WorldWideScience

Sample records for text detection algorithm

  1. Rotation-invariant features for multi-oriented text detection in natural images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Yao

    Full Text Available Texts in natural scenes carry rich semantic information, which can be used to assist a wide range of applications, such as object recognition, image/video retrieval, mapping/navigation, and human computer interaction. However, most existing systems are designed to detect and recognize horizontal (or near-horizontal texts. Due to the increasing popularity of mobile-computing devices and applications, detecting texts of varying orientations from natural images under less controlled conditions has become an important but challenging task. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm to detect texts of varying orientations. Our algorithm is based on a two-level classification scheme and two sets of features specially designed for capturing the intrinsic characteristics of texts. To better evaluate the proposed method and compare it with the competing algorithms, we generate a comprehensive dataset with various types of texts in diverse real-world scenes. We also propose a new evaluation protocol, which is more suitable for benchmarking algorithms for detecting texts in varying orientations. Experiments on benchmark datasets demonstrate that our system compares favorably with the state-of-the-art algorithms when handling horizontal texts and achieves significantly enhanced performance on variant texts in complex natural scenes.

  2. ALGORITHMS FOR IDENTIFICATION OF CUES WITH AUTHORS’ TEXT INSERTIONS IN BELARUSIAN ELECTRONIC BOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Hetsevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main stages of algorithms for characters’ gender identification in Belarusian electronic texts are described. The algorithms are based on punctuation marking and gender indicators detection, such as past tense verbs and nouns with gender attributes. For indicators, special dictionaries are developed, thus making the algorithms more language-independent and allowing to create dictionaries for cognate languages. Testing showed the following results: the mean harmonic quantity for masculine gender detection makes up 92,2 %, and for feminine gender detection – 90,4%.

  3. Implementation of anomaly detection algorithms for detecting transmission control protocol synchronized flooding attacks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkuzangwe, NNP

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work implements two anomaly detection algorithms for detecting Transmission Control Protocol Synchronized (TCP SYN) flooding attack. The two algorithms are an adaptive threshold algorithm and a cumulative sum (CUSUM) based algorithm...

  4. A Plagiarism Detection Algorithm based on Extended Winnowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Xuliang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism is a common problem faced by academia and education. Mature commercial plagiarism detection system has the advantages of comprehensive and high accuracy, but the expensive detection costs make it unsuitable for real-time, lightweight application environment such as the student assignments plagiarism detection. This paper introduces the method of extending classic Winnowing plagiarism detection algorithm, expands the algorithm in functionality. The extended algorithm can retain the text location and length information in original document while extracting the fingerprints of a document, so that the locating and marking for plagiarism text fragment are much easier to achieve. The experimental results and several years of running practice show that the expansion of the algorithm has little effect on its performance, normal hardware configuration of PC will be able to meet small and medium-sized applications requirements. Based on the characteristics of lightweight, high efficiency, reliability and flexibility of Winnowing, the extended algorithm further enhances the adaptability and extends the application areas.

  5. Local Community Detection Algorithm Based on Minimal Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to discover the structure of local community more effectively, this paper puts forward a new local community detection algorithm based on minimal cluster. Most of the local community detection algorithms begin from one node. The agglomeration ability of a single node must be less than multiple nodes, so the beginning of the community extension of the algorithm in this paper is no longer from the initial node only but from a node cluster containing this initial node and nodes in the cluster are relatively densely connected with each other. The algorithm mainly includes two phases. First it detects the minimal cluster and then finds the local community extended from the minimal cluster. Experimental results show that the quality of the local community detected by our algorithm is much better than other algorithms no matter in real networks or in simulated networks.

  6. Text Clustering Algorithm Based on Random Cluster Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Long-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays clustering has become a popular text mining algorithm, but the huge data can put forward higher requirements for the accuracy and performance of text mining. In view of the performance bottleneck of traditional text clustering algorithm, this paper proposes a text clustering algorithm with random features. This is a kind of clustering algorithm based on text density, at the same time using the neighboring heuristic rules, the concept of random cluster is introduced, which effectively reduces the complexity of the distance calculation.

  7. Improving Anomaly Detection for Text-Based Protocols by Exploiting Message Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M. Mueller

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Service platforms using text-based protocols need to be protected against attacks. Machine-learning algorithms with pattern matching can be used to detect even previously unknown attacks. In this paper, we present an extension to known Support Vector Machine (SVM based anomaly detection algorithms for the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP. Our contribution is to extend the amount of different features used for classification (feature space by exploiting the structure of SIP messages, which reduces the false positive rate. Additionally, we show how combining our approach with attribute reduction significantly improves throughput.

  8. A quick survey of text categorization algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan MUNTEANU

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains an overview of basic formulations and approaches to text classification. This paper surveys the algorithms used in text categorization: handcrafted rules, decision trees, decision rules, on-line learning, linear classifier, Rocchio’s algorithm, k Nearest Neighbor (kNN, Support Vector Machines (SVM.

  9. Nearest Neighbour Corner Points Matching Detection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Changlong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate detection towards the corners plays an important part in camera calibration. To deal with the instability and inaccuracies of present corner detection algorithm, the nearest neighbour corners match-ing detection algorithms was brought forward. First, it dilates the binary image of the photographed pictures, searches and reserves quadrilateral outline of the image. Second, the blocks which accord with chess-board-corners are classified into a class. If too many blocks in class, it will be deleted; if not, it will be added, and then let the midpoint of the two vertex coordinates be the rough position of corner. At last, it precisely locates the position of the corners. The Experimental results have shown that the algorithm has obvious advantages on accuracy and validity in corner detection, and it can give security for camera calibration in traffic accident measurement.

  10. Algorithm for detecting violations of traffic rules based on computer vision approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibadov Samir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new algorithm for automatic detect violations of traffic rules for improving the people safety on the unregulated pedestrian crossing. The algorithm uses multi-step proceedings. They are zebra detection, cars detection, and pedestrian detection. For car detection, we use faster R-CNN deep learning tool. The algorithm shows promising results in the detection violations of traffic rules.

  11. SAW Classification Algorithm for Chinese Text Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoli Guo; Huiyu Sun; Tiehua Zhou; Ling Wang; Zhaoyang Qu; Jiannan Zang

    2015-01-01

    Considering the explosive growth of data, the increased amount of text data’s effect on the performance of text categorization forward the need for higher requirements, such that the existing classification method cannot be satisfied. Based on the study of existing text classification technology and semantics, this paper puts forward a kind of Chinese text classification oriented SAW (Structural Auxiliary Word) algorithm. The algorithm uses the special space effect of Chinese text where words...

  12. Training nuclei detection algorithms with simple annotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Kost

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Generating good training datasets is essential for machine learning-based nuclei detection methods. However, creating exhaustive nuclei contour annotations, to derive optimal training data from, is often infeasible. Methods: We compared different approaches for training nuclei detection methods solely based on nucleus center markers. Such markers contain less accurate information, especially with regard to nuclear boundaries, but can be produced much easier and in greater quantities. The approaches use different automated sample extraction methods to derive image positions and class labels from nucleus center markers. In addition, the approaches use different automated sample selection methods to improve the detection quality of the classification algorithm and reduce the run time of the training process. We evaluated the approaches based on a previously published generic nuclei detection algorithm and a set of Ki-67-stained breast cancer images. Results: A Voronoi tessellation-based sample extraction method produced the best performing training sets. However, subsampling of the extracted training samples was crucial. Even simple class balancing improved the detection quality considerably. The incorporation of active learning led to a further increase in detection quality. Conclusions: With appropriate sample extraction and selection methods, nuclei detection algorithms trained on the basis of simple center marker annotations can produce comparable quality to algorithms trained on conventionally created training sets.

  13. ANOMALY DETECTION IN NETWORKING USING HYBRID ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Amutha Guka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Especially in today’s network scenario, when computers are interconnected through internet, security of an information system is very important issue. Because no system can be absolutely secure, the timely and accurate detection of anomalies is necessary. The main aim of this research paper is to improve the anomaly detection by using Hybrid Artificial Immune Algorithm (HAIA which is based on Artificial Immune Systems (AIS and Genetic Algorithm (GA. In this research work, HAIA approach is used to develop Network Anomaly Detection System (NADS. The detector set is generated by using GA and the anomalies are identified using Negative Selection Algorithm (NSA which is based on AIS. The HAIA algorithm is tested with KDD Cup 99 benchmark dataset. The detection rate is used to measure the effectiveness of the NADS. The results and consistency of the HAIA are compared with earlier approaches and the results are presented. The proposed algorithm gives best results when compared to the earlier approaches.

  14. An Early Fire Detection Algorithm Using IP Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Perez-Meana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of smoke is the first symptom of fire; therefore to achieve early fire detection, accurate and quick estimation of the presence of smoke is very important. In this paper we propose an algorithm to detect the presence of smoke using video sequences captured by Internet Protocol (IP cameras, in which important features of smoke, such as color, motion and growth properties are employed. For an efficient smoke detection in the IP camera platform, a detection algorithm must operate directly in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT domain to reduce computational cost, avoiding a complete decoding process required for algorithms that operate in spatial domain. In the proposed algorithm the DCT Inter-transformation technique is used to increase the detection accuracy without inverse DCT operation. In the proposed scheme, firstly the candidate smoke regions are estimated using motion and color smoke properties; next using morphological operations the noise is reduced. Finally the growth properties of the candidate smoke regions are furthermore analyzed through time using the connected component labeling technique. Evaluation results show that a feasible smoke detection method with false negative and false positive error rates approximately equal to 4% and 2%, respectively, is obtained.

  15. THE APPROACHING TRAIN DETECTION ALGORITHM

    OpenAIRE

    S. V. Bibikov

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with detection algorithm for rail vibroacoustic waves caused by approaching train on the background of increased noise. The urgency of algorithm development for train detection in view of increased rail noise, when railway lines are close to roads or road intersections is justified. The algorithm is based on the method of weak signals detection in a noisy environment. The information statistics ultimate expression is adjusted. We present the results of algorithm research and t...

  16. Linear feature detection algorithm for astronomical surveys - I. Algorithm description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektešević, Dino; Vinković, Dejan

    2017-11-01

    Computer vision algorithms are powerful tools in astronomical image analyses, especially when automation of object detection and extraction is required. Modern object detection algorithms in astronomy are oriented towards detection of stars and galaxies, ignoring completely the detection of existing linear features. With the emergence of wide-field sky surveys, linear features attract scientific interest as possible trails of fast flybys of near-Earth asteroids and meteors. In this work, we describe a new linear feature detection algorithm designed specifically for implementation in big data astronomy. The algorithm combines a series of algorithmic steps that first remove other objects (stars and galaxies) from the image and then enhance the line to enable more efficient line detection with the Hough algorithm. The rate of false positives is greatly reduced thanks to a step that replaces possible line segments with rectangles and then compares lines fitted to the rectangles with the lines obtained directly from the image. The speed of the algorithm and its applicability in astronomical surveys are also discussed.

  17. Detecting text in natural scenes with multi-level MSER and SWT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tongwei; Liu, Renjun

    2018-04-01

    The detection of the characters in the natural scene is susceptible to factors such as complex background, variable viewing angle and diverse forms of language, which leads to poor detection results. Aiming at these problems, a new text detection method was proposed, which consisted of two main stages, candidate region extraction and text region detection. At first stage, the method used multiple scale transformations of original image and multiple thresholds of maximally stable extremal regions (MSER) to detect the text regions which could detect character regions comprehensively. At second stage, obtained SWT maps by using the stroke width transform (SWT) algorithm to compute the candidate regions, then using cascaded classifiers to propose non-text regions. The proposed method was evaluated on the standard benchmark datasets of ICDAR2011 and the datasets that we made our own data sets. The experiment results showed that the proposed method have greatly improved that compared to other text detection methods.

  18. A Modularity Degree Based Heuristic Community Detection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongming Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A community in a complex network can be seen as a subgroup of nodes that are densely connected. Discovery of community structures is a basic problem of research and can be used in various areas, such as biology, computer science, and sociology. Existing community detection methods usually try to expand or collapse the nodes partitions in order to optimize a given quality function. These optimization function based methods share the same drawback of inefficiency. Here we propose a heuristic algorithm (MDBH algorithm based on network structure which employs modularity degree as a measure function. Experiments on both synthetic benchmarks and real-world networks show that our algorithm gives competitive accuracy with previous modularity optimization methods, even though it has less computational complexity. Furthermore, due to the use of modularity degree, our algorithm naturally improves the resolution limit in community detection.

  19. A Fast Detection Algorithm for the X-Ray Pulsar Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of the X-ray pulsar signal is important for the autonomous navigation system using X-ray pulsars. In the condition of short observation time and limited number of photons for detection, the noise does not obey the Gaussian distribution. This fact has been little considered extant. In this paper, the model of the X-ray pulsar signal is rebuilt as the nonhomogeneous Poisson distribution and, in the condition of a fixed false alarm rate, a fast detection algorithm based on maximizing the detection probability is proposed. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed detection algorithm.

  20. A simulation study comparing aberration detection algorithms for syndromic surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Painter Ian

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The usefulness of syndromic surveillance for early outbreak detection depends in part on effective statistical aberration detection. However, few published studies have compared different detection algorithms on identical data. In the largest simulation study conducted to date, we compared the performance of six aberration detection algorithms on simulated outbreaks superimposed on authentic syndromic surveillance data. Methods We compared three control-chart-based statistics, two exponential weighted moving averages, and a generalized linear model. We simulated 310 unique outbreak signals, and added these to actual daily counts of four syndromes monitored by Public Health – Seattle and King County's syndromic surveillance system. We compared the sensitivity of the six algorithms at detecting these simulated outbreaks at a fixed alert rate of 0.01. Results Stratified by baseline or by outbreak distribution, duration, or size, the generalized linear model was more sensitive than the other algorithms and detected 54% (95% CI = 52%–56% of the simulated epidemics when run at an alert rate of 0.01. However, all of the algorithms had poor sensitivity, particularly for outbreaks that did not begin with a surge of cases. Conclusion When tested on county-level data aggregated across age groups, these algorithms often did not perform well in detecting signals other than large, rapid increases in case counts relative to baseline levels.

  1. Multifeature Fusion Vehicle Detection Algorithm Based on Choquet Integral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vision-based multivehicle detection plays an important role in Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS and Blind Spot Detection Systems (BSDS. The performance of these systems depends on the real-time capability, accuracy, and robustness of vehicle detection methods. To improve the accuracy of vehicle detection algorithm, we propose a multifeature fusion vehicle detection algorithm based on Choquet integral. This algorithm divides the vehicle detection problem into two phases: feature similarity measure and multifeature fusion. In the feature similarity measure phase, we first propose a taillight-based vehicle detection method, and then vehicle taillight feature similarity measure is defined. Second, combining with the definition of Choquet integral, the vehicle symmetry similarity measure and the HOG + AdaBoost feature similarity measure are defined. Finally, these three features are fused together by Choquet integral. Being evaluated on public test collections and our own test images, the experimental results show that our method has achieved effective and robust multivehicle detection in complicated environments. Our method can not only improve the detection rate but also reduce the false alarm rate, which meets the engineering requirements of Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS.

  2. A Supervised Classification Algorithm for Note Onset Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Eck

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to detecting onsets in music audio files. We use a supervised learning algorithm to classify spectrogram frames extracted from digital audio as being onsets or nononsets. Frames classified as onsets are then treated with a simple peak-picking algorithm based on a moving average. We present two versions of this approach. The first version uses a single neural network classifier. The second version combines the predictions of several networks trained using different hyperparameters. We describe the details of the algorithm and summarize the performance of both variants on several datasets. We also examine our choice of hyperparameters by describing results of cross-validation experiments done on a custom dataset. We conclude that a supervised learning approach to note onset detection performs well and warrants further investigation.

  3. Improved QRD-M Detection Algorithm for Generalized Spatial Modulation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Jing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized spatial modulation (GSM is a spectral and energy efficient multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO transmission scheme. It will lead to imperfect detection performance with relatively high computational complexity by directly applying the original QR-decomposition with M algorithm (QRD-M to the GSM scheme. In this paper an improved QRD-M algorithm is proposed for GSM signal detection, which achieves near-optimal performance but with relatively low complexity. Based on the QRD, the improved algorithm firstly transforms the maximum likelihood (ML detection of the GSM signals into searching an inverted tree structure. Then, in the searching process of the M branches, the branches corresponding to the illegitimate transmit antenna combinations (TACs and related to invalid number of active antennas are cut in order to improve the validity of the resultant branches at each level by taking advantage of characteristics of GSM signals. Simulation results show that the improved QRD-M detection algorithm provides similar performance to maximum likelihood (ML with the reduced computational complexity compared to the original QRD-M algorithm, and the optimal value of parameter M of the improved QRD-M algorithm for detection of the GSM scheme is equal to modulation order plus one.

  4. A Region Tracking-Based Vehicle Detection Algorithm in Nighttime Traffic Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The preceding vehicles detection technique in nighttime traffic scenes is an important part of the advanced driver assistance system (ADAS. This paper proposes a region tracking-based vehicle detection algorithm via the image processing technique. First, the brightness of the taillights during nighttime is used as the typical feature, and we use the existing global detection algorithm to detect and pair the taillights. When the vehicle is detected, a time series analysis model is introduced to predict vehicle positions and the possible region (PR of the vehicle in the next frame. Then, the vehicle is only detected in the PR. This could reduce the detection time and avoid the false pairing between the bright spots in the PR and the bright spots out of the PR. Additionally, we present a thresholds updating method to make the thresholds adaptive. Finally, experimental studies are provided to demonstrate the application and substantiate the superiority of the proposed algorithm. The results show that the proposed algorithm can simultaneously reduce both the false negative detection rate and the false positive detection rate.

  5. An Approach to a Comprehensive Test Framework for Analysis and Evaluation of Text Line Segmentation Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran N. Milivojevic

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a testing framework for the evaluation and validation of text line segmentation algorithms. Text line segmentation represents the key action for correct optical character recognition. Many of the tests for the evaluation of text line segmentation algorithms deal with text databases as reference templates. Because of the mismatch, the reliable testing framework is required. Hence, a new approach to a comprehensive experimental framework for the evaluation of text line segmentation algorithms is proposed. It consists of synthetic multi-like text samples and real handwritten text as well. Although the tests are mutually independent, the results are cross-linked. The proposed method can be used for different types of scripts and languages. Furthermore, two different procedures for the evaluation of algorithm efficiency based on the obtained error type classification are proposed. The first is based on the segmentation line error description, while the second one incorporates well-known signal detection theory. Each of them has different capabilities and convenience, but they can be used as supplements to make the evaluation process efficient. Overall the proposed procedure based on the segmentation line error description has some advantages, characterized by five measures that describe measurement procedures.

  6. A New Lightweight Watchdog-Based Algorithm for Detecting Sybil Nodes in Mobile WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvan Almas Shehni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wide-spread deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN necessitates special attention to security issues, amongst which Sybil attacks are the most important ones. As a core to Sybil attacks, malicious nodes try to disrupt network operations by creating several fabricated IDs. Due to energy consumption concerns in WSNs, devising detection algorithms which release the sensor nodes from high computational and communicational loads are of great importance. In this paper, a new computationally lightweight watchdog-based algorithm is proposed for detecting Sybil IDs in mobile WSNs. The proposed algorithm employs watchdog nodes for collecting detection information and a designated watchdog node for detection information processing and the final Sybil list generation. Benefiting from a newly devised co-presence state diagram and adequate detection rules, the new algorithm features low extra communication overhead, as well as a satisfactory compromise between two otherwise contradictory detection measures of performance, True Detection Rate (TDR and False Detection Rate (FDR. Extensive simulation results illustrate the merits of the new algorithm compared to a couple of recent watchdog-based Sybil detection algorithms.

  7. Hardware Implementation of a Modified Delay-Coordinate Mapping-Based QRS Complex Detection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Zemva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a modified delay-coordinate mapping-based QRS complex detection algorithm, suitable for hardware implementation. In the original algorithm, the phase-space portrait of an electrocardiogram signal is reconstructed in a two-dimensional plane using the method of delays. Geometrical properties of the obtained phase-space portrait are exploited for QRS complex detection. In our solution, a bandpass filter is used for ECG signal prefiltering and an improved method for detection threshold-level calculation is utilized. We developed the algorithm on the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database (sensitivity of 99.82% and positive predictivity of 99.82% and tested it on the long-term ST database (sensitivity of 99.72% and positive predictivity of 99.37%. Our algorithm outperforms several well-known QRS complex detection algorithms, including the original algorithm.

  8. An evaluation of classification algorithms for intrusion detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of classification algorithms for intrusion detection. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Most of the available IDSs use all the 41 features in the network to evaluate and search for intrusive pattern in which ...

  9. Text Detection in Natural Scene Images by Stroke Gabor Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chucai; Tian, Yingli

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm, based on stroke components and descriptive Gabor filters, to detect text regions in natural scene images. Text characters and strings are constructed by stroke components as basic units. Gabor filters are used to describe and analyze the stroke components in text characters or strings. We define a suitability measurement to analyze the confidence of Gabor filters in describing stroke component and the suitability of Gabor filters on an image window. From the training set, we compute a set of Gabor filters that can describe principle stroke components of text by their parameters. Then a K -means algorithm is applied to cluster the descriptive Gabor filters. The clustering centers are defined as Stroke Gabor Words (SGWs) to provide a universal description of stroke components. By suitability evaluation on positive and negative training samples respectively, each SGW generates a pair of characteristic distributions of suitability measurements. On a testing natural scene image, heuristic layout analysis is applied first to extract candidate image windows. Then we compute the principle SGWs for each image window to describe its principle stroke components. Characteristic distributions generated by principle SGWs are used to classify text or nontext windows. Experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrate that our algorithm can handle complex backgrounds and variant text patterns (font, color, scale, etc.).

  10. Decision algorithms in fire detection systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Jovan D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Analogue (and addressable fire detection systems enables a new quality in improving sensitivity to real fires and reducing susceptibility to nuisance alarm sources. Different decision algorithms types were developed with intention to improve sensitivity and reduce false alarm occurrence. At the beginning, it was free alarm level adjustment based on preset level. Majority of multi-criteria decision work was based on multi-sensor (multi-signature decision algorithms - using different type of sensors on the same location or, rather, using different aspects (level and rise of one sensor measured value. Our idea is to improve sensitivity and reduce false alarm occurrence by forming groups of sensors that work in similar conditions (same world side in the building, same or similar technology or working time. Original multi-criteria decision algorithms based on level, rise and difference of level and rise from group average are discussed in this paper.

  11. Emotion detection from text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, V. V.; Pandian, A.; Jaiswal, Abhijeet; Bhatia, Nikhar

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a novel method based on concept of Machine Learning for Emotion Detection using various algorithms of Support Vector Machine and major emotions described are linked to the Word-Net for enhanced accuracy. The approach proposed plays a promising role to augment the Artificial Intelligence in the near future and could be vital in optimization of Human-Machine Interface.

  12. Assessing semantic similarity of texts - Methods and algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozeva, Anna; Zerkova, Silvia

    2017-12-01

    Assessing the semantic similarity of texts is an important part of different text-related applications like educational systems, information retrieval, text summarization, etc. This task is performed by sophisticated analysis, which implements text-mining techniques. Text mining involves several pre-processing steps, which provide for obtaining structured representative model of the documents in a corpus by means of extracting and selecting the features, characterizing their content. Generally the model is vector-based and enables further analysis with knowledge discovery approaches. Algorithms and measures are used for assessing texts at syntactical and semantic level. An important text-mining method and similarity measure is latent semantic analysis (LSA). It provides for reducing the dimensionality of the document vector space and better capturing the text semantics. The mathematical background of LSA for deriving the meaning of the words in a given text by exploring their co-occurrence is examined. The algorithm for obtaining the vector representation of words and their corresponding latent concepts in a reduced multidimensional space as well as similarity calculation are presented.

  13. Swarm, genetic and evolutionary programming algorithms applied to multiuser detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Jean Etienne Jeszensky

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the particles swarm optimization technique, recently published in the literature, and applied to Direct Sequence/Code Division Multiple Access systems (DS/CDMA with multiuser detection (MuD is analyzed, evaluated and compared. The Swarm algorithm efficiency when applied to the DS-CDMA multiuser detection (Swarm-MuD is compared through the tradeoff performance versus computational complexity, being the complexity expressed in terms of the number of necessary operations in order to reach the performance obtained through the optimum detector or the Maximum Likelihood detector (ML. The comparison is accomplished among the genetic algorithm, evolutionary programming with cloning and Swarm algorithm under the same simulation basis. Additionally, it is proposed an heuristics-MuD complexity analysis through the number of computational operations. Finally, an analysis is carried out for the input parameters of the Swarm algorithm in the attempt to find the optimum parameters (or almost-optimum for the algorithm applied to the MuD problem.

  14. AN ALGORITHM TO DETECT THE RETINAL REGION OF INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Şehirli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Retina is one of the important layers of the eyes, which includes sensitive cells to colour and light and nerve fibers. Retina can be displayed by using some medical devices such as fundus camera, ophthalmoscope. Hence, some lesions like microaneurysm, haemorrhage, exudate with many diseases of the eye can be detected by looking at the images taken by devices. In computer vision and biomedical areas, studies to detect lesions of the eyes automatically have been done for a long time. In order to make automated detections, the concept of ROI may be utilized. ROI which stands for region of interest generally serves the purpose of focusing on particular targets. The main concentration of this paper is the algorithm to automatically detect retinal region of interest belonging to different retinal images on a software application. The algorithm consists of three stages such as pre-processing stage, detecting ROI on processed images and overlapping between input image and obtained ROI of the image.

  15. Night-Time Vehicle Detection Algorithm Based on Visual Saliency and Deep Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingfeng Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Night vision systems get more and more attention in the field of automotive active safety field. In this area, a number of researchers have proposed far-infrared sensor based night-time vehicle detection algorithm. However, existing algorithms have low performance in some indicators such as the detection rate and processing time. To solve this problem, we propose a far-infrared image vehicle detection algorithm based on visual saliency and deep learning. Firstly, most of the nonvehicle pixels will be removed with visual saliency computation. Then, vehicle candidate will be generated by using prior information such as camera parameters and vehicle size. Finally, classifier trained with deep belief networks will be applied to verify the candidates generated in last step. The proposed algorithm is tested in around 6000 images and achieves detection rate of 92.3% and processing time of 25 Hz which is better than existing methods.

  16. A hybrid neural network – world cup optimization algorithm for melanoma detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmjooy Navid

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most dangerous cancers in humans is Melanoma. However, early detection of melanoma can help us to cure it completely. This paper presents a new efficient method to detect malignancy in melanoma via images. At first, the extra scales are eliminated by using edge detection and smoothing. Afterwards, the proposed method can be utilized to segment the cancer images. Finally, the extra information is eliminated by morphological operations and used to focus on the area which melanoma boundary potentially exists. To do this, World Cup Optimization algorithm is utilized to optimize an MLP neural Networks (ANN. World Cup Optimization algorithm is a new meta-heuristic algorithm which is recently presented and has a good performance in some optimization problems. WCO is a derivative-free, Meta-Heuristic algorithm, mimicking the world’s FIFA competitions. World cup Optimization algorithm is a global search algorithm while gradient-based back propagation method is local search. In this proposed algorithm, multi-layer perceptron network (MLP employs the problem’s constraints and WCO algorithm attempts to minimize the root mean square error. Experimental results show that the proposed method can develop the performance of the standard MLP algorithm significantly.

  17. From Pixels to Region: A Salient Region Detection Algorithm for Location-Quantification Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Image saliency detection has become increasingly important with the development of intelligent identification and machine vision technology. This process is essential for many image processing algorithms such as image retrieval, image segmentation, image recognition, and adaptive image compression. We propose a salient region detection algorithm for full-resolution images. This algorithm analyzes the randomness and correlation of image pixels and pixel-to-region saliency computation mechanism. The algorithm first obtains points with more saliency probability by using the improved smallest univalue segment assimilating nucleus operator. It then reconstructs the entire saliency region detection by taking these points as reference and combining them with image spatial color distribution, as well as regional and global contrasts. The results for subjective and objective image saliency detection show that the proposed algorithm exhibits outstanding performance in terms of technology indices such as precision and recall rates.

  18. Evaluation of Face Detection Algorithms for the Bank Client Identity Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczodrak Maciej

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of investigation of face detection algorithms efficiency in the banking client visual verification system are presented. The video recordings were made in real conditions met in three bank operating outlets employing a miniature industrial USB camera. The aim of the experiments was to check the practical usability of the face detection method in the biometric bank client verification system. The main assumption was to provide a simplified as much as possible user interaction with the application. Applied algorithms for face detection are described and achieved results of face detection in the real bank environment conditions are presented. Practical limitations of the application based on encountered problems are discussed.

  19. A segmentation algorithm based on image projection for complex text layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wangsheng; Chen, Qin; Wei, Chuanyi; Li, Ziyang

    2017-10-01

    Segmentation algorithm is an important part of layout analysis, considering the efficiency advantage of the top-down approach and the particularity of the object, a breakdown of projection layout segmentation algorithm. Firstly, the algorithm will algorithm first partitions the text image, and divided into several columns, then for each column scanning projection, the text image is divided into several sub regions through multiple projection. The experimental results show that, this method inherits the projection itself and rapid calculation speed, but also can avoid the effect of arc image information page segmentation, and also can accurate segmentation of the text image layout is complex.

  20. A comparison study on algorithms of detecting long forms for short forms in biomedical text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Cathy H

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motivation With more and more research dedicated to literature mining in the biomedical domain, more and more systems are available for people to choose from when building literature mining applications. In this study, we focus on one specific kind of literature mining task, i.e., detecting definitions of acronyms, abbreviations, and symbols in biomedical text. We denote acronyms, abbreviations, and symbols as short forms (SFs and their corresponding definitions as long forms (LFs. The study was designed to answer the following questions; i how well a system performs in detecting LFs from novel text, ii what the coverage is for various terminological knowledge bases in including SFs as synonyms of their LFs, and iii how to combine results from various SF knowledge bases. Method We evaluated the following three publicly available detection systems in detecting LFs for SFs: i a handcrafted pattern/rule based system by Ao and Takagi, ALICE, ii a machine learning system by Chang et al., and iii a simple alignment-based program by Schwartz and Hearst. In addition, we investigated the conceptual coverage of two terminological knowledge bases: i the UMLS (the Unified Medical Language System, and ii the BioThesaurus (a thesaurus of names for all UniProt protein records. We also implemented a web interface that provides a virtual integration of various SF knowledge bases. Results We found that detection systems agree with each other on most cases, and the existing terminological knowledge bases have a good coverage of synonymous relationship for frequently defined LFs. The web interface allows people to detect SF definitions from text and to search several SF knowledge bases. Availability The web site is http://gauss.dbb.georgetown.edu/liblab/SFThesaurus.

  1. A New Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm for Community Detection in Dynamic Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Community detection in dynamic networks is an important research topic and has received an enormous amount of attention in recent years. Modularity is selected as a measure to quantify the quality of the community partition in previous detection methods. But, the modularity has been exposed to resolution limits. In this paper, we propose a novel multiobjective evolutionary algorithm for dynamic networks community detection based on the framework of nondominated sorting genetic algorithm. Modularity density which can address the limitations of modularity function is adopted to measure the snapshot cost, and normalized mutual information is selected to measure temporal cost, respectively. The characteristics knowledge of the problem is used in designing the genetic operators. Furthermore, a local search operator was designed, which can improve the effectiveness and efficiency of community detection. Experimental studies based on synthetic datasets show that the proposed algorithm can obtain better performance than the compared algorithms.

  2. Detection of algorithmic trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoev, Dimitar; Karam, Arzé

    2017-10-01

    We develop a new approach to reflect the behavior of algorithmic traders. Specifically, we provide an analytical and tractable way to infer patterns of quote volatility and price momentum consistent with different types of strategies employed by algorithmic traders, and we propose two ratios to quantify these patterns. Quote volatility ratio is based on the rate of oscillation of the best ask and best bid quotes over an extremely short period of time; whereas price momentum ratio is based on identifying patterns of rapid upward or downward movement in prices. The two ratios are evaluated across several asset classes. We further run a two-stage Artificial Neural Network experiment on the quote volatility ratio; the first stage is used to detect the quote volatility patterns resulting from algorithmic activity, while the second is used to validate the quality of signal detection provided by our measure.

  3. Detecting microsatellites within genomes: significant variation among algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivals Eric

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellites are short, tandemly-repeated DNA sequences which are widely distributed among genomes. Their structure, role and evolution can be analyzed based on exhaustive extraction from sequenced genomes. Several dedicated algorithms have been developed for this purpose. Here, we compared the detection efficiency of five of them (TRF, Mreps, Sputnik, STAR, and RepeatMasker. Results Our analysis was first conducted on the human X chromosome, and microsatellite distributions were characterized by microsatellite number, length, and divergence from a pure motif. The algorithms work with user-defined parameters, and we demonstrate that the parameter values chosen can strongly influence microsatellite distributions. The five algorithms were then compared by fixing parameters settings, and the analysis was extended to three other genomes (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Neurospora crassa and Drosophila melanogaster spanning a wide range of size and structure. Significant differences for all characteristics of microsatellites were observed among algorithms, but not among genomes, for both perfect and imperfect microsatellites. Striking differences were detected for short microsatellites (below 20 bp, regardless of motif. Conclusion Since the algorithm used strongly influences empirical distributions, studies analyzing microsatellite evolution based on a comparison between empirical and theoretical size distributions should therefore be considered with caution. We also discuss why a typological definition of microsatellites limits our capacity to capture their genomic distributions.

  4. Algorithm for detection of the broken phase conductor in the radial networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostojić Mladen M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an algorithm for a directional relay to be used for a detection of the broken phase conductor in the radial networks. The algorithm would use synchronized voltages, measured at the beginning and at the end of the line, as input signals. During the process, the measured voltages would be phase-compared. On the basis of the normalized energy, the direction of the phase conductor, with a broken point, would be detected. Software tool Matlab/Simulink package has developed a radial network model which simulates the broken phase conductor. The simulations generated required input signals by which the algorithm was tested. Development of the algorithm along with the formation of the simulation model and the test results of the proposed algorithm are presented in this paper.

  5. An Overlapping Communities Detection Algorithm via Maxing Modularity in Opportunistic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Zhi-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Community detection in opportunistic networks has been a significant and hot issue, which is used to understand characteristics of networks through analyzing structure of it. Community is used to represent a group of nodes in a network where nodes inside the community have more internal connections than external connections. However, most of the existing community detection algorithms focus on binary networks or disjoint community detection. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm via maxing modularity of communities (MMCto find overlapping community structure in opportunistic networks. It utilizes contact history of nodes to calculate the relation intensity between nodes. It finds nodes with high relation intensity as the initial community and extend the community with nodes of higher belong degree. The algorithm achieves a rapid and efficient overlapping community detection method by maxing the modularity of community continuously. The experiments prove that MMC is effective for uncovering overlapping communities and it achieves better performance than COPRA and Conductance.

  6. Penalty Dynamic Programming Algorithm for Dim Targets Detection in Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfei Guo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect and track multiple maneuvering dim targets in sensor systems, an improved dynamic programming track-before-detect algorithm (DP-TBD called penalty DP-TBD (PDP-TBD is proposed. The performances of tracking techniques are used as a feedback to the detection part. The feedback is constructed by a penalty term in the merit function, and the penalty term is a function of the possible target state estimation, which can be obtained by the tracking methods. With this feedback, the algorithm combines traditional tracking techniques with DP-TBD and it can be applied to simultaneously detect and track maneuvering dim targets. Meanwhile, a reasonable constraint that a sensor measurement can originate from one target or clutter is proposed to minimize track separation. Thus, the algorithm can be used in the multi-target situation with unknown target numbers. The efficiency and advantages of PDP-TBD compared with two existing methods are demonstrated by several simulations.

  7. Detection of pneumonia using free-text radiology reports in the BioSense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asatryan, Armenak; Benoit, Stephen; Ma, Haobo; English, Roseanne; Elkin, Peter; Tokars, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    Near real-time disease detection using electronic data sources is a public health priority. Detecting pneumonia is particularly important because it is the manifesting disease of several bioterrorism agents as well as a complication of influenza, including avian and novel H1N1 strains. Text radiology reports are available earlier than physician diagnoses and so could be integral to rapid detection of pneumonia. We performed a pilot study to determine which keywords present in text radiology reports are most highly associated with pneumonia diagnosis. Electronic radiology text reports from 11 hospitals from February 1, 2006 through December 31, 2007 were used. We created a computerized algorithm that searched for selected keywords ("airspace disease", "consolidation", "density", "infiltrate", "opacity", and "pneumonia"), differentiated between clinical history and radiographic findings, and accounted for negations and double negations; this algorithm was tested on a sample of 350 radiology reports. We used the algorithm to study 189,246 chest radiographs, searching for the keywords and determining their association with a final International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis of pneumonia. Performance of the search algorithm in finding keywords, and association of the keywords with a pneumonia diagnosis. In the sample of 350 radiographs, the search algorithm was highly successful in identifying the selected keywords (sensitivity 98.5%, specificity 100%). Analysis of the 189,246 radiographs showed that the keyword "pneumonia" was the strongest predictor of an ICD-9-CM diagnosis of pneumonia (adjusted odds ratio 11.8) while "density" was the weakest (adjusted odds ratio 1.5). In general, the most highly associated keyword present in the report, regardless of whether a less highly associated keyword was also present, was the best predictor of a diagnosis of pneumonia. Empirical methods may assist in finding radiology

  8. A robust human face detection algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviteja, Thaluru; Karanam, Srikrishna; Yeduguru, Dinesh Reddy V.

    2012-01-01

    Human face detection plays a vital role in many applications like video surveillance, managing a face image database, human computer interface among others. This paper proposes a robust algorithm for face detection in still color images that works well even in a crowded environment. The algorithm uses conjunction of skin color histogram, morphological processing and geometrical analysis for detecting human faces. To reinforce the accuracy of face detection, we further identify mouth and eye regions to establish the presence/absence of face in a particular region of interest.

  9. Species-specific audio detection: a comparison of three template-based detection algorithms using random forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Corrada Bravo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We developed a web-based cloud-hosted system that allow users to archive, listen, visualize, and annotate recordings. The system also provides tools to convert these annotations into datasets that can be used to train a computer to detect the presence or absence of a species. The algorithm used by the system was selected after comparing the accuracy and efficiency of three variants of a template-based detection. The algorithm computes a similarity vector by comparing a template of a species call with time increments across the spectrogram. Statistical features are extracted from this vector and used as input for a Random Forest classifier that predicts presence or absence of the species in the recording. The fastest algorithm variant had the highest average accuracy and specificity; therefore, it was implemented in the ARBIMON web-based system.

  10. Detection of Human Impacts by an Adaptive Energy-Based Anisotropic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Prado-Velasco

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Boosted by health consequences and the cost of falls in the elderly, this work develops and tests a novel algorithm and methodology to detect human impacts that will act as triggers of a two-layer fall monitor. The two main requirements demanded by socio-healthcare providers—unobtrusiveness and reliability—defined the objectives of the research. We have demonstrated that a very agile, adaptive, and energy-based anisotropic algorithm can provide 100% sensitivity and 78% specificity, in the task of detecting impacts under demanding laboratory conditions. The algorithm works together with an unsupervised real-time learning technique that addresses the adaptive capability, and this is also presented. The work demonstrates the robustness and reliability of our new algorithm, which will be the basis of a smart falling monitor. This is shown in this work to underline the relevance of the results.

  11. Automatic Detection and Quantification of WBCs and RBCs Using Iterative Structured Circle Detection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazan M. Alomari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation and counting of blood cells are considered as an important step that helps to extract features to diagnose some specific diseases like malaria or leukemia. The manual counting of white blood cells (WBCs and red blood cells (RBCs in microscopic images is an extremely tedious, time consuming, and inaccurate process. Automatic analysis will allow hematologist experts to perform faster and more accurately. The proposed method uses an iterative structured circle detection algorithm for the segmentation and counting of WBCs and RBCs. The separation of WBCs from RBCs was achieved by thresholding, and specific preprocessing steps were developed for each cell type. Counting was performed for each image using the proposed method based on modified circle detection, which automatically counted the cells. Several modifications were made to the basic (RCD algorithm to solve the initialization problem, detecting irregular circles (cells, selecting the optimal circle from the candidate circles, determining the number of iterations in a fully dynamic way to enhance algorithm detection, and running time. The validation method used to determine segmentation accuracy was a quantitative analysis that included Precision, Recall, and F-measurement tests. The average accuracy of the proposed method was 95.3% for RBCs and 98.4% for WBCs.

  12. MUSIC algorithms for rebar detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solimene, Raffaele; Leone, Giovanni; Dell’Aversano, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The MUSIC (MUltiple SIgnal Classification) algorithm is employed to detect and localize an unknown number of scattering objects which are small in size as compared to the wavelength. The ensemble of objects to be detected consists of both strong and weak scatterers. This represents a scattering environment challenging for detection purposes as strong scatterers tend to mask the weak ones. Consequently, the detection of more weakly scattering objects is not always guaranteed and can be completely impaired when the noise corrupting data is of a relatively high level. To overcome this drawback, here a new technique is proposed, starting from the idea of applying a two-stage MUSIC algorithm. In the first stage strong scatterers are detected. Then, information concerning their number and location is employed in the second stage focusing only on the weak scatterers. The role of an adequate scattering model is emphasized to improve drastically detection performance in realistic scenarios. (paper)

  13. A Hybrid Swarm Intelligence Algorithm for Intrusion Detection Using Significant Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Amudha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection has become a main part of network security due to the huge number of attacks which affects the computers. This is due to the extensive growth of internet connectivity and accessibility to information systems worldwide. To deal with this problem, in this paper a hybrid algorithm is proposed to integrate Modified Artificial Bee Colony (MABC with Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization (EPSO to predict the intrusion detection problem. The algorithms are combined together to find out better optimization results and the classification accuracies are obtained by 10-fold cross-validation method. The purpose of this paper is to select the most relevant features that can represent the pattern of the network traffic and test its effect on the success of the proposed hybrid classification algorithm. To investigate the performance of the proposed method, intrusion detection KDDCup’99 benchmark dataset from the UCI Machine Learning repository is used. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the other machine learning algorithms and found to be significantly different.

  14. A Self-embedding Robust Digital Watermarking Algorithm with Blind Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Yunfeng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the perfectly blind detection of robustness watermarking algorithm, a novel self-embedding robust digital watermarking algorithm with blind detection is proposed in this paper. Firstly the original image is divided to not overlap image blocks and then decomposable coefficients are obtained by lifting-based wavelet transform in every image blocks. Secondly the low-frequency coefficients of block images are selected and then approximately represented as a product of a base matrix and a coefficient matrix using NMF. Then the feature vector represent original image is obtained by quantizing coefficient matrix, and finally the adaptive quantization of the robustness watermark is embedded in the low-frequency coefficients of LWT. Experimental results show that the scheme is robust against common signal processing attacks, meanwhile perfect blind detection is achieve.

  15. A Chinese text classification system based on Naive Bayes algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, aiming at the characteristics of Chinese text classification, using the ICTCLAS(Chinese lexical analysis system of Chinese academy of sciences for document segmentation, and for data cleaning and filtering the Stop words, using the information gain and document frequency feature selection algorithm to document feature selection. Based on this, based on the Naive Bayesian algorithm implemented text classifier , and use Chinese corpus of Fudan University has carried on the experiment and analysis on the system.

  16. A hardware-algorithm co-design approach to optimize seizure detection algorithms for implantable applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunathan, Shriram; Gupta, Sumeet K; Markandeya, Himanshu S; Roy, Kaushik; Irazoqui, Pedro P

    2010-10-30

    Implantable neural prostheses that deliver focal electrical stimulation upon demand are rapidly emerging as an alternate therapy for roughly a third of the epileptic patient population that is medically refractory. Seizure detection algorithms enable feedback mechanisms to provide focally and temporally specific intervention. Real-time feasibility and computational complexity often limit most reported detection algorithms to implementations using computers for bedside monitoring or external devices communicating with the implanted electrodes. A comparison of algorithms based on detection efficacy does not present a complete picture of the feasibility of the algorithm with limited computational power, as is the case with most battery-powered applications. We present a two-dimensional design optimization approach that takes into account both detection efficacy and hardware cost in evaluating algorithms for their feasibility in an implantable application. Detection features are first compared for their ability to detect electrographic seizures from micro-electrode data recorded from kainate-treated rats. Circuit models are then used to estimate the dynamic and leakage power consumption of the compared features. A score is assigned based on detection efficacy and the hardware cost for each of the features, then plotted on a two-dimensional design space. An optimal combination of compared features is used to construct an algorithm that provides maximal detection efficacy per unit hardware cost. The methods presented in this paper would facilitate the development of a common platform to benchmark seizure detection algorithms for comparison and feasibility analysis in the next generation of implantable neuroprosthetic devices to treat epilepsy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Greedy Algorithm for Neighborhood Overlap-Based Community Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Meghanathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The neighborhood overlap (NOVER of an edge u-v is defined as the ratio of the number of nodes who are neighbors for both u and v to that of the number of nodes who are neighbors of at least u or v. In this paper, we hypothesize that an edge u-v with a lower NOVER score bridges two or more sets of vertices, with very few edges (other than u-v connecting vertices from one set to another set. Accordingly, we propose a greedy algorithm of iteratively removing the edges of a network in the increasing order of their neighborhood overlap and calculating the modularity score of the resulting network component(s after the removal of each edge. The network component(s that have the largest cumulative modularity score are identified as the different communities of the network. We evaluate the performance of the proposed NOVER-based community detection algorithm on nine real-world network graphs and compare the performance against the multi-level aggregation-based Louvain algorithm, as well as the original and time-efficient versions of the edge betweenness-based Girvan-Newman (GN community detection algorithm.

  18. A Contextual Fire Detection Algorithm for Simulated HJ-1B Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangsheng Kong

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The HJ-1B satellite, which was launched on September 6, 2008, is one of the small ones placed in the constellation for disaster prediction and monitoring. HJ-1B imagery was simulated in this paper, which contains fires of various sizes and temperatures in a wide range of terrestrial biomes and climates, including RED, NIR, MIR and TIR channels. Based on the MODIS version 4 contextual algorithm and the characteristics of HJ-1B sensor, a contextual fire detection algorithm was proposed and tested using simulated HJ-1B data. It was evaluated by the probability of fire detection and false alarm as functions of fire temperature and fire area. Results indicate that when the simulated fire area is larger than 45 m2 and the simulated fire temperature is larger than 800 K, the algorithm has a higher probability of detection. But if the simulated fire area is smaller than 10 m2, only when the simulated fire temperature is larger than 900 K, may the fire be detected. For fire areas about 100 m2, the proposed algorithm has a higher detection probability than that of the MODIS product. Finally, the omission and commission error were evaluated which are important factors to affect the performance of this algorithm. It has been demonstrated that HJ-1B satellite data are much sensitive to smaller and cooler fires than MODIS or AVHRR data and the improved capabilities of HJ-1B data will offer a fine opportunity for the fire detection.

  19. A Novel Online Data-Driven Algorithm for Detecting UAV Navigation Sensor Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Sun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs has increased significantly in recent years. On-board integrated navigation sensors are a key component of UAVs’ flight control systems and are essential for flight safety. In order to ensure flight safety, timely and effective navigation sensor fault detection capability is required. In this paper, a novel data-driven Adaptive Neuron Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS-based approach is presented for the detection of on-board navigation sensor faults in UAVs. Contrary to the classic UAV sensor fault detection algorithms, based on predefined or modelled faults, the proposed algorithm combines an online data training mechanism with the ANFIS-based decision system. The main advantages of this algorithm are that it allows real-time model-free residual analysis from Kalman Filter (KF estimates and the ANFIS to build a reliable fault detection system. In addition, it allows fast and accurate detection of faults, which makes it suitable for real-time applications. Experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed fault detection method in terms of accuracy and misdetection rate.

  20. Experiments on Supervised Learning Algorithms for Text Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namburu, Setu Madhavi; Tu, Haiying; Luo, Jianhui; Pattipati, Krishna R.

    2005-01-01

    Modern information society is facing the challenge of handling massive volume of online documents, news, intelligence reports, and so on. How to use the information accurately and in a timely manner becomes a major concern in many areas. While the general information may also include images and voice, we focus on the categorization of text data in this paper. We provide a brief overview of the information processing flow for text categorization, and discuss two supervised learning algorithms, viz., support vector machines (SVM) and partial least squares (PLS), which have been successfully applied in other domains, e.g., fault diagnosis [9]. While SVM has been well explored for binary classification and was reported as an efficient algorithm for text categorization, PLS has not yet been applied to text categorization. Our experiments are conducted on three data sets: Reuter's- 21578 dataset about corporate mergers and data acquisitions (ACQ), WebKB and the 20-Newsgroups. Results show that the performance of PLS is comparable to SVM in text categorization. A major drawback of SVM for multi-class categorization is that it requires a voting scheme based on the results of pair-wise classification. PLS does not have this drawback and could be a better candidate for multi-class text categorization.

  1. Optimization of an Accelerometer and Gyroscope-Based Fall Detection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quoc T. Huynh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Falling is a common and significant cause of injury in elderly adults (>65 yrs old, often leading to disability and death. In the USA, one in three of the elderly suffers from fall injuries annually. This study’s purpose is to develop, optimize, and assess the efficacy of a falls detection algorithm based upon a wireless, wearable sensor system (WSS comprised of a 3-axis accelerometer and gyroscope. For this study, the WSS is placed at the chest center to collect real-time motion data of various simulated daily activities (i.e., walking, running, stepping, and falling. Tests were conducted on 36 human subjects with a total of 702 different movements collected in a laboratory setting. Half of the dataset was used for development of the fall detection algorithm including investigations of critical sensor thresholds and the remaining dataset was used for assessment of algorithm sensitivity and specificity. Experimental results show that the algorithm detects falls compared to other daily movements with a sensitivity and specificity of 96.3% and 96.2%, respectively. The addition of gyroscope information enhances sensitivity dramatically from results in the literature as angular velocity changes provide further delineation of a fall event from other activities that may also experience high acceleration peaks.

  2. A Novel Algorithm for Intrusion Detection Based on RASL Model Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijun Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interval temporal logic (ITL model checking (MC technique enhances the power of intrusion detection systems (IDSs to detect concurrent attacks due to the strong expressive power of ITL. However, an ITL formula suffers from difficulty in the description of the time constraints between different actions in the same attack. To address this problem, we formalize a novel real-time interval temporal logic—real-time attack signature logic (RASL. Based on such a new logic, we put forward a RASL model checking algorithm. Furthermore, we use RASL formulas to describe attack signatures and employ discrete timed automata to create an audit log. As a result, RASL model checking algorithm can be used to automatically verify whether the automata satisfy the formulas, that is, whether the audit log coincides with the attack signatures. The simulation experiments show that the new approach effectively enhances the detection power of the MC-based intrusion detection methods for a number of telnet attacks, p-trace attacks, and the other sixteen types of attacks. And these experiments indicate that the new algorithm can find several types of real-time attacks, whereas the existing MC-based intrusion detection approaches cannot do that.

  3. A Forest Early Fire Detection Algorithm Based on Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENG Qiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN adopt GHz as their communication carrier, and it has been found that GHz carrier attenuation model in transmission path is associated with vegetation water content. In this paper, based on RSSI mechanism of WSN nodes we formed vegetation dehydration sensors. Through relationships between vegetation water content and carrier attenuation, we perceived forest vegetation water content variations and early fire gestation process, and established algorithms of early forest fires detection. Experiments confirm that wireless sensor networks can accurately perceive vegetation dehydration events and forest fire events. Simulation results show that, WSN dehydration perception channel (P2P representing 75 % amounts of carrier channel or more, it can meet the detection requirements, which presented a new algorithm of early forest fire detection.

  4. Seizure detection algorithms based on EMG signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Isa

    Background: the currently used non-invasive seizure detection methods are not reliable. Muscle fibers are directly connected to the nerves, whereby electric signals are generated during activity. Therefore, an alarm system on electromyography (EMG) signals is a theoretical possibility. Objective...... on the amplitude of the signal. The other algorithm was based on information of the signal in the frequency domain, and it focused on synchronisation of the electrical activity in a single muscle during the seizure. Results: The amplitude-based algorithm reliably detected seizures in 2 of the patients, while...... the frequency-based algorithm was efficient for detecting the seizures in the third patient. Conclusion: Our results suggest that EMG signals could be used to develop an automatic seizuredetection system. However, different patients might require different types of algorithms /approaches....

  5. An Anomaly Detection Algorithm of Cloud Platform Based on Self-Organizing Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual machines (VM on a Cloud platform can be influenced by a variety of factors which can lead to decreased performance and downtime, affecting the reliability of the Cloud platform. Traditional anomaly detection algorithms and strategies for Cloud platforms have some flaws in their accuracy of detection, detection speed, and adaptability. In this paper, a dynamic and adaptive anomaly detection algorithm based on Self-Organizing Maps (SOM for virtual machines is proposed. A unified modeling method based on SOM to detect the machine performance within the detection region is presented, which avoids the cost of modeling a single virtual machine and enhances the detection speed and reliability of large-scale virtual machines in Cloud platform. The important parameters that affect the modeling speed are optimized in the SOM process to significantly improve the accuracy of the SOM modeling and therefore the anomaly detection accuracy of the virtual machine.

  6. AdaBoost-based algorithm for network intrusion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Hu, Wei; Maybank, Steve

    2008-04-01

    Network intrusion detection aims at distinguishing the attacks on the Internet from normal use of the Internet. It is an indispensable part of the information security system. Due to the variety of network behaviors and the rapid development of attack fashions, it is necessary to develop fast machine-learning-based intrusion detection algorithms with high detection rates and low false-alarm rates. In this correspondence, we propose an intrusion detection algorithm based on the AdaBoost algorithm. In the algorithm, decision stumps are used as weak classifiers. The decision rules are provided for both categorical and continuous features. By combining the weak classifiers for continuous features and the weak classifiers for categorical features into a strong classifier, the relations between these two different types of features are handled naturally, without any forced conversions between continuous and categorical features. Adaptable initial weights and a simple strategy for avoiding overfitting are adopted to improve the performance of the algorithm. Experimental results show that our algorithm has low computational complexity and error rates, as compared with algorithms of higher computational complexity, as tested on the benchmark sample data.

  7. Improvement and implementation for Canny edge detection algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Qiu, Yue-hong

    2015-07-01

    Edge detection is necessary for image segmentation and pattern recognition. In this paper, an improved Canny edge detection approach is proposed due to the defect of traditional algorithm. A modified bilateral filter with a compensation function based on pixel intensity similarity judgment was used to smooth image instead of Gaussian filter, which could preserve edge feature and remove noise effectively. In order to solve the problems of sensitivity to the noise in gradient calculating, the algorithm used 4 directions gradient templates. Finally, Otsu algorithm adaptively obtain the dual-threshold. All of the algorithm simulated with OpenCV 2.4.0 library in the environments of vs2010, and through the experimental analysis, the improved algorithm has been proved to detect edge details more effectively and with more adaptability.

  8. Implementation of Winnowing Algorithm Based K-Gram to Identify Plagiarism on File Text-Based Document

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdiansyah Yanuar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism occurs when the students have tasks and pursued by the deadline. Plagiarism is considered as the fastest way to accomplish the tasks. This reason makes the author tried to build a plagiarism detection system with Winnowing algorithm as document similarity search algorithm. The documents that being tested are Indonesian journals with extension .doc, .docx, and/or .txt. Similarity calculation process through two stages, the first is the process of making a document fingerprint using Winnowing algorithm and the second is using Jaccard coefficient similarity. In order to develop this system, the author used iterative waterfall model approach. The main objective of this project is to determine the level of plagiarism. It is expected to prevent plagiarism either intentionally or unintentionally before our journal published by displaying the percentage of similarity in the journals that we make.

  9. A Novel Immune-Inspired Shellcode Detection Algorithm Based on Hyperellipsoid Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianliang Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Shellcodes are machine language codes injected into target programs in the form of network packets or malformed files. Shellcodes can trigger buffer overflow vulnerability and execute malicious instructions. Signature matching technology used by antivirus software or intrusion detection system has low detection rate for unknown or polymorphic shellcodes; to solve such problem, an immune-inspired shellcode detection algorithm was proposed, named ISDA. Static analysis and dynamic analysis were both applied. The shellcodes were disassembled to assembly instructions during static analysis and, for dynamic analysis, the API function sequences of shellcodes were obtained by simulation execution to get the behavioral features of polymorphic shellcodes. The extracted features of shellcodes were encoded to antigens based on n-gram model. Immature detectors become mature after immune tolerance based on negative selection algorithm. To improve nonself space coverage rate, the immune detectors were encoded to hyperellipsoids. To generate better antibody offspring, the detectors were optimized through clonal selection algorithm with genetic mutation. Finally, shellcode samples were collected and tested, and result shows that the proposed method has higher detection accuracy for both nonencoded and polymorphic shellcodes.

  10. Improved Genetic Algorithm Optimization for Forward Vehicle Detection Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longhui Gang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Automated forward vehicle detection is an integral component of many advanced driver-assistance systems. The method based on multi-visual information fusion, with its exclusive advantages, has become one of the important topics in this research field. During the whole detection process, there are two key points that should to be resolved. One is to find the robust features for identification and the other is to apply an efficient algorithm for training the model designed with multi-information. This paper presents an adaptive SVM (Support Vector Machine model to detect vehicle with range estimation using an on-board camera. Due to the extrinsic factors such as shadows and illumination, we pay more attention to enhancing the system with several robust features extracted from a real driving environment. Then, with the introduction of an improved genetic algorithm, the features are fused efficiently by the proposed SVM model. In order to apply the model in the forward collision warning system, longitudinal distance information is provided simultaneously. The proposed method is successfully implemented on a test car and evaluation experimental results show reliability in terms of both the detection rate and potential effectiveness in a real-driving environment.

  11. Acoustic change detection algorithm using an FM radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Geoffrey H.; Wolfe, Owen

    2012-06-01

    The U.S. Army is interested in developing low-cost, low-power, non-line-of-sight sensors for monitoring human activity. One modality that is often overlooked is active acoustics using sources of opportunity such as speech or music. Active acoustics can be used to detect human activity by generating acoustic images of an area at different times, then testing for changes among the imagery. A change detection algorithm was developed to detect physical changes in a building, such as a door changing positions or a large box being moved using acoustics sources of opportunity. The algorithm is based on cross correlating the acoustic signal measured from two microphones. The performance of the algorithm was shown using data generated with a hand-held FM radio as a sound source and two microphones. The algorithm could detect a door being opened in a hallway.

  12. Botnet Propagation Via Public Websited Detection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Juknius

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The networks of compromised and remotely controlled computers (bots are widely used in many Internet fraudulent activities, especially in the distributed denial of service attacks. Brute force gives enormous power to bot masters and makes botnet traffic visible; therefore, some countermeasures might be applied at early stages. Our study focuses on detecting botnet propagation via public websites. The provided algorithm might help with preventing from massive infections when popular web sites are compromised without spreading visual changes used for malware in botnets.Article in English

  13. A Formally Verified Conflict Detection Algorithm for Polynomial Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkawicz, Anthony; Munoz, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    In air traffic management, conflict detection algorithms are used to determine whether or not aircraft are predicted to lose horizontal and vertical separation minima within a time interval assuming a trajectory model. In the case of linear trajectories, conflict detection algorithms have been proposed that are both sound, i.e., they detect all conflicts, and complete, i.e., they do not present false alarms. In general, for arbitrary nonlinear trajectory models, it is possible to define detection algorithms that are either sound or complete, but not both. This paper considers the case of nonlinear aircraft trajectory models based on polynomial functions. In particular, it proposes a conflict detection algorithm that precisely determines whether, given a lookahead time, two aircraft flying polynomial trajectories are in conflict. That is, it has been formally verified that, assuming that the aircraft trajectories are modeled as polynomial functions, the proposed algorithm is both sound and complete.

  14. Detection of Illegitimate Emails using Boosting Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2011-01-01

    and spam email detection. For our desired task, we have applied a boosting technique. With the use of boosting we can achieve high accuracy of traditional classification algorithms. When using boosting one has to choose a suitable weak learner as well as the number of boosting iterations. In this paper, we......In this paper, we report on experiments to detect illegitimate emails using boosting algorithm. We call an email illegitimate if it is not useful for the receiver or for the society. We have divided the problem into two major areas of illegitimate email detection: suspicious email detection...

  15. A Detection Algorithm for the BOC Signal Based on Quadrature Channel Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Qian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of detecting a BOC signal, which uses a long-period pseudo random sequence, an algorithm is presented based on quadrature channel correlation. The quadrature channel correlation method eliminates the autocorrelation component of the carrier wave, allowing for the extraction of the absolute autocorrelation peaks of the BOC sequence. If the same lag difference and height difference exist for the adjacent peaks, the BOC signal can be detected effectively using a statistical analysis of the multiple autocorrelation peaks. The simulation results show that the interference of the carrier wave component is eliminated and the autocorrelation peaks of the BOC sequence are obtained effectively without demodulation. The BOC signal can be detected effectively when the SNR is greater than −12 dB. The detection ability can be improved further by increasing the number of sampling points. The higher the ratio of the square wave subcarrier speed to the pseudo random sequence speed is, the greater the detection ability is with a lower SNR. The algorithm presented in this paper is superior to the algorithm based on the spectral correlation.

  16. Object Detection and Tracking using Modified Diamond Search Block Matching Motion Estimation Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva Samdurkar

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Object tracking is one of the main fields within computer vision. Amongst various methods/ approaches for object detection and tracking, the background subtraction approach makes the detection of object easier. To the detected object, apply the proposed block matching algorithm for generating the motion vectors. The existing diamond search (DS and cross diamond search algorithms (CDS are studied and experiments are carried out on various standard video data sets and user defined data sets. Based on the study and analysis of these two existing algorithms a modified diamond search pattern (MDS algorithm is proposed using small diamond shape search pattern in initial step and large diamond shape (LDS in further steps for motion estimation. The initial search pattern consists of five points in small diamond shape pattern and gradually grows into a large diamond shape pattern, based on the point with minimum cost function. The algorithm ends with the small shape pattern at last. The proposed MDS algorithm finds the smaller motion vectors and fewer searching points than the existing DS and CDS algorithms. Further, object detection is carried out by using background subtraction approach and finally, MDS motion estimation algorithm is used for tracking the object in color video sequences. The experiments are carried out by using different video data sets containing a single object. The results are evaluated and compared by using the evaluation parameters like average searching points per frame and average computational time per frame. The experimental results show that the MDS performs better than DS and CDS on average search point and average computation time.

  17. Test of TEDA, Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Lidia; Tinti, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    Tsunami detection in real-time, both offshore and at the coastline, plays a key role in Tsunami Warning Systems since it provides so far the only reliable and timely proof of tsunami generation, and is used to confirm or cancel tsunami warnings previously issued on the basis of seismic data alone. Moreover, in case of submarine or coastal landslide generated tsunamis, which are not announced by clear seismic signals and are typically local, real-time detection at the coastline might be the fastest way to release a warning, even if the useful time for emergency operations might be limited. TEDA is an algorithm for real-time detection of tsunami signal on sea-level records, developed by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna. The development and testing of the algorithm has been accomplished within the framework of the Italian national project DPC-INGV S3 and the European project TRANSFER. The algorithm is to be implemented at station level, and it is based therefore only on sea-level data of a single station, either a coastal tide-gauge or an offshore buoy. TEDA's principle is to discriminate the first tsunami wave from the previous background signal, which implies the assumption that the tsunami waves introduce a difference in the previous sea-level signal. Therefore, in TEDA the instantaneous (most recent) and the previous background sea-level elevation gradients are characterized and compared by proper functions (IS and BS) that are updated at every new data acquisition. Detection is triggered when the instantaneous signal function passes a set threshold and at the same time it is significantly bigger compared to the previous background signal. The functions IS and BS depend on temporal parameters that allow the algorithm to be adapted different situations: in general, coastal tide-gauges have a typical background spectrum depending on the location where the instrument is installed, due to local topography and bathymetry, while offshore buoys are

  18. Adaptive sampling algorithm for detection of superpoints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Guang; GONG Jian; DING Wei; WU Hua; QIANG ShiQiang

    2008-01-01

    The superpoints are the sources (or the destinations) that connect with a great deal of destinations (or sources) during a measurement time interval, so detecting the superpoints in real time is very important to network security and management. Previous algorithms are not able to control the usage of the memory and to deliver the desired accuracy, so it is hard to detect the superpoints on a high speed link in real time. In this paper, we propose an adaptive sampling algorithm to detect the superpoints in real time, which uses a flow sample and hold module to reduce the detection of the non-superpoints and to improve the measurement accuracy of the superpoints. We also design a data stream structure to maintain the flow records, which compensates for the flow Hash collisions statistically. An adaptive process based on different sampling probabilities is used to maintain the recorded IP ad dresses in the limited memory. This algorithm is compared with the other algo rithms by analyzing the real network trace data. Experiment results and mathematic analysis show that this algorithm has the advantages of both the limited memory requirement and high measurement accuracy.

  19. Algorithmic detectability threshold of the stochastic block model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Tatsuro

    2018-03-01

    The assumption that the values of model parameters are known or correctly learned, i.e., the Nishimori condition, is one of the requirements for the detectability analysis of the stochastic block model in statistical inference. In practice, however, there is no example demonstrating that we can know the model parameters beforehand, and there is no guarantee that the model parameters can be learned accurately. In this study, we consider the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm with belief propagation (BP) and derive its algorithmic detectability threshold. Our analysis is not restricted to the community structure but includes general modular structures. Because the algorithm cannot always learn the planted model parameters correctly, the algorithmic detectability threshold is qualitatively different from the one with the Nishimori condition.

  20. STREAMFINDER I: A New Algorithm for detecting Stellar Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhan, Khyati; Ibata, Rodrigo A.

    2018-04-01

    We have designed a powerful new algorithm to detect stellar streams in an automated and systematic way. The algorithm, which we call the STREAMFINDER, is well suited for finding dynamically cold and thin stream structures that may lie along any simple or complex orbits in Galactic stellar surveys containing any combination of positional and kinematic information. In the present contribution we introduce the algorithm, lay out the ideas behind it, explain the methodology adopted to detect streams and detail its workings by running it on a suite of simulations of mock Galactic survey data of similar quality to that expected from the ESA/Gaia mission. We show that our algorithm is able to detect even ultra-faint stream features lying well below previous detection limits. Tests show that our algorithm will be able to detect distant halo stream structures >10° long containing as few as ˜15 members (ΣG ˜ 33.6 mag arcsec-2) in the Gaia dataset.

  1. A Linked List-Based Algorithm for Blob Detection on Embedded Vision-Based Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Acevedo-Avila

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Blob detection is a common task in vision-based applications. Most existing algorithms are aimed at execution on general purpose computers; while very few can be adapted to the computing restrictions present in embedded platforms. This paper focuses on the design of an algorithm capable of real-time blob detection that minimizes system memory consumption. The proposed algorithm detects objects in one image scan; it is based on a linked-list data structure tree used to label blobs depending on their shape and node information. An example application showing the results of a blob detection co-processor has been built on a low-powered field programmable gate array hardware as a step towards developing a smart video surveillance system. The detection method is intended for general purpose application. As such, several test cases focused on character recognition are also examined. The results obtained present a fair trade-off between accuracy and memory requirements; and prove the validity of the proposed approach for real-time implementation on resource-constrained computing platforms.

  2. A new algorithmic approach for fingers detection and identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubashar Khan, Arslan; Umar, Waqas; Choudhary, Taimoor; Hussain, Fawad; Haroon Yousaf, Muhammad

    2013-03-01

    Gesture recognition is concerned with the goal of interpreting human gestures through mathematical algorithms. Gestures can originate from any bodily motion or state but commonly originate from the face or hand. Hand gesture detection in a real time environment, where the time and memory are important issues, is a critical operation. Hand gesture recognition largely depends on the accurate detection of the fingers. This paper presents a new algorithmic approach to detect and identify fingers of human hand. The proposed algorithm does not depend upon the prior knowledge of the scene. It detects the active fingers and Metacarpophalangeal (MCP) of the inactive fingers from an already detected hand. Dynamic thresholding technique and connected component labeling scheme are employed for background elimination and hand detection respectively. Algorithm proposed a new approach for finger identification in real time environment keeping the memory and time constraint as low as possible.

  3. GA-DoSLD: Genetic Algorithm Based Denial-of-Sleep Attack Detection in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahalakshmi Gunasekaran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Denial-of-sleep (DoSL attack is a special category of denial-of-service attack that prevents the battery powered sensor nodes from going into the sleep mode, thus affecting the network performance. The existing schemes used for the DoSL attack detection do not provide an optimal energy conservation and key pairing operation. Hence, in this paper, an efficient Genetic Algorithm (GA based denial-of-sleep attack detection (GA-DoSLD algorithm is suggested for analyzing the misbehaviors of the nodes. The suggested algorithm implements a Modified-RSA (MRSA algorithm in the base station (BS for generating and distributing the key pair among the sensor nodes. Before sending/receiving the packets, the sensor nodes determine the optimal route using Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV protocol and then ensure the trustworthiness of the relay node using the fitness calculation. The crossover and mutation operations detect and analyze the methods that the attackers use for implementing the attack. On determining an attacker node, the BS broadcasts the blocked information to all the other sensor nodes in the network. Simulation results prove that the suggested algorithm is optimal compared to the existing algorithms such as X-MAC, ZKP, and TE2P schemes.

  4. Leakage detection and estimation algorithm for loss reduction in water piping networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adedeji, KB

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available the development of efficient algorithms for detecting leakage in water piping networks. Water distribution networks (WDNs) are disperse in nature with numerous number of nodes and branches. Consequently, identifying the segment(s) of the network and the exact...

  5. High Precision Edge Detection Algorithm for Mechanical Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Zhenyun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available High precision and high efficiency measurement is becoming an imperative requirement for a lot of mechanical parts. So in this study, a subpixel-level edge detection algorithm based on the Gaussian integral model is proposed. For this purpose, the step edge normal section line Gaussian integral model of the backlight image is constructed, combined with the point spread function and the single step model. Then gray value of discrete points on the normal section line of pixel edge is calculated by surface interpolation, and the coordinate as well as gray information affected by noise is fitted in accordance with the Gaussian integral model. Therefore, a precise location of a subpixel edge was determined by searching the mean point. Finally, a gear tooth was measured by M&M3525 gear measurement center to verify the proposed algorithm. The theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the local edge fluctuation is reduced effectively by the proposed method in comparison with the existing subpixel edge detection algorithms. The subpixel edge location accuracy and computation speed are improved. And the maximum error of gear tooth profile total deviation is 1.9 μm compared with measurement result with gear measurement center. It indicates that the method has high reliability to meet the requirement of high precision measurement.

  6. Real time algorithms for sharp wave ripple detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Ankit; Kemere, Caleb

    2014-01-01

    Neural activity during sharp wave ripples (SWR), short bursts of co-ordinated oscillatory activity in the CA1 region of the rodent hippocampus, is implicated in a variety of memory functions from consolidation to recall. Detection of these events in an algorithmic framework, has thus far relied on simple thresholding techniques with heuristically derived parameters. This study is an investigation into testing and improving the current methods for detection of SWR events in neural recordings. We propose and profile methods to reduce latency in ripple detection. Proposed algorithms are tested on simulated ripple data. The findings show that simple realtime algorithms can improve upon existing power thresholding methods and can detect ripple activity with latencies in the range of 10-20 ms.

  7. Improving Polyp Detection Algorithms for CT Colonography: Pareto Front Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Adam; Li, Jiang; Summers, Ronald M; Petrick, Nicholas; Hara, Amy K

    2010-03-21

    We investigated a Pareto front approach to improving polyp detection algorithms for CT colonography (CTC). A dataset of 56 CTC colon surfaces with 87 proven positive detections of 53 polyps sized 4 to 60 mm was used to evaluate the performance of a one-step and a two-step curvature-based region growing algorithm. The algorithmic performance was statistically evaluated and compared based on the Pareto optimal solutions from 20 experiments by evolutionary algorithms. The false positive rate was lower (pPareto optimization process can effectively help in fine-tuning and redesigning polyp detection algorithms.

  8. Leakage Detection and Estimation Algorithm for Loss Reduction in Water Piping Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazeem B. Adedeji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Water loss through leaking pipes constitutes a major challenge to the operational service of water utilities. In recent years, increasing concern about the financial loss and environmental pollution caused by leaking pipes has been driving the development of efficient algorithms for detecting leakage in water piping networks. Water distribution networks (WDNs are disperse in nature with numerous number of nodes and branches. Consequently, identifying the segment(s of the network and the exact leaking pipelines connected to this segment(s where higher background leakage outflow occurs is a challenging task. Background leakage concerns the outflow from small cracks or deteriorated joints. In addition, because they are diffuse flow, they are not characterised by quick pressure drop and are not detectable by measuring instruments. Consequently, they go unreported for a long period of time posing a threat to water loss volume. Most of the existing research focuses on the detection and localisation of burst type leakages which are characterised by a sudden pressure drop. In this work, an algorithm for detecting and estimating background leakage in water distribution networks is presented. The algorithm integrates a leakage model into a classical WDN hydraulic model for solving the network leakage flows. The applicability of the developed algorithm is demonstrated on two different water networks. The results of the tested networks are discussed and the solutions obtained show the benefits of the proposed algorithm. A noteworthy evidence is that the algorithm permits the detection of critical segments or pipes of the network experiencing higher leakage outflow and indicates the probable pipes of the network where pressure control can be performed. However, the possible position of pressure control elements along such critical pipes will be addressed in future work.

  9. Shot Boundary Detection in Soccer Video using Twin-comparison Algorithm and Dominant Color Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matko Šarić

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The first step in generic video processing is temporal segmentation, i.e. shot boundary detection. Camera shot transitions can be either abrupt (e.g. cuts or gradual (e.g. fades, dissolves, wipes. Sports video is one of the most challenging domains for robust shot boundary detection. We proposed a shot boundary detection algorithm for soccer video based on the twin-comparison method and the absolute difference between frames in their ratios of dominant colored pixels to total number of pixels. With this approach the detection of gradual transitions is improved by decreasing the number of false positives caused by some camera operations. We also compared performances of our algorithm and the standard twin-comparison method.

  10. IMPLEMENTATION OF INCIDENT DETECTION ALGORITHM BASED ON FUZZY LOGIC IN PTV VISSIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Borisovich Nikolaev

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Traffic incident management is a major challenge in the management of movement, requiring constant attention and significant investment, as well as fast and accurate solutions in order to re-establish normal traffic conditions. Automatic control methods are becoming an important factor for the reduction of traffic congestion caused by an arising incident. In this paper, the algorithm of automatic detection incident based on fuzzy logic is implemented in the software PTV VISSIM. 9 different types of tests were conducted on the two lane road section segment with changing traffic conditions: the location of the road accident, loading of traffic. The main conclusion of the research is that the proposed algorithm for the incidents detection demonstrates good performance in the time of detection and false alarms

  11. An Algorithm for Detection of DVB-T Signals Based on Their Second-Order Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jallon Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We propose in this paper a detection algorithm based on a cost function that jointly tests the correlation induced by the cyclic prefix and the fact that this correlation is time-periodic. In the first part of the paper, the cost function is introduced and some analytical results are given. In particular, the noise and multipath channel impacts on its values are theoretically analysed. In a second part of the paper, some asymptotic results are derived. A first exploitation of these results is used to build a detection test based on the false alarm probability. These results are also used to evaluate the impact of the number of cycle frequencies taken into account in the cost function on the detection performances. Thanks to numerical estimations, we have been able to estimate that the proposed algorithm detects DVB-T signals with an SNR of  dB. As a comparison, and in the same context, the detection algorithm proposed by the 802.22 WG in 2006 is able to detect these signals with an SNR of  dB.

  12. An Algorithm for Pedestrian Detection in Multispectral Image Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniaz, V. V.; Fedorenko, V. V.

    2017-05-01

    The growing interest for self-driving cars provides a demand for scene understanding and obstacle detection algorithms. One of the most challenging problems in this field is the problem of pedestrian detection. Main difficulties arise from a diverse appearances of pedestrians. Poor visibility conditions such as fog and low light conditions also significantly decrease the quality of pedestrian detection. This paper presents a new optical flow based algorithm BipedDetet that provides robust pedestrian detection on a single-borad computer. The algorithm is based on the idea of simplified Kalman filtering suitable for realization on modern single-board computers. To detect a pedestrian a synthetic optical flow of the scene without pedestrians is generated using slanted-plane model. The estimate of a real optical flow is generated using a multispectral image sequence. The difference of the synthetic optical flow and the real optical flow provides the optical flow induced by pedestrians. The final detection of pedestrians is done by the segmentation of the difference of optical flows. To evaluate the BipedDetect algorithm a multispectral dataset was collected using a mobile robot.

  13. Comparison of machine learning algorithms for detecting coral reef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tusa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/07/31 - Accepted: 2014/09/23This work focuses on developing a fast coral reef detector, which is used for an autonomous underwater vehicle, AUV. A fast detection secures the AUV stabilization respect to an area of reef as fast as possible, and prevents devastating collisions. We use the algorithm of Purser et al. (2009 because of its precision. This detector has two parts: feature extraction that uses Gabor Wavelet filters, and feature classification that uses machine learning based on Neural Networks. Due to the extensive time of the Neural Networks, we exchange for a classification algorithm based on Decision Trees. We use a database of 621 images of coral reef in Belize (110 images for training and 511 images for testing. We implement the bank of Gabor Wavelets filters using C++ and the OpenCV library. We compare the accuracy and running time of 9 machine learning algorithms, whose result was the selection of the Decision Trees algorithm. Our coral detector performs 70ms of running time in comparison to 22s executed by the algorithm of Purser et al. (2009.

  14. Intrusion-Aware Alert Validation Algorithm for Cooperative Distributed Intrusion Detection Schemes of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jae Song

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Existing anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks have mainly focused on the detection of intrusions. Once the intrusion is detected, an alerts or claims will be generated. However, any unidentified malicious nodes in the network could send faulty anomaly and intrusion claims about the legitimate nodes to the other nodes. Verifying the validity of such claims is a critical and challenging issue that is not considered in the existing cooperative-based distributed anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a validation algorithm that addresses this problem. This algorithm utilizes the concept of intrusion-aware reliability that helps to provide adequate reliability at a modest communication cost. In this paper, we also provide a security resiliency analysis of the proposed intrusion-aware alert validation algorithm.

  15. ROAD DETECTION BY NEURAL AND GENETIC ALGORITHM IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barsi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the urban object detection challenge organized by the ISPRS WG III/4 high geometric and radiometric resolution aerial images about Vaihingen/Stuttgart, Germany are distributed. The acquired data set contains optical false color, near infrared images and airborne laserscanning data. The presented research focused exclusively on the optical image, so the elevation information was ignored. The road detection procedure has been built up of two main phases: a segmentation done by neural networks and a compilation made by genetic algorithms. The applied neural networks were support vector machines with radial basis kernel function and self-organizing maps with hexagonal network topology and Euclidean distance function for neighborhood management. The neural techniques have been compared by hyperbox classifier, known from the statistical image classification practice. The compilation of the segmentation is realized by a novel application of the common genetic algorithm and by differential evolution technique. The genes were implemented to detect the road elements by evaluating a special binary fitness function. The results have proven that the evolutional technique can automatically find major road segments.

  16. Geostationary Sensor Based Forest Fire Detection and Monitoring: An Improved Version of the SFIDE Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Di Biase

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to present the results obtained in the development of a system allowing for the detection and monitoring of forest fires and the continuous comparison of their intensity when several events occur simultaneously—a common occurrence in European Mediterranean countries during the summer season. The system, called SFIDE (Satellite FIre DEtection, exploits a geostationary satellite sensor (SEVIRI, Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager, on board of MSG, Meteosat Second Generation, satellite series. The algorithm was developed several years ago in the framework of a project (SIGRI funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI. This algorithm has been completely reviewed in order to enhance its efficiency by reducing false alarms rate preserving a high sensitivity. Due to the very low spatial resolution of SEVIRI images (4 × 4 km2 at Mediterranean latitude the sensitivity of the algorithm should be very high to detect even small fires. The improvement of the algorithm has been obtained by: introducing the sun elevation angle in the computation of the preliminary thresholds to identify potential thermal anomalies (hot spots, introducing a contextual analysis in the detection of clouds and in the detection of night-time fires. The results of the algorithm have been validated in the Sardinia region by using ground true data provided by the regional Corpo Forestale e di Vigilanza Ambientale (CFVA. A significant reduction of the commission error (less than 10% has been obtained with respect to the previous version of the algorithm and also with respect to fire-detection algorithms based on low earth orbit satellites.

  17. Texture orientation-based algorithm for detecting infrared maritime targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Dong, Lili; Zhao, Ming; Wu, Houde; Xu, Wenhai

    2015-05-20

    Infrared maritime target detection is a key technology for maritime target searching systems. However, in infrared maritime images (IMIs) taken under complicated sea conditions, background clutters, such as ocean waves, clouds or sea fog, usually have high intensity that can easily overwhelm the brightness of real targets, which is difficult for traditional target detection algorithms to deal with. To mitigate this problem, this paper proposes a novel target detection algorithm based on texture orientation. This algorithm first extracts suspected targets by analyzing the intersubband correlation between horizontal and vertical wavelet subbands of the original IMI on the first scale. Then the self-adaptive wavelet threshold denoising and local singularity analysis of the original IMI is combined to remove false alarms further. Experiments show that compared with traditional algorithms, this algorithm can suppress background clutter much better and realize better single-frame detection for infrared maritime targets. Besides, in order to guarantee accurate target extraction further, the pipeline-filtering algorithm is adopted to eliminate residual false alarms. The high practical value and applicability of this proposed strategy is backed strongly by experimental data acquired under different environmental conditions.

  18. An improved algorithm for information hiding based on features of Arabic text: A Unicode approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Mohamed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Steganography means how to hide secret information in a cover media, so that other individuals fail to realize their existence. Due to the lack of data redundancy in the text file in comparison with other carrier files, text steganography is a difficult problem to solve. In this paper, we proposed a new promised steganographic algorithm for Arabic text based on features of Arabic text. The focus is on more secure algorithm and high capacity of the carrier. Our extensive experiments using the proposed algorithm resulted in a high capacity of the carrier media. The embedding capacity rate ratio of the proposed algorithm is high. In addition, our algorithm can resist traditional attacking methods since it makes the changes in carrier text as minimum as possible.

  19. A Low-Complexity Joint Synchronization and Detection Algorithm for Single-Band DS-CDMA UWB Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Lars PB

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of asynchronous direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (DS-CDMA detection over the ultra-wideband (UWB multipath channel is considered. A joint synchronization, channel-estimation, and multiuser detection scheme based on the adaptive linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE receiver is presented and evaluated. Further, a novel nonrecursive least-squares algorithm capable of reducing the complexity of the adaptation in the receiver while preserving the advantages of the recursive least-squares (RLS algorithm is presented.

  20. Development of radio frequency interference detection algorithms for passive microwave remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sidharth

    Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) signals are man-made sources that are increasingly plaguing passive microwave remote sensing measurements. RFI is of insidious nature, with some signals low power enough to go undetected but large enough to impact science measurements and their results. With the launch of the European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite in November 2009 and the upcoming launches of the new NASA sea-surface salinity measuring Aquarius mission in June 2011 and soil-moisture measuring Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission around 2015, active steps are being taken to detect and mitigate RFI at L-band. An RFI detection algorithm was designed for the Aquarius mission. The algorithm performance was analyzed using kurtosis based RFI ground-truth. The algorithm has been developed with several adjustable location dependant parameters to control the detection statistics (false-alarm rate and probability of detection). The kurtosis statistical detection algorithm has been compared with the Aquarius pulse detection method. The comparative study determines the feasibility of the kurtosis detector for the SMAP radiometer, as a primary RFI detection algorithm in terms of detectability and data bandwidth. The kurtosis algorithm has superior detection capabilities for low duty-cycle radar like pulses, which are more prevalent according to analysis of field campaign data. Most RFI algorithms developed have generally been optimized for performance with individual pulsed-sinusoidal RFI sources. A new RFI detection model is developed that takes into account multiple RFI sources within an antenna footprint. The performance of the kurtosis detection algorithm under such central-limit conditions is evaluated. The SMOS mission has a unique hardware system, and conventional RFI detection techniques cannot be applied. Instead, an RFI detection algorithm for SMOS is developed and applied in the angular domain. This algorithm compares

  1. Algorithms for boundary detection in radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzaga, Adilson; Franca, Celso Aparecido de

    1996-01-01

    Edge detecting techniques applied to radiographic digital images are discussed. Some algorithms have been implemented and the results are displayed to enhance boundary or hide details. An algorithm applied in a pre processed image with contrast enhanced is proposed and the results are discussed

  2. Stochastic Resonance algorithms to enhance damage detection in bearing faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castiglione Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic Resonance is a phenomenon, studied and mainly exploited in telecommunication, which permits the amplification and detection of weak signals by the assistance of noise. The first papers on this technique are dated early 80 s and were developed to explain the periodically recurrent ice ages. Other applications mainly concern neuroscience, biology, medicine and obviously signal analysis and processing. Recently, some researchers have applied the technique for detecting faults in mechanical systems and bearings. In this paper, we try to better understand the conditions of applicability and which is the best algorithm to be adopted for these purposes. In fact, to get the methodology profitable and efficient to enhance the signal spikes due to fault in rings and balls/rollers of bearings, some parameters have to be properly selected. This is a problem since in system identification this procedure should be as blind as possible. Two algorithms are analysed: the first exploits classical SR with three parameters mutually dependent, while the other uses Woods-Saxon potential, with three parameters yet but holding a different meaning. The comparison of the performances of the two algorithms and the optimal choice of their parameters are the scopes of this paper. Algorithms are tested on simulated and experimental data showing an evident capacity of increasing the signal to noise ratio.

  3. Detection algorithm of infrared small target based on improved SUSAN operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingmiao; Wang, Shicheng; Zhao, Jing

    2010-10-01

    The methods of detecting small moving targets in infrared image sequences that contain moving nuisance objects and background noise is analyzed in this paper. A novel infrared small target detection algorithm based on improved SUSAN operator is put forward. The algorithm selects double templates for the infrared small target detection: one size is greater than the small target point size and another size is equal to the small target point size. First, the algorithm uses the big template to calculate the USAN of each pixel in the image and detect the small target, the edge of the image and isolated noise pixels; Then the algorithm uses the another template to calculate the USAN of pixels detected in the first step and improves the principles of SUSAN algorithm based on the characteristics of the small target so that the algorithm can only detect small targets and don't sensitive to the edge pixels of the image and isolated noise pixels. So the interference of the edge of the image and isolate noise points are removed and the candidate target points can be identified; At last, the target is detected by utilizing the continuity and consistency of target movement. The experimental results indicate that the improved SUSAN detection algorithm can quickly and effectively detect the infrared small targets.

  4. New algorithms for identifying the flavour of [Formula: see text] mesons using pions and protons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Arnau Romeu, J; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Babuschkin, I; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baker, S; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Baszczyk, M; Batozskaya, V; Batsukh, B; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Bel, L J; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Betti, F; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bezshyiko, Ia; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Bird, T; Birnkraut, A; Bitadze, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Boettcher, T; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Bordyuzhin, I; Borgheresi, A; Borghi, S; Borisyak, M; Borsato, M; Bossu, F; Boubdir, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Buchanan, E; Burr, C; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Campora Perez, D H; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chatzikonstantinidis, G; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S F; Chobanova, V; Chrzaszcz, M; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombs, G; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Costa Sobral, C M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Da Cunha Marinho, F; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Aguiar Francisco, O; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Serio, M; De Simone, P; Dean, C T; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Demmer, M; Dendek, A; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Dungs, K; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Déléage, N; Easo, S; Ebert, M; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R; Fazzini, D; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Prieto, A; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fini, R A; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fleuret, F; Fohl, K; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forshaw, D C; Forty, R; Franco Lima, V; Frank, M; Frei, C; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Färber, C; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garcia Martin, L M; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Garsed, P J; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gizdov, K; Gligorov, V V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorelov, I V; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Gruberg Cazon, B R; Grünberg, O; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Göbel, C; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hatch, M; He, J; Head, T; Heister, A; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P H; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hushchyn, M; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; Jiang, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Kariuki, J M; Karodia, S; Kecke, M; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khairullin, E; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Kirn, T; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Koliiev, S; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Kosmyntseva, A; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Krzemien, W; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Lefèvre, R; Lemaitre, F; Lemos Cid, E; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, X; Loh, D; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusiani, A; Lyu, X; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Maltsev, T; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manning, P; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martin, M; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massacrier, L M; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathad, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Melnychuk, D; Merk, M; Merli, A; Michielin, E; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Mitzel, D S; Mogini, A; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monroy, I A; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Mulder, M; Mussini, M; Müller, D; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nandi, A; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nieswand, S; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Otto, A; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pais, P R; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parker, W; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Pastore, A; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Petrov, A; Petruzzo, M; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pikies, M; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Piucci, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Poikela, T; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Pomery, G J; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Poslavskii, S; Potterat, C; Price, E; Price, J D; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rama, M; Ramos Pernas, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Ratnikov, F; Raven, G; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Dos Reis, A C; Remon Alepuz, C; Renaudin, V; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Lopez, J A; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogozhnikov, A; Roiser, S; Rollings, A; Romanovskiy, V; Romero Vidal, A; Ronayne, J W; Rotondo, M; Rudolph, M S; Ruf, T; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sadykhov, E; Sagidova, N; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santimaria, M; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schael, S; Schellenberg, M; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmelzer, T; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schubert, K; Schubiger, M; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sergi, A; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Siddi, B G; Silva Coutinho, R; Silva de Oliveira, L; Simi, G; Simone, S; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, I T; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Stefko, P; Stefkova, S; Steinkamp, O; Stemmle, S; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Tayduganov, A; Tekampe, T; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tilley, M J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Toriello, F; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Trabelsi, K; Traill, M; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tully, A; Tuning, N; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagnoni, V; Valassi, A; Valat, S; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; van Veghel, M; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Venkateswaran, A; Vernet, M; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Voneki, B; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Vázquez Sierra, C; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Wark, H M; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Williams, T; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wraight, K; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yin, H; Yu, J; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zarebski, K A; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zheng, Y; Zhokhov, A; Zhu, X; Zhukov, V; Zucchelli, S

    2017-01-01

    Two new algorithms for use in the analysis of [Formula: see text] collision are developed to identify the flavour of [Formula: see text] mesons at production using pions and protons from the hadronization process. The algorithms are optimized and calibrated on data, using [Formula: see text] decays from [Formula: see text] collision data collected by LHCb at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV . The tagging power of the new pion algorithm is 60% greater than the previously available one; the algorithm using protons to identify the flavour of a [Formula: see text] meson is the first of its kind.

  5. An Improved Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm and Its Application in Heat Exchange Fouling Ultrasonic Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the basic theory of Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm, in this paper, cat mapping was added to the original algorithm, and the individual distribution and evolution mechanism of fruit fly population were improved in order to increase the search speed and accuracy. The flowchart of the improved algorithm was drawn to show its procedure. Using classical test functions, simulation optimization results show that the improved algorithm has faster and more reliable optimization ability. The algorithm was then combined with sparse decomposition theory and used in processing fouling detection ultrasonic signals to verify the validity and practicability of the improved algorithm.

  6. Oscillating feature subset search algorithm for text categorization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novovičová, Jana; Somol, Petr; Pudil, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 4225 (2006), s. 578-587 ISSN 0302-9743 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2075302; GA MŠk 2C06019 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 507752 - MUSCLE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : text classification * feature selection * oscillating search algorithm * Bhattacharyya distance Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2005

  7. Evaluation of feature detection algorithms for structure from motion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, N

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available technique with an application to stereo vision,” in International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, April 1981. [17] C.Tomasi and T.Kanade, “Detection and tracking of point fetaures,” Carnegie Mellon, Tech. Rep., April 1991. [18] P. Torr... Algorithms for Structure from Motion Natasha Govender Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems CSIR Pretoria Email: ngovender@csir.co.za Abstract—Structure from motion is a widely-used technique in computer vision to perform 3D reconstruction. The 3D...

  8. On a Hopping-Points SVD and Hough Transform-Based Line Detection Algorithm for Robot Localization and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Ravankar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Line detection is an important problem in computer vision, graphics and autonomous robot navigation. Lines detected using a laser range sensor (LRS mounted on a robot can be used as features to build a map of the environment, and later to localize the robot in the map, in a process known as Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM. We propose an efficient algorithm for line detection from LRS data using a novel hopping-points Singular Value Decomposition (SVD and Hough transform-based algorithm, in which SVD is applied to intermittent LRS points to accelerate the algorithm. A reverse-hop mechanism ensures that the end points of the line segments are accurately extracted. Line segments extracted from the proposed algorithm are used to form a map and, subsequently, LRS data points are matched with the line segments to localize the robot. The proposed algorithm eliminates the drawbacks of point-based matching algorithms like the Iterative Closest Points (ICP algorithm, the performance of which degrades with an increasing number of points. We tested the proposed algorithm for mapping and localization in both simulated and real environments, and found it to detect lines accurately and build maps with good self-localization.

  9. Arctic lead detection using a waveform mixture algorithm from CryoSat-2 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a waveform mixture algorithm to detect leads from CryoSat-2 data, which is novel and different from the existing threshold-based lead detection methods. The waveform mixture algorithm adopts the concept of spectral mixture analysis, which is widely used in the field of hyperspectral image analysis. This lead detection method was evaluated with high-resolution (250 m MODIS images and showed comparable and promising performance in detecting leads when compared to the previous methods. The robustness of the proposed approach also lies in the fact that it does not require the rescaling of parameters (i.e., stack standard deviation, stack skewness, stack kurtosis, pulse peakiness, and backscatter σ0, as it directly uses L1B waveform data, unlike the existing threshold-based methods. Monthly lead fraction maps were produced by the waveform mixture algorithm, which shows interannual variability of recent sea ice cover during 2011–2016, excluding the summer season (i.e., June to September. We also compared the lead fraction maps to other lead fraction maps generated from previously published data sets, resulting in similar spatiotemporal patterns.

  10. Community detection algorithm evaluation with ground-truth data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebabli, Malek; Cherifi, Hocine; Cherifi, Chantal; Hamouda, Atef

    2018-02-01

    Community structure is of paramount importance for the understanding of complex networks. Consequently, there is a tremendous effort in order to develop efficient community detection algorithms. Unfortunately, the issue of a fair assessment of these algorithms is a thriving open question. If the ground-truth community structure is available, various clustering-based metrics are used in order to compare it versus the one discovered by these algorithms. However, these metrics defined at the node level are fairly insensitive to the variation of the overall community structure. To overcome these limitations, we propose to exploit the topological features of the 'community graphs' (where the nodes are the communities and the links represent their interactions) in order to evaluate the algorithms. To illustrate our methodology, we conduct a comprehensive analysis of overlapping community detection algorithms using a set of real-world networks with known a priori community structure. Results provide a better perception of their relative performance as compared to classical metrics. Moreover, they show that more emphasis should be put on the topology of the community structure. We also investigate the relationship between the topological properties of the community structure and the alternative evaluation measures (quality metrics and clustering metrics). It appears clearly that they present different views of the community structure and that they must be combined in order to evaluate the effectiveness of community detection algorithms.

  11. WATERSHED ALGORITHM BASED SEGMENTATION FOR HANDWRITTEN TEXT IDENTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mathivanan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a system for writer identification which involves four processing steps like preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction and writer identification using neural network. In the preprocessing phase the handwritten text is subjected to slant removal process for segmentation and feature extraction. After this step the text image enters into the process of noise removal and gray level conversion. The preprocessed image is further segmented by using morphological watershed algorithm, where the text lines are segmented into single words and then into single letters. The segmented image is feature extracted by Daubechies’5/3 integer wavelet transform to reduce training complexity [1, 6]. This process is lossless and reversible [10], [14]. These extracted features are given as input to our neural network for writer identification process and a target image is selected for each training process in the 2-layer neural network. With the several trained output data obtained from different target help in text identification. It is a multilingual text analysis which provides simple and efficient text segmentation.

  12. A simple fall detection algorithm for Powered Two Wheelers

    OpenAIRE

    BOUBEZOUL, Abderrahmane; ESPIE, Stéphane; LARNAUDIE, Bruno; BOUAZIZ, Samir

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate a low-complexity fall detection algorithm, that use both acceleration and angular velocity signals to trigger an alert-system or to inflate an airbag jacket. The proposed fall detection algorithm is a threshold-based algorithm, using data from 3-accelerometers and 3-gyroscopes sensors mounted on the motorcycle. During the first step, the commonly fall accident configurations were selected and analyzed in order to identify the main causation factors. On the...

  13. Identifying Time Measurement Tampering in the Traversal Time and Hop Count Analysis (TTHCA Wormhole Detection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Karlsson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Traversal time and hop count analysis (TTHCA is a recent wormhole detection algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks (MANET which provides enhanced detection performance against all wormhole attack variants and network types. TTHCA involves each node measuring the processing time of routing packets during the route discovery process and then delivering the measurements to the source node. In a participation mode (PM wormhole where malicious nodes appear in the routing tables as legitimate nodes, the time measurements can potentially be altered so preventing TTHCA from successfully detecting the wormhole. This paper analyses the prevailing conditions for time tampering attacks to succeed for PM wormholes, before introducing an extension to the TTHCA detection algorithm called ∆T Vector which is designed to identify time tampering, while preserving low false positive rates. Simulation results confirm that the ∆T Vector extension is able to effectively detect time tampering attacks, thereby providing an important security enhancement to the TTHCA algorithm.

  14. An efficient community detection algorithm using greedy surprise maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yawen; Jia, Caiyan; Yu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Community detection is an important and crucial problem in complex network analysis. Although classical modularity function optimization approaches are widely used for identifying communities, the modularity function (Q) suffers from its resolution limit. Recently, the surprise function (S) was experimentally proved to be better than the Q function. However, up until now, there has been no algorithm available to perform searches to directly determine the maximal surprise values. In this paper, considering the superiority of the S function over the Q function, we propose an efficient community detection algorithm called AGSO (algorithm based on greedy surprise optimization) and its improved version FAGSO (fast-AGSO), which are based on greedy surprise optimization and do not suffer from the resolution limit. In addition, (F)AGSO does not need the number of communities K to be specified in advance. Tests on experimental networks show that (F)AGSO is able to detect optimal partitions in both simple and even more complex networks. Moreover, algorithms based on surprise maximization perform better than those algorithms based on modularity maximization, including Blondel–Guillaume–Lambiotte–Lefebvre (BGLL), Clauset–Newman–Moore (CNM) and the other state-of-the-art algorithms such as Infomap, order statistics local optimization method (OSLOM) and label propagation algorithm (LPA). (paper)

  15. Algorithms Development in Detection of the Gelatinization Process during Enzymatic ‘Dodol’ Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Hamzah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision systems have found wide application in foods processing industry to perform quality evaluation. The systems enable to replace human inspectors for the evaluation of a variety of quality attributes. This paper describes the implementation of the Fast Fourier Transform and Kalman filtering algorithms to detect the glutinous rice flour slurry (GRFS gelatinization in an enzymatic „dodol. processing. The onset of the GRFS gelatinization is critical in determining the quality of an enzymatic „dodol.. Combinations of these two algorithms were able to detect the gelatinization of the GRFS. The result shows that the gelatinization of the GRFS was at the time range of 11.75 minutes to 14.75 minutes for 24 batches of processing. This paper will highlight the capability of computer vision using our proposed algorithms in monitoring and controlling of an enzymatic „dodol. processing via image processing technology.

  16. Algorithms Development in Detection of the Gelatinization Process during Enzymatic ‘Dodol’ Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Hamzah

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision systems have found wide application in foods processing industry to perform the quality evaluation. The systems enable to replace human inspectors for the evaluation of a variety of quality attributes. This paper describes the implementation of the Fast Fourier Transform and Kalman filtering algorithms to detect the glutinous rice flour slurry (GRFS gelatinization in an enzymatic ‘dodol’ processing. The onset of the GRFS gelatinization is critical in determining the quality of an enzymatic ‘dodol’. Combinations of these two algorithms were able to detect the gelatinization of the GRFS. The result shows that the gelatinization of the GRFS was at the time range of 11.75 minutes to 15.33 minutes for 20 batches of processing. This paper will highlight the capability of computer vision using our proposed algorithms in monitoring and controlling of an enzymatic ‘dodol’ processing via image processing technology.

  17. Comparison of public peak detection algorithms for MALDI mass spectrometry data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; He, Zengyou; Yu, Weichuan

    2009-01-06

    In mass spectrometry (MS) based proteomic data analysis, peak detection is an essential step for subsequent analysis. Recently, there has been significant progress in the development of various peak detection algorithms. However, neither a comprehensive survey nor an experimental comparison of these algorithms is yet available. The main objective of this paper is to provide such a survey and to compare the performance of single spectrum based peak detection methods. In general, we can decompose a peak detection procedure into three consequent parts: smoothing, baseline correction and peak finding. We first categorize existing peak detection algorithms according to the techniques used in different phases. Such a categorization reveals the differences and similarities among existing peak detection algorithms. Then, we choose five typical peak detection algorithms to conduct a comprehensive experimental study using both simulation data and real MALDI MS data. The results of comparison show that the continuous wavelet-based algorithm provides the best average performance.

  18. A Time-Domain Structural Damage Detection Method Based on Improved Multiparticle Swarm Coevolution Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Fei Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization techniques have been applied to structural health monitoring and damage detection of civil infrastructures for two decades. The standard particle swarm optimization (PSO is easy to fall into the local optimum and such deficiency also exists in the multiparticle swarm coevolution optimization (MPSCO. This paper presents an improved MPSCO algorithm (IMPSCO firstly and then integrates it with Newmark’s algorithm to localize and quantify the structural damage by using the damage threshold proposed. To validate the proposed method, a numerical simulation and an experimental study of a seven-story steel frame were employed finally, and a comparison was made between the proposed method and the genetic algorithm (GA. The results show threefold: (1 the proposed method not only is capable of localization and quantification of damage, but also has good noise-tolerance; (2 the damage location can be accurately detected using the damage threshold proposed in this paper; and (3 compared with the GA, the IMPSCO algorithm is more efficient and accurate for damage detection problems in general. This implies that the proposed method is applicable and effective in the community of damage detection and structural health monitoring.

  19. Vibration-Based Damage Detection in Beams by Cooperative Coevolutionary Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipong Boonlong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vibration-based damage detection, a nondestructive method, is based on the fact that vibration characteristics such as natural frequencies and mode shapes of structures are changed when the damage happens. This paper presents cooperative coevolutionary genetic algorithm (CCGA, which is capable for an optimization problem with a large number of decision variables, as the optimizer for the vibration-based damage detection in beams. In the CCGA, a minimized objective function is a numerical indicator of differences between vibration characteristics of the actual damage and those of the anticipated damage. The damage detection in a uniform cross-section cantilever beam, a uniform strength cantilever beam, and a uniform cross-section simply supported beam is used as the test problems. Random noise in the vibration characteristics is also considered in the damage detection. In the simulation analysis, the CCGA provides the superior solutions to those that use standard genetic algorithms presented in previous works, although it uses less numbers of the generated solutions in solution search. The simulation results reveal that the CCGA can efficiently identify the occurred damage in beams for all test problems including the damage detection in a beam with a large number of divided elements such as 300 elements.

  20. The Efficacy of Epidemic Algorithms on Detecting Node Replicas in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimha Shashidhar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A node replication attack against a wireless sensor network involves surreptitious efforts by an adversary to insert duplicate sensor nodes into the network while avoiding detection. Due to the lack of tamper-resistant hardware and the low cost of sensor nodes, launching replication attacks takes little effort to carry out. Naturally, detecting these replica nodes is a very important task and has been studied extensively. In this paper, we propose a novel distributed, randomized sensor duplicate detection algorithm called Discard to detect node replicas in group-deployed wireless sensor networks. Our protocol is an epidemic, self-organizing duplicate detection scheme, which exhibits emergent properties. Epidemic schemes have found diverse applications in distributed computing: load balancing, topology management, audio and video streaming, computing aggregate functions, failure detection, network and resource monitoring, to name a few. To the best of our knowledge, our algorithm is the first attempt at exploring the potential of this paradigm to detect replicas in a wireless sensor network. Through analysis and simulation, we show that our scheme achieves robust replica detection with substantially lower communication, computational and storage requirements than prior schemes in the literature.

  1. An Algorithm for Detection of DVB-T Signals Based on Their Second-Order Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Jallon

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose in this paper a detection algorithm based on a cost function that jointly tests the correlation induced by the cyclic prefix and the fact that this correlation is time-periodic. In the first part of the paper, the cost function is introduced and some analytical results are given. In particular, the noise and multipath channel impacts on its values are theoretically analysed. In a second part of the paper, some asymptotic results are derived. A first exploitation of these results is used to build a detection test based on the false alarm probability. These results are also used to evaluate the impact of the number of cycle frequencies taken into account in the cost function on the detection performances. Thanks to numerical estimations, we have been able to estimate that the proposed algorithm detects DVB-T signals with an SNR of −12 dB. As a comparison, and in the same context, the detection algorithm proposed by the 802.22 WG in 2006 is able to detect these signals with an SNR of −8 dB.

  2. Detection of Carious Lesions and Restorations Using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Naebi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose. In terms of the detection of tooth diagnosis, no intelligent detection has been done up till now. Dentists just look at images and then they can detect the diagnosis position in tooth based on their experiences. Using new technologies, scientists will implement detection and repair of tooth diagnosis intelligently. In this paper, we have introduced one intelligent method for detection using particle swarm optimization (PSO and our mathematical formulation. This method was applied to 2D special images. Using developing of our method, we can detect tooth diagnosis for all of 2D and 3D images. Materials and Methods. In recent years, it is possible to implement intelligent processing of images by high efficiency optimization algorithms in many applications especially for detection of dental caries and restoration without human intervention. In the present work, we explain PSO algorithm with our detection formula for detection of dental caries and restoration. Also image processing helped us to implement our method. And to do so, pictures taken by digital radiography systems of tooth are used. Results and Conclusion. We implement some mathematics formula for fitness of PSO. Our results show that this method can detect dental caries and restoration in digital radiography pictures with the good convergence. In fact, the error rate of this method was 8%, so that it can be implemented for detection of dental caries and restoration. Using some parameters, it is possible that the error rate can be even reduced below 0.5%.

  3. A Space Object Detection Algorithm using Fourier Domain Likelihood Ratio Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D.; Cain, S.

    Space object detection is of great importance in the highly dependent yet competitive and congested space domain. Detection algorithms employed play a crucial role in fulfilling the detection component in the situational awareness mission to detect, track, characterize and catalog unknown space objects. Many current space detection algorithms use a matched filter or a spatial correlator to make a detection decision at a single pixel point of a spatial image based on the assumption that the data follows a Gaussian distribution. This paper explores the potential for detection performance advantages when operating in the Fourier domain of long exposure images of small and/or dim space objects from ground based telescopes. A binary hypothesis test is developed based on the joint probability distribution function of the image under the hypothesis that an object is present and under the hypothesis that the image only contains background noise. The detection algorithm tests each pixel point of the Fourier transformed images to make the determination if an object is present based on the criteria threshold found in the likelihood ratio test. Using simulated data, the performance of the Fourier domain detection algorithm is compared to the current algorithm used in space situational awareness applications to evaluate its value.

  4. Detection of the arcuate fasciculus in congenital amusia depends on the tractography algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce L Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging allows researchers to virtually dissect white matter fibre pathways in the brain in vivo. This, for example, allows us to characterize and quantify how fibre tracts differ across populations in health and disease, and change as a function of training. Based on diffusion MRI, prior literature reports the absence of the arcuate fasciculus (AF in some control individuals and as well in those with congenital amusia. The complete absence of such a major anatomical tract is surprising given the subtle impairments that characterize amusia. Thus, we hypothesize that failure to detect the AF in this population may relate to the tracking algorithm used, and is not necessarily reflective of their phenotype. Diffusion data in control and amusic individuals were analyzed using three different tracking algorithms: deterministic and probabilistic, the latter either modeling two or one fibre populations. Across the three algorithms, we replicate prior findings of a left greater than right AF volume, but do not find group differences or an interaction. We detect the AF in all individuals using the probabilistic 2-fibre model, however, tracking failed in some control and amusic individuals when deterministic tractography was applied. These findings show that the ability to detect the AF in our sample is dependent on the type of tractography algorithm. This raises the question of whether failure to detect the AF in prior studies may be unrelated to the underlying anatomy or phenotype.

  5. WAVELET-BASED ALGORITHM FOR DETECTION OF BEARING FAULTS IN A GAS TURBINE ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy Enchev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Presented is a gas turbine engine bearing diagnostic system that integrates information from various advanced vibration analysis techniques to achieve robust bearing health state awareness. This paper presents a computational algorithm for identifying power frequency variations and integer harmonics by using wavelet-based transform. The continuous wavelet transform with  the complex Morlet wavelet is adopted to detect the harmonics presented in a power signal. The algorithm based on the discrete stationary wavelet transform is adopted to denoise the wavelet ridges.

  6. Optimal Seamline Detection for Orthoimage Mosaicking Based on DSM and Improved JPS Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the digital surface model (DSM and jump point search (JPS algorithm, this study proposed a novel approach to detect the optimal seamline for orthoimage mosaicking. By threshold segmentation, DSM was first identified as ground regions and obstacle regions (e.g., buildings, trees, and cars. Then, the mathematical morphology method was used to make the edge of obstacles more prominent. Subsequently, the processed DSM was considered as a uniform-cost grid map, and the JPS algorithm was improved and employed to search for key jump points in the map. Meanwhile, the jump points would be evaluated according to an optimized function, finally generating a minimum cost path as the optimal seamline. Furthermore, the search strategy was modified to avoid search failure when the search map was completely blocked by obstacles in the search direction. Comparison of the proposed method and the Dijkstra’s algorithm was carried out based on two groups of image data with different characteristics. Results showed the following: (1 the proposed method could detect better seamlines near the centerlines of the overlap regions, crossing far fewer ground objects; (2 the efficiency and resource consumption were greatly improved since the improved JPS algorithm skips many image pixels without them being explicitly evaluated. In general, based on DSM, the proposed method combining threshold segmentation, mathematical morphology, and improved JPS algorithms was helpful for detecting the optimal seamline for orthoimage mosaicking.

  7. Research on data auto-analysis algorithms in the explosive detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haidong; Li Yuanjing; Yang Yigang; Li Tiezhu; Chen Boxian; Cheng Jianping

    2006-01-01

    This paper mainly describe some auto-analysis algorithms in explosive detection system with TNA method. These include the auto-calibration algorithm when disturbed by other factors, MCA auto-calibration algorithm with calibrated spectrum, the auto-fitting and integral of hydrogen and nitrogen elements data. With these numerical algorithms, the authors can automatically and precisely analysis the gamma-spectra and ultimately achieve the explosive auto-detection. (authors)

  8. TEXT CLASSIFICATION USING NAIVE BAYES UPDATEABLE ALGORITHM IN SBMPTN TEST QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristu Saptono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Document classification is a growing interest in the research of text mining. Classification can be done based on the topics, languages, and so on. This study was conducted to determine how Naive Bayes Updateable performs in classifying the SBMPTN exam questions based on its theme. Increment model of one classification algorithm often used in text classification Naive Bayes classifier has the ability to learn from new data introduces with the system even after the classifier has been produced with the existing data. Naive Bayes Classifier classifies the exam questions based on the theme of the field of study by analyzing keywords that appear on the exam questions. One of feature selection method DF-Thresholding is implemented for improving the classification performance. Evaluation of the classification with Naive Bayes classifier algorithm produces 84,61% accuracy.

  9. An efficient and fast detection algorithm for multimode FBG sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganziy, Denis; Jespersen, O.; Rose, B.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel dynamic gate algorithm (DGA) for fast and accurate peak detection. The algorithm uses threshold determined detection window and Center of gravity algorithm with bias compensation. We analyze the wavelength fit resolution of the DGA for different values of signal to noise ratio...... and different typical peak shapes. Our simulations and experiments demonstrate that the DGA method is fast and robust with higher stability and accuracy compared to conventional algorithms. This makes it very attractive for future implementation in sensing systems especially based on multimode fiber Bragg...

  10. Multivariate anomaly detection for Earth observations: a comparison of algorithms and feature extraction techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Flach

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, many processes at the Earth's surface are constantly monitored by multiple data streams. These observations have become central to advancing our understanding of vegetation dynamics in response to climate or land use change. Another set of important applications is monitoring effects of extreme climatic events, other disturbances such as fires, or abrupt land transitions. One important methodological question is how to reliably detect anomalies in an automated and generic way within multivariate data streams, which typically vary seasonally and are interconnected across variables. Although many algorithms have been proposed for detecting anomalies in multivariate data, only a few have been investigated in the context of Earth system science applications. In this study, we systematically combine and compare feature extraction and anomaly detection algorithms for detecting anomalous events. Our aim is to identify suitable workflows for automatically detecting anomalous patterns in multivariate Earth system data streams. We rely on artificial data that mimic typical properties and anomalies in multivariate spatiotemporal Earth observations like sudden changes in basic characteristics of time series such as the sample mean, the variance, changes in the cycle amplitude, and trends. This artificial experiment is needed as there is no gold standard for the identification of anomalies in real Earth observations. Our results show that a well-chosen feature extraction step (e.g., subtracting seasonal cycles, or dimensionality reduction is more important than the choice of a particular anomaly detection algorithm. Nevertheless, we identify three detection algorithms (k-nearest neighbors mean distance, kernel density estimation, a recurrence approach and their combinations (ensembles that outperform other multivariate approaches as well as univariate extreme-event detection methods. Our results therefore provide an effective workflow to

  11. Information dynamics algorithm for detecting communities in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Emanuele; Bagnoli, Franco; Guazzini, Andrea; Lió, Pietro

    2012-11-01

    The problem of community detection is relevant in many scientific disciplines, from social science to statistical physics. Given the impact of community detection in many areas, such as psychology and social sciences, we have addressed the issue of modifying existing well performing algorithms by incorporating elements of the domain application fields, i.e. domain-inspired. We have focused on a psychology and social network-inspired approach which may be useful for further strengthening the link between social network studies and mathematics of community detection. Here we introduce a community-detection algorithm derived from the van Dongen's Markov Cluster algorithm (MCL) method [4] by considering networks' nodes as agents capable to take decisions. In this framework we have introduced a memory factor to mimic a typical human behavior such as the oblivion effect. The method is based on information diffusion and it includes a non-linear processing phase. We test our method on two classical community benchmark and on computer generated networks with known community structure. Our approach has three important features: the capacity of detecting overlapping communities, the capability of identifying communities from an individual point of view and the fine tuning the community detectability with respect to prior knowledge of the data. Finally we discuss how to use a Shannon entropy measure for parameter estimation in complex networks.

  12. Integrated artificial intelligence algorithm for skin detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bush Idoko John

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of skin colour has been a useful and renowned technique due to its wide range of application in both analyses based on diagnostic and human computer interactions. Various problems could be solved by simply providing an appropriate method for pixel-like skin parts. Presented in this study is a colour segmentation algorithm that works directly in RGB colour space without converting the colour space. Genfis function as used in this study formed the Sugeno fuzzy network and utilizing Fuzzy C-Mean (FCM clustering rule, clustered the data and for each cluster/class a rule is generated. Finally, corresponding output from data mapping of pseudo-polynomial is obtained from input dataset to the adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS.

  13. Lining seam elimination algorithm and surface crack detection in concrete tunnel lining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhong; Bai, Ling; An, Shi-Quan; Ju, Fang-Rong; Liu, Ling

    2016-11-01

    Due to the particularity of the surface of concrete tunnel lining and the diversity of detection environments such as uneven illumination, smudges, localized rock falls, water leakage, and the inherent seams of the lining structure, existing crack detection algorithms cannot detect real cracks accurately. This paper proposed an algorithm that combines lining seam elimination with the improved percolation detection algorithm based on grid cell analysis for surface crack detection in concrete tunnel lining. First, check the characteristics of pixels within the overlapping grid to remove the background noise and generate the percolation seed map (PSM). Second, cracks are detected based on the PSM by the accelerated percolation algorithm so that the fracture unit areas can be scanned and connected. Finally, the real surface cracks in concrete tunnel lining can be obtained by removing the lining seam and performing percolation denoising. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately, quickly, and effectively detect the real surface cracks. Furthermore, it can fill the gap in the existing concrete tunnel lining surface crack detection by removing the lining seam.

  14. Automated microaneurysm detection algorithms applied to diabetic retinopathy retinal images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akara Sopharak

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is the commonest cause of blindness in working age people. It is characterised and graded by the development of retinal microaneurysms, haemorrhages and exudates. The damage caused by diabetic retinopathy can be prevented if it is treated in its early stages. Therefore, automated early detection can limit the severity of the disease, improve the follow-up management of diabetic patients and assist ophthalmologists in investigating and treating the disease more efficiently. This review focuses on microaneurysm detection as the earliest clinically localised characteristic of diabetic retinopathy, a frequently observed complication in both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Algorithms used for microaneurysm detection from retinal images are reviewed. A number of features used to extract microaneurysm are summarised. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of reported methods used to automatically detect microaneurysms is presented and discussed. The performance of methods and their complexity are also discussed.

  15. Fast Parabola Detection Using Estimation of Distribution Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose de Jesus Guerrero-Turrubiates

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method based on Estimation of Distribution Algorithms (EDAs to detect parabolic shapes in synthetic and medical images. The method computes a virtual parabola using three random boundary pixels to calculate the constant values of the generic parabola equation. The resulting parabola is evaluated by matching it with the parabolic shape in the input image by using the Hadamard product as fitness function. This proposed method is evaluated in terms of computational time and compared with two implementations of the generalized Hough transform and RANSAC method for parabola detection. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the comparative methods in terms of execution time about 93.61% on synthetic images and 89% on retinal fundus and human plantar arch images. In addition, experimental results have also shown that the proposed method can be highly suitable for different medical applications.

  16. Algorithm for Fast and Efficient Detection and Reaction to Angle Instability Conditions Using Phasor Measurement Unit Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ivanković

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In wide area monitoring, protection, and control (WAMPAC systems, angle stability of transmission network is monitored using data from phasor measurement units (PMU placed on transmission lines. Based on this PMU data stream advanced algorithm for out-of-step condition detection and early warning issuing is developed. The algorithm based on theoretical background described in this paper is backed up by the data and results from corresponding simulations done in Matlab environment. Presented results aim to provide the insights of the potential benefits, such as fast and efficient detection and reaction to angle instability, this algorithm can have on the improvement of the power system protection. Accordingly, suggestion is given how the developed algorithm can be implemented in protection segments of the WAMPAC systems in the transmission system operator control centers.

  17. A new edge detection algorithm based on Canny idea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yingke; Zhang, Jinmin; Wang, Siming

    2017-10-01

    The traditional Canny algorithm has poor self-adaptability threshold, and it is more sensitive to noise. In order to overcome these drawbacks, this paper proposed a new edge detection method based on Canny algorithm. Firstly, the media filtering and filtering based on the method of Euclidean distance are adopted to process it; secondly using the Frei-chen algorithm to calculate gradient amplitude; finally, using the Otsu algorithm to calculate partial gradient amplitude operation to get images of thresholds value, then find the average of all thresholds that had been calculated, half of the average is high threshold value, and the half of the high threshold value is low threshold value. Experiment results show that this new method can effectively suppress noise disturbance, keep the edge information, and also improve the edge detection accuracy.

  18. An algorithm of local earthquake detection from digital records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. PROZOROV

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of automatical detection of earthquake signals in seismograms
    and definition of first arrivals of p and s waves is considered.
    The algorithm is based on the analysis of t(A function which represents
    the time of first appearence of a number of going one after another
    swings of amplitudes greather than A in seismic signals. It allows to explore
    such common features of seismograms of earthquakes as sudden
    first p-arrivals of amplitude greater than general amplitude of noise and
    after the definite interval of time before s-arrival the amplitude of which
    overcomes the amplitude of p-arrival. The method was applied to
    3-channel recods of Friuli aftershocks, ¿'-arrivals were defined correctly
    in all cases; p-arrivals were defined in most cases using strict criteria of
    detection. Any false signals were not detected. All p-arrivals were defined
    using soft criteria of detection but less reliability and two false events
    were obtained.

  19. Arabic Text Categorization Using Improved k-Nearest neighbour Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wail Hamood KHALED

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The quantity of text information published in Arabic language on the net requires the implementation of effective techniques for the extraction and classifying of relevant information contained in large corpus of texts. In this paper we presented an implementation of an enhanced k-NN Arabic text classifier. We apply the traditional k-NN and Naive Bayes from Weka Toolkit for comparison purpose. Our proposed modified k-NN algorithm features an improved decision rule to skip the classes that are less similar and identify the right class from k nearest neighbours which increases the accuracy. The study evaluates the improved decision rule technique using the standard of recall, precision and f-measure as the basis of comparison. We concluded that the effectiveness of the proposed classifier is promising and outperforms the classical k-NN classifier.

  20. Comparative Study of Outlier Detection Algorithms via Fundamental Analysis Variables: An Application on Firms Listed in Borsa Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senol Emir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In a data set, an outlier refers to a data point that is considerably different from the others. Detecting outliers provides useful application-specific insights and leads to choosing right prediction models. Outlier detection (also known as anomaly detection or novelty detection has been studied in statistics and machine learning for a long time. It is an essential preprocessing step of data mining process. In this study, outlier detection step in the data mining process is applied for identifying the top 20 outlier firms. Three outlier detection algorithms are utilized using fundamental analysis variables of firms listed in Borsa Istanbul for the 2011-2014 period. The results of each algorithm are presented and compared. Findings show that 15 different firms are identified by three different outlier detection methods. KCHOL and SAHOL have the greatest number of appearances with 12 observations among these firms. By investigating the results, it is concluded that each of three algorithms makes different outlier firm lists due to differences in their approaches for outlier detection.

  1. A Novel Automatic Detection System for ECG Arrhythmias Using Maximum Margin Clustering with Immune Evolutionary Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohui Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel maximum margin clustering method with immune evolution (IEMMC for automatic diagnosis of electrocardiogram (ECG arrhythmias. This diagnostic system consists of signal processing, feature extraction, and the IEMMC algorithm for clustering of ECG arrhythmias. First, raw ECG signal is processed by an adaptive ECG filter based on wavelet transforms, and waveform of the ECG signal is detected; then, features are extracted from ECG signal to cluster different types of arrhythmias by the IEMMC algorithm. Three types of performance evaluation indicators are used to assess the effect of the IEMMC method for ECG arrhythmias, such as sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Compared with K-means and iterSVR algorithms, the IEMMC algorithm reflects better performance not only in clustering result but also in terms of global search ability and convergence ability, which proves its effectiveness for the detection of ECG arrhythmias.

  2. Comparative study of adaptive-noise-cancellation algorithms for intrusion detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claassen, J.P.; Patterson, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Some intrusion detection systems are susceptible to nonstationary noise resulting in frequent nuisance alarms and poor detection when the noise is present. Adaptive inverse filtering for single channel systems and adaptive noise cancellation for two channel systems have both demonstrated good potential in removing correlated noise components prior detection. For such noise susceptible systems the suitability of a noise reduction algorithm must be established in a trade-off study weighing algorithm complexity against performance. The performance characteristics of several distinct classes of algorithms are established through comparative computer studies using real signals. The relative merits of the different algorithms are discussed in the light of the nature of intruder and noise signals

  3. Financial Statement Fraud Detection using Text Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan Gupta; Nasib Singh Gill

    2013-01-01

    Data mining techniques have been used enormously by the researchers’ community in detecting financial statement fraud. Most of the research in this direction has used the numbers (quantitative information) i.e. financial ratios present in the financial statements for detecting fraud. There is very little or no research on the analysis of text such as auditor’s comments or notes present in published reports. In this study we propose a text mining approach for detecting financial statement frau...

  4. An improved reconstruction algorithm based on multi-user detection for uplink grant-free NOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Chengyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the traditional orthogonal matching pursuit(OMP algorithm in multi-user detection(MUD for uplink grant-free NOMA, here is a poor BER performance, so in this paper we propose an temporal-correlation orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm(TOMP to realize muli-user detection. The core idea of the TOMP is to use the time correlation of the active user sets to achieve user activity and data detection in a number of continuous time slots. We use the estimated active user set in the current time slot as a priori information to estimate the active user sets for the next slot. By maintaining the active user set Tˆl of size K(K is the number of users, but modified in each iteration. Specifically, active user set is believed to be reliable in one iteration but shown error in another iteration, can be added to the set path delay Tˆl or removed from it. Theoretical analysis of the improved algorithm provide a guarantee that the multi-user can be successfully detected with a high probability. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme can achieve better bit error rate (BER performance in the uplink grant-free NOMA system.

  5. A novel line segment detection algorithm based on graph search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-dan; Liu, Guo-ying; Song, Xu

    2018-02-01

    To overcome the problem of extracting line segment from an image, a method of line segment detection was proposed based on the graph search algorithm. After obtaining the edge detection result of the image, the candidate straight line segments are obtained in four directions. For the candidate straight line segments, their adjacency relationships are depicted by a graph model, based on which the depth-first search algorithm is employed to determine how many adjacent line segments need to be merged. Finally we use the least squares method to fit the detected straight lines. The comparative experimental results verify that the proposed algorithm has achieved better results than the line segment detector (LSD).

  6. Adaptive algorithm of magnetic heading detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gong-Xu; Shi, Ling-Feng

    2017-11-01

    Magnetic data obtained from a magnetic sensor usually fluctuate in a certain range, which makes it difficult to estimate the magnetic heading accurately. In fact, magnetic heading information is usually submerged in noise because of all kinds of electromagnetic interference and the diversity of the pedestrian’s motion states. In order to solve this problem, a new adaptive algorithm based on the (typically) right-angled corridors of a building or residential buildings is put forward to process heading information. First, a 3D indoor localization platform is set up based on MPU9250. Then, several groups of data are measured by changing the experimental environment and pedestrian’s motion pace. The raw data from the attached inertial measurement unit are calibrated and arranged into a time-stamped array and written to a data file. Later, the data file is imported into MATLAB for processing and analysis using the proposed adaptive algorithm. Finally, the algorithm is verified by comparison with the existing algorithm. The experimental results show that the algorithm has strong robustness and good fault tolerance, which can detect the heading information accurately and in real-time.

  7. A Moving Object Detection Algorithm Based on Color Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, X H; Xiong, W; Hu, B J; Wang, L T

    2006-01-01

    This paper designed a new algorithm of moving object detection for the aim of quick moving object detection and orientation, which used a pixel and its neighbors as an image vector to represent that pixel and modeled different chrominance component pixel as a mixture of Gaussians, and set up different mixture model of Gauss for different YUV chrominance components. In order to make full use of the spatial information, color segmentation and background model were combined. Simulation results show that the algorithm can detect intact moving objects even when the foreground has low contrast with background

  8. The derivation of distributed termination detection algorithms from garbage collection schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.; Mattern, F.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that the termination detection problem for distributed computations can be modelled as an instance of the garbage collection problem. Consequently, algorithms for the termination detection problem are obtained by applying transformations to garbage collection algorithms. The

  9. Robust and accurate detection algorithm for multimode polymer optical FBG sensor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganziy, Denis; Jespersen, O.; Rose, B.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel dynamic gate algorithm (DGA) for robust and fast peak detection. The algorithm uses a threshold determined detection window and center of gravity algorithm with bias compensation. Our experiment demonstrates that the DGA method is fast and robust with better stability and accur...

  10. pubmed.mineR: An R package with text-mining algorithms to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-29

    Sep 29, 2015 ... using text-mining algorithms for biomedical research pur- poses. ... studies are described to illustrate some potential uses of ... This is the most applied task. ... other alphabets (for example, Greek alphabets) and hyphens.

  11. Performances of the New Real Time Tsunami Detection Algorithm applied to tide gauges data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chierici, F.; Embriaco, D.; Morucci, S.

    2017-12-01

    Real-time tsunami detection algorithms play a key role in any Tsunami Early Warning System. We have developed a new algorithm for tsunami detection (TDA) based on the real-time tide removal and real-time band-pass filtering of seabed pressure time series acquired by Bottom Pressure Recorders. The TDA algorithm greatly increases the tsunami detection probability, shortens the detection delay and enhances detection reliability with respect to the most widely used tsunami detection algorithm, while containing the computational cost. The algorithm is designed to be used also in autonomous early warning systems with a set of input parameters and procedures which can be reconfigured in real time. We have also developed a methodology based on Monte Carlo simulations to test the tsunami detection algorithms. The algorithm performance is estimated by defining and evaluating statistical parameters, namely the detection probability, the detection delay, which are functions of the tsunami amplitude and wavelength, and the occurring rate of false alarms. In this work we present the performance of the TDA algorithm applied to tide gauge data. We have adapted the new tsunami detection algorithm and the Monte Carlo test methodology to tide gauges. Sea level data acquired by coastal tide gauges in different locations and environmental conditions have been used in order to consider real working scenarios in the test. We also present an application of the algorithm to the tsunami event generated by Tohoku earthquake on March 11th 2011, using data recorded by several tide gauges scattered all over the Pacific area.

  12. Dramatyping: a generic algorithm for detecting reasonable temporal correlations between drug administration and lab value alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Newe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization, one of the criteria for the standardized assessment of case causality in adverse drug reactions is the temporal relationship between the intake of a drug and the occurrence of a reaction or a laboratory test abnormality. This article presents and describes an algorithm for the detection of a reasonable temporal correlation between the administration of a drug and the alteration of a laboratory value course. The algorithm is designed to process normalized lab values and is therefore universally applicable. It has a sensitivity of 0.932 for the detection of lab value courses that show changes in temporal correlation with the administration of a drug and it has a specificity of 0.967 for the detection of lab value courses that show no changes. Therefore, the algorithm is appropriate to screen the data of electronic health records and to support human experts in revealing adverse drug reactions. A reference implementation in Python programming language is available.

  13. Sum of the Magnitude for Hard Decision Decoding Algorithm Based on Loop Update Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahui Meng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of non-binary low-density parity check codes (LDPC hard decision decoding algorithm and to reduce the complexity of decoding, a sum of the magnitude for hard decision decoding algorithm based on loop update detection is proposed. This will also ensure the reliability, stability and high transmission rate of 5G mobile communication. The algorithm is based on the hard decision decoding algorithm (HDA and uses the soft information from the channel to calculate the reliability, while the sum of the variable nodes’ (VN magnitude is excluded for computing the reliability of the parity checks. At the same time, the reliability information of the variable node is considered and the loop update detection algorithm is introduced. The bit corresponding to the error code word is flipped multiple times, before this is searched in the order of most likely error probability to finally find the correct code word. Simulation results show that the performance of one of the improved schemes is better than the weighted symbol flipping (WSF algorithm under different hexadecimal numbers by about 2.2 dB and 2.35 dB at the bit error rate (BER of 10−5 over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN channel, respectively. Furthermore, the average number of decoding iterations is significantly reduced.

  14. A low complexity VBLAST OFDM detection algorithm for wireless LAN systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.; Lei, Zhongding; Sun, Sumei

    2004-01-01

    A low complexity detection algorithm for VBLAST OFDM system is presented. Using the fact that the correlation among neighboring subcarriers is high for wireless LAN channels, this algorithm significantly reduces the complexity of VBLAST OFDM detection. The performance degradation of the proposed

  15. Improved target detection algorithm using Fukunaga-Koontz transform and distance classifier correlation filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, A.; Alam, M. S.; Aslan, M. S.

    2006-05-01

    Often sensor ego-motion or fast target movement causes the target to temporarily go out of the field-of-view leading to reappearing target detection problem in target tracking applications. Since the target goes out of the current frame and reenters at a later frame, the reentering location and variations in rotation, scale, and other 3D orientations of the target are not known thus complicating the detection algorithm has been developed using Fukunaga-Koontz Transform (FKT) and distance classifier correlation filter (DCCF). The detection algorithm uses target and background information, extracted from training samples, to detect possible candidate target images. The detected candidate target images are then introduced into the second algorithm, DCCF, called clutter rejection module, to determine the target coordinates are detected and tracking algorithm is initiated. The performance of the proposed FKT-DCCF based target detection algorithm has been tested using real-world forward looking infrared (FLIR) video sequences.

  16. Statistical Algorithm for the Adaptation of Detection Thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stotsky, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    Many event detection mechanisms in spark ignition automotive engines are based on the comparison of the engine signals to the detection threshold values. Different signal qualities for new and aged engines necessitate the development of an adaptation algorithm for the detection thresholds...... remains constant regardless of engine age and changing detection threshold values. This, in turn, guarantees the same event detection performance for new and aged engines/sensors. Adaptation of the engine knock detection threshold is given as an example. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  17. Photon Counting Using Edge-Detection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, Jonathan W.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Farr, William H.

    2010-01-01

    New applications such as high-datarate, photon-starved, free-space optical communications require photon counting at flux rates into gigaphoton-per-second regimes coupled with subnanosecond timing accuracy. Current single-photon detectors that are capable of handling such operating conditions are designed in an array format and produce output pulses that span multiple sample times. In order to discern one pulse from another and not to overcount the number of incoming photons, a detection algorithm must be applied to the sampled detector output pulses. As flux rates increase, the ability to implement such a detection algorithm becomes difficult within a digital processor that may reside within a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Systems have been developed and implemented to both characterize gigahertz bandwidth single-photon detectors, as well as process photon count signals at rates into gigaphotons per second in order to implement communications links at SCPPM (serial concatenated pulse position modulation) encoded data rates exceeding 100 megabits per second with efficiencies greater than two bits per detected photon. A hardware edge-detection algorithm and corresponding signal combining and deserialization hardware were developed to meet these requirements at sample rates up to 10 GHz. The photon discriminator deserializer hardware board accepts four inputs, which allows for the ability to take inputs from a quadphoton counting detector, to support requirements for optical tracking with a reduced number of hardware components. The four inputs are hardware leading-edge detected independently. After leading-edge detection, the resultant samples are ORed together prior to deserialization. The deserialization is performed to reduce the rate at which data is passed to a digital signal processor, perhaps residing within an FPGA. The hardware implements four separate analog inputs that are connected through RF connectors. Each analog input is fed to a high-speed 1

  18. Evaluating and Improving Automatic Sleep Spindle Detection by Using Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yin Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sleep spindles are brief bursts of brain activity in the sigma frequency range (11–16 Hz measured by electroencephalography (EEG mostly during non-rapid eye movement (NREM stage 2 sleep. These oscillations are of great biological and clinical interests because they potentially play an important role in identifying and characterizing the processes of various neurological disorders. Conventionally, sleep spindles are identified by expert sleep clinicians via visual inspection of EEG signals. The process is laborious and the results are inconsistent among different experts. To resolve the problem, numerous computerized methods have been developed to automate the process of sleep spindle identification. Still, the performance of these automated sleep spindle detection methods varies inconsistently from study to study. There are two reasons: (1 the lack of common benchmark databases, and (2 the lack of commonly accepted evaluation metrics. In this study, we focus on tackling the second problem by proposing to evaluate the performance of a spindle detector in a multi-objective optimization context and hypothesize that using the resultant Pareto fronts for deriving evaluation metrics will improve automatic sleep spindle detection. We use a popular multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA, the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2, to optimize six existing frequency-based sleep spindle detection algorithms. They include three Fourier, one continuous wavelet transform (CWT, and two Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT based algorithms. We also explore three hybrid approaches. Trained and tested on open-access DREAMS and MASS databases, two new hybrid methods of combining Fourier with HHT algorithms show significant performance improvement with F1-scores of 0.726–0.737.

  19. An OMIC biomarker detection algorithm TriVote and its application in methylomic biomarker detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng; Liu, Jiamei; Yang, Weifeng; Shu, Yayun; Wei, Zhipeng; Zheng, Weiwei; Feng, Xin; Zhou, Fengfeng

    2018-04-01

    Transcriptomic and methylomic patterns represent two major OMIC data sources impacted by both inheritable genetic information and environmental factors, and have been widely used as disease diagnosis and prognosis biomarkers. Modern transcriptomic and methylomic profiling technologies detect the status of tens of thousands or even millions of probing residues in the human genome, and introduce a major computational challenge for the existing feature selection algorithms. This study proposes a three-step feature selection algorithm, TriVote, to detect a subset of transcriptomic or methylomic residues with highly accurate binary classification performance. TriVote outperforms both filter and wrapper feature selection algorithms with both higher classification accuracy and smaller feature number on 17 transcriptomes and two methylomes. Biological functions of the methylome biomarkers detected by TriVote were discussed for their disease associations. An easy-to-use Python package is also released to facilitate the further applications.

  20. A feature matching and fusion-based positive obstacle detection algorithm for field autonomous land vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Positive obstacles will cause damage to field robotics during traveling in field. Field autonomous land vehicle is a typical field robotic. This article presents a feature matching and fusion-based algorithm to detect obstacles using LiDARs for field autonomous land vehicles. There are three main contributions: (1 A novel setup method of compact LiDAR is introduced. This method improved the LiDAR data density and reduced the blind region of the LiDAR sensor. (2 A mathematical model is deduced under this new setup method. The ideal scan line is generated by using the deduced mathematical model. (3 Based on the proposed mathematical model, a feature matching and fusion (FMAF-based algorithm is presented in this article, which is employed to detect obstacles. Experimental results show that the performance of the proposed algorithm is robust and stable, and the computing time is reduced by an order of two magnitudes by comparing with other exited algorithms. This algorithm has been perfectly applied to our autonomous land vehicle, which has won the champion in the challenge of Chinese “Overcome Danger 2014” ground unmanned vehicle.

  1. Mobile Phone Based Falling Detection Sensor and Computer-Aided Algorithm for Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jong-Ha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Falls are dangerous for the elderly population; therefore many fall detection systems have been developed. However, previous methods are bulky for elderly people or only use a single sensor to isolate falls from daily living activities, which makes a fall difficult to distinguish. In this paper, we present a cost-effective and easy-to-use portable fall-detection sensor and algorithm. Specifically, to detect human falls, we used a three-axis accelerator and a three-axis gyroscope in a mobile phone. We used the Fourier descriptor-based frequency analysis method to classify both normal and falling status. From the experimental results, the proposed method detects falling status with 96.14% accuracy.

  2. Artifact removal algorithms for stroke detection using a multistatic MIST beamforming algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, E; Di Domenico, S; Cianca, E; Rossi, T

    2015-01-01

    Microwave imaging (MWI) has been recently proved as a promising imaging modality for low-complexity, low-cost and fast brain imaging tools, which could play a fundamental role to efficiently manage emergencies related to stroke and hemorrhages. This paper focuses on the UWB radar imaging approach and in particular on the processing algorithms of the backscattered signals. Assuming the use of the multistatic version of the MIST (Microwave Imaging Space-Time) beamforming algorithm, developed by Hagness et al. for the early detection of breast cancer, the paper proposes and compares two artifact removal algorithms. Artifacts removal is an essential step of any UWB radar imaging system and currently considered artifact removal algorithms have been shown not to be effective in the specific scenario of brain imaging. First of all, the paper proposes modifications of a known artifact removal algorithm. These modifications are shown to be effective to achieve good localization accuracy and lower false positives. However, the main contribution is the proposal of an artifact removal algorithm based on statistical methods, which allows to achieve even better performance but with much lower computational complexity.

  3. Prefiltering Model for Homology Detection Algorithms on GPU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamosa, Germán; de Pedro, Luis; González, Ivan; Tamames, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Homology detection has evolved over the time from heavy algorithms based on dynamic programming approaches to lightweight alternatives based on different heuristic models. However, the main problem with these algorithms is that they use complex statistical models, which makes it difficult to achieve a relevant speedup and find exact matches with the original results. Thus, their acceleration is essential. The aim of this article was to prefilter a sequence database. To make this work, we have implemented a groundbreaking heuristic model based on NVIDIA's graphics processing units (GPUs) and multicore processors. Depending on the sensitivity settings, this makes it possible to quickly reduce the sequence database by factors between 50% and 95%, while rejecting no significant sequences. Furthermore, this prefiltering application can be used together with multiple homology detection algorithms as a part of a next-generation sequencing system. Extensive performance and accuracy tests have been carried out in the Spanish National Centre for Biotechnology (NCB). The results show that GPU hardware can accelerate the execution times of former homology detection applications, such as National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), Basic Local Alignment Search Tool for Proteins (BLASTP), up to a factor of 4.

  4. Regression algorithm for emotion detection

    OpenAIRE

    Berthelon , Franck; Sander , Peter

    2013-01-01

    International audience; We present here two components of a computational system for emotion detection. PEMs (Personalized Emotion Maps) store links between bodily expressions and emotion values, and are individually calibrated to capture each person's emotion profile. They are an implementation based on aspects of Scherer's theoretical complex system model of emotion~\\cite{scherer00, scherer09}. We also present a regression algorithm that determines a person's emotional feeling from sensor m...

  5. Detecting an atomic clock frequency anomaly using an adaptive Kalman filter algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Huijie; Dong, Shaowu; Wu, Wenjun; Jiang, Meng; Wang, Weixiong

    2018-06-01

    The abnormal frequencies of an atomic clock mainly include frequency jump and frequency drift jump. Atomic clock frequency anomaly detection is a key technique in time-keeping. The Kalman filter algorithm, as a linear optimal algorithm, has been widely used in real-time detection for abnormal frequency. In order to obtain an optimal state estimation, the observation model and dynamic model of the Kalman filter algorithm should satisfy Gaussian white noise conditions. The detection performance is degraded if anomalies affect the observation model or dynamic model. The idea of the adaptive Kalman filter algorithm, applied to clock frequency anomaly detection, uses the residuals given by the prediction for building ‘an adaptive factor’ the prediction state covariance matrix is real-time corrected by the adaptive factor. The results show that the model error is reduced and the detection performance is improved. The effectiveness of the algorithm is verified by the frequency jump simulation, the frequency drift jump simulation and the measured data of the atomic clock by using the chi-square test.

  6. Inversion Algorithms and PS Detection in SAR Tomography, Case Study of Bucharest City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dănişor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR tomography can reconstruct the elevation profile of each pixel based on a set of co-registered complex images of a scene. Its main advantage over classical interferometric methods consists in the capability to improve the detection of single persistent scatterers as well as to enable the detection of multiple scatterers interfering within the same pixel. In this paper, three tomographic algorithms are compared and applied to a dataset of 32 images to generate the elevation map of dominant scatterers from a scene. Targets which present stable proprieties over time - Persistent Scatterers (PS are then detected based on reflectivity functions reconstructed with Capon filtering.

  7. A street rubbish detection algorithm based on Sift and RCNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, XiPeng; Chen, Zhong; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Ting

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a street rubbish detection algorithm based on image registration with Sift feature and RCNN. Firstly, obtain the rubbish region proposal on the real-time street image and set up the CNN convolution neural network trained by the rubbish samples set consists of rubbish and non-rubbish images; Secondly, for every clean street image, obtain the Sift feature and do image registration with the real-time street image to obtain the differential image, the differential image filters a lot of background information, obtain the rubbish region proposal rect where the rubbish may appear on the differential image by the selective search algorithm. Then, the CNN model is used to detect the image pixel data in each of the region proposal on the real-time street image. According to the output vector of the CNN, it is judged whether the rubbish is in the region proposal or not. If it is rubbish, the region proposal on the real-time street image is marked. This algorithm avoids the large number of false detection caused by the detection on the whole image because the CNN is used to identify the image only in the region proposal on the real-time street image that may appear rubbish. Different from the traditional object detection algorithm based on the region proposal, the region proposal is obtained on the differential image not whole real-time street image, and the number of the invalid region proposal is greatly reduced. The algorithm has the high mean average precision (mAP).

  8. On the performance of pre-microRNA detection algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saçar Demirci, Müşerref Duygu; Baumbach, Jan; Allmer, Jens

    2017-01-01

    assess 13 ab initio pre-miRNA detection approaches using all relevant, published, and novel data sets while judging algorithm performance based on ten intrinsic performance measures. We present an extensible framework, izMiR, which allows for the unbiased comparison of existing algorithms, adding new...

  9. Improved algorithm for quantum separability and entanglement detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannou, L.M.; Ekert, A.K.; Travaglione, B.C.; Cheung, D.

    2004-01-01

    Determining whether a quantum state is separable or entangled is a problem of fundamental importance in quantum information science. It has recently been shown that this problem is NP-hard, suggesting that an efficient, general solution does not exist. There is a highly inefficient 'basic algorithm' for solving the quantum separability problem which follows from the definition of a separable state. By exploiting specific properties of the set of separable states, we introduce a classical algorithm that solves the problem significantly faster than the 'basic algorithm', allowing a feasible separability test where none previously existed, e.g., in 3x3-dimensional systems. Our algorithm also provides a unique tool in the experimental detection of entanglement

  10. Crowdsourcing seizure detection: algorithm development and validation on human implanted device recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassano, Steven N; Brinkmann, Benjamin H; Ung, Hoameng; Blevins, Tyler; Conrad, Erin C; Leyde, Kent; Cook, Mark J; Khambhati, Ankit N; Wagenaar, Joost B; Worrell, Gregory A; Litt, Brian

    2017-06-01

    There exist significant clinical and basic research needs for accurate, automated seizure detection algorithms. These algorithms have translational potential in responsive neurostimulation devices and in automatic parsing of continuous intracranial electroencephalography data. An important barrier to developing accurate, validated algorithms for seizure detection is limited access to high-quality, expertly annotated seizure data from prolonged recordings. To overcome this, we hosted a kaggle.com competition to crowdsource the development of seizure detection algorithms using intracranial electroencephalography from canines and humans with epilepsy. The top three performing algorithms from the contest were then validated on out-of-sample patient data including standard clinical data and continuous ambulatory human data obtained over several years using the implantable NeuroVista seizure advisory system. Two hundred teams of data scientists from all over the world participated in the kaggle.com competition. The top performing teams submitted highly accurate algorithms with consistent performance in the out-of-sample validation study. The performance of these seizure detection algorithms, achieved using freely available code and data, sets a new reproducible benchmark for personalized seizure detection. We have also shared a 'plug and play' pipeline to allow other researchers to easily use these algorithms on their own datasets. The success of this competition demonstrates how sharing code and high quality data results in the creation of powerful translational tools with significant potential to impact patient care. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. A Robust Automated Cataract Detection Algorithm Using Diagnostic Opinion Based Parameter Thresholding for Telemedicine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashwat Pathak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes and evaluates an algorithm to automatically detect the cataracts from color images in adult human subjects. Currently, methods available for cataract detection are based on the use of either fundus camera or Digital Single-Lens Reflex (DSLR camera; both are very expensive. The main motive behind this work is to develop an inexpensive, robust and convenient algorithm which in conjugation with suitable devices will be able to diagnose the presence of cataract from the true color images of an eye. An algorithm is proposed for cataract screening based on texture features: uniformity, intensity and standard deviation. These features are first computed and mapped with diagnostic opinion by the eye expert to define the basic threshold of screening system and later tested on real subjects in an eye clinic. Finally, a tele-ophthamology model using our proposed system has been suggested, which confirms the telemedicine application of the proposed system.

  12. Computer algorithms for automated detection and analysis of local Ca2+ releases in spontaneously beating cardiac pacemaker cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V Maltsev

    Full Text Available Local Ca2+ Releases (LCRs are crucial events involved in cardiac pacemaker cell function. However, specific algorithms for automatic LCR detection and analysis have not been developed in live, spontaneously beating pacemaker cells. In the present study we measured LCRs using a high-speed 2D-camera in spontaneously contracting sinoatrial (SA node cells isolated from rabbit and guinea pig and developed a new algorithm capable of detecting and analyzing the LCRs spatially in two-dimensions, and in time. Our algorithm tracks points along the midline of the contracting cell. It uses these points as a coordinate system for affine transform, producing a transformed image series where the cell does not contract. Action potential-induced Ca2+ transients and LCRs were thereafter isolated from recording noise by applying a series of spatial filters. The LCR birth and death events were detected by a differential (frame-to-frame sensitivity algorithm applied to each pixel (cell location. An LCR was detected when its signal changes sufficiently quickly within a sufficiently large area. The LCR is considered to have died when its amplitude decays substantially, or when it merges into the rising whole cell Ca2+ transient. Ultimately, our algorithm provides major LCR parameters such as period, signal mass, duration, and propagation path area. As the LCRs propagate within live cells, the algorithm identifies splitting and merging behaviors, indicating the importance of locally propagating Ca2+-induced-Ca2+-release for the fate of LCRs and for generating a powerful ensemble Ca2+ signal. Thus, our new computer algorithms eliminate motion artifacts and detect 2D local spatiotemporal events from recording noise and global signals. While the algorithms were developed to detect LCRs in sinoatrial nodal cells, they have the potential to be used in other applications in biophysics and cell physiology, for example, to detect Ca2+ wavelets (abortive waves, sparks and

  13. A Coded Aperture Compressive Imaging Array and Its Visual Detection and Tracking Algorithms for Surveillance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanxiao Wu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an application of a compressive imaging system to the problem of wide-area video surveillance systems. A parallel coded aperture compressive imaging system is proposed to reduce the needed high resolution coded mask requirements and facilitate the storage of the projection matrix. Random Gaussian, Toeplitz and binary phase coded masks are utilized to obtain the compressive sensing images. The corresponding motion targets detection and tracking algorithms directly using the compressive sampling images are developed. A mixture of Gaussian distribution is applied in the compressive image space to model the background image and for foreground detection. For each motion target in the compressive sampling domain, a compressive feature dictionary spanned by target templates and noises templates is sparsely represented. An l1 optimization algorithm is used to solve the sparse coefficient of templates. Experimental results demonstrate that low dimensional compressed imaging representation is sufficient to determine spatial motion targets. Compared with the random Gaussian and Toeplitz phase mask, motion detection algorithms using a random binary phase mask can yield better detection results. However using random Gaussian and Toeplitz phase mask can achieve high resolution reconstructed image. Our tracking algorithm can achieve a real time speed that is up to 10 times faster than that of the l1 tracker without any optimization.

  14. Detecting structural breaks in time series via genetic algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Benjamin; Fischer, Paul; Hilbert, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    of the time series under consideration is available. Therefore, a black-box optimization approach is our method of choice for detecting structural breaks. We describe a genetic algorithm framework which easily adapts to a large number of statistical settings. To evaluate the usefulness of different crossover...... and mutation operations for this problem, we conduct extensive experiments to determine good choices for the parameters and operators of the genetic algorithm. One surprising observation is that use of uniform and one-point crossover together gave significantly better results than using either crossover...... operator alone. Moreover, we present a specific fitness function which exploits the sparse structure of the break points and which can be evaluated particularly efficiently. The experiments on artificial and real-world time series show that the resulting algorithm detects break points with high precision...

  15. Intrusion Detection Algorithm for Mitigating Sinkhole Attack on LEACH Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeeth Kumar Sundararajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor network (WSN, the sensors are deployed and placed uniformly to transmit the sensed data to a centralized station periodically. So, the major threat of the WSN network layer is sinkhole attack and it is still being a challenging issue on the sensor networks, where the malicious node attracts the packets from the other normal sensor nodes and drops the packets. Thus, this paper proposes an Intrusion Detection System (IDS mechanism to detect the intruder in the network which uses Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH protocol for its routing operation. In the proposed algorithm, the detection metrics, such as number of packets transmitted and received, are used to compute the intrusion ratio (IR by the IDS agent. The computed numeric or nonnumeric value represents the normal or malicious activity. As and when the sinkhole attack is captured, the IDS agent alerts the network to stop the data transmission. Thus, it can be a resilient to the vulnerable attack of sinkhole. Above all, the simulation result is shown for the proposed algorithm which is proven to be efficient compared with the existing work, namely, MS-LEACH, in terms of minimum computational complexity and low energy consumption. Moreover, the algorithm was numerically analyzed using TETCOS NETSIM.

  16. Detection of Cheating by Decimation Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Shogo; Ohzeki, Masayuki; Decelle, Aurélien

    2015-02-01

    We expand the item response theory to study the case of "cheating students" for a set of exams, trying to detect them by applying a greedy algorithm of inference. This extended model is closely related to the Boltzmann machine learning. In this paper we aim to infer the correct biases and interactions of our model by considering a relatively small number of sets of training data. Nevertheless, the greedy algorithm that we employed in the present study exhibits good performance with a few number of training data. The key point is the sparseness of the interactions in our problem in the context of the Boltzmann machine learning: the existence of cheating students is expected to be very rare (possibly even in real world). We compare a standard approach to infer the sparse interactions in the Boltzmann machine learning to our greedy algorithm and we find the latter to be superior in several aspects.

  17. An Improved Topology-Potential-Based Community Detection Algorithm for Complex Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Topology potential theory is a new community detection theory on complex network, which divides a network into communities by spreading outward from each local maximum potential node. At present, almost all topology-potential-based community detection methods ignore node difference and assume that all nodes have the same mass. This hypothesis leads to inaccuracy of topology potential calculation and then decreases the precision of community detection. Inspired by the idea of PageRank algorithm, this paper puts forward a novel mass calculation method for complex network nodes. A node’s mass obtained by our method can effectively reflect its importance and influence in complex network. The more important the node is, the bigger its mass is. Simulation experiment results showed that, after taking node mass into consideration, the topology potential of node is more accurate, the distribution of topology potential is more reasonable, and the results of community detection are more precise.

  18. Gear Tooth Wear Detection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Irebert R.

    2015-01-01

    Vibration-based condition indicators continue to be developed for Health Usage Monitoring of rotorcraft gearboxes. Testing performed at NASA Glenn Research Center have shown correlations between specific condition indicators and specific types of gear wear. To speed up the detection and analysis of gear teeth, an image detection program based on the Viola-Jones algorithm was trained to automatically detect spiral bevel gear wear pitting. The detector was tested using a training set of gear wear pictures and a blind set of gear wear pictures. The detector accuracy for the training set was 75 percent while the accuracy for the blind set was 15 percent. Further improvements on the accuracy of the detector are required but preliminary results have shown its ability to automatically detect gear tooth wear. The trained detector would be used to quickly evaluate a set of gear or pinion pictures for pits, spalls, or abrasive wear. The results could then be used to correlate with vibration or oil debris data. In general, the program could be retrained to detect features of interest from pictures of a component taken over a period of time.

  19. An Algorithm to Detect the Retinal Region of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şehirli, E.; Turan, M. K.; Demiral, E.

    2017-11-01

    Retina is one of the important layers of the eyes, which includes sensitive cells to colour and light and nerve fibers. Retina can be displayed by using some medical devices such as fundus camera, ophthalmoscope. Hence, some lesions like microaneurysm, haemorrhage, exudate with many diseases of the eye can be detected by looking at the images taken by devices. In computer vision and biomedical areas, studies to detect lesions of the eyes automatically have been done for a long time. In order to make automated detections, the concept of ROI may be utilized. ROI which stands for region of interest generally serves the purpose of focusing on particular targets. The main concentration of this paper is the algorithm to automatically detect retinal region of interest belonging to different retinal images on a software application. The algorithm consists of three stages such as pre-processing stage, detecting ROI on processed images and overlapping between input image and obtained ROI of the image.

  20. NASA airborne radar wind shear detection algorithm and the detection of wet microbursts in the vicinity of Orlando, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Charles L.; Bracalente, Emedio M.

    1992-01-01

    The algorithms used in the NASA experimental wind shear radar system for detection, characterization, and determination of windshear hazard are discussed. The performance of the algorithms in the detection of wet microbursts near Orlando is presented. Various suggested algorithms that are currently being evaluated using the flight test results from Denver and Orlando are reviewed.

  1. Advanced defect detection algorithm using clustering in ultrasonic NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongzhang, Rui; Gachagan, Anthony

    2016-02-01

    A range of materials used in industry exhibit scattering properties which limits ultrasonic NDE. Many algorithms have been proposed to enhance defect detection ability, such as the well-known Split Spectrum Processing (SSP) technique. Scattering noise usually cannot be fully removed and the remaining noise can be easily confused with real feature signals, hence becoming artefacts during the image interpretation stage. This paper presents an advanced algorithm to further reduce the influence of artefacts remaining in A-scan data after processing using a conventional defect detection algorithm. The raw A-scan data can be acquired from either traditional single transducer or phased array configurations. The proposed algorithm uses the concept of unsupervised machine learning to cluster segmental defect signals from pre-processed A-scans into different classes. The distinction and similarity between each class and the ensemble of randomly selected noise segments can be observed by applying a classification algorithm. Each class will then be labelled as `legitimate reflector' or `artefacts' based on this observation and the expected probability of defection (PoD) and probability of false alarm (PFA) determined. To facilitate data collection and validate the proposed algorithm, a 5MHz linear array transducer is used to collect A-scans from both austenitic steel and Inconel samples. Each pulse-echo A-scan is pre-processed using SSP and the subsequent application of the proposed clustering algorithm has provided an additional reduction to PFA while maintaining PoD for both samples compared with SSP results alone.

  2. An Unsupervised Algorithm for Change Detection in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Data Using Synthetically Fused Images and Derivative Spectral Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youkyung Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multitemporal hyperspectral remote sensing data have the potential to detect altered areas on the earth’s surface. However, dissimilar radiometric and geometric properties between the multitemporal data due to the acquisition time or position of the sensors should be resolved to enable hyperspectral imagery for detecting changes in natural and human-impacted areas. In addition, data noise in the hyperspectral imagery spectrum decreases the change-detection accuracy when general change-detection algorithms are applied to hyperspectral images. To address these problems, we present an unsupervised change-detection algorithm based on statistical analyses of spectral profiles; the profiles are generated from a synthetic image fusion method for multitemporal hyperspectral images. This method aims to minimize the noise between the spectra corresponding to the locations of identical positions by increasing the change-detection rate and decreasing the false-alarm rate without reducing the dimensionality of the original hyperspectral data. Using a quantitative comparison of an actual dataset acquired by airborne hyperspectral sensors, we demonstrate that the proposed method provides superb change-detection results relative to the state-of-the-art unsupervised change-detection algorithms.

  3. A Novel Walking Detection and Step Counting Algorithm Using Unconstrained Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Kang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, with the development of artificial intelligence technologies and the popularity of mobile devices, walking detection and step counting have gained much attention since they play an important role in the fields of equipment positioning, saving energy, behavior recognition, etc. In this paper, a novel algorithm is proposed to simultaneously detect walking motion and count steps through unconstrained smartphones in the sense that the smartphone placement is not only arbitrary but also alterable. On account of the periodicity of the walking motion and sensitivity of gyroscopes, the proposed algorithm extracts the frequency domain features from three-dimensional (3D angular velocities of a smartphone through FFT (fast Fourier transform and identifies whether its holder is walking or not irrespective of its placement. Furthermore, the corresponding step frequency is recursively updated to evaluate the step count in real time. Extensive experiments are conducted by involving eight subjects and different walking scenarios in a realistic environment. It is shown that the proposed method achieves the precision of 93.76 % and recall of 93.65 % for walking detection, and its overall performance is significantly better than other well-known methods. Moreover, the accuracy of step counting by the proposed method is 95.74 % , and is better than both of the several well-known counterparts and commercial products.

  4. Combined Dust Detection Algorithm by Using MODIS Infrared Channels over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Seo; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Jaehwa; Lee, Sukjo; Kim, Jeong Soo; Chang, Lim Seok; Ou, Steve

    2014-01-01

    A new dust detection algorithm is developed by combining the results of multiple dust detectionmethods using IR channels onboard the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Brightness Temperature Difference (BTD) between two wavelength channels has been used widely in previous dust detection methods. However, BTDmethods have limitations in identifying the offset values of the BTDto discriminate clear-sky areas. The current algorithm overcomes the disadvantages of previous dust detection methods by considering the Brightness Temperature Ratio (BTR) values of the dual wavelength channels with 30-day composite, the optical properties of the dust particles, the variability of surface properties, and the cloud contamination. Therefore, the current algorithm shows improvements in detecting the dust loaded region over land during daytime. Finally, the confidence index of the current dust algorithm is shown in 10 × 10 pixels of the MODIS observations. From January to June, 2006, the results of the current algorithm are within 64 to 81% of those found using the fine mode fraction (FMF) and aerosol index (AI) from the MODIS and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The agreement between the results of the current algorithm and the OMI AI over the non-polluted land also ranges from 60 to 67% to avoid errors due to the anthropogenic aerosol. In addition, the developed algorithm shows statistically significant results at four AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sites in East Asia.

  5. A CDMA multiuser detection algorithm on the basis of belief propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

    2003-01-01

    An iterative algorithm for the multiuser detection problem that arises in code division multiple access (CDMA) systems is developed on the basis of Pearl's belief propagation (BP). We show that the BP-based algorithm exhibits nearly optimal performance in a practical time scale by utilizing the central limit theorem and self-averaging property appropriately, whereas direct application of BP to the detection problem is computationally difficult and far from practical. We further present close relationships of the proposed algorithm to the Thouless-Anderson-Palmer approach and replica analysis known in spin-glass research

  6. Detection of honeycomb cell walls from measurement data based on Harris corner detection algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yan; Dong, Zhigang; Kang, Renke; Yang, Jie; Ayinde, Babajide O.

    2018-06-01

    A honeycomb core is a discontinuous material with a thin-wall structure—a characteristic that makes accurate surface measurement difficult. This paper presents a cell wall detection method based on the Harris corner detection algorithm using laser measurement data. The vertexes of honeycomb cores are recognized with two different methods: one method is the reduction of data density, and the other is the optimization of the threshold of the Harris corner detection algorithm. Each cell wall is then identified in accordance with the neighboring relationships of its vertexes. Experiments were carried out for different types and surface shapes of honeycomb cores, where the proposed method was proved effective in dealing with noise due to burrs and/or deformation of cell walls.

  7. A Comparative Evaluation of Unsupervised Anomaly Detection Algorithms for Multivariate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Markus; Uchida, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    Anomaly detection is the process of identifying unexpected items or events in datasets, which differ from the norm. In contrast to standard classification tasks, anomaly detection is often applied on unlabeled data, taking only the internal structure of the dataset into account. This challenge is known as unsupervised anomaly detection and is addressed in many practical applications, for example in network intrusion detection, fraud detection as well as in the life science and medical domain. Dozens of algorithms have been proposed in this area, but unfortunately the research community still lacks a comparative universal evaluation as well as common publicly available datasets. These shortcomings are addressed in this study, where 19 different unsupervised anomaly detection algorithms are evaluated on 10 different datasets from multiple application domains. By publishing the source code and the datasets, this paper aims to be a new well-funded basis for unsupervised anomaly detection research. Additionally, this evaluation reveals the strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches for the first time. Besides the anomaly detection performance, computational effort, the impact of parameter settings as well as the global/local anomaly detection behavior is outlined. As a conclusion, we give an advise on algorithm selection for typical real-world tasks. PMID:27093601

  8. Fast intersection detection algorithm for PC-based robot off-line programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedrowitz, Christian H.

    1994-11-01

    This paper presents a method for fast and reliable collision detection in complex production cells. The algorithm is part of the PC-based robot off-line programming system of the University of Siegen (Ropsus). The method is based on a solid model which is managed by a simplified constructive solid geometry model (CSG-model). The collision detection problem is divided in two steps. In the first step the complexity of the problem is reduced in linear time. In the second step the remaining solids are tested for intersection. For this the Simplex algorithm, which is known from linear optimization, is used. It computes a point which is common to two convex polyhedra. The polyhedra intersect, if such a point exists. Regarding the simplified geometrical model of Ropsus the algorithm runs also in linear time. In conjunction with the first step a resultant collision detection algorithm is found which requires linear time in all. Moreover it computes the resultant intersection polyhedron using the dual transformation.

  9. A Pre-Detection Based Anti-Collision Algorithm with Adjustable Slot Size Scheme for Tag Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Kuo LIANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the research areas in RFID systems is a tag anti-collision protocol; how to reduce identification time with a given number of tags in the field of an RFID reader. There are two types of tag anti-collision protocols for RFID systems: tree based algorithms and slotted aloha based algorithms. Many anti-collision algorithms have been proposed in recent years, especially in tree based protocols. However, there still have challenges on enhancing the system throughput and stability due to the underlying technologies had faced different limitation in system performance when network density is high. Particularly, the tree based protocols had faced the long identification delay. Recently, a Hybrid Hyper Query Tree (H2QT protocol, which is a tree based approach, was proposed and aiming to speedup tag identification in large scale RFID systems. The main idea of H2QT is to track the tag response and try to predict the distribution of tag IDs in order to reduce collisions. In this paper, we propose a pre-detection tree based algorithm, called the Adaptive Pre-Detection Broadcasting Query Tree algorithm (APDBQT, to avoid those unnecessary queries. Our proposed APDBQT protocol can reduce not only the collisions but the idle cycles as well by using pre-detection scheme and adjustable slot size mechanism. The simulation results show that our proposed technique provides superior performance in high density environments. It is shown that the APDBQT is effective in terms of increasing system throughput and minimizing identification delay.

  10. Structural Damage Detection using Frequency Response Function Index and Surrogate Model Based on Optimized Extreme Learning Machine Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ghiasi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing surrogate models based on artificial intelligence methods for detecting structural damages has attracted the attention of many researchers in recent decades. In this study, a new kernel based on Littlewood-Paley Wavelet (LPW is proposed for Extreme Learning Machine (ELM algorithm to improve the accuracy of detecting multiple damages in structural systems.  ELM is used as metamodel (surrogate model of exact finite element analysis of structures in order to efficiently reduce the computational cost through updating process. In the proposed two-step method, first a damage index, based on Frequency Response Function (FRF of the structure, is used to identify the location of damages. In the second step, the severity of damages in identified elements is detected using ELM. In order to evaluate the efficacy of ELM, the results obtained from the proposed kernel were compared with other kernels proposed for ELM as well as Least Square Support Vector Machine algorithm. The solved numerical problems indicated that ELM algorithm accuracy in detecting structural damages is increased drastically in case of using LPW kernel.

  11. Change detection using landsat time series: A review of frequencies, preprocessing, algorithms, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhe

    2017-08-01

    The free and open access to all archived Landsat images in 2008 has completely changed the way of using Landsat data. Many novel change detection algorithms based on Landsat time series have been developed We present a comprehensive review of four important aspects of change detection studies based on Landsat time series, including frequencies, preprocessing, algorithms, and applications. We observed the trend that the more recent the study, the higher the frequency of Landsat time series used. We reviewed a series of image preprocessing steps, including atmospheric correction, cloud and cloud shadow detection, and composite/fusion/metrics techniques. We divided all change detection algorithms into six categories, including thresholding, differencing, segmentation, trajectory classification, statistical boundary, and regression. Within each category, six major characteristics of different algorithms, such as frequency, change index, univariate/multivariate, online/offline, abrupt/gradual change, and sub-pixel/pixel/spatial were analyzed. Moreover, some of the widely-used change detection algorithms were also discussed. Finally, we reviewed different change detection applications by dividing these applications into two categories, change target and change agent detection.

  12. The SSVEP-Based BCI Text Input System Using Entropy Encoding Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeou-Jiunn Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The so-called amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or motor neuron disease (MND is a neurodegenerative disease with various causes. It is characterized by muscle spasticity, rapidly progressive weakness due to muscle atrophy, and difficulty in speaking, swallowing, and breathing. The severe disabled always have a common problem that is about communication except physical malfunctions. The steady-state visually evoked potential based brain computer interfaces (BCI, which apply visual stimulus, are very suitable to play the role of communication interface for patients with neuromuscular impairments. In this study, the entropy encoding algorithm is proposed to encode the letters of multilevel selection interface for BCI text input systems. According to the appearance frequency of each letter, the entropy encoding algorithm is proposed to construct a variable-length tree for the letter arrangement of multilevel selection interface. Then, the Gaussian mixture models are applied to recognize electrical activity of the brain. According to the recognition results, the multilevel selection interface guides the subject to spell and type the words. The experimental results showed that the proposed approach outperforms the baseline system, which does not consider the appearance frequency of each letter. Hence, the proposed approach is able to ease text input interface for patients with neuromuscular impairments.

  13. Multisensors Cooperative Detection Task Scheduling Algorithm Based on Hybrid Task Decomposition and MBPSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyun Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A multisensor scheduling algorithm based on the hybrid task decomposition and modified binary particle swarm optimization (MBPSO is proposed. Firstly, aiming at the complex relationship between sensor resources and tasks, a hybrid task decomposition method is presented, and the resource scheduling problem is decomposed into subtasks; then the sensor resource scheduling problem is changed into the match problem of sensors and subtasks. Secondly, the resource match optimization model based on the sensor resources and tasks is established, which considers several factors, such as the target priority, detecting benefit, handover times, and resource load. Finally, MBPSO algorithm is proposed to solve the match optimization model effectively, which is based on the improved updating means of particle’s velocity and position through the doubt factor and modified Sigmoid function. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is better in terms of convergence velocity, searching capability, solution accuracy, and efficiency.

  14. A Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation System with Self-Adaption Threshold Peak Detection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifang Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG interrogation system with a self-adaption threshold peak detection algorithm is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in this study. This system is composed of a field programmable gate array (FPGA and advanced RISC machine (ARM platform, tunable Fabry–Perot (F–P filter and optical switch. To improve system resolution, the F–P filter was employed. As this filter is non-linear, this causes the shifting of central wavelengths with the deviation compensated by the parts of the circuit. Time-division multiplexing (TDM of FBG sensors is achieved by an optical switch, with the system able to realize the combination of 256 FBG sensors. The wavelength scanning speed of 800 Hz can be achieved by a FPGA+ARM platform. In addition, a peak detection algorithm based on a self-adaption threshold is designed and the peak recognition rate is 100%. Experiments with different temperatures were conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the system. Four FBG sensors were examined in the thermal chamber without stress. When the temperature changed from 0 °C to 100 °C, the degree of linearity between central wavelengths and temperature was about 0.999 with the temperature sensitivity being 10 pm/°C. The static interrogation precision was able to reach 0.5 pm. Through the comparison of different peak detection algorithms and interrogation approaches, the system was verified to have an optimum comprehensive performance in terms of precision, capacity and speed.

  15. Modified automatic R-peak detection algorithm for patients with epilepsy using a portable electrocardiogram recorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, J; Beniczky, S; Fuglsang Frederiksen, A; Sidenius, P; Johansen, P

    2017-07-01

    Earlier studies have shown that short term heart rate variability (HRV) analysis of ECG seems promising for detection of epileptic seizures. A precise and accurate automatic R-peak detection algorithm is a necessity in a real-time, continuous measurement of HRV, in a portable ECG device. We used the portable CE marked ePatch® heart monitor to record the ECG of 14 patients, who were enrolled in the videoEEG long term monitoring unit for clinical workup of epilepsy. Recordings of the first 7 patients were used as training set of data for the R-peak detection algorithm and the recordings of the last 7 patients (467.6 recording hours) were used to test the performance of the algorithm. We aimed to modify an existing QRS-detection algorithm to a more precise R-peak detection algorithm to avoid the possible jitter Qand S-peaks can create in the tachogram, which causes error in short-term HRVanalysis. The proposed R-peak detection algorithm showed a high sensitivity (Se = 99.979%) and positive predictive value (P+ = 99.976%), which was comparable with a previously published QRS-detection algorithm for the ePatch® ECG device, when testing the same dataset. The novel R-peak detection algorithm designed to avoid jitter has very high sensitivity and specificity and thus is a suitable tool for a robust, fast, real-time HRV-analysis in patients with epilepsy, creating the possibility for real-time seizure detection for these patients.

  16. New algorithm to detect modules in a fault tree for a PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Woo Sik

    2015-01-01

    A module or independent subtree is a part of a fault tree whose child gates or basic events are not repeated in the remaining part of the fault tree. Modules are necessarily employed in order to reduce the computational costs of fault tree quantification. This paper presents a new linear time algorithm to detect modules of large fault trees. The size of cut sets can be substantially reduced by replacing independent subtrees in a fault tree with super-components. Chatterjee and Birnbaum developed properties of modules, and demonstrated their use in the fault tree analysis. Locks expanded the concept of modules to non-coherent fault trees. Independent subtrees were manually identified while coding a fault tree for computer analysis. However, nowadays, the independent subtrees are automatically identified by the fault tree solver. A Dutuit and Rauzy (DR) algorithm to detect modules of a fault tree for coherent or non-coherent fault tree was proposed in 1996. It has been well known that this algorithm quickly detects modules since it is a linear time algorithm. The new algorithm minimizes computational memory and quickly detects modules. Furthermore, it can be easily implemented into industry fault tree solvers that are based on traditional Boolean algebra, binary decision diagrams (BDDs), or Zero-suppressed BDDs. The new algorithm employs only two scalar variables in Eqs. to that are volatile information. After finishing the traversal and module detection of each node, the volatile information is destroyed. Thus, the new algorithm does not employ any other additional computational memory and operations. It is recommended that this method be implemented into fault tree solvers for efficient probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of nuclear power plants

  17. New algorithm to detect modules in a fault tree for a PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Woo Sik [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A module or independent subtree is a part of a fault tree whose child gates or basic events are not repeated in the remaining part of the fault tree. Modules are necessarily employed in order to reduce the computational costs of fault tree quantification. This paper presents a new linear time algorithm to detect modules of large fault trees. The size of cut sets can be substantially reduced by replacing independent subtrees in a fault tree with super-components. Chatterjee and Birnbaum developed properties of modules, and demonstrated their use in the fault tree analysis. Locks expanded the concept of modules to non-coherent fault trees. Independent subtrees were manually identified while coding a fault tree for computer analysis. However, nowadays, the independent subtrees are automatically identified by the fault tree solver. A Dutuit and Rauzy (DR) algorithm to detect modules of a fault tree for coherent or non-coherent fault tree was proposed in 1996. It has been well known that this algorithm quickly detects modules since it is a linear time algorithm. The new algorithm minimizes computational memory and quickly detects modules. Furthermore, it can be easily implemented into industry fault tree solvers that are based on traditional Boolean algebra, binary decision diagrams (BDDs), or Zero-suppressed BDDs. The new algorithm employs only two scalar variables in Eqs. to that are volatile information. After finishing the traversal and module detection of each node, the volatile information is destroyed. Thus, the new algorithm does not employ any other additional computational memory and operations. It is recommended that this method be implemented into fault tree solvers for efficient probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of nuclear power plants.

  18. Radiation anomaly detection algorithms for field-acquired gamma energy spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Wolff, Ron; Guss, Paul; Mitchell, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    The Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) is developing a tactical, networked radiation detection system that will be agile, reconfigurable, and capable of rapid threat assessment with high degree of fidelity and certainty. Our design is driven by the needs of users such as law enforcement personnel who must make decisions by evaluating threat signatures in urban settings. The most efficient tool available to identify the nature of the threat object is real-time gamma spectroscopic analysis, as it is fast and has a very low probability of producing false positive alarm conditions. Urban radiological searches are inherently challenged by the rapid and large spatial variation of background gamma radiation, the presence of benign radioactive materials in terms of the normally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), and shielded and/or masked threat sources. Multiple spectral anomaly detection algorithms have been developed by national laboratories and commercial vendors. For example, the Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) a one-dimensional deterministic radiation transport software capable of calculating gamma ray spectra using physics-based detector response functions was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The nuisance-rejection spectral comparison ratio anomaly detection algorithm (or NSCRAD), developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, uses spectral comparison ratios to detect deviation from benign medical and NORM radiation source and can work in spite of strong presence of NORM and or medical sources. RSL has developed its own wavelet-based gamma energy spectral anomaly detection algorithm called WAVRAD. Test results and relative merits of these different algorithms will be discussed and demonstrated.

  19. Anomaly Detection and Diagnosis Algorithms for Discrete Symbols

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a set of novel algorithms which we call sequenceMiner that detect and characterize anomalies in large sets of high-dimensional symbol sequences that arise...

  20. Technical note: A new day- and night-time Meteosat Second Generation Cirrus Detection Algorithm MeCiDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Krebs

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A new cirrus detection algorithm for the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infra-Red Imager (SEVIRI aboard the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG, MeCiDA, is presented. The algorithm uses the seven infrared channels of SEVIRI and thus provides a consistent scheme for cirrus detection at day and night. MeCiDA combines morphological and multi-spectral threshold tests and detects optically thick and thin ice clouds. The thresholds were determined by a comprehensive theoretical study using radiative transfer simulations for various atmospheric situations as well as by manually evaluating actual satellite observations. The cirrus detection has been optimized for mid- and high latitudes but it could be adapted to other regions as well. The retrieved cirrus masks have been validated by comparison with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Cirrus Reflection Flag. To study possible seasonal variations in the performance of the algorithm, one scene per month of the year 2004 was randomly selected and compared with the MODIS flag. 81% of the pixels were classified identically by both algorithms. In a comparison of monthly mean values for Europe and the North-Atlantic MeCiDA detected 29.3% cirrus coverage, while the MODIS SWIR cirrus coverage was 38.1%. A lower detection efficiency is to be expected for MeCiDA, as the spatial resolution of MODIS is considerably better and as we used only the thermal infrared channels in contrast to the MODIS algorithm which uses infrared and visible radiances. The advantage of MeCiDA compared to retrievals for polar orbiting instruments or previous geostationary satellites is that it permits the derivation of quantitative data every 15 min, 24 h a day. This high temporal resolution allows the study of diurnal variations and life cycle aspects. MeCiDA is fast enough for near real-time applications.

  1. Using Genetic Algorithm for Eye Detection and Tracking in Video Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Akashi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a high-speed size and orientation invariant eye tracking method, which can acquire numerical parameters to represent the size and orientation of the eye. In this paper, we discuss that high tolerance in human head movement and real-time processing that are needed for many applications, such as eye gaze tracking. The generality of the method is also important. We use template matching with genetic algorithm, in order to overcome these problems. A high speed and accuracy tracking scheme using Evolutionary Video Processing for eye detection and tracking is proposed. Usually, a genetic algorithm is unsuitable for a real-time processing, however, we achieved real-time processing. The generality of this proposed method is provided by the artificial iris template used. In our simulations, an eye tracking accuracy is 97.9% and, an average processing time of 28 milliseconds per frame.

  2. Linear segmentation algorithm for detecting layer boundary with lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Feiyue; Gong, Wei; Logan, Timothy

    2013-11-04

    The automatic detection of aerosol- and cloud-layer boundary (base and top) is important in atmospheric lidar data processing, because the boundary information is not only useful for environment and climate studies, but can also be used as input for further data processing. Previous methods have demonstrated limitations in defining the base and top, window-size setting, and have neglected the in-layer attenuation. To overcome these limitations, we present a new layer detection scheme for up-looking lidars based on linear segmentation with a reasonable threshold setting, boundary selecting, and false positive removing strategies. Preliminary results from both real and simulated data show that this algorithm cannot only detect the layer-base as accurate as the simple multi-scale method, but can also detect the layer-top more accurately than that of the simple multi-scale method. Our algorithm can be directly applied to uncalibrated data without requiring any additional measurements or window size selections.

  3. Penalty dynamic programming algorithm for dim targets detection in sensor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dayu; Xue, Anke; Guo, Yunfei

    2012-01-01

    In order to detect and track multiple maneuvering dim targets in sensor systems, an improved dynamic programming track-before-detect algorithm (DP-TBD) called penalty DP-TBD (PDP-TBD) is proposed. The performances of tracking techniques are used as a feedback to the detection part. The feedback is constructed by a penalty term in the merit function, and the penalty term is a function of the possible target state estimation, which can be obtained by the tracking methods. With this feedback, the algorithm combines traditional tracking techniques with DP-TBD and it can be applied to simultaneously detect and track maneuvering dim targets. Meanwhile, a reasonable constraint that a sensor measurement can originate from one target or clutter is proposed to minimize track separation. Thus, the algorithm can be used in the multi-target situation with unknown target numbers. The efficiency and advantages of PDP-TBD compared with two existing methods are demonstrated by several simulations.

  4. Low power multi-camera system and algorithms for automated threat detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, David J.; Khosla, Deepak; Chen, Yang; Van Buer, Darrel J.; Martin, Kevin

    2013-05-01

    A key to any robust automated surveillance system is continuous, wide field-of-view sensor coverage and high accuracy target detection algorithms. Newer systems typically employ an array of multiple fixed cameras that provide individual data streams, each of which is managed by its own processor. This array can continuously capture the entire field of view, but collecting all the data and back-end detection algorithm consumes additional power and increases the size, weight, and power (SWaP) of the package. This is often unacceptable, as many potential surveillance applications have strict system SWaP requirements. This paper describes a wide field-of-view video system that employs multiple fixed cameras and exhibits low SWaP without compromising the target detection rate. We cycle through the sensors, fetch a fixed number of frames, and process them through a modified target detection algorithm. During this time, the other sensors remain powered-down, which reduces the required hardware and power consumption of the system. We show that the resulting gaps in coverage and irregular frame rate do not affect the detection accuracy of the underlying algorithms. This reduces the power of an N-camera system by up to approximately N-fold compared to the baseline normal operation. This work was applied to Phase 2 of DARPA Cognitive Technology Threat Warning System (CT2WS) program and used during field testing.

  5. Algorithms for the detection of chewing behavior in dietary monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Mark S.; Helal, Abdelsalam; Mendez-Vasquez, Andres

    2009-08-01

    The detection of food consumption is key to the implementation of successful behavior modification in support of dietary monitoring and therapy, for example, during the course of controlling obesity, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease. Since the vast majority of humans consume food via mastication (chewing), we have designed an algorithm that automatically detects chewing behaviors in surveillance video of a person eating. Our algorithm first detects the mouth region, then computes the spatiotemporal frequency spectrum of a small perioral region (including the mouth). Spectral data are analyzed to determine the presence of periodic motion that characterizes chewing. A classifier is then applied to discriminate different types of chewing behaviors. Our algorithm was tested on seven volunteers, whose behaviors included chewing with mouth open, chewing with mouth closed, talking, static face presentation (control case), and moving face presentation. Early test results show that the chewing behaviors induce a temporal frequency peak at 0.5Hz to 2.5Hz, which is readily detected using a distance-based classifier. Computational cost is analyzed for implementation on embedded processing nodes, for example, in a healthcare sensor network. Complexity analysis emphasizes the relationship between the work and space estimates of the algorithm, and its estimated error. It is shown that chewing detection is possible within a computationally efficient, accurate, and subject-independent framework.

  6. SHADOW DETECTION FROM VERY HIGH RESOLUTON SATELLITE IMAGE USING GRABCUT SEGMENTATION AND RATIO-BAND ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. S. M. Kadhim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Very-High-Resolution (VHR satellite imagery is a powerful source of data for detecting and extracting information about urban constructions. Shadow in the VHR satellite imageries provides vital information on urban construction forms, illumination direction, and the spatial distribution of the objects that can help to further understanding of the built environment. However, to extract shadows, the automated detection of shadows from images must be accurate. This paper reviews current automatic approaches that have been used for shadow detection from VHR satellite images and comprises two main parts. In the first part, shadow concepts are presented in terms of shadow appearance in the VHR satellite imageries, current shadow detection methods, and the usefulness of shadow detection in urban environments. In the second part, we adopted two approaches which are considered current state-of-the-art shadow detection, and segmentation algorithms using WorldView-3 and Quickbird images. In the first approach, the ratios between the NIR and visible bands were computed on a pixel-by-pixel basis, which allows for disambiguation between shadows and dark objects. To obtain an accurate shadow candidate map, we further refine the shadow map after applying the ratio algorithm on the Quickbird image. The second selected approach is the GrabCut segmentation approach for examining its performance in detecting the shadow regions of urban objects using the true colour image from WorldView-3. Further refinement was applied to attain a segmented shadow map. Although the detection of shadow regions is a very difficult task when they are derived from a VHR satellite image that comprises a visible spectrum range (RGB true colour, the results demonstrate that the detection of shadow regions in the WorldView-3 image is a reasonable separation from other objects by applying the GrabCut algorithm. In addition, the derived shadow map from the Quickbird image indicates

  7. Replica Node Detection Using Enhanced Single Hop Detection with Clonal Selection Algorithm in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Sindhuja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Security of Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks is a vital challenge as the sensor nodes are deployed in unattended environment and they are prone to various attacks. One among them is the node replication attack. In this, the physically insecure nodes are acquired by the adversary to clone them by having the same identity of the captured node, and the adversary deploys an unpredictable number of replicas throughout the network. Hence replica node detection is an important challenge in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks. Various replica node detection techniques have been proposed to detect these replica nodes. These methods incur control overheads and the detection accuracy is low when the replica is selected as a witness node. This paper proposes to solve these issues by enhancing the Single Hop Detection (SHD method using the Clonal Selection algorithm to detect the clones by selecting the appropriate witness nodes. The advantages of the proposed method include (i increase in the detection ratio, (ii decrease in the control overhead, and (iii increase in throughput. The performance of the proposed work is measured using detection ratio, false detection ratio, packet delivery ratio, average delay, control overheads, and throughput. The implementation is done using ns-2 to exhibit the actuality of the proposed work.

  8. Computerized detection of masses on mammograms: A comparative study of two algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiedeu, A.; Kom, G.; Kom, M.

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, we implement and carry out the comparison of two methods of computer-aided-detection of masses on mammograms. The two algorithms basically consist of 3 steps each: segmentation, binarization and noise suppression but using different techniques for each step. A database of 60 images was used to compare the performance of the two algorithms in terms of general detection efficiency, conservation of size and shape of detected masses. (author)

  9. Assessment of a novel mass detection algorithm in mammograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Kozegar

    2013-01-01

    Settings and Design: The proposed mass detector consists of two major steps. In the first step, several suspicious regions are extracted from the mammograms using an adaptive thresholding technique. In the second step, false positives originating by the previous stage are reduced by a machine learning approach. Materials and Methods: All modules of the mass detector were assessed on mini-MIAS database. In addition, the algorithm was tested on INBreast database for more validation. Results: According to FROC analysis, our mass detection algorithm outperforms other competing methods. Conclusions: We should not just insist on sensitivity in the segmentation phase because if we forgot FP rate, and our goal was just higher sensitivity, then the learning algorithm would be biased more toward false positives and the sensitivity would decrease dramatically in the false positive reduction phase. Therefore, we should consider the mass detection problem as a cost sensitive problem because misclassification costs are not the same in this type of problems.

  10. Advanced Oil Spill Detection Algorithms For Satellite Based Maritime Environment Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, Andrea; Azevedo, Rui; Sapage, Tania; Carmo, Paulo

    2013-12-01

    During the last years, the increasing pollution occurrence and the alarming deterioration of the environmental health conditions of the sea, lead to the need of global monitoring capabilities, namely for marine environment management in terms of oil spill detection and indication of the suspected polluter. The sensitivity of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to the different phenomena on the sea, especially for oil spill and vessel detection, makes it a key instrument for global pollution monitoring. The SAR performances in maritime pollution monitoring are being operationally explored by a set of service providers on behalf of the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA), which has launched in 2007 the CleanSeaNet (CSN) project - a pan-European satellite based oil monitoring service. EDISOFT, which is from the beginning a service provider for CSN, is continuously investing in R&D activities that will ultimately lead to better algorithms and better performance on oil spill detection from SAR imagery. This strategy is being pursued through EDISOFT participation in the FP7 EC Sea-U project and in the Automatic Oil Spill Detection (AOSD) ESA project. The Sea-U project has the aim to improve the current state of oil spill detection algorithms, through the informative content maximization obtained with data fusion, the exploitation of different type of data/ sensors and the development of advanced image processing, segmentation and classification techniques. The AOSD project is closely related to the operational segment, because it is focused on the automation of the oil spill detection processing chain, integrating auxiliary data, like wind information, together with image and geometry analysis techniques. The synergy between these different objectives (R&D versus operational) allowed EDISOFT to develop oil spill detection software, that combines the operational automatic aspect, obtained through dedicated integration of the processing chain in the existing open source NEST

  11. An algorithm for the detection of move repetition without the use of hash-keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Vladan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the theoretical and practical aspects of an important problem in computer chess programming - the problem of draw detection in cases of position repetition. The standard approach used in the majority of computer chess programs is hash-oriented. This method is sufficient in most cases, as the Zobrist keys are already present due to the systemic positional hashing, so that they need not be computed anew for the purpose of draw detection. The new type of the algorithm that we have developed solves the problem of draw detection in cases when Zobrist keys are not used in the program, i.e. in cases when the memory is not hashed.

  12. Aircraft target detection algorithm based on high resolution spaceborne SAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Hao, Mengxi; Zhang, Cong; Su, Xiaojing

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, an image classification algorithm for airport area is proposed, which based on the statistical features of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and the spatial information of pixels. The algorithm combines Gamma mixture model and MRF. The algorithm using Gamma mixture model to obtain the initial classification result. Pixel space correlation based on the classification results are optimized by the MRF technique. Additionally, morphology methods are employed to extract airport (ROI) region where the suspected aircraft target samples are clarified to reduce the false alarm and increase the detection performance. Finally, this paper presents the plane target detection, which have been verified by simulation test.

  13. Anomaly detection in wide area network mesh using two machine learning anomaly detection algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, James; Vukotic, Ilija; Gardner, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Anomaly detection is the practice of identifying items or events that do not conform to an expected behavior or do not correlate with other items in a dataset. It has previously been applied to areas such as intrusion detection, system health monitoring, and fraud detection in credit card transactions. In this paper, we describe a new method for detecting anomalous behavior over network performance data, gathered by perfSONAR, using two machine learning algorithms: Boosted Decision Trees (BDT...

  14. An improved algorithm of laser spot center detection in strong noise background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Wang, Qianqian; Cui, Xutai; Zhao, Yu; Peng, Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Laser spot center detection is demanded in many applications. The common algorithms for laser spot center detection such as centroid and Hough transform method have poor anti-interference ability and low detection accuracy in the condition of strong background noise. In this paper, firstly, the median filtering was used to remove the noise while preserving the edge details of the image. Secondly, the binarization of the laser facula image was carried out to extract target image from background. Then the morphological filtering was performed to eliminate the noise points inside and outside the spot. At last, the edge of pretreated facula image was extracted and the laser spot center was obtained by using the circle fitting method. In the foundation of the circle fitting algorithm, the improved algorithm added median filtering, morphological filtering and other processing methods. This method could effectively filter background noise through theoretical analysis and experimental verification, which enhanced the anti-interference ability of laser spot center detection and also improved the detection accuracy.

  15. CCM: A Text Classification Method by Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new Cluster based Classification Model (CCM) for suspicious email detection and other text classification tasks, is presented. Comparative experiments of the proposed model against traditional classification models and the boosting algorithm are also discussed. Experimental results...... show that the CCM outperforms traditional classification models as well as the boosting algorithm for the task of suspicious email detection on terrorism domain email dataset and topic categorization on the Reuters-21578 and 20 Newsgroups datasets. The overall finding is that applying a cluster based...

  16. A fast image encryption algorithm based on only blocks in cipher text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Yuan; Wang, Qian

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a fast image encryption algorithm is proposed, in which the shuffling and diffusion is performed simultaneously. The cipher-text image is divided into blocks and each block has k ×k pixels, while the pixels of the plain-text are scanned one by one. Four logistic maps are used to generate the encryption key stream and the new place in the cipher image of plain image pixels, including the row and column of the block which the pixel belongs to and the place where the pixel would be placed in the block. After encrypting each pixel, the initial conditions of logistic maps would be changed according to the encrypted pixel's value; after encrypting each row of plain image, the initial condition would also be changed by the skew tent map. At last, it is illustrated that this algorithm has a faster speed, big key space, and better properties in withstanding differential attacks, statistical analysis, known plaintext, and chosen plaintext attacks.

  17. A fast image encryption algorithm based on only blocks in cipher text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xing-Yuan; Wang Qian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a fast image encryption algorithm is proposed, in which the shuffling and diffusion is performed simultaneously. The cipher-text image is divided into blocks and each block has k ×k pixels, while the pixels of the plain-text are scanned one by one. Four logistic maps are used to generate the encryption key stream and the new place in the cipher image of plain image pixels, including the row and column of the block which the pixel belongs to and the place where the pixel would be placed in the block. After encrypting each pixel, the initial conditions of logistic maps would be changed according to the encrypted pixel's value; after encrypting each row of plain image, the initial condition would also be changed by the skew tent map. At last, it is illustrated that this algorithm has a faster speed, big key space, and better properties in withstanding differential attacks, statistical analysis, known plaintext, and chosen plaintext attacks

  18. ASPeak: an abundance sensitive peak detection algorithm for RIP-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukural, Alper; Özadam, Hakan; Singh, Guramrit; Moore, Melissa J; Cenik, Can

    2013-10-01

    Unlike DNA, RNA abundances can vary over several orders of magnitude. Thus, identification of RNA-protein binding sites from high-throughput sequencing data presents unique challenges. Although peak identification in ChIP-Seq data has been extensively explored, there are few bioinformatics tools tailored for peak calling on analogous datasets for RNA-binding proteins. Here we describe ASPeak (abundance sensitive peak detection algorithm), an implementation of an algorithm that we previously applied to detect peaks in exon junction complex RNA immunoprecipitation in tandem experiments. Our peak detection algorithm yields stringent and robust target sets enabling sensitive motif finding and downstream functional analyses. ASPeak is implemented in Perl as a complete pipeline that takes bedGraph files as input. ASPeak implementation is freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/as-peak under the GNU General Public License. ASPeak can be run on a personal computer, yet is designed to be easily parallelizable. ASPeak can also run on high performance computing clusters providing efficient speedup. The documentation and user manual can be obtained from http://master.dl.sourceforge.net/project/as-peak/manual.pdf.

  19. Algorithm of Syntactic Idioms Recognition in the Text: Attempt of Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sytar Hanna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention of national and foreign researchers was focused so far on structural and semantic features of syntactic idioms. Automatic analysis of these peculiar units that are on the verge of syntax and phraseology still was not carried out in the scientific literature. This issue requires a theoretical understanding and practical implementation. Purpose: To create an algorithm of recognition of syntactic idioms with one- or two-term core component in the corpus of texts. Results: Based on the results of previous theoretical studies we highlighted a number of formal and statistical criteria that enable to distinguish syntactic idioms from other language units in the corpus of Ukrainian-language texts. The author developed a block diagram of syntactic idioms recognition, incorporating two branches constructed accordingly for the sentences with one-term and sentences with two-term core component. The first branch is based on the presence of word repeats (full words concurrence or presence of other word forms of the word and the list of core components determined on previous stages of the study (є, це, то, не, так; як; з/із/зі, між, над, серед; а, але, зате, однак, проте. The second branch was created for another type of syntactic idioms – one with a two-term core component. It takes into account the following properties of the analyzed units: the presence of combinations of service parts of speech, service parts of speech with pronoun or adverb, pronoun and adverb; compliance of words combinations with the register of the syntactic idioms core components currently comprising 92 structures; association measure of mutual information ≥9, etc. Discussion: Offered algorithm enables automatic identification of syntactic idioms in the corpus of texts and removal of contexts of their use, it can be used to improve the procedure of automatic text processing and creation of automated translation

  20. MPEG-2 Compressed-Domain Algorithms for Video Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesseler Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new algorithms for extracting metadata from video sequences in the MPEG-2 compressed domain. Three algorithms for efficient low-level metadata extraction in preprocessing stages are described. The first algorithm detects camera motion using the motion vector field of an MPEG-2 video. The second method extends the idea of motion detection to a limited region of interest, yielding an efficient algorithm to track objects inside video sequences. The third algorithm performs a cut detection using macroblock types and motion vectors.

  1. Algorithms and data structures for automated change detection and classification of sidescan sonar imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Marlin Lee

    During Mine Warfare (MIW) operations, MIW analysts perform change detection by visually comparing historical sidescan sonar imagery (SSI) collected by a sidescan sonar with recently collected SSI in an attempt to identify objects (which might be explosive mines) placed at sea since the last time the area was surveyed. This dissertation presents a data structure and three algorithms, developed by the author, that are part of an automated change detection and classification (ACDC) system. MIW analysts at the Naval Oceanographic Office, to reduce the amount of time to perform change detection, are currently using ACDC. The dissertation introductory chapter gives background information on change detection, ACDC, and describes how SSI is produced from raw sonar data. Chapter 2 presents the author's Geospatial Bitmap (GB) data structure, which is capable of storing information geographically and is utilized by the three algorithms. This chapter shows that a GB data structure used in a polygon-smoothing algorithm ran between 1.3--48.4x faster than a sparse matrix data structure. Chapter 3 describes the GB clustering algorithm, which is the author's repeatable, order-independent method for clustering. Results from tests performed in this chapter show that the time to cluster a set of points is not affected by the distribution or the order of the points. In Chapter 4, the author presents his real-time computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithm that automatically detects mine-like objects on the seafloor in SSI. The author ran his GB-based CAD algorithm on real SSI data, and results of these tests indicate that his real-time CAD algorithm performs comparably to or better than other non-real-time CAD algorithms. The author presents his computer-aided search (CAS) algorithm in Chapter 5. CAS helps MIW analysts locate mine-like features that are geospatially close to previously detected features. A comparison between the CAS and a great circle distance algorithm shows that the

  2. A Novel Online Data-Driven Algorithm for Detecting UAV Navigation Sensor Faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Cheng, Qi; Wang, Guanyu; Ochieng, Washington Yotto

    2017-09-29

    The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has increased significantly in recent years. On-board integrated navigation sensors are a key component of UAVs' flight control systems and are essential for flight safety. In order to ensure flight safety, timely and effective navigation sensor fault detection capability is required. In this paper, a novel data-driven Adaptive Neuron Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS)-based approach is presented for the detection of on-board navigation sensor faults in UAVs. Contrary to the classic UAV sensor fault detection algorithms, based on predefined or modelled faults, the proposed algorithm combines an online data training mechanism with the ANFIS-based decision system. The main advantages of this algorithm are that it allows real-time model-free residual analysis from Kalman Filter (KF) estimates and the ANFIS to build a reliable fault detection system. In addition, it allows fast and accurate detection of faults, which makes it suitable for real-time applications. Experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed fault detection method in terms of accuracy and misdetection rate.

  3. Finding text in color images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiangying; Lopresti, Daniel P.; Tasdizen, Tolga

    1998-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of locating and extracting text from WWW images. A previous algorithm based on color clustering and connected components analysis works well as long as the color of each character is relatively uniform and the typography is fairly simple. It breaks down quickly, however, when these assumptions are violated. In this paper, we describe more robust techniques for dealing with this challenging problem. We present an improved color clustering algorithm that measures similarity based on both RGB and spatial proximity. Layout analysis is also incorporated to handle more complex typography. THese changes significantly enhance the performance of our text detection procedure.

  4. A matched-filter algorithm to detect amperometric spikes resulting from quantal secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji Ramachandran, Supriya; Gillis, Kevin D

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical microelectrodes located immediately adjacent to the cell surface can detect spikes of amperometric current during exocytosis as the transmitter released from a single vesicle is oxidized on the electrode surface. Automated techniques to detect spikes are needed in order to quantify the spike rate as a measure of the rate of exocytosis. We have developed a Matched Filter (MF) detection algorithm that scans the data set with a library of prototype spike templates while performing a least-squares fit to determine the amplitude and standard error. The ratio of the fit amplitude to the standard error constitutes a criterion score that is assigned for each time point and for each template. A spike is detected when the criterion score exceeds a threshold and the highest-scoring template and the time of peak score is identified. The search for the next spike commences only after the score falls below a second, lower threshold to reduce false positives. The approach was extended to detect spikes with double-exponential decays with the sum of two templates. Receiver Operating Characteristic plots (ROCs) demonstrate that the algorithm detects >95% of manually identified spikes with a false-positive rate of ∼2%. ROCs demonstrate that the MF algorithm performs better than algorithms that detect spikes based on a derivative-threshold approach. The MF approach performs well and leads into approaches to identify spike parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An Automated Energy Detection Algorithm Based on Morphological Filter Processing with a Modified Watershed Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    ARL-TR-8270 ● JAN 2018 US Army Research Laboratory An Automated Energy Detection Algorithm Based on Morphological Filter...Automated Energy Detection Algorithm Based on Morphological Filter Processing with a Modified Watershed Transform by Kwok F Tom Sensors and Electron...1 October 2016–30 September 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Automated Energy Detection Algorithm Based on Morphological Filter Processing with a

  6. Reduced complexity and latency for a massive MIMO system using a parallel detection algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichi Higuchi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, massive MIMO systems have been widely researched to realize high-speed data transmission. Since massive MIMO systems use a large number of antennas, these systems require huge complexity to detect the signal. In this paper, we propose a novel detection method for massive MIMO using parallel detection with maximum likelihood detection with QR decomposition and M-algorithm (QRM-MLD to reduce the complexity and latency. The proposed scheme obtains an R matrix after permutation of an H matrix and QR decomposition. The R matrix is also eliminated using a Gauss–Jordan elimination method. By using a modified R matrix, the proposed method can detect the transmitted signal using parallel detection. From the simulation results, the proposed scheme can achieve a reduced complexity and latency with a little degradation of the bit error rate (BER performance compared with the conventional method.

  7. Practical Algorithms for Subgroup Detection in Covert Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock; Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present algorithms for subgroup detection and demonstrated them with a real-time case study of USS Cole bombing terrorist network. The algorithms are demonstrated in an application by a prototype system. The system finds associations between terrorist and terrorist organisations...... and is capable of determining links between terrorism plots occurred in the past, their affiliation with terrorist camps, travel record, funds transfer, etc. The findings are represented by a network in the form of an Attributed Relational Graph (ARG). Paths from a node to any other node in the network indicate...

  8. Evaluation of hybrids algorithms for mass detection in digitalized mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero, Jose; Garzon Reyes, Johnson

    2011-01-01

    The breast cancer remains being a significant public health problem, the early detection of the lesions can increase the success possibilities of the medical treatments. The mammography is an image modality effective to early diagnosis of abnormalities, where the medical image is obtained of the mammary gland with X-rays of low radiation, this allows detect a tumor or circumscribed mass between two to three years before that it was clinically palpable, and is the only method that until now achieved reducing the mortality by breast cancer. In this paper three hybrids algorithms for circumscribed mass detection on digitalized mammograms are evaluated. In the first stage correspond to a review of the enhancement and segmentation techniques used in the processing of the mammographic images. After a shape filtering was applied to the resulting regions. By mean of a Bayesian filter the survivors regions were processed, where the characteristics vector for the classifier was constructed with few measurements. Later, the implemented algorithms were evaluated by ROC curves, where 40 images were taken for the test, 20 normal images and 20 images with circumscribed lesions. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages in the correct detection of a lesion of every algorithm are discussed.

  9. Vision-based vehicle detection and tracking algorithm design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Junyeon; Huh, Kunsoo; Lee, Donghwi

    2009-12-01

    The vision-based vehicle detection in front of an ego-vehicle is regarded as promising for driver assistance as well as for autonomous vehicle guidance. The feasibility of vehicle detection in a passenger car requires accurate and robust sensing performance. A multivehicle detection system based on stereo vision has been developed for better accuracy and robustness. This system utilizes morphological filter, feature detector, template matching, and epipolar constraint techniques in order to detect the corresponding pairs of vehicles. After the initial detection, the system executes the tracking algorithm for the vehicles. The proposed system can detect front vehicles such as the leading vehicle and side-lane vehicles. The position parameters of the vehicles located in front are obtained based on the detection information. The proposed vehicle detection system is implemented on a passenger car, and its performance is verified experimentally.

  10. Road detection in SAR images using a tensor voting algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dajiang; Hu, Chun; Yang, Bing; Tian, Jinwen; Liu, Jian

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, the problem of the detection of road networks in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images is addressed. Most of the previous methods extract the road by detecting lines and network reconstruction. Traditional algorithms such as MRFs, GA, Level Set, used in the progress of reconstruction are iterative. The tensor voting methodology we proposed is non-iterative, and non-sensitive to initialization. Furthermore, the only free parameter is the size of the neighborhood, related to the scale. The algorithm we present is verified to be effective when it's applied to the road extraction using the real Radarsat Image.

  11. A review of feature detection and match algorithms for localization and mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shimiao

    2017-09-01

    Localization and mapping is an essential ability of a robot to keep track of its own location in an unknown environment. Among existing methods for this purpose, vision-based methods are more effective solutions for being accurate, inexpensive and versatile. Vision-based methods can generally be categorized as feature-based approaches and appearance-based approaches. The feature-based approaches prove higher performance in textured scenarios. However, their performance depend highly on the applied feature-detection algorithms. In this paper, we surveyed algorithms for feature detection, which is an essential step in achieving vision-based localization and mapping. In this pater, we present mathematical models of the algorithms one after another. To compare the performances of the algorithms, we conducted a series of experiments on their accuracy, speed, scale invariance and rotation invariance. The results of the experiments showed that ORB is the fastest algorithm in detecting and matching features, the speed of which is more than 10 times that of SURF and approximately 40 times that of SIFT. And SIFT, although with no advantage in terms of speed, shows the most correct matching pairs and proves its accuracy.

  12. Breadth-First Search-Based Single-Phase Algorithms for Bridge Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Vahid Khalilpour; Dagdeviren, Orhan

    2013-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are promising technologies for exploring harsh environments, such as oceans, wild forests, volcanic regions and outer space. Since sensor nodes may have limited transmission range, application packets may be transmitted by multi-hop communication. Thus, connectivity is a very important issue. A bridge is a critical edge whose removal breaks the connectivity of the network. Hence, it is crucial to detect bridges and take preventions. Since sensor nodes are battery-powered, services running on nodes should consume low energy. In this paper, we propose energy-efficient and distributed bridge detection algorithms for WSNs. Our algorithms run single phase and they are integrated with the Breadth-First Search (BFS) algorithm, which is a popular routing algorithm. Our first algorithm is an extended version of Milic's algorithm, which is designed to reduce the message length. Our second algorithm is novel and uses ancestral knowledge to detect bridges. We explain the operation of the algorithms, analyze their proof of correctness, message, time, space and computational complexities. To evaluate practical importance, we provide testbed experiments and extensive simulations. We show that our proposed algorithms provide less resource consumption, and the energy savings of our algorithms are up by 5.5-times. PMID:23845930

  13. High Precision Edge Detection Algorithm for Mechanical Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhenyun; Wang, Ning; Fu, Jingshun; Zhao, Wenhui; Duan, Boqiang; Zhao, Jungui

    2018-04-01

    High precision and high efficiency measurement is becoming an imperative requirement for a lot of mechanical parts. So in this study, a subpixel-level edge detection algorithm based on the Gaussian integral model is proposed. For this purpose, the step edge normal section line Gaussian integral model of the backlight image is constructed, combined with the point spread function and the single step model. Then gray value of discrete points on the normal section line of pixel edge is calculated by surface interpolation, and the coordinate as well as gray information affected by noise is fitted in accordance with the Gaussian integral model. Therefore, a precise location of a subpixel edge was determined by searching the mean point. Finally, a gear tooth was measured by M&M3525 gear measurement center to verify the proposed algorithm. The theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the local edge fluctuation is reduced effectively by the proposed method in comparison with the existing subpixel edge detection algorithms. The subpixel edge location accuracy and computation speed are improved. And the maximum error of gear tooth profile total deviation is 1.9 μm compared with measurement result with gear measurement center. It indicates that the method has high reliability to meet the requirement of high precision measurement.

  14. Supervised Machine Learning Algorithms Can Classify Open-Text Feedback of Doctor Performance With Human-Level Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Machine learning techniques may be an effective and efficient way to classify open-text reports on doctor’s activity for the purposes of quality assurance, safety, and continuing professional development. Objective The objective of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of machine learning algorithms trained to classify open-text reports of doctor performance and to assess the potential for classifications to identify significant differences in doctors’ professional performance in the United Kingdom. Methods We used 1636 open-text comments (34,283 words) relating to the performance of 548 doctors collected from a survey of clinicians’ colleagues using the General Medical Council Colleague Questionnaire (GMC-CQ). We coded 77.75% (1272/1636) of the comments into 5 global themes (innovation, interpersonal skills, popularity, professionalism, and respect) using a qualitative framework. We trained 8 machine learning algorithms to classify comments and assessed their performance using several training samples. We evaluated doctor performance using the GMC-CQ and compared scores between doctors with different classifications using t tests. Results Individual algorithm performance was high (range F score=.68 to .83). Interrater agreement between the algorithms and the human coder was highest for codes relating to “popular” (recall=.97), “innovator” (recall=.98), and “respected” (recall=.87) codes and was lower for the “interpersonal” (recall=.80) and “professional” (recall=.82) codes. A 10-fold cross-validation demonstrated similar performance in each analysis. When combined together into an ensemble of multiple algorithms, mean human-computer interrater agreement was .88. Comments that were classified as “respected,” “professional,” and “interpersonal” related to higher doctor scores on the GMC-CQ compared with comments that were not classified (P.05). Conclusions Machine learning algorithms can classify open-text feedback

  15. Supervised Machine Learning Algorithms Can Classify Open-Text Feedback of Doctor Performance With Human-Level Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Chris; Richards, Suzanne; Valderas, Jose Maria; Campbell, John

    2017-03-15

    Machine learning techniques may be an effective and efficient way to classify open-text reports on doctor's activity for the purposes of quality assurance, safety, and continuing professional development. The objective of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of machine learning algorithms trained to classify open-text reports of doctor performance and to assess the potential for classifications to identify significant differences in doctors' professional performance in the United Kingdom. We used 1636 open-text comments (34,283 words) relating to the performance of 548 doctors collected from a survey of clinicians' colleagues using the General Medical Council Colleague Questionnaire (GMC-CQ). We coded 77.75% (1272/1636) of the comments into 5 global themes (innovation, interpersonal skills, popularity, professionalism, and respect) using a qualitative framework. We trained 8 machine learning algorithms to classify comments and assessed their performance using several training samples. We evaluated doctor performance using the GMC-CQ and compared scores between doctors with different classifications using t tests. Individual algorithm performance was high (range F score=.68 to .83). Interrater agreement between the algorithms and the human coder was highest for codes relating to "popular" (recall=.97), "innovator" (recall=.98), and "respected" (recall=.87) codes and was lower for the "interpersonal" (recall=.80) and "professional" (recall=.82) codes. A 10-fold cross-validation demonstrated similar performance in each analysis. When combined together into an ensemble of multiple algorithms, mean human-computer interrater agreement was .88. Comments that were classified as "respected," "professional," and "interpersonal" related to higher doctor scores on the GMC-CQ compared with comments that were not classified (P.05). Machine learning algorithms can classify open-text feedback of doctor performance into multiple themes derived by human raters with high

  16. Multispectral fluorescence image algorithms for detection of frass on mature tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multispectral algorithm derived from hyperspectral line-scan fluorescence imaging under violet LED excitation was developed for the detection of frass contamination on mature tomatoes. The algorithm utilized the fluorescence intensities at five wavebands, 515 nm, 640 nm, 664 nm, 690 nm, and 724 nm...

  17. A fast algorithm for estimating transmission probabilities in QTL detection designs with dense maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Hélène

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the case of an autosomal locus, four transmission events from the parents to progeny are possible, specified by the grand parental origin of the alleles inherited by this individual. Computing the probabilities of these transmission events is essential to perform QTL detection methods. Results A fast algorithm for the estimation of these probabilities conditional to parental phases has been developed. It is adapted to classical QTL detection designs applied to outbred populations, in particular to designs composed of half and/or full sib families. It assumes the absence of interference. Conclusion The theory is fully developed and an example is given.

  18. Deviation from Trajectory Detection in Vision based Robotic Navigation using SURF and Subsequent Restoration by Dynamic Auto Correction Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Debraj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Speeded Up Robust Feature (SURF is used to position a robot with respect to an environment and aid in vision-based robotic navigation. During the course of navigation irregularities in the terrain, especially in an outdoor environment may deviate a robot from the track. Another reason for deviation can be unequal speed of the left and right robot wheels. Hence it is essential to detect such deviations and perform corrective operations to bring the robot back to the track. In this paper we propose a novel algorithm that uses image matching using SURF to detect deviation of a robot from the trajectory and subsequent restoration by corrective operations. This algorithm is executed in parallel to positioning and navigation algorithms by distributing tasks among different CPU cores using Open Multi-Processing (OpenMP API.

  19. Zero-crossing detection algorithm for arrays of optical spatial filtering velocimetry sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Pedersen, Finn; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a zero-crossing detection algorithm for arrays of compact low-cost optical sensors based on spatial filtering for measuring fluctuations in angular velocity of rotating solid structures. The algorithm is applicable for signals with moderate signal-to-noise ratios, and delivers...... repeating the same measurement error for each revolution of the target, and to gain high performance measurement of angular velocity. The traditional zero-crossing detection is extended by 1) inserting an appropriate band-pass filter before the zero-crossing detection, 2) measuring time periods between zero...

  20. An Adaptive and Time-Efficient ECG R-Peak Detection Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qin; Li, Jianqing; Yue, Yinggao; Liu, Chengyu

    2017-01-01

    R-peak detection is crucial in electrocardiogram (ECG) signal analysis. This study proposed an adaptive and time-efficient R-peak detection algorithm for ECG processing. First, wavelet multiresolution analysis was applied to enhance the ECG signal representation. Then, ECG was mirrored to convert large negative R-peaks to positive ones. After that, local maximums were calculated by the first-order forward differential approach and were truncated by the amplitude and time interval thresholds to locate the R-peaks. The algorithm performances, including detection accuracy and time consumption, were tested on the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database and the QT database. Experimental results showed that the proposed algorithm achieved mean sensitivity of 99.39%, positive predictivity of 99.49%, and accuracy of 98.89% on the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database and 99.83%, 99.90%, and 99.73%, respectively, on the QT database. By processing one ECG record, the mean time consumptions were 0.872 s and 0.763 s for the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database and QT database, respectively, yielding 30.6% and 32.9% of time reduction compared to the traditional Pan-Tompkins method.

  1. ICPD-a new peak detection algorithm for LC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianqiu; Haskins, William

    2010-12-01

    The identification and quantification of proteins using label-free Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS) play crucial roles in biological and biomedical research. Increasing evidence has shown that biomarkers are often low abundance proteins. However, LC/MS systems are subject to considerable noise and sample variability, whose statistical characteristics are still elusive, making computational identification of low abundance proteins extremely challenging. As a result, the inability of identifying low abundance proteins in a proteomic study is the main bottleneck in protein biomarker discovery. In this paper, we propose a new peak detection method called Information Combining Peak Detection (ICPD ) for high resolution LC/MS. In LC/MS, peptides elute during a certain time period and as a result, peptide isotope patterns are registered in multiple MS scans. The key feature of the new algorithm is that the observed isotope patterns registered in multiple scans are combined together for estimating the likelihood of the peptide existence. An isotope pattern matching score based on the likelihood probability is provided and utilized for peak detection. The performance of the new algorithm is evaluated based on protein standards with 48 known proteins. The evaluation shows better peak detection accuracy for low abundance proteins than other LC/MS peak detection methods.

  2. Android Malware Classification Using K-Means Clustering Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Isredza Rahmi A.; Syafiqah Khalid, Nur; Azma Abdullah, Nurul; Rahman, Nurul Hidayah Ab; Chai Wen, Chuah

    2017-08-01

    Malware was designed to gain access or damage a computer system without user notice. Besides, attacker exploits malware to commit crime or fraud. This paper proposed Android malware classification approach based on K-Means clustering algorithm. We evaluate the proposed model in terms of accuracy using machine learning algorithms. Two datasets were selected to demonstrate the practicing of K-Means clustering algorithms that are Virus Total and Malgenome dataset. We classify the Android malware into three clusters which are ransomware, scareware and goodware. Nine features were considered for each types of dataset such as Lock Detected, Text Detected, Text Score, Encryption Detected, Threat, Porn, Law, Copyright and Moneypak. We used IBM SPSS Statistic software for data classification and WEKA tools to evaluate the built cluster. The proposed K-Means clustering algorithm shows promising result with high accuracy when tested using Random Forest algorithm.

  3. Algorithms for Anomaly Detection - Lecture 1

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The concept of statistical anomalies, or outliers, has fascinated experimentalists since the earliest attempts to interpret data. We want to know why some data points don’t seem to belong with the others: perhaps we want to eliminate spurious or unrepresentative data from our model. Or, the anomalies themselves may be what we are interested in: an outlier could represent the symptom of a disease, an attack on a computer network, a scientific discovery, or even an unfaithful partner. We start with some general considerations, such as the relationship between clustering and anomaly detection, the choice between supervised and unsupervised methods, and the difference between global and local anomalies. Then we will survey the most representative anomaly detection algorithms, highlighting what kind of data each approach is best suited to, and discussing their limitations. We will finish with a discussion of the difficulties of anomaly detection in high-dimensional data and some new directions for anomaly detec...

  4. Algorithms for Anomaly Detection - Lecture 2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The concept of statistical anomalies, or outliers, has fascinated experimentalists since the earliest attempts to interpret data. We want to know why some data points don’t seem to belong with the others: perhaps we want to eliminate spurious or unrepresentative data from our model. Or, the anomalies themselves may be what we are interested in: an outlier could represent the symptom of a disease, an attack on a computer network, a scientific discovery, or even an unfaithful partner. We start with some general considerations, such as the relationship between clustering and anomaly detection, the choice between supervised and unsupervised methods, and the difference between global and local anomalies. Then we will survey the most representative anomaly detection algorithms, highlighting what kind of data each approach is best suited to, and discussing their limitations. We will finish with a discussion of the difficulties of anomaly detection in high-dimensional data and some new directions for anomaly detec...

  5. An algorithm for detecting trophic status (chlorophyll-a), cyanobacterial-dominance, surface scums and floating vegetation in inland and coastal waters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matthews, MW

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel algorithm is presented for detecting trophic status (chlorophyll-a), cyanobacterial blooms (cyano-blooms), surface scum and floating vegetation in coastal and inland waters using top-ofatmosphere data from the Medium Resolution Imaging...

  6. Extended seizure detection algorithm for intracranial EEG recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, T. W.; Remvig, L. S.; Henriksen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We implemented and tested an existing seizure detection algorithm for scalp EEG (sEEG) with the purpose of improving it to intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings. Method: iEEG was obtained from 16 patients with focal epilepsy undergoing work up for resective epilepsy surgery. Each patient...... had 4 or 5 recorded seizures and 24 hours of non-ictal data were used for evaluation. Data from three electrodes placed at the ictal focus were used for the analysis. A wavelet based feature extraction algorithm delivered input to a support vector machine (SVM) classifier for distinction between ictal...... and non-ictal iEEG. We compare our results to a method published by Shoeb in 2004. While the original method on sEEG was optimal with the use of only four subbands in the wavelet analysis, we found that better seizure detection could be made if all subbands were used for iEEG. Results: When using...

  7. A Gaussian Process Based Online Change Detection Algorithm for Monitoring Periodic Time Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandola, Varun [ORNL; Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Online time series change detection is a critical component of many monitoring systems, such as space and air-borne remote sensing instruments, cardiac monitors, and network traffic profilers, which continuously analyze observations recorded by sensors. Data collected by such sensors typically has a periodic (seasonal) component. Most existing time series change detection methods are not directly applicable to handle such data, either because they are not designed to handle periodic time series or because they cannot operate in an online mode. We propose an online change detection algorithm which can handle periodic time series. The algorithm uses a Gaussian process based non-parametric time series prediction model and monitors the difference between the predictions and actual observations within a statistically principled control chart framework to identify changes. A key challenge in using Gaussian process in an online mode is the need to solve a large system of equations involving the associated covariance matrix which grows with every time step. The proposed algorithm exploits the special structure of the covariance matrix and can analyze a time series of length T in O(T^2) time while maintaining a O(T) memory footprint, compared to O(T^4) time and O(T^2) memory requirement of standard matrix manipulation methods. We experimentally demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm over several existing time series change detection algorithms on a set of synthetic and real time series. Finally, we illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for identifying land use land cover changes using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data collected for an agricultural region in Iowa state, USA. Our algorithm is able to detect different types of changes in a NDVI validation data set (with ~80% accuracy) which occur due to crop type changes as well as disruptive changes (e.g., natural disasters).

  8. Detection of Spam Email by Combining Harmony Search Algorithm and Decision Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. Gashti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Spam emails is probable the main problem faced by most e-mail users. There are many features in spam email detection and some of these features have little effect on detection and cause skew detection and classification of spam email. Thus, Feature Selection (FS is one of the key topics in spam email detection systems. With choosing the important and effective features in classification, its performance can be optimized. Selector features has the task of finding a subset of features to improve the accuracy of its predictions. In this paper, a hybrid of Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA and decision tree is used for selecting the best features and classification. The obtained results on Spam-base dataset show that the rate of recognition accuracy in the proposed model is 95.25% which is high in comparison with models such as SVM, NB, J48 and MLP. Also, the accuracy of the proposed model on the datasets of Ling-spam and PU1 is high in comparison with models such as NB, SVM and LR.

  9. A false-alarm aware methodology to develop robust and efficient multi-scale infrared small target detection algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Saed; Moallem, Payman; Sabahi, Mohamad Farzan

    2018-03-01

    False alarm rate and detection rate are still two contradictory metrics for infrared small target detection in an infrared search and track system (IRST), despite the development of new detection algorithms. In certain circumstances, not detecting true targets is more tolerable than detecting false items as true targets. Hence, considering background clutter and detector noise as the sources of the false alarm in an IRST system, in this paper, a false alarm aware methodology is presented to reduce false alarm rate while the detection rate remains undegraded. To this end, advantages and disadvantages of each detection algorithm are investigated and the sources of the false alarms are determined. Two target detection algorithms having independent false alarm sources are chosen in a way that the disadvantages of the one algorithm can be compensated by the advantages of the other one. In this work, multi-scale average absolute gray difference (AAGD) and Laplacian of point spread function (LoPSF) are utilized as the cornerstones of the desired algorithm of the proposed methodology. After presenting a conceptual model for the desired algorithm, it is implemented through the most straightforward mechanism. The desired algorithm effectively suppresses background clutter and eliminates detector noise. Also, since the input images are processed through just four different scales, the desired algorithm has good capability for real-time implementation. Simulation results in term of signal to clutter ratio and background suppression factor on real and simulated images prove the effectiveness and the performance of the proposed methodology. Since the desired algorithm was developed based on independent false alarm sources, our proposed methodology is expandable to any pair of detection algorithms which have different false alarm sources.

  10. Semantic Document Image Classification Based on Valuable Text Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Pourghassem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge extraction from detected document image is a complex problem in the field of information technology. This problem becomes more intricate when we know, a negligible percentage of the detected document images are valuable. In this paper, a segmentation-based classification algorithm is used to analysis the document image. In this algorithm, using a two-stage segmentation approach, regions of the image are detected, and then classified to document and non-document (pure region regions in the hierarchical classification. In this paper, a novel valuable definition is proposed to classify document image in to valuable or invaluable categories. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on a database consisting of the document and non-document image that provide from Internet. Experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm in the semantic document image classification. The proposed algorithm provides accuracy rate of 98.8% for valuable and invaluable document image classification problem.

  11. Multivariate algorithms for initiating event detection and identification in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Shun-Chi; Chen, Kuang-You; Lin, Ting-Han; Chou, Hwai-Pwu

    2018-01-01

    Highlights: •Multivariate algorithms for NPP initiating event detection and identification. •Recordings from multiple sensors are simultaneously considered for detection. •Both spatial and temporal information is used for event identification. •Untrained event isolation avoids falsely relating an untrained event. •Efficacy of the algorithms is verified with data from the Maanshan NPP simulator. -- Abstract: To prevent escalation of an initiating event into a severe accident, promptly detecting its occurrence and precisely identifying its type are essential. In this study, several multivariate algorithms for initiating event detection and identification are proposed to help maintain safe operations of nuclear power plants (NPPs). By monitoring changes in the NPP sensing variables, an event is detected when the preset thresholds are exceeded. Unlike existing approaches, recordings from sensors of the same type are simultaneously considered for detection, and no subjective reasoning is involved in setting these thresholds. To facilitate efficient event identification, a spatiotemporal feature extractor is proposed. The extracted features consist of the temporal traits used by existing techniques and the spatial signature of an event. Through an F-score-based feature ranking, only those that are most discriminant in classifying the events under consideration will be retained for identification. Moreover, an untrained event isolation scheme is introduced to avoid relating an untrained event to those in the event dataset so that improper recovery actions can be prevented. Results from experiments containing data of 12 event classes and a total of 125 events generated using a Taiwan’s Maanshan NPP simulator are provided to illustrate the efficacy of the proposed algorithms.

  12. An epileptic seizures detection algorithm based on the empirical mode decomposition of EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosco, Lorena; Laciar, Eric; Correa, Agustina Garces; Torres, Abel; Graffigna, Juan P

    2009-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that affects around 50 million people worldwide. The seizure detection is an important component in the diagnosis of epilepsy. In this study, the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method was proposed on the development of an automatic epileptic seizure detection algorithm. The algorithm first computes the Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) of EEG records, then calculates the energy of each IMF and performs the detection based on an energy threshold and a minimum duration decision. The algorithm was tested in 9 invasive EEG records provided and validated by the Epilepsy Center of the University Hospital of Freiburg. In 90 segments analyzed (39 with epileptic seizures) the sensitivity and specificity obtained with the method were of 56.41% and 75.86% respectively. It could be concluded that EMD is a promissory method for epileptic seizure detection in EEG records.

  13. Using adversary text to detect adversary phase changes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speed, Ann Elizabeth; Doser, Adele Beatrice; Warrender, Christina E.

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to help develop a research roadmap and small proof ofconcept for addressing key problems and gaps from the perspective of using text analysis methods as a primary tool for detecting when a group is undergoing a phase change. Self- rganizing map (SOM) techniques were used to analyze text data obtained from the tworld-wide web. Statistical studies indicate that it may be possible to predict phase changes, as well as detect whether or not an example of writing can be attributed to a group of interest.

  14. Scene text recognition in mobile applications by character descriptor and structure configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chucai; Tian, Yingli

    2014-07-01

    Text characters and strings in natural scene can provide valuable information for many applications. Extracting text directly from natural scene images or videos is a challenging task because of diverse text patterns and variant background interferences. This paper proposes a method of scene text recognition from detected text regions. In text detection, our previously proposed algorithms are applied to obtain text regions from scene image. First, we design a discriminative character descriptor by combining several state-of-the-art feature detectors and descriptors. Second, we model character structure at each character class by designing stroke configuration maps. Our algorithm design is compatible with the application of scene text extraction in smart mobile devices. An Android-based demo system is developed to show the effectiveness of our proposed method on scene text information extraction from nearby objects. The demo system also provides us some insight into algorithm design and performance improvement of scene text extraction. The evaluation results on benchmark data sets demonstrate that our proposed scheme of text recognition is comparable with the best existing methods.

  15. A Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Multimodal Functions and Its Application in Multicircle Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Cuevas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In engineering problems due to physical and cost constraints, the best results, obtained by a global optimization algorithm, cannot be realized always. Under such conditions, if multiple solutions (local and global are known, the implementation can be quickly switched to another solution without much interrupting the design process. This paper presents a new swarm multimodal optimization algorithm named as the collective animal behavior (CAB. Animal groups, such as schools of fish, flocks of birds, swarms of locusts, and herds of wildebeest, exhibit a variety of behaviors including swarming about a food source, milling around a central location, or migrating over large distances in aligned groups. These collective behaviors are often advantageous to groups, allowing them to increase their harvesting efficiency to follow better migration routes, to improve their aerodynamic, and to avoid predation. In the proposed algorithm, searcher agents emulate a group of animals which interact with each other based on simple biological laws that are modeled as evolutionary operators. Numerical experiments are conducted to compare the proposed method with the state-of-the-art methods on benchmark functions. The proposed algorithm has been also applied to the engineering problem of multi-circle detection, achieving satisfactory results.

  16. Automatic metal parts inspection: Use of thermographic images and anomaly detection algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmoussat, M. S.; Guillaume, M.; Caulier, Y.; Spinnler, K.

    2013-11-01

    A fully-automatic approach based on the use of induction thermography and detection algorithms is proposed to inspect industrial metallic parts containing different surface and sub-surface anomalies such as open cracks, open and closed notches with different sizes and depths. A practical experimental setup is developed, where lock-in and pulsed thermography (LT and PT, respectively) techniques are used to establish a dataset of thermal images for three different mockups. Data cubes are constructed by stacking up the temporal sequence of thermogram images. After the reduction of the data space dimension by means of denoising and dimensionality reduction methods; anomaly detection algorithms are applied on the reduced data cubes. The dimensions of the reduced data spaces are automatically calculated with arbitrary criterion. The results show that, when reduced data cubes are used, the anomaly detection algorithms originally developed for hyperspectral data, the well-known Reed and Xiaoli Yu detector (RX) and the regularized adaptive RX (RARX), give good detection performances for both surface and sub-surface defects in a non-supervised way.

  17. Performance improvement of multi-class detection using greedy algorithm for Viola-Jones cascade selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshin, Alexander A.; Usilin, Sergey A.; Arlazarov, Vladimir V.

    2018-04-01

    This paper aims to study the problem of multi-class object detection in video stream with Viola-Jones cascades. An adaptive algorithm for selecting Viola-Jones cascade based on greedy choice strategy in solution of the N-armed bandit problem is proposed. The efficiency of the algorithm on the problem of detection and recognition of the bank card logos in the video stream is shown. The proposed algorithm can be effectively used in documents localization and identification, recognition of road scene elements, localization and tracking of the lengthy objects , and for solving other problems of rigid object detection in a heterogeneous data flows. The computational efficiency of the algorithm makes it possible to use it both on personal computers and on mobile devices based on processors with low power consumption.

  18. Attacks and Intrusion Detection in Cloud Computing Using Neural Networks and Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shokuh Saljoughi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, cloud computing has become popular among users in organizations and companies. Security and efficiency are the two major issues facing cloud service providers and their customers. Since cloud computing is a virtual pool of resources provided in an open environment (Internet, cloud-based services entail security risks. Detection of intrusions and attacks through unauthorized users is one of the biggest challenges for both cloud service providers and cloud users. In the present study, artificial intelligence techniques, e.g. MLP Neural Network sand particle swarm optimization algorithm, were used to detect intrusion and attacks. The methods were tested for NSL-KDD, KDD-CUP datasets. The results showed improved accuracy in detecting attacks and intrusions by unauthorized users.

  19. FHSA-SED: Two-Locus Model Detection for Genome-Wide Association Study with Harmony Search Algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouheng Tuo

    Full Text Available Two-locus model is a typical significant disease model to be identified in genome-wide association study (GWAS. Due to intensive computational burden and diversity of disease models, existing methods have drawbacks on low detection power, high computation cost, and preference for some types of disease models.In this study, two scoring functions (Bayesian network based K2-score and Gini-score are used for characterizing two SNP locus as a candidate model, the two criteria are adopted simultaneously for improving identification power and tackling the preference problem to disease models. Harmony search algorithm (HSA is improved for quickly finding the most likely candidate models among all two-locus models, in which a local search algorithm with two-dimensional tabu table is presented to avoid repeatedly evaluating some disease models that have strong marginal effect. Finally G-test statistic is used to further test the candidate models.We investigate our method named FHSA-SED on 82 simulated datasets and a real AMD dataset, and compare it with two typical methods (MACOED and CSE which have been developed recently based on swarm intelligent search algorithm. The results of simulation experiments indicate that our method outperforms the two compared algorithms in terms of detection power, computation time, evaluation times, sensitivity (TPR, specificity (SPC, positive predictive value (PPV and accuracy (ACC. Our method has identified two SNPs (rs3775652 and rs10511467 that may be also associated with disease in AMD dataset.

  20. Scene text detection by leveraging multi-channel information and local context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Runmin; Qian, Shengyou; Yang, Jianfeng; Gao, Changxin

    2018-03-01

    As an important information carrier, texts play significant roles in many applications. However, text detection in unconstrained scenes is a challenging problem due to cluttered backgrounds, various appearances, uneven illumination, etc.. In this paper, an approach based on multi-channel information and local context is proposed to detect texts in natural scenes. According to character candidate detection plays a vital role in text detection system, Maximally Stable Extremal Regions(MSERs) and Graph-cut based method are integrated to obtain the character candidates by leveraging the multi-channel image information. A cascaded false positive elimination mechanism are constructed from the perspective of the character and the text line respectively. Since the local context information is very valuable for us, these information is utilized to retrieve the missing characters for boosting the text detection performance. Experimental results on two benchmark datasets, i.e., the ICDAR 2011 dataset and the ICDAR 2013 dataset, demonstrate that the proposed method have achieved the state-of-the-art performance.

  1. Algorithms for detecting and analysing autocatalytic sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordijk, Wim; Smith, Joshua I; Steel, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Autocatalytic sets are considered to be fundamental to the origin of life. Prior theoretical and computational work on the existence and properties of these sets has relied on a fast algorithm for detectingself-sustaining autocatalytic sets in chemical reaction systems. Here, we introduce and apply a modified version and several extensions of the basic algorithm: (i) a modification aimed at reducing the number of calls to the computationally most expensive part of the algorithm, (ii) the application of a previously introduced extension of the basic algorithm to sample the smallest possible autocatalytic sets within a reaction network, and the application of a statistical test which provides a probable lower bound on the number of such smallest sets, (iii) the introduction and application of another extension of the basic algorithm to detect autocatalytic sets in a reaction system where molecules can also inhibit (as well as catalyse) reactions, (iv) a further, more abstract, extension of the theory behind searching for autocatalytic sets. (i) The modified algorithm outperforms the original one in the number of calls to the computationally most expensive procedure, which, in some cases also leads to a significant improvement in overall running time, (ii) our statistical test provides strong support for the existence of very large numbers (even millions) of minimal autocatalytic sets in a well-studied polymer model, where these minimal sets share about half of their reactions on average, (iii) "uninhibited" autocatalytic sets can be found in reaction systems that allow inhibition, but their number and sizes depend on the level of inhibition relative to the level of catalysis. (i) Improvements in the overall running time when searching for autocatalytic sets can potentially be obtained by using a modified version of the algorithm, (ii) the existence of large numbers of minimal autocatalytic sets can have important consequences for the possible evolvability of

  2. A novel fast phase correlation algorithm for peak wavelength detection of Fiber Bragg Grating sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, A; Vanlanduit, S; De Pauw, B; Berghmans, F

    2014-03-24

    Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) can be used as sensors for strain, temperature and pressure measurements. For this purpose, the ability to determine the Bragg peak wavelength with adequate wavelength resolution and accuracy is essential. However, conventional peak detection techniques, such as the maximum detection algorithm, can yield inaccurate and imprecise results, especially when the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and the wavelength resolution are poor. Other techniques, such as the cross-correlation demodulation algorithm are more precise and accurate but require a considerable higher computational effort. To overcome these problems, we developed a novel fast phase correlation (FPC) peak detection algorithm, which computes the wavelength shift in the reflected spectrum of a FBG sensor. This paper analyzes the performance of the FPC algorithm for different values of the SNR and wavelength resolution. Using simulations and experiments, we compared the FPC with the maximum detection and cross-correlation algorithms. The FPC method demonstrated a detection precision and accuracy comparable with those of cross-correlation demodulation and considerably higher than those obtained with the maximum detection technique. Additionally, FPC showed to be about 50 times faster than the cross-correlation. It is therefore a promising tool for future implementation in real-time systems or in embedded hardware intended for FBG sensor interrogation.

  3. An algorithm for detecting Trichodesmium surface blooms in the South Western Tropical Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Dandonneau

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichodesmium, a major colonial cyanobacterial nitrogen fixer, forms large blooms in NO3-depleted tropical oceans and enhances CO2 sequestration by the ocean due to its ability to fix dissolved dinitrogen. Thus, its importance in C and N cycles requires better estimates of its distribution at basin to global scales. However, existing algorithms to detect them from satellite have not yet been successful in the South Western Tropical Pacific (SP. Here, a novel algorithm (TRICHOdesmium SATellite based on radiance anomaly spectra (RAS observed in SeaWiFS imagery, is used to detect Trichodesmium during the austral summertime in the SP (5° S–25° S 160° E–170° W. Selected pixels are characterized by a restricted range of parameters quantifying RAS spectra (e.g. slope, intercept, curvature. The fraction of valid (non-cloudy pixels identified as Trichodesmium surface blooms in the region is low (between 0.01 and 0.2 %, but is about 100 times higher than deduced from previous algorithms. At daily scales in the SP, this fraction represents a total ocean surface area varying from 16 to 48 km2 in Winter and from 200 to 1000 km2 in Summer (and at monthly scale, from 500 to 1000 km2 in Winter and from 3100 to 10 890 km2 in Summer with a maximum of 26 432 km2 in January 1999. The daily distribution of Trichodesmium surface accumulations in the SP detected by TRICHOSAT is presented for the period 1998–2010 which demonstrates that the number of selected pixels peaks in November–February each year, consistent with field observations. This approach was validated with in situ observations of Trichodesmium surface accumulations in the Melanesian archipelago around New Caledonia, Vanuatu and Fiji Islands for the same period.

  4. Analysis of the Chirplet Transform-Based Algorithm for Radar Detection of Accelerated Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galushko, V. G.; Vavriv, D. M.

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: Efficiency analysis of an optimal algorithm of chirp signal processing based on the chirplet transform as applied to detection of radar targets in uniformly accelerated motion. Design/methodology/approach: Standard methods of the optimal filtration theory are used to investigate the ambiguity function of chirp signals. Findings: An analytical expression has been derived for the ambiguity function of chirp signals that is analyzed with respect to detection of radar targets moving at a constant acceleration. Sidelobe level and characteristic width of the ambiguity function with respect to the coordinates frequency and rate of its change have been estimated. The gain in the signal-to-noise ratio has been assessed that is provided by the algorithm under consideration as compared with application of the standard Fourier transform to detection of chirp signals against a “white” noise background. It is shown that already with a comparatively small (processing channels (elementary filters with respect to the frequency change rate) the gain in the signal-tonoise ratio exceeds 10 dB. A block diagram of implementation of the algorithm under consideration is suggested on the basis of a multichannel weighted Fourier transform. Recommendations as for selection of the detection algorithm parameters have been developed. Conclusions: The obtained results testify to efficiency of application of the algorithm under consideration to detection of radar targets moving at a constant acceleration. Nevertheless, it seems expedient to perform computer simulations of its operability with account for the noise impact along with trial measurements in real conditions.

  5. Wavelet based edge detection algorithm for web surface inspection of coated board web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barjaktarovic, M; Petricevic, S, E-mail: slobodan@etf.bg.ac.r [School of Electrical Engineering, Bulevar Kralja Aleksandra 73, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-07-15

    This paper presents significant improvement of the already installed vision system. System was designed for real time coated board inspection. The improvement is achieved with development of a new algorithm for edge detection. The algorithm is based on the redundant (undecimated) wavelet transform. Compared to the existing algorithm better delineation of edges is achieved. This yields to better defect detection probability and more accurate geometrical classification, which will provide additional reduction of waste. Also, algorithm will provide detailed classification and more reliably tracking of defects. This improvement requires minimal changes in processing hardware, only a replacement of the graphic card would be needed, adding only negligibly to the system cost. Other changes are accomplished entirely in the image processing software.

  6. A wavelet transform algorithm for peak detection and application to powder x-ray diffraction data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, John M; Dale, Darren; van Dover, R Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Peak detection is ubiquitous in the analysis of spectral data. While many noise-filtering algorithms and peak identification algorithms have been developed, recent work [P. Du, W. Kibbe, and S. Lin, Bioinformatics 22, 2059 (2006); A. Wee, D. Grayden, Y. Zhu, K. Petkovic-Duran, and D. Smith, Electrophoresis 29, 4215 (2008)] has demonstrated that both of these tasks are efficiently performed through analysis of the wavelet transform of the data. In this paper, we present a wavelet-based peak detection algorithm with user-defined parameters that can be readily applied to the application of any spectral data. Particular attention is given to the algorithm's resolution of overlapping peaks. The algorithm is implemented for the analysis of powder diffraction data, and successful detection of Bragg peaks is demonstrated for both low signal-to-noise data from theta-theta diffraction of nanoparticles and combinatorial x-ray diffraction data from a composition spread thin film. These datasets have different types of background signals which are effectively removed in the wavelet-based method, and the results demonstrate that the algorithm provides a robust method for automated peak detection.

  7. Proposed Network Intrusion Detection System ‎Based on Fuzzy c Mean Algorithm in Cloud ‎Computing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawq Malik Mehibs

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays cloud computing had become is an integral part of IT industry, cloud computing provides Working environment allow a user of environmental to share data and resources over the internet. Where cloud computing its virtual grouping of resources offered over the internet, this lead to different matters related to the security and privacy in cloud computing. And therefore, create intrusion detection very important to detect outsider and insider intruders of cloud computing with high detection rate and low false positive alarm in the cloud environment. This work proposed network intrusion detection module using fuzzy c mean algorithm. The kdd99 dataset used for experiments .the proposed system characterized by a high detection rate with low false positive alarm

  8. A Linked List-Based Algorithm for Blob Detection on Embedded Vision-Based Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Avila, Ricardo; Gonzalez-Mendoza, Miguel; Garcia-Garcia, Andres

    2016-05-28

    Blob detection is a common task in vision-based applications. Most existing algorithms are aimed at execution on general purpose computers; while very few can be adapted to the computing restrictions present in embedded platforms. This paper focuses on the design of an algorithm capable of real-time blob detection that minimizes system memory consumption. The proposed algorithm detects objects in one image scan; it is based on a linked-list data structure tree used to label blobs depending on their shape and node information. An example application showing the results of a blob detection co-processor has been built on a low-powered field programmable gate array hardware as a step towards developing a smart video surveillance system. The detection method is intended for general purpose application. As such, several test cases focused on character recognition are also examined. The results obtained present a fair trade-off between accuracy and memory requirements; and prove the validity of the proposed approach for real-time implementation on resource-constrained computing platforms.

  9. Detecting lung cancer symptoms with analogic CNN algorithms based on a constrained diffusion template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakawa, Satoshi; Nishio, Yoshifumi; Ushida, Akio; Ueno, Junji; Kasem, I.; Nishitani, Hiromu; Rekeczky, C.; Roska, T.

    1997-01-01

    In this article, a new type of diffusion template and an analogic CNN algorithm using this diffusion template for detecting some lung cancer symptoms in X-ray films are proposed. The performance of the diffusion template is investigated and our CNN algorithm is verified to detect some key lung cancer symptoms, successfully. (author)

  10. An efficient algorithm for the detection of exposed and hidden wormhole attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Z.A.; Rehman, S.U.; Islam, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    MANETs (Mobile Ad Hoc Networks) are slowly integrating into our everyday lives, their most prominent uses are visible in the disaster and war struck areas where physical infrastructure is almost impossible or very hard to build. MANETs like other networks are facing the threat of malicious users and their activities. A number of attacks have been identified but the most severe of them is the wormhole attack which has the ability to succeed even in case of encrypted traffic and secure networks. Once wormhole is launched successfully, the severity increases by the fact that attackers can launch other attacks too. This paper presents a comprehensive algorithm for the detection of exposed as well as hidden wormhole attack while keeping the detection rate to maximum and at the same reducing false alarms. The algorithm does not require any extra hardware, time synchronization or any special type of nodes. The architecture consists of the combination of Routing Table, RTT (Round Trip Time) and RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator) for comprehensive detection of wormhole attack. The proposed technique is robust, light weight, has low resource requirements and provides real-time detection against the wormhole attack. Simulation results show that the algorithm is able to provide a higher detection rate, packet delivery ratio, negligible false alarms and is also better in terms of Ease of Implementation, Detection Accuracy/ Speed and processing overhead. (author)

  11. Fall detection using supervised machine learning algorithms: A comparative study

    KAUST Repository

    Zerrouki, Nabil; Harrou, Fouzi; Houacine, Amrane; Sun, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Fall incidents are considered as the leading cause of disability and even mortality among older adults. To address this problem, fall detection and prevention fields receive a lot of intention over the past years and attracted many researcher efforts. We present in the current study an overall performance comparison between fall detection systems using the most popular machine learning approaches which are: Naïve Bayes, K nearest neighbor, neural network, and support vector machine. The analysis of the classification power associated to these most widely utilized algorithms is conducted on two fall detection databases namely FDD and URFD. Since the performance of the classification algorithm is inherently dependent on the features, we extracted and used the same features for all classifiers. The classification evaluation is conducted using different state of the art statistical measures such as the overall accuracy, the F-measure coefficient, and the area under ROC curve (AUC) value.

  12. A novel through-wall respiration detection algorithm using UWB radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Qiao, Dengyu; Li, Ye; Dai, Huhe

    2013-01-01

    Through-wall respiration detection using Ultra-wideband (UWB) impulse radar can be applied to the post-disaster rescue, e.g., searching living persons trapped in ruined buildings after an earthquake. Since strong interference signals always exist in the real-life scenarios, such as static clutter, noise, etc., while the respiratory signal is very weak, the signal to noise and clutter ratio (SNCR) is quite low. Therefore, through-wall respiration detection using UWB impulse radar under low SNCR is a challenging work in the research field of searching survivors after disaster. In this paper, an improved UWB respiratory signal model is built up based on an even power of cosine function for the first time. This model is used to reveal the harmonic structure of respiratory signal, based on which a novel high-performance respiration detection algorithm is proposed. This novel algorithm is assessed by experimental verification and simulation and shows about a 1.5dB improvement of SNR and SNCR.

  13. Fall detection using supervised machine learning algorithms: A comparative study

    KAUST Repository

    Zerrouki, Nabil

    2017-01-05

    Fall incidents are considered as the leading cause of disability and even mortality among older adults. To address this problem, fall detection and prevention fields receive a lot of intention over the past years and attracted many researcher efforts. We present in the current study an overall performance comparison between fall detection systems using the most popular machine learning approaches which are: Naïve Bayes, K nearest neighbor, neural network, and support vector machine. The analysis of the classification power associated to these most widely utilized algorithms is conducted on two fall detection databases namely FDD and URFD. Since the performance of the classification algorithm is inherently dependent on the features, we extracted and used the same features for all classifiers. The classification evaluation is conducted using different state of the art statistical measures such as the overall accuracy, the F-measure coefficient, and the area under ROC curve (AUC) value.

  14. Detection of cracks in shafts with the Approximated Entropy algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Diego Luchesi; Nicoletti, Rodrigo

    2016-05-01

    The Approximate Entropy is a statistical calculus used primarily in the fields of Medicine, Biology, and Telecommunication for classifying and identifying complex signal data. In this work, an Approximate Entropy algorithm is used to detect cracks in a rotating shaft. The signals of the cracked shaft are obtained from numerical simulations of a de Laval rotor with breathing cracks modelled by the Fracture Mechanics. In this case, one analysed the vertical displacements of the rotor during run-up transients. The results show the feasibility of detecting cracks from 5% depth, irrespective of the unbalance of the rotating system and crack orientation in the shaft. The results also show that the algorithm can differentiate the occurrence of crack only, misalignment only, and crack + misalignment in the system. However, the algorithm is sensitive to intrinsic parameters p (number of data points in a sample vector) and f (fraction of the standard deviation that defines the minimum distance between two sample vectors), and good results are only obtained by appropriately choosing their values according to the sampling rate of the signal.

  15. Performance evaluation of an automated single-channel sleep–wake detection algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan RF

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Richard F Kaplan,1 Ying Wang,1 Kenneth A Loparo,1,2 Monica R Kelly,3 Richard R Bootzin3 1General Sleep Corporation, Euclid, OH, USA; 2Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA; 3Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Background: A need exists, from both a clinical and a research standpoint, for objective sleep measurement systems that are both easy to use and can accurately assess sleep and wake. This study evaluates the output of an automated sleep–wake detection algorithm (Z-ALG used in the Zmachine (a portable, single-channel, electroencephalographic [EEG] acquisition and analysis system against laboratory polysomnography (PSG using a consensus of expert visual scorers. Methods: Overnight laboratory PSG studies from 99 subjects (52 females/47 males, 18–60 years, median age 32.7 years, including both normal sleepers and those with a variety of sleep disorders, were assessed. PSG data obtained from the differential mastoids (A1–A2 were assessed by Z-ALG, which determines sleep versus wake every 30 seconds using low-frequency, intermediate-frequency, and high-frequency and time domain EEG features. PSG data were independently scored by two to four certified PSG technologists, using standard Rechtschaffen and Kales guidelines, and these score files were combined on an epoch-by-epoch basis, using a majority voting rule, to generate a single score file per subject to compare against the Z-ALG output. Both epoch-by-epoch and standard sleep indices (eg, total sleep time, sleep efficiency, latency to persistent sleep, and wake after sleep onset were compared between the Z-ALG output and the technologist consensus score files. Results: Overall, the sensitivity and specificity for detecting sleep using the Z-ALG as compared to the technologist consensus are 95.5% and 92.5%, respectively, across all subjects, and the positive predictive value and the

  16. Monitoring Forest Dynamics in the Andean Amazon: The Applicability of Breakpoint Detection Methods Using Landsat Time-Series and Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Andean Amazon is an endangered biodiversity hot spot but its forest dynamics are less studied than those of the Amazon lowland and forests from middle or high latitudes. This is because its landscape variability, complex topography and cloudy conditions constitute a challenging environment for any remote-sensing assessment. Breakpoint detection with Landsat time-series data is an established robust approach for monitoring forest dynamics around the globe but has not been properly evaluated for implementation in the Andean Amazon. We analyzed breakpoint detection-generated forest dynamics in order to determine its limitations when applied to three different study areas located along an altitude gradient in the Andean Amazon in Ecuador. Using all available Landsat imagery for the period 1997–2016, we evaluated different pre-processing approaches, noise reduction techniques, and breakpoint detection algorithms. These procedures were integrated into a complex function called the processing chain generator. Calibration was not straightforward since it required us to define values for 24 parameters. To solve this problem, we implemented a novel approach using genetic algorithms. We calibrated the processing chain generator by applying a stratified training sampling and a reference dataset based on high resolution imagery. After the best calibration solution was found and the processing chain generator executed, we assessed accuracy and found that data gaps, inaccurate co-registration, radiometric variability in sensor calibration, unmasked cloud, and shadows can drastically affect the results, compromising the application of breakpoint detection in mountainous areas of the Andean Amazon. Moreover, since breakpoint detection analysis of landscape variability in the Andean Amazon requires a unique calibration of algorithms, the time required to optimize analysis could complicate its proper implementation and undermine its application for large

  17. A New MANET Wormhole Detection Algorithm Based on Traversal Time and Hop Count Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran Pulkkis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As demand increases for ubiquitous network facilities, infrastructure-less and self-configuring systems like Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET are gaining popularity. MANET routing security however, is one of the most significant challenges to wide scale adoption, with wormhole attacks being an especially severe MANET routing threat. This is because wormholes are able to disrupt a major component of network traffic, while concomitantly being extremely difficult to detect. This paper introduces a new wormhole detection paradigm based upon Traversal Time and Hop Count Analysis (TTHCA, which in comparison to existing algorithms, consistently affords superior detection performance, allied with low false positive rates for all wormhole variants. Simulation results confirm that the TTHCA model exhibits robust wormhole route detection in various network scenarios, while incurring only a small network overhead. This feature makes TTHCA an attractive choice for MANET environments which generally comprise devices, such as wireless sensors, which possess a limited processing capability.

  18. A Distributed Algorithm for the Cluster-Based Outlier Detection Using Unsupervised Extreme Learning Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xite Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Outlier detection is an important data mining task, whose target is to find the abnormal or atypical objects from a given dataset. The techniques for detecting outliers have a lot of applications, such as credit card fraud detection and environment monitoring. Our previous work proposed the Cluster-Based (CB outlier and gave a centralized method using unsupervised extreme learning machines to compute CB outliers. In this paper, we propose a new distributed algorithm for the CB outlier detection (DACB. On the master node, we collect a small number of points from the slave nodes to obtain a threshold. On each slave node, we design a new filtering method that can use the threshold to efficiently speed up the computation. Furthermore, we also propose a ranking method to optimize the order of cluster scanning. At last, the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approaches are verified through a plenty of simulation experiments.

  19. A Cluster-Based Fuzzy Fusion Algorithm for Event Detection in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZiQi Hao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As limited energy is one of the tough challenges in wireless sensor networks (WSN, energy saving becomes important in increasing the lifecycle of the network. Data fusion enables combining information from several sources thus to provide a unified scenario, which can significantly save sensor energy and enhance sensing data accuracy. In this paper, we propose a cluster-based data fusion algorithm for event detection. We use k-means algorithm to form the nodes into clusters, which can significantly reduce the energy consumption of intracluster communication. Distances between cluster heads and event and energy of clusters are fuzzified, thus to use a fuzzy logic to select the clusters that will participate in data uploading and fusion. Fuzzy logic method is also used by cluster heads for local decision, and then the local decision results are sent to the base station. Decision-level fusion for final decision of event is performed by base station according to the uploaded local decisions and fusion support degree of clusters calculated by fuzzy logic method. The effectiveness of this algorithm is demonstrated by simulation results.

  20. A stationary wavelet transform and a time-frequency based spike detection algorithm for extracellular recorded data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, Florian; Stark, Hans-Georg; Thielemann, Christiane

    2017-06-01

    Spike detection from extracellular recordings is a crucial preprocessing step when analyzing neuronal activity. The decision whether a specific part of the signal is a spike or not is important for any kind of other subsequent preprocessing steps, like spike sorting or burst detection in order to reduce the classification of erroneously identified spikes. Many spike detection algorithms have already been suggested, all working reasonably well whenever the signal-to-noise ratio is large enough. When the noise level is high, however, these algorithms have a poor performance. In this paper we present two new spike detection algorithms. The first is based on a stationary wavelet energy operator and the second is based on the time-frequency representation of spikes. Both algorithms are more reliable than all of the most commonly used methods. The performance of the algorithms is confirmed by using simulated data, resembling original data recorded from cortical neurons with multielectrode arrays. In order to demonstrate that the performance of the algorithms is not restricted to only one specific set of data, we also verify the performance using a simulated publicly available data set. We show that both proposed algorithms have the best performance under all tested methods, regardless of the signal-to-noise ratio in both data sets. This contribution will redound to the benefit of electrophysiological investigations of human cells. Especially the spatial and temporal analysis of neural network communications is improved by using the proposed spike detection algorithms.

  1. An Efficient Hierarchy Algorithm for Community Detection in Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Community structure is one of the most fundamental and important topology characteristics of complex networks. The research on community structure has wide applications and is very important for analyzing the topology structure, understanding the functions, finding the hidden properties, and forecasting the time-varying of the networks. This paper analyzes some related algorithms and proposes a new algorithm—CN agglomerative algorithm based on graph theory and the local connectedness of network to find communities in network. We show this algorithm is distributed and polynomial; meanwhile the simulations show it is accurate and fine-grained. Furthermore, we modify this algorithm to get one modified CN algorithm and apply it to dynamic complex networks, and the simulations also verify that the modified CN algorithm has high accuracy too.

  2. ALGORITHMS FOR OPTIMIZATION OF SYSYTEM PERFORMANCE IN LAYERED DETECTION SYSTEMS UNDER DETECTOR COORELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Thomas W.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Daly, Don S.

    2010-01-01

    Almost all of the 'architectures' for radiation detection systems in Department of Energy (DOE) and other USG programs rely on some version of layered detector deployment. Efficacy analyses of layered (or more generally extended) detection systems in many contexts often assume statistical independence among detection events and thus predict monotonically increasing system performance with the addition of detection layers. We show this to be a false conclusion for the ROC curves typical of most current technology gamma detectors, and more generally show that statistical independence is often an unwarranted assumption for systems in which there is ambiguity about the objects to be detected. In such systems, a model of correlation among detection events allows optimization of system algorithms for interpretation of detector signals. These algorithms are framed as optimal discriminant functions in joint signal space, and may be applied to gross counting or spectroscopic detector systems. We have shown how system algorithms derived from this model dramatically improve detection probabilities compared to the standard serial detection operating paradigm for these systems. These results would not surprise anyone who has confronted the problem of correlated errors (or failure rates) in the analogous contexts, but is seems to be largely underappreciated among those analyzing the radiation detection problem - independence is widely assumed and experimental studies typical fail to measure correlation. This situation, if not rectified, will lead to several unfortunate results. Including overconfidence in system efficacy, overinvestment in layers of similar technology, and underinvestment in diversity among detection assets.

  3. A Robust Motion Artifact Detection Algorithm for Accurate Detection of Heart Rates From Photoplethysmographic Signals Using Time-Frequency Spectral Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Duy; Salehizadeh, S M A; Noh, Yeonsik; Chong, Jo Woon; Cho, Chae Ho; McManus, Dave; Darling, Chad E; Mendelson, Yitzhak; Chon, Ki H

    2017-09-01

    Motion and noise artifacts (MNAs) impose limits on the usability of the photoplethysmogram (PPG), particularly in the context of ambulatory monitoring. MNAs can distort PPG, causing erroneous estimation of physiological parameters such as heart rate (HR) and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2). In this study, we present a novel approach, "TifMA," based on using the time-frequency spectrum of PPG to first detect the MNA-corrupted data and next discard the nonusable part of the corrupted data. The term "nonusable" refers to segments of PPG data from which the HR signal cannot be recovered accurately. Two sequential classification procedures were included in the TifMA algorithm. The first classifier distinguishes between MNA-corrupted and MNA-free PPG data. Once a segment of data is deemed MNA-corrupted, the next classifier determines whether the HR can be recovered from the corrupted segment or not. A support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used to build a decision boundary for the first classification task using data segments from a training dataset. Features from time-frequency spectra of PPG were extracted to build the detection model. Five datasets were considered for evaluating TifMA performance: (1) and (2) were laboratory-controlled PPG recordings from forehead and finger pulse oximeter sensors with subjects making random movements, (3) and (4) were actual patient PPG recordings from UMass Memorial Medical Center with random free movements and (5) was a laboratory-controlled PPG recording dataset measured at the forehead while the subjects ran on a treadmill. The first dataset was used to analyze the noise sensitivity of the algorithm. Datasets 2-4 were used to evaluate the MNA detection phase of the algorithm. The results from the first phase of the algorithm (MNA detection) were compared to results from three existing MNA detection algorithms: the Hjorth, kurtosis-Shannon entropy, and time-domain variability-SVM approaches. This last is an approach

  4. Bladed wheels damage detection through Non-Harmonic Fourier Analysis improved algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, P.

    2017-05-01

    Recent papers introduced the Non-Harmonic Fourier Analysis for bladed wheels damage detection. This technique showed its potential in estimating the frequency of sinusoidal signals even when the acquisition time is short with respect to the vibration period, provided that some hypothesis are fulfilled. Anyway, previously proposed algorithms showed severe limitations in cracks detection at their early stage. The present paper proposes an improved algorithm which allows to detect a blade vibration frequency shift due to a crack whose size is really small compared to the blade width. Such a technique could be implemented for condition-based maintenance, allowing to use non-contact methods for vibration measurements. A stator-fixed laser sensor could monitor all the blades as they pass in front of the spot, giving precious information about the wheel health. This configuration determines an acquisition time for each blade which become shorter as the machine rotational speed increases. In this situation, traditional Discrete Fourier Transform analysis results in poor frequency resolution, being not suitable for small frequency shift detection. Non-Harmonic Fourier Analysis instead showed high reliability in vibration frequency estimation even with data samples collected in a short time range. A description of the improved algorithm is provided in the paper, along with a comparison with the previous one. Finally, a validation of the method is presented, based on finite element simulations results.

  5. Validation of an automated seizure detection algorithm for term neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Sean R.; Stevenson, Nathan J.; Low, Evonne; Marnane, William P.; Rennie, Janet M.; Temko, Andrey; Lightbody, Gordon; Boylan, Geraldine B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to validate the performance of a seizure detection algorithm (SDA) developed by our group, on previously unseen, prolonged, unedited EEG recordings from 70 babies from 2 centres. Methods EEGs of 70 babies (35 seizure, 35 non-seizure) were annotated for seizures by experts as the gold standard. The SDA was tested on the EEGs at a range of sensitivity settings. Annotations from the expert and SDA were compared using event and epoch based metrics. The effect of seizure duration on SDA performance was also analysed. Results Between sensitivity settings of 0.5 and 0.3, the algorithm achieved seizure detection rates of 52.6–75.0%, with false detection (FD) rates of 0.04–0.36 FD/h for event based analysis, which was deemed to be acceptable in a clinical environment. Time based comparison of expert and SDA annotations using Cohen’s Kappa Index revealed a best performing SDA threshold of 0.4 (Kappa 0.630). The SDA showed improved detection performance with longer seizures. Conclusion The SDA achieved promising performance and warrants further testing in a live clinical evaluation. Significance The SDA has the potential to improve seizure detection and provide a robust tool for comparing treatment regimens. PMID:26055336

  6. A 3-Step Algorithm Using Region-Based Active Contours for Video Objects Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Jehan-Besson

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a 3-step algorithm for the automatic detection of moving objects in video sequences using region-based active contours. First, we introduce a very full general framework for region-based active contours with a new Eulerian method to compute the evolution equation of the active contour from a criterion including both region-based and boundary-based terms. This framework can be easily adapted to various applications, thanks to the introduction of functions named descriptors of the different regions. With this new Eulerian method based on shape optimization principles, we can easily take into account the case of descriptors depending upon features globally attached to the regions. Second, we propose a 3-step algorithm for detection of moving objects, with a static or a mobile camera, using region-based active contours. The basic idea is to hierarchically associate temporal and spatial information. The active contour evolves with successively three sets of descriptors: a temporal one, and then two spatial ones. The third spatial descriptor takes advantage of the segmentation of the image in intensity homogeneous regions. User interaction is reduced to the choice of a few parameters at the beginning of the process. Some experimental results are supplied.

  7. Cloud detection algorithm comparison and validation for operational Landsat data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foga, Steven Curtis; Scaramuzza, Pat; Guo, Song; Zhu, Zhe; Dilley, Ronald; Beckmann, Tim; Schmidt, Gail L.; Dwyer, John L.; Hughes, MJ; Laue, Brady

    2017-01-01

    Clouds are a pervasive and unavoidable issue in satellite-borne optical imagery. Accurate, well-documented, and automated cloud detection algorithms are necessary to effectively leverage large collections of remotely sensed data. The Landsat project is uniquely suited for comparative validation of cloud assessment algorithms because the modular architecture of the Landsat ground system allows for quick evaluation of new code, and because Landsat has the most comprehensive manual truth masks of any current satellite data archive. Currently, the Landsat Level-1 Product Generation System (LPGS) uses separate algorithms for determining clouds, cirrus clouds, and snow and/or ice probability on a per-pixel basis. With more bands onboard the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI)/Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) satellite, and a greater number of cloud masking algorithms, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is replacing the current cloud masking workflow with a more robust algorithm that is capable of working across multiple Landsat sensors with minimal modification. Because of the inherent error from stray light and intermittent data availability of TIRS, these algorithms need to operate both with and without thermal data. In this study, we created a workflow to evaluate cloud and cloud shadow masking algorithms using cloud validation masks manually derived from both Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM +) and Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS data. We created a new validation dataset consisting of 96 Landsat 8 scenes, representing different biomes and proportions of cloud cover. We evaluated algorithm performance by overall accuracy, omission error, and commission error for both cloud and cloud shadow. We found that CFMask, C code based on the Function of Mask (Fmask) algorithm, and its confidence bands have the best overall accuracy among the many algorithms tested using our validation data. The Artificial Thermal-Automated Cloud Cover Algorithm (AT-ACCA) is the most accurate

  8. Automatic detection of ECG electrode misplacement: a tale of two algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Henian; Garcia, Gabriel A; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2012-01-01

    Artifacts in an electrocardiogram (ECG) due to electrode misplacement can lead to wrong diagnoses. Various computer methods have been developed for automatic detection of electrode misplacement. Here we reviewed and compared the performance of two algorithms with the highest accuracies on several databases from PhysioNet. These algorithms were implemented into four models. For clean ECG records with clearly distinguishable waves, the best model produced excellent accuracies (> = 98.4%) for all misplacements except the LA/LL interchange (87.4%). However, the accuracies were significantly lower for records with noise and arrhythmias. Moreover, when the algorithms were tested on a database that was independent from the training database, the accuracies may be poor. For the worst scenario, the best accuracies for different types of misplacements ranged from 36.1% to 78.4%. A large number of ECGs of various qualities and pathological conditions are collected every day. To improve the quality of health care, the results of this paper call for more robust and accurate algorithms for automatic detection of electrode misplacement, which should be developed and tested using a database of extensive ECG records. (paper)

  9. A computerized algorithm for arousal detection in healthy adults and patients with Parkinson disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Jennum, Poul; Kempfner, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    arousals from non-rapid eye movement (REM) and REM sleep, independent of the subject's age and disease. The proposed algorithm uses features from EEG, EMG, and the manual sleep stage scoring as input to a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN). The performance of the algorithm has been assessed using......Arousals occur from all sleep stages and can be identified as abrupt electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) changes. Manual scoring of arousals is time consuming with low interscore agreement. The aim of this study was to design an arousal detection algorithm capable of detecting...

  10. A Finite State Machine Approach to Algorithmic Lateral Inhibition for Real-Time Motion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María T. López

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have explored the relationship between recurrent neural networks and finite state machines. Finite state machines constitute the best-characterized computational model, whereas artificial neural networks have become a very successful tool for modeling and problem solving. The neurally-inspired lateral inhibition method, and its application to motion detection tasks, have been successfully implemented in recent years. In this paper, control knowledge of the algorithmic lateral inhibition (ALI method is described and applied by means of finite state machines, in which the state space is constituted from the set of distinguishable cases of accumulated charge in a local memory. The article describes an ALI implementation for a motion detection task. For the implementation, we have chosen to use one of the members of the 16-nm Kintex UltraScale+ family of Xilinx FPGAs. FPGAs provide the necessary accuracy, resolution, and precision to run neural algorithms alongside current sensor technologies. The results offered in this paper demonstrate that this implementation provides accurate object tracking performance on several datasets, obtaining a high F-score value (0.86 for the most complex sequence used. Moreover, it outperforms implementations of a complete ALI algorithm and a simplified version of the ALI algorithm—named “accumulative computation”—which was run about ten years ago, now reaching real-time processing times that were simply not achievable at that time for ALI.

  11. A stationary wavelet transform and a time-frequency based spike detection algorithm for extracellular recorded data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, Florian; Stark, Hans-Georg; Thielemann, Christiane

    2017-06-01

    Objective. Spike detection from extracellular recordings is a crucial preprocessing step when analyzing neuronal activity. The decision whether a specific part of the signal is a spike or not is important for any kind of other subsequent preprocessing steps, like spike sorting or burst detection in order to reduce the classification of erroneously identified spikes. Many spike detection algorithms have already been suggested, all working reasonably well whenever the signal-to-noise ratio is large enough. When the noise level is high, however, these algorithms have a poor performance. Approach. In this paper we present two new spike detection algorithms. The first is based on a stationary wavelet energy operator and the second is based on the time-frequency representation of spikes. Both algorithms are more reliable than all of the most commonly used methods. Main results. The performance of the algorithms is confirmed by using simulated data, resembling original data recorded from cortical neurons with multielectrode arrays. In order to demonstrate that the performance of the algorithms is not restricted to only one specific set of data, we also verify the performance using a simulated publicly available data set. We show that both proposed algorithms have the best performance under all tested methods, regardless of the signal-to-noise ratio in both data sets. Significance. This contribution will redound to the benefit of electrophysiological investigations of human cells. Especially the spatial and temporal analysis of neural network communications is improved by using the proposed spike detection algorithms.

  12. Automated seismic detection of landslides at regional scales: a Random Forest based detection algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibert, C.; Michéa, D.; Provost, F.; Malet, J. P.; Geertsema, M.

    2017-12-01

    Detection of landslide occurrences and measurement of their dynamics properties during run-out is a high research priority but a logistical and technical challenge. Seismology has started to help in several important ways. Taking advantage of the densification of global, regional and local networks of broadband seismic stations, recent advances now permit the seismic detection and location of landslides in near-real-time. This seismic detection could potentially greatly increase the spatio-temporal resolution at which we study landslides triggering, which is critical to better understand the influence of external forcings such as rainfalls and earthquakes. However, detecting automatically seismic signals generated by landslides still represents a challenge, especially for events with small mass. The low signal-to-noise ratio classically observed for landslide-generated seismic signals and the difficulty to discriminate these signals from those generated by regional earthquakes or anthropogenic and natural noises are some of the obstacles that have to be circumvented. We present a new method for automatically constructing instrumental landslide catalogues from continuous seismic data. We developed a robust and versatile solution, which can be implemented in any context where a seismic detection of landslides or other mass movements is relevant. The method is based on a spectral detection of the seismic signals and the identification of the sources with a Random Forest machine learning algorithm. The spectral detection allows detecting signals with low signal-to-noise ratio, while the Random Forest algorithm achieve a high rate of positive identification of the seismic signals generated by landslides and other seismic sources. The processing chain is implemented to work in a High Performance Computers centre which permits to explore years of continuous seismic data rapidly. We present here the preliminary results of the application of this processing chain for years

  13. Arctic lead detection using a waveform mixture algorithm from CryoSat-2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanggyun; Kim, Hyun-cheol; Im, Jungho

    2018-05-01

    We propose a waveform mixture algorithm to detect leads from CryoSat-2 data, which is novel and different from the existing threshold-based lead detection methods. The waveform mixture algorithm adopts the concept of spectral mixture analysis, which is widely used in the field of hyperspectral image analysis. This lead detection method was evaluated with high-resolution (250 m) MODIS images and showed comparable and promising performance in detecting leads when compared to the previous methods. The robustness of the proposed approach also lies in the fact that it does not require the rescaling of parameters (i.e., stack standard deviation, stack skewness, stack kurtosis, pulse peakiness, and backscatter σ0), as it directly uses L1B waveform data, unlike the existing threshold-based methods. Monthly lead fraction maps were produced by the waveform mixture algorithm, which shows interannual variability of recent sea ice cover during 2011-2016, excluding the summer season (i.e., June to September). We also compared the lead fraction maps to other lead fraction maps generated from previously published data sets, resulting in similar spatiotemporal patterns.

  14. Statistical Assessment of Gene Fusion Detection Algorithms using RNASequencing Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varadan, V.; Janevski, A.; Kamalakaran, S.; Banerjee, N.; Harris, L.; Dimitrova, D.

    2012-01-01

    The detection and quantification of fusion transcripts has both biological and clinical implications. RNA sequencing technology provides a means for unbiased and high resolution characterization of fusion transcript information in tissue samples. We evaluated two fusiondetection algorithms,

  15. Evaluating the SEVIRI Fire Thermal Anomaly Detection Algorithm across the Central African Republic Using the MODIS Active Fire Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick H. Freeborn

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based remote sensing of active fires is the only practical way to consistently and continuously monitor diurnal fluctuations in biomass burning from regional, to continental, to global scales. Failure to understand, quantify, and communicate the performance of an active fire detection algorithm, however, can lead to improper interpretations of the spatiotemporal distribution of biomass burning, and flawed estimates of fuel consumption and trace gas and aerosol emissions. This work evaluates the performance of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI Fire Thermal Anomaly (FTA detection algorithm using seven months of active fire pixels detected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS across the Central African Republic (CAR. Results indicate that the omission rate of the SEVIRI FTA detection algorithm relative to MODIS varies spatially across the CAR, ranging from 25% in the south to 74% in the east. In the absence of confounding artifacts such as sunglint, uncertainties in the background thermal characterization, and cloud cover, the regional variation in SEVIRI’s omission rate can be attributed to a coupling between SEVIRI’s low spatial resolution detection bias (i.e., the inability to detect fires below a certain size and intensity and a strong geographic gradient in active fire characteristics across the CAR. SEVIRI’s commission rate relative to MODIS increases from 9% when evaluated near MODIS nadir to 53% near the MODIS scene edges, indicating that SEVIRI errors of commission at the MODIS scene edges may not be false alarms but rather true fires that MODIS failed to detect as a result of larger pixel sizes at extreme MODIS scan angles. Results from this work are expected to facilitate (i future improvements to the SEVIRI FTA detection algorithm; (ii the assimilation of the SEVIRI and MODIS active fire products; and (iii the potential inclusion of SEVIRI into a network of geostationary

  16. Software Piracy Detection Model Using Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astiqah Omar, Nor; Zakuan, Zeti Zuryani Mohd; Saian, Rizauddin

    2017-06-01

    Internet enables information to be accessible anytime and anywhere. This scenario creates an environment whereby information can be easily copied. Easy access to the internet is one of the factors which contribute towards piracy in Malaysia as well as the rest of the world. According to a survey conducted by Compliance Gap BSA Global Software Survey in 2013 on software piracy, found out that 43 percent of the software installed on PCs around the world was not properly licensed, the commercial value of the unlicensed installations worldwide was reported to be 62.7 billion. Piracy can happen anywhere including universities. Malaysia as well as other countries in the world is faced with issues of piracy committed by the students in universities. Piracy in universities concern about acts of stealing intellectual property. It can be in the form of software piracy, music piracy, movies piracy and piracy of intellectual materials such as books, articles and journals. This scenario affected the owner of intellectual property as their property is in jeopardy. This study has developed a classification model for detecting software piracy. The model was developed using a swarm intelligence algorithm called the Ant Colony Optimization algorithm. The data for training was collected by a study conducted in Universiti Teknologi MARA (Perlis). Experimental results show that the model detection accuracy rate is better as compared to J48 algorithm.

  17. Anomaly Detection for Aviation Safety Based on an Improved KPCA Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of flights datasets should be analyzed per day for a moderate sized fleet; therefore, flight datasets are very large. In this paper, an improved kernel principal component analysis (KPCA method is proposed to search for signatures of anomalies in flight datasets through the squared prediction error statistics, in which the number of principal components and the confidence for the confidence limit are automatically determined by OpenMP-based K-fold cross-validation algorithm and the parameter in the radial basis function (RBF is optimized by GPU-based kernel learning method. Performed on Nvidia GeForce GTX 660, the computation of the proposed GPU-based RBF parameter is 112.9 times (average 82.6 times faster than that of sequential CPU task execution. The OpenMP-based K-fold cross-validation process for training KPCA anomaly detection model becomes 2.4 times (average 1.5 times faster than that of sequential CPU task execution. Experiments show that the proposed approach can effectively detect the anomalies with the accuracy of 93.57% and false positive alarm rate of 1.11%.

  18. Dynamic multiple thresholding breast boundary detection algorithm for mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yi-Ta; Zhou Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Paramagul, Chintana; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Daly, Caroline Plowden; Douglas, Julie A.; Zhang Yiheng; Sahiner, Berkman; Shi Jiazheng; Wei Jun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Automated detection of breast boundary is one of the fundamental steps for computer-aided analysis of mammograms. In this study, the authors developed a new dynamic multiple thresholding based breast boundary (MTBB) detection method for digitized mammograms. Methods: A large data set of 716 screen-film mammograms (442 CC view and 274 MLO view) obtained from consecutive cases of an Institutional Review Board approved project were used. An experienced breast radiologist manually traced the breast boundary on each digitized image using a graphical interface to provide a reference standard. The initial breast boundary (MTBB-Initial) was obtained by dynamically adapting the threshold to the gray level range in local regions of the breast periphery. The initial breast boundary was then refined by using gradient information from horizontal and vertical Sobel filtering to obtain the final breast boundary (MTBB-Final). The accuracy of the breast boundary detection algorithm was evaluated by comparison with the reference standard using three performance metrics: The Hausdorff distance (HDist), the average minimum Euclidean distance (AMinDist), and the area overlap measure (AOM). Results: In comparison with the authors' previously developed gradient-based breast boundary (GBB) algorithm, it was found that 68%, 85%, and 94% of images had HDist errors less than 6 pixels (4.8 mm) for GBB, MTBB-Initial, and MTBB-Final, respectively. 89%, 90%, and 96% of images had AMinDist errors less than 1.5 pixels (1.2 mm) for GBB, MTBB-Initial, and MTBB-Final, respectively. 96%, 98%, and 99% of images had AOM values larger than 0.9 for GBB, MTBB-Initial, and MTBB-Final, respectively. The improvement by the MTBB-Final method was statistically significant for all the evaluation measures by the Wilcoxon signed rank test (p<0.0001). Conclusions: The MTBB approach that combined dynamic multiple thresholding and gradient information provided better performance than the breast boundary

  19. HARDWARE REALIZATION OF CANNY EDGE DETECTION ALGORITHM FOR UNDERWATER IMAGE SEGMENTATION USING FIELD PROGRAMMABLE GATE ARRAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEX RAJ S. M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Underwater images raise new challenges in the field of digital image processing technology in recent years because of its widespread applications. There are many tangled matters to be considered in processing of images collected from water medium due to the adverse effects imposed by the environment itself. Image segmentation is preferred as basal stage of many digital image processing techniques which distinguish multiple segments in an image and reveal the hidden crucial information required for a peculiar application. There are so many general purpose algorithms and techniques that have been developed for image segmentation. Discontinuity based segmentation are most promising approach for image segmentation, in which Canny Edge detection based segmentation is more preferred for its high level of noise immunity and ability to tackle underwater environment. Since dealing with real time underwater image segmentation algorithm, which is computationally complex enough, an efficient hardware implementation is to be considered. The FPGA based realization of the referred segmentation algorithm is presented in this paper.

  20. An O([Formula: see text]) algorithm for sorting signed genomes by reversals, transpositions, transreversals and block-interchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuzhi; Hao, Fanchang; Leong, Hon Wai

    2016-02-01

    We consider the problem of sorting signed permutations by reversals, transpositions, transreversals, and block-interchanges. The problem arises in the study of species evolution via large-scale genome rearrangement operations. Recently, Hao et al. gave a 2-approximation scheme called genome sorting by bridges (GSB) for solving this problem. Their result extended and unified the results of (i) He and Chen - a 2-approximation algorithm allowing reversals, transpositions, and block-interchanges (by also allowing transversals) and (ii) Hartman and Sharan - a 1.5-approximation algorithm allowing reversals, transpositions, and transversals (by also allowing block-interchanges). The GSB result is based on introduction of three bridge structures in the breakpoint graph, the L-bridge, T-bridge, and X-bridge that models goodreversal, transposition/transreversal, and block-interchange, respectively. However, the paper by Hao et al. focused on proving the 2-approximation GSB scheme and only mention a straightforward [Formula: see text] algorithm. In this paper, we give an [Formula: see text] algorithm for implementing the GSB scheme. The key idea behind our faster GSB algorithm is to represent cycles in the breakpoint graph by their canonical sequences, which greatly simplifies the search for these bridge structures. We also give some comparison results (running time and computed distances) against the original GSB implementation.

  1. Costs and consequences of automated algorithms versus manual grading for the detection of referable diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotland, G S; McNamee, P; Fleming, A D; Goatman, K A; Philip, S; Prescott, G J; Sharp, P F; Williams, G J; Wykes, W; Leese, G P; Olson, J A

    2010-06-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of an improved automated grading algorithm for diabetic retinopathy against a previously described algorithm, and in comparison with manual grading. Efficacy of the alternative algorithms was assessed using a reference graded set of images from three screening centres in Scotland (1253 cases with observable/referable retinopathy and 6333 individuals with mild or no retinopathy). Screening outcomes and grading and diagnosis costs were modelled for a cohort of 180 000 people, with prevalence of referable retinopathy at 4%. Algorithm (b), which combines image quality assessment with detection algorithms for microaneurysms (MA), blot haemorrhages and exudates, was compared with a simpler algorithm (a) (using image quality assessment and MA/dot haemorrhage (DH) detection), and the current practice of manual grading. Compared with algorithm (a), algorithm (b) would identify an additional 113 cases of referable retinopathy for an incremental cost of pound 68 per additional case. Compared with manual grading, automated grading would be expected to identify between 54 and 123 fewer referable cases, for a grading cost saving between pound 3834 and pound 1727 per case missed. Extrapolation modelling over a 20-year time horizon suggests manual grading would cost between pound 25,676 and pound 267,115 per additional quality adjusted life year gained. Algorithm (b) is more cost-effective than the algorithm based on quality assessment and MA/DH detection. With respect to the value of introducing automated detection systems into screening programmes, automated grading operates within the recommended national standards in Scotland and is likely to be considered a cost-effective alternative to manual disease/no disease grading.

  2. Induced Voltages Ratio-Based Algorithm for Fault Detection, and Faulted Phase and Winding Identification of a Three-Winding Power Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Eun Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an algorithm for fault detection, faulted phase and winding identification of a three-winding power transformer based on the induced voltages in the electrical power system. The ratio of the induced voltages of the primary-secondary, primary-tertiary and secondary-tertiary windings is the same as the corresponding turns ratio during normal operating conditions, magnetic inrush, and over-excitation. It differs from the turns ratio during an internal fault. For a single phase and a three-phase power transformer with wye-connected windings, the induced voltages of each pair of windings are estimated. For a three-phase power transformer with delta-connected windings, the induced voltage differences are estimated to use the line currents, because the delta winding currents are practically unavailable. Six detectors are suggested for fault detection. An additional three detectors and a rule for faulted phase and winding identification are presented as well. The proposed algorithm can not only detect an internal fault, but also identify the faulted phase and winding of a three-winding power transformer. The various test results with Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP-generated data show that the proposed algorithm successfully discriminates internal faults from normal operating conditions including magnetic inrush and over-excitation. This paper concludes by implementing the algorithm into a prototype relay based on a digital signal processor.

  3. Influenza detection and prediction algorithms: comparative accuracy trial in Östergötland county, Sweden, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreco, A; Eriksson, O; Dahlström, Ö; Timpka, T

    2017-07-01

    Methods for the detection of influenza epidemics and prediction of their progress have seldom been comparatively evaluated using prospective designs. This study aimed to perform a prospective comparative trial of algorithms for the detection and prediction of increased local influenza activity. Data on clinical influenza diagnoses recorded by physicians and syndromic data from a telenursing service were used. Five detection and three prediction algorithms previously evaluated in public health settings were calibrated and then evaluated over 3 years. When applied on diagnostic data, only detection using the Serfling regression method and prediction using the non-adaptive log-linear regression method showed acceptable performances during winter influenza seasons. For the syndromic data, none of the detection algorithms displayed a satisfactory performance, while non-adaptive log-linear regression was the best performing prediction method. We conclude that evidence was found for that available algorithms for influenza detection and prediction display satisfactory performance when applied on local diagnostic data during winter influenza seasons. When applied on local syndromic data, the evaluated algorithms did not display consistent performance. Further evaluations and research on combination of methods of these types in public health information infrastructures for 'nowcasting' (integrated detection and prediction) of influenza activity are warranted.

  4. Analysis of Correlation between an Accelerometer-Based Algorithm for Detecting Parkinsonian Gait and UPDRS Subscales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rodríguez-Molinero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundOur group earlier developed a small monitoring device, which uses accelerometer measurements to accurately detect motor fluctuations in patients with Parkinson’s (On and Off state based on an algorithm that characterizes gait through the frequency content of strides. To further validate the algorithm, we studied the correlation of its outputs with the motor section of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale part-III (UPDRS-III.MethodSeventy-five patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease were asked to walk both in the Off and the On state while wearing the inertial sensor on the waist. Additionally, all patients were administered the motor section of the UPDRS in both motor phases. Tests were conducted at the patient’s home. Convergence between the algorithm and the scale was evaluated by using the Spearman’s correlation coefficient.ResultsCorrelation with the UPDRS-III was moderate (rho −0.56; p < 0.001. Correlation between the algorithm outputs and the gait item in the UPDRS-III was good (rho −0.73; p < 0.001. The factorial analysis of the UPDRS-III has repeatedly shown that several of its items can be clustered under the so-called Factor 1: “axial function, balance, and gait.” The correlation between the algorithm outputs and this factor of the UPDRS-III was −0.67 (p < 0.01.ConclusionThe correlation achieved by the algorithm with the UPDRS-III scale suggests that this algorithm might be a useful tool for monitoring patients with Parkinson’s disease and motor fluctuations.

  5. A novel time-domain signal processing algorithm for real time ventricular fibrillation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte, G E; Scarone, N C; Liscovsky, P O; Rotter, P

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an application of a novel algorithm for real time detection of ECG pathologies, especially ventricular fibrillation. It is based on segmentation and labeling process of an oversampled signal. After this treatment, analyzing sequence of segments, global signal behaviours are obtained in the same way like a human being does. The entire process can be seen as a morphological filtering after a smart data sampling. The algorithm does not require any ECG digital signal pre-processing, and the computational cost is low, so it can be embedded into the sensors for wearable and permanent applications. The proposed algorithms could be the input signal description to expert systems or to artificial intelligence software in order to detect other pathologies.

  6. A novel time-domain signal processing algorithm for real time ventricular fibrillation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, G. E.; Scarone, N. C.; Liscovsky, P. O.; Rotter S/N, P.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents an application of a novel algorithm for real time detection of ECG pathologies, especially ventricular fibrillation. It is based on segmentation and labeling process of an oversampled signal. After this treatment, analyzing sequence of segments, global signal behaviours are obtained in the same way like a human being does. The entire process can be seen as a morphological filtering after a smart data sampling. The algorithm does not require any ECG digital signal pre-processing, and the computational cost is low, so it can be embedded into the sensors for wearable and permanent applications. The proposed algorithms could be the input signal description to expert systems or to artificial intelligence software in order to detect other pathologies.

  7. A rule-based electronic phenotyping algorithm for detecting clinically relevant cardiovascular disease cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Santiago; Rodríguez Tablado, Manuel; Ricci, Ricardo Ignacio; Terrasa, Sergio; Kopitowski, Karin

    2017-07-14

    VD but without CeVD; (3) Patients with CeVD but without disease CaVD; (4) Patients with both diseases. To facilitate the validation process, a stratified sample was taken so that each of the groups represented approximately 25% of the sample. Manual chart review was used as the gold standard for assessing the algorithm's performance. One-third of the patients were assigned randomly to each reviewer (Cohen's kappa 0.91). Both coded and un-coded (free text) sections of the EMR were reviewed. This was done from the first present clinical note in the patients chart to the last one registered prior to 1/1/2005. The performance of the algorithm was compared against manual chart review. It yielded high sensitivity (0.99, 95% CI 0.938-0.9971) and acceptable specificity (0.86, 95% CI 0.818-0.895) for detecting cases of CaVD and CeVD combined. A qualitative analysis of the false positives and false negatives was performed. We developed a simple algorithm, using only standardized and non-standardized coded terms within an EMR that can properly detect clinically relevant events and symptoms of CaVD and CeVD. We believe that combining it with an analysis of the free text using an NLP approach would yield even better results.

  8. Optimized Swinging Door Algorithm for Wind Power Ramp Event Detection: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Mingjian; Zhang, Jie; Florita, Anthony R.; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Ke, Deping; Sun, Yuanzhang

    2015-08-06

    Significant wind power ramp events (WPREs) are those that influence the integration of wind power, and they are a concern to the continued reliable operation of the power grid. As wind power penetration has increased in recent years, so has the importance of wind power ramps. In this paper, an optimized swinging door algorithm (SDA) is developed to improve ramp detection performance. Wind power time series data are segmented by the original SDA, and then all significant ramps are detected and merged through a dynamic programming algorithm. An application of the optimized SDA is provided to ascertain the optimal parameter of the original SDA. Measured wind power data from the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) are used to evaluate the proposed optimized SDA.

  9. Implementing a Parallel Image Edge Detection Algorithm Based on the Otsu-Canny Operator on the Hadoop Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianfang; Chen, Lichao; Wang, Min; Tian, Yun

    2018-01-01

    The Canny operator is widely used to detect edges in images. However, as the size of the image dataset increases, the edge detection performance of the Canny operator decreases and its runtime becomes excessive. To improve the runtime and edge detection performance of the Canny operator, in this paper, we propose a parallel design and implementation for an Otsu-optimized Canny operator using a MapReduce parallel programming model that runs on the Hadoop platform. The Otsu algorithm is used to optimize the Canny operator's dual threshold and improve the edge detection performance, while the MapReduce parallel programming model facilitates parallel processing for the Canny operator to solve the processing speed and communication cost problems that occur when the Canny edge detection algorithm is applied to big data. For the experiments, we constructed datasets of different scales from the Pascal VOC2012 image database. The proposed parallel Otsu-Canny edge detection algorithm performs better than other traditional edge detection algorithms. The parallel approach reduced the running time by approximately 67.2% on a Hadoop cluster architecture consisting of 5 nodes with a dataset of 60,000 images. Overall, our approach system speeds up the system by approximately 3.4 times when processing large-scale datasets, which demonstrates the obvious superiority of our method. The proposed algorithm in this study demonstrates both better edge detection performance and improved time performance.

  10. Model-based fault detection algorithm for photovoltaic system monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2018-02-12

    Reliable detection of faults in PV systems plays an important role in improving their reliability, productivity, and safety. This paper addresses the detection of faults in the direct current (DC) side of photovoltaic (PV) systems using a statistical approach. Specifically, a simulation model that mimics the theoretical performances of the inspected PV system is designed. Residuals, which are the difference between the measured and estimated output data, are used as a fault indicator. Indeed, residuals are used as the input for the Multivariate CUmulative SUM (MCUSUM) algorithm to detect potential faults. We evaluated the proposed method by using data from an actual 20 MWp grid-connected PV system located in the province of Adrar, Algeria.

  11. A non-linear algorithm for current signal filtering and peak detection in SiPM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putignano, M; Intermite, A; Welsch, C P

    2012-01-01

    Read-out of Silicon Photomultipliers is commonly achieved by means of charge integration, a method particularly susceptible to after-pulsing noise and not efficient for low level light signals. Current signal monitoring, characterized by easier electronic implementation and intrinsically faster than charge integration, is also more suitable for low level light signals and can potentially result in much decreased after-pulsing noise effects. However, its use is to date limited by the need of developing a suitable read-out algorithm for signal analysis and filtering able to achieve current peak detection and measurement with the needed precision and accuracy. In this paper we present an original algorithm, based on a piecewise linear-fitting approach, to filter the noise of the current signal and hence efficiently identifying and measuring current peaks. The proposed algorithm is then compared with the optimal linear filtering algorithm for time-encoded peak detection, based on a moving average routine, and assessed in terms of accuracy, precision, and peak detection efficiency, demonstrating improvements of 1÷2 orders of magnitude in all these quality factors.

  12. A game theoretic algorithm to detect overlapping community structure in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xu; Zhao, Xiaohui; Liu, Yanheng; Sun, Geng

    2018-04-01

    Community detection can be used as an important technique for product and personalized service recommendation. A game theory based approach to detect overlapping community structure is introduced in this paper. The process of the community formation is converted into a game, when all agents (nodes) cannot improve their own utility, the game process will be terminated. The utility function is composed of a gain and a loss function and we present a new gain function in this paper. In addition, different from choosing action randomly among join, quit and switch for each agent to get new label, two new strategies for each agent to update its label are designed during the game, and the strategies are also evaluated and compared for each agent in order to find its best result. The overlapping community structure is naturally presented when the stop criterion is satisfied. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms other similar algorithms for detecting overlapping communities in networks.

  13. Optimal Detection Range of RFID Tag for RFID-based Positioning System Using the k-NN Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Heo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Positioning technology to track a moving object is an important and essential component of ubiquitous computing environments and applications. An RFID-based positioning system using the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN algorithm can determine the position of a moving reader from observed reference data. In this study, the optimal detection range of an RFID-based positioning system was determined on the principle that tag spacing can be derived from the detection range. It was assumed that reference tags without signal strength information are regularly distributed in 1-, 2- and 3-dimensional spaces. The optimal detection range was determined, through analytical and numerical approaches, to be 125% of the tag-spacing distance in 1-dimensional space. Through numerical approaches, the range was 134% in 2-dimensional space, 143% in 3-dimensional space.

  14. Semi-supervised spectral algorithms for community detection in complex networks based on equivalence of clustering methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoke; Wang, Bingbo; Yu, Liang

    2018-01-01

    Community detection is fundamental for revealing the structure-functionality relationship in complex networks, which involves two issues-the quantitative function for community as well as algorithms to discover communities. Despite significant research on either of them, few attempt has been made to establish the connection between the two issues. To attack this problem, a generalized quantification function is proposed for community in weighted networks, which provides a framework that unifies several well-known measures. Then, we prove that the trace optimization of the proposed measure is equivalent with the objective functions of algorithms such as nonnegative matrix factorization, kernel K-means as well as spectral clustering. It serves as the theoretical foundation for designing algorithms for community detection. On the second issue, a semi-supervised spectral clustering algorithm is developed by exploring the equivalence relation via combining the nonnegative matrix factorization and spectral clustering. Different from the traditional semi-supervised algorithms, the partial supervision is integrated into the objective of the spectral algorithm. Finally, through extensive experiments on both artificial and real world networks, we demonstrate that the proposed method improves the accuracy of the traditional spectral algorithms in community detection.

  15. A Fast Algorithm of Generalized Radon-Fourier Transform for Weak Maneuvering Target Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The generalized Radon-Fourier transform (GRFT has been proposed to detect radar weak maneuvering targets by realizing coherent integration via jointly searching in motion parameter space. Two main drawbacks of GRFT are the heavy computational burden and the blind speed side lobes (BSSL which will cause serious false alarms. The BSSL learning-based particle swarm optimization (BPSO has been proposed before to reduce the computational burden of GRFT and solve the BSSL problem simultaneously. However, the BPSO suffers from an apparent loss in detection performance compared with GRFT. In this paper, a fast implementation algorithm of GRFT using the BSSL learning-based modified wind-driven optimization (BMWDO is proposed. In the BMWDO, the BSSL learning procedure is also used to deal with the BSSL phenomenon. Besides, the MWDO adjusts the coefficients in WDO with Levy distribution and uniform distribution, and it outperforms PSO in a noisy environment. Compared with BPSO, the proposed method can achieve better detection performance with a similar computational cost. Several numerical experiments are also provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. A new approach to optic disc detection in human retinal images using the firefly algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahebi, Javad; Hardalaç, Fırat

    2016-03-01

    There are various methods and algorithms to detect the optic discs in retinal images. In recent years, much attention has been given to the utilization of the intelligent algorithms. In this paper, we present a new automated method of optic disc detection in human retinal images using the firefly algorithm. The firefly intelligent algorithm is an emerging intelligent algorithm that was inspired by the social behavior of fireflies. The population in this algorithm includes the fireflies, each of which has a specific rate of lighting or fitness. In this method, the insects are compared two by two, and the less attractive insects can be observed to move toward the more attractive insects. Finally, one of the insects is selected as the most attractive, and this insect presents the optimum response to the problem in question. Here, we used the light intensity of the pixels of the retinal image pixels instead of firefly lightings. The movement of these insects due to local fluctuations produces different light intensity values in the images. Because the optic disc is the brightest area in the retinal images, all of the insects move toward brightest area and thus specify the location of the optic disc in the image. The results of implementation show that proposed algorithm could acquire an accuracy rate of 100 % in DRIVE dataset, 95 % in STARE dataset, and 94.38 % in DiaRetDB1 dataset. The results of implementation reveal high capability and accuracy of proposed algorithm in the detection of the optic disc from retinal images. Also, recorded required time for the detection of the optic disc in these images is 2.13 s for DRIVE dataset, 2.81 s for STARE dataset, and 3.52 s for DiaRetDB1 dataset accordingly. These time values are average value.

  17. Detection of the arcuate fasciculus in congenital amusia depends on the tractography algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joyce L; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Williamson, Victoria J; Scholz, Jan; Griffiths, Timothy D; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    The advent of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows researchers to virtually dissect white matter fiber pathways in the brain in vivo. This, for example, allows us to characterize and quantify how fiber tracts differ across populations in health and disease, and change as a function of training. Based on diffusion MRI, prior literature reports the absence of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) in some control individuals and as well in those with congenital amusia. The complete absence of such a major anatomical tract is surprising given the subtle impairments that characterize amusia. Thus, we hypothesize that failure to detect the AF in this population may relate to the tracking algorithm used, and is not necessarily reflective of their phenotype. Diffusion data in control and amusic individuals were analyzed using three different tracking algorithms: deterministic and probabilistic, the latter either modeling two or one fiber populations. Across the three algorithms, we replicate prior findings of a left greater than right AF volume, but do not find group differences or an interaction. We detect the AF in all individuals using the probabilistic 2-fiber model, however, tracking failed in some control and amusic individuals when deterministic tractography was applied. These findings show that the ability to detect the AF in our sample is dependent on the type of tractography algorithm. This raises the question of whether failure to detect the AF in prior studies may be unrelated to the underlying anatomy or phenotype.

  18. Development and testing of incident detection algorithms. Vol. 2, research methodology and detailed results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    The development and testing of incident detection algorithms was based on Los Angeles and Minneapolis freeway surveillance data. Algorithms considered were based on times series and pattern recognition techniques. Attention was given to the effects o...

  19. Probability of failure of the watershed algorithm for peak detection in comprehensive two-dimensional chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vivó-Truyols, G.; Janssen, H.-G.

    2010-01-01

    The watershed algorithm is the most common method used for peak detection and integration In two-dimensional chromatography However, the retention time variability in the second dimension may render the algorithm to fail A study calculating the probabilities of failure of the watershed algorithm was

  20. Improving staff response to seizures on the epilepsy monitoring unit with online EEG seizure detection algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommens, Nicole; Geertsema, Evelien; Jansen Holleboom, Lisanne; Cox, Fieke; Visser, Gerhard

    2018-05-11

    User safety and the quality of diagnostics on the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) depend on reaction to seizures. Online seizure detection might improve this. While good sensitivity and specificity is reported, the added value above staff response is unclear. We ascertained the added value of two electroencephalograph (EEG) seizure detection algorithms in terms of additional detected seizures or faster detection time. EEG-video seizure recordings of people admitted to an EMU over one year were included, with a maximum of two seizures per subject. All recordings were retrospectively analyzed using Encevis EpiScan and BESA Epilepsy. Detection sensitivity and latency of the algorithms were compared to staff responses. False positive rates were estimated on 30 uninterrupted recordings (roughly 24 h per subject) of consecutive subjects admitted to the EMU. EEG-video recordings used included 188 seizures. The response rate of staff was 67%, of Encevis 67%, and of BESA Epilepsy 65%. Of the 62 seizures missed by staff, 66% were recognized by Encevis and 39% by BESA Epilepsy. The median latency was 31 s (staff), 10 s (Encevis), and 14 s (BESA Epilepsy). After correcting for walking time from the observation room to the subject, both algorithms detected faster than staff in 65% of detected seizures. The full recordings included 617 h of EEG. Encevis had a median false positive rate of 4.9 per 24 h and BESA Epilepsy of 2.1 per 24 h. EEG-video seizure detection algorithms may improve reaction to seizures by improving the total number of seizures detected and the speed of detection. The false positive rate is feasible for use in a clinical situation. Implementation of these algorithms might result in faster diagnostic testing and better observation during seizures. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Evaluation and Classification of Syntax Usage in Determining Short-Text Semantic Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Batanović

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines and categorizes ways of using syntactic information in a number of algorithms for determining the semantic similarity of short texts. We consider the use of word order information, part-of-speech tagging, parsing and semantic role labeling. We analyze and evaluate the effects of syntax usage on algorithm performance by utilizing the results of a paraphrase detection test on the Microsoft Research Paraphrase Corpus. We also propose a new classification of algorithms based on their applicability to languages with scarce natural language processing tools.

  2. A Low-Complexity Joint Detection-Decoding Algorithm for Nonbinary LDPC-Coded Modulation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xuepeng; Bai, Baoming; Ma, Xiao

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a low-complexity joint detection-decoding algorithm for nonbinary LDPC codedmodulation systems. The algorithm combines hard-decision decoding using the message-passing strategy with the signal detector in an iterative manner. It requires low computational complexity, offers good system performance and has a fast rate of decoding convergence. Compared to the q-ary sum-product algorithm (QSPA), it provides an attractive candidate for practical applications of q-ary LDP...

  3. A new comparison of hyperspectral anomaly detection algorithms for real-time applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, María.; López, Sebastián.; Sarmiento, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    Due to the high spectral resolution that remotely sensed hyperspectral images provide, there has been an increasing interest in anomaly detection. The aim of anomaly detection is to stand over pixels whose spectral signature differs significantly from the background spectra. Basically, anomaly detectors mark pixels with a certain score, considering as anomalies those whose scores are higher than a threshold. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves have been widely used as an assessment measure in order to compare the performance of different algorithms. ROC curves are graphical plots which illustrate the trade- off between false positive and true positive rates. However, they are limited in order to make deep comparisons due to the fact that they discard relevant factors required in real-time applications such as run times, costs of misclassification and the competence to mark anomalies with high scores. This last fact is fundamental in anomaly detection in order to distinguish them easily from the background without any posterior processing. An extensive set of simulations have been made using different anomaly detection algorithms, comparing their performances and efficiencies using several extra metrics in order to complement ROC curves analysis. Results support our proposal and demonstrate that ROC curves do not provide a good visualization of detection performances for themselves. Moreover, a figure of merit has been proposed in this paper which encompasses in a single global metric all the measures yielded for the proposed additional metrics. Therefore, this figure, named Detection Efficiency (DE), takes into account several crucial types of performance assessment that ROC curves do not consider. Results demonstrate that algorithms with the best detection performances according to ROC curves do not have the highest DE values. Consequently, the recommendation of using extra measures to properly evaluate performances have been supported and justified by

  4. Speed Bump Detection Using Accelerometric Features: A Genetic Algorithm Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Celaya-Padilla

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the current challenges of the Smart City, traffic management and maintenance are of utmost importance. Road surface monitoring is currently performed by humans, but the road surface condition is one of the main indicators of road quality, and it may drastically affect fuel consumption and the safety of both drivers and pedestrians. Abnormalities in the road, such as manholes and potholes, can cause accidents when not identified by the drivers. Furthermore, human-induced abnormalities, such as speed bumps, could also cause accidents. In addition, while said obstacles ought to be signalized according to specific road regulation, they are not always correctly labeled. Therefore, we developed a novel method for the detection of road abnormalities (i.e., speed bumps. This method makes use of a gyro, an accelerometer, and a GPS sensor mounted in a car. After having the vehicle cruise through several streets, data is retrieved from the sensors. Then, using a cross-validation strategy, a genetic algorithm is used to find a logistic model that accurately detects road abnormalities. The proposed model had an accuracy of 0.9714 in a blind evaluation, with a false positive rate smaller than 0.018, and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.9784. This methodology has the potential to detect speed bumps in quasi real-time conditions, and can be used to construct a real-time surface monitoring system.

  5. An effective detection algorithm for region duplication forgery in digital images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Fatih; Bal, Abdullah; Cukur, Huseyin

    2016-04-01

    Powerful image editing tools are very common and easy to use these days. This situation may cause some forgeries by adding or removing some information on the digital images. In order to detect these types of forgeries such as region duplication, we present an effective algorithm based on fixed-size block computation and discrete wavelet transform (DWT). In this approach, the original image is divided into fixed-size blocks, and then wavelet transform is applied for dimension reduction. Each block is processed by Fourier Transform and represented by circle regions. Four features are extracted from each block. Finally, the feature vectors are lexicographically sorted, and duplicated image blocks are detected according to comparison metric results. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm presents computational efficiency due to fixed-size circle block architecture.

  6. A sampling algorithm for segregation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henshall John

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Methods for detecting Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL without markers have generally used iterative peeling algorithms for determining genotype probabilities. These algorithms have considerable shortcomings in complex pedigrees. A Monte Carlo Markov chain (MCMC method which samples the pedigree of the whole population jointly is described. Simultaneous sampling of the pedigree was achieved by sampling descent graphs using the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. A descent graph describes the inheritance state of each allele and provides pedigrees guaranteed to be consistent with Mendelian sampling. Sampling descent graphs overcomes most, if not all, of the limitations incurred by iterative peeling algorithms. The algorithm was able to find the QTL in most of the simulated populations. However, when the QTL was not modeled or found then its effect was ascribed to the polygenic component. No QTL were detected when they were not simulated.

  7. Detection of bilingual plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Zamora R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a computational algorithm for text alignment in the task of automatically detecting bilingual plagiarism is proposed. The method of detecting bilingual plagiarism uses machine translation services, in order to have the documents in question a base language, and apply techniques of monolingual plagiarism. The algorithm was tested with The corpus belonging to the International Competition Plagiarism 2013, with the objective of evaluating the step of detecting monolingual plagiarism. Besides it’s experimented with the collection of texts EUROPARL, a collection of documents pertaining to the meeting the European Parliament, specifically it´s to English and Spanish documents.

  8. The Automated Assessment of Postural Stability: Balance Detection Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Alessandro; Glass, Stephen M; Tucker, Carole; Obeid, Iyad

    2017-12-01

    Impaired balance is a common indicator of mild traumatic brain injury, concussion and musculoskeletal injury. Given the clinical relevance of such injuries, especially in military settings, it is paramount to develop more accurate and reliable on-field evaluation tools. This work presents the design and implementation of the automated assessment of postural stability (AAPS) system, for on-field evaluations following concussion. The AAPS is a computer system, based on inexpensive off-the-shelf components and custom software, that aims to automatically and reliably evaluate balance deficits, by replicating a known on-field clinical test, namely, the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). The AAPS main innovation is its balance error detection algorithm that has been designed to acquire data from a Microsoft Kinect ® sensor and convert them into clinically-relevant BESS scores, using the same detection criteria defined by the original BESS test. In order to assess the AAPS balance evaluation capability, a total of 15 healthy subjects (7 male, 8 female) were required to perform the BESS test, while simultaneously being tracked by a Kinect 2.0 sensor and a professional-grade motion capture system (Qualisys AB, Gothenburg, Sweden). High definition videos with BESS trials were scored off-line by three experienced observers for reference scores. AAPS performance was assessed by comparing the AAPS automated scores to those derived by three experienced observers. Our results show that the AAPS error detection algorithm presented here can accurately and precisely detect balance deficits with performance levels that are comparable to those of experienced medical personnel. Specifically, agreement levels between the AAPS algorithm and the human average BESS scores ranging between 87.9% (single-leg on foam) and 99.8% (double-leg on firm ground) were detected. Moreover, statistically significant differences in balance scores were not detected by an ANOVA test with alpha equal to 0

  9. A Robust Vision-based Runway Detection and Tracking Algorithm for Automatic UAV Landing

    KAUST Repository

    Abu Jbara, Khaled F.

    2015-05-01

    This work presents a novel real-time algorithm for runway detection and tracking applied to the automatic takeoff and landing of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The algorithm is based on a combination of segmentation based region competition and the minimization of a specific energy function to detect and identify the runway edges from streaming video data. The resulting video-based runway position estimates are updated using a Kalman Filter, which can integrate other sensory information such as position and attitude angle estimates to allow a more robust tracking of the runway under turbulence. We illustrate the performance of the proposed lane detection and tracking scheme on various experimental UAV flights conducted by the Saudi Aerospace Research Center. Results show an accurate tracking of the runway edges during the landing phase under various lighting conditions. Also, it suggests that such positional estimates would greatly improve the positional accuracy of the UAV during takeoff and landing phases. The robustness of the proposed algorithm is further validated using Hardware in the Loop simulations with diverse takeoff and landing videos generated using a commercial flight simulator.

  10. Detecting Hijacked Journals by Using Classification Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoohgin Shahri, Mona; Jazi, Mohammad Davarpanah; Borchardt, Glenn; Dadkhah, Mehdi

    2018-04-01

    Invalid journals are recent challenges in the academic world and many researchers are unacquainted with the phenomenon. The number of victims appears to be accelerating. Researchers might be suspicious of predatory journals because they have unfamiliar names, but hijacked journals are imitations of well-known, reputable journals whose websites have been hijacked. Hijacked journals issue calls for papers via generally laudatory emails that delude researchers into paying exorbitant page charges for publication in a nonexistent journal. This paper presents a method for detecting hijacked journals by using a classification algorithm. The number of published articles exposing hijacked journals is limited and most of them use simple techniques that are limited to specific journals. Hence we needed to amass Internet addresses and pertinent data for analyzing this type of attack. We inspected the websites of 104 scientific journals by using a classification algorithm that used criteria common to reputable journals. We then prepared a decision tree that we used to test five journals we knew were authentic and five we knew were hijacked.

  11. Robust and unobtrusive algorithm based on position independence for step detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, KeCheng; Li, MengYang; Luo, YiHan

    2018-04-01

    Running is becoming one of the most popular exercises among the people, monitoring steps can help users better understand their running process and improve exercise efficiency. In this paper, we design and implement a robust and unobtrusive algorithm based on position independence for step detection under real environment. It applies Butterworth filter to suppress high frequency interference and then employs the projection based on mathematics to transform system to solve the problem of unknown position of smartphone. Finally, using sliding window to suppress the false peak. The algorithm was tested for eight participants on the Android 7.0 platform. In our experiments, the results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve desired effect in spite of device pose.

  12. Perspective Effects during Reading: Evidence from Text Change-Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohan, Jason; Filik, Ruth

    2018-01-01

    We report two text change-detection studies in which we investigate the influence of reading perspective on text memory. In Experiment 1 participants read from the perspective of one of two characters in a series of short stories, and word changes were either semantically close or distant. Participants correctly reported more changes to…

  13. Spatial-time-state fusion algorithm for defect detection through eddy current pulsed thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiang; Gao, Bin; Woo, Wai Lok; Tian, Gui Yun; Xiao, Xiao Ting

    2018-05-01

    Eddy Current Pulsed Thermography (ECPT) has received extensive attention due to its high sensitive of detectability on surface and subsurface cracks. However, it remains as a difficult challenge in unsupervised detection as to identify defects without knowing any prior knowledge. This paper presents a spatial-time-state features fusion algorithm to obtain fully profile of the defects by directional scanning. The proposed method is intended to conduct features extraction by using independent component analysis (ICA) and automatic features selection embedding genetic algorithm. Finally, the optimal feature of each step is fused to obtain defects reconstruction by applying common orthogonal basis extraction (COBE) method. Experiments have been conducted to validate the study and verify the efficacy of the proposed method on blind defect detection.

  14. Algorithms for detection of objects in image sequences captured from an airborne imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasturi, Rangachar; Camps, Octavia; Tang, Yuan-Liang; Devadiga, Sadashiva; Gandhi, Tarak

    1995-01-01

    This research was initiated as a part of the effort at the NASA Ames Research Center to design a computer vision based system that can enhance the safety of navigation by aiding the pilots in detecting various obstacles on the runway during critical section of the flight such as a landing maneuver. The primary goal is the development of algorithms for detection of moving objects from a sequence of images obtained from an on-board video camera. Image regions corresponding to the independently moving objects are segmented from the background by applying constraint filtering on the optical flow computed from the initial few frames of the sequence. These detected regions are tracked over subsequent frames using a model based tracking algorithm. Position and velocity of the moving objects in the world coordinate is estimated using an extended Kalman filter. The algorithms are tested using the NASA line image sequence with six static trucks and a simulated moving truck and experimental results are described. Various limitations of the currently implemented version of the above algorithm are identified and possible solutions to build a practical working system are investigated.

  15. Development and Validation of a Spike Detection and Classification Algorithm Aimed at Implementation on Hardware Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Biffi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurons cultured in vitro on MicroElectrode Array (MEA devices connect to each other, forming a network. To study electrophysiological activity and long term plasticity effects, long period recording and spike sorter methods are needed. Therefore, on-line and real time analysis, optimization of memory use and data transmission rate improvement become necessary. We developed an algorithm for amplitude-threshold spikes detection, whose performances were verified with (a statistical analysis on both simulated and real signal and (b Big O Notation. Moreover, we developed a PCA-hierarchical classifier, evaluated on simulated and real signal. Finally we proposed a spike detection hardware design on FPGA, whose feasibility was verified in terms of CLBs number, memory occupation and temporal requirements; once realized, it will be able to execute on-line detection and real time waveform analysis, reducing data storage problems.

  16. Research on the Filtering Algorithm in Speed and Position Detection of Maglev Trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Dai

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces in brief the traction system of a permanent magnet electrodynamic suspension (EDS train. The synchronous traction mode based on long stators and track cable is described. A speed and position detection system is recommended. It is installed on board and is used as the feedback end. Restricted by the maglev train’s structure, the permanent magnet electrodynamic suspension (EDS train uses the non-contact method to detect its position. Because of the shake and the track joints, the position signal sent by the position sensor is always aberrant and noisy. To solve this problem, a linear discrete track-differentiator filtering algorithm is proposed. The filtering characters of the track-differentiator (TD and track-differentiator group are analyzed. The four series of TD are used in the signal processing unit. The result shows that the track-differentiator could have a good effect and make the traction system run normally.

  17. Cable Damage Detection System and Algorithms Using Time Domain Reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G A; Robbins, C L; Wade, K A; Souza, P R

    2009-03-24

    This report describes the hardware system and the set of algorithms we have developed for detecting damage in cables for the Advanced Development and Process Technologies (ADAPT) Program. This program is part of the W80 Life Extension Program (LEP). The system could be generalized for application to other systems in the future. Critical cables can undergo various types of damage (e.g. short circuits, open circuits, punctures, compression) that manifest as changes in the dielectric/impedance properties of the cables. For our specific problem, only one end of the cable is accessible, and no exemplars of actual damage are available. This work addresses the detection of dielectric/impedance anomalies in transient time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements on the cables. The approach is to interrogate the cable using time domain reflectometry (TDR) techniques, in which a known pulse is inserted into the cable, and reflections from the cable are measured. The key operating principle is that any important cable damage will manifest itself as an electrical impedance discontinuity that can be measured in the TDR response signal. Machine learning classification algorithms are effectively eliminated from consideration, because only a small number of cables is available for testing; so a sufficient sample size is not attainable. Nonetheless, a key requirement is to achieve very high probability of detection and very low probability of false alarm. The approach is to compare TDR signals from possibly damaged cables to signals or an empirical model derived from reference cables that are known to be undamaged. This requires that the TDR signals are reasonably repeatable from test to test on the same cable, and from cable to cable. Empirical studies show that the repeatability issue is the 'long pole in the tent' for damage detection, because it is has been difficult to achieve reasonable repeatability. This one factor dominated the project. The two-step model

  18. Multi-User Identification-Based Eye-Tracking Algorithm Using Position Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Ju Kang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new multi-user eye-tracking algorithm using position estimation. Conventional eye-tracking algorithms are typically suitable only for a single user, and thereby cannot be used for a multi-user system. Even though they can be used to track the eyes of multiple users, their detection accuracy is low and they cannot identify multiple users individually. The proposed algorithm solves these problems and enhances the detection accuracy. Specifically, the proposed algorithm adopts a classifier to detect faces for the red, green, and blue (RGB and depth images. Then, it calculates features based on the histogram of the oriented gradient for the detected facial region to identify multiple users, and selects the template that best matches the users from a pre-determined face database. Finally, the proposed algorithm extracts the final eye positions based on anatomical proportions. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm improved the average F1 score by up to 0.490, compared with benchmark algorithms.

  19. Automatic QRS complex detection algorithm designed for a novel wearable, wireless electrocardiogram recording device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saadi, Dorthe Bodholt; Egstrup, Kenneth; Branebjerg, Jens

    2012-01-01

    We have designed and optimized an automatic QRS complex detection algorithm for electrocardiogram (ECG) signals recorded with the DELTA ePatch platform. The algorithm is able to automatically switch between single-channel and multi-channel analysis mode. This preliminary study includes data from ...

  20. Airport Traffic Conflict Detection and Resolution Algorithm Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Denise R.; Chartrand, Ryan C.; Wilson, Sara R.; Commo, Sean A.; Ballard, Kathryn M.; Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.

    2016-01-01

    Two conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) algorithms for the terminal maneuvering area (TMA) were evaluated in a fast-time batch simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. One CD&R algorithm, developed at NASA, was designed to enhance surface situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential conflicts during runway, taxi, and low altitude air-to-air operations. The second algorithm, Enhanced Traffic Situation Awareness on the Airport Surface with Indications and Alerts (SURF IA), was designed to increase flight crew awareness of the runway environment and facilitate an appropriate and timely response to potential conflict situations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance of the aircraft-based CD&R algorithms during various runway, taxiway, and low altitude scenarios, multiple levels of CD&R system equipage, and various levels of horizontal position accuracy. Algorithm performance was assessed through various metrics including the collision rate, nuisance and missed alert rate, and alert toggling rate. The data suggests that, in general, alert toggling, nuisance and missed alerts, and unnecessary maneuvering occurred more frequently as the position accuracy was reduced. Collision avoidance was more effective when all of the aircraft were equipped with CD&R and maneuvered to avoid a collision after an alert was issued. In order to reduce the number of unwanted (nuisance) alerts when taxiing across a runway, a buffer is needed between the hold line and the alerting zone so alerts are not generated when an aircraft is behind the hold line. All of the results support RTCA horizontal position accuracy requirements for performing a CD&R function to reduce the likelihood and severity of runway incursions and collisions.

  1. Autopiquer - a Robust and Reliable Peak Detection Algorithm for Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, David P A; Hughes, Sam; Kilgour, Samantha L; Mackay, C Logan; Palmblad, Magnus; Tran, Bao Quoc; Goo, Young Ah; Ernst, Robert K; Clarke, David J; Goodlett, David R

    2017-02-01

    We present a simple algorithm for robust and unsupervised peak detection by determining a noise threshold in isotopically resolved mass spectrometry data. Solving this problem will greatly reduce the subjective and time-consuming manual picking of mass spectral peaks and so will prove beneficial in many research applications. The Autopiquer approach uses autocorrelation to test for the presence of (isotopic) structure in overlapping windows across the spectrum. Within each window, a noise threshold is optimized to remove the most unstructured data, whilst keeping as much of the (isotopic) structure as possible. This algorithm has been successfully demonstrated for both peak detection and spectral compression on data from many different classes of mass spectrometer and for different sample types, and this approach should also be extendible to other types of data that contain regularly spaced discrete peaks. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  2. An adaptive algorithm for the detection of microcalcifications in simulated low-dose mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiber, O.; Wanninger, F.; Führ, H.; Panzer, W.; Regulla, D.; Winkler, G.

    2003-02-01

    This paper uses the task of microcalcification detection as a benchmark problem to assess the potential for dose reduction in x-ray mammography. We present the results of a newly developed algorithm for detection of microcalcifications as a case study for a typical commercial film-screen system (Kodak Min-R 2000/2190). The first part of the paper deals with the simulation of dose reduction for film-screen mammography based on a physical model of the imaging process. Use of a more sensitive film-screen system is expected to result in additional smoothing of the image. We introduce two different models of that behaviour, called moderate and strong smoothing. We then present an adaptive, model-based microcalcification detection algorithm. Comparing detection results with ground-truth images obtained under the supervision of an expert radiologist allows us to establish the soundness of the detection algorithm. We measure the performance on the dose-reduced images in order to assess the loss of information due to dose reduction. It turns out that the smoothing behaviour has a strong influence on detection rates. For moderate smoothing, a dose reduction by 25% has no serious influence on the detection results, whereas a dose reduction by 50% already entails a marked deterioration of the performance. Strong smoothing generally leads to an unacceptable loss of image quality. The test results emphasize the impact of the more sensitive film-screen system and its characteristics on the problem of assessing the potential for dose reduction in film-screen mammography. The general approach presented in the paper can be adapted to fully digital mammography.

  3. An adaptive algorithm for the detection of microcalcifications in simulated low-dose mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treiber, O; Wanninger, F; Fuehr, H; Panzer, W; Regulla, D; Winkler, G

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses the task of microcalcification detection as a benchmark problem to assess the potential for dose reduction in x-ray mammography. We present the results of a newly developed algorithm for detection of microcalcifications as a case study for a typical commercial film-screen system (Kodak Min-R 2000/2190). The first part of the paper deals with the simulation of dose reduction for film-screen mammography based on a physical model of the imaging process. Use of a more sensitive film-screen system is expected to result in additional smoothing of the image. We introduce two different models of that behaviour, called moderate and strong smoothing. We then present an adaptive, model-based microcalcification detection algorithm. Comparing detection results with ground-truth images obtained under the supervision of an expert radiologist allows us to establish the soundness of the detection algorithm. We measure the performance on the dose-reduced images in order to assess the loss of information due to dose reduction. It turns out that the smoothing behaviour has a strong influence on detection rates. For moderate smoothing, a dose reduction by 25% has no serious influence on the detection results, whereas a dose reduction by 50% already entails a marked deterioration of the performance. Strong smoothing generally leads to an unacceptable loss of image quality. The test results emphasize the impact of the more sensitive film-screen system and its characteristics on the problem of assessing the potential for dose reduction in film-screen mammography. The general approach presented in the paper can be adapted to fully digital mammography

  4. Comparison of Clustering Algorithms for the Identification of Topics on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjori N. M. Klinczak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Topic Identification in Social Networks has become an important task when dealing with event detection, particularly when global communities are affected. In order to attack this problem, text processing techniques and machine learning algorithms have been extensively used. In this paper we compare four clustering algorithms – k-means, k-medoids, DBSCAN and NMF (Non-negative Matrix Factorization – in order to detect topics related to textual messages obtained from Twitter. The algorithms were applied to a database initially composed by tweets having hashtags related to the recent Nepal earthquake as initial context. Obtained results suggest that the NMF clustering algorithm presents superior results, providing simpler clusters that are also easier to interpret.

  5. Rapid Change Detection Algorithm for Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, U.; Thunig, H.; Ehlers, M.; Reinartz, P.

    2012-07-01

    This paper focuses on change detection applications in areas where catastrophic events took place which resulted in rapid destruction especially of manmade objects. Standard methods for automated change detection prove not to be sufficient; therefore a new method was developed and tested. The presented method allows a fast detection and visualization of change in areas of crisis or catastrophes. While often new methods of remote sensing are developed without user oriented aspects, organizations and authorities are not able to use these methods because of absence of remote sensing know how. Therefore a semi-automated procedure was developed. Within a transferable framework, the developed algorithm can be implemented for a set of remote sensing data among different investigation areas. Several case studies are the base for the retrieved results. Within a coarse dividing into statistical parts and the segmentation in meaningful objects, the framework is able to deal with different types of change. By means of an elaborated Temporal Change Index (TCI) only panchromatic datasets are used to extract areas which are destroyed, areas which were not affected and in addition areas where rebuilding has already started.

  6. The freetext matching algorithm: a computer program to extract diagnoses and causes of death from unstructured text in electronic health records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Anoop D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electronic health records are invaluable for medical research, but much information is stored as free text rather than in a coded form. For example, in the UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD, causes of death and test results are sometimes recorded only in free text. Free text can be difficult to use for research if it requires time-consuming manual review. Our aim was to develop an automated method for extracting coded information from free text in electronic patient records. Methods We reviewed the electronic patient records in GPRD of a random sample of 3310 patients who died in 2001, to identify the cause of death. We developed a computer program called the Freetext Matching Algorithm (FMA to map diagnoses in text to the Read Clinical Terminology. The program uses lookup tables of synonyms and phrase patterns to identify diagnoses, dates and selected test results. We tested it on two random samples of free text from GPRD (1000 texts associated with death in 2001, and 1000 general texts from cases and controls in a coronary artery disease study, comparing the output to the U.S. National Library of Medicine’s MetaMap program and the gold standard of manual review. Results Among 3310 patients registered in the GPRD who died in 2001, the cause of death was recorded in coded form in 38.1% of patients, and in the free text alone in 19.4%. On the 1000 texts associated with death, FMA coded 683 of the 735 positive diagnoses, with precision (positive predictive value 98.4% (95% confidence interval (CI 97.2, 99.2 and recall (sensitivity 92.9% (95% CI 90.8, 94.7. On the general sample, FMA detected 346 of the 447 positive diagnoses, with precision 91.5% (95% CI 88.3, 94.1 and recall 77.4% (95% CI 73.2, 81.2, which was similar to MetaMap. Conclusions We have developed an algorithm to extract coded information from free text in GP records with good precision. It may facilitate research using free text in electronic patient

  7. Track-before-detect procedures for detection of extended object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Ling

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we present a particle filter (PF-based track-before-detect (PF TBD procedure for detection of extended objects whose shape is modeled by an ellipse. By incorporating of an existence variable and the target shape parameters into the state vector, the proposed algorithm performs joint estimation of the target presence/absence, trajectory and shape parameters under unknown nuisance parameters (target power and noise variance. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has good detection and tracking capabilities for extended objects.

  8. Ring Fusion of Fisheye Images Based on Corner Detection Algorithm for Around View Monitoring System of Intelligent Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the visual effect of the around view monitor (AVM, we propose a novel ring fusion method to reduce the brightness difference among fisheye images and achieve a smooth transition around stitching seam. Firstly, an integrated corner detection is proposed to automatically detect corner points for image registration. Then, we use equalization processing to reduce the brightness among images. And we match the color of images according to the ring fusion method. Finally, we use distance weight to blend images around stitching seam. Through this algorithm, we have made a Matlab toolbox for image blending. 100% of the required corner is accurately and fully automatically detected. The transition around the stitching seam is very smooth, with no obvious stitching trace.

  9. An improved algorithm for automatic detection of saccades in eye movement data and for calculating saccade parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, F; Mackeben, M; Schröder-Preikschat, W

    2010-08-01

    This analysis of time series of eye movements is a saccade-detection algorithm that is based on an earlier algorithm. It achieves substantial improvements by using an adaptive-threshold model instead of fixed thresholds and using the eye-movement acceleration signal. This has four advantages: (1) Adaptive thresholds are calculated automatically from the preceding acceleration data for detecting the beginning of a saccade, and thresholds are modified during the saccade. (2) The monotonicity of the position signal during the saccade, together with the acceleration with respect to the thresholds, is used to reliably determine the end of the saccade. (3) This allows differentiation between saccades following the main-sequence and non-main-sequence saccades. (4) Artifacts of various kinds can be detected and eliminated. The algorithm is demonstrated by applying it to human eye movement data (obtained by EOG) recorded during driving a car. A second demonstration of the algorithm detects microsleep episodes in eye movement data.

  10. Anomaly Detection using the "Isolation Forest" algorithm

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Anomaly detection can provide clues about an outlying minority class in your data: hackers in a set of network events, fraudsters in a set of credit card transactions, or exotic particles in a set of high-energy collisions. In this talk, we analyze a real dataset of breast tissue biopsies, with malignant results forming the minority class. The "Isolation Forest" algorithm finds anomalies by deliberately “overfitting” models that memorize each data point. Since outliers have more empty space around them, they take fewer steps to memorize. Intuitively, a house in the country can be identified simply as “that house out by the farm”, while a house in the city needs a longer description like “that house in Brooklyn, near Prospect Park, on Union Street, between the firehouse and the library, not far from the French restaurant”. We first use anomaly detection to find outliers in the biopsy data, then apply traditional predictive modeling to discover rules that separate anomalies from normal data...

  11. Plagiarism Detection Algorithm for Source Code in Computer Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Xu, Chan; Ouyang, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, computer programming is getting more necessary in the course of program design in college education. However, the trick of plagiarizing plus a little modification exists among some students' home works. It's not easy for teachers to judge if there's plagiarizing in source code or not. Traditional detection algorithms cannot fit this…

  12. Visual Saliency Models for Text Detection in Real World.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renwu Gao

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the degree of saliency of texts in natural scenes using visual saliency models. A large scale scene image database with pixel level ground truth is created for this purpose. Using this scene image database and five state-of-the-art models, visual saliency maps that represent the degree of saliency of the objects are calculated. The receiver operating characteristic curve is employed in order to evaluate the saliency of scene texts, which is calculated by visual saliency models. A visualization of the distribution of scene texts and non-texts in the space constructed by three kinds of saliency maps, which are calculated using Itti's visual saliency model with intensity, color and orientation features, is given. This visualization of distribution indicates that text characters are more salient than their non-text neighbors, and can be captured from the background. Therefore, scene texts can be extracted from the scene images. With this in mind, a new visual saliency architecture, named hierarchical visual saliency model, is proposed. Hierarchical visual saliency model is based on Itti's model and consists of two stages. In the first stage, Itti's model is used to calculate the saliency map, and Otsu's global thresholding algorithm is applied to extract the salient region that we are interested in. In the second stage, Itti's model is applied to the salient region to calculate the final saliency map. An experimental evaluation demonstrates that the proposed model outperforms Itti's model in terms of captured scene texts.

  13. Towards Real-Time Detection of Gait Events on Different Terrains Using Time-Frequency Analysis and Peak Heuristics Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Ji, Ning; Samuel, Oluwarotimi Williams; Cao, Yafei; Zhao, Zheyi; Chen, Shixiong; Li, Guanglin

    2016-10-01

    Real-time detection of gait events can be applied as a reliable input to control drop foot correction devices and lower-limb prostheses. Among the different sensors used to acquire the signals associated with walking for gait event detection, the accelerometer is considered as a preferable sensor due to its convenience of use, small size, low cost, reliability, and low power consumption. Based on the acceleration signals, different algorithms have been proposed to detect toe off (TO) and heel strike (HS) gait events in previous studies. While these algorithms could achieve a relatively reasonable performance in gait event detection, they suffer from limitations such as poor real-time performance and are less reliable in the cases of up stair and down stair terrains. In this study, a new algorithm is proposed to detect the gait events on three walking terrains in real-time based on the analysis of acceleration jerk signals with a time-frequency method to obtain gait parameters, and then the determination of the peaks of jerk signals using peak heuristics. The performance of the newly proposed algorithm was evaluated with eight healthy subjects when they were walking on level ground, up stairs, and down stairs. Our experimental results showed that the mean F1 scores of the proposed algorithm were above 0.98 for HS event detection and 0.95 for TO event detection on the three terrains. This indicates that the current algorithm would be robust and accurate for gait event detection on different terrains. Findings from the current study suggest that the proposed method may be a preferable option in some applications such as drop foot correction devices and leg prostheses.

  14. A novel ship CFAR detection algorithm based on adaptive parameter enhancement and wake-aided detection in SAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Siqi; Ren, Kan; Lu, Dongming; Gu, Guohua; Chen, Qian; Lu, Guojun

    2018-03-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is an indispensable and useful method for marine monitoring. With the increase of SAR sensors, high resolution images can be acquired and contain more target structure information, such as more spatial details etc. This paper presents a novel adaptive parameter transform (APT) domain constant false alarm rate (CFAR) to highlight targets. The whole method is based on the APT domain value. Firstly, the image is mapped to the new transform domain by the algorithm. Secondly, the false candidate target pixels are screened out by the CFAR detector to highlight the target ships. Thirdly, the ship pixels are replaced by the homogeneous sea pixels. And then, the enhanced image is processed by Niblack algorithm to obtain the wake binary image. Finally, normalized Hough transform (NHT) is used to detect wakes in the binary image, as a verification of the presence of the ships. Experiments on real SAR images validate that the proposed transform does enhance the target structure and improve the contrast of the image. The algorithm has a good performance in the ship and ship wake detection.

  15. Interactions between pacing and arrhythmia detection algorithms in the dual chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkman, B; Wellens, H J

    2001-09-01

    Dual chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) combines the possibility to detect and treat ventricular and atrial arrhythmias with the possibility of modern heart stimulation techniques. Advanced pacing algorithms together with extended arrhythmia detection capabilities can give rise to new types of device-device interactions. Some of the possible interactions are illustrated by four cases documented in four models of dual chamber ICDs. Functioning of new features in dual chamber devices is influenced by the fact that the pacemaker is not a separate device but a part of the ICD system and that both are being used in a patient with arrhythmia. Programming measures are suggested to optimize use of new pacing algorithms while maintaining correct arrhythmia detection.

  16. An Algorithm for Real-Time Pulse Waveform Segmentation and Artifact Detection in Photoplethysmograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Christoph; Domer, Benno; Wibmer, Thomas; Penzel, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Photoplethysmography has been used in a wide range of medical devices for measuring oxygen saturation, cardiac output, assessing autonomic function, and detecting peripheral vascular disease. Artifacts can render the photoplethysmogram (PPG) useless. Thus, algorithms capable of identifying artifacts are critically important. However, the published PPG algorithms are limited in algorithm and study design. Therefore, the authors developed a novel embedded algorithm for real-time pulse waveform (PWF) segmentation and artifact detection based on a contour analysis in the time domain. This paper provides an overview about PWF and artifact classifications, presents the developed PWF analysis, and demonstrates the implementation on a 32-bit ARM core microcontroller. The PWF analysis was validated with data records from 63 subjects acquired in a sleep laboratory, ergometry laboratory, and intensive care unit in equal parts. The output of the algorithm was compared with harmonized experts' annotations of the PPG with a total duration of 31.5 h. The algorithm achieved a beat-to-beat comparison sensitivity of 99.6%, specificity of 90.5%, precision of 98.5%, and accuracy of 98.3%. The interrater agreement expressed as Cohen's kappa coefficient was 0.927 and as F-measure was 0.990. In conclusion, the PWF analysis seems to be a suitable method for PPG signal quality determination, real-time annotation, data compression, and calculation of additional pulse wave metrics such as amplitude, duration, and rise time.

  17. Signal Detection Framework Using Semantic Text Mining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarsan, Sithu D.

    2009-01-01

    Signal detection is a challenging task for regulatory and intelligence agencies. Subject matter experts in those agencies analyze documents, generally containing narrative text in a time bound manner for signals by identification, evaluation and confirmation, leading to follow-up action e.g., recalling a defective product or public advisory for…

  18. INVESTIGATION OF NEURAL NETWORK ALGORITHM FOR DETECTION OF NETWORK HOST ANOMALIES IN THE AUTOMATED SEARCH FOR XSS VULNERABILITIES AND SQL INJECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. D. Shabalin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A problem of aberrant behavior detection for network communicating computer is discussed. A novel approach based on dynamic response of computer is introduced. The computer is suggested as a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO plant. To characterize dynamic response of the computer on incoming requests a correlation between input data rate and observed output response (outgoing data rate and performance metrics is used. To distinguish normal and aberrant behavior of the computer one-class neural network classifieris used. General idea of the algorithm is shortly described. Configuration of network testbed for experiments with real attacks and their detection is presented (the automated search for XSS and SQL injections. Real found-XSS and SQL injection attack software was used to model the intrusion scenario. It would be expectable that aberrant behavior of the server will reveal itself by some instantaneous correlation response which will be significantly different from any of normal ones. It is evident that correlation picture of attacks from different malware running, the site homepage overriding on the server (so called defacing, hardware and software failures will differ from correlation picture of normal functioning. Intrusion detection algorithm is investigated to estimate false positive and false negative rates in relation to algorithm parameters. The importance of correlation width value and threshold value selection was emphasized. False positive rate was estimated along the time series of experimental data. Some ideas about enhancement of the algorithm quality and robustness were mentioned.

  19. An optimized outlier detection algorithm for jury-based grading of engineering design projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Espensen, Christina; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2016-01-01

    This work characterizes and optimizes an outlier detection algorithm to identify potentially invalid scores produced by jury members while grading engineering design projects. The paper describes the original algorithm and the associated adjudication process in detail. The impact of the various...... (the base rule and the three additional conditions) play a role in the algorithm's performance and should be included in the algorithm. Because there is significant interaction between the base rule and the additional conditions, many acceptable combinations that balance the FPR and FNR can be found......, but no true optimum seems to exist. The performance of the best optimizations and the original algorithm are similar. Therefore, it should be possible to choose new coefficient values for jury populations in other cultures and contexts logically and empirically without a full optimization as long...

  20. Validation of vision-based obstacle detection algorithms for low-altitude helicopter flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suorsa, Raymond; Sridhar, Banavar

    1991-01-01

    A validation facility being used at the NASA Ames Research Center is described which is aimed at testing vision based obstacle detection and range estimation algorithms suitable for low level helicopter flight. The facility is capable of processing hundreds of frames of calibrated multicamera 6 degree-of-freedom motion image sequencies, generating calibrated multicamera laboratory images using convenient window-based software, and viewing range estimation results from different algorithms along with truth data using powerful window-based visualization software.

  1. Performance of target detection algorithm in compressive sensing miniature ultraspectral imaging compressed sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedalin, Daniel; Oiknine, Yaniv; August, Isaac; Blumberg, Dan G.; Rotman, Stanley R.; Stern, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    Compressive sensing theory was proposed to deal with the high quantity of measurements demanded by traditional hyperspectral systems. Recently, a compressive spectral imaging technique dubbed compressive sensing miniature ultraspectral imaging (CS-MUSI) was presented. This system uses a voltage controlled liquid crystal device to create multiplexed hyperspectral cubes. We evaluate the utility of the data captured using the CS-MUSI system for the task of target detection. Specifically, we compare the performance of the matched filter target detection algorithm in traditional hyperspectral systems and in CS-MUSI multiplexed hyperspectral cubes. We found that the target detection algorithm performs similarly in both cases, despite the fact that the CS-MUSI data is up to an order of magnitude less than that in conventional hyperspectral cubes. Moreover, the target detection is approximately an order of magnitude faster in CS-MUSI data.

  2. A Plane Target Detection Algorithm in Remote Sensing Images based on Deep Learning Network Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuxin, Li; Zhilong, Zhang; Biao, Li

    2018-01-01

    Plane is an important target category in remote sensing targets and it is of great value to detect the plane targets automatically. As remote imaging technology developing continuously, the resolution of the remote sensing image has been very high and we can get more detailed information for detecting the remote sensing targets automatically. Deep learning network technology is the most advanced technology in image target detection and recognition, which provided great performance improvement in the field of target detection and recognition in the everyday scenes. We combined the technology with the application in the remote sensing target detection and proposed an algorithm with end to end deep network, which can learn from the remote sensing images to detect the targets in the new images automatically and robustly. Our experiments shows that the algorithm can capture the feature information of the plane target and has better performance in target detection with the old methods.

  3. Detective text of post-modernism: precedential phenomena as linguacultural markers of intertexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuova Ruzana Hamedovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Detective postmodern text is characterized by active functioning of gaming modality, which is partly responsible for its inclusion in the semantic space of precedent phenomena. Precedential phenomena mark elements of linguaculture and intertextuality as one of the important features of the postmodern age. Dual transformation, which is subjected to precedent phenomena determines ultimately receptive-interpretive activity of the reader: producing text simulates certain perception through the signs of the text of the addresser and the recipient creates a new text according to their own ideas about the text-addresser and the author’s vision. Polyfunctionality of postmodern text is determined by the presence in it of precedent phenomena and polyvariety of interpretations of detective texts due to the interaction with the case genre that is reflected in the author’s game with meanings. Game modality focused on comic effect by binding the text and contrasting concepts, which helps the recipient to render artistic images, characters and plot situations, strengthening the vitality of precedent phenomena. In detective novels by Boris Akunin texts and precedent names are widely used, provoking the reader to intellectual activity and, thus, involving in the interpretation of the text of its common cultural postmodern experience.

  4. Defect-detection algorithm for noncontact acoustic inspection using spectrum entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Kazuko; Akamatsu, Ryo; Sugimoto, Tsuneyoshi; Utagawa, Noriyuki; Kuroda, Chitose; Katakura, Kageyoshi

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, the detachment of concrete from bridges or tunnels and the degradation of concrete structures have become serious social problems. The importance of inspection, repair, and updating is recognized in measures against degradation. We have so far studied the noncontact acoustic inspection method using airborne sound and the laser Doppler vibrometer. In this method, depending on the surface state (reflectance, dirt, etc.), the quantity of the light of the returning laser decreases and optical noise resulting from the leakage of light reception arises. Some influencing factors are the stability of the output of the laser Doppler vibrometer, the low reflective characteristic of the measurement surface, the diffused reflection characteristic, measurement distance, and laser irradiation angle. If defect detection depends only on the vibration energy ratio since the frequency characteristic of the optical noise resembles white noise, the detection of optical noise resulting from the leakage of light reception may indicate a defective part. Therefore, in this work, the combination of the vibrational energy ratio and spectrum entropy is used to judge whether a measured point is healthy or defective or an abnormal measurement point. An algorithm that enables more vivid detection of a defective part is proposed. When our technique was applied in an experiment with real concrete structures, the defective part could be extracted more vividly and the validity of our proposed algorithm was confirmed.

  5. A New Algorithm for Detecting Cloud Height using OMPS/LP Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong; DeLand, Matthew; Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2016-01-01

    The Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite Limb Profiler (OMPS/LP) ozone product requires the determination of cloud height for each event to establish the lower boundary of the profile for the retrieval algorithm. We have created a revised cloud detection algorithm for LP measurements that uses the spectral dependence of the vertical gradient in radiance between two wavelengths in the visible and near-IR spectral regions. This approach provides better discrimination between clouds and aerosols than results obtained using a single wavelength. Observed LP cloud height values show good agreement with coincident Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) measurements.

  6. Sum of the Magnitude for Hard Decision Decoding Algorithm Based on Loop Update Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiahui; Zhao, Danfeng; Tian, Hai; Zhang, Liang

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of non-binary low-density parity check codes (LDPC) hard decision decoding algorithm and to reduce the complexity of decoding, a sum of the magnitude for hard decision decoding algorithm based on loop update detection is proposed. This will also ensure the reliability, stability and high transmission rate of 5G mobile communication. The algorithm is based on the hard decision decoding algorithm (HDA) and uses the soft information from the channel to calculate the reliability, while the sum of the variable nodes’ (VN) magnitude is excluded for computing the reliability of the parity checks. At the same time, the reliability information of the variable node is considered and the loop update detection algorithm is introduced. The bit corresponding to the error code word is flipped multiple times, before this is searched in the order of most likely error probability to finally find the correct code word. Simulation results show that the performance of one of the improved schemes is better than the weighted symbol flipping (WSF) algorithm under different hexadecimal numbers by about 2.2 dB and 2.35 dB at the bit error rate (BER) of 10−5 over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, respectively. Furthermore, the average number of decoding iterations is significantly reduced. PMID:29342963

  7. Sum of the Magnitude for Hard Decision Decoding Algorithm Based on Loop Update Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiahui; Zhao, Danfeng; Tian, Hai; Zhang, Liang

    2018-01-15

    In order to improve the performance of non-binary low-density parity check codes (LDPC) hard decision decoding algorithm and to reduce the complexity of decoding, a sum of the magnitude for hard decision decoding algorithm based on loop update detection is proposed. This will also ensure the reliability, stability and high transmission rate of 5G mobile communication. The algorithm is based on the hard decision decoding algorithm (HDA) and uses the soft information from the channel to calculate the reliability, while the sum of the variable nodes' (VN) magnitude is excluded for computing the reliability of the parity checks. At the same time, the reliability information of the variable node is considered and the loop update detection algorithm is introduced. The bit corresponding to the error code word is flipped multiple times, before this is searched in the order of most likely error probability to finally find the correct code word. Simulation results show that the performance of one of the improved schemes is better than the weighted symbol flipping (WSF) algorithm under different hexadecimal numbers by about 2.2 dB and 2.35 dB at the bit error rate (BER) of 10 -5 over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, respectively. Furthermore, the average number of decoding iterations is significantly reduced.

  8. Dynamic Water Surface Detection Algorithm Applied on PROBA-V Multispectral Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Bertels

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water body detection worldwide using spaceborne remote sensing is a challenging task. A global scale multi-temporal and multi-spectral image analysis method for water body detection was developed. The PROBA-V microsatellite has been fully operational since December 2013 and delivers daily near-global synthesis with a spatial resolution of 1 km and 333 m. The Red, Near-InfRared (NIR and Short Wave InfRared (SWIR bands of the atmospherically corrected 10-day synthesis images are first Hue, Saturation and Value (HSV color transformed and subsequently used in a decision tree classification for water body detection. To minimize commission errors four additional data layers are used: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Water Body Potential Mask (WBPM, Permanent Glacier Mask (PGM and Volcanic Soil Mask (VSM. Threshold values on the hue and value bands, expressed by a parabolic function, are used to detect the water bodies. Beside the water bodies layer, a quality layer, based on the water bodies occurrences, is available in the output product. The performance of the Water Bodies Detection Algorithm (WBDA was assessed using Landsat 8 scenes over 15 regions selected worldwide. A mean Commission Error (CE of 1.5% was obtained while a mean Omission Error (OE of 15.4% was obtained for minimum Water Surface Ratio (WSR = 0.5 and drops to 9.8% for minimum WSR = 0.6. Here, WSR is defined as the fraction of the PROBA-V pixel covered by water as derived from high spatial resolution images, e.g., Landsat 8. Both the CE = 1.5% and OE = 9.8% (WSR = 0.6 fall within the user requirements of 15%. The WBDA is fully operational in the Copernicus Global Land Service and products are freely available.

  9. Structure and performance of a real-time algorithm to detect tsunami or tsunami-like alert conditions based on sea-level records analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bressan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to present an original real-time algorithm devised for detection of tsunami or tsunami-like waves we call TEDA (Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm, and to introduce a methodology to evaluate its performance. TEDA works on the sea level records of a single station and implements two distinct modules running concurrently: one to assess the presence of tsunami waves ("tsunami detection" and the other to identify high-amplitude long waves ("secure detection". Both detection methods are based on continuously updated time functions depending on a number of parameters that can be varied according to the application. In order to select the most adequate parameter setting for a given station, a methodology to evaluate TEDA performance has been devised, that is based on a number of indicators and that is simple to use. In this paper an example of TEDA application is given by using data from a tide gauge located at the Adak Island in Alaska, USA, that resulted in being quite suitable since it recorded several tsunamis in the last years using the sampling rate of 1 min.

  10. A new automated quantification algorithm for the detection and evaluation of focal liver lesions with contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatos, Ilias; Tsantis, Stavros; Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Skouroliakou, Aikaterini; Theotokas, Ioannis; Zoumpoulis, Pavlos; Hazle, John D; Kagadis, George C

    2015-07-01

    Detect and classify focal liver lesions (FLLs) from contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging by means of an automated quantification algorithm. The proposed algorithm employs a sophisticated segmentation method to detect and contour focal lesions from 52 CEUS video sequences (30 benign and 22 malignant). Lesion detection involves wavelet transform zero crossings utilization as an initialization step to the Markov random field model toward the lesion contour extraction. After FLL detection across frames, time intensity curve (TIC) is computed which provides the contrast agents' behavior at all vascular phases with respect to adjacent parenchyma for each patient. From each TIC, eight features were automatically calculated and employed into the support vector machines (SVMs) classification algorithm in the design of the image analysis model. With regard to FLLs detection accuracy, all lesions detected had an average overlap value of 0.89 ± 0.16 with manual segmentations for all CEUS frame-subsets included in the study. Highest classification accuracy from the SVM model was 90.3%, misdiagnosing three benign and two malignant FLLs with sensitivity and specificity values of 93.1% and 86.9%, respectively. The proposed quantification system that employs FLLs detection and classification algorithms may be of value to physicians as a second opinion tool for avoiding unnecessary invasive procedures.

  11. An Enhanced Satellite-Based Algorithm for Detecting and Tracking Dust Outbreaks by Means of SEVIRI Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marchese

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dust outbreaks are meteorological phenomena of great interest for scientists and authorities (because of their impact on the climate, environment, and human activities, which may be detected, monitored, and characterized from space using different methods and procedures. Among the recent dust detection algorithms, the RSTDUST multi-temporal technique has provided good results in different geographic areas (e.g., Mediterranean basin; Arabian Peninsula, exhibiting a better performance than traditional split window methods, in spite of some limitations. In this study, we present an optimized configuration of this technique, which better exploits data provided by Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI aboard Meteosat Second Generation (MSG satellites to address those issues (e.g., sensitivity reduction over arid and semi-arid regions; dependence on some meteorological clouds. Three massive dust events affecting Europe and the Mediterranean basin in May 2008/2010 are analysed in this work, using information provided by some independent and well-established aerosol products to assess the achieved results. The study shows that the proposed algorithm, christened eRSTDUST (i.e., enhanced RSTDUST, which provides qualitative information about dust outbreaks, is capable of increasing the trade-off between reliability and sensitivity. The results encourage further experimentations of this method in other periods of the year, also exploiting data provided by different satellite sensors, for better evaluating the advantages arising from the use of this dust detection technique in operational scenarios.

  12. Development and testing of an algorithm to detect implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Bruce D; Gillberg, Jeffrey M; Wood, Mark A; Vijayaraman, Pugazhendhi; Shepard, Richard K; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A

    2006-02-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) lead failures often present as inappropriate shock therapy. An algorithm that can reliably discriminate between ventricular tachyarrhythmias and noise due to lead failure may prevent patient discomfort and anxiety and avoid device-induced proarrhythmia by preventing inappropriate ICD shocks. The goal of this analysis was to test an ICD tachycardia detection algorithm that differentiates noise due to lead failure from ventricular tachyarrhythmias. We tested an algorithm that uses a measure of the ventricular intracardiac electrogram baseline to discriminate the sinus rhythm isoelectric line from the right ventricular coil-can (i.e., far-field) electrogram during oversensing of noise caused by a lead failure. The baseline measure was defined as the product of the sum (mV) and standard deviation (mV) of the voltage samples for a 188-ms window centered on each sensed electrogram. If the minimum baseline measure of the last 12 beats was algorithm to detect lead failures. The minimum baseline measure for the 24 lead failure episodes (0.28 +/- 0.34 mV-mV) was smaller than the 135 ventricular tachycardia (40.8 +/- 43.0 mV-mV, P <.0001) and 55 ventricular fibrillation episodes (19.1 +/- 22.8 mV-mV, P <.05). A minimum baseline <0.35 mV-mV threshold had a sensitivity of 83% (20/24) with a 100% (190/190) specificity. A baseline measure of the far-field electrogram had a high sensitivity and specificity to detect lead failure noise compared with ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation.

  13. Chemical Sensor Systems and Associated Algorithms for Fire Detection: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Fonollosa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Indoor fire detection using gas chemical sensing has been a subject of investigation since the early nineties. This approach leverages the fact that, for certain types of fire, chemical volatiles appear before smoke particles do. Hence, systems based on chemical sensing can provide faster fire alarm responses than conventional smoke-based fire detectors. Moreover, since it is known that most casualties in fires are produced from toxic emissions rather than actual burns, gas-based fire detection could provide an additional level of safety to building occupants. In this line, since the 2000s, electrochemical cells for carbon monoxide sensing have been incorporated into fire detectors. Even systems relying exclusively on gas sensors have been explored as fire detectors. However, gas sensors respond to a large variety of volatiles beyond combustion products. As a result, chemical-based fire detectors require multivariate data processing techniques to ensure high sensitivity to fires and false alarm immunity. In this paper, we the survey toxic emissions produced in fires and defined standards for fire detection systems. We also review the state of the art of chemical sensor systems for fire detection and the associated signal and data processing algorithms. We also examine the experimental protocols used for the validation of the different approaches, as the complexity of the test measurements also impacts on reported sensitivity and specificity measures. All in all, further research and extensive test under different fire and nuisance scenarios are still required before gas-based fire detectors penetrate largely into the market. Nevertheless, the use of dynamic features and multivariate models that exploit sensor correlations seems imperative.

  14. An algorithm for leak point detection of underground pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Sup; Yoon, Dong Jin

    2004-01-01

    Leak noise is a good source to identify the exact location of a leak point of underground water pipelines. Water leak generates broadband noise from a leak location and can be propagated to both directions of water pipes. However, the necessity of long-range detection of this leak location makes to identify low-frequency acoustic waves rather than high frequency ones. Acoustic wave propagation coupled with surrounding boundaries including cast iron pipes is theoretically analyzed and the wave velocity was confirmed with experiment. The leak locations were identified both by the acoustic emission (AE) method and the cross-correlation method. In a short-range distance, both the AE method and cross-correlation method are effective to detect leak position. However, the detection for a long-range distance required a lower frequency range accelerometers only because higher frequency waves were attenuated very quickly with the increase of propagation paths. Two algorithms for the cross-correlation function were suggested, and a long-range detection has been achieved at real underground water pipelines longer than 300 m.

  15. [A cloud detection algorithm for MODIS images combining Kmeans clustering and multi-spectral threshold method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Song, Wei-Guo; Liu, Shi-Xing; Zhang, Yong-Ming; Zheng, Hong-Yang; Tian, Wei

    2011-04-01

    An improved method for detecting cloud combining Kmeans clustering and the multi-spectral threshold approach is described. On the basis of landmark spectrum analysis, MODIS data is categorized into two major types initially by Kmeans method. The first class includes clouds, smoke and snow, and the second class includes vegetation, water and land. Then a multi-spectral threshold detection is applied to eliminate interference such as smoke and snow for the first class. The method is tested with MODIS data at different time under different underlying surface conditions. By visual method to test the performance of the algorithm, it was found that the algorithm can effectively detect smaller area of cloud pixels and exclude the interference of underlying surface, which provides a good foundation for the next fire detection approach.

  16. Full-text automated detection of surgical site infections secondary to neurosurgery in Rennes, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo-Gimenez, Boris; Garcelon, Nicolas; Jarno, Pascal; Chapplain, Jean Marc; Cuggia, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The surveillance of Surgical Site Infections (SSI) contributes to the management of risk in French hospitals. Manual identification of infections is costly, time-consuming and limits the promotion of preventive procedures by the dedicated teams. The introduction of alternative methods using automated detection strategies is promising to improve this surveillance. The present study describes an automated detection strategy for SSI in neurosurgery, based on textual analysis of medical reports stored in a clinical data warehouse. The method consists firstly, of enrichment and concept extraction from full-text reports using NOMINDEX, and secondly, text similarity measurement using a vector space model. The text detection was compared to the conventional strategy based on self-declaration and to the automated detection using the diagnosis-related group database. The text-mining approach showed the best detection accuracy, with recall and precision equal to 92% and 40% respectively, and confirmed the interest of reusing full-text medical reports to perform automated detection of SSI.

  17. Shadow Detection from Very High Resoluton Satellite Image Using Grabcut Segmentation and Ratio-Band Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhim, N. M. S. M.; Mourshed, M.; Bray, M. T.

    2015-03-01

    Very-High-Resolution (VHR) satellite imagery is a powerful source of data for detecting and extracting information about urban constructions. Shadow in the VHR satellite imageries provides vital information on urban construction forms, illumination direction, and the spatial distribution of the objects that can help to further understanding of the built environment. However, to extract shadows, the automated detection of shadows from images must be accurate. This paper reviews current automatic approaches that have been used for shadow detection from VHR satellite images and comprises two main parts. In the first part, shadow concepts are presented in terms of shadow appearance in the VHR satellite imageries, current shadow detection methods, and the usefulness of shadow detection in urban environments. In the second part, we adopted two approaches which are considered current state-of-the-art shadow detection, and segmentation algorithms using WorldView-3 and Quickbird images. In the first approach, the ratios between the NIR and visible bands were computed on a pixel-by-pixel basis, which allows for disambiguation between shadows and dark objects. To obtain an accurate shadow candidate map, we further refine the shadow map after applying the ratio algorithm on the Quickbird image. The second selected approach is the GrabCut segmentation approach for examining its performance in detecting the shadow regions of urban objects using the true colour image from WorldView-3. Further refinement was applied to attain a segmented shadow map. Although the detection of shadow regions is a very difficult task when they are derived from a VHR satellite image that comprises a visible spectrum range (RGB true colour), the results demonstrate that the detection of shadow regions in the WorldView-3 image is a reasonable separation from other objects by applying the GrabCut algorithm. In addition, the derived shadow map from the Quickbird image indicates significant performance of

  18. Fast iterative censoring CFAR algorithm for ship detection from SAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dandan; Yue, Hui; Zhang, Yuan; Gao, Pengcheng

    2017-11-01

    Ship detection is one of the essential techniques for ship recognition from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. This paper presents a fast iterative detection procedure to eliminate the influence of target returns on the estimation of local sea clutter distributions for constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detectors. A fast block detector is first employed to extract potential target sub-images; and then, an iterative censoring CFAR algorithm is used to detect ship candidates from each target blocks adaptively and efficiently, where parallel detection is available, and statistical parameters of G0 distribution fitting local sea clutter well can be quickly estimated based on an integral image operator. Experimental results of TerraSAR-X images demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  19. An Implementation of RC4+ Algorithm and Zig-zag Algorithm in a Super Encryption Scheme for Text Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiman, M. A.; Amalia; Chayanie, N. I.

    2018-03-01

    Cryptography is the art and science of using mathematical methods to preserve message security. There are two types of cryptography, namely classical and modern cryptography. Nowadays, most people would rather use modern cryptography than classical cryptography because it is harder to break than the classical one. One of classical algorithm is the Zig-zag algorithm that uses the transposition technique: the original message is unreadable unless the person has the key to decrypt the message. To improve the security, the Zig-zag Cipher is combined with RC4+ Cipher which is one of the symmetric key algorithms in the form of stream cipher. The two algorithms are combined to make a super-encryption. By combining these two algorithms, the message will be harder to break by a cryptanalyst. The result showed that complexity of the combined algorithm is θ(n2 ), while the complexity of Zig-zag Cipher and RC4+ Cipher are θ(n2 ) and θ(n), respectively.

  20. Change detection algorithms for surveillance in visual iot: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, B.A.; Zafar, A.; Akbar, A.H.; Chaudhry, A.

    2018-01-01

    The VIoT (Visual Internet of Things) connects virtual information world with real world objects using sensors and pervasive computing. For video surveillance in VIoT, ChD (Change Detection) is a critical component. ChD algorithms identify regions of change in multiple images of the same scene recorded at different time intervals for video surveillance. This paper presents performance comparison of histogram thresholding and classification ChD algorithms using quantitative measures for video surveillance in VIoT based on salient features of datasets. The thresholding algorithms Otsu, Kapur, Rosin and classification methods k-means, EM (Expectation Maximization) were simulated in MATLAB using diverse datasets. For performance evaluation, the quantitative measures used include OSR (Overall Success Rate), YC (Yule’s Coefficient) and JC (Jaccard’s Coefficient), execution time and memory consumption. Experimental results showed that Kapur’s algorithm performed better for both indoor and outdoor environments with illumination changes, shadowing and medium to fast moving objects. However, it reflected degraded performance for small object size with minor changes. Otsu algorithm showed better results for indoor environments with slow to medium changes and nomadic object mobility. k-means showed good results in indoor environment with small object size producing slow change, no shadowing and scarce illumination changes. (author)

  1. Detection of uterine MMG contractions using a multiple change point estimator and the K-means cluster algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Patricio S; Nehorai, Arye; Eswaran, Hari; Lowery, Curtis L; Preissl, Hubert

    2008-02-01

    We propose a single channel two-stage time-segment discriminator of uterine magnetomyogram (MMG) contractions during pregnancy. We assume that the preprocessed signals are piecewise stationary having distribution in a common family with a fixed number of parameters. Therefore, at the first stage, we propose a model-based segmentation procedure, which detects multiple change-points in the parameters of a piecewise constant time-varying autoregressive model using a robust formulation of the Schwarz information criterion (SIC) and a binary search approach. In particular, we propose a test statistic that depends on the SIC, derive its asymptotic distribution, and obtain closed-form optimal detection thresholds in the sense of the Neyman-Pearson criterion; therefore, we control the probability of false alarm and maximize the probability of change-point detection in each stage of the binary search algorithm. We compute and evaluate the relative energy variation [root mean squares (RMS)] and the dominant frequency component [first order zero crossing (FOZC)] in discriminating between time segments with and without contractions. The former consistently detects a time segment with contractions. Thus, at the second stage, we apply a nonsupervised K-means cluster algorithm to classify the detected time segments using the RMS values. We apply our detection algorithm to real MMG records obtained from ten patients admitted to the hospital for contractions with gestational ages between 31 and 40 weeks. We evaluate the performance of our detection algorithm in computing the detection and false alarm rate, respectively, using as a reference the patients' feedback. We also analyze the fusion of the decision signals from all the sensors as in the parallel distributed detection approach.

  2. Automated detection and classification of cryptographic algorithms in binary programs through machine learning

    OpenAIRE

    Hosfelt, Diane Duros

    2015-01-01

    Threats from the internet, particularly malicious software (i.e., malware) often use cryptographic algorithms to disguise their actions and even to take control of a victim's system (as in the case of ransomware). Malware and other threats proliferate too quickly for the time-consuming traditional methods of binary analysis to be effective. By automating detection and classification of cryptographic algorithms, we can speed program analysis and more efficiently combat malware. This thesis wil...

  3. A Novel Walking Detection and Step Counting Algorithm Using Unconstrained Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xiaomin; Huang, Baoqi; Qi, Guodong

    2018-01-19

    Recently, with the development of artificial intelligence technologies and the popularity of mobile devices, walking detection and step counting have gained much attention since they play an important role in the fields of equipment positioning, saving energy, behavior recognition, etc. In this paper, a novel algorithm is proposed to simultaneously detect walking motion and count steps through unconstrained smartphones in the sense that the smartphone placement is not only arbitrary but also alterable. On account of the periodicity of the walking motion and sensitivity of gyroscopes, the proposed algorithm extracts the frequency domain features from three-dimensional (3D) angular velocities of a smartphone through FFT (fast Fourier transform) and identifies whether its holder is walking or not irrespective of its placement. Furthermore, the corresponding step frequency is recursively updated to evaluate the step count in real time. Extensive experiments are conducted by involving eight subjects and different walking scenarios in a realistic environment. It is shown that the proposed method achieves the precision of 93.76 % and recall of 93.65 % for walking detection, and its overall performance is significantly better than other well-known methods. Moreover, the accuracy of step counting by the proposed method is 95.74 % , and is better than both of the several well-known counterparts and commercial products.

  4. An Automated Energy Detection Algorithm Based on Kurtosis-Histogram Excision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    10 kHz, 100 kHz, 1 MHz 100 MHz–1 GHz 1 100 kHz 3. Statistical Processing 3.1 Statistical Analysis Statistical analysis is the mathematical ...quantitative terms. In commercial prognostics and diagnostic vibrational monitoring applications , statistical techniques that are mainly used for alarm...applying statistical processing techniques to the energy detection scenario of signals in the RF spectrum domain. The algorithm was developed after

  5. QRS Detection Based on Improved Adaptive Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanyu Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the first cause of death around the world. In accomplishing quick and accurate diagnosis, automatic electrocardiogram (ECG analysis algorithm plays an important role, whose first step is QRS detection. The threshold algorithm of QRS complex detection is known for its high-speed computation and minimized memory storage. In this mobile era, threshold algorithm can be easily transported into portable, wearable, and wireless ECG systems. However, the detection rate of the threshold algorithm still calls for improvement. An improved adaptive threshold algorithm for QRS detection is reported in this paper. The main steps of this algorithm are preprocessing, peak finding, and adaptive threshold QRS detecting. The detection rate is 99.41%, the sensitivity (Se is 99.72%, and the specificity (Sp is 99.69% on the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database. A comparison is also made with two other algorithms, to prove our superiority. The suspicious abnormal area is shown at the end of the algorithm and RR-Lorenz plot drawn for doctors and cardiologists to use as aid for diagnosis.

  6. A density based algorithm to detect cavities and holes from planar points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Sun, Yizhong; Pang, Yueyong

    2017-12-01

    Delaunay-based shape reconstruction algorithms are widely used in approximating the shape from planar points. However, these algorithms cannot ensure the optimality of varied reconstructed cavity boundaries and hole boundaries. This inadequate reconstruction can be primarily attributed to the lack of efficient mathematic formulation for the two structures (hole and cavity). In this paper, we develop an efficient algorithm for generating cavities and holes from planar points. The algorithm yields the final boundary based on an iterative removal of the Delaunay triangulation. Our algorithm is mainly divided into two steps, namely, rough and refined shape reconstructions. The rough shape reconstruction performed by the algorithm is controlled by a relative parameter. Based on the rough result, the refined shape reconstruction mainly aims to detect holes and pure cavities. Cavity and hole are conceptualized as a structure with a low-density region surrounded by the high-density region. With this structure, cavity and hole are characterized by a mathematic formulation called as compactness of point formed by the length variation of the edges incident to point in Delaunay triangulation. The boundaries of cavity and hole are then found by locating a shape gradient change in compactness of point set. The experimental comparison with other shape reconstruction approaches shows that the proposed algorithm is able to accurately yield the boundaries of cavity and hole with varying point set densities and distributions.

  7. Detection algorithm for glass bottle mouth defect by continuous wavelet transform based on machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jinfang; Zhang, Changjiang

    2014-11-01

    An efficient algorithm based on continuous wavelet transform combining with pre-knowledge, which can be used to detect the defect of glass bottle mouth, is proposed. Firstly, under the condition of ball integral light source, a perfect glass bottle mouth image is obtained by Japanese Computar camera through the interface of IEEE-1394b. A single threshold method based on gray level histogram is used to obtain the binary image of the glass bottle mouth. In order to efficiently suppress noise, moving average filter is employed to smooth the histogram of original glass bottle mouth image. And then continuous wavelet transform is done to accurately determine the segmentation threshold. Mathematical morphology operations are used to get normal binary bottle mouth mask. A glass bottle to be detected is moving to the detection zone by conveyor belt. Both bottle mouth image and binary image are obtained by above method. The binary image is multiplied with normal bottle mask and a region of interest is got. Four parameters (number of connected regions, coordinate of centroid position, diameter of inner cycle, and area of annular region) can be computed based on the region of interest. Glass bottle mouth detection rules are designed by above four parameters so as to accurately detect and identify the defect conditions of glass bottle. Finally, the glass bottles of Coca-Cola Company are used to verify the proposed algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately detect the defect conditions of the glass bottles and have 98% detecting accuracy.

  8. Enhancing nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) signature detection leveraging interference suppression algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBardelaben, James A.; Miller, Jeremy K.; Myrick, Wilbur L.; Miller, Joel B.; Gilbreath, G. Charmaine; Bajramaj, Blerta

    2012-06-01

    Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is a radio frequency (RF) magnetic spectroscopic technique that has been shown to detect and identify a wide range of explosive materials containing quadrupolar nuclei. The NQR response signal provides a unique signature of the material of interest. The signal is, however, very weak and can be masked by non-stationary RF interference (RFI) and thermal noise, limiting detection distance. In this paper, we investigate the bounds on the NQR detection range for ammonium nitrate. We leverage a low-cost RFI data acquisition system composed of inexpensive B-field sensing and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software-defined radios (SDR). Using collected data as RFI reference signals, we apply adaptive filtering algorithms to mitigate RFI and enable NQR detection techniques to approach theoretical range bounds in tactical environments.

  9. Basic Test Framework for the Evaluation of Text Line Segmentation and Text Parameter Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Brodić

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Text line segmentation is an essential stage in off-line optical character recognition (OCR systems. It is a key because inaccurately segmented text lines will lead to OCR failure. Text line segmentation of handwritten documents is a complex and diverse problem, complicated by the nature of handwriting. Hence, text line segmentation is a leading challenge in handwritten document image processing. Due to inconsistencies in measurement and evaluation of text segmentation algorithm quality, some basic set of measurement methods is required. Currently, there is no commonly accepted one and all algorithm evaluation is custom oriented. In this paper, a basic test framework for the evaluation of text feature extraction algorithms is proposed. This test framework consists of a few experiments primarily linked to text line segmentation, skew rate and reference text line evaluation. Although they are mutually independent, the results obtained are strongly cross linked. In the end, its suitability for different types of letters and languages as well as its adaptability are its main advantages. Thus, the paper presents an efficient evaluation method for text analysis algorithms.

  10. Very Fast Algorithms and Detection Performance of Multi-Channel and 2-D Parametric Adaptive Matched Filters for Airborne Radar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marple, Jr., S. L; Corbell, Phillip M; Rangaswamy, Muralidhar

    2007-01-01

    ...) detection statistics under exactly known covariance (the clairvoyant case). Improved versions of the two original multichannel PAMF algorithms, one new multichannel PAMF algorithm, and a new two-dimensional (2D) PAMF algorithm...

  11. A novel seizure detection algorithm informed by hidden Markov model event states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassano, Steven; Wulsin, Drausin; Ung, Hoameng; Blevins, Tyler; Brown, Mesha-Gay; Fox, Emily; Litt, Brian

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Recently the FDA approved the first responsive, closed-loop intracranial device to treat epilepsy. Because these devices must respond within seconds of seizure onset and not miss events, they are tuned to have high sensitivity, leading to frequent false positive stimulations and decreased battery life. In this work, we propose a more robust seizure detection model. Approach. We use a Bayesian nonparametric Markov switching process to parse intracranial EEG (iEEG) data into distinct dynamic event states. Each event state is then modeled as a multidimensional Gaussian distribution to allow for predictive state assignment. By detecting event states highly specific for seizure onset zones, the method can identify precise regions of iEEG data associated with the transition to seizure activity, reducing false positive detections associated with interictal bursts. The seizure detection algorithm was translated to a real-time application and validated in a small pilot study using 391 days of continuous iEEG data from two dogs with naturally occurring, multifocal epilepsy. A feature-based seizure detector modeled after the NeuroPace RNS System was developed as a control. Main results. Our novel seizure detection method demonstrated an improvement in false negative rate (0/55 seizures missed versus 2/55 seizures missed) as well as a significantly reduced false positive rate (0.0012 h versus 0.058 h-1). All seizures were detected an average of 12.1 ± 6.9 s before the onset of unequivocal epileptic activity (unequivocal epileptic onset (UEO)). Significance. This algorithm represents a computationally inexpensive, individualized, real-time detection method suitable for implantable antiepileptic devices that may considerably reduce false positive rate relative to current industry standards.

  12. A simplified Suomi NPP VIIRS dust detection algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yikun; Sun, Lin; Zhu, Jinshan; Wei, Jing; Su, Qinghua; Sun, Wenxiao; Liu, Fangwei; Shu, Meiyan

    2017-11-01

    Due to the complex characteristics of dust and sparse ground-based monitoring stations, dust monitoring is facing severe challenges, especially in dust storm-prone areas. Aim at constructing a high-precision dust storm detection model, a pixel database, consisted of dusts over a variety of typical feature types such as cloud, vegetation, Gobi and ice/snow, was constructed, and their distributions of reflectance and Brightness Temperatures (BT) were analysed, based on which, a new Simplified Dust Detection Algorithm (SDDA) for the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership Visible infrared Imaging Radiometer (NPP VIIRS) is proposed. NPP VIIRS images covering the northern China and Mongolian regions, where features serious dust storms, were selected to perform the dust detection experiments. The monitoring results were compared with the true colour composite images, and results showed that most of the dust areas can be accurately detected, except for fragmented thin dusts over bright surfaces. The dust ground-based measurements obtained from the Meteorological Information Comprehensive Analysis and Process System (MICAPS) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument Aerosol Index (OMI AI) products were selected for comparison purposes. Results showed that the dust monitoring results agreed well in the spatial distribution with OMI AI dust products and the MICAPS ground-measured data with an average high accuracy of 83.10%. The SDDA is relatively robust and can realize automatic monitoring for dust storms.

  13. Clustering and Candidate Motif Detection in Exosomal miRNAs by Application of Machine Learning Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Pallavi; Chaturvedi, Anoop

    2017-07-22

    The clustering pattern and motifs give immense information about any biological data. An application of machine learning algorithms for clustering and candidate motif detection in miRNAs derived from exosomes is depicted in this paper. Recent progress in the field of exosome research and more particularly regarding exosomal miRNAs has led much bioinformatic-based research to come into existence. The information on clustering pattern and candidate motifs in miRNAs of exosomal origin would help in analyzing existing, as well as newly discovered miRNAs within exosomes. Along with obtaining clustering pattern and candidate motifs in exosomal miRNAs, this work also elaborates the usefulness of the machine learning algorithms that can be efficiently used and executed on various programming languages/platforms. Data were clustered and sequence candidate motifs were detected successfully. The results were compared and validated with some available web tools such as 'BLASTN' and 'MEME suite'. The machine learning algorithms for aforementioned objectives were applied successfully. This work elaborated utility of machine learning algorithms and language platforms to achieve the tasks of clustering and candidate motif detection in exosomal miRNAs. With the information on mentioned objectives, deeper insight would be gained for analyses of newly discovered miRNAs in exosomes which are considered to be circulating biomarkers. In addition, the execution of machine learning algorithms on various language platforms gives more flexibility to users to try multiple iterations according to their requirements. This approach can be applied to other biological data-mining tasks as well.

  14. Comparison of algorithms for blood stain detection applied to forensic hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Messinger, David W.; Mathew, Jobin J.; Dube, Roger R.

    2016-05-01

    Blood stains are among the most important types of evidence for forensic investigation. They contain valuable DNA information, and the pattern of the stains can suggest specifics about the nature of the violence that transpired at the scene. Early detection of blood stains is particularly important since the blood reacts physically and chemically with air and materials over time. Accurate identification of blood remnants, including regions that might have been intentionally cleaned, is an important aspect of forensic investigation. Hyperspectral imaging might be a potential method to detect blood stains because it is non-contact and provides substantial spectral information that can be used to identify regions in a scene with trace amounts of blood. The potential complexity of scenes in which such vast violence occurs can be high when the range of scene material types and conditions containing blood stains at a crime scene are considered. Some stains are hard to detect by the unaided eye, especially if a conscious effort to clean the scene has occurred (we refer to these as "latent" blood stains). In this paper we present the initial results of a study of the use of hyperspectral imaging algorithms for blood detection in complex scenes. We describe a hyperspectral imaging system which generates images covering 400 nm - 700 nm visible range with a spectral resolution of 10 nm. Three image sets of 31 wavelength bands were generated using this camera for a simulated indoor crime scene in which blood stains were placed on a T-shirt and walls. To detect blood stains in the scene, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Subspace Reed Xiaoli Detection (SRXD), and Topological Anomaly Detection (TAD) algorithms were used. Comparison of the three hyperspectral image analysis techniques shows that TAD is most suitable for detecting blood stains and discovering latent blood stains.

  15. A Negative Selection Algorithm Based on Hierarchical Clustering of Self Set and its Application in Anomaly Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Chen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A negative selection algorithm based on the hierarchical clustering of self set HC-RNSA is introduced in this paper. Several strategies are applied to improve the algorithm performance. First, the self data set is replaced by the self cluster centers to compare with the detector candidates in each cluster level. As the number of self clusters is much less than the self set size, the detector generation efficiency is improved. Second, during the detector generation process, the detector candidates are restricted to the lower coverage space to reduce detector redundancy. In the article, the problem that the distances between antigens coverage to a constant value in the high dimensional space is analyzed, accordingly the Principle Component Analysis (PCA method is used to reduce the data dimension, and the fractional distance function is employed to enhance the distinctiveness between the self and non-self antigens. The detector generation procedure is terminated when the expected non-self coverage is reached. The theory analysis and experimental results demonstrate that the detection rate of HC-RNSA is higher than that of the traditional negative selection algorithms while the false alarm rate and time cost are reduced.

  16. Automatic Laser Pointer Detection Algorithm for Environment Control Device Systems Based on Template Matching and Genetic Tuning of Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new approach for laser-based environment device control systems based on the automatic design of a Fuzzy Rule-Based System for laser pointer detection. The idea is to improve the success rate of the previous approaches decreasing as much as possible the false offs and increasing the success rate in images with laser spot, i.e., the detection of a false laser spot (since this could lead to dangerous situations. To this end, we propose to analyze both, the morphology and color of a laser spot image together, thus developing a new robust algorithm. Genetic Fuzzy Systems have also been employed to improve the laser spot system detection by means of a fine tuning of the involved membership functions thus reducing the system false offs, which is the main objective in this problem. The system presented in this paper, makes use of a Fuzzy Rule-Based System adjusted by a Genetic Algorithm, which, based on laser morphology and color analysis, shows a better success rate than previous approaches.

  17. Assessment of delay-and-sum algorithms for damage detection in aluminium and composite plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif-Khodaei, Z; Aliabadi, M H

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric sensors are increasingly being used in active structural health monitoring, due to their durability, light weight and low power consumption. In the present work damage detection and characterization methodologies based on Lamb waves have been evaluated for aircraft panels. The applicability of various proposed delay-and-sum algorithms on isotropic and composite stiffened panels have been investigated, both numerically and experimentally. A numerical model for ultrasonic wave propagation in composite laminates is proposed and compared to signals recorded from experiments. A modified delay-and-sum algorithm is then proposed for detecting impact damage in composite plates with and without a stiffener which is shown to capture and localize damage with only four transducers. (papers)

  18. A computer-aided detection (CAD) system with a 3D algorithm for small acute intracranial hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ximing; Fernandez, James; Deshpande, Ruchi; Lee, Joon K.; Chan, Tao; Liu, Brent

    2012-02-01

    Acute Intracranial hemorrhage (AIH) requires urgent diagnosis in the emergency setting to mitigate eventual sequelae. However, experienced radiologists may not always be available to make a timely diagnosis. This is especially true for small AIH, defined as lesion smaller than 10 mm in size. A computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the detection of small AIH would facilitate timely diagnosis. A previously developed 2D algorithm shows high false positive rates in the evaluation based on LAC/USC cases, due to the limitation of setting up correct coordinate system for the knowledge-based classification system. To achieve a higher sensitivity and specificity, a new 3D algorithm is developed. The algorithm utilizes a top-hat transformation and dynamic threshold map to detect small AIH lesions. Several key structures of brain are detected and are used to set up a 3D anatomical coordinate system. A rule-based classification of the lesion detected is applied based on the anatomical coordinate system. For convenient evaluation in clinical environment, the CAD module is integrated with a stand-alone system. The CAD is evaluated by small AIH cases and matched normal collected in LAC/USC. The result of 3D CAD and the previous 2D CAD has been compared.

  19. Detection of wood failure by image processing method: influence of algorithm, adhesive and wood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanying Lin; Sheng He; Feng Fu; Xiping Wang

    2015-01-01

    Wood failure percentage (WFP) is an important index for evaluating the bond strength of plywood. Currently, the method used for detecting WFP is visual inspection, which lacks efficiency. In order to improve it, image processing methods are applied to wood failure detection. The present study used thresholding and K-means clustering algorithms in wood failure detection...

  20. An improved algorithm for small and cool fire detection using MODIS data: A preliminary study in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanting Wang; John J. Qu; Xianjun Hao; Yongqiang Liu; William T. Sommers

    2006-01-01

    Traditional fire detection algorithms mainly rely on hot spot detection using thermal infrared (TIR) channels with fixed or contextual thresholds. Three solar reflectance channels (0.65 μm, 0.86 μm, and 2.1 μm) were recently adopted into the MODIS version 4 contextual algorithm to improve the active fire detection. In the southeastern United...

  1. Robustness and precision of an automatic marker detection algorithm for online prostate daily targeting using a standard V-EPID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, S; Beaulieu, L; Pouliot, S; Pouliot, J; Roy, R; Girouard, L M; Martel-Brisson, N; Vigneault, E; Laverdière, J

    2003-07-01

    An algorithm for the daily localization of the prostate using implanted markers and a standard video-based electronic portal imaging device (V-EPID) has been tested. Prior to planning, three gold markers were implanted in the prostate of seven patients. The clinical images were acquired with a BeamViewPlus 2.1 V-EPID for each field during the normal course radiotherapy treatment and are used off-line to determine the ability of the automatic marker detection algorithm to adequately and consistently detect the markers. Clinical images were obtained with various dose levels from ranging 2.5 to 75 MU. The algorithm is based on marker attenuation characterization in the portal image and spatial distribution. A total of 1182 clinical images were taken. The results show an average efficiency of 93% for the markers detected individually and 85% for the group of markers. This algorithm accomplishes the detection and validation in 0.20-0.40 s. When the center of mass of the group of implanted markers is used, then all displacements can be corrected to within 1.0 mm in 84% of the cases and within 1.5 mm in 97% of cases. The standard video-based EPID tested provides excellent marker detection capability even with low dose levels. The V-EPID can be used successfully with radiopaque markers and the automatic detection algorithm to track and correct the daily setup deviations due to organ motions.

  2. Evaluation of novel algorithm embedded in a wearable sEMG device for seizure detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Isa; Beniczky, Sandor; Wolf, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We implemented a modified version of a previously published algorithm for detection of generalized tonic-clonic seizures into a prototype wireless surface electromyography (sEMG) recording device. The method was modified to require minimum computational load, and two parameters were trained...... on prior sEMG data recorded with the device. Along with the normal sEMG recording, the device is able to set an alarm whenever the implemented algorithm detects a seizure. These alarms are annotated in the data file along with the signal. The device was tested at the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit (EMU......) at the Danish Epilepsy Center. Five patients were included in the study and two of them had generalized tonic-clonic seizures. All patients were monitored for 2–5 days. A double-blind study was made on the five patients. The overall result showed that the device detected four of seven seizures and had a false...

  3. Cloud-Based Evaluation of Anatomical Structure Segmentation and Landmark Detection Algorithms : VISCERAL Anatomy Benchmarks

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez-del-Toro, Oscar; Muller, Henning; Krenn, Markus; Gruenberg, Katharina; Taha, Abdel Aziz; Winterstein, Marianne; Eggel, Ivan; Foncubierta-Rodriguez, Antonio; Goksel, Orcun; Jakab, Andres; Kontokotsios, Georgios; Langs, Georg; Menze, Bjoern H.; Fernandez, Tomas Salas; Schaer, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Variations in the shape and appearance of anatomical structures in medical images are often relevant radiological signs of disease. Automatic tools can help automate parts of this manual process. A cloud-based evaluation framework is presented in this paper including results of benchmarking current state-of-the-art medical imaging algorithms for anatomical structure segmentation and landmark detection: the VISCERAL Anatomy benchmarks. The algorithms are implemented in virtual machines in the ...

  4. Video Segmentation Using Fast Marching and Region Growing Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftychis Sifakis

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The algorithm presented in this paper is comprised of three main stages: (1 classification of the image sequence and, in the case of a moving camera, parametric motion estimation, (2 change detection having as reference a fixed frame, an appropriately selected frame or a displaced frame, and (3 object localization using local colour features. The image sequence classification is based on statistical tests on the frame difference. The change detection module uses a two-label fast marching algorithm. Finally, the object localization uses a region growing algorithm based on the colour similarity. Video object segmentation results are shown using the COST 211 data set.

  5. A New FPGA Architecture of FAST and BRIEF Algorithm for On-Board Corner Detection and Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjin Huang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Although some researchers have proposed the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA architectures of Feature From Accelerated Segment Test (FAST and Binary Robust Independent Elementary Features (BRIEF algorithm, there is no consideration of image data storage in these traditional architectures that will result in no image data that can be reused by the follow-up algorithms. This paper proposes a new FPGA architecture that considers the reuse of sub-image data. In the proposed architecture, a remainder-based method is firstly designed for reading the sub-image, a FAST detector and a BRIEF descriptor are combined for corner detection and matching. Six pairs of satellite images with different textures, which are located in the Mentougou district, Beijing, China, are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed architecture. The Modelsim simulation results found that: (i the proposed architecture is effective for sub-image reading from DDR3 at a minimum cost; (ii the FPGA implementation is corrected and efficient for corner detection and matching, such as the average value of matching rate of natural areas and artificial areas are approximately 67% and 83%, respectively, which are close to PC’s and the processing speed by FPGA is approximately 31 and 2.5 times faster than those by PC processing and by GPU processing, respectively.

  6. An Adaptive Cultural Algorithm with Improved Quantum-behaved Particle Swarm Optimization for Sonar Image Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingmei; Hao, Wenqian; Li, Qiming

    2017-12-18

    This paper proposes an adaptive cultural algorithm with improved quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (ACA-IQPSO) to detect the underwater sonar image. In the population space, to improve searching ability of particles, iterative times and the fitness value of particles are regarded as factors to adaptively adjust the contraction-expansion coefficient of the quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization algorithm (QPSO). The improved quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization algorithm (IQPSO) can make particles adjust their behaviours according to their quality. In the belief space, a new update strategy is adopted to update cultural individuals according to the idea of the update strategy in shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA). Moreover, to enhance the utilization of information in the population space and belief space, accept function and influence function are redesigned in the new communication protocol. The experimental results show that ACA-IQPSO can obtain good clustering centres according to the grey distribution information of underwater sonar images, and accurately complete underwater objects detection. Compared with other algorithms, the proposed ACA-IQPSO has good effectiveness, excellent adaptability, a powerful searching ability and high convergence efficiency. Meanwhile, the experimental results of the benchmark functions can further demonstrate that the proposed ACA-IQPSO has better searching ability, convergence efficiency and stability.

  7. ABC Algorithm based Fuzzy Modeling of Optical Glucose Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SARACOGLU, O. G.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modeling approach based on the use of fuzzy reasoning mechanism to define a measured data set obtained from an optical sensing circuit. For this purpose, we implemented a simple but effective an in vitro optical sensor to measure glucose content of an aqueous solution. Measured data contain analog voltages representing the absorbance values of three wavelengths measured from an RGB LED in different glucose concentrations. To achieve a desired model performance, the parameters of the fuzzy models are optimized by using the artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm. The modeling results presented in this paper indicate that the fuzzy model optimized by the algorithm provide a successful modeling performance having the minimum mean squared error (MSE of 0.0013 which are in clearly good agreement with the measurements.

  8. Novel algorithm for simultaneous component detection and pseudo-molecular ion characterization in liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Wang, Xiaoan; Wo, Siukwan [School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Ho, Hingman; Han, Quanbin [School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, 7 Baptist University Road, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Fan, Xiaohui [College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zuo, Zhong, E-mail: joanzuo@cuhk.edu.hk [School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel stepwise component detection algorithm (SCDA) for LC–MS datasets. • New isotopic distribution and adduct-ion models for mass spectra. • Automatic component classification based on adduct-ion and isotopic distributions. - Abstract: Resolving components and determining their pseudo-molecular ions (PMIs) are crucial steps in identifying complex herbal mixtures by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. To tackle such labor-intensive steps, we present here a novel algorithm for simultaneous detection of components and their PMIs. Our method consists of three steps: (1) obtaining a simplified dataset containing only mono-isotopic masses by removal of background noise and isotopic cluster ions based on the isotopic distribution model derived from all the reported natural compounds in dictionary of natural products; (2) stepwise resolving and removing all features of the highest abundant component from current simplified dataset and calculating PMI of each component according to an adduct-ion model, in which all non-fragment ions in a mass spectrum are considered as PMI plus one or several neutral species; (3) visual classification of detected components by principal component analysis (PCA) to exclude possible non-natural compounds (such as pharmaceutical excipients). This algorithm has been successfully applied to a standard mixture and three herbal extract/preparations. It indicated that our algorithm could detect components’ features as a whole and report their PMI with an accuracy of more than 98%. Furthermore, components originated from excipients/contaminants could be easily separated from those natural components in the bi-plots of PCA.

  9. Novel algorithm for simultaneous component detection and pseudo-molecular ion characterization in liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Wang, Xiaoan; Wo, Siukwan; Ho, Hingman; Han, Quanbin; Fan, Xiaohui; Zuo, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel stepwise component detection algorithm (SCDA) for LC–MS datasets. • New isotopic distribution and adduct-ion models for mass spectra. • Automatic component classification based on adduct-ion and isotopic distributions. - Abstract: Resolving components and determining their pseudo-molecular ions (PMIs) are crucial steps in identifying complex herbal mixtures by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. To tackle such labor-intensive steps, we present here a novel algorithm for simultaneous detection of components and their PMIs. Our method consists of three steps: (1) obtaining a simplified dataset containing only mono-isotopic masses by removal of background noise and isotopic cluster ions based on the isotopic distribution model derived from all the reported natural compounds in dictionary of natural products; (2) stepwise resolving and removing all features of the highest abundant component from current simplified dataset and calculating PMI of each component according to an adduct-ion model, in which all non-fragment ions in a mass spectrum are considered as PMI plus one or several neutral species; (3) visual classification of detected components by principal component analysis (PCA) to exclude possible non-natural compounds (such as pharmaceutical excipients). This algorithm has been successfully applied to a standard mixture and three herbal extract/preparations. It indicated that our algorithm could detect components’ features as a whole and report their PMI with an accuracy of more than 98%. Furthermore, components originated from excipients/contaminants could be easily separated from those natural components in the bi-plots of PCA

  10. A Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation System with Self-Adaption Threshold Peak Detection Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weifang; Li, Yingwu; Jin, Bo; Ren, Feifei; Wang, Hongxun; Dai, Wei

    2018-04-08

    A Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) interrogation system with a self-adaption threshold peak detection algorithm is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in this study. This system is composed of a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and advanced RISC machine (ARM) platform, tunable Fabry-Perot (F-P) filter and optical switch. To improve system resolution, the F-P filter was employed. As this filter is non-linear, this causes the shifting of central wavelengths with the deviation compensated by the parts of the circuit. Time-division multiplexing (TDM) of FBG sensors is achieved by an optical switch, with the system able to realize the combination of 256 FBG sensors. The wavelength scanning speed of 800 Hz can be achieved by a FPGA+ARM platform. In addition, a peak detection algorithm based on a self-adaption threshold is designed and the peak recognition rate is 100%. Experiments with different temperatures were conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the system. Four FBG sensors were examined in the thermal chamber without stress. When the temperature changed from 0 °C to 100 °C, the degree of linearity between central wavelengths and temperature was about 0.999 with the temperature sensitivity being 10 pm/°C. The static interrogation precision was able to reach 0.5 pm. Through the comparison of different peak detection algorithms and interrogation approaches, the system was verified to have an optimum comprehensive performance in terms of precision, capacity and speed.

  11. Automated detection of follow-up appointments using text mining of discharge records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruud, Kari L; Johnson, Matthew G; Liesinger, Juliette T; Grafft, Carrie A; Naessens, James M

    2010-06-01

    To determine whether text mining can accurately detect specific follow-up appointment criteria in free-text hospital discharge records. Cross-sectional study. Mayo Clinic Rochester hospitals. Inpatients discharged from general medicine services in 2006 (n = 6481). Textual hospital dismissal summaries were manually reviewed to determine whether the records contained specific follow-up appointment arrangement elements: date, time and either physician or location for an appointment. The data set was evaluated for the same criteria using SAS Text Miner software. The two assessments were compared to determine the accuracy of text mining for detecting records containing follow-up appointment arrangements. Agreement of text-mined appointment findings with gold standard (manual abstraction) including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV). About 55.2% (3576) of discharge records contained all criteria for follow-up appointment arrangements according to the manual review, 3.2% (113) of which were missed through text mining. Text mining incorrectly identified 3.7% (107) follow-up appointments that were not considered valid through manual review. Therefore, the text mining analysis concurred with the manual review in 96.6% of the appointment findings. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 96.8 and 96.3%, respectively; and PPV and NPV were 97.0 and 96.1%, respectively. of individual appointment criteria resulted in accuracy rates of 93.5% for date, 97.4% for time, 97.5% for physician and 82.9% for location. Text mining of unstructured hospital dismissal summaries can accurately detect documentation of follow-up appointment arrangement elements, thus saving considerable resources for performance assessment and quality-related research.

  12. An Optimized Structure on FPGA of Key Point Detection in SIFT Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chenyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SIFT algorithm is the most efficient and powerful algorithm to describe the features of images and it has been applied in many fields. In this paper, we propose an optimized method to realize the hardware implementation of the SIFT algorithm. We mainly discuss the structure of Data Generation here. A pipeline architecture is introduced to accelerate this optimized system. Parameters’ setting and approximation’s controlling in different image qualities and hardware resources are the focus of this paper. The results of experiments fully prove that this structure is real-time and effective, and provide consultative opinion to meet the different situations.

  13. Diagnostic assessment of deep learning algorithms for detection of lymph node metastases in women with breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bejnordi, Babak Ehteshami; Veta, Mitko; van Diest, Paul Johannes; Van Ginneken, Bram; Karssemeijer, Nico; Litjens, Geert; van der Laak, Jeroen A.W.M.; Hermsen, Meyke; Manson, Quirine F.; Balkenhol, Maschenka; Geessink, Oscar; Stathonikos, Nikolaos; Van Dijk, Marcory C.R.F.; Bult, Peter; Beca, Francisco; Beck, Andrew H.; Wang, Dayong; Khosla, Aditya; Gargeya, Rishab; Irshad, Humayun; Zhong, Aoxiao; Dou, Qi; Li, Quanzheng; Chen, Hao; Lin, Huang Jing; Heng, Pheng Ann; Haß, Christian; Bruni, Elia; Wong, Quincy; Halici, Ugur; Öner, Mustafa Ümit; Cetin-Atalay, Rengul; Berseth, Matt; Khvatkov, Vitali; Vylegzhanin, Alexei; Kraus, Oren; Shaban, Muhammad; Rajpoot, Nasir; Awan, Ruqayya; Sirinukunwattana, Korsuk; Qaiser, Talha; Tsang, Yee Wah; Tellez, David; Annuscheit, Jonas; Hufnagl, Peter; Valkonen, Mira; Kartasalo, Kimmo; Latonen, Leena; Ruusuvuori, Pekka; Liimatainen, Kaisa

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Application of deep learning algorithms to whole-slide pathology imagescan potentially improve diagnostic accuracy and efficiency. OBJECTIVE: Assess the performance of automated deep learning algorithms at detecting metastases in hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections of lymph

  14. Optimization of an NLEO-based algorithm for automated detection of spontaneous activity transients in early preterm EEG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmu, Kirsi; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Stevenson, Nathan; Wikström, Sverre; Hellström-Westas, Lena; Palva, J Matias

    2010-01-01

    We propose here a simple algorithm for automated detection of spontaneous activity transients (SATs) in early preterm electroencephalography (EEG). The parameters of the algorithm were optimized by supervised learning using a gold standard created from visual classification data obtained from three human raters. The generalization performance of the algorithm was estimated by leave-one-out cross-validation. The mean sensitivity of the optimized algorithm was 97% (range 91–100%) and specificity 95% (76–100%). The optimized algorithm makes it possible to systematically study brain state fluctuations of preterm infants. (note)

  15. Layout-aware text extraction from full-text PDF of scientific articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan Cartic

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Portable Document Format (PDF is the most commonly used file format for online scientific publications. The absence of effective means to extract text from these PDF files in a layout-aware manner presents a significant challenge for developers of biomedical text mining or biocuration informatics systems that use published literature as an information source. In this paper we introduce the ‘Layout-Aware PDF Text Extraction’ (LA-PDFText system to facilitate accurate extraction of text from PDF files of research articles for use in text mining applications. Results Our paper describes the construction and performance of an open source system that extracts text blocks from PDF-formatted full-text research articles and classifies them into logical units based on rules that characterize specific sections. The LA-PDFText system focuses only on the textual content of the research articles and is meant as a baseline for further experiments into more advanced extraction methods that handle multi-modal content, such as images and graphs. The system works in a three-stage process: (1 Detecting contiguous text blocks using spatial layout processing to locate and identify blocks of contiguous text, (2 Classifying text blocks into rhetorical categories using a rule-based method and (3 Stitching classified text blocks together in the correct order resulting in the extraction of text from section-wise grouped blocks. We show that our system can identify text blocks and classify them into rhetorical categories with Precision1 = 0.96% Recall = 0.89% and F1 = 0.91%. We also present an evaluation of the accuracy of the block detection algorithm used in step 2. Additionally, we have compared the accuracy of the text extracted by LA-PDFText to the text from the Open Access subset of PubMed Central. We then compared this accuracy with that of the text extracted by the PDF2Text system, 2commonly used to extract text from PDF

  16. Comparison of Diagnostic Algorithms for Detecting Toxigenic Clostridium difficile in Routine Practice at a Tertiary Referral Hospital in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hee-Won; Kim, Hyeong Nyeon; Hur, Mina; Shim, Hee Sook; Kim, Heejung; Yun, Yeo-Min

    2016-01-01

    Since every single test has some limitations for detecting toxigenic Clostridium difficile, multistep algorithms are recommended. This study aimed to compare the current, representative diagnostic algorithms for detecting toxigenic C. difficile, using VIDAS C. difficile toxin A&B (toxin ELFA), VIDAS C. difficile GDH (GDH ELFA, bioMérieux, Marcy-l'Etoile, France), and Xpert C. difficile (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, California, USA). In 271 consecutive stool samples, toxigenic culture, toxin ELFA, GDH ELFA, and Xpert C. difficile were performed. We simulated two algorithms: screening by GDH ELFA and confirmation by Xpert C. difficile (GDH + Xpert) and combined algorithm of GDH ELFA, toxin ELFA, and Xpert C. difficile (GDH + Toxin + Xpert). The performance of each assay and algorithm was assessed. The agreement of Xpert C. difficile and two algorithms (GDH + Xpert and GDH+ Toxin + Xpert) with toxigenic culture were strong (Kappa, 0.848, 0.857, and 0.868, respectively). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of algorithms (GDH + Xpert and GDH + Toxin + Xpert) were 96.7%, 95.8%, 85.0%, 98.1%, and 94.5%, 95.8%, 82.3%, 98.5%, respectively. There were no significant differences between Xpert C. difficile and two algorithms in sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV. The performances of both algorithms for detecting toxigenic C. difficile were comparable to that of Xpert C. difficile. Either algorithm would be useful in clinical laboratories and can be optimized in the diagnostic workflow of C. difficile depending on costs, test volume, and clinical needs.

  17. Detection of Defective Sensors in Phased Array Using Compressed Sensing and Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafqat Ullah Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A compressed sensing based array diagnosis technique has been presented. This technique starts from collecting the measurements of the far-field pattern. The system linking the difference between the field measured using the healthy reference array and the field radiated by the array under test is solved using a genetic algorithm (GA, parallel coordinate descent (PCD algorithm, and then a hybridized GA with PCD algorithm. These algorithms are applied for fully and partially defective antenna arrays. The simulation results indicate that the proposed hybrid algorithm outperforms in terms of localization of element failure with a small number of measurements. In the proposed algorithm, the slow and early convergence of GA has been avoided by combining it with PCD algorithm. It has been shown that the hybrid GA-PCD algorithm provides an accurate diagnosis of fully and partially defective sensors as compared to GA or PCD alone. Different simulations have been provided to validate the performance of the designed algorithms in diversified scenarios.

  18. Layout-aware text extraction from full-text PDF of scientific articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Cartic; Patnia, Abhishek; Hovy, Eduard; Burns, Gully Apc

    2012-05-28

    The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the most commonly used file format for online scientific publications. The absence of effective means to extract text from these PDF files in a layout-aware manner presents a significant challenge for developers of biomedical text mining or biocuration informatics systems that use published literature as an information source. In this paper we introduce the 'Layout-Aware PDF Text Extraction' (LA-PDFText) system to facilitate accurate extraction of text from PDF files of research articles for use in text mining applications. Our paper describes the construction and performance of an open source system that extracts text blocks from PDF-formatted full-text research articles and classifies them into logical units based on rules that characterize specific sections. The LA-PDFText system focuses only on the textual content of the research articles and is meant as a baseline for further experiments into more advanced extraction methods that handle multi-modal content, such as images and graphs. The system works in a three-stage process: (1) Detecting contiguous text blocks using spatial layout processing to locate and identify blocks of contiguous text, (2) Classifying text blocks into rhetorical categories using a rule-based method and (3) Stitching classified text blocks together in the correct order resulting in the extraction of text from section-wise grouped blocks. We show that our system can identify text blocks and classify them into rhetorical categories with Precision1 = 0.96% Recall = 0.89% and F1 = 0.91%. We also present an evaluation of the accuracy of the block detection algorithm used in step 2. Additionally, we have compared the accuracy of the text extracted by LA-PDFText to the text from the Open Access subset of PubMed Central. We then compared this accuracy with that of the text extracted by the PDF2Text system, 2commonly used to extract text from PDF. Finally, we discuss preliminary error analysis for

  19. Automatic Mexico Gulf Oil Spill Detection from Radarsat-2 SAR Satellite Data Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marghany, Maged

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a genetic algorithm is exploited for automatic detection of oil spills of small and large size. The route is achieved using arrays of RADARSAT-2 SAR ScanSAR Narrow single beam data obtained in the Gulf of Mexico. The study shows that genetic algorithm has automatically segmented the dark spot patches related to small and large oil spill pixels. This conclusion is confirmed by the receiveroperating characteristic (ROC) curve and ground data which have been documented. The ROC curve indicates that the existence of oil slick footprints can be identified with the area under the curve between the ROC curve and the no-discrimination line of 90%, which is greater than that of other surrounding environmental features. The small oil spill sizes represented 30% of the discriminated oil spill pixels in ROC curve. In conclusion, the genetic algorithm can be used as a tool for the automatic detection of oil spills of either small or large size and the ScanSAR Narrow single beam mode serves as an excellent sensor for oil spill patterns detection and surveying in the Gulf of Mexico.

  20. Management algorithm for images of hepatic incidentalomas, renal and adrenal detected by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Gonzalez, Allan

    2012-01-01

    A literature review has been carried out in the diagnostic and monitoring algorithms for image of incidentalomas of solid abdominal organs (liver, kidney and adrenal glands) detected by computed tomography (CT). The criteria have been unified and updated for a effective diagnosis. Posed algorithms have been made in simplified form. The imaging techniques have been specified for each pathology, showing the advantages and disadvantages of using it and justifying the application in daily practice [es

  1. Improved algorithm for computerized detection and quantification of pulmonary emphysema at high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylen, Ulf; Friman, Ola; Borga, Magnus; Angelhed, Jan-Erik

    2001-05-01

    Emphysema is characterized by destruction of lung tissue with development of small or large holes within the lung. These areas will have Hounsfield values (HU) approaching -1000. It is possible to detect and quantificate such areas using simple density mask technique. The edge enhancement reconstruction algorithm, gravity and motion of the heart and vessels during scanning causes artefacts, however. The purpose of our work was to construct an algorithm that detects such image artefacts and corrects them. The first step is to apply inverse filtering to the image removing much of the effect of the edge enhancement reconstruction algorithm. The next step implies computation of the antero-posterior density gradient caused by gravity and correction for that. Motion artefacts are in a third step corrected for by use of normalized averaging, thresholding and region growing. Twenty healthy volunteers were investigated, 10 with slight emphysema and 10 without. Using simple density mask technique it was not possible to separate persons with disease from those without. Our algorithm improved separation of the two groups considerably. Our algorithm needs further refinement, but may form a basis for further development of methods for computerized diagnosis and quantification of emphysema by HRCT.

  2. Change Detection Algorithms for Surveillance in Visual IoT: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Beenish Ayesha; Zafar, Amna; Akbar, Ali Hammad; Wajid, Bilal; Chaudhry, Shafique Ahmad

    2018-01-01

    The VIoT (Visual Internet of Things) connects virtual information world with real world objects using sensors and pervasive computing. For video surveillance in VIoT, ChD (Change Detection) is a critical component. ChD algorithms identify regions of change in multiple images of the same scene recorded at different time intervals for video surveillance. This paper presents performance comparison of histogram thresholding and classification ChD algorithms using quantitative measures for video surveillance in VIoT based on salient features of datasets. The thresholding algorithms Otsu, Kapur, Rosin and classification methods k-means, EM (Expectation Maximization) were simulated in MATLAB using diverse datasets. For performance evaluation, the quantitative measures used include OSR (Overall Success Rate), YC (Yule's Coefficient) and JC (Jaccard's Coefficient), execution time and memory consumption. Experimental results showed that Kapur's algorithm performed better for both indoor and outdoor environments with illumination changes, shadowing and medium to fast moving objects. However, it reflected degraded performance for small object size with minor changes. Otsu algorithm showed better results for indoor environments with slow to medium changes and nomadic object mobility. k-means showed good results in indoor environment with small object size producing slow change, no shadowing and scarce illumination changes.

  3. Validation of a Step Detection Algorithm during Straight Walking and Turning in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease and Older Adults Using an Inertial Measurement Unit at the Lower Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh H. Pham

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionInertial measurement units (IMUs positioned on various body locations allow detailed gait analysis even under unconstrained conditions. From a medical perspective, the assessment of vulnerable populations is of particular relevance, especially in the daily-life environment. Gait analysis algorithms need thorough validation, as many chronic diseases show specific and even unique gait patterns. The aim of this study was therefore to validate an acceleration-based step detection algorithm for patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD and older adults in both a lab-based and home-like environment.MethodsIn this prospective observational study, data were captured from a single 6-degrees of freedom IMU (APDM (3DOF accelerometer and 3DOF gyroscope worn on the lower back. Detection of heel strike (HS and toe off (TO on a treadmill was validated against an optoelectronic system (Vicon (11 PD patients and 12 older adults. A second independent validation study in the home-like environment was performed against video observation (20 PD patients and 12 older adults and included step counting during turning and non-turning, defined with a previously published algorithm.ResultsA continuous wavelet transform (cwt-based algorithm was developed for step detection with very high agreement with the optoelectronic system. HS detection in PD patients/older adults, respectively, reached 99/99% accuracy. Similar results were obtained for TO (99/100%. In HS detection, Bland–Altman plots showed a mean difference of 0.002 s [95% confidence interval (CI −0.09 to 0.10] between the algorithm and the optoelectronic system. The Bland–Altman plot for TO detection showed mean differences of 0.00 s (95% CI −0.12 to 0.12. In the home-like assessment, the algorithm for detection of occurrence of steps during turning reached 90% (PD patients/90% (older adults sensitivity, 83/88% specificity, and 88/89% accuracy. The detection of steps during non-turning phases

  4. An Unsupervised Method of Change Detection in Multi-Temporal PolSAR Data Using a Test Statistic and an Improved K&I Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinqi Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, multi-temporal imagery from spaceborne sensors has provided a fast and practical means for surveying and assessing changes in terrain surfaces. Owing to the all-weather imaging capability, polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR has become a key tool for change detection. Change detection methods include both unsupervised and supervised methods. Supervised change detection, which needs some human intervention, is generally ineffective and impractical. Due to this limitation, unsupervised methods are widely used in change detection. The traditional unsupervised methods only use a part of the polarization information, and the required thresholding algorithms are independent of the multi-temporal data, which results in the change detection map being ineffective and inaccurate. To solve these problems, a novel method of change detection using a test statistic based on the likelihood ratio test and the improved Kittler and Illingworth (K&I minimum-error thresholding algorithm is introduced in this paper. The test statistic is used to generate the comparison image (CI of the multi-temporal PolSAR images, and improved K&I using a generalized Gaussian model simulates the distribution of the CI. As a result of these advantages, we can obtain the change detection map using an optimum threshold. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated by the use of multi-temporal PolSAR images acquired by RADARSAT-2 over Wuhan, China. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective and highly accurate.

  5. Phenotyping for patient safety: algorithm development for electronic health record based automated adverse event and medical error detection in neonatal intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Melton, Kristin; Lingren, Todd; Kirkendall, Eric S; Hall, Eric; Zhai, Haijun; Ni, Yizhao; Kaiser, Megan; Stoutenborough, Laura; Solti, Imre

    2014-01-01

    Although electronic health records (EHRs) have the potential to provide a foundation for quality and safety algorithms, few studies have measured their impact on automated adverse event (AE) and medical error (ME) detection within the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment. This paper presents two phenotyping AE and ME detection algorithms (ie, IV infiltrations, narcotic medication oversedation and dosing errors) and describes manual annotation of airway management and medication/fluid AEs from NICU EHRs. From 753 NICU patient EHRs from 2011, we developed two automatic AE/ME detection algorithms, and manually annotated 11 classes of AEs in 3263 clinical notes. Performance of the automatic AE/ME detection algorithms was compared to trigger tool and voluntary incident reporting results. AEs in clinical notes were double annotated and consensus achieved under neonatologist supervision. Sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), and specificity are reported. Twelve severe IV infiltrates were detected. The algorithm identified one more infiltrate than the trigger tool and eight more than incident reporting. One narcotic oversedation was detected demonstrating 100% agreement with the trigger tool. Additionally, 17 narcotic medication MEs were detected, an increase of 16 cases over voluntary incident reporting. Automated AE/ME detection algorithms provide higher sensitivity and PPV than currently used trigger tools or voluntary incident-reporting systems, including identification of potential dosing and frequency errors that current methods are unequipped to detect. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Data fusion for a vision-aided radiological detection system: Calibration algorithm performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnikia, Kelsey; Henderson, Kristofer; Martin, Allan; Riley, Phillip; Koppal, Sanjeev; Enqvist, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    In order to improve the ability to detect, locate, track and identify nuclear/radiological threats, the University of Florida nuclear detection community has teamed up with the 3D vision community to collaborate on a low cost data fusion system. The key is to develop an algorithm to fuse the data from multiple radiological and 3D vision sensors as one system. The system under development at the University of Florida is being assessed with various types of radiological detectors and widely available visual sensors. A series of experiments were devised utilizing two EJ-309 liquid organic scintillation detectors (one primary and one secondary), a Microsoft Kinect for Windows v2 sensor and a Velodyne HDL-32E High Definition LiDAR Sensor which is a highly sensitive vision sensor primarily used to generate data for self-driving cars. Each experiment consisted of 27 static measurements of a source arranged in a cube with three different distances in each dimension. The source used was Cf-252. The calibration algorithm developed is utilized to calibrate the relative 3D-location of the two different types of sensors without need to measure it by hand; thus, preventing operator manipulation and human errors. The algorithm can also account for the facility dependent deviation from ideal data fusion correlation. Use of the vision sensor to determine the location of a sensor would also limit the possible locations and it does not allow for room dependence (facility dependent deviation) to generate a detector pseudo-location to be used for data analysis later. Using manually measured source location data, our algorithm-predicted the offset detector location within an average of 20 cm calibration-difference to its actual location. Calibration-difference is the Euclidean distance from the algorithm predicted detector location to the measured detector location. The Kinect vision sensor data produced an average calibration-difference of 35 cm and the HDL-32E produced an average

  7. Solar Power Ramp Events Detection Using an Optimized Swinging Door Algorithm: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Mingjian; Zhang, Jie; Florita, Anthony; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Ke, Deping; Sun, Yuanzhang

    2015-08-07

    Solar power ramp events (SPREs) are those that significantly influence the integration of solar power on non-clear days and threaten the reliable and economic operation of power systems. Accurately extracting solar power ramps becomes more important with increasing levels of solar power penetrations in power systems. In this paper, we develop an optimized swinging door algorithm (OpSDA) to detection. First, the swinging door algorithm (SDA) is utilized to segregate measured solar power generation into consecutive segments in a piecewise linear fashion. Then we use a dynamic programming approach to combine adjacent segments into significant ramps when the decision thresholds are met. In addition, the expected SPREs occurring in clear-sky solar power conditions are removed. Measured solar power data from Tucson Electric Power is used to assess the performance of the proposed methodology. OpSDA is compared to two other ramp detection methods: the SDA and the L1-Ramp Detect with Sliding Window (L1-SW) method. The statistical results show the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method. OpSDA can significantly improve the performance of the SDA, and it can perform as well as or better than L1-SW with substantially less computation time.

  8. TESTING BAYESIAN ALGORITHMS TO DETECT GENETIC STRUCTURE IN TWO CLOSELY RELATED OAK TAXA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Mihai Enescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the Bayesian algorithm implemented in the software STRUCTURE in order to detect the number of clusters, by using microsatellite data from four oak species. Several assignment models, with or without a priori grouping of individuals to species, were proposed. Better results were obtained by using the sampling location information and when only two taxa were analyzed. Particularly, pedunculate oak and sessile oak formed distinct clusters whatever the assignment model we use. By contrast, no separation between the two oaks from series Lanuginosae was observed. This can be explained, on one hand, by the small sampling size for Italian oak, or by the genetic similarities of the two pubescent oaks, namely Quercus pubescens and Q. virgiliana, on the other hand. Our findings support the hypothesis according which Italian oak is an intraspecific taxonomic unit of pubescent oak.

  9. Parallel Sn Sweeps on Unstructured Grids: Algorithms for Prioritization, Grid Partitioning, and Cycle Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plimpton, Steven J.; Hendrickson, Bruce; Burns, Shawn P.; McLendon, William III; Rauchwerger, Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    The method of discrete ordinates is commonly used to solve the Boltzmann transport equation. The solution in each ordinate direction is most efficiently computed by sweeping the radiation flux across the computational grid. For unstructured grids this poses many challenges, particularly when implemented on distributed-memory parallel machines where the grid geometry is spread across processors. We present several algorithms relevant to this approach: (a) an asynchronous message-passing algorithm that performs sweeps simultaneously in multiple ordinate directions, (b) a simple geometric heuristic to prioritize the computational tasks that a processor works on, (c) a partitioning algorithm that creates columnar-style decompositions for unstructured grids, and (d) an algorithm for detecting and eliminating cycles that sometimes exist in unstructured grids and can prevent sweeps from successfully completing. Algorithms (a) and (d) are fully parallel; algorithms (b) and (c) can be used in conjunction with (a) to achieve higher parallel efficiencies. We describe our message-passing implementations of these algorithms within a radiation transport package. Performance and scalability results are given for unstructured grids with up to 3 million elements (500 million unknowns) running on thousands of processors of Sandia National Laboratories' Intel Tflops machine and DEC-Alpha CPlant cluster

  10. ID card number detection algorithm based on convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Ma, Hanjie; Feng, Jie; Dai, Leiyan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a new detection algorithm based on Convolutional Neural Network is presented in order to realize the fast and convenient ID information extraction in multiple scenarios. The algorithm uses the mobile device equipped with Android operating system to locate and extract the ID number; Use the special color distribution of the ID card, select the appropriate channel component; Use the image threshold segmentation, noise processing and morphological processing to take the binary processing for image; At the same time, the image rotation and projection method are used for horizontal correction when image was tilting; Finally, the single character is extracted by the projection method, and recognized by using Convolutional Neural Network. Through test shows that, A single ID number image from the extraction to the identification time is about 80ms, the accuracy rate is about 99%, It can be applied to the actual production and living environment.

  11. Nonlinear Algorithms for Channel Equalization and Map Symbol Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridhar, K.

    The transfer of information through a communication medium invariably results in various kinds of distortion to the transmitted signal. In this dissertation, a feed -forward neural network-based equalizer, and a family of maximum a posteriori (MAP) symbol detectors are proposed for signal recovery in the presence of intersymbol interference (ISI) and additive white Gaussian noise. The proposed neural network-based equalizer employs a novel bit-mapping strategy to handle multilevel data signals in an equivalent bipolar representation. It uses a training procedure to learn the channel characteristics, and at the end of training, the multilevel symbols are recovered from the corresponding inverse bit-mapping. When the channel characteristics are unknown and no training sequences are available, blind estimation of the channel (or its inverse) and simultaneous data recovery is required. Convergence properties of several existing Bussgang-type blind equalization algorithms are studied through computer simulations, and a unique gain independent approach is used to obtain a fair comparison of their rates of convergence. Although simple to implement, the slow convergence of these Bussgang-type blind equalizers make them unsuitable for many high data-rate applications. Rapidly converging blind algorithms based on the principle of MAP symbol-by -symbol detection are proposed, which adaptively estimate the channel impulse response (CIR) and simultaneously decode the received data sequence. Assuming a linear and Gaussian measurement model, the near-optimal blind MAP symbol detector (MAPSD) consists of a parallel bank of conditional Kalman channel estimators, where the conditioning is done on each possible data subsequence that can convolve with the CIR. This algorithm is also extended to the recovery of convolutionally encoded waveforms in the presence of ISI. Since the complexity of the MAPSD algorithm increases exponentially with the length of the assumed CIR, a suboptimal

  12. CoSMOS: Performance of Kurtosis Algorithm for Radio Frequency Interference Detection and Mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misra, Sidharth; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup; Skou, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The performance of a previously developed algorithm for Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) detection and mitigation is experimentally evaluated. Results obtained from CoSMOS, an airborne campaign using a fully polarimetric L-band radiometer are analyzed for this purpose. Data is collected using two...

  13. Text Detection and Pose Estimation for a Reading Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Bulacu, Marius; Ezaki, Nobuo; Schomaker, Lambert

    2008-01-01

    One very important advantage of using CoCos for text detection is that they naturally allow the analysis to take place across scales. In this approach, scale does not represent such a problematic issue because the CoCo extraction process is scale independent. CoCos give a prompt, but rather imperfect, hold to the structures present in the image and CoCo selection

  14. A research about breast cancer detection using different neural networks and K-MICA algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Kalteh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death for women all over the world. The correct diagnosis of breast cancer is one of the major problems in the medical field. From the literature it has been found that different pattern recognition techniques can help them to improve in this domain. This paper presents a novel hybrid intelligent method for detection of breast cancer. The proposed method includes two main modules: Clustering module and the classifier module. In the clustering module, first the input data will be clustered by a new technique. This technique is a suitable combination of the modified imperialist competitive algorithm (MICA and K-means algorithm. Then the Euclidean distance of each pattern is computed from the determined clusters. The classifier module determines the membership of the patterns using the computed distance. In this module, several neural networks, such as the multilayer perceptron, probabilistic neural networks and the radial basis function neural networks are investigated. Using the experimental study, we choose the best classifier in order to recognize the breast cancer. The proposed system is tested on Wisconsin Breast Cancer (WBC database and the simulation results show that the recommended system has high accuracy.

  15. Degree of contribution (DoC) feature selection algorithm for structural brain MRI volumetric features in depression detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipli, Kuryati; Kouzani, Abbas Z

    2015-07-01

    Accurate detection of depression at an individual level using structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) remains a challenge. Brain volumetric changes at a structural level appear to have importance in depression biomarkers studies. An automated algorithm is developed to select brain sMRI volumetric features for the detection of depression. A feature selection (FS) algorithm called degree of contribution (DoC) is developed for selection of sMRI volumetric features. This algorithm uses an ensemble approach to determine the degree of contribution in detection of major depressive disorder. The DoC is the score of feature importance used for feature ranking. The algorithm involves four stages: feature ranking, subset generation, subset evaluation, and DoC analysis. The performance of DoC is evaluated on the Duke University Multi-site Imaging Research in the Analysis of Depression sMRI dataset. The dataset consists of 115 brain sMRI scans of 88 healthy controls and 27 depressed subjects. Forty-four sMRI volumetric features are used in the evaluation. The DoC score of forty-four features was determined as the accuracy threshold (Acc_Thresh) was varied. The DoC performance was compared with that of four existing FS algorithms. At all defined Acc_Threshs, DoC outperformed the four examined FS algorithms for the average classification score and the maximum classification score. DoC has a good ability to generate reduced-size subsets of important features that could yield high classification accuracy. Based on the DoC score, the most discriminant volumetric features are those from the left-brain region.

  16. Optimal algorithm for automatic detection of microaneurysms based on receiver operating characteristic curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lili; Luo, Shuqian

    2010-11-01

    Microaneurysms (MAs) are the first manifestations of the diabetic retinopathy (DR) as well as an indicator for its progression. Their automatic detection plays a key role for both mass screening and monitoring and is therefore in the core of any system for computer-assisted diagnosis of DR. The algorithm basically comprises the following stages: candidate detection aiming at extracting the patterns possibly corresponding to MAs based on mathematical morphological black top hat, feature extraction to characterize these candidates, and classification based on support vector machine (SVM), to validate MAs. Feature vector and kernel function of SVM selection is very important to the algorithm. We use the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to evaluate the distinguishing performance of different feature vectors and different kernel functions of SVM. The ROC analysis indicates the quadratic polynomial SVM with a combination of features as the input shows the best discriminating performance.

  17. Alteration mineral mapping in inaccessible regions using target detection algorithms to ASTER data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pour, A B; Hashim, M; Park, Y

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the applications of target detection algorithms such as Constrained Energy Minimization (CEM), Orthogonal Subspace Projection (OSP) and Adaptive Coherence Estimator (ACE) to shortwave infrared bands of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data was investigated to extract geological information for alteration mineral mapping in poorly exposed lithologies in inaccessible domains. The Oscar II coast area north-eastern Graham Land, Antarctic Peninsula (AP) was selected in this study to conduct a satellite-based remote sensing mapping technique. It is an inaccessible region due to the remoteness of many rock exposures and the necessity to travel over sever mountainous and glacier-cover terrains for geological field mapping and sample collection. Fractional abundance of alteration minerals such as muscovite, kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, epidote, chlorite and biotite were identified in alteration zones using CEM, OSP and ACE algorithms in poorly mapped and unmapped zones at district scale for the Oscar II coast area. The results of this investigation demonstrated the applicability of ASTER shortwave infrared spectral data for lithological and alteration mineral mapping in poorly exposed lithologies and inaccessible regions, particularly using the image processing algorithms that are capable to detect sub-pixel targets in the remotely sensed images, where no prior information is available. (paper)

  18. Research on the algorithm of infrared target detection based on the frame difference and background subtraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Ming; Dong, Liquan; Hui, Mei; Liu, Xiaohua; Wu, Yijian

    2015-09-01

    As an important branch of infrared imaging technology, infrared target tracking and detection has a very important scientific value and a wide range of applications in both military and civilian areas. For the infrared image which is characterized by low SNR and serious disturbance of background noise, an innovative and effective target detection algorithm is proposed in this paper, according to the correlation of moving target frame-to-frame and the irrelevance of noise in sequential images based on OpenCV. Firstly, since the temporal differencing and background subtraction are very complementary, we use a combined detection method of frame difference and background subtraction which is based on adaptive background updating. Results indicate that it is simple and can extract the foreground moving target from the video sequence stably. For the background updating mechanism continuously updating each pixel, we can detect the infrared moving target more accurately. It paves the way for eventually realizing real-time infrared target detection and tracking, when transplanting the algorithms on OpenCV to the DSP platform. Afterwards, we use the optimal thresholding arithmetic to segment image. It transforms the gray images to black-white images in order to provide a better condition for the image sequences detection. Finally, according to the relevance of moving objects between different frames and mathematical morphology processing, we can eliminate noise, decrease the area, and smooth region boundaries. Experimental results proves that our algorithm precisely achieve the purpose of rapid detection of small infrared target.

  19. A new algorithm for epilepsy seizure onset detection and spread estimation from EEG signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Rincón, Antonio; Pereyra, Marcelo; D'Giano, Carlos; Batatia, Hadj; Risk, Marcelo

    2016-04-01

    Appropriate diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy is a main public health issue. Patients suffering from this disease often exhibit different physical characterizations, which result from the synchronous and excessive discharge of a group of neurons in the cerebral cortex. Extracting this information using EEG signals is an important problem in biomedical signal processing. In this work we propose a new algorithm for seizure onset detection and spread estimation in epilepsy patients. The algorithm is based on a multilevel 1-D wavelet decomposition that captures the physiological brain frequency signals coupled with a generalized gaussian model. Preliminary experiments with signals from 30 epilepsy crisis and 11 subjects, suggest that the proposed methodology is a powerful tool for detecting the onset of epilepsy seizures with his spread across the brain.

  20. Development of novel algorithm and real-time monitoring ambulatory system using Bluetooth module for fall detection in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J Y; Kang, J M; Jang, Y W; Kim, H

    2004-01-01

    Novel algorithm and real-time ambulatory monitoring system for fall detection in elderly people is described. Our system is comprised of accelerometer, tilt sensor and gyroscope. For real-time monitoring, we used Bluetooth. Accelerometer measures kinetic force, tilt sensor and gyroscope estimates body posture. Also, we suggested algorithm using signals which obtained from the system attached to the chest for fall detection. To evaluate our system and algorithm, we experimented on three people aged over 26 years. The experiment of four cases such as forward fall, backward fall, side fall and sit-stand was repeated ten times and the experiment in daily life activity was performed one time to each subject. These experiments showed that our system and algorithm could distinguish between falling and daily life activity. Moreover, the accuracy of fall detection is 96.7%. Our system is especially adapted for long-time and real-time ambulatory monitoring of elderly people in emergency situation.

  1. ALGORITHM OF CARDIO COMPLEX DETECTION AND SORTING FOR PROCESSING THE DATA OF CONTINUOUS CARDIO SIGNAL MONITORING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasichkov, A S; Grigoriev, E B; Nifontov, E M; Shapovalov, V V

    The paper presents an algorithm of cardio complex classification as part of processing the data of continuous cardiac monitoring. R-wave detection concurrently with cardio complex sorting is discussed. The core of this approach is the use of prior information about. cardio complex forms, segmental structure, and degree of kindness. Results of the sorting algorithm testing are provided.

  2. A Dynamic Enhancement With Background Reduction Algorithm: Overview and Application to Satellite-Based Dust Storm Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven D.; Bankert, Richard L.; Solbrig, Jeremy E.; Forsythe, John M.; Noh, Yoo-Jeong; Grasso, Lewis D.

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes a Dynamic Enhancement Background Reduction Algorithm (DEBRA) applicable to multispectral satellite imaging radiometers. DEBRA uses ancillary information about the clear-sky background to reduce false detections of atmospheric parameters in complex scenes. Applied here to the detection of lofted dust, DEBRA enlists a surface emissivity database coupled with a climatological database of surface temperature to approximate the clear-sky equivalent signal for selected infrared-based multispectral dust detection tests. This background allows for suppression of false alarms caused by land surface features while retaining some ability to detect dust above those problematic surfaces. The algorithm is applicable to both day and nighttime observations and enables weighted combinations of dust detection tests. The results are provided quantitatively, as a detection confidence factor [0, 1], but are also readily visualized as enhanced imagery. Utilizing the DEBRA confidence factor as a scaling factor in false color red/green/blue imagery enables depiction of the targeted parameter in the context of the local meteorology and topography. In this way, the method holds utility to both automated clients and human analysts alike. Examples of DEBRA performance from notable dust storms and comparisons against other detection methods and independent observations are presented.

  3. Vibration based algorithm for crack detection in cantilever beam containing two different types of cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Mehdi; Ghadami, Amin; Maghsoodi, Ameneh; Michael Hale, Jack

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, a simple method for detection of multiple edge cracks in Euler-Bernoulli beams having two different types of cracks is presented based on energy equations. Each crack is modeled as a massless rotational spring using Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) theory, and a relationship among natural frequencies, crack locations and stiffness of equivalent springs is demonstrated. In the procedure, for detection of m cracks in a beam, 3m equations and natural frequencies of healthy and cracked beam in two different directions are needed as input to the algorithm. The main accomplishment of the presented algorithm is the capability to detect the location, severity and type of each crack in a multi-cracked beam. Concise and simple calculations along with accuracy are other advantages of this method. A number of numerical examples for cantilever beams including one and two cracks are presented to validate the method.

  4. An Annotation Agnostic Algorithm for Detecting Nascent RNA Transcripts in GRO-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofeifa, Joseph G; Allen, Mary A; Lladser, Manuel E; Dowell, Robin D

    2017-01-01

    We present a fast and simple algorithm to detect nascent RNA transcription in global nuclear run-on sequencing (GRO-seq). GRO-seq is a relatively new protocol that captures nascent transcripts from actively engaged polymerase, providing a direct read-out on bona fide transcription. Most traditional assays, such as RNA-seq, measure steady state RNA levels which are affected by transcription, post-transcriptional processing, and RNA stability. GRO-seq data, however, presents unique analysis challenges that are only beginning to be addressed. Here, we describe a new algorithm, Fast Read Stitcher (FStitch), that takes advantage of two popular machine-learning techniques, hidden Markov models and logistic regression, to classify which regions of the genome are transcribed. Given a small user-defined training set, our algorithm is accurate, robust to varying read depth, annotation agnostic, and fast. Analysis of GRO-seq data without a priori need for annotation uncovers surprising new insights into several aspects of the transcription process.

  5. Segmenting texts from outdoor images taken by mobile phones using color features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zongyi; Zhou, Hanning

    2011-01-01

    Recognizing texts from images taken by mobile phones with low resolution has wide applications. It has been shown that a good image binarization can substantially improve the performances of OCR engines. In this paper, we present a framework to segment texts from outdoor images taken by mobile phones using color features. The framework consists of three steps: (i) the initial process including image enhancement, binarization and noise filtering, where we binarize the input images in each RGB channel, and apply component level noise filtering; (ii) grouping components into blocks using color features, where we compute the component similarities by dynamically adjusting the weights of RGB channels, and merge groups hierachically, and (iii) blocks selection, where we use the run-length features and choose the Support Vector Machine (SVM) as the classifier. We tested the algorithm using 13 outdoor images taken by an old-style LG-64693 mobile phone with 640x480 resolution. We compared the segmentation results with Tsar's algorithm, a state-of-the-art camera text detection algorithm, and show that our algorithm is more robust, particularly in terms of the false alarm rates. In addition, we also evaluated the impacts of our algorithm on the Abbyy's FineReader, one of the most popular commercial OCR engines in the market.

  6. An improved data clustering algorithm for outlier detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant Agarwal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is the extraction of hidden predictive information from large databases. This is a technology with potential to study and analyze useful information present in data. Data objects which do not usually fit into the general behavior of the data are termed as outliers. Outlier Detection in databases has numerous applications such as fraud detection, customized marketing, and the search for terrorism. By definition, outliers are rare occurrences and hence represent a small portion of the data. However, the use of Outlier Detection for various purposes is not an easy task. This research proposes a modified PAM for detecting outliers. The proposed technique has been implemented in JAVA. The results produced by the proposed technique are found better than existing technique in terms of outliers detected and time complexity.

  7. Regularized non-stationary morphological reconstruction algorithm for weak signal detection in microseismic monitoring: methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weilin; Wang, Runqiu; Chen, Yangkang

    2018-05-01

    Microseismic signal is typically weak compared with the strong background noise. In order to effectively detect the weak signal in microseismic data, we propose a mathematical morphology based approach. We decompose the initial data into several morphological multiscale components. For detection of weak signal, a non-stationary weighting operator is proposed and introduced into the process of reconstruction of data by morphological multiscale components. The non-stationary weighting operator can be obtained by solving an inversion problem. The regularized non-stationary method can be understood as a non-stationary matching filtering method, where the matching filter has the same size as the data to be filtered. In this paper, we provide detailed algorithmic descriptions and analysis. The detailed algorithm framework, parameter selection and computational issue for the regularized non-stationary morphological reconstruction (RNMR) method are presented. We validate the presented method through a comprehensive analysis through different data examples. We first test the proposed technique using a synthetic data set. Then the proposed technique is applied to a field project, where the signals induced from hydraulic fracturing are recorded by 12 three-component geophones in a monitoring well. The result demonstrates that the RNMR can improve the detectability of the weak microseismic signals. Using the processed data, the short-term-average over long-term average picking algorithm and Geiger's method are applied to obtain new locations of microseismic events. In addition, we show that the proposed RNMR method can be used not only in microseismic data but also in reflection seismic data to detect the weak signal. We also discussed the extension of RNMR from 1-D to 2-D or a higher dimensional version.

  8. Detecting fire in video stream using statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koplík Karel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The real time fire detection in video stream is one of the most interesting problems in computer vision. In fact, in most cases it would be nice to have fire detection algorithm implemented in usual industrial cameras and/or to have possibility to replace standard industrial cameras with one implementing the fire detection algorithm. In this paper, we present new algorithm for detecting fire in video. The algorithm is based on tracking suspicious regions in time with statistical analysis of their trajectory. False alarms are minimized by combining multiple detection criteria: pixel brightness, trajectories of suspicious regions for evaluating characteristic fire flickering and persistence of alarm state in sequence of frames. The resulting implementation is fast and therefore can run on wide range of affordable hardware.

  9. A Streaming Algorithm for Online Estimation of Temporal and Spatial Extent of Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipong Hiriotappa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowing traffic congestion and its impact on travel time in advance is vital for proactive travel planning as well as advanced traffic management. This paper proposes a streaming algorithm to estimate temporal and spatial extent of delays online which can be deployed with roadside sensors. First, the proposed algorithm uses streaming input from individual sensors to detect a deviation from normal traffic patterns, referred to as anomalies, which is used as an early indication of delay occurrence. Then, a group of consecutive sensors that detect anomalies are used to temporally and spatially estimate extent of delay associated with the detected anomalies. Performance evaluations are conducted using a real-world data set collected by roadside sensors in Bangkok, Thailand, and the NGSIM data set collected in California, USA. Using NGSIM data, it is shown qualitatively that the proposed algorithm can detect consecutive occurrences of shockwaves and estimate their associated delays. Then, using a data set from Thailand, it is shown quantitatively that the proposed algorithm can detect and estimate delays associated with both recurring congestion and incident-induced nonrecurring congestion. The proposed algorithm also outperforms the previously proposed streaming algorithm.

  10. Iterative image reconstruction algorithms in coronary CT angiography improve the detection of lipid-core plaque - a comparison with histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchner, Stefan B.; Ferencik, Maros; Maurovich-Horvat, Pal; Nakano, Masataka; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Virmani, Renu; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Hoffmann, Udo; Schlett, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether iterative reconstruction algorithms improve the diagnostic accuracy of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) for detection of lipid-core plaque (LCP) compared to histology. CCTA and histological data were acquired from three ex vivo hearts. CCTA images were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP), adaptive-statistical (ASIR) and model-based (MBIR) iterative algorithms. Vessel cross-sections were co-registered between FBP/ASIR/MBIR and histology. Plaque area 2 : 5.78 ± 2.29 vs. 3.39 ± 1.68 FBP; 5.92 ± 1.87 vs. 3.43 ± 1.62 ASIR; 6.40 ± 1.55 vs. 3.49 ± 1.50 MBIR; all p < 0.0001). AUC for detecting LCP was 0.803/0.850/0.903 for FBP/ASIR/MBIR and was significantly higher for MBIR compared to FBP (p = 0.01). MBIR increased sensitivity for detection of LCP by CCTA. Plaque area <60 HU in CCTA was associated with LCP in histology regardless of the reconstruction algorithm. However, MBIR demonstrated higher accuracy for detecting LCP, which may improve vulnerable plaque detection by CCTA. (orig.)

  11. An efficient and cost effective FPGA based implementation of the Viola-Jones face detection algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Irgens

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present an field programmable gate arrays (FPGA based implementation of the popular Viola-Jones face detection algorithm, which is an essential building block in many applications such as video surveillance and tracking. Our implementation is a complete system level hardware design described in a hardware description language and validated on the affordable DE2-115 evaluation board. Our primary objective is to study the achievable performance with a low-end FPGA chip based implementation. In addition, we release to the public domain the entire project. We hope that this will enable other researchers to easily replicate and compare their results to ours and that it will encourage and facilitate further research and educational ideas in the areas of image processing, computer vision, and advanced digital design and FPGA prototyping.

  12. An algorithm to detect and communicate the differences in computational models describing biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharm, Martin; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2016-02-15

    Repositories support the reuse of models and ensure transparency about results in publications linked to those models. With thousands of models available in repositories, such as the BioModels database or the Physiome Model Repository, a framework to track the differences between models and their versions is essential to compare and combine models. Difference detection not only allows users to study the history of models but also helps in the detection of errors and inconsistencies. Existing repositories lack algorithms to track a model's development over time. Focusing on SBML and CellML, we present an algorithm to accurately detect and describe differences between coexisting versions of a model with respect to (i) the models' encoding, (ii) the structure of biological networks and (iii) mathematical expressions. This algorithm is implemented in a comprehensive and open source library called BiVeS. BiVeS helps to identify and characterize changes in computational models and thereby contributes to the documentation of a model's history. Our work facilitates the reuse and extension of existing models and supports collaborative modelling. Finally, it contributes to better reproducibility of modelling results and to the challenge of model provenance. The workflow described in this article is implemented in BiVeS. BiVeS is freely available as source code and binary from sems.uni-rostock.de. The web interface BudHat demonstrates the capabilities of BiVeS at budhat.sems.uni-rostock.de. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. A Hybrid Spectral Clustering and Deep Neural Network Ensemble Algorithm for Intrusion Detection in Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tao; Wang, Fen; Cheng, Jianjun; Yu, Yang; Chen, Xiaoyun

    2016-10-13

    The development of intrusion detection systems (IDS) that are adapted to allow routers and network defence systems to detect malicious network traffic disguised as network protocols or normal access is a critical challenge. This paper proposes a novel approach called SCDNN, which combines spectral clustering (SC) and deep neural network (DNN) algorithms. First, the dataset is divided into k subsets based on sample similarity using cluster centres, as in SC. Next, the distance between data points in a testing set and the training set is measured based on similarity features and is fed into the deep neural network algorithm for intrusion detection. Six KDD-Cup99 and NSL-KDD datasets and a sensor network dataset were employed to test the performance of the model. These experimental results indicate that the SCDNN classifier not only performs better than backpropagation neural network (BPNN), support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF) and Bayes tree models in detection accuracy and the types of abnormal attacks found. It also provides an effective tool of study and analysis of intrusion detection in large networks.

  14. The Application of Machine Learning Algorithms for Text Mining based on Sentiment Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Samizade

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Classification of the cyber texts and comments into two categories of positive and negative sentiment among social media users is of high importance in the research are related to text mining. In this research, we applied supervised classification methods to classify Persian texts based on sentiment in cyber space. The result of this research is in a form of a system that can decide whether a comment which is published in cyber space such as social networks is considered positive or negative. The comments that are published in Persian movie and movie review websites from 1392 to 1395 are considered as the data set for this research. A part of these data are considered as training and others are considered as testing data. Prior to implementing the algorithms, pre-processing activities such as tokenizing, removing stop words, and n-germs process were applied on the texts. Naïve Bayes, Neural Networks and support vector machine were used for text classification in this study. Out of sample tests showed that there is no evidence indicating that the accuracy of SVM approach is statistically higher than Naïve Bayes or that the accuracy of Naïve Bayes is not statistically higher than NN approach. However, the researchers can conclude that the accuracy of the classification using SVM approach is statistically higher than the accuracy of NN approach in 5% confidence level.

  15. Ion trace detection algorithm to extract pure ion chromatograms to improve untargeted peak detection quality for liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, San-Yuan; Kuo, Ching-Hua; Tseng, Yufeng J

    2015-03-03

    Able to detect known and unknown metabolites, untargeted metabolomics has shown great potential in identifying novel biomarkers. However, elucidating all possible liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOF-MS) ion signals in a complex biological sample remains challenging since many ions are not the products of metabolites. Methods of reducing ions not related to metabolites or simply directly detecting metabolite related (pure) ions are important. In this work, we describe PITracer, a novel algorithm that accurately detects the pure ions of a LC/TOF-MS profile to extract pure ion chromatograms and detect chromatographic peaks. PITracer estimates the relative mass difference tolerance of ions and calibrates the mass over charge (m/z) values for peak detection algorithms with an additional option to further mass correction with respect to a user-specified metabolite. PITracer was evaluated using two data sets containing 373 human metabolite standards, including 5 saturated standards considered to be split peaks resultant from huge m/z fluctuation, and 12 urine samples spiked with 50 forensic drugs of varying concentrations. Analysis of these data sets show that PITracer correctly outperformed existing state-of-art algorithm and extracted the pure ion chromatograms of the 5 saturated standards without generating split peaks and detected the forensic drugs with high recall, precision, and F-score and small mass error.

  16. Sentiment analysis: a comparison of deep learning neural network algorithm with SVM and naϊve Bayes for Indonesian text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin Frans Mariel, Wahyu; Mariyah, Siti; Pramana, Setia

    2018-03-01

    Deep learning is a new era of machine learning techniques that essentially imitate the structure and function of the human brain. It is a development of deeper Artificial Neural Network (ANN) that uses more than one hidden layer. Deep Learning Neural Network has a great ability on recognizing patterns from various data types such as picture, audio, text, and many more. In this paper, the authors tries to measure that algorithm’s ability by applying it into the text classification. The classification task herein is done by considering the content of sentiment in a text which is also called as sentiment analysis. By using several combinations of text preprocessing and feature extraction techniques, we aim to compare the precise modelling results of Deep Learning Neural Network with the other two commonly used algorithms, the Naϊve Bayes and Support Vector Machine (SVM). This algorithm comparison uses Indonesian text data with balanced and unbalanced sentiment composition. Based on the experimental simulation, Deep Learning Neural Network clearly outperforms the Naϊve Bayes and SVM and offers a better F-1 Score while for the best feature extraction technique which improves that modelling result is Bigram.

  17. Potential fire detection based on Kalman-driven change detection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Den Bergh, F

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A new active fire event detection algorithm for data collected with the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) sensor, based on the extended Kalman filter, is introduced. Instead of using the observed temperatures of the spatial...

  18. Application of smart transmitter technology in nuclear engineering measurements with level detection algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun Gook; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1994-01-01

    In this study a programmable smart transmitter is designed and applied to the nuclear engineering measurements. In order to apply the smart transmitter technology to nuclear engineering measurements, the water level detection function is developed and applied in this work. In the real time system, the application of level detection algorithm can make the operator of the nuclear power plant sense the water level more rapidly. Furthermore this work can simplify the data communication between the level-sensing thermocouples and the main signal processor because the level signal is determined at field. The water level detection function reduces the detection time to about 8.3 seconds by processing the signal which has the time constant 250 seconds and the heavy noise signal

  19. Development of an algorithm for heartbeats detection and classification in Holter records based on temporal and morphological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, A; Romano, H; Laciar, E; Correa, R

    2011-01-01

    In this work a detection and classification algorithm for heartbeats analysis in Holter records was developed. First, a QRS complexes detector was implemented and their temporal and morphological characteristics were extracted. A vector was built with these features; this vector is the input of the classification module, based on discriminant analysis. The beats were classified in three groups: Premature Ventricular Contraction beat (PVC), Atrial Premature Contraction beat (APC) and Normal Beat (NB). These beat categories represent the most important groups of commercial Holter systems. The developed algorithms were evaluated in 76 ECG records of two validated open-access databases 'arrhythmias MIT BIH database' and M IT BIH supraventricular arrhythmias database . A total of 166343 beats were detected and analyzed, where the QRS detection algorithm provides a sensitivity of 99.69 % and a positive predictive value of 99.84 %. The classification stage gives sensitivities of 97.17% for NB, 97.67% for PCV and 92.78% for APC.

  20. Energy Efficient Distributed Fault Identification Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Panda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A distributed fault identification algorithm is proposed here to find both hard and soft faulty sensor nodes present in wireless sensor networks. The algorithm is distributed, self-detectable, and can detect the most common byzantine faults such as stuck at zero, stuck at one, and random data. In the proposed approach, each sensor node gathered the observed data from the neighbors and computed the mean to check whether faulty sensor node is present or not. If a node found the presence of faulty sensor node, then compares observed data with the data of the neighbors and predict probable fault status. The final fault status is determined by diffusing the fault information from the neighbors. The accuracy and completeness of the algorithm are verified with the help of statistical model of the sensors data. The performance is evaluated in terms of detection accuracy, false alarm rate, detection latency and message complexity.

  1. pubmed.mineR: an R package with text-mining algorithms to analyse PubMed abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Jyoti; Shah, A B Rauf; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2015-10-01

    The PubMed literature database is a valuable source of information for scientific research. It is rich in biomedical literature with more than 24 million citations. Data-mining of voluminous literature is a challenging task. Although several text-mining algorithms have been developed in recent years with focus on data visualization, they have limitations such as speed, are rigid and are not available in the open source. We have developed an R package, pubmed.mineR, wherein we have combined the advantages of existing algorithms, overcome their limitations, and offer user flexibility and link with other packages in Bioconductor and the Comprehensive R Network (CRAN) in order to expand the user capabilities for executing multifaceted approaches. Three case studies are presented, namely, 'Evolving role of diabetes educators', 'Cancer risk assessment' and 'Dynamic concepts on disease and comorbidity' to illustrate the use of pubmed.mineR. The package generally runs fast with small elapsed times in regular workstations even on large corpus sizes and with compute intensive functions. The pubmed.mineR is available at http://cran.rproject. org/web/packages/pubmed.mineR.

  2. Statistical text classifier to detect specific type of medical incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Zoie Shui-Yee; Akiyama, Masanori

    2013-01-01

    WHO Patient Safety has put focus to increase the coherence and expressiveness of patient safety classification with the foundation of International Classification for Patient Safety (ICPS). Text classification and statistical approaches has showed to be successful to identifysafety problems in the Aviation industryusing incident text information. It has been challenging to comprehend the taxonomy of medical incidents in a structured manner. Independent reporting mechanisms for patient safety incidents have been established in the UK, Canada, Australia, Japan, Hong Kong etc. This research demonstrates the potential to construct statistical text classifiers to detect specific type of medical incidents using incident text data. An illustrative example for classifying look-alike sound-alike (LASA) medication incidents using structured text from 227 advisories related to medication errors from Global Patient Safety Alerts (GPSA) is shown in this poster presentation. The classifier was built using logistic regression model. ROC curve and the AUC value indicated that this is a satisfactory good model.

  3. Algorithm and assessment work of active fire detection based on FengYun-3C/VIRR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z.; Chen, F.

    2017-12-01

    The wildfire is one of the most destructive and uncontrollable disasters and causes huge environmental, ecological, social effects. To better serve scientific research and practical fire management, an algorithm and corresponding validation work of active fire detection based on FengYun-3C/VIRR data, which is an optical sensor onboard the Chinese polar-orbiting meteorological sun-synchronous satellite, is hereby introduced. While the main structure heritages the `contextual algorithm', some new concepts including `infrared channel slope' are introduced for better adaptions to different situations. The validation work contains three parts: 1) comparing with the current FengYun-3C fire product GFR; 2) comparing with MODIS fire products; 3) comparing with Landsat series data. Study areas are selected from different places all over the world from 2014 to 2016. The results showed great improvement on GFR files on accuracy of both positioning and detection rate. In most study areas, the results match well with MODIS products and Landsat series data (with over 85% match degree) despite the differences in imaging time. However, detection rates and match degrees in Africa and South-east Asia are not satisfied (around 70%), where the occurrences of numerous small fire events and corresponding smokes may strongly affect the results of the algorithm. This is our future research direction and one of the main improvements requires achieving.

  4. Utilization of a genetic algorithm for the automatic detection of oil spill from RADARSAT-2 SAR satellite data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marghany, Maged

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An oil platform located 70 km from the coast of Louisiana sank on Thursday. • Oil spill has backscatter values of −25 dB in RADARSAT-2 SAR. • Oil spill is portrayed in SCNB mode by shallower incidence angle. • Ideal detection of oil spills in SAR images requires moderate wind speeds. • Genetic algorithm is excellent tool for automatic detection of oil spill in RADARSAT-2 SAR data. - Abstract: In this work, a genetic algorithm is applied for the automatic detection of oil spills. The procedure is implemented using sequences from RADARSAT-2 SAR ScanSAR Narrow single-beam data acquired in the Gulf of Mexico. The study demonstrates that the implementation of crossover allows for the generation of an accurate oil spill pattern. This conclusion is confirmed by the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The ROC curve indicates that the existence of oil slick footprints can be identified using the area between the ROC curve and the no-discrimination line of 90%, which is greater than that of other surrounding environmental features. In conclusion, the genetic algorithm can be used as a tool for the automatic detection of oil spills, and the ScanSAR Narrow single-beam mode serves as an excellent sensor for oil spill detection and survey

  5. Validation of a knowledge-based boundary detection algorithm: a multicenter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groch, M.W.; Erwin, W.D.; Murphy, P.H.; Ali, A.; Moore, W.; Ford, P.; Qian Jianzhong; Barnett, C.A.; Lette, J.

    1996-01-01

    A completely operator-independent boundary detection algorithm for multigated blood pool (MGBP) studies has been evaluated at four medical centers. The knowledge-based boundary detector (KBBD) algorithm is nondeterministic, utilizing a priori domain knowledge in the form of rule sets for the localization of cardiac chambers and image features, providing a case-by-case method for the identification and boundary definition of the left ventricle (LV). The nondeterministic algorithm employs multiple processing pathways, where KBBD rules have been designed for conventional (CONV) imaging geometries (nominal 45 LAO, nonzoom) as well as for highly zoomed and/or caudally tilted (ZOOM) studies. The resultant ejection fractions (LVEF) from the KBBD program have been compared with the standard LVEF calculations in 253 total cases in four institutions, 157 utilizing CONV geometry and 96 utilizing ZOOM geometries. The criteria for success was a KBBD boundary adequately defined over the LV as judged by an experienced observer, and the correlation of KBBD LVEFs to the standard calculation of LVEFs for the institution. The overall success rate for all institutions combined was 99.2%, with an overall correlation coefficient of r=0.95 (P<0.001). The individual success rates and EF correlations (r), for CONV and ZOOM geometers were: 98%, r=0.93 (CONV) and 100%, r=0.95 (ZOOM). The KBBD algorithm can be adapted to varying clinical situations, employing automatic processing using artificial intelligence, with performance close to that of a human operator. (orig.)

  6. The development of a line-scan imaging algorithm for the detection of fecal contamination on leafy geens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Chieh; Kim, Moon S.; Chuang, Yung-Kun; Lee, Hoyoung

    2013-05-01

    This paper reports the development of a multispectral algorithm, using the line-scan hyperspectral imaging system, to detect fecal contamination on leafy greens. Fresh bovine feces were applied to the surfaces of washed loose baby spinach leaves. A hyperspectral line-scan imaging system was used to acquire hyperspectral fluorescence images of the contaminated leaves. Hyperspectral image analysis resulted in the selection of the 666 nm and 688 nm wavebands for a multispectral algorithm to rapidly detect feces on leafy greens, by use of the ratio of fluorescence intensities measured at those two wavebands (666 nm over 688 nm). The algorithm successfully distinguished most of the lowly diluted fecal spots (0.05 g feces/ml water and 0.025 g feces/ml water) and some of the highly diluted spots (0.0125 g feces/ml water and 0.00625 g feces/ml water) from the clean spinach leaves. The results showed the potential of the multispectral algorithm with line-scan imaging system for application to automated food processing lines for food safety inspection of leafy green vegetables.

  7. Fusion of Heterogeneous Intrusion Detection Systems for Network Attack Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar Kaliappan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An intrusion detection system (IDS helps to identify different types of attacks in general, and the detection rate will be higher for some specific category of attacks. This paper is designed on the idea that each IDS is efficient in detecting a specific type of attack. In proposed Multiple IDS Unit (MIU, there are five IDS units, and each IDS follows a unique algorithm to detect attacks. The feature selection is done with the help of genetic algorithm. The selected features of the input traffic are passed on to the MIU for processing. The decision from each IDS is termed as local decision. The fusion unit inside the MIU processes all the local decisions with the help of majority voting rule and makes the final decision. The proposed system shows a very good improvement in detection rate and reduces the false alarm rate.

  8. Shockwave-Based Automated Vehicle Longitudinal Control Algorithm for Nonrecurrent Congestion Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuhui Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A shockwave-based speed harmonization algorithm for the longitudinal movement of automated vehicles is presented in this paper. In the advent of Connected/Automated Vehicle (C/AV environment, the proposed algorithm can be applied to capture instantaneous shockwaves constructed from vehicular speed profiles shared by individual equipped vehicles. With a continuous wavelet transform (CWT method, the algorithm detects abnormal speed drops in real-time and optimizes speed to prevent the shockwave propagating to the upstream traffic. A traffic simulation model is calibrated to evaluate the applicability and efficiency of the proposed algorithm. Based on 100% C/AV market penetration, the simulation results show that the CWT-based algorithm accurately detects abnormal speed drops. With the improved accuracy of abnormal speed drop detection, the simulation results also demonstrate that the congestion can be mitigated by reducing travel time and delay up to approximately 9% and 18%, respectively. It is also found that the shockwave caused by nonrecurrent congestion is quickly dissipated even with low market penetration.

  9. PRELIMINARY STUDY FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OFAN IMAGE ANALYSIS ALGORITHM TO DETECT DAIRY COW PRESENCE AT THE FEED BARRIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona M.C. Porto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of the Viola-Jones algorithm for continuous detection of the feeding behaviour of dairy cows housed in an open free-stall barn. A methodology was proposed in order to train, test and validate the classifier. A lower number of positive and negative images than those used by Viola and Jones were required during the training. The testing produced the following results: hit rate of about 97.85%, missed rate of about 2.15%, and false positive rate of about 0.67%. The validation was carried out by an accuracy assessment procedure which required the time-consuming work of an operator who labelled the true position of the cows within the barn and their behaviours. The accuracy assessment revealed that among the 715 frames about 90.63% contained only true positives, whereas about 9.37% were affected by underestimation, i.e., contained also one or two false negatives. False positives occurred only in 2.93% of the analyzed frames. Though a moderate mismatch between the testing and the validation performances was registered, the results obtained revealed the adequacy of the Viola-Jones algorithm for detecting the feeding behaviour of dairy cows housed in open free-stall barns. This, in turn, opens up opportunities for an automatic analysis of cow behaviour.

  10. [A new peak detection algorithm of Raman spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cheng-Zhi; Sun, Qiang; Liu, Ying; Liang, Jing-Qiu; An, Yan; Liu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    The authors proposed a new Raman peak recognition method named bi-scale correlation algorithm. The algorithm uses the combination of the correlation coefficient and the local signal-to-noise ratio under two scales to achieve Raman peak identification. We compared the performance of the proposed algorithm with that of the traditional continuous wavelet transform method through MATLAB, and then tested the algorithm with real Raman spectra. The results show that the average time for identifying a Raman spectrum is 0.51 s with the algorithm, while it is 0.71 s with the continuous wavelet transform. When the signal-to-noise ratio of Raman peak is greater than or equal to 6 (modern Raman spectrometers feature an excellent signal-to-noise ratio), the recognition accuracy with the algorithm is higher than 99%, while it is less than 84% with the continuous wavelet transform method. The mean and the standard deviations of the peak position identification error of the algorithm are both less than that of the continuous wavelet transform method. Simulation analysis and experimental verification prove that the new algorithm possesses the following advantages: no needs of human intervention, no needs of de-noising and background removal operation, higher recognition speed and higher recognition accuracy. The proposed algorithm is operable in Raman peak identification.

  11. Detection of boiling by Piety's on-line PSD-pattern recognition algorithm applied to neutron noise signals in the SAPHIR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiekerman, G.

    1988-09-01

    A partial blockage of the cooling channels of a fuel element in a swimming pool reactor could lead to vapour generation and to burn-out. To detect such anomalies, a pattern recognition algorithm based on power spectra density (PSD) proposed by Piety was further developed and implemented on a PDP 11/23 for on-line applications. This algorithm identifies anomalies by measuring the PSD on the process signal and comparing them with a standard baseline previously formed. Up to 8 decision discriminants help to recognize spectral changes due to anomalies. In our application, to detect boiling as quickly as possible with sufficient sensitivity, Piety's algorithm was modified using overlapped Fast-Fourier-Transform-Processing and the averaging of the PSDs over a large sample of preceding instantaneous PSDs. This processing allows high sensitivity in detecting weak disturbances without reducing response time. The algorithm was tested with simulation-of-boiling experiments where nitrogen in a cooling channel of a mock-up of a fuel element was injected. Void fractions higher than 30 % in the channel can be detected. In the case of boiling, it is believed that this limit is lower because collapsing bubbles could give rise to stronger fluctuations. The algorithm was also tested with a boiling experiment where the reactor coolant flow was actually reduced. The results showed that the discriminant D5 of Piety's algorithm based on neutron noise obtained from the existing neutron chambers of the reactor control system could sensitively recognize boiling. The detection time amounts to 7-30 s depending on the strength of the disturbances. Other events, which arise during a normal reactor run like scrams, removal of isotope elements without scramming or control rod movements and which could lead to false alarms, can be distinguished from boiling. 49 refs., 104 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Unsupervised learning algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Aydin, Kemal

    2016-01-01

    This book summarizes the state-of-the-art in unsupervised learning. The contributors discuss how with the proliferation of massive amounts of unlabeled data, unsupervised learning algorithms, which can automatically discover interesting and useful patterns in such data, have gained popularity among researchers and practitioners. The authors outline how these algorithms have found numerous applications including pattern recognition, market basket analysis, web mining, social network analysis, information retrieval, recommender systems, market research, intrusion detection, and fraud detection. They present how the difficulty of developing theoretically sound approaches that are amenable to objective evaluation have resulted in the proposal of numerous unsupervised learning algorithms over the past half-century. The intended audience includes researchers and practitioners who are increasingly using unsupervised learning algorithms to analyze their data. Topics of interest include anomaly detection, clustering,...

  13. DynPeak: An Algorithm for Pulse Detection and Frequency Analysis in Hormonal Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Alexandre; Zhang, Qinghua; Médigue, Claire; Fabre, Stéphane; Clément, Frédérique

    2012-01-01

    The endocrine control of the reproductive function is often studied from the analysis of luteinizing hormone (LH) pulsatile secretion by the pituitary gland. Whereas measurements in the cavernous sinus cumulate anatomical and technical difficulties, LH levels can be easily assessed from jugular blood. However, plasma levels result from a convolution process due to clearance effects when LH enters the general circulation. Simultaneous measurements comparing LH levels in the cavernous sinus and jugular blood have revealed clear differences in the pulse shape, the amplitude and the baseline. Besides, experimental sampling occurs at a relatively low frequency (typically every 10 min) with respect to LH highest frequency release (one pulse per hour) and the resulting LH measurements are noised by both experimental and assay errors. As a result, the pattern of plasma LH may be not so clearly pulsatile. Yet, reliable information on the InterPulse Intervals (IPI) is a prerequisite to study precisely the steroid feedback exerted on the pituitary level. Hence, there is a real need for robust IPI detection algorithms. In this article, we present an algorithm for the monitoring of LH pulse frequency, basing ourselves both on the available endocrinological knowledge on LH pulse (shape and duration with respect to the frequency regime) and synthetic LH data generated by a simple model. We make use of synthetic data to make clear some basic notions underlying our algorithmic choices. We focus on explaining how the process of sampling affects drastically the original pattern of secretion, and especially the amplitude of the detectable pulses. We then describe the algorithm in details and perform it on different sets of both synthetic and experimental LH time series. We further comment on how to diagnose possible outliers from the series of IPIs which is the main output of the algorithm. PMID:22802933

  14. DELISHUS: an efficient and exact algorithm for genome-wide detection of deletion polymorphism in autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Derek; Halldórsson, Bjarni V.; Morrow, Eric M.; Istrail, Sorin

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: The understanding of the genetic determinants of complex disease is undergoing a paradigm shift. Genetic heterogeneity of rare mutations with deleterious effects is more commonly being viewed as a major component of disease. Autism is an excellent example where research is active in identifying matches between the phenotypic and genomic heterogeneities. A considerable portion of autism appears to be correlated with copy number variation, which is not directly probed by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array or sequencing technologies. Identifying the genetic heterogeneity of small deletions remains a major unresolved computational problem partly due to the inability of algorithms to detect them. Results: In this article, we present an algorithmic framework, which we term DELISHUS, that implements three exact algorithms for inferring regions of hemizygosity containing genomic deletions of all sizes and frequencies in SNP genotype data. We implement an efficient backtracking algorithm—that processes a 1 billion entry genome-wide association study SNP matrix in a few minutes—to compute all inherited deletions in a dataset. We further extend our model to give an efficient algorithm for detecting de novo deletions. Finally, given a set of called deletions, we also give a polynomial time algorithm for computing the critical regions of recurrent deletions. DELISHUS achieves significantly lower false-positive rates and higher power than previously published algorithms partly because it considers all individuals in the sample simultaneously. DELISHUS may be applied to SNP array or sequencing data to identify the deletion spectrum for family-based association studies. Availability: DELISHUS is available at http://www.brown.edu/Research/Istrail_Lab/. Contact: Eric_Morrow@brown.edu and Sorin_Istrail@brown.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22689755

  15. Development of Quantum Devices and Algorithms for Radiation Detection and Radiation Signal Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Tokhy, M.E.S.M.E.S.

    2012-01-01

    The main functions of spectroscopy system are signal detection, filtering and amplification, pileup detection and recovery, dead time correction, amplitude analysis and energy spectrum analysis. Safeguards isotopic measurements require the best spectrometer systems with excellent resolution, stability, efficiency and throughput. However, the resolution and throughput, which depend mainly on the detector, amplifier and the analog-to-digital converter (ADC), can still be improved. These modules have been in continuous development and improvement. For this reason we are interested with both the development of quantum detectors and efficient algorithms of the digital processing measurement. Therefore, the main objective of this thesis is concentrated on both 1. Study quantum dot (QD) devices behaviors under gamma radiation 2. Development of efficient algorithms for handling problems of gamma-ray spectroscopy For gamma radiation detection, a detailed study of nanotechnology QD sources and infrared photodetectors (QDIP) for gamma radiation detection is introduced. There are two different types of quantum scintillator detectors, which dominate the area of ionizing radiation measurements. These detectors are QD scintillator detectors and QDIP scintillator detectors. By comparison with traditional systems, quantum systems have less mass, require less volume, and consume less power. These factors are increasing the need for efficient detector for gamma-ray applications such as gamma-ray spectroscopy. Consequently, the nanocomposite materials based on semiconductor quantum dots has potential for radiation detection via scintillation was demonstrated in the literature. Therefore, this thesis presents a theoretical analysis for the characteristics of QD sources and infrared photodetectors (QDIPs). A model of QD sources under incident gamma radiation detection is developed. A novel methodology is introduced to characterize the effect of gamma radiation on QD devices. The rate

  16. Detecting causality from online psychiatric texts using inter-sentential language patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jheng-Long

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Online psychiatric texts are natural language texts expressing depressive problems, published by Internet users via community-based web services such as web forums, message boards and blogs. Understanding the cause-effect relations embedded in these psychiatric texts can provide insight into the authors’ problems, thus increasing the effectiveness of online psychiatric services. Methods Previous studies have proposed the use of word pairs extracted from a set of sentence pairs to identify cause-effect relations between sentences. A word pair is made up of two words, with one coming from the cause text span and the other from the effect text span. Analysis of the relationship between these words can be used to capture individual word associations between cause and effect sentences. For instance, (broke up, life and (boyfriend, meaningless are two word pairs extracted from the sentence pair: “I broke up with my boyfriend. Life is now meaningless to me”. The major limitation of word pairs is that individual words in sentences usually cannot reflect the exact meaning of the cause and effect events, and thus may produce semantically incomplete word pairs, as the previous examples show. Therefore, this study proposes the use of inter-sentential language patterns such as ≪broke up, boyfriend>, Results Performance was evaluated on a corpus of texts collected from PsychPark (http://www.psychpark.org, a virtual psychiatric clinic maintained by a group of volunteer professionals from the Taiwan Association of Mental Health Informatics. Experimental results show that the use of inter-sentential language patterns outperformed the use of word pairs proposed in previous studies. Conclusions This study demonstrates the acquisition of inter-sentential language patterns for causality detection from online psychiatric texts. Such semantically more complete and precise features can improve causality detection performance.

  17. Pilot study on real-time motion detection in UAS video data by human observer and image exploitation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hild, Jutta; Krüger, Wolfgang; Brüstle, Stefan; Trantelle, Patrick; Unmüßig, Gabriel; Voit, Michael; Heinze, Norbert; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2017-05-01

    Real-time motion video analysis is a challenging and exhausting task for the human observer, particularly in safety and security critical domains. Hence, customized video analysis systems providing functions for the analysis of subtasks like motion detection or target tracking are welcome. While such automated algorithms relieve the human operators from performing basic subtasks, they impose additional interaction duties on them. Prior work shows that, e.g., for interaction with target tracking algorithms, a gaze-enhanced user interface is beneficial. In this contribution, we present an investigation on interaction with an independent motion detection (IDM) algorithm. Besides identifying an appropriate interaction technique for the user interface - again, we compare gaze-based and traditional mouse-based interaction - we focus on the benefit an IDM algorithm might provide for an UAS video analyst. In a pilot study, we exposed ten subjects to the task of moving target detection in UAS video data twice, once performing with automatic support, once performing without it. We compare the two conditions considering performance in terms of effectiveness (correct target selections). Additionally, we report perceived workload (measured using the NASA-TLX questionnaire) and user satisfaction (measured using the ISO 9241-411 questionnaire). The results show that a combination of gaze input and automated IDM algorithm provides valuable support for the human observer, increasing the number of correct target selections up to 62% and reducing workload at the same time.

  18. A Fast Inspection of Tool Electrode and Drilling Depth in EDM Drilling by Detection Line Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuo-Yi

    2008-08-21

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel measurement method using a machine vision system. Besides using image processing techniques, the proposed system employs a detection line algorithm that detects the tool electrode length and drilling depth of a workpiece accurately and effectively. Different boundaries of areas on the tool electrode are defined: a baseline between base and normal areas, a ND-line between normal and drilling areas (accumulating carbon area), and a DD-line between drilling area and dielectric fluid droplet on the electrode tip. Accordingly, image processing techniques are employed to extract a tool electrode image, and the centroid, eigenvector, and principle axis of the tool electrode are determined. The developed detection line algorithm (DLA) is then used to detect the baseline, ND-line, and DD-line along the direction of the principle axis. Finally, the tool electrode length and drilling depth of the workpiece are estimated via detected baseline, ND-line, and DD-line. Experimental results show good accuracy and efficiency in estimation of the tool electrode length and drilling depth under different conditions. Hence, this research may provide a reference for industrial application in EDM drilling measurement.

  19. A grey incidence algorithm to detect high-Z material using cosmic ray muons

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, W.; Xiao, S.; Shuai, M.; Chen, Y.; Lan, M.; Wei, M.; An, Q.; Lai, X.

    2017-10-01

    Muon scattering tomography (MST) is a method for using cosmic muons to scan cargo containers and vehicles for special nuclear materials. However, the flux of cosmic ray muons is low, in the real life application, the detection has to be done a short timescale with small numbers of muons. In this paper, we present a novel approach to detection of special nuclear material by using cosmic ray muons. We use the degree of grey incidence to distinguish typical waste fuel material, uranium, from low-Z material, medium-Z material and other high-Z materials of tungsten and lead. The result shows that using this algorithm, it is possible to detect high-Z materials with an acceptable timescale.

  20. Simulation-Based Evaluation of the Performances of an Algorithm for Detecting Abnormal Disease-Related Features in Cattle Mortality Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Jean-Baptiste; Durand, Benoît; Gay, Emilie; Ducrot, Christian; Hendrikx, Pascal; Calavas, Didier; Hénaux, Viviane

    2015-01-01

    We performed a simulation study to evaluate the performances of an anomaly detection algorithm considered in the frame of an automated surveillance system of cattle mortality. The method consisted in a combination of temporal regression and spatial cluster detection which allows identifying, for a given week, clusters of spatial units showing an excess of deaths in comparison with their own historical fluctuations. First, we simulated 1,000 outbreaks of a disease causing extra deaths in the French cattle population (about 200,000 herds and 20 million cattle) according to a model mimicking the spreading patterns of an infectious disease and injected these disease-related extra deaths in an authentic mortality dataset, spanning from January 2005 to January 2010. Second, we applied our algorithm on each of the 1,000 semi-synthetic datasets to identify clusters of spatial units showing an excess of deaths considering their own historical fluctuations. Third, we verified if the clusters identified by the algorithm did contain simulated extra deaths in order to evaluate the ability of the algorithm to identify unusual mortality clusters caused by an outbreak. Among the 1,000 simulations, the median duration of simulated outbreaks was 8 weeks, with a median number of 5,627 simulated deaths and 441 infected herds. Within the 12-week trial period, 73% of the simulated outbreaks were detected, with a median timeliness of 1 week, and a mean of 1.4 weeks. The proportion of outbreak weeks flagged by an alarm was 61% (i.e. sensitivity) whereas one in three alarms was a true alarm (i.e. positive predictive value). The performances of the detection algorithm were evaluated for alternative combination of epidemiologic parameters. The results of our study confirmed that in certain conditions automated algorithms could help identifying abnormal cattle mortality increases possibly related to unidentified health events.

  1. ECG Based Heart Arrhythmia Detection Using Wavelet Coherence and Bat Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kora, Padmavathi; Sri Rama Krishna, K.

    2016-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a type of heart abnormality, during the AF electrical discharges in the atrium are rapid, results in abnormal heart beat. The morphology of ECG changes due to the abnormalities in the heart. This paper consists of three major steps for the detection of heart diseases: signal pre-processing, feature extraction and classification. Feature extraction is the key process in detecting the heart abnormality. Most of the ECG detection systems depend on the time domain features for cardiac signal classification. In this paper we proposed a wavelet coherence (WTC) technique for ECG signal analysis. The WTC calculates the similarity between two waveforms in frequency domain. Parameters extracted from WTC function is used as the features of the ECG signal. These features are optimized using Bat algorithm. The Levenberg Marquardt neural network classifier is used to classify the optimized features. The performance of the classifier can be improved with the optimized features.

  2. Leads Detection Using Mixture Statistical Distribution Based CRF Algorithm from Sentinel-1 Dual Polarization SAR Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Fei; Zhang, Shengkai; Zhu, Tingting

    2017-04-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is significantly important for polar remote sensing since it can provide continuous observations in all days and all weather. SAR can be used for extracting the surface roughness information characterized by the variance of dielectric properties and different polarization channels, which make it possible to observe different ice types and surface structure for deformation analysis. In November, 2016, Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE) 33rd cruise has set sails in sea ice zone in Antarctic. Accurate leads spatial distribution in sea ice zone for routine planning of ship navigation is essential. In this study, the semantic relationship between leads and sea ice categories has been described by the Conditional Random Fields (CRF) model, and leads characteristics have been modeled by statistical distributions in SAR imagery. In the proposed algorithm, a mixture statistical distribution based CRF is developed by considering the contexture information and the statistical characteristics of sea ice for improving leads detection in Sentinel-1A dual polarization SAR imagery. The unary potential and pairwise potential in CRF model is constructed by integrating the posteriori probability estimated from statistical distributions. For mixture statistical distribution parameter estimation, Method of Logarithmic Cumulants (MoLC) is exploited for single statistical distribution parameters estimation. The iteration based Expectation Maximal (EM) algorithm is investigated to calculate the parameters in mixture statistical distribution based CRF model. In the posteriori probability inference, graph-cut energy minimization method is adopted in the initial leads detection. The post-processing procedures including aspect ratio constrain and spatial smoothing approaches are utilized to improve the visual result. The proposed method is validated on Sentinel-1A SAR C-band Extra Wide Swath (EW) Ground Range Detected (GRD) imagery with a

  3. Blind information-theoretic multiuser detection algorithms for DS-CDMA and WCDMA downlink systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, Khuram; Salem, Fathi M

    2005-07-01

    Code division multiple access (CDMA) is based on the spread-spectrum technology and is a dominant air interface for 2.5G, 3G, and future wireless networks. For the CDMA downlink, the transmitted CDMA signals from the base station (BS) propagate through a noisy multipath fading communication channel before arriving at the receiver of the user equipment/mobile station (UE/MS). Classical CDMA single-user detection (SUD) algorithms implemented in the UE/MS receiver do not provide the required performance for modern high data-rate applications. In contrast, multi-user detection (MUD) approaches require a lot of a priori information not available to the UE/MS. In this paper, three promising adaptive Riemannian contra-variant (or natural) gradient based user detection approaches, capable of handling the highly dynamic wireless environments, are proposed. The first approach, blind multiuser detection (BMUD), is the process of simultaneously estimating multiple symbol sequences associated with all the users in the downlink of a CDMA communication system using only the received wireless data and without any knowledge of the user spreading codes. This approach is applicable to CDMA systems with relatively short spreading codes but becomes impractical for systems using long spreading codes. We also propose two other adaptive approaches, namely, RAKE -blind source recovery (RAKE-BSR) and RAKE-principal component analysis (RAKE-PCA) that fuse an adaptive stage into a standard RAKE receiver. This adaptation results in robust user detection algorithms with performance exceeding the linear minimum mean squared error (LMMSE) detectors for both Direct Sequence CDMA (DS-CDMA) and wide-band CDMA (WCDMA) systems under conditions of congestion, imprecise channel estimation and unmodeled multiple access interference (MAI).

  4. Conflict Detection Algorithm to Minimize Locking for MPI-IO Atomicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehrish, Saba; Wang, Jun; Thakur, Rajeev

    Many scientific applications require high-performance concurrent I/O accesses to a file by multiple processes. Those applications rely indirectly on atomic I/O capabilities in order to perform updates to structured datasets, such as those stored in HDF5 format files. Current support for atomicity in MPI-IO is provided by locking around the operations, imposing lock overhead in all situations, even though in many cases these operations are non-overlapping in the file. We propose to isolate non-overlapping accesses from overlapping ones in independent I/O cases, allowing the non-overlapping ones to proceed without imposing lock overhead. To enable this, we have implemented an efficient conflict detection algorithm in MPI-IO using MPI file views and datatypes. We show that our conflict detection scheme incurs minimal overhead on I/O operations, making it an effective mechanism for avoiding locks when they are not needed.

  5. DEVELOPING INCIDENT DETECTION ALGORITHM BASED ON THE MAMDANI FUZZY INFERENCE ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Borisovich Nikolaev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Application of fuzzy logic in the incident detection system allows making a decision under uncertainty. The phase of incident detection is a process of finding difficulties in traffic. The difficulty in traffic is the main sign that there was a road accident and requires a reaction for its elimination. This leads to the use of input data that must be relevant to the vehicles and the road. These data must be considered together, and should be compared with the corresponding values for further analysis. The main parameters of the traffic flow, which can characterize its current state, are a flow rate, a volume flow. Necessary to analyze the input data received from the sensors. After processing the input data, using the previously entered fuzzy rules, will be taken action that will improve the situation in traffic or at least not allow it worse.

  6. Improved Motion Estimation Using Early Zero-Block Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We incorporate the early zero-block detection technique into the UMHexagonS algorithm, which has already been adopted in H.264/AVC JM reference software, to speed up the motion estimation process. A nearly sufficient condition is derived for early zero-block detection. Although the conventional early zero-block detection method can achieve significant improvement in computation reduction, the PSNR loss, to whatever extent, is not negligible especially for high quantization parameter (QP or low bit-rate coding. This paper modifies the UMHexagonS algorithm with the early zero-block detection technique to improve its coding performance. The experimental results reveal that the improved UMHexagonS algorithm greatly reduces computation while maintaining very high coding efficiency.

  7. Development and Validation of a Deep Learning Algorithm for Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy in Retinal Fundus Photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulshan, Varun; Peng, Lily; Coram, Marc; Stumpe, Martin C; Wu, Derek; Narayanaswamy, Arunachalam; Venugopalan, Subhashini; Widner, Kasumi; Madams, Tom; Cuadros, Jorge; Kim, Ramasamy; Raman, Rajiv; Nelson, Philip C; Mega, Jessica L; Webster, Dale R

    2016-12-13

    Deep learning is a family of computational methods that allow an algorithm to program itself by learning from a large set of examples that demonstrate the desired behavior, removing the need to specify rules explicitly. Application of these methods to medical imaging requires further assessment and validation. To apply deep learning to create an algorithm for automated detection of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema in retinal fundus photographs. A specific type of neural network optimized for image classification called a deep convolutional neural network was trained using a retrospective development data set of 128 175 retinal images, which were graded 3 to 7 times for diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema, and image gradability by a panel of 54 US licensed ophthalmologists and ophthalmology senior residents between May and December 2015. The resultant algorithm was validated in January and February 2016 using 2 separate data sets, both graded by at least 7 US board-certified ophthalmologists with high intragrader consistency. Deep learning-trained algorithm. The sensitivity and specificity of the algorithm for detecting referable diabetic retinopathy (RDR), defined as moderate and worse diabetic retinopathy, referable diabetic macular edema, or both, were generated based on the reference standard of the majority decision of the ophthalmologist panel. The algorithm was evaluated at 2 operating points selected from the development set, one selected for high specificity and another for high sensitivity. The EyePACS-1 data set consisted of 9963 images from 4997 patients (mean age, 54.4 years; 62.2% women; prevalence of RDR, 683/8878 fully gradable images [7.8%]); the Messidor-2 data set had 1748 images from 874 patients (mean age, 57.6 years; 42.6% women; prevalence of RDR, 254/1745 fully gradable images [14.6%]). For detecting RDR, the algorithm had an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.991 (95% CI, 0.988-0.993) for EyePACS-1 and 0

  8. Virtual machine consolidation enhancement using hybrid regression algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany Abdelsamea

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing data centers are growing rapidly in both number and capacity to meet the increasing demands for highly-responsive computing and massive storage. Such data centers consume enormous amounts of electrical energy resulting in high operating costs and carbon dioxide emissions. The reason for this extremely high energy consumption is not just the quantity of computing resources and the power inefficiency of hardware, but rather lies in the inefficient usage of these