representation of history' are identified: (a) the construction of a practical framework for the inquiry as a matter of public concern and attention; (b) the production of 'Communism' as an empirical category with uniquely bound features; and (c) the structuring of time by bringing together a political agenda and national identity. The present argument tries to place representations of history (and coming to terms with the past) as something in need of constitution rather than simply relied on. It is suggested that a conception of coming to terms with the past as a textual accomplishment may lead to a fuller appreciation of the structure, function and salience of representations of history as integral part of moral/political/legal courses of action.

  6. Practical ontologies for information professionals

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2071712

    2016-01-01

    Practical Ontologies for Information Professionals provides an introduction to ontologies and their development, an essential tool for fighting back against information overload. The development of robust and widely used ontologies is an increasingly important tool in the fight against information overload. The publishing and sharing of explicit explanations for a wide variety of conceptualizations, in a machine readable format, has the power to both improve information retrieval and identify new knowledge. This new book provides an accessible introduction to the following: * What is an ontology? Defining the concept and why it is increasingly important to the information professional * Ontologies and the semantic web * Existing ontologies, such as SKOS, OWL, FOAF, schema.org, and the DBpedia Ontology * Adopting and building ontologies, showing how to avoid repetition of work and how to build a simple ontology with Protege * Interrogating semantic web ontologies * The future of ontologies and the role of the ...

  7. Exploring the Textual Metafunction in a Biblical-Fictional Parable in Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o’s Devil on the Cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yémalo C. Amoussou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the textual metafunctional patterns in two fictional versions of a Biblical Parable in Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o’s novel Devil on the Cross (1982 in order to find the similarities and differences between their compositional features. It critically draws on the theory of systemic functional linguistics expounded by specialists like Halliday (1994, Halliday and Matthiessen (2004 and Eggins (2004 to overview the theoretical background to the study, with focus on the grammar of textual meaning, proposes a new Theme classification and uses it to analyze the Thematic structure and taxis system of the two extracts. The researcher has come to the conclusion that, though they are initially spoken, these texts show such interesting textual-meaning properties as the density of ellipsis, of circumstantial and interpersonal thematization, of taxis and rank shift that they should be qualified to belong to both spoken and written mode of discourse.

  8. Association between filial responsibility when caring for parents and the caregivers overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinês Aires

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the association between filial responsibility and the overload of the children when caring for their older parents. Method: Cross-sectional study with 100 caregiver children of older adults. Filial liability was assessed by the attitudes of the responsible child (scale of expectation and filial duty and by care behaviors (assistance in activities of daily living, emotional and financial support, and keeping company. The overload was assessed by the Caregiver Burden Inventory. To assess the associations, the correlation coefficients of Pearson and Spearman, Kruskal-Wallis Test, and Mann-Whitney were employed. Variables that presented p-value<0.20 in the bivariate analysis were inserted in a multivariate linear regression model. Results: The factors associated with overload were: formal employment (p=0.002, feelings regarding family life (p<0.001, financial support (p=0.027, and assistance with Activities of Daily Living (ADLs (p<0.001. Conclusion: Children who were more involved with the ADLs and provided financial support showed higher levels of overload.

  9. The "Tyranny of Choice": Choice Overload as a Possible Instance of Effort Discounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Derek D.; Reed, Florence D. DiGennaro; Chok, James; Brozyna, Gary A.

    2011-01-01

    When making a choice, people like to have options, but an emerging literature on "choice overload" suggests that the provision of too many options results in adverse experiences, including a depletion of cognitive resources and postdecision feelings of regret. A strong implication is that individuals should shy away from situations…

  10. 77 FR 11598 - Thermal Overload Protection for Electric Motors on Motor-Operated Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... application of thermal overload protection devices that are integral with the motor starter for electric... Research, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001, telephone: 301-251-7455; email... Development Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. [FR Doc. 2012-4552 Filed 2...

  11. An overload behavior detection system for engineering transport vehicles based on deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Libo; Wu, Gang

    2018-04-01

    This paper builds an overloaded truck detect system called ITMD to help traffic department automatically identify the engineering transport vehicles (commonly known as `dirt truck') in CCTV and determine whether the truck is overloaded or not. We build the ITMD system based on the Single Shot MultiBox Detector (SSD) model. By constructing the image dataset of the truck and adjusting hyper-parameters of the original SSD neural network, we successfully trained a basic network model which the ITMD system depends on. The basic ITMD system achieves 83.01% mAP on classifying overload/non-overload truck, which is a not bad result. Still, some shortcomings of basic ITMD system have been targeted to enhance: it is easy for the ITMD system to misclassify other similar vehicle as truck. In response to this problem, we optimized the basic ITMD system, which effectively reduced basic model's false recognition rate. The optimized ITMD system achieved 86.18% mAP on the test set, which is better than the 83.01% mAP of the basic ITMD system.

  12. Fatty emaciation: a case report of suspected fat overload syndrome in oral refeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macher, Arielle D; Palazuelos, Daniel; Maviglia, Saverio M

    2012-07-01

    Refeeding syndrome has been observed in patients receiving nutrition after a prolonged period of malnourishment and is characterized by multiple metabolic derangements. Besides hypophosphatemia and hypoglycemia, lipemia has been described in association with parenteral nutrition administration to the malnourished. The authors describe one anorexic patient who developed lipemia during oral refeeding, followed by a precipitous drop in hematocrit suggestive of fat overload syndrome.

  13. Global transcriptional response to Hfe deficiency and dietary iron overload in mouse liver and duodenum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Rodriguez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential trace element whose absorption is usually tightly regulated in the duodenum. HFE-related hereditary hemochromatosis (HH is characterized by abnormally low expression of the iron-regulatory hormone, hepcidin, which results in increased iron absorption. The liver is crucial for iron homeostasis as it is the main production site of hepcidin. The aim of this study was to explore and compare the genome-wide transcriptome response to Hfe deficiency and dietary iron overload in murine liver and duodenum. Illumina arrays containing over 47,000 probes were used to study global transcriptional changes. Quantitative RT-PCR (Q-RT-PCR was used to validate the microarray results. In the liver, the expression of 151 genes was altered in Hfe(-/- mice while dietary iron overload changed the expression of 218 genes. There were 173 and 108 differentially expressed genes in the duodenum of Hfe(-/- mice and mice with dietary iron overload, respectively. There was 93.5% concordance between the results obtained by microarray analysis and Q-RT-PCR. Overexpression of genes for acute phase reactants in the liver and a strong induction of digestive enzyme genes in the duodenum were characteristic of the Hfe-deficient genotype. In contrast, dietary iron overload caused a more pronounced change of gene expression responsive to oxidative stress. In conclusion, Hfe deficiency caused a previously unrecognized increase in gene expression of hepatic acute phase proteins and duodenal digestive enzymes.

  14. Iron Overload Leading to Torsades de Pointes in β-Thalassemia and Long QT Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refaat, Marwan M; El Hage, Lea; Steffensen, Annette Buur

    2016-01-01

    The authors present a unique case of torsades de pointes in a β-thalassemia patient with early iron overload in the absence of any structural abnormalities as seen in hemochromatosis. Genetic testing showed a novel KCNQ1 gene mutation 1591C>T [Gln531Ter(X)]. Testing of the gene mutation in Xenopus...

  15. 30 CFR 77.506 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short-circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... short-circuit protection. 77.506 Section 77.506 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... circuits; overload and short-circuit protection. Automatic circuit-breaking devices or fuses of the correct type and capacity shall be installed so as to protect all electric equipment and circuits against short...

  16. Competitive On-Line Scheduling for Overloaded Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Real - Time Systems by Gilad Koren a dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements...Overloaded Real - Time Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...1.1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 1.1.1 Real - Time Systems : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

  17. Iron overload in very low birth weight infants: Serum Ferritin and adverse outcomes

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barrett, M

    2011-11-01

    Adequate iron isessential for growth and haematpoiesis. Oral iron supplementation is the standard of care in VLBW infants. Post mortem evidence has confirmed significant iron overload. Excessive free iron has been associated with free radical formation and brain injury in term infants.

  18. Role of metabolic overload and metabolic inflammation in the development of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, W.

    2015-01-01

    Overload of nutrients can lead to diet-induced inflammation, also called metabolic inflammation, which is thought to play an important role in many metabolic diseases, including the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of pathologies that range from

  19. Vitamin D attenuates pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Yan, Xiao; Zhang, Yun-Long; Bai, Jie; Hidru, Tesfaldet Habtemariam; Wang, Qing-Shan; Li, Hui-Hua

    2018-04-01

    Vitamin D (VD) and its analogues play critical roles in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated that VD exerts a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. However, the beneficial effect of VD on pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling and dysfunction and its underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. In this study, cardiac dysfunction and hypertrophic remodeling in mice were induced by pressure overload. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography, and myocardial histology was detected by H&E and Masson's trichrome staining. Cardiomyocyte size was detected by wheat germ agglutinin staining. The protein levels of signaling mediators were examined by western blotting while mRNA expression of hypertrophic and fibrotic markers was examined by qPCR analysis. Oxidative stress was detected by dihydroethidine staining. Our results showed that administration of VD3 significantly ameliorates pressure overload-induced contractile dysfunction, cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and inflammation in mice. In addition, VD3 treatment also markedly inhibited cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis. Moreover, protein levels of calcineurin A, ERK1/2, AKT, TGF-β, GRP78, cATF6, and CHOP were significantly reduced whereas SERCA2 level was upregulated in the VD3-treated hearts compared with control. These results suggest that VD3 attenuates cardiac remodeling and dysfunction induced by pressure overload, and this protective effect is associated with inhibition of multiple signaling pathways. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fear of Success: A Personality Trait or a Response to Occupational Deviance and Role Overload?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Teresa Hargrave; Wittig, Michele Andrisin

    1980-01-01

    Clarifies the extent to which an individual's fear of success scores may vary with the presence or absence of occupational deviance and/or role overload in stimulus materials describing situations of female competitive success. Results suggest that fear of success is a misnomer for responses to women's role descriptions. (Author/JLF)

  1. A low noise preamplifier with optoelectronic overload protection for radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sephton, J.P.; Williams, J.M.; Johansson, L.C.; Philips, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    Pulses from detectors used for radioactivity measurement can vary in size by several orders of magnitude. Large pulses will lead to saturation at the preamplifier output and extension of the pulse length. As a consequence, the dead time of the system increases and pulses may be lost. Electronic design techniques employed to protect against overloading tend to increase the amplifier noise level. However, an optoelectronic method of overload protection has been devised which has only a negligible effect on noise. An infrared light emitting diode interfaced to the output of the preamplifier is linked by fibre optic cable to an ultra-low leakage photodiode at the input. The conduction of the photodiode increases with the amplitude of the preamplifier output signal. Excess current is thereby prevented from entering the preamplifier and causing saturation. The preamplifier has been tested on 4π beta–gamma and gas counting systems and found to give good protection against overloading. - Highlights: ► A preamplifier for radioactivity measurements has been developed. ► Low noise. ► Current sensitive. ► Optoelectronic overload protection.

  2. The role of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of transfusional iron overload in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrou, Emmanouil; Mavrogeni, Sophie; Karali, Vasiliki; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kyrtsonis, Marie-Christine; Sfikakis, Petros P; Panayiotidis, Panayiotis

    2015-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes represent a group of heterogeneous hematopoietic neoplasms derived from an abnormal multipotent progenitor cell, characterized by a hyperproliferative bone marrow, dysplasia of the cellular hemopoietic elements and ineffective erythropoiesis. Anemia is a common finding in myelodysplastic syndrome patients, and blood transfusions are the only therapeutic option in approximately 40% of cases. The most serious side effect of regular blood transfusion is iron overload. Currently, cardiovascular magnetic resonance using T2 is routinely used to identify patients with myocardial iron overload and to guide chelation therapy, tailored to prevent iron toxicity in the heart. This is a major validated non-invasive measure of myocardial iron overloading and is superior to surrogates such as serum ferritin, liver iron, ventricular ejection fraction and tissue Doppler parameters. The indication for iron chelation therapy in myelodysplastic syndrome patients is currently controversial. However, cardiovascular magnetic resonance may offer an excellent non-invasive, diagnostic tool for iron overload assessment in myelodysplastic syndromes. Further studies are needed to establish the precise indications of chelation therapy and the clinical implications of this treatment on survival in myelodysplastic syndromes. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of tensile overloads on fatigue crack growth of high strength steel wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, J.; Reguly, A.; Strohaecker, T.R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A proof load process may be an option to increase the fatigue life of flexible pipelines. • There is possibility to produce plastic deformation at crack tip of tensile armor wires. • Controlled overloads provide effective crack growth retardation. • Crack growth retardation is also evident at higher stress ratios. - Abstract: Fatigue of the tensile armor wires is the main failure mode of flexible risers. Techniques to increase the life of these components are required to improve the processes safety on oil exploration. This work evaluates the crack growth retardation of high strength steel wires used in flexible pipelines. Fracture toughness tests were performed to establish the level of stress intensity factor wherein the wires present significant plastic deformation at the crack tip. The effect of tensile overload on fatigue behavior was assessed by fatigue crack growth testing under constant ΔK control and different overload ratios with two different load ratios. The outcomes show that the application of controlled overloads provides crack retardation and increases the fatigue life of the wires more than 31%. This behavior is also evident at stress ratio of 0.5, in spite of the crack closure effect being minimized by increasing the applied mean stress

  4. Diagnosis of hepatic iron overload: a family study illustrating pitfalls in diagnosing hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schranz, Melanie; Talasz, Heribert; Graziadei, Ivo; Winder, Thomas; Sergi, Consolato; Bogner, Klaus; Vogel, Wolfgang; Zoller, Heinz

    2009-03-01

    Recent identification of genetic variants in iron storage disease has changed the classification system and diagnostic algorithms for hemochromatosis. Clinical diagnosis of the disease requires phenotypic evidence of iron overload because the commonly disease-associated HFE genotypes have an incomplete penetrance. Furthermore, approximately 20% of patients with a clinical diagnosis of hemochromatosis have no disease-associated genotype, which underlines the importance of clear phenotypic criteria of hemochromatosis. A diagnosis of hemochromatosis cannot be made even in patients with liver cirrhosis simply on the basis of genetic testing that indicates that iron overload is the cause of the disease and not its consequence. Proper diagnosis requires integration of clinical presentation, family history, and the results of biochemical and histopathologic tests. Here we propose a rational diagnostic algorithm for hepatic iron overload syndromes and illustrate potential pitfalls by presenting a family study in a pedigree with rare HFE variants (H63D and E168Q), in cis on the same chromosome. Although the clinical suspicion of hemochromatosis was confirmed by histology, chemical analysis of liver tissue revealed a normal hepatic iron concentration, which is compatible with the genetic finding of 1 normal and 1 doubly mutated allele. In conclusion, clinical suspicion of hemochromatosis and elevated serum iron parameters should prompt HFE genotyping for C282Y and H63D. Should they be uninformative, further genetic tests should be recommended only if iron overload in liver tissue has been confirmed chemically.

  5. Transient upregulation of protein kinase C in pressure-overloaded neonatal rat myocardium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hamplová, B.; Novák, F.; Kolář, František; Nováková, O.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 1 (2010), s. 25-33 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : protein kinase C * cardiac development * pressure overload Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2010

  6. The spring balance: a simple monitoring system for fluid overload during hysteroscopic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankum, W. M.; Vonk, J.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid overload may arise during hysteroscopic surgery, caused by absorption of fluid used to distend the uterus. Continuous monitoring of the fluid balance is required to prevent this serious complication. Commercial equipment does not serve this purpose adequately. We describe a simple solution. We

  7. Iron overload of human colon adenocarcinoma cells studied by synchrotron-based X-ray techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihucz, Victor G.; Meirer, Florian; Polgári, Zsófia; Réti, Andrea; Pepponi, Giancarlo; Ingerle, Dieter; Szoboszlai, Norbert; Streli, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Fast- and slow-proliferating human adenocarcinoma colorectal cells, HT-29 and HCA-7, respectively, overloaded with transferrin (Tf), Fe(III) citrate, Fe(III) chloride and Fe(II) sulfate were studied by synchrotron radiation total-reflection X-ray spectrometry (TXRF), TXRF-X-ray absorption near edge

  8. Construction of a Linux based chemical and biological information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, László; Vágó, István; Fehér, András

    2003-01-01

    A chemical and biological information system with a Web-based easy-to-use interface and corresponding databases has been developed. The constructed system incorporates all chemical, numerical and textual data related to the chemical compounds, including numerical biological screen results. Users can search the database by traditional textual/numerical and/or substructure or similarity queries through the web interface. To build our chemical database management system, we utilized existing IT components such as ORACLE or Tripos SYBYL for database management and Zope application server for the web interface. We chose Linux as the main platform, however, almost every component can be used under various operating systems.

  9. Mice lacking liver-specific β-catenin develop steatohepatitis and fibrosis after iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosi, Morgan E; Singh, Sucha; Valore, Erika V; Jung, Grace; Popovic, Branimir; Poddar, Minakshi; Nagarajan, Shanmugam; Ganz, Tomas; Monga, Satdarshan P

    2017-08-01

    Iron overload disorders such as hereditary hemochromatosis and iron loading anemias are a common cause of morbidity from liver diseases and increase risk of hepatic fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Treatment options for iron-induced damage are limited, partly because there is lack of animal models of human disease. Therefore, we investigated the effect of iron overload in liver-specific β-catenin knockout mice (KO), which are susceptible to injury, fibrosis and tumorigenesis following chemical carcinogen exposure. Iron overload diet was administered to KO and littermate control (CON) mice for various times. To ameliorate an oxidant-mediated component of tissue injury, N-Acetyl-L-(+)-cysteine (NAC) was added to drinking water of mice on iron overload diet. KO on iron diet (KO +Fe) exhibited remarkable inflammation, followed by steatosis, oxidative stress, fibrosis, regenerating nodules and occurrence of occasional HCC. Increased injury in KO +Fe was associated with activated protein kinase B (AKT), ERK, and NF-κB, along with reappearance of β-catenin and target gene Cyp2e1, which promoted lipid peroxidation and hepatic damage. Addition of NAC to drinking water protected KO +Fe from hepatic steatosis, injury and fibrosis, and prevented activation of AKT, ERK, NF-κB and reappearance of β-catenin. The absence of hepatic β-catenin predisposes mice to hepatic injury and fibrosis following iron overload, which was reminiscent of hemochromatosis and associated with enhanced steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Disease progression was notably alleviated by antioxidant therapy, which supports its chemopreventive role in the management of chronic iron overload disorders. Lack of animal models for iron overload disorders makes it hard to study the disease process for improving therapies. Feeding high iron diet to mice that lack the β-catenin gene in liver cells led to increased inflammation followed by fat accumulation, cell death and wound healing that mimicked

  10. Fluid Overload and Cumulative Thoracostomy Output Are Associated With Surgical Site Infection After Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochet, Anthony A; Nyhan, Aoibhinn; Spaeder, Michael C; Cartron, Alexander M; Song, Xiaoyan; Klugman, Darren; Brown, Anna T

    2017-08-01

    To determine the impact of cumulative, postoperative thoracostomy output, amount of bolus IV fluids and peak fluid overload on the incidence and odds of developing a deep surgical site infection following pediatric cardiothoracic surgery. A single-center, nested, retrospective, matched case-control study. A 26-bed cardiac ICU in a 303-bed tertiary care pediatric hospital. Cases with deep surgical site infection following cardiothoracic surgery were identified retrospectively from January 2010 through December 2013 and individually matched to controls at a ratio of 1:2 by age, gender, Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery score, Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery category, primary cardiac diagnosis, and procedure. None. Twelve cases with deep surgical site infection were identified and matched to 24 controls without detectable differences in perioperative clinical characteristics. Deep surgical site infection cases had larger thoracostomy output and bolus IV fluid volumes at 6, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively compared with controls. For every 1 mL/kg of thoracostomy output, the odds of developing a deep surgical site infection increase by 13%. By receiver operative characteristic curve analysis, a cutoff of 49 mL/kg of thoracostomy output at 48 hours best discriminates the development of deep surgical site infection (sensitivity 83%, specificity 83%). Peak fluid overload was greater in cases than matched controls (12.5% vs 6%; p operative characteristic curve analysis, a threshold value of 10% peak fluid overload was observed to identify deep surgical site infection (sensitivity 67%, specificity 79%). Conditional logistic regression of peak fluid overload greater than 10% on the development of deep surgical site infection yielded an odds ratio of 9.4 (95% CI, 2-46.2). Increased postoperative peak fluid overload and cumulative thoracostomy output were associated with deep surgical site infection after pediatric

  11. Iron homeostasis and its disruption in mouse lung in iron deficiency and overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Gisela; D'Anna, María Cecilia; Roque, Marta Elena

    2015-10-01

    What is the central question of this study? The aim was to explore the role and hitherto unclear mechanisms of action of iron proteins in protecting the lung against the harmful effects of iron accumulation and the ability of pulmonary cells to mobilize iron in iron deficiency. What is the main finding and its importance? We show that pulmonary hepcidin appears not to modify cellular iron mobilization in the lung. We propose pathways for supplying iron to the lung in iron deficiency and for protecting the lung against iron excess in iron overload, mediated by the co-ordinated action of iron proteins, such as divalent metal transporter 1, ZRT-IRE-like-protein 14, transferrin receptor, ferritin, haemochromatosis-associated protein and ferroportin. Iron dyshomeostasis is associated with several forms of chronic lung disease, but its mechanisms of action remain to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of the lung in whole-animal models with iron deficiency and iron overload, studying the divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), ZRT-IRE-like protein 14 (ZIP14), transferrin receptor (TfR), haemochromatosis-associated protein (HFE), hepcidin, ferritin and ferroportin (FPN) expression. In each model, adult CF1 mice were divided into the following groups (six mice per group): (i) iron-overload model, iron saccharate i.p. and control group (iron adequate), 0.9% NaCl i.p.; and (ii) iron-deficiency model, induced by repeated bleeding, and control group (sham operated). Proteins were assessed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. In control mice, DMT1 was localized in the cytoplasm of airway cells, and in iron deficiency and overload it was in the apical membrane. Divalent metal transporter 1 and TfR increased in iron deficiency, without changes in iron overload. ZRT-IRE-like protein 14 decreased in airway cells in iron deficiency and increased in iron overload. In iron deficiency, HFE and FPN were immunolocalized close to the apical membrane

  12. Effect of Andrographolide‭ Extract on Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Rats with Secondary Iron Overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    َArash Mehri Pirayvatlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Iron overload is involved in the pathophysiology of many diseases including diabetes. In fact, the excess iron by creating free radicals makes damage to pancreas and leads to insulin resistance and diabetes. Andrographolide extract has hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. This study has surveyed the effects of andrographolide on blood glucose and lipid profile in rats with secondary iron overload. Methods: In this experimental study, 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: the healthy control group, secondary iron overload group, secondary iron overload groups treated with a dose of 3.5 and 7 mg/kg of andrographolide extract, and andrographolide groups treated with a dose of 3.5 and 7 mg/kg of extract. Iron and extract were injected for 6 and 12 days, respectively. Blood samples were taken for measurement of blood glucose and lipid profiles. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test. Results: The pathological results of samples from liver of animals receiving iron showed that the iron was deposited in the liver tissues. Iron injection significantly increased blood glucose levels compared to healthy control group (p<0.05. In the iron overload group, andrographolide extract with a dose of 3.5 mg/kg or 7 mg/kg significantly decreased blood glucose levels (p<0.05. Iron injections did not increase the serum triglyceride and cholesterollevels. Injections of andrographolide extract with a dose of 3.5 mg/kg and 7 mg/kg, significantly decreased the cholesterol levels compared to iron receiving group (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that the andrographolide with different doses may be effective in the treatment of diabetes by reducing serum glucose and cholesterol levels.

  13. Cardiac iron overload in chronically transfused patients with thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, or myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane de Montalembert

    Full Text Available The risk and clinical significance of cardiac iron overload due to chronic transfusion varies with the underlying disease. Cardiac iron overload shortens the life expectancy of patients with thalassemia, whereas its effect is unclear in those with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS. In patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA, iron does not seem to deposit quickly in the heart. Our primary objective was to assess through a multicentric study the prevalence of cardiac iron overload, defined as a cardiovascular magnetic resonance T2*8 ECs in the past year, and age older than 6 years. We included from 9 centers 20 patients with thalassemia, 41 with SCA, and 25 with MDS in 2012-2014. Erythrocytapharesis did not consistently prevent iron overload in patients with SCA. Cardiac iron overload was found in 3 (15% patients with thalassemia, none with SCA, and 4 (16% with MDS. The liver iron content (LIC ranged from 10.4 to 15.2 mg/g dry weight, with no significant differences across groups (P = 0.29. Abnormal T2* was not significantly associated with any of the measures of transfusion or chelation. Ferritin levels showed a strong association with LIC. Non-transferrin-bound iron was high in the thalassemia and MDS groups but low in the SCA group (P<0.001. Hepcidin was low in thalassemia, normal in SCA, and markedly elevated in MDS (P<0.001. Two mechanisms may explain that iron deposition largely spares the heart in SCA: the high level of erythropoiesis recycles the iron and the chronic inflammation retains iron within the macrophages. Thalassemia, in contrast, is characterized by inefficient erythropoiesis, unable to handle free iron. Iron accumulation varies widely in MDS syndromes due to the competing influences of abnormal erythropoiesis, excess iron supply, and inflammation.

  14. LRRC10 is required to maintain cardiac function in response to pressure overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Matthew J; Feng, Li; Grimes, Adrian C; Hacker, Timothy A; Olson, Timothy M; Kamp, Timothy J; Balijepalli, Ravi C; Lee, Youngsook

    2016-01-15

    We previously reported that the cardiomyocyte-specific leucine-rich repeat containing protein (LRRC)10 has critical functions in the mammalian heart. In the present study, we tested the role of LRRC10 in the response of the heart to biomechanical stress by performing transverse aortic constriction on Lrrc10-null (Lrrc10(-/-)) mice. Mild pressure overload induced severe cardiac dysfunction and ventricular dilation in Lrrc10(-/-) mice compared with control mice. In addition to dilation and cardiomyopathy, Lrrc10(-/-) mice showed a pronounced increase in heart weight with pressure overload stimulation and a more dramatic loss of cardiac ventricular performance, collectively suggesting that the absence of LRRC10 renders the heart more disease prone with greater hypertrophy and structural remodeling, although rates of cardiac fibrosis and myocyte dropout were not different from control mice. Lrrc10(-/-) cardiomyocytes also exhibited reduced contractility in response to β-adrenergic stimulation, consistent with loss of cardiac ventricular performance after pressure overload. We have previously shown that LRRC10 interacts with actin in the heart. Here, we show that His(150) of LRRC10 was required for an interaction with actin, and this interaction was reduced after pressure overload, suggesting an integral role for LRRC10 in the response of the heart to mechanical stress. Importantly, these experiments demonstrated that LRRC10 is required to maintain cardiac performance in response to pressure overload and suggest that dysregulated expression or mutation of LRRC10 may greatly sensitize human patients to more severe cardiac disease in conditions such as chronic hypertension or aortic stenosis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Albumin Overload and PINK1/Parkin Signaling-Related Mitophagy in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jin; Xie, Qi; Song, Shuling; Miao, Yuyang; Zhang, Qiang

    2018-03-01

    BACKGROUND Albumin, as a major urinary protein component, is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease progression. Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the main causes of albumin-induced proximal tubule cells injury. Mitophagy is considered as a pivotal protective mechanism for the elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria. The objective of this research was to determine whether albumin overload-induced mitochondrial dysfunction can activate PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy in renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs). MATERIAL AND METHODS Immunofluorescence assay and Western blot assay were used to detect the effects of albumin overload on autophagy marker protein LC3. Transmission electron microscopy and Western blot assay were used to investigate the role of albumin in mitochondrial injury. Western blot assay and co-localization of acidic lysosomes and mitochondria assay were employed to detect the activation of mitophagy induced by albumin. Finally, we explored the role of PINK1/Parkin signaling in albumin-induced mitophagy by inhibiting mitophagy by knockdown of PARK2 (Parkin) level. RESULTS Immunofluorescence and Western blot results showed that the expression level of LC3-II increased, and the maximum increase point was observed after 8 h of albumin treatment. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that albumin overload-induced mitochondrial injury and quantity of autophagosomes increased. Additionally, expression of PINK1 and cytosolic cytochrome C increased and mitochondria cytochrome C decreased in the albumin group. The co-localization of acidic lysosomes and mitochondria demonstrated that the number of albumin overload-induced mitophagy-positive dots increased. The transient transfection of PARK2 siRNA result showed knockdown of the expression level of PARK2 can inhibit mitophagy induced by albumin. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, our study suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction activates the PINK1/Parkin signaling and mitophagy in renal tubular

  16. Iatrogenic Iron Overload in Dialysis Patients at the Beginning of the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostoker, Guy; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Fishbane, Steven

    2016-05-01

    Iron overload used to be considered rare in hemodialysis patients but its clinical frequency is now increasingly realized. The liver is the main site of iron storage and the liver iron concentration (LIC) is closely correlated with total iron stores in patients with secondary hemosideroses and genetic hemochromatosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is now the gold standard method for LIC estimation and monitoring in non-renal patients. Studies of LIC in hemodialysis patients by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic susceptometry have demonstrated a strong relation between the risk of iron overload and the use of intravenous (IV) iron products prescribed at doses determined by the iron biomarker cutoffs contained in current anemia management guidelines. These findings have challenged the validity of both iron biomarker cutoffs and current clinical guidelines, especially with respect to recommended IV iron doses. Three long-term observational studies have recently suggested that excessive IV iron doses may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and death in hemodialysis patients. We postulate that iatrogenic iron overload in the era of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents may silently increase complications in dialysis patients without creating frank clinical signs and symptoms. High hepcidin-25 levels were recently linked to fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events in dialysis patients. It is therefore tempting to postulate that the main pathophysiological pathway leading to these events may involve the pleiotropic master hormone hepcidin (synergized by fibroblast growth factor 23), which regulates iron metabolism. Oxidative stress as a result of IV iron infusions and iron overload, by releasing labile non-transferrin-bound iron, might represent a 'second hit' on the vascular bed. Finally, iron deposition in the myocardium of patients with severe iron overload might also play a role in the pathogenesis of sudden death in some patients.

  17. An Advanced Information Management Support System to Improve the Decision Making Process within Future Command Information Centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, H.L.M.M.; Wynia, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the achieved research results within several national and international C2 and information-management projects for developing concepts for balancing the information push with the operator's information need to meet the requirement to avoid / suppress information overload

  18. Reading Strategies for Coping with Information Overload, ca.1550-1700

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Ann

    2003-01-01

    This article surveys some of the ways in which early modern scholars responded to what they perceived as an overabundance of books. In addition to owning more books and applying selective judgment as well as renewed diligence to their reading and note-taking, scholars devised shortcuts, sometimes based on medieval antecedents. These shortcuts included the use of the alphabetical index, whether printed or handmade, to read a book in parts, and the use of reference books, amanuenses, abbreviati...

  19. Preventing information overload: cognitive load theory as an instructional framework for teaching pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaylor, Sara K

    2014-02-01

    Nursing students are challenged by content-laden curricula and learning environments that emphasize testing outcomes. Likewise, educators are challenged to support student-centered learning in a manner that encourages students to connect and act upon their personal motivations. This article describes the use of cognitive load theory (CLT) as an instructional design framework for an undergraduate pharmacology for nursing course. Guided by the principles of CLT, four instructional strategies were used in this course: (a) opening review activities, (b) providing students with lecture notes, (c) a "Top Five" prototype approach, and (d) deciphering "Need to Knows" from "Nice to Knows." Instructional style and strategies received positive student feedback and were found to promote a student-centered environment and active learning. On the basis of this feedback, cognitive load theory may be a successful and effective framework for undergraduate pharmacology and other nursing courses, thus assisting students and educators alike in overcoming obstacles imposed on learning environments. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Evaluation of a new tablet formulation of deferasirox to reduce chronic iron overload after long-term blood transfusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalmers AW

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anna W Chalmers, Jamile M Shammo Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Transfusion-dependent anemia is a common feature in a wide array of hematological disorders, including thalassemia, sickle cell disease, aplastic anemia, myelofibrosis, and myelodysplastic syndromes. In the absence of a physiological mechanism to excrete excess iron, chronic transfusions ultimately cause iron overload. Without correction, iron overload can lead to end-organ damage, resulting in cardiac, hepatic, and endocrine dysfunction/failure. Iron chelating agents are utilized to reduce iron overload, as they form a complex with iron, leading to its clearance. Iron chelation has been proven to decrease organ dysfunction and improve survival in certain transfusion-dependent anemias, such as β-thalassemia. Several chelating agents have been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of iron overload, including deferoxamine, deferiprone, and deferasirox. A variety of factors have to be considered when choosing an iron chelator, including dosing schedule, route of administration, tolerability, and side effect profile. Deferasirox is an orally administered iron chelator with proven efficacy and safety in multiple hematological disorders. There are two formulations of deferasirox, a tablet for suspension, and a new tablet form. This paper is intended to provide an overview of iron overload, with a focus on deferasirox, and its recently approved formulation Jadenu® for the reduction of transfusional iron overload in hematological disorders. Keywords: iron chelation therapy, transfusional iron overload, deferasirox