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Sample records for text analysis approach

  1. Intertextual Content Analysis: An Approach for Analysing Text-Related Discussions with Regard to Movability in Reading and How Text Content Is Handled

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    Hallesson, Yvonne; Visén, Pia

    2018-01-01

    Reading and discussing texts as a means for learning subject content are regular features within educational contexts. This paper presents an approach for intertextual content analysis (ICA) of such text-related discussions revealing what the participants make of the text. Thus, in contrast to many other approaches for analysing conversation that…

  2. Opinion Mining in Latvian Text Using Semantic Polarity Analysis and Machine Learning Approach

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    Gatis Špats

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate approaches for opinion mining in Latvian text. Authors have applied, combined and extended results of several previous studies and public resources to perform opinion mining in Latvian text using two approaches, namely, semantic polarity analysis and machine learning. One of the most significant constraints that make application of opinion mining for written content classification in Latvian text challenging is the limited publicly available text corpora for classifier training. We have joined several sources and created a publically available extended lexicon. Our results are comparable to or outperform current achievements in opinion mining in Latvian. Experiments show that lexicon-based methods provide more accurate opinion mining than the application of Naive Bayes machine learning classifier on Latvian tweets. Methods used during this study could be further extended using human annotators, unsupervised machine learning and bootstrapping to create larger corpora of classified text.

  3. Text and ideology: text-oriented discourse analysis

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    Maria Eduarda Gonçalves Peixoto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to contribute to the understanding of the connection between text and ideology articulated by the text-oriented analysis of discourse (ADTO. Based on the reflections of Fairclough (1989, 2001, 2003 and Fairclough and Chouliaraki (1999, the debate presents the social ontology that ADTO uses to base its conception of social life as an open system and textually mediated; the article then explains the chronological-narrative development of the main critical theories of ideology, by virtue of which ADTO organizes the assumptions that underpin the particular use it makes of the term. Finally, the discussion presents the main aspects of the connection between text and ideology, offering a conceptual framework that can contribute to the domain of the theme according to a critical discourse analysis approach.

  4. Text Analysis: Critical Component of Planning for Text-Based Discussion Focused on Comprehension of Informational Texts

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    Kucan, Linda; Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan

    2018-01-01

    This investigation focuses on a tool used in a reading methods course to introduce reading specialist candidates to text analysis as a critical component of planning for text-based discussions. Unlike planning that focuses mainly on important text content or information, a text analysis approach focuses both on content and how that content is…

  5. DataToText: A Consumer-Oriented Approach to Data Analysis

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    Kenny, David A.

    2010-01-01

    DataToText is a project developed where the user communicates the relevant information for an analysis and DataToText computer routine produces text output that describes in words, tables, and figures the results from the analyses. Two extended examples are given, one an example of a moderator analysis and the other an example of a dyadic data…

  6. Systematic text condensation: a strategy for qualitative analysis.

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    Malterud, Kirsti

    2012-12-01

    To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies. Giorgi's psychological phenomenological analysis is the point of departure and inspiration for systematic text condensation. The basic elements of Giorgi's method and the elaboration of these in systematic text condensation are presented, followed by a detailed description of procedures for analysis according to systematic text condensation. Finally, similarities and differences compared with other frequently applied methods for qualitative analysis are identified, as the foundation of a discussion of strengths and limitations of systematic text condensation. Systematic text condensation is a descriptive and explorative method for thematic cross-case analysis of different types of qualitative data, such as interview studies, observational studies, and analysis of written texts. The method represents a pragmatic approach, although inspired by phenomenological ideas, and various theoretical frameworks can be applied. The procedure consists of the following steps: 1) total impression - from chaos to themes; 2) identifying and sorting meaning units - from themes to codes; 3) condensation - from code to meaning; 4) synthesizing - from condensation to descriptions and concepts. Similarities and differences comparing systematic text condensation with other frequently applied qualitative methods regarding thematic analysis, theoretical methodological framework, analysis procedures, and taxonomy are discussed. Systematic text condensation is a strategy for analysis developed from traditions shared by most of the methods for analysis of qualitative data. The method offers the novice researcher a process of intersubjectivity, reflexivity, and feasibility, while maintaining a responsible level of methodological rigour.

  7. Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

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    Whitney, Paul D; Willse, Alan R; Lopresti, Charles A; White, Amanda M

    2014-10-28

    Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis method includes accessing information indicative of data content of a collection of text comprising a plurality of different topics, using a computing device, analyzing the information indicative of the data content, and using results of the analysis, identifying a presence of a new topic in the collection of text.

  8. A Network Text Analysis of David Ayer’s Fury

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    Starling David Hunter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Network Text Analysis (NTA involves the creation of networks of words and/or concepts from linguistic data. Its key insight is that the position of words and concepts in a text network provides vital clues to the central and underlying themes of the text as a whole. Recent research has relied on inductive approaches to identify these themes. In this study we demonstrate a deductive approach that we apply to the screenplay of the 2014 World War II-era film Fury. Specifically, we first use genre expectations theory to establish prior expectations as to the key themes associated with war films. We then empirically test whether words and concepts associated with the most influentially-positioned nodes are consistent with themes common to the war-film genre. As predicted, we find that words and concepts associated with the least constrained nodes in the text network were significantly more likely to be associated with the war, action, and biography genres and significantly less likely to be associated with the mystery, science-fiction, fantasy, and film-noir genres. Keywords: content analysis, text analysis, network text analysis, semantic network analysis, film studies, screenplay, screenwriting, war movies, World War II, tanks

  9. Rhetorical structure theory and text analysis

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    Mann, William C.; Matthiessen, Christian M. I. M.; Thompson, Sandra A.

    1989-11-01

    Recent research on text generation has shown that there is a need for stronger linguistic theories that tell in detail how texts communicate. The prevailing theories are very difficult to compare, and it is also very difficult to see how they might be combined into stronger theories. To make comparison and combination a bit more approachable, we have created a book which is designed to encourage comparison. A dozen different authors or teams, all experienced in discourse research, are given exactly the same text to analyze. The text is an appeal for money by a lobbying organization in Washington, DC. It informs, stimulates and manipulates the reader in a fascinating way. The joint analysis is far more insightful than any one team's analysis alone. This paper is our contribution to the book. Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST), the focus of this paper, is a way to account for the functional potential of text, its capacity to achieve the purposes of speakers and produce effects in hearers. It also shows a way to distinguish coherent texts from incoherent ones, and identifies consequences of text structure.

  10. Automated analysis of instructional text

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    Norton, L.M.

    1983-05-01

    The development of a capability for automated processing of natural language text is a long-range goal of artificial intelligence. This paper discusses an investigation into the issues involved in the comprehension of descriptive, as opposed to illustrative, textual material. The comprehension process is viewed as the conversion of knowledge from one representation into another. The proposed target representation consists of statements of the prolog language, which can be interpreted both declaratively and procedurally, much like production rules. A computer program has been written to model in detail some ideas about this process. The program successfully analyzes several heavily edited paragraphs adapted from an elementary textbook on programming, automatically synthesizing as a result of the analysis a working Prolog program which, when executed, can parse and interpret let commands in the basic language. The paper discusses the motivations and philosophy of the project, the many kinds of prerequisite knowledge which are necessary, and the structure of the text analysis program. A sentence-by-sentence account of the analysis of the sample text is presented, describing the syntactic and semantic processing which is involved. The paper closes with a discussion of lessons learned from the project, possible alternative approaches, and possible extensions for future work. The entire project is presented as illustrative of the nature and complexity of the text analysis process, rather than as providing definitive or optimal solutions to any aspects of the task. 12 references.

  11. Directed Activities Related to Text: Text Analysis and Text Reconstruction.

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    Davies, Florence; Greene, Terry

    This paper describes Directed Activities Related to Text (DART), procedures that were developed and are used in the Reading for Learning Project at the University of Nottingham (England) to enhance learning from texts and that fall into two broad categories: (1) text analysis procedures, which require students to engage in some form of analysis of…

  12. Modelling text as process a dynamic approach to EFL classroom discourse

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xueyan

    2010-01-01

    A discourse analysis that is not based on grammar is likely to end up as a running commentary on a text, whereas a grammar-based one tends to treat text as a finished product rather than an on-going process. This book offers an approach to discourse analysis that is both grammar-based and oriented towards text as process. It proposes a model called TEXT TYPE within the framework of Hallidayan systemic-functional linguistics, which views grammatical choices in a text not as elements that combine to form a clause structure, but as semantic features that link successive clauses into an unfolding

  13. Text analysis with R for students of literature

    CERN Document Server

    Jockers, Matthew L

    2014-01-01

    Text Analysis with R for Students of Literature is written with students and scholars of literature in mind but will be applicable to other humanists and social scientists wishing to extend their methodological tool kit to include quantitative and computational approaches to the study of text. Computation provides access to information in text that we simply cannot gather using traditional qualitative methods of close reading and human synthesis. Text Analysis with R for Students of Literature provides a practical introduction to computational text analysis using the open source programming language R. R is extremely popular throughout the sciences and because of its accessibility, R is now used increasingly in other research areas. Readers begin working with text right away and each chapter works through a new technique or process such that readers gain a broad exposure to core R procedures and a basic understanding of the possibilities of computational text analysis at both the micro and macro scale. Each c...

  14. Towards Technological Approaches for Concept Maps Mining from Text

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    Camila Zacche Aguiar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Concept maps are resources for the representation and construction of knowledge. They allow showing, through concepts and relationships, how knowledge about a subject is organized. Technological advances have boosted the development of approaches for the automatic construction of a concept map, to facilitate and provide the benefits of that resource more broadly. Due to the need to better identify and analyze the functionalities and characteristics of those approaches, we conducted a detailed study on technological approaches for automatic construction of concept maps published between 1994 and 2016 in the IEEE Xplore, ACM and Elsevier Science Direct data bases. From this study, we elaborate a categorization defined on two perspectives, Data Source and Graphic Representation, and fourteen categories. That study collected 30 relevant articles, which were applied to the proposed categorization to identify the main features and limitations of each approach. A detailed view on these approaches, their characteristics and techniques are presented enabling a quantitative analysis. In addition, the categorization has given us objective conditions to establish new specification requirements for a new technological approach aiming at concept maps mining from texts.

  15. The Application of Machine Learning Algorithms for Text Mining based on Sentiment Analysis Approach

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    Reza Samizade

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Classification of the cyber texts and comments into two categories of positive and negative sentiment among social media users is of high importance in the research are related to text mining. In this research, we applied supervised classification methods to classify Persian texts based on sentiment in cyber space. The result of this research is in a form of a system that can decide whether a comment which is published in cyber space such as social networks is considered positive or negative. The comments that are published in Persian movie and movie review websites from 1392 to 1395 are considered as the data set for this research. A part of these data are considered as training and others are considered as testing data. Prior to implementing the algorithms, pre-processing activities such as tokenizing, removing stop words, and n-germs process were applied on the texts. Naïve Bayes, Neural Networks and support vector machine were used for text classification in this study. Out of sample tests showed that there is no evidence indicating that the accuracy of SVM approach is statistically higher than Naïve Bayes or that the accuracy of Naïve Bayes is not statistically higher than NN approach. However, the researchers can conclude that the accuracy of the classification using SVM approach is statistically higher than the accuracy of NN approach in 5% confidence level.

  16. Working with text tools, techniques and approaches for text mining

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    Tourte, Gregory J L

    2016-01-01

    Text mining tools and technologies have long been a part of the repository world, where they have been applied to a variety of purposes, from pragmatic aims to support tools. Research areas as diverse as biology, chemistry, sociology and criminology have seen effective use made of text mining technologies. Working With Text collects a subset of the best contributions from the 'Working with text: Tools, techniques and approaches for text mining' workshop, alongside contributions from experts in the area. Text mining tools and technologies in support of academic research include supporting research on the basis of a large body of documents, facilitating access to and reuse of extant work, and bridging between the formal academic world and areas such as traditional and social media. Jisc have funded a number of projects, including NaCTem (the National Centre for Text Mining) and the ResDis programme. Contents are developed from workshop submissions and invited contributions, including: Legal considerations in te...

  17. The semiotics of typography in literary texts. A multimodal approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Nina

    2009-01-01

    to multimodal discourse proposed, for instance, by Kress & Van Leeuwen (2001) and Baldry & Thibault (2006), and, more specifically, the multimodal approach to typography suggested by Van Leeuwen (2005b; 2006), in order to sketch out a methodological framework applicable to the description and analysis...... of the semiotic potential of typography in literary texts....

  18. Building a glaucoma interaction network using a text mining approach.

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    Soliman, Maha; Nasraoui, Olfa; Cooper, Nigel G F

    2016-01-01

    The volume of biomedical literature and its underlying knowledge base is rapidly expanding, making it beyond the ability of a single human being to read through all the literature. Several automated methods have been developed to help make sense of this dilemma. The present study reports on the results of a text mining approach to extract gene interactions from the data warehouse of published experimental results which are then used to benchmark an interaction network associated with glaucoma. To the best of our knowledge, there is, as yet, no glaucoma interaction network derived solely from text mining approaches. The presence of such a network could provide a useful summative knowledge base to complement other forms of clinical information related to this disease. A glaucoma corpus was constructed from PubMed Central and a text mining approach was applied to extract genes and their relations from this corpus. The extracted relations between genes were checked using reference interaction databases and classified generally as known or new relations. The extracted genes and relations were then used to construct a glaucoma interaction network. Analysis of the resulting network indicated that it bears the characteristics of a small world interaction network. Our analysis showed the presence of seven glaucoma linked genes that defined the network modularity. A web-based system for browsing and visualizing the extracted glaucoma related interaction networks is made available at http://neurogene.spd.louisville.edu/GlaucomaINViewer/Form1.aspx. This study has reported the first version of a glaucoma interaction network using a text mining approach. The power of such an approach is in its ability to cover a wide range of glaucoma related studies published over many years. Hence, a bigger picture of the disease can be established. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first glaucoma interaction network to summarize the known literature. The major findings were a set of

  19. Sentiment analysis of Arabic tweets using text mining techniques

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    Al-Horaibi, Lamia; Khan, Muhammad Badruddin

    2016-07-01

    Sentiment analysis has become a flourishing field of text mining and natural language processing. Sentiment analysis aims to determine whether the text is written to express positive, negative, or neutral emotions about a certain domain. Most sentiment analysis researchers focus on English texts, with very limited resources available for other complex languages, such as Arabic. In this study, the target was to develop an initial model that performs satisfactorily and measures Arabic Twitter sentiment by using machine learning approach, Naïve Bayes and Decision Tree for classification algorithms. The datasets used contains more than 2,000 Arabic tweets collected from Twitter. We performed several experiments to check the performance of the two algorithms classifiers using different combinations of text-processing functions. We found that available facilities for Arabic text processing need to be made from scratch or improved to develop accurate classifiers. The small functionalities developed by us in a Python language environment helped improve the results and proved that sentiment analysis in the Arabic domain needs lot of work on the lexicon side.

  20. Systematic analysis of molecular mechanisms for HCC metastasis via text mining approach.

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    Zhen, Cheng; Zhu, Caizhong; Chen, Haoyang; Xiong, Yiru; Tan, Junyuan; Chen, Dong; Li, Jin

    2017-02-21

    To systematically explore the molecular mechanism for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis and identify regulatory genes with text mining methods. Genes with highest frequencies and significant pathways related to HCC metastasis were listed. A handful of proteins such as EGFR, MDM2, TP53 and APP, were identified as hub nodes in PPI (protein-protein interaction) network. Compared with unique genes for HBV-HCCs, genes particular to HCV-HCCs were less, but may participate in more extensive signaling processes. VEGFA, PI3KCA, MAPK1, MMP9 and other genes may play important roles in multiple phenotypes of metastasis. Genes in abstracts of HCC-metastasis literatures were identified. Word frequency analysis, KEGG pathway and PPI network analysis were performed. Then co-occurrence analysis between genes and metastasis-related phenotypes were carried out. Text mining is effective for revealing potential regulators or pathways, but the purpose of it should be specific, and the combination of various methods will be more useful.

  1. From Text to Political Positions: Text analysis across disciplines

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    Kaal, A.R.; Maks, I.; van Elfrinkhof, A.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT From Text to Political Positions addresses cross-disciplinary innovation in political text analysis for party positioning. Drawing on political science, computational methods and discourse analysis, it presents a diverse collection of analytical models including pure quantitative and

  2. Effectiveness of Conceptual Change Texts: A Meta Analysis

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    Armagan, Fulya Öner; Keskin, Melike Özer; Akin, Beril Salman

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the overall effectiveness of conceptual change texts (CCTs) on academic achievement and to find out if effectiveness was related to some characteristics of the study. It followed up a Meta-analysis research approach. 42 published and unpublished studies, published between 1995 and 2010, and 42 experiment…

  3. Systematic text condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti

    2012-01-01

    To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies.......To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies....

  4. Cognition-Based Approaches for High-Precision Text Mining

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    Shannon, George John

    2017-01-01

    This research improves the precision of information extraction from free-form text via the use of cognitive-based approaches to natural language processing (NLP). Cognitive-based approaches are an important, and relatively new, area of research in NLP and search, as well as linguistics. Cognitive approaches enable significant improvements in both…

  5. Inferring Group Processes from Computer-Mediated Affective Text Analysis

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    Schryver, Jack C [ORNL; Begoli, Edmon [ORNL; Jose, Ajith [Missouri University of Science and Technology; Griffin, Christopher [Pennsylvania State University

    2011-02-01

    Political communications in the form of unstructured text convey rich connotative meaning that can reveal underlying group social processes. Previous research has focused on sentiment analysis at the document level, but we extend this analysis to sub-document levels through a detailed analysis of affective relationships between entities extracted from a document. Instead of pure sentiment analysis, which is just positive or negative, we explore nuances of affective meaning in 22 affect categories. Our affect propagation algorithm automatically calculates and displays extracted affective relationships among entities in graphical form in our prototype (TEAMSTER), starting with seed lists of affect terms. Several useful metrics are defined to infer underlying group processes by aggregating affective relationships discovered in a text. Our approach has been validated with annotated documents from the MPQA corpus, achieving a performance gain of 74% over comparable random guessers.

  6. Gender Analysis On Islamic Texts: A Study On Its Accuracy

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    Muchammad Ichsan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gender equality movement is spreading all over the world, including in Indonesia where Muslim gender activists have made hard efforts to ensure gender fairness and equality among people. One of their efforts is emphasizing the urgency of reinterpreting Islamic texts. They insist on the reinterpretation of Islamic texts based on gender perspective and analysis due to the existence of many Islamic texts that trespass the principles of gender equality and fairness they have been fighting for. This paper aims at assuring and examining the accuracy of using gender perspective as a tool for analyzing the Islamic text. It is found that using gender perspective and analysis for reinterpreting Islamic texts is not in line with the Islamic principles and will only produce laws and points of views which deviate from Islamic teachings. To reach the goals of this study, a descriptive-analytical approach is employed.

  7. Text mining with R a tidy approach

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    Silge, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Much of the data available today is unstructured and text-heavy, making it challenging for analysts to apply their usual data wrangling and visualization tools. With this practical book, you'll explore text-mining techniques with tidytext, a package that authors Julia Silge and David Robinson developed using the tidy principles behind R packages like ggraph and dplyr. You'll learn how tidytext and other tidy tools in R can make text analysis easier and more effective. The authors demonstrate how treating text as data frames enables you to manipulate, summarize, and visualize characteristics of text. You'll also learn how to integrate natural language processing (NLP) into effective workflows. Practical code examples and data explorations will help you generate real insights from literature, news, and social media. Learn how to apply the tidy text format to NLP Use sentiment analysis to mine the emotional content of text Identify a document's most important terms with frequency measurements E...

  8. Associated diacritical watermarking approach to protect sensitive arabic digital texts

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    Kamaruddin, Nurul Shamimi; Kamsin, Amirrudin; Hakak, Saqib

    2017-10-01

    Among multimedia content, one of the most predominant medium is text content. There have been lots of efforts to protect and secure text information over the Internet. The limitations of existing works have been identified in terms of watermark capacity, time complexity and memory complexity. In this work, an invisible digital watermarking approach has been proposed to protect and secure the most sensitive text i.e. Digital Holy Quran. The proposed approach works by XOR-ing only those Quranic letters that has certain diacritics associated with it. Due to sensitive nature of Holy Quran, diacritics play vital role in the meaning of the particular verse. Hence, securing letters with certain diacritics will preserve the original meaning of Quranic verses in case of alternation attempt. Initial results have shown that the proposed approach is promising with less memory complexity and time complexity compared to existing approaches.

  9. Visualization and Analysis of a Cardio Vascular Diseaseand MUPP1-related Biological Network combining Text Mining and Data Warehouse Approaches

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    Sommer Björn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Detailed investigation of socially important diseases with modern experimental methods has resulted in the generation of large volume of valuable data. However, analysis and interpretation of this data needs application of efficient computational techniques and systems biology approaches. In particular, the techniques allowing the reconstruction of associative networks of various biological objects and events can be useful. In this publication, the combination of different techniques to create such a network associated with an abstract cell environment is discussed in order to gain insights into the functional as well as spatial interrelationships. It is shown that experimentally gained knowledge enriched with data warehouse content and text mining data can be used for the reconstruction and localization of a cardiovascular disease developing network beginning with MUPP1/MPDZ (multi-PDZ domain protein.

  10. Individual Profiling Using Text Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-15

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0011 Individual Profiling using Text Analysis 140333 Mark Stevenson UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD, DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY Final...REPORT TYPE      Final 3.  DATES COVERED (From - To)      15 Sep 2014 to 14 Sep 2015 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE Individual Profiling using Text Analysis ...consisted of collections of tweets for a number of Twitter users whose gender, age and personality scores are known. The task was to construct some system

  11. Full text clustering and relationship network analysis of biomedical publications.

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    Renchu Guan

    Full Text Available Rapid developments in the biomedical sciences have increased the demand for automatic clustering of biomedical publications. In contrast to current approaches to text clustering, which focus exclusively on the contents of abstracts, a novel method is proposed for clustering and analysis of complete biomedical article texts. To reduce dimensionality, Cosine Coefficient is used on a sub-space of only two vectors, instead of computing the Euclidean distance within the space of all vectors. Then a strategy and algorithm is introduced for Semi-supervised Affinity Propagation (SSAP to improve analysis efficiency, using biomedical journal names as an evaluation background. Experimental results show that by avoiding high-dimensional sparse matrix computations, SSAP outperforms conventional k-means methods and improves upon the standard Affinity Propagation algorithm. In constructing a directed relationship network and distribution matrix for the clustering results, it can be noted that overlaps in scope and interests among BioMed publications can be easily identified, providing a valuable analytical tool for editors, authors and readers.

  12. Privacy protected text analysis in DataSHIELD

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    Rebecca Wilson

    2017-04-01

    Whilst it is possible to analyse free text within a DataSHIELD infrastructure, the challenge is creating generalised and resilient anti-disclosure methods for free text analysis. There are a range of biomedical and health sciences applications for DataSHIELD methods of privacy protected analysis of free text including analysis of electronic health records and analysis of qualitative data e.g. from social media.

  13. An Approach to a Comprehensive Test Framework for Analysis and Evaluation of Text Line Segmentation Algorithms

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    Zoran N. Milivojevic

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a testing framework for the evaluation and validation of text line segmentation algorithms. Text line segmentation represents the key action for correct optical character recognition. Many of the tests for the evaluation of text line segmentation algorithms deal with text databases as reference templates. Because of the mismatch, the reliable testing framework is required. Hence, a new approach to a comprehensive experimental framework for the evaluation of text line segmentation algorithms is proposed. It consists of synthetic multi-like text samples and real handwritten text as well. Although the tests are mutually independent, the results are cross-linked. The proposed method can be used for different types of scripts and languages. Furthermore, two different procedures for the evaluation of algorithm efficiency based on the obtained error type classification are proposed. The first is based on the segmentation line error description, while the second one incorporates well-known signal detection theory. Each of them has different capabilities and convenience, but they can be used as supplements to make the evaluation process efficient. Overall the proposed procedure based on the segmentation line error description has some advantages, characterized by five measures that describe measurement procedures.

  14. Themes, syntax and other necessary steps in the network analysis of texts : A research paper

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    Popping, R.

    1996-01-01

    Recent approaches to the qualitative analysis of texts afford visual depictions of words as networks. Yet network characteristics can also be quantified, enabling one to draw probabilistic inferences about a population of texts from a sample of texts-encoded-as-networks. This article describes three

  15. A Novel Text Clustering Approach Using Deep-Learning Vocabulary Network

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    Junkai Yi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Text clustering is an effective approach to collect and organize text documents into meaningful groups for mining valuable information on the Internet. However, there exist some issues to tackle such as feature extraction and data dimension reduction. To overcome these problems, we present a novel approach named deep-learning vocabulary network. The vocabulary network is constructed based on related-word set, which contains the “cooccurrence” relations of words or terms. We replace term frequency in feature vectors with the “importance” of words in terms of vocabulary network and PageRank, which can generate more precise feature vectors to represent the meaning of text clustering. Furthermore, sparse-group deep belief network is proposed to reduce the dimensionality of feature vectors, and we introduce coverage rate for similarity measure in Single-Pass clustering. To verify the effectiveness of our work, we compare the approach to the representative algorithms, and experimental results show that feature vectors in terms of deep-learning vocabulary network have better clustering performance.

  16. A Novel Approach for Arabic Text Steganography Based on the “BloodGroup” Text Hiding Method

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    S. Malalla,

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is the science of hiding certain messages (data in groups of irrelevant data possibly of other form. The purpose of steganography is covert communication to hide the existence of a message from an intermediary. Text Steganography is the process of embedding secret message (text in another text (cover text so that the existence of secret message cannot be detected by a third party. This paper presents a novel approach for text steganography using the Blood Group (BG method based on the behavior of blood group. Experimentally it is found that the proposed method got good results in capacity, hiding capacity, time complexity, robustness, visibility, and similarity which shows its superiority as compared to most several existing methods.

  17. Approaches to data analysis of multiple-choice questions

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    Lin Ding

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces five commonly used approaches to analyzing multiple-choice test data. They are classical test theory, factor analysis, cluster analysis, item response theory, and model analysis. Brief descriptions of the goals and algorithms of these approaches are provided, together with examples illustrating their applications in physics education research. We minimize mathematics, instead placing emphasis on data interpretation using these approaches.

  18. Network analysis of named entity co-occurrences in written texts

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    Amancio, Diego Raphael

    2016-06-01

    The use of methods borrowed from statistics and physics to analyze written texts has allowed the discovery of unprecedent patterns of human behavior and cognition by establishing links between models features and language structure. While current models have been useful to unveil patterns via analysis of syntactical and semantical networks, only a few works have probed the relevance of investigating the structure arising from the relationship between relevant entities such as characters, locations and organizations. In this study, we represent entities appearing in the same context as a co-occurrence network, where links are established according to a null model based on random, shuffled texts. Computational simulations performed in novels revealed that the proposed model displays interesting topological features, such as the small world feature, characterized by high values of clustering coefficient. The effectiveness of our model was verified in a practical pattern recognition task in real networks. When compared with traditional word adjacency networks, our model displayed optimized results in identifying unknown references in texts. Because the proposed representation plays a complementary role in characterizing unstructured documents via topological analysis of named entities, we believe that it could be useful to improve the characterization of written texts (and related systems), specially if combined with traditional approaches based on statistical and deeper paradigms.

  19. The Relationship between Paraphrasing and Text Analysis

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    María Luisa Cepeda Islas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of paraphrasing in the process of comprehension for college students, this study assessed the level of implementation of text analysis and paraphrases the response of a sample of senior students of the career psychology. We selected a group of freshmen to the Psychology course, which was asked to answer a questionnaire and carry out the summary of an empirical article. The results showed that participants have a low level of text analysis, at the same time had low levels of paraphrasing. It was seen that the predominant textual copy. They envision some possibilities for the structure of a training workshop not only paraphrasing but on the analysis of text.

  20. Full text clustering and relationship network analysis of biomedical publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Renchu; Yang, Chen; Marchese, Maurizio; Liang, Yanchun; Shi, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    Rapid developments in the biomedical sciences have increased the demand for automatic clustering of biomedical publications. In contrast to current approaches to text clustering, which focus exclusively on the contents of abstracts, a novel method is proposed for clustering and analysis of complete biomedical article texts. To reduce dimensionality, Cosine Coefficient is used on a sub-space of only two vectors, instead of computing the Euclidean distance within the space of all vectors. Then a strategy and algorithm is introduced for Semi-supervised Affinity Propagation (SSAP) to improve analysis efficiency, using biomedical journal names as an evaluation background. Experimental results show that by avoiding high-dimensional sparse matrix computations, SSAP outperforms conventional k-means methods and improves upon the standard Affinity Propagation algorithm. In constructing a directed relationship network and distribution matrix for the clustering results, it can be noted that overlaps in scope and interests among BioMed publications can be easily identified, providing a valuable analytical tool for editors, authors and readers.

  1. TIME SERIES ANALYSIS ON STOCK MARKET FOR TEXT MINING CORRELATION OF ECONOMY NEWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadi Evren SEKER

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an information retrieval methodfor the economy news. Theeffect of economy news, are researched in the wordlevel and stock market valuesare considered as the ground proof.The correlation between stock market prices and economy news is an already ad-dressed problem for most of the countries. The mostwell-known approach is ap-plying the text mining approaches to the news and some time series analysis tech-niques over stock market closing values in order toapply classification or cluster-ing algorithms over the features extracted. This study goes further and tries to askthe question what are the available time series analysis techniques for the stockmarket closing values and which one is the most suitable? In this study, the newsand their dates are collected into a database and text mining is applied over thenews, the text mining part has been kept simple with only term frequency – in-verse document frequency method. For the time series analysis part, we havestudied 10 different methods such as random walk, moving average, acceleration,Bollinger band, price rate of change, periodic average, difference, momentum orrelative strength index and their variation. In this study we have also explainedthese techniques in a comparative way and we have applied the methods overTurkish Stock Market closing values for more than a2 year period. On the otherhand, we have applied the term frequency – inversedocument frequency methodon the economy news of one of the high-circulatingnewspapers in Turkey.

  2. [Text mining, a method for computer-assisted analysis of scientific texts, demonstrated by an analysis of author networks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, P; Dullweber, F; Unglaub, F; Spies, C K

    2014-06-01

    Searching for relevant publications is becoming more difficult with the increasing number of scientific articles. Text mining as a specific form of computer-based data analysis may be helpful in this context. Highlighting relations between authors and finding relevant publications concerning a specific subject using text analysis programs are illustrated graphically by 2 performed examples. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. English Metafunction Analysis in Chemistry Text: Characterization of Scientific Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Amin Dalimunte, M.Hum

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to identify what Metafunctions are applied in chemistry text and how they characterize a scientific text. It was conducted by applying content analysis. The data for this research was a twelve-paragraph chemistry text. The data were collected by applying a documentary technique. The document was read and analyzed to find out the Metafunction. The data were analyzed by some procedures: identifying the types of process, counting up the number of the processes, categorizing and counting up the cohesion devices, classifying the types of modulation and determining modality value, finally counting up the number of sentences and clauses, then scoring the grammatical intricacy index. The findings of the research show that Material process (71of 100 is mostly used, circumstance of spatial location (26 of 56 is more dominant than the others. Modality (5 is less used in order to avoid from subjectivity. Impersonality is implied through less use of reference either pronouns (7 or demonstrative (7, conjunctions (60 are applied to develop ideas, and the total number of the clauses are found much more dominant (109 than the total number of the sentences (40 which results high grammatical intricacy index. The Metafunction found indicate that the chemistry text has fulfilled the characteristics of scientific or academic text which truly reflects it as a natural science.

  4. Genre based Approach to Teach Writing Descriptive Text

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    Putu Ngurah Rusmawan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to discuss how teaching and learning activities were carried out by using Genre based Approach in teaching writing descriptive text at junior high school. This study was conducted in the classroom of VII-1. Therefore, the appropriate design was qualitative research design. The subject of the study was the English teacher. To collect data, the researcher used observation and interview. The finding of the study described that the teaching and learning activities that were carried out by the teacher fulfilled the basic competencies. The teacher carried out the opening teaching activities by greeting, asking the students’ preparation during the lesson, checking the student’s attendance list, and informing the learning objective. The teacher carried out the main teaching activities by informing about how to write a descriptive text, giving, and asking opinions, eliciting the students’ understanding, prompting and directing to do exercises. The teacher carried out the closing teaching activities by directing the student to continue at home and eliciting the students’ reflection of what they could learn at that time.

  5. Profiling School Shooters: Automatic Text-Based Analysis

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    Yair eNeuman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available School shooters present a challenge to both forensic psychiatry and law enforcement agencies. The relatively small number of school shooters, their various charateristics, and the lack of in-depth analysis of all of the shooters prior to the shooting add complexity to our understanding of this problem. In this short paper, we introduce a new methodology for automatically profiling school shooters. The methodology involves automatic analysis of texts and the production of several measures relevant for the identification of the shooters. Comparing texts written by six school shooters to 6056 texts written by a comparison group of male subjects, we found that the shooters' texts scored significantly higher on the Narcissistic Personality dimension as well as on the Humilated and Revengeful dimensions. Using a ranking/priorization procedure, similar to the one used for the automatic identification of sexual predators, we provide support for the validity and relevance of the proposed methodology.

  6. Axiomatic Ontology Learning Approaches for English Translation of the Meaning of Quranic Texts

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    Saad Saidah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ontology learning (OL is the computational task of generating a knowledge base in the form of an ontology, given an unstructured corpus in natural language (NL. While most works in the field of ontology learning have been primarily based on a statistical approach to extract lightweight OL, very few attempts have been made to extract axiomatic OL (called heavyweight OL from NL text documents. Axiomatic OL supports more precise formal logic-based reasoning when compared to lightweight OL. Lexico-syntactic pattern matching and statisticsal one cannot lead to very accurate learning, mostly because of several linguistic nuances in the NL. Axiomatic OL is an alternative methodology that has not been explored much, where a deep linguistics analysis in computational linguistics is used to generate formal axioms and definitions instead of simply inducing a taxonomy. The ontology that is created not only stores the information about the application domain in explicit knowledge, but also can deduce the implicit knowledge from this ontology. This research will explore the English translation of the meaning of Quranic texts.

  7. Real analysis a constructive approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bridger, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A unique approach to analysis that lets you apply mathematics across a range of subjects This innovative text sets forth a thoroughly rigorous modern account of the theoretical underpinnings of calculus: continuity, differentiability, and convergence. Using a constructive approach, every proof of every result is direct and ultimately computationally verifiable. In particular, existence is never established by showing that the assumption of non-existence leads to a contradiction. The ultimate consequence of this method is that it makes sense-not just to math majors but also to students from a

  8. Analysis Of Aspects Of Messages Hiding In Text Environments

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    Afanasyeva Olesya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the work are researched problems, which arise during hiding of messages in text environments, being transmitted by electronic communication channels and the Internet. The analysis of selection of places in text environment (TE, which can be replaced by word from the message is performed. Selection and replacement of words in the text environment is implemented basing on semantic analysis of text fragment, consisting of the inserted word, and its environment in TE. For implementation of such analysis is used concept of semantic parameters of words coordination and semantic value of separate word. Are used well-known methods of determination of values of these parameters. This allows moving from quality level to quantitative level analysis of text fragments semantics during their modification by word substitution. Invisibility of embedded messages is ensured by providing preset values of the semantic cooperation parameter deviations.

  9. Text Analysis of Chemistry Thesis and Dissertation Titles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalfani, Vincent F.

    2017-01-01

    Programmatic text analysis can be used to understand patterns and reveal trends in data that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to uncover with manual coding methods. This work uses programmatic text analysis, specifically term frequency counts, to study nearly 10,000 chemistry thesis and dissertation titles from 1911-2015. The thesis and…

  10. SOME ASPECTS OF THE USE OF MATHEMATICAL-STATISTICAL METHODS IN THE ANALYSIS OF SOCIO-HUMANISTIC TEXTS Humanities and social text, mathematics, method, statistics, probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaira M Alieva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the application of mathematical and statistical methods in the analysis of socio-humanistic texts. The essence of mathematical and statistical methods, presents examples of their use in the study of Humanities and social phenomena. Considers the key issues faced by the expert in the application of mathematical-statistical methods in socio-humanitarian sphere, including the availability of sustainable contrasting socio-humanitarian Sciences and mathematics; the complexity of the allocation of the object that is the bearer of the problem; having the use of a probabilistic approach. The conclusion according to the results of the study.

  11. Mining concepts of health responsibility using text mining and exploratory graph analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellström, Sofia; Golino, Hudson

    2018-05-24

    Occupational therapists need to know about people's beliefs about personal responsibility for health to help them pursue everyday activities. The study aims to employ state-of-the-art quantitative approaches to understand people's views of health and responsibility at different ages. A mixed method approach was adopted, using text mining to extract information from 233 interviews with participants aged 5 to 96 years, and then exploratory graph analysis to estimate the number of latent variables. The fit of the structure estimated via the exploratory graph analysis was verified using confirmatory factor analysis. Exploratory graph analysis estimated three dimensions of health responsibility: (1) creating good health habits and feeling good; (2) thinking about one's own health and wanting to improve it; and 3) adopting explicitly normative attitudes to take care of one's health. The comparison between the three dimensions among age groups showed, in general, that children and adolescents, as well as the old elderly (>73 years old) expressed ideas about personal responsibility for health less than young adults, adults and young elderly. Occupational therapists' knowledge of the concepts of health responsibility is of value when working with a patient's health, but an identified challenge is how to engage children and older persons.

  12. A feminist post-structuralist analysis of an exemplar South African school history text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Fardon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A feminist post-structuralist perspective offers an alternative paradigm for the study of gender bias in History texts. It focuses on multiple perspectives and open interpretation, opens up space for female voices of the past and present, and deconstructs realist historical narrative. Our aim in this article is to discuss feminist post-structuralism as an innovative approach to History as a school subject, and to demonstrate its implications for the analysis of school History texts. We seek to identify and expose biases that marginalise women in school History texts and contribute to correcting these. Additionally, we seek to develop new knowledge for understanding gender differences. An example of the empirical application of the feminist post-structuralist perspective is provided. The exemplar text analysed supports masculine historical narrative, using a neutral and naturalising style, and renders women and the feminine meaning invisible. It is suggested that non-traditional forms of writing will help to dislodge the inherent hegemony in History texts and challenge the masculine status quo in school History texts.

  13. Texting As A Discursive Approach For The Production Of Agricultural Solutions

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    Ronan G. Zagado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates how the short messaging service SMS popularly known as texting has facilitated production of solutions to farm issues using the Farmers Text Centre FTC of the Philippine Rice Research PhilRice as the case study. Text messages registered in the FTC database in 2010 covering one cropping season were discourse analyzed. Interpretive qualitative research particularly the Grounded Theory was employed to interprettheorize said data. Since texting is a new emerging discourse in agricultural development Grounded Theory allows the explication of theoretical accounts that explain its existence and impact. Results indicate that timing queries received within working days from 8am to 5pm get speedy response content the easier the question the faster it gets reply length the shorter the message the better and clarity of the querytext message as well as cultural factors such as greetings and terms of respect are all important governing factors in texting for farm use. Moreover analysis reveals that the series of text messages sent back and forth by farmers and agricultural specialist in FTC suggests a dynamic process of negotiation rather than passive information sharing. The analysis further reveals that texting has allowed farmers to have access to a negotiated knowledge rather than a standard scientific recommendation vis--vis the solution to their farm issues. The term negotiated implies that farmers are actively involved in knowledge production via texting. Textholder is coined in this paper to describe farmers and agricultural specialists as co-creators of knowledge in texting as opposed to their traditional role as knowledge generator and user respectively. From the analysis reflections implications and theoretical contributions are drawn in relation to the value of SMSing in agricultural extension and communication.

  14. Methodological Demonstration of a Text Analytics Approach to Country Logistics System Assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinra, Aseem; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and demonstrate a semi-automated text analytics approach for the identification and categorization of information that can be used for country logistics assessments. In this paper, we develop the methodology on a set of documents for 21 countries using...... and the text analyst. Implications are discussed and future work is outlined....

  15. Unsupervised text mining methods for literature analysis: a case study for Thomas Pynchon's V.

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    Christos Iraklis Tsatsoulis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the use of unsupervised text mining methods for the analysis of prose literature works, using Thomas Pynchon's novel 'V'. as a case study. Our results suggest that such methods may be employed to reveal meaningful information regarding the novel’s structure. We report results using a wide variety of clustering algorithms, several distinct distance functions, and different visualization techniques. The application of a simple topic model is also demonstrated. We discuss the meaningfulness of our results along with the limitations of our approach, and we suggest some possible paths for further study.

  16. Key Concept Identification: A Comprehensive Analysis of Frequency and Topical Graph-Based Approaches

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    Muhammad Aman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Automatic key concept extraction from text is the main challenging task in information extraction, information retrieval and digital libraries, ontology learning, and text analysis. The statistical frequency and topical graph-based ranking are the two kinds of potentially powerful and leading unsupervised approaches in this area, devised to address the problem. To utilize the potential of these approaches and improve key concept identification, a comprehensive performance analysis of these approaches on datasets from different domains is needed. The objective of the study presented in this paper is to perform a comprehensive empirical analysis of selected frequency and topical graph-based algorithms for key concept extraction on three different datasets, to identify the major sources of error in these approaches. For experimental analysis, we have selected TF-IDF, KP-Miner and TopicRank. Three major sources of error, i.e., frequency errors, syntactical errors and semantical errors, and the factors that contribute to these errors are identified. Analysis of the results reveals that performance of the selected approaches is significantly degraded by these errors. These findings can help us develop an intelligent solution for key concept extraction in the future.

  17. A Key Event Path Analysis Approach for Integrated Systems

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    Jingjing Liao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available By studying the key event paths of probabilistic event structure graphs (PESGs, a key event path analysis approach for integrated system models is proposed. According to translation rules concluded from integrated system architecture descriptions, the corresponding PESGs are constructed from the colored Petri Net (CPN models. Then the definitions of cycle event paths, sequence event paths, and key event paths are given. Whereafter based on the statistic results after the simulation of CPN models, key event paths are found out by the sensitive analysis approach. This approach focuses on the logic structures of CPN models, which is reliable and could be the basis of structured analysis for discrete event systems. An example of radar model is given to characterize the application of this approach, and the results are worthy of trust.

  18. Building a protein name dictionary from full text: a machine learning term extraction approach

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    Campagne Fabien

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of information in the biological literature resides in full text articles, instead of abstracts. Yet, abstracts remain the focus of many publicly available literature data mining tools. Most literature mining tools rely on pre-existing lexicons of biological names, often extracted from curated gene or protein databases. This is a limitation, because such databases have low coverage of the many name variants which are used to refer to biological entities in the literature. Results We present an approach to recognize named entities in full text. The approach collects high frequency terms in an article, and uses support vector machines (SVM to identify biological entity names. It is also computationally efficient and robust to noise commonly found in full text material. We use the method to create a protein name dictionary from a set of 80,528 full text articles. Only 8.3% of the names in this dictionary match SwissProt description lines. We assess the quality of the dictionary by studying its protein name recognition performance in full text. Conclusion This dictionary term lookup method compares favourably to other published methods, supporting the significance of our direct extraction approach. The method is strong in recognizing name variants not found in SwissProt.

  19. Task-based Language Teaching and Text Types in Teaching Writing Using Communicative Approach

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    Riyana Sari Ni Nyoman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important language competencies in teaching learning process is writing. The present study focused on investigating the effect of communicative approach with task-based language teaching and communicative approach on the students’ writing competency at SMP N 2 Kediri viewed from text types(i.e. descriptive, recount, and narrative. To analyze the data, the design of the experimental study was posttest-only comparison groups by involving 60 students that were selected as the sample of the study through cluster random design. The sample’s post tests were assessed by using analytical scoring rubric. The data were then analyzed by using One-way ANOVA and the post hoc test was done by computing Multiple Comparison using Tukey HSD Test. The result showed that there was significant difference of the effect of communicative approach with task-based language teaching and communicative approach on the students’ writing competency. These findings are expected to give contribution in teaching English, particularly writing.

  20. Word-level recognition of multifont Arabic text using a feature vector matching approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Erik J.; Trenkle, John M.; Vogt, Robert C., III

    1996-03-01

    Many text recognition systems recognize text imagery at the character level and assemble words from the recognized characters. An alternative approach is to recognize text imagery at the word level, without analyzing individual characters. This approach avoids the problem of individual character segmentation, and can overcome local errors in character recognition. A word-level recognition system for machine-printed Arabic text has been implemented. Arabic is a script language, and is therefore difficult to segment at the character level. Character segmentation has been avoided by recognizing text imagery of complete words. The Arabic recognition system computes a vector of image-morphological features on a query word image. This vector is matched against a precomputed database of vectors from a lexicon of Arabic words. Vectors from the database with the highest match score are returned as hypotheses for the unknown image. Several feature vectors may be stored for each word in the database. Database feature vectors generated using multiple fonts and noise models allow the system to be tuned to its input stream. Used in conjunction with database pruning techniques, this Arabic recognition system has obtained promising word recognition rates on low-quality multifont text imagery.

  1. The conceptualization of childhood in North American pediatric dentistry texts: a discursive case study analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makansi, Nora; Carnevale, Franco A; Macdonald, Mary Ellen

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, conceptions of childhood have been evolving towards an increased recognition of children as active agents, capable of participating in the determination of their wellbeing. In pediatric dentistry, the extent to which these conceptions are being discursively endorsed is not well known. The aim of this investigation was to examine the discursive construction of childhood in seminal North American pedagogical dentistry materials. We conducted a qualitative discourse analysis of a sample of prominent texts using a sociological discourse analysis approach. We analyzed the latest edition of Macdonald and Avery's textbook (Chapter: Non pharmacologic management of children's behaviors) and the clinical practice guidelines published by the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, AAPD (Behavior guidance for the pediatric dental patient). The analysis produced five salient discursive categories: socialization through behavior modification; development and behavior; paternalism; the utility of child-centered communication; and consequentialism. While there were instances of a child-centered focus in the texts, the main discourses were rooted in developmentalism and behaviorism. There was scant acknowledgment of the importance of children's agency or voice, which runs contrary to child-centered discourses and practices in related disciplines (e.g., pediatric medicine, nursing). Predominant discourses in pediatric dentistry suggest a paternalistic, behaviorist approach to the 'management' of children in the dental office, focused primarily on completing interventions. Priorities for the future development of pediatric dentistry are discussed, integrating more child-centered approaches. © 2017 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Text Manipulation Techniques and Foreign Language Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ronald W.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses an approach to teaching second language composition which emphasizes (1) careful analysis of model texts from a limited, but well-defined perspective and (2) the application of text manipulation techniques developed by the word processing industry to student compositions. (EKN)

  3. Text-mining analysis of mHealth research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengul, Ferhat; Oner, Nurettin; Delen, Dursun

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, because of the advancements in communication and networking technologies, mobile technologies have been developing at an unprecedented rate. mHealth, the use of mobile technologies in medicine, and the related research has also surged parallel to these technological advancements. Although there have been several attempts to review mHealth research through manual processes such as systematic reviews, the sheer magnitude of the number of studies published in recent years makes this task very challenging. The most recent developments in machine learning and text mining offer some potential solutions to address this challenge by allowing analyses of large volumes of texts through semi-automated processes. The objective of this study is to analyze the evolution of mHealth research by utilizing text-mining and natural language processing (NLP) analyses. The study sample included abstracts of 5,644 mHealth research articles, which were gathered from five academic search engines by using search terms such as mobile health, and mHealth. The analysis used the Text Explorer module of JMP Pro 13 and an iterative semi-automated process involving tokenizing, phrasing, and terming. After developing the document term matrix (DTM) analyses such as single value decomposition (SVD), topic, and hierarchical document clustering were performed, along with the topic-informed document clustering approach. The results were presented in the form of word-clouds and trend analyses. There were several major findings regarding research clusters and trends. First, our results confirmed time-dependent nature of terminology use in mHealth research. For example, in earlier versus recent years the use of terminology changed from “mobile phone” to “smartphone” and from “applications” to “apps”. Second, ten clusters for mHealth research were identified including (I) Clinical Research on Lifestyle Management, (II) Community Health, (III) Literature Review, (IV) Medical

  4. Text-mining analysis of mHealth research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaydin, Bunyamin; Zengul, Ferhat; Oner, Nurettin; Delen, Dursun

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, because of the advancements in communication and networking technologies, mobile technologies have been developing at an unprecedented rate. mHealth, the use of mobile technologies in medicine, and the related research has also surged parallel to these technological advancements. Although there have been several attempts to review mHealth research through manual processes such as systematic reviews, the sheer magnitude of the number of studies published in recent years makes this task very challenging. The most recent developments in machine learning and text mining offer some potential solutions to address this challenge by allowing analyses of large volumes of texts through semi-automated processes. The objective of this study is to analyze the evolution of mHealth research by utilizing text-mining and natural language processing (NLP) analyses. The study sample included abstracts of 5,644 mHealth research articles, which were gathered from five academic search engines by using search terms such as mobile health, and mHealth. The analysis used the Text Explorer module of JMP Pro 13 and an iterative semi-automated process involving tokenizing, phrasing, and terming. After developing the document term matrix (DTM) analyses such as single value decomposition (SVD), topic, and hierarchical document clustering were performed, along with the topic-informed document clustering approach. The results were presented in the form of word-clouds and trend analyses. There were several major findings regarding research clusters and trends. First, our results confirmed time-dependent nature of terminology use in mHealth research. For example, in earlier versus recent years the use of terminology changed from "mobile phone" to "smartphone" and from "applications" to "apps". Second, ten clusters for mHealth research were identified including (I) Clinical Research on Lifestyle Management, (II) Community Health, (III) Literature Review, (IV) Medical Interventions

  5. Relating interesting quantitative time series patterns with text events and text features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Franz; Schreck, Tobias; Jentner, Wolfgang; Sharalieva, Lyubka; Keim, Daniel A.

    2013-12-01

    In many application areas, the key to successful data analysis is the integrated analysis of heterogeneous data. One example is the financial domain, where time-dependent and highly frequent quantitative data (e.g., trading volume and price information) and textual data (e.g., economic and political news reports) need to be considered jointly. Data analysis tools need to support an integrated analysis, which allows studying the relationships between textual news documents and quantitative properties of the stock market price series. In this paper, we describe a workflow and tool that allows a flexible formation of hypotheses about text features and their combinations, which reflect quantitative phenomena observed in stock data. To support such an analysis, we combine the analysis steps of frequent quantitative and text-oriented data using an existing a-priori method. First, based on heuristics we extract interesting intervals and patterns in large time series data. The visual analysis supports the analyst in exploring parameter combinations and their results. The identified time series patterns are then input for the second analysis step, in which all identified intervals of interest are analyzed for frequent patterns co-occurring with financial news. An a-priori method supports the discovery of such sequential temporal patterns. Then, various text features like the degree of sentence nesting, noun phrase complexity, the vocabulary richness, etc. are extracted from the news to obtain meta patterns. Meta patterns are defined by a specific combination of text features which significantly differ from the text features of the remaining news data. Our approach combines a portfolio of visualization and analysis techniques, including time-, cluster- and sequence visualization and analysis functionality. We provide two case studies, showing the effectiveness of our combined quantitative and textual analysis work flow. The workflow can also be generalized to other

  6. Contrast and Critique of Two Approaches to Discourse Analysis: Conversation Analysis and Speech Act Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Van Han

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Discourse analysis, as Murcia and Olshtain (2000 assume, is a vast study of language in use that extends beyond sentence level, and it involves a more cognitive and social perspective on language use and communication exchanges. Holding a wide range of phenomena about language with society, culture and thought, discourse analysis contains various approaches: speech act, pragmatics, conversation analysis, variation analysis, and critical discourse analysis. Each approach works in its different domain to discourse. For one dimension, it shares the same assumptions or general problems in discourse analysis with the other approaches: for instance, the explanation on how we organize language into units beyond sentence boundaries, or how language is used to convey information about the world, ourselves and human relationships (Schiffrin 1994: viii. For other dimensions, each approach holds its distinctive characteristics contributing to the vastness of discourse analysis. This paper will mainly discuss two approaches to discourse analysis- conversation analysis and speech act theory- and will attempt to point out some similarities as well as contrasting features between the two approaches, followed by a short reflection on their strengths and weaknesses in the essence of each approach. The organizational and discourse features in the exchanges among three teachers at the College of Finance and Customs in Vietnam will be analysed in terms of conversation analysis and speech act theory.

  7. The Power of Social Media Analytics: Text Analytics Based on Sentiment Analysis and Word Clouds on R

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    Ahmed Imran KABIR

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Apparently, word clouds have grown as a clear and appealing illustration or visualization strategy in terms of text. Word clouds are used as a part of various settings as a way to give a diagram by cleansing text throughout those words that come up with most frequently. Generally, this is performed constantly as an unadulterated text outline. In any case, that there is a bigger capability to this basic yet intense visualization worldview in text analytics. In this work, we investigate the adequacy of word clouds for general text analysis errands and also analyze the tweets to find out the sentiment and also discuss the legal aspects of text mining. We used R software to pull twitter data which depends altogether on word cloud as a visualization technique and also with the help of positive and negative words to determine the user sentiment. We indicate how this approach can be viably used to explain text analysis tasks and assess it in a qualitative user research.

  8. Development and testing of a text-mining approach to analyse patients' comments on their experiences of colorectal cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagland, Richard; Recio-Saucedo, Alejandra; Simon, Michael; Bracher, Michael; Hunt, Katherine; Foster, Claire; Downing, Amy; Glaser, Adam; Corner, Jessica

    2016-08-01

    Quality of cancer care may greatly impact on patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Free-text responses to patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) provide rich data but analysis is time and resource-intensive. This study developed and tested a learning-based text-mining approach to facilitate analysis of patients' experiences of care and develop an explanatory model illustrating impact on HRQoL. Respondents to a population-based survey of colorectal cancer survivors provided free-text comments regarding their experience of living with and beyond cancer. An existing coding framework was tested and adapted, which informed learning-based text mining of the data. Machine-learning algorithms were trained to identify comments relating to patients' specific experiences of service quality, which were verified by manual qualitative analysis. Comparisons between coded retrieved comments and a HRQoL measure (EQ5D) were explored. The survey response rate was 63.3% (21 802/34 467), of which 25.8% (n=5634) participants provided free-text comments. Of retrieved comments on experiences of care (n=1688), over half (n=1045, 62%) described positive care experiences. Most negative experiences concerned a lack of post-treatment care (n=191, 11% of retrieved comments) and insufficient information concerning self-management strategies (n=135, 8%) or treatment side effects (n=160, 9%). Associations existed between HRQoL scores and coded algorithm-retrieved comments. Analysis indicated that the mechanism by which service quality impacted on HRQoL was the extent to which services prevented or alleviated challenges associated with disease and treatment burdens. Learning-based text mining techniques were found useful and practical tools to identify specific free-text comments within a large dataset, facilitating resource-efficient qualitative analysis. This method should be considered for future PROM analysis to inform policy and practice. Study findings indicated that

  9. Interdisciplinary Approach to the Mental Lexicon: Neural Network and Text Extraction From Long-term Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardan G. Arutyunyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper touches upon the principles of mental lexicon organization in the light of recent research in psycho- and neurolinguistics. As a focal point of discussion two main approaches to mental lexicon functioning are considered: modular or dual-system approach, developed within generativism and opposite single-system approach, representatives of which are the connectionists and supporters of network models. The paper is an endeavor towards advocating the viewpoint that mental lexicon is complex psychological organization based upon specific composition of neural network. In this regard, the paper further elaborates on the matter of storing text in human mental space and introduces a model of text extraction from long-term memory. Based upon data available, the author develops a methodology of modeling structures of knowledge representation in the systems of artificial intelligence.

  10. Research approaches to the analysis of «man-production» relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya A. Otstavnova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify and describe research approaches used in the analysis of the relationship between humans and production. Methods in this work we have applied the methods of grouping describing and historical and logical method. Results basing on the characteristics of the main approaches used in the analysis of laquomanproductionraquo relations and taking into account the focus of the research it was established that the application of institutional systematic quantitative regulatory legislative structural functional and integrated approaches allows to pay equal attention to both production and man. Organic humanistic reproductive and situational approaches focus primarily on the man while economic procedural structural and marketing approaches focus on production. The distribution of each approach to a particular group is justified. Scientific novelty the author presents a classification of research approaches to the analysis of the laquomanproductionraquo relations system consisting of two subsystems. Each approach is given a detailed characteristic of both man and production that allows to evaluate the possibility of using these approaches and increasing the efficiency of this system research. Research approaches to the analysis of laquomanproductionraquo relations Practical value is manifested in the ability to optimize the use of research approaches to the analysis of the laquomanproductionraquo relations system to identify problems and ways to address them.

  11. Text Mining in Organizational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Vladimer B; Mol, Stefan T; Berkers, Hannah A; Kismihók, Gábor; Den Hartog, Deanne N

    2018-07-01

    Despite the ubiquity of textual data, so far few researchers have applied text mining to answer organizational research questions. Text mining, which essentially entails a quantitative approach to the analysis of (usually) voluminous textual data, helps accelerate knowledge discovery by radically increasing the amount data that can be analyzed. This article aims to acquaint organizational researchers with the fundamental logic underpinning text mining, the analytical stages involved, and contemporary techniques that may be used to achieve different types of objectives. The specific analytical techniques reviewed are (a) dimensionality reduction, (b) distance and similarity computing, (c) clustering, (d) topic modeling, and (e) classification. We describe how text mining may extend contemporary organizational research by allowing the testing of existing or new research questions with data that are likely to be rich, contextualized, and ecologically valid. After an exploration of how evidence for the validity of text mining output may be generated, we conclude the article by illustrating the text mining process in a job analysis setting using a dataset composed of job vacancies.

  12. Approach to Mathematics in Textbooks at Tertiary Level--Exploring Authors' Views about Their Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randahl, Mira

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present and discuss some results from an inquiry into mathematics textbooks authors' visions about their texts and approaches they choose when new concepts are introduced. Authors' responses are discussed in relation to results about students' difficulties with approaching calculus reported by previous research. A…

  13. The Holy Text and Violence : Levinas and Fundamentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorthuis, Marcel; Breitlin, Andris; Bremmers, Chris; Cools, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Levinas'rejection of a historical ciritcal approach to sacred texts as well as his depreciation of Spinoza's view of the Bible might bring him close to fundamentalism. A thorough analysis is necessary to demonstrate essential differences. Levinas'rejection of a historical ciritcal approach to sacred

  14. Computer-aided System of Semantic Text Analysis of a Technical Specification

    OpenAIRE

    Zaboleeva-Zotova, Alla; Orlova, Yulia

    2008-01-01

    The given work is devoted to development of the computer-aided system of semantic text analysis of a technical specification. The purpose of this work is to increase efficiency of software engineering based on automation of semantic text analysis of a technical specification. In work it is offered and investigated the model of the analysis of the text of the technical project is submitted, the attribute grammar of a technical specification, intended for formalization of limited Ru...

  15. Comprehension and Analysis of Information in Text: I. Construction and Evaluation of Brief Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozminsky, Ely; And Others

    This report describes a series of studies designed to construct and validate a set of text materials necessary to the pursuance of a long-term research project on information analysis and integration in semantically rich, naturalistic domains, primarily in the domain of the stock market. The methods and results of six separate experiments on…

  16. Phishing Detection: Analysis of Visual Similarity Based Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Kumar Jain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phishing is one of the major problems faced by cyber-world and leads to financial losses for both industries and individuals. Detection of phishing attack with high accuracy has always been a challenging issue. At present, visual similarities based techniques are very useful for detecting phishing websites efficiently. Phishing website looks very similar in appearance to its corresponding legitimate website to deceive users into believing that they are browsing the correct website. Visual similarity based phishing detection techniques utilise the feature set like text content, text format, HTML tags, Cascading Style Sheet (CSS, image, and so forth, to make the decision. These approaches compare the suspicious website with the corresponding legitimate website by using various features and if the similarity is greater than the predefined threshold value then it is declared phishing. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of phishing attacks, their exploitation, some of the recent visual similarity based approaches for phishing detection, and its comparative study. Our survey provides a better understanding of the problem, current solution space, and scope of future research to deal with phishing attacks efficiently using visual similarity based approaches.

  17. Intertextuality and Glocalization a Corpus-based Analysis of Advertisement Texts of an International Female Fashion Magazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Cao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the glocalization of business, it is becoming increasingly important to better understand the cross-linguistic persuasive communication conveyed through media, such as advertisement, which is considered one of the most active form of modern media. In achieving this goal, intertextuality study in the pragmatic field proves to be helpful. Employing quantitative and qualitative approaches, we compare English and Chinese texts of advertisements in Cosmopolitan, the most sellable female fashion magazine, with the study focused on lexical, thematic and cultural intertextuality. It is found that the glocalization of advertisement for female products and services are dependent on local culture and language. The analysis of intertextuality between two texts will contribute to researches on female advertisements and international marketing strategy.

  18. DHARMAYATRA IN THE DWIJENDRA TATTWA TEXT ANALYSIS OF RECEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Rai Putra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The object of the study is Dwijendra Text (hereinafter abbreviated to DT. It containsinteresting narrations and is importantly related to the dharmayatra, the holy religious journeymade by Dang Hyang Nirartha, the charismatic figure, in Bali, Lombok and Sumbawa. Beforethe analysis of reception was conducted, the corpus text of the DT texts completely andstructurally telling the religious journey made by Dang Hyang Nirartha was successfullydetermined. The analysis in this study was made to answer the following questions: what is thenarrative structure of the DT text; what are the enlightenment image entities of the dharmayatraof the DT text; how do people appreciate the dharmayatra of the DT text? The answers to thenarrative structure of the DT text; the image entities and the appreciation provided by people arethe main objectives of this study.The theories adopted in this study are the theory of reception introduced by Jauss, thetheory of semiotics introduced by Pierce and the theory of mythology introduced by Barthes. Asa qualitative study, the data needed were collected by the methods of observation, note taking,documentation and interview supported with a sound recorder and pictures. The results of theanalysis are informally presented, meaning that they are verbally described in the form of wordswhich are systematically composed based on the problems formulated in this study.The analysis of the narrative structure of the DT text contains narrative units which are inthe forms of theme, characters and plots. They all unite to form stories which are mythological,legendary, symbolic, hagiographic and suggestive in nature. Based on the analysis ofenlightenment image entities, it can be concluded that there are three basic entities leading to thecreation of the DT text. They are first enlightenment; second protection of Hinduism; and thirdconstruction of temple institutions. Based on the reception analysis, it can be concluded thatpeople, through

  19. A NOVEL APPROACH FOR 3D NEIGHBOURHOOD ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Emamgholian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and lack of land in urban areas have caused massive developments such as high rises and underground infrastructures. Land authorities in the international context recognizes 3D cadastres as a solution to efficiently manage these developments in complex cities. Although a 2D cadastre does not efficiently register these developments, it is currently being used in many jurisdictions for registering land and property information. Limitations in analysis and presentation are considered as examples of such limitations. 3D neighbourhood analysis by automatically finding 3D spaces has become an issue of major interest in recent years. Whereas the neighbourhood analysis has been in the focus of research, the idea of 3D neighbourhood analysis has rarely been addressed in 3 dimensional information systems (3D GIS analysis. In this paper, a novel approach for 3D neighbourhood analysis has been proposed by recording spatial and descriptive information of the apartment units and easements. This approach uses the coordinates of the subject apartment unit to find the neighbour spaces. By considering a buffer around the edges of the unit, neighbour spaces are accurately detected. This method was implemented in ESRI ArcScene and three case studies were defined to test the efficiency of this approach. The results show that spaces are accurately detected in various complex scenarios. This approach can also be applied for other applications such as property management and disaster management in order to find the affected apartments around a defined space.

  20. Introducing the Interactive Model for the Training of Audiovisual Translators and Analysis of Multimodal Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Luigi Iaia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – This paper introduces the ‘Interactive Model’ of audiovisual translation developed in the context of my PhD research on the cognitive-semantic, functional and socio-cultural features of the Italian-dubbing translation of a corpus of humorous texts. The Model is based on two interactive macro-phases – ‘Multimodal Critical Analysis of Scripts’ (MuCrAS and ‘Multimodal Re-Textualization of Scripts’ (MuReTS. Its construction and application are justified by a multidisciplinary approach to the analysis and translation of audiovisual texts, so as to focus on the linguistic and extralinguistic dimensions affecting both the reception of source texts and the production of target ones (Chaume 2004; Díaz Cintas 2004. By resorting to Critical Discourse Analysis (Fairclough 1995, 2001, to a process-based approach to translation and to a socio-semiotic analysis of multimodal texts (van Leeuwen 2004; Kress and van Leeuwen 2006, the Model is meant to be applied to the training of audiovisual translators and discourse analysts in order to help them enquire into the levels of pragmalinguistic equivalence between the source and the target versions. Finally, a practical application shall be discussed, detailing the Italian rendering of a comic sketch from the American late-night talk show Conan.Abstract – Questo studio introduce il ‘Modello Interattivo’ di traduzione audiovisiva sviluppato durante il mio dottorato di ricerca incentrato sulle caratteristiche cognitivo-semantiche, funzionali e socio-culturali della traduzione italiana per il doppiaggio di un corpus di testi comici. Il Modello è costituito da due fasi: la prima, di ‘Analisi critica e multimodale degli script’ (MuCrAS e la seconda, di ‘Ritestualizzazione critica e multimodale degli script’ (MuReTS, e la sua costruzione e applicazione sono frutto di un approccio multidisciplinare all’analisi e traduzione dei testi audiovisivi, al fine di esaminare le

  1. Research trends on Big Data in Marketing: A text mining and topic modeling based literature analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Amado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the research interest on Big Data in Marketing, we present a research literature analysis based on a text mining semi-automated approach with the goal of identifying the main trends in this domain. In particular, the analysis focuses on relevant terms and topics related with five dimensions: Big Data, Marketing, Geographic location of authors’ affiliation (countries and continents, Products, and Sectors. A total of 1560 articles published from 2010 to 2015 were scrutinized. The findings revealed that research is bipartite between technological and research domains, with Big Data publications not clearly aligning cutting edge techniques toward Marketing benefits. Also, few inter-continental co-authored publications were found. Moreover, findings show that research in Big Data applications to Marketing is still in an embryonic stage, thus making it essential to develop more direct efforts toward business for Big Data to thrive in the Marketing arena.

  2. Interword and intraword pause threshold in the writing of texts by children and adolescents : a methodological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence eChenu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Writing words in real life involves setting objectives, imagining a recipient, translating ideas into linguistic forms, managing grapho-motor gestures, etc. Understanding writing requires observation of the processes as they occur in real time. Analysis of pauses is one of the preferred methods for accessing the dynamics of writing and is based on the idea that pauses are behavioral correlates of cognitive processes. However, there is a need to clarify what we are observing when studying pause phenomena, as we will argue in the first section. This taken into account, the study of pause phenomena can be considered following two approaches. A first approach, driven by temporality, would define a threshold and observe where pauses, e.g. scriptural inactivity occurs. A second approach, linguistically driven, would define structural units and look for scriptural inactivity at the boundaries of these units or within these units. Taking a temporally driven approach, we present two methods which aim at the automatic identification of scriptural inactivity which is most likely not attributable to grapho-motor management in texts written by children and adolescents using digitizing tablets in association with Eye and Pen© (Chesnet & Alamargot, 2005. The first method is purely statistical and is based on the idea that the distribution of pauses exhibits different Gaussian components each of them corresponding to a different type of pause. After having reviewed the limits of this statistical method, we present a second method based on writing dynamics which attempts to identify breaking points in the writing dynamics rather than relying only on pause duration. This second method needs to be refined to overcome the fact that calculation is impossible when there is insufficient data which is often the case when working with young scriptors.

  3. The Interplay of Text, Meaning and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kärreman, Dan; Levay, Charlotta

    2017-01-01

    Context: The study of discourses (i.e. verbal interactions or written accounts) is increasingly used in social sciences to gain insight into issues connected to discourse, such as meanings, behaviours and actions. This paper situates discourse analysis in medical education, based on a framework...... settings, with a particular focus on the field of medical education. Methods: The study is based on a literature analysis of discourse analysis approaches published in Medical Education. Results: Findings suggest that empirical studies through discourse analysis can be heuristically understood in terms...... of the links between text, practices and meaning. Conclusions: Discourse analysis provides a more strongly supported argument when it is possible to defend claims on three levels: practice, using observational data; meaning, using ethnographic data, and text, using conversational and textual data....

  4. From text to codings: intercoder reliability assessment in qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burla, Laila; Knierim, Birte; Barth, Jurgen; Liewald, Katharina; Duetz, Margreet; Abel, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    High intercoder reliability (ICR) is required in qualitative content analysis for assuring quality when more than one coder is involved in data analysis. The literature is short of standardized procedures for ICR procedures in qualitative content analysis. To illustrate how ICR assessment can be used to improve codings in qualitative content analysis. Key steps of the procedure are presented, drawing on data from a qualitative study on patients' perspectives on low back pain. First, a coding scheme was developed using a comprehensive inductive and deductive approach. Second, 10 transcripts were coded independently by two researchers, and ICR was calculated. A resulting kappa value of .67 can be regarded as satisfactory to solid. Moreover, varying agreement rates helped to identify problems in the coding scheme. Low agreement rates, for instance, indicated that respective codes were defined too broadly and would need clarification. In a third step, the results of the analysis were used to improve the coding scheme, leading to consistent and high-quality results. The quantitative approach of ICR assessment is a viable instrument for quality assurance in qualitative content analysis. Kappa values and close inspection of agreement rates help to estimate and increase quality of codings. This approach facilitates good practice in coding and enhances credibility of analysis, especially when large samples are interviewed, different coders are involved, and quantitative results are presented.

  5. Assessing semantic similarity of texts - Methods and algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozeva, Anna; Zerkova, Silvia

    2017-12-01

    Assessing the semantic similarity of texts is an important part of different text-related applications like educational systems, information retrieval, text summarization, etc. This task is performed by sophisticated analysis, which implements text-mining techniques. Text mining involves several pre-processing steps, which provide for obtaining structured representative model of the documents in a corpus by means of extracting and selecting the features, characterizing their content. Generally the model is vector-based and enables further analysis with knowledge discovery approaches. Algorithms and measures are used for assessing texts at syntactical and semantic level. An important text-mining method and similarity measure is latent semantic analysis (LSA). It provides for reducing the dimensionality of the document vector space and better capturing the text semantics. The mathematical background of LSA for deriving the meaning of the words in a given text by exploring their co-occurrence is examined. The algorithm for obtaining the vector representation of words and their corresponding latent concepts in a reduced multidimensional space as well as similarity calculation are presented.

  6. Mentor Texts and the Coding of Academic Writing Structures: A Functional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilder Yesid Escobar Alméciga

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present pedagogical experience was to address the English language writing needs of university-level students pursuing a degree in bilingual education with an emphasis in the teaching of English. Using mentor texts and coding academic writing structures, an instructional design was developed to directly address the shortcomings presented through a triangulated needs analysis. Through promoting awareness of international standards of writing as well as fostering an understanding of the inherent structures of academic texts, a methodology intended to increase academic writing proficiency was explored. The study suggests that mentor texts and the coding of academic writing structures can have a positive impact on the production of students’ academic writing.

  7. Text Maps: Helping Students Navigate Informational Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Brenda H.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that a text map is an instructional approach designed to help students gain fluency in reading content area materials. Discusses how the goal is to teach students about the important features of the material and how the maps can be used to build new understandings. Presents the procedures for preparing and using a text map. (SG)

  8. Describing Old Czech Declension Patterns for Automatic Text Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jínová, P.; Lehečka, Boris; Oliva jr., Karel

    -, č. 13 (2014), s. 7-17 ISSN 1579-8372 Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : Old Czech morphology * declension patterns * automatic text analysis * i-stems * ja-stems Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  9. A Distributed Flocking Approach for Information Stream Clustering Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Intelligence analysts are currently overwhelmed with the amount of information streams generated everyday. There is a lack of comprehensive tool that can real-time analyze the information streams. Document clustering analysis plays an important role in improving the accuracy of information retrieval. However, most clustering technologies can only be applied for analyzing the static document collection because they normally require a large amount of computation resource and long time to get accurate result. It is very difficult to cluster a dynamic changed text information streams on an individual computer. Our early research has resulted in a dynamic reactive flock clustering algorithm which can continually refine the clustering result and quickly react to the change of document contents. This character makes the algorithm suitable for cluster analyzing dynamic changed document information, such as text information stream. Because of the decentralized character of this algorithm, a distributed approach is a very natural way to increase the clustering speed of the algorithm. In this paper, we present a distributed multi-agent flocking approach for the text information stream clustering and discuss the decentralized architectures and communication schemes for load balance and status information synchronization in this approach.

  10. A Network of Themes: A Qualitative Approach to Gerhard Richter's Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narvika Bovcon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Gerhard Richter's books Text – a collection of painter's verbal statements about his artistic method – and Atlas – 783 sheets with images, mainly photographs and visual notations – are two archives that complement the understanding of his diverse artistic practice. The paper presents a textual model that experimentally simulates a possible ordering principle for archives. Richter's statements in the book Text are cut up and used as short quotations. Those that relate to multiple aspects of the painter's oeuvre are identified as hubs in the semantic network. The hubs are organized paratactically, as an array of different themes. The paper presents a methodological hypothesis and an experimental model that aim to connect the research of real networks with the paradigms of humanistic interpretation. We have to bear in mind that the network is a result of the researcher's interpretative approach, which is added to the initial archive included in the book Text. The breaking up of Richter's poetics into atoms of quotations is an experimental proposal of a new textuality in art history and humanities, which has its own history. In comparison to digital archives with complex interfaces that often tend to obscure the content, the elements in our experiment appear as specific configurations of the semantic network and are presented in a limited number of linear texts. The method of listing of quotations gathers the fragments into a potential “whole”, i.e. a narrativized gateway to an archive according to the researcher's interpretation.

  11. Advanced approaches to failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vykydal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper explores advanced approaches to the FMEA method (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis which take into account the costs associated with occurrence of failures during the manufacture of a product. Different approaches are demonstrated using an example FMEA application to production of drawn wire. Their purpose is to determine risk levels, while taking account of the above-mentioned costs. Finally, the resulting priority levels are compared for developing actions mitigating the risks.

  12. PUBLIC SERVICE ADVERTISING: AN ANALYSIS ON TEXT AND SEMIOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Sukarini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns with text and semiotics analysis on the use of language in public service advertising (PSA. PSA in this study is the text which is especially on health. There are three problems that are analysed in this research, namely: (1 grammatical structure and the lexical of the text; (2 the relationship of trichotomies (representamen, object, and interpretant with the three components of sign in nonverbal aspect; and (3 ideologies and messages conveyed in the verbal and nonverbal signs. Three methods applied in this research respectively including descriptive, qualitative, and interpretative. The type of data was the written one which was taken from printed media in the forms of poster and brochure. The data was collected through five procedures, they are clipping, numbering, coding, picturing, and documenting. As a scientific writing, a number of theories must be applied for the analysis. The relevant theories are semantics, semiotics, speech act, hermeneutics, language function, and text structure. These six theories were applied eclecticly in analysing the grammatical structure, lexicals, signs, and the structure of texts in order to elaborate the meaning, ideology, and message which were being conveyed through the texts of PSA. The result of the analysis showed that the grammatical structure applied in the PSA of health could be classified into the simple structure in the forms of phrase, clause, and sentence. The use of verbs dominated initially in order to express the imperative meaning but still had the purpose of being persuasive. Kinds of lexicals found were very close to disease, reproduction, and health either the general terms, for example victims, medicine or the specific ones like HIV/AIDS, Odha, perinatal, nifas, jampersal, sadari. From the nonverbal aspect, the relationship of trichotomy with the three of sign components are more realistics in the Object with its three sub components. Triadic relationship of three sub

  13. PUBLIC SERVICE ADVERTISING: AN ANALYSIS ON TEXT AND SEMIOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Sukarini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns with text and semiotics analysis on the use of language in public service advertising (PSA. PSA in this study is the text which is especially on health. There are three problems that are analysed in this research, namely: (1 grammatical structure and the lexical of the text; (2 the relationship of trichotomies (representamen, object, and interpretant with the three components of sign in nonverbal aspect; and (3 ideologies and messages conveyed in the verbal and nonverbal signs. Three methods applied in this research respectively including descriptive, qualitative, and interpretative. The type of data was the written one which was taken from printed media in the forms of poster and brochure. The data was collected through five procedures, they are clipping, numbering, coding, picturing, and documenting. As a scientific writing, a number of theories must be applied for the analysis. The relevant theories are semantics, semiotics, speech act, hermeneutics, language function, and text structure. These six theories were applied eclecticly in analysing the grammatical structure, lexicals, signs, and the structure of texts in order to elaborate the meaning, ideology, and message which were being conveyed through the texts of PSA. The result of the analysis showed that the grammatical structure applied in the PSA of health could be classified into the simple structure in the forms of phrase, clause, and sentence. The use of verbs dominated initially in order to express the imperative meaning but still had the purpose of being persuasive. Kinds of lexicals found were very close to disease, reproduction, and health either the general terms, for example victims, medicine or the specific ones like HIV/AIDS, Odha, perinatal, nifas, jampersal, sadari. From the nonverbal aspect, the relationship of trichotomy with the three of sign components are more realistics in the Object with its three sub components. Triadic relationship of three sub

  14. Computer and Internet Addiction: Analysis and Classification of Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaretskaya O.V.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical analysis of modern research works on the problem of computer and Internet addiction is carried out. The main features of different approaches are outlined. The attempt is made to systematize researches conducted and to classify scientific approaches to the problem of Internet addiction. The author distinguishes nosological, cognitive-behavioral, socio-psychological and dialectical approaches. She justifies the need to use an approach that corresponds to the essence, goals and tasks of social psychology in the field of research as the problem of Internet addiction, and the dependent behavior in general. In the opinion of the author, this dialectical approach integrates the experience of research within the framework of the socio-psychological approach and focuses on the observed inconsistencies in the phenomenon of Internet addiction – the compensatory nature of Internet activity, when people who are interested in the Internet are in a dysfunctional life situation.

  15. Studying text coherence in Czech – a corpus-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rysová Magdaléna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the field of Czech corpus linguistics and represents one of various current studies analysing text coherence through language interactions. It presents a corpusbased analysis of grammatical coreference and sentence information structure (in terms of contextual boundness in Czech. It focuses on examining the interaction of these two language phenomena and observes where they meet to participate in text structuring. Specifically, the paper analyses contextually bound and non-bound sentence items and examines whether (and how often they are involved in relations of grammatical coreference in Czech newspaper articles. The analysis is carried out on the language data of the Prague Dependency Treebank (PDT containing 3,165 Czech texts. The results of the analysis are helpful in automatic text annotation - the paper presents how (or to what extent the annotation of grammatical coreference may be used in automatic (pre-annotation of sentence information structure in Czech. It demonstrates how accurately we may (automatically assume the value of contextual boundness for the antecedent and anaphor (as the two participants of a grammatical coreference relation. The results of the paper demonstrate that the anaphor of grammatical coreference is automatically predictable - it is a non-contrastive contextually bound sentence item in 99.18% of cases. On the other hand, the value of contextual boundness of the antecedent is not so easy to estimate (according to the PDT, the antecedent is contextually non-bound in 37% of cases, non-contrastive contextually bound in 50% and contrastive contextually bound in 13% of cases.

  16. Financial Statement Fraud Detection using Text Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan Gupta; Nasib Singh Gill

    2013-01-01

    Data mining techniques have been used enormously by the researchers’ community in detecting financial statement fraud. Most of the research in this direction has used the numbers (quantitative information) i.e. financial ratios present in the financial statements for detecting fraud. There is very little or no research on the analysis of text such as auditor’s comments or notes present in published reports. In this study we propose a text mining approach for detecting financial statement frau...

  17. Computer Support of Semantic Text Analysis of a Technical Specification on Designing Software

    OpenAIRE

    Zaboleeva-Zotova, Alla; Orlova, Yulia

    2009-01-01

    The given work is devoted to development of the computer-aided system of semantic text analysis of a technical specification. The purpose of this work is to increase efficiency of software engineering based on automation of semantic text analysis of a technical specification. In work it is offered and investigated a technique of the text analysis of a technical specification is submitted, the expanded fuzzy attribute grammar of a technical specification, intended for formaliza...

  18. Feed particle size evaluation: conventional approach versus digital holography based image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Dell’Orto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of image analysis approach based on digital holography in defining particle size in comparison with the sieve shaker method (sieving method as reference method. For this purpose ground corn meal was analyzed by a sieve shaker Retsch VS 1000 and by image analysis approach based on digital holography. Particle size from digital holography were compared with results obtained by screen (sieving analysis for each of size classes by a cumulative distribution plot. Comparison between particle size values obtained by sieving method and image analysis indicated that values were comparable in term of particle size information, introducing a potential application for digital holography and image analysis in feed industry.

  19. SOCIOLOGICAL UNDERSTANDING OF INTERNET: THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO THE NETWORK ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Dobrinskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The network is an efficient way of social structure analysis for contemporary sociologists. It gives broad opportunities for detailed and fruitful research of different patterns of ties and social relations by quantitative analytical methods and visualization of network models. The network metaphor is used as the most representative tool for description of a new type of society. This new type is characterized by flexibility, decentralization and individualization. Network organizational form became the dominant form in modern societies. The network is also used as a mode of inquiry. Actually three theoretical network approaches in the Internet research case are the most relevant: social network analysis, “network society” theory and actor-network theory. Every theoretical approach has got its own notion of network. Their special methodological and theoretical features contribute to the Internet studies in different ways. The article represents a brief overview of these network approaches. This overview demonstrates the absence of a unified semantic space of the notion of “network” category. This fact, in turn, points out the need for detailed analysis of these approaches to reveal their theoretical and empirical possibilities in application to the Internet studies. 

  20. Adjustable typography: an approach to enhancing low vision text accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arditi, Aries

    2004-04-15

    Millions of people have low vision, a disability condition caused by uncorrectable or partially correctable disorders of the eye. The primary goal of low vision rehabilitation is increasing access to printed material. This paper describes how adjustable typography, a computer graphic approach to enhancing text accessibility, can play a role in this process, by allowing visually-impaired users to customize fonts to maximize legibility according to their own visual needs. Prototype software and initial testing of the concept is described. The results show that visually-impaired users tend to produce a variety of very distinct fonts, and that the adjustment process results in greatly enhanced legibility. But this initial testing has not yet demonstrated increases in legibility over and above the legibility of highly legible standard fonts such as Times New Roman.

  1. Changing Text: A Social Semiotic Analysis of Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Bezemer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we provide a multimodal account of historical changes in secondary school textbooks in England and their social significance. Adopting a social semiotic approach to text and text making we review learning resources across core subjects of the English national curriculum, English, Science and Mathematics. Comparing textbooks from the 1930s, 1980s and 2000s, we show that a all modes operating in textbooks -typography, image, writing and layout- contribute to meaning and potential for learning b that the use of these modes has changed between 1930 and now, in ways significant for social relations between and across makers and users of textbooks. Designers and readers / learners now take responsibility for coherence, which was previously the exclusive domain of authors. Where previously reading paths were fixed by makers it may now be left to learners to establish these according to their interests. For users of textbooks the changes in design demand new forms of ‘literacy’; a fluency not only in ‘reading’ writing, image, typography and layout jointly, but in the overall design of learning environments. We place these changes against the backdrop of wider social changes and features of the contemporary media landscape, recognizing a shift from stability, canonicity and vertical power structures to ‘horizontal’, more open, participatory relations in the production of knowledge.

  2. Close encounters of the conceptual kind: Disambiguating social structure from text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Hannigan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite its empirical prominence, there is very little extant organizational research on Big Data. However, there is reason to believe this is changing as organizational theory scholars are beginning to embrace new methods and data sources. In this essay, I present a view that suggests there are several latent opportunities, many of which have been simmering unattended for some time. This research approach is not without its challenges, as the ontological terrain of Big Data is untested and potentially disruptive. However, we are observing a renewal of approaches to text and content analysis. By opening up the toolkit of computational linguistics methods for text analysis, Big Data may bring about fresh synthesis and reshape classic debates around social structure.

  3. Pedoinformatics Approach to Soil Text Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, J.; Seiter, J.; Davis, A.

    2017-12-01

    The several extant schema for the classification of soils rely on differing criteria, but the major soil science taxonomies, including the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the international harmonized World Reference Base for Soil Resources systems, are based principally on inferred pedogenic properties. These taxonomies largely result from compiled individual observations of soil morphologies within soil profiles, and the vast majority of this pedologic information is contained in qualitative text descriptions. We present text mining analyses of hundreds of gigabytes of parsed text and other data in the digitally available USDA soil taxonomy documentation, the Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database, and the National Cooperative Soil Survey (NCSS) soil characterization database. These analyses implemented iPython calls to Gensim modules for topic modelling, with latent semantic indexing completed down to the lowest taxon level (soil series) paragraphs. Via a custom extension of the Natural Language Toolkit (NLTK), approximately one percent of the USDA soil series descriptions were used to train a classifier for the remainder of the documents, essentially by treating soil science words as comprising a novel language. While location-specific descriptors at the soil series level are amenable to geomatics methods, unsupervised clustering of the occurrence of other soil science words did not closely follow the usual hierarchy of soil taxa. We present preliminary phrasal analyses that may account for some of these effects.

  4. The interpretation of dream meaning: Resolving ambiguity using Latent Semantic Analysis in a small corpus of text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altszyler, Edgar; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Sigman, Mariano; Fernández Slezak, Diego

    2017-11-01

    Computer-based dreams content analysis relies on word frequencies within predefined categories in order to identify different elements in text. As a complementary approach, we explored the capabilities and limitations of word-embedding techniques to identify word usage patterns among dream reports. These tools allow us to quantify words associations in text and to identify the meaning of target words. Word-embeddings have been extensively studied in large datasets, but only a few studies analyze semantic representations in small corpora. To fill this gap, we compared Skip-gram and Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) capabilities to extract semantic associations from dream reports. LSA showed better performance than Skip-gram in small size corpora in two tests. Furthermore, LSA captured relevant word associations in dream collection, even in cases with low-frequency words or small numbers of dreams. Word associations in dreams reports can thus be quantified by LSA, which opens new avenues for dream interpretation and decoding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Voice of Chinese Health Consumers: A Text Mining Approach to Web-Based Physician Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Haijing; Zhang, Kunpeng

    2016-05-10

    skills and bedside manner, general appreciation from patients, and description of various symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first study using an automated text-mining approach to analyze a large amount of unstructured textual data of Web-based physician reviews in China. Based on our analysis, we found that Chinese reviewers mainly concentrate on a few popular topics. This is consistent with the goal of Chinese online health platforms and demonstrates the health care focus in China's health care system. Our text-mining approach reveals a new research area on how to use big data to help health care providers, health care administrators, and policy makers hear patient voices, target patient concerns, and improve the quality of care in this age of patient-centered care. Also, on the health care consumer side, our text mining technique helps patients make more informed decisions about which specialists to see without reading thousands of reviews, which is simply not feasible. In addition, our comparison analysis of Web-based physician reviews in China and the United States also indicates some cultural differences.

  6. Texts, Transmissions, Receptions. Modern Approaches to Narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lardinois, A.P.M.H.; Levie, S.A.; Hoeken, H.; Lüthy, C.H.

    2015-01-01

    The papers collected in this volume study the function and meaning of narrative texts from a variety of perspectives. The word 'text' is used here in the broadest sense of the term: it denotes literary books, but also oral tales, speeches, newspaper articles and comics. One of the purposes of this

  7. Text mining and natural language processing approaches for automatic categorization of lay requests to web-based expert forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmel, Wolfgang; Reincke, Ulrich; Michelmann, Hans Wilhelm

    2009-07-22

    Both healthy and sick people increasingly use electronic media to obtain medical information and advice. For example, Internet users may send requests to Web-based expert forums, or so-called "ask the doctor" services. To automatically classify lay requests to an Internet medical expert forum using a combination of different text-mining strategies. We first manually classified a sample of 988 requests directed to a involuntary childlessness forum on the German website "Rund ums Baby" ("Everything about Babies") into one or more of 38 categories belonging to two dimensions ("subject matter" and "expectations"). After creating start and synonym lists, we calculated the average Cramer's V statistic for the association of each word with each category. We also used principle component analysis and singular value decomposition as further text-mining strategies. With these measures we trained regression models and determined, on the basis of best regression models, for any request the probability of belonging to each of the 38 different categories, with a cutoff of 50%. Recall and precision of a test sample were calculated as a measure of quality for the automatic classification. According to the manual classification of 988 documents, 102 (10%) documents fell into the category "in vitro fertilization (IVF)," 81 (8%) into the category "ovulation," 79 (8%) into "cycle," and 57 (6%) into "semen analysis." These were the four most frequent categories in the subject matter dimension (consisting of 32 categories). The expectation dimension comprised six categories; we classified 533 documents (54%) as "general information" and 351 (36%) as a wish for "treatment recommendations." The generation of indicator variables based on the chi-square analysis and Cramer's V proved to be the best approach for automatic classification in about half of the categories. In combination with the two other approaches, 100% precision and 100% recall were realized in 18 (47%) out of the 38

  8. Analysis of application of different approaches to secure safe drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pendić Zoran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this analysis, the risk systems include the systems within which services sensitive to risk are executed. The complex service of population supply with safe drinking water is considered to be risky. Guidelines for drinking water quality of the World Health Organization (WHO recommends the use of effective preventive approaches to risk-based management of the safety and quality of drinking water. For example, Food Safety Law of the Republic of Serbia stipulates mandatory application of HACCP system in order to obtain safe drinking water. Different approaches to preventive risk-based management for the sake of the safety and quality of drinking water are applied nowadays. In this paper we consider the following approaches: Original Codex Alimentarius HACCP system and some of its modified versions; International standard ISO 22000: 2005 Food safety management systems - Requirements for any organization in the food chain; Water Safety Plan (WSP of the World Health Organization (WHO; Generalized HACCP system. All of these approaches are based, to a greater or lesser extent, on the original Codex Alimentarius HACCP system. The paper gives a situation analysis (SWOT analysis of considered approaches.

  9. Interdisciplinarity in translation teaching: competence-based education, translation task-based approach, context-based text typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelweiss Vitol Gysel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of competence-based teaching, this paper draws upon the model of Translation Competence (TC put forward by the PACTE group (2003 to establish a dialogue between cognitive-constructivist paradigms for translation teaching and the model of the Context-based Text Typology (MATTHIESSEN et al., 2007. In this theoretical environment, it proposes a model for the design of a Teaching Unit (TU for the development of the bilingual competence in would-be-translators.To this end, it explores translation as a cognitive, communicative and textual activity (HURTADO ALBIR, 2011 and considers its teaching from the translation task-based approach (HURTADO ALBIR, 1999. This approach is illustrated through the practical example of the design of a TU elaborated for the subject ‘Introduction to Specialized Translation’,part of the curricular grid of the program ‘Secretariado Executivo’ at Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Aspects such as the establishment of learning objectives and their alignment with the translation tasks composing the TU are addressed for this specific pedagogical situation. We argue for the development of textual competences by means of the acquisition of strategies derived from the Context-based Text Typology to solve problems arising from the translation of different text types and contextual configurations.

  10. Computational Approaches for Integrative Analysis of the Metabolome and Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Chong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of the microbiome, the totality of all microbes inhabiting the host or an environmental niche, has experienced exponential growth over the past few years. The microbiome contributes functional genes and metabolites, and is an important factor for maintaining health. In this context, metabolomics is increasingly applied to complement sequencing-based approaches (marker genes or shotgun metagenomics to enable resolution of microbiome-conferred functionalities associated with health. However, analyzing the resulting multi-omics data remains a significant challenge in current microbiome studies. In this review, we provide an overview of different computational approaches that have been used in recent years for integrative analysis of metabolome and microbiome data, ranging from statistical correlation analysis to metabolic network-based modeling approaches. Throughout the process, we strive to present a unified conceptual framework for multi-omics integration and interpretation, as well as point out potential future directions.

  11. An Approach to Retrieval of OCR Degraded Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen-Hsien Tseng

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The major problem with retrieval of OCR text is the unpredictable distortion of characters due to recognition errors. Because users have no ideas of such distortion, the terms they query can hardly match the terms stored in the OCR text exactly. Thus retrieval effectiveness is significantly reduced , especially for low-quality input. To reduce the losses from retrieving such noisy OCR text, a fault-tolerant retrieval strategy based on automatic keyword extraction and fuzzy matching is proposed. In this strategy, terms, correct or not, and their term frequencies are extracted from the noisy text and presented for browsing and selection in response to users' initial queries , With theunderstanding of the real terms stored in the noisy text and of their estimated frequency distributions, users may then choose appropriate terms for a more effective searching, A text retrieval system based on this strategy has been built. Examples to show the effectiveness are demonstrated. Finally, some OCR issues for further enhancingretrieval effectiveness are discussed.

  12. Predicting Text Comprehension, Processing, and Familiarity in Adult Readers: New Approaches to Readability Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.; Skalicky, Stephen; Dascalu, Mihai; McNamara, Danielle S.; Kyle, Kristopher

    2017-01-01

    Research has identified a number of linguistic features that influence the reading comprehension of young readers; yet, less is known about whether and how these findings extend to adult readers. This study examines text comprehension, processing, and familiarity judgment provided by adult readers using a number of different approaches (i.e.,…

  13. Mining for constructions in texts using N-gram and network analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shibuya, Yoshikata; Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2015-01-01

    N-gram analysis to Lewis Carroll's novel Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Mark Twain's novelThe Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and extrapolate a number of likely constructional phenomena from recurring N-gram patterns in the two texts. In addition to simple N-gram analysis, the following....... The main premise is that, if constructions are functional units, then configurations of words that tend to recur together in discourse are likely to have some sort of function that speakers utilize in discourse. Writers of fiction, for instance, may use constructions in characterizations, mind-styles, text...

  14. Mining Sequential Update Summarization with Hierarchical Text Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of unexpected news events such as large human accident or natural disaster brings about a new information access problem where traditional approaches fail. Mostly, news of these events shows characteristics that are early sparse and later redundant. Hence, it is very important to get updates and provide individuals with timely and important information of these incidents during their development, especially when being applied in wireless and mobile Internet of Things (IoT. In this paper, we define the problem of sequential update summarization extraction and present a new hierarchical update mining system which can broadcast with useful, new, and timely sentence-length updates about a developing event. The new system proposes a novel method, which incorporates techniques from topic-level and sentence-level summarization. To evaluate the performance of the proposed system, we apply it to the task of sequential update summarization of temporal summarization (TS track at Text Retrieval Conference (TREC 2013 to compute four measurements of the update mining system: the expected gain, expected latency gain, comprehensiveness, and latency comprehensiveness. Experimental results show that our proposed method has good performance.

  15. DEEP LEARNING MODEL FOR BILINGUAL SENTIMENT CLASSIFICATION OF SHORT TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Abdullin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sentiment analysis of short texts such as Twitter messages and comments in news portals is challenging due to the lack of contextual information. We propose a deep neural network model that uses bilingual word embeddings to effectively solve sentiment classification problem for a given pair of languages. We apply our approach to two corpora of two different language pairs: English-Russian and Russian-Kazakh. We show how to train a classifier in one language and predict in another. Our approach achieves 73% accuracy for English and 74% accuracy for Russian. For Kazakh sentiment analysis, we propose a baseline method, that achieves 60% accuracy; and a method to learn bilingual embeddings from a large unlabeled corpus using a bilingual word pairs.

  16. Data Analysis A Model Comparison Approach, Second Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, Charles M; Ryan, Carey S

    2008-01-01

    This completely rewritten classic text features many new examples, insights and topics including mediational, categorical, and multilevel models. Substantially reorganized, this edition provides a briefer, more streamlined examination of data analysis. Noted for its model-comparison approach and unified framework based on the general linear model, the book provides readers with a greater understanding of a variety of statistical procedures. This consistent framework, including consistent vocabulary and notation, is used throughout to develop fewer but more powerful model building techniques. T

  17. Semantic Linking and Contextualization for Social Forensic Text Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Z.; van Dijk, D.; Graus, D.; van der Knaap, N.; Henseler, H.; de Rijke, M.; Brynielsson, J.; Johansson, F.

    2013-01-01

    With the development of social media, forensic text analysis is becoming more and more challenging as forensic analysts have begun to include this information source in their practice. In this paper, we report on our recent work related to semantic search in e-discovery and propose the use of entity

  18. Arabic text preprocessing for the natural language processing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awajan, A.

    2007-01-01

    A new approach for processing vowelized and unvowelized Arabic texts in order to prepare them for Natural Language Processing (NLP) purposes is described. The developed approach is rule-based and made up of four phases: text tokenization, word light stemming, word's morphological analysis and text annotation. The first phase preprocesses the input text in order to isolate the words and represent them in a formal way. The second phase applies a light stemmer in order to extract the stem of each word by eliminating the prefixes and suffixes. The third phase is a rule-based morphological analyzer that determines the root and the morphological pattern for each extracted stem. The last phase produces an annotated text where each word is tagged with its morphological attributes. The preprocessor presented in this paper is capable of dealing with vowelized and unvowelized words, and provides the input words along with relevant linguistics information needed by different applications. It is designed to be used with different NLP applications such as machine translation text summarization, text correction, information retrieval and automatic vowelization of Arabic Text. (author)

  19. Text Mining for Information Systems Researchers: An Annotated Topic Modeling Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debortoli, Stefan; Müller, Oliver; Junglas, Iris

    2016-01-01

    , such as manual coding. Yet, the size of text data setsobtained from the Internet makes manual analysis virtually impossible. In this tutorial, we discuss the challengesencountered when applying automated text-mining techniques in information systems research. In particular, weshowcase the use of probabilistic...... researchers,this tutorial provides some guidance for conducting text mining studies on their own and for evaluating the quality ofothers.......t is estimated that more than 80 percent of today’s data is stored in unstructured form (e.g., text, audio, image, video);and much of it is expressed in rich and ambiguous natural language. Traditionally, the analysis of natural languagehas prompted the use of qualitative data analysis approaches...

  20. Dramatis persona in poetical and practical approach of dramatic text in 17th century French theory of theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Bajer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of the dramatis persona posited by the first French theatre theorists of the Richelieu circle, Jean Chapelain and Jules de la Mesnardiere, emerges as a quite literał implementation of the Aristotelian concepts unfolded in the sixth and fifteenth chapter of his Poetics. In a later period, the third of the aforementioned group of authors, François Hédelin d’Aubignac, dismisses the Aristotelian categories, erecting his theory upon the elements adopted from the Roman theory of rhetoric. The analysis of the Persona in classical drama theory allows to reconstruct the relation between these two 17th century dramatic approaches. The former is the traditional perspective relying on the postulations of the Aristotelian theory. The latter, which is a practical grasp, is new to the 17th century’s dramatic mindset, and was formulated by abbé d’Aubignac. Whereas the axis of poetics is the structural analysis of a work of art, it is the functioning of that work of art in the theatrical process of communication between the stage and the audience that remains the core interest of the practical approach. In this process, the rhetorical effect of presence of the dramatis persona should by created in the imagination of the spectator-auditor. The subject of analysis is common to both perspectives and the discrepancies concem merely aspects of its description. Therefore poetics and practice are neither competitive nor mutually exclusive, but can both legitimately coexist in the description of the very same work of art.

  1. Systematic characterizations of text similarity in full text biomedical publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhaohui; Errami, Mounir; Long, Tara; Renard, Chris; Choradia, Nishant; Garner, Harold

    2010-09-15

    Computational methods have been used to find duplicate biomedical publications in MEDLINE. Full text articles are becoming increasingly available, yet the similarities among them have not been systematically studied. Here, we quantitatively investigated the full text similarity of biomedical publications in PubMed Central. 72,011 full text articles from PubMed Central (PMC) were parsed to generate three different datasets: full texts, sections, and paragraphs. Text similarity comparisons were performed on these datasets using the text similarity algorithm eTBLAST. We measured the frequency of similar text pairs and compared it among different datasets. We found that high abstract similarity can be used to predict high full text similarity with a specificity of 20.1% (95% CI [17.3%, 23.1%]) and sensitivity of 99.999%. Abstract similarity and full text similarity have a moderate correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient: -0.423) when the similarity ratio is above 0.4. Among pairs of articles in PMC, method sections are found to be the most repetitive (frequency of similar pairs, methods: 0.029, introduction: 0.0076, results: 0.0043). In contrast, among a set of manually verified duplicate articles, results are the most repetitive sections (frequency of similar pairs, results: 0.94, methods: 0.89, introduction: 0.82). Repetition of introduction and methods sections is more likely to be committed by the same authors (odds of a highly similar pair having at least one shared author, introduction: 2.31, methods: 1.83, results: 1.03). There is also significantly more similarity in pairs of review articles than in pairs containing one review and one nonreview paper (frequency of similar pairs: 0.0167 and 0.0023, respectively). While quantifying abstract similarity is an effective approach for finding duplicate citations, a comprehensive full text analysis is necessary to uncover all potential duplicate citations in the scientific literature and is helpful when

  2. A hybrid approach for global sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Souvik; Chowdhury, Rajib

    2017-01-01

    Distribution based sensitivity analysis (DSA) computes sensitivity of the input random variables with respect to the change in distribution of output response. Although DSA is widely appreciated as the best tool for sensitivity analysis, the computational issue associated with this method prohibits its use for complex structures involving costly finite element analysis. For addressing this issue, this paper presents a method that couples polynomial correlated function expansion (PCFE) with DSA. PCFE is a fully equivalent operational model which integrates the concepts of analysis of variance decomposition, extended bases and homotopy algorithm. By integrating PCFE into DSA, it is possible to considerably alleviate the computational burden. Three examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach for sensitivity analysis. For all the problems, proposed approach yields excellent results with significantly reduced computational effort. The results obtained, to some extent, indicate that proposed approach can be utilized for sensitivity analysis of large scale structures. - Highlights: • A hybrid approach for global sensitivity analysis is proposed. • Proposed approach integrates PCFE within distribution based sensitivity analysis. • Proposed approach is highly efficient.

  3. Effectiveness of Systemic Text Analysis in EFL Writing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco Tovar, Ender

    2016-01-01

    This action research study investigates the effectiveness of a model based on the theory of systemic text analysis for the teaching of EFL writing. Employing students' pieces of writing and a teachers' survey as data collection instruments, the writing performance of a group of monolingual intermediate level adult students enrolled on a private…

  4. Comparison of approaches for mobile document image analysis using server supported smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozarslan, Suleyman; Eren, P. Erhan

    2014-03-01

    With the recent advances in mobile technologies, new capabilities are emerging, such as mobile document image analysis. However, mobile phones are still less powerful than servers, and they have some resource limitations. One approach to overcome these limitations is performing resource-intensive processes of the application on remote servers. In mobile document image analysis, the most resource consuming process is the Optical Character Recognition (OCR) process, which is used to extract text in mobile phone captured images. In this study, our goal is to compare the in-phone and the remote server processing approaches for mobile document image analysis in order to explore their trade-offs. For the inphone approach, all processes required for mobile document image analysis run on the mobile phone. On the other hand, in the remote-server approach, core OCR process runs on the remote server and other processes run on the mobile phone. Results of the experiments show that the remote server approach is considerably faster than the in-phone approach in terms of OCR time, but adds extra delays such as network delay. Since compression and downscaling of images significantly reduce file sizes and extra delays, the remote server approach overall outperforms the in-phone approach in terms of selected speed and correct recognition metrics, if the gain in OCR time compensates for the extra delays. According to the results of the experiments, using the most preferable settings, the remote server approach performs better than the in-phone approach in terms of speed and acceptable correct recognition metrics.

  5. Developing resources for sentiment analysis of informal Arabic text in social media

    OpenAIRE

    Itani, Maher; Roast, Chris; Al-Khayatt, Samir

    2017-01-01

    Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as text categorization, machine translation, sentiment analysis, etc., need annotated corpora and lexicons to check quality and performance. This paper describes the development of resources for sentiment analysis specifically for Arabic text in social media. A distinctive feature of the corpora and lexicons developed are that they are determined from informal Arabic that does not conform to grammatical or spelling standards. We refer to Ara...

  6. ICWorld: An MMOG-Based Approach to Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyatt Wong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence analysts routinely work with "wicked" problems—critical,time-sensitive problems where analytical errors can lead to catastrophic consequences for the nation's security. In the analyst's world, important decisions are often made quickly, and are made based on consuming, understanding, and piecing together enormous volumes of data. The data is not only voluminous, but often fragmented, subjective, inaccurate and fluid.Why does multi-player on-line gaming (MMOG technology matter to the IC? Fundamentally, there are two reasons. The first is technological: stripping away the gamelike content, MMOGs are dynamic systems that represent a physical world, where users are presented with (virtual life-and-death challenges that can only be overcome through planning, collaboration and communication. The second is cultural: the emerging generation of analysts is part of what is sometimes called the "Digital Natives" (Prensky 2001 and is fluent with interactive media. MMOGs enable faster visualization, data manipulation, collaboration and analysis than traditional text and imagery.ICWorld is an MMOG approach to intelligence analysis that fuses ideasfrom experts in the fields of gaming and data visualization, with knowledge of current and future intelligence analysis processes and tools. The concept has evolved over the last year as a result of evaluations by allsource analysts from around the IC. When fully developed, the Forterra team believes that ICWorld will fundamentally address major shortcomings of intelligence analysis, and dramatically improve the effectiveness of intelligence products.

  7. TACIT: An open-source text analysis, crawling, and interpretation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Morteza; Johnson, Kate M; Garten, Justin; Boghrati, Reihane; Hoover, Joe; Balasubramanian, Vijayan; Singh, Anurag; Shankar, Yuvarani; Pulickal, Linda; Rajkumar, Aswin; Parmar, Niki Jitendra

    2017-04-01

    As human activity and interaction increasingly take place online, the digital residues of these activities provide a valuable window into a range of psychological and social processes. A great deal of progress has been made toward utilizing these opportunities; however, the complexity of managing and analyzing the quantities of data currently available has limited both the types of analysis used and the number of researchers able to make use of these data. Although fields such as computer science have developed a range of techniques and methods for handling these difficulties, making use of those tools has often required specialized knowledge and programming experience. The Text Analysis, Crawling, and Interpretation Tool (TACIT) is designed to bridge this gap by providing an intuitive tool and interface for making use of state-of-the-art methods in text analysis and large-scale data management. Furthermore, TACIT is implemented as an open, extensible, plugin-driven architecture, which will allow other researchers to extend and expand these capabilities as new methods become available.

  8. Center of attention: A network text analysis of American Sniper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starling Hunter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Network Text Analysis (NTA is a term used to describe a variety of software - supported methods for modeling texts as networks of concepts. In this study we apply NTA to the screenplay of American Sniper, an Academy Award nominee for Best Adapted Screenplay in 2014. Specifically, we est ablish prior expectations as to the key themes associated with war films. We then empirically test whether words associated with the most influentially - positioned nodes in the network signify themes common to the war - film genre. As predicted, we find tha t words and concepts associated with the least constrained nodes in the text network were significantly more likely to be associated with the war genre and significantly less likely to be associated with genres to which the film did not belong.

  9. Text mining improves prediction of protein functional sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin M Verspoor

    Full Text Available We present an approach that integrates protein structure analysis and text mining for protein functional site prediction, called LEAP-FS (Literature Enhanced Automated Prediction of Functional Sites. The structure analysis was carried out using Dynamics Perturbation Analysis (DPA, which predicts functional sites at control points where interactions greatly perturb protein vibrations. The text mining extracts mentions of residues in the literature, and predicts that residues mentioned are functionally important. We assessed the significance of each of these methods by analyzing their performance in finding known functional sites (specifically, small-molecule binding sites and catalytic sites in about 100,000 publicly available protein structures. The DPA predictions recapitulated many of the functional site annotations and preferentially recovered binding sites annotated as biologically relevant vs. those annotated as potentially spurious. The text-based predictions were also substantially supported by the functional site annotations: compared to other residues, residues mentioned in text were roughly six times more likely to be found in a functional site. The overlap of predictions with annotations improved when the text-based and structure-based methods agreed. Our analysis also yielded new high-quality predictions of many functional site residues that were not catalogued in the curated data sources we inspected. We conclude that both DPA and text mining independently provide valuable high-throughput protein functional site predictions, and that integrating the two methods using LEAP-FS further improves the quality of these predictions.

  10. Intertext: On Connecting Text in the Building Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Rune

    2015-01-01

    Actors in the building process are critically dependent on a corpus of written text that draws the distributed work tasks together. This paper introduces, on the basis of a field study, the concepts of corpus, intertext and intertextuality to the analysis of text in cooperative work practice. Thi...... type and the mediated type, may constitute the intertext of a particular task. By employing the concepts of corpus, intertext and intertextuality with respect to the study of the building process, this paper outlines an approach to the investigation of text in cooperative work.......Actors in the building process are critically dependent on a corpus of written text that draws the distributed work tasks together. This paper introduces, on the basis of a field study, the concepts of corpus, intertext and intertextuality to the analysis of text in cooperative work practice....... This paper shows that actors in the building process create intertext (connections) between complementary texts, in a particular situation and for a particular task. This has an integrating effect on the building process. Several types of intertextuality, including the complementary type, the intratextual...

  11. Computational text analysis and reading comprehension exam complexity towards automatic text classification

    CERN Document Server

    Liontou, Trisevgeni

    2014-01-01

    This book delineates a range of linguistic features that characterise the reading texts used at the B2 (Independent User) and C1 (Proficient User) levels of the Greek State Certificate of English Language Proficiency exams in order to help define text difficulty per level of competence. In addition, it examines whether specific reader variables influence test takers' perceptions of reading comprehension difficulty. The end product is a Text Classification Profile per level of competence and a formula for automatically estimating text difficulty and assigning levels to texts consistently and re

  12. Content-driven analysis of an online community for smoking cessation: integration of qualitative techniques, automated text analysis, and affiliation networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Sahiti; Fujimoto, Kayo; Cobb, Nathan; Cohen, Trevor

    2015-06-01

    We identified content-specific patterns of network diffusion underlying smoking cessation in the context of online platforms, with the aim of generating targeted intervention strategies. QuitNet is an online social network for smoking cessation. We analyzed 16 492 de-identified peer-to-peer messages from 1423 members, posted between March 1 and April 30, 2007. Our mixed-methods approach comprised qualitative coding, automated text analysis, and affiliation network analysis to identify, visualize, and analyze content-specific communication patterns underlying smoking behavior. Themes we identified in QuitNet messages included relapse, QuitNet-specific traditions, and cravings. QuitNet members who were exposed to other abstinent members by exchanging content related to interpersonal themes (e.g., social support, traditions, progress) tended to abstain. Themes found in other types of content did not show significant correlation with abstinence. Modeling health-related affiliation networks through content-driven methods can enable the identification of specific content related to higher abstinence rates, which facilitates targeted health promotion.

  13. A Comparison of Microeconomic and Macroeconomic Approaches to Deforestation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Felardo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The economics of deforestation has been explored in detail. Generally, the frame of analysis takes either a microeconomics or macroeconomics approach. The microeconomics approach assumes that individual decision makers are responsible for deforestation as a result of utility maximizing behavior and imperfect property right regimes. The macroeconomics approach explores nationwide trends thought to be associated with forest conversion. This paper investigates the relationship between these two approaches by empirically testing the determinants of deforestation using the same data set from Thailand. The theory for both the microeconomics-based and macroeconomics-based approaches are developed and then tested statistically. The models were constructed using established theoretical frames developed in the literature. The results from both models show statistical significance consistent with prior results in the tropical deforestation literature. A comparison of the two approaches demonstrates that the macro approach is useful in identifying relevant aggregate trends in the deforestation process; the micro approach provides the opportunity to isolate factors of those trends which are necessary for effective policy decisions.

  14. Text in context: a textual-linguistic approach to Amos 4: 7-8

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    del Barco del Barco, Francisco Javier

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This article will study Amos 4:7-8 from a textlinguistic approach: the form of this section will be analyzed within the structure of the chapter in which it is inserted. Such an analysis is needed because the set of verb forms used seems to be different from the rest of verb forms used in the chapter. While the whole chapter tends to be structured as a brief chain of narrative passages with wayyiqtol, the structure of Amos 4:7-8 seems to be a predictive section -developed through weqatal- inserted or pasted in the middle of the chapter. Translations usually do not note the difference between the set of verb forms used. A textlinguistic analysis of Amos 4:7-8 will show that the kind of discourse used here is different from the one used in the rest of the chapter, and, therefore, this difference should be reflected in the translation. The specific function of some discourse types is also discussed.

    En este artículo se presenta un análisis de Amos 4:7-8 a partir de los presupuestos de la lingüística textual. La forma del texto se analizará tomando en cuenta la estructura del capítulo en el que se halla inserto. Este análisis resulta necesario porque el grupo de formas verbales utilizado en la sección propuesta no parece ser el mismo que el del resto del capítulo. Mientras el capítulo en su conjunto es un discurso narrativo estructurado en torno a wayyiqtol, Amos 4:7-8 parece responder al esquema del discurso predictivo desarrollado a partir de weqatal. Un análisis textual se hace necesario porque las traducciones bíblicas no parecen hacerse eco del cambio en el uso de las formas verbales. Además de este análisis, se trata también de la función específica de algunos tipos de discurso.

  15. Effective Approach to Calculate Analysis Window in Infinite Discrete Gabor Transform

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    Rui Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-periodic/infinite discrete Gabor transform (DGT is more effective than the periodic/finite one in many applications. In this paper, a fast and effective approach is presented to efficiently compute the Gabor analysis window for arbitrary given synthesis window in DGT of long-periodic/infinite sequences, in which the new orthogonality constraint between analysis window and synthesis window in DGT for long-periodic/infinite sequences is derived and proved to be equivalent to the completeness condition of the long-periodic/infinite DGT. By using the property of delta function, the original orthogonality can be expressed as a certain number of linear equation sets in both the critical sampling case and the oversampling case, which can be fast and efficiently calculated by fast discrete Fourier transform (FFT. The computational complexity of the proposed approach is analyzed and compared with that of the existing canonical algorithms. The numerical results indicate that the proposed approach is efficient and fast for computing Gabor analysis window in both the critical sampling case and the oversampling case in comparison to existing algorithms.

  16. Risk Analysis Approach to Rainwater Harvesting Systems

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    Nadia Ursino

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban rainwater reuse preserves water resources and promotes sustainable development in rapidly growing urban areas. The efficiency of a large number of urban water reuse systems, operating under different climate and demand conditions, is evaluated here on the base of a new risk analysis approach. Results obtained by probability analysis (PA indicate that maximum efficiency in low demanding scenarios is above 0.5 and a threshold, distinguishing low from high demanding scenarios, indicates that in low demanding scenarios no significant improvement in performance may be attained by increasing the storage capacity of rainwater harvesting tanks. Threshold behaviour is displayed when tank storage capacity is designed to match both the average collected volume and the average reuse volume. The low demand limit cannot be achieved under climate and operating conditions characterized by a disproportion between harvesting and demand volume.

  17. Intertextuality and Dialogic Interaction in Students' Online Text Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronan, Briana

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the online writing practices of adolescent emergent bilinguals through the mediating lenses of dialogic interaction and intertextuality. Using a multimodal discourse analysis approach, the study traces how three students develop online academic texts through intertextual moves that traverse modal boundaries. The analysis…

  18. Media deliberation on intra-EU migration. A qualitative approach to framing based on rhetorical analysis

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    Alexandru Cârlan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate how the model of deliberation proposed by Isabela and Norman Fairclough can be used for a better clarification and understanding of the framing processes in media – especially in opinion articles. We thus aim at integrating theoretical contributions from critical discourse analysis and argumentation theory with standard approaches to framing, originating in media studies. We emphasize how a rhetorical approach to framing can provide analytical insights into framing processes and complement the typical quantitative approaches with qualitative analysis based on textual reconstruction. Starting from an issue-specific approach to framing, we discuss a particular case of framing of intra-EU migration, analyzing four opinion articles selected from a larger corpus of Romanian, British and French media. We highlight, along our analysis, various methodological options and analytical difficulties inherent to such an approach.

  19. Text messaging approach improves weight loss in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axley, Page; Kodali, Sudha; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Ravi, Sujan; Seay, Toni; Parikh, Nina M; Singal, Ashwani K

    2018-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as the most common liver disease. The only effective treatment is 7%-10% weight loss. Mobile technology is increasingly used in weight management. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of text messaging intervention on weight loss in patients with NAFLD. Thirty well-defined NAFLD patients (mean age 52 years, 67% females, mean BMI 38) were randomized 1:1 to control group: counselling on healthy diet and exercise, or intervention group: text messages in addition to healthy life style counselling. NAFLD text messaging program sent weekly messages for 22 weeks on healthy life style education. Primary outcome was change in weight. Secondary outcomes were changes in liver enzymes and lipid profile. Intervention group lost an average of 6.9 lbs. (P = .03) compared to gain of 1.8 lbs. in the control group (P = .45). Intervention group also showed a decrease in ALT level (-12.5 IU/L, P = .035) and improvement in serum triglycerides (-28 mg/dL, P = .048). There were no changes in the control group on serum ALT level (-6.1 IU/L, P = .46) and on serum triglycerides (-20.3 mg/dL P = .27). Using one-way analysis of variance, change in outcomes in intervention group compared to control group was significant for weight (P = .02) and BMI (P = .02). Text messaging on healthy life style is associated with reduction in weight in NAFLD patients. Larger studies are suggested to examine benefits on liver histology, and assess long-term impact of this approach in patients with NAFLD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Complementing the Numbers: A Text Mining Analysis of College Course Withdrawals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Greg V.

    2011-01-01

    Excessive college course withdrawals are costly to the student and the institution in terms of time to degree completion, available classroom space, and other resources. Although generally well quantified, detailed analysis of the reasons given by students for course withdrawal is less common. To address this, a text mining analysis was performed…

  1. A student's guide through the great physics texts

    CERN Document Server

    Kuehn, Kerry

    This book provides a chronological introduction to the sciences of astronomy and cosmology based on the reading and analysis of significant selections from classic texts, such as Ptolemy’s Almagest, Kepler’s Epitome of Copernican Astronomy, Shapley’s Galaxies, and Lemaître’s The Primeval Atom. Each chapter begins with a short introduction followed by a reading selection. Carefully crafted study questions draw out key points in the text and focus the reader’s attention on the author’s methods, analysis, and conclusions. Numerical and observational exercises at the end of each chapter test the reader’s ability to understand and apply key concepts from the text.  The Heavens and the Earth is the first of four volumes in A Student’s Guide Through the Great Physics Texts. This book grew out of a four-semester undergraduate physics curriculum designed to encourage a critical and circumspect approach to natural science, while at the same time preparing students for advanced coursework in physics. ...

  2. Information Retrieval and Graph Analysis Approaches for Book Recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chahinez Benkoussas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of multiple information retrieval approaches is proposed for the purpose of book recommendation. In this paper, book recommendation is based on complex user's query. We used different theoretical retrieval models: probabilistic as InL2 (Divergence from Randomness model and language model and tested their interpolated combination. Graph analysis algorithms such as PageRank have been successful in Web environments. We consider the application of this algorithm in a new retrieval approach to related document network comprised of social links. We called Directed Graph of Documents (DGD a network constructed with documents and social information provided from each one of them. Specifically, this work tackles the problem of book recommendation in the context of INEX (Initiative for the Evaluation of XML retrieval Social Book Search track. A series of reranking experiments demonstrate that combining retrieval models yields significant improvements in terms of standard ranked retrieval metrics. These results extend the applicability of link analysis algorithms to different environments.

  3. Extraction of relations between genes and diseases from text and large-scale data analysis: implications for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Àlex; Piñero, Janet; Queralt-Rosinach, Núria; Rautschka, Michael; Furlong, Laura I

    2015-02-21

    Current biomedical research needs to leverage and exploit the large amount of information reported in scientific publications. Automated text mining approaches, in particular those aimed at finding relationships between entities, are key for identification of actionable knowledge from free text repositories. We present the BeFree system aimed at identifying relationships between biomedical entities with a special focus on genes and their associated diseases. By exploiting morpho-syntactic information of the text, BeFree is able to identify gene-disease, drug-disease and drug-target associations with state-of-the-art performance. The application of BeFree to real-case scenarios shows its effectiveness in extracting information relevant for translational research. We show the value of the gene-disease associations extracted by BeFree through a number of analyses and integration with other data sources. BeFree succeeds in identifying genes associated to a major cause of morbidity worldwide, depression, which are not present in other public resources. Moreover, large-scale extraction and analysis of gene-disease associations, and integration with current biomedical knowledge, provided interesting insights on the kind of information that can be found in the literature, and raised challenges regarding data prioritization and curation. We found that only a small proportion of the gene-disease associations discovered by using BeFree is collected in expert-curated databases. Thus, there is a pressing need to find alternative strategies to manual curation, in order to review, prioritize and curate text-mining data and incorporate it into domain-specific databases. We present our strategy for data prioritization and discuss its implications for supporting biomedical research and applications. BeFree is a novel text mining system that performs competitively for the identification of gene-disease, drug-disease and drug-target associations. Our analyses show that mining only a

  4. Interim analysis: A rational approach of decision making in clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interim analysis of especially sizeable trials keeps the decision process free of conflict of interest while considering cost, resources, and meaningfulness of the project. Whenever necessary, such interim analysis can also call for potential termination or appropriate modification in sample size, study design, and even an early declaration of success. Given the extraordinary size and complexity today, this rational approach helps to analyze and predict the outcomes of a clinical trial that incorporate what is learned during the course of a study or a clinical development program. Such approach can also fill the gap by directing the resources toward relevant and optimized clinical trials between unmet medical needs and interventions being tested currently rather than fulfilling only business and profit goals.

  5. Text Mining Improves Prediction of Protein Functional Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Judith D.; Ravikumar, Komandur E.

    2012-01-01

    We present an approach that integrates protein structure analysis and text mining for protein functional site prediction, called LEAP-FS (Literature Enhanced Automated Prediction of Functional Sites). The structure analysis was carried out using Dynamics Perturbation Analysis (DPA), which predicts functional sites at control points where interactions greatly perturb protein vibrations. The text mining extracts mentions of residues in the literature, and predicts that residues mentioned are functionally important. We assessed the significance of each of these methods by analyzing their performance in finding known functional sites (specifically, small-molecule binding sites and catalytic sites) in about 100,000 publicly available protein structures. The DPA predictions recapitulated many of the functional site annotations and preferentially recovered binding sites annotated as biologically relevant vs. those annotated as potentially spurious. The text-based predictions were also substantially supported by the functional site annotations: compared to other residues, residues mentioned in text were roughly six times more likely to be found in a functional site. The overlap of predictions with annotations improved when the text-based and structure-based methods agreed. Our analysis also yielded new high-quality predictions of many functional site residues that were not catalogued in the curated data sources we inspected. We conclude that both DPA and text mining independently provide valuable high-throughput protein functional site predictions, and that integrating the two methods using LEAP-FS further improves the quality of these predictions. PMID:22393388

  6. An open stylometric system based on multilevel text analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Eder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An open stylometric system based on multilevel text analysis Stylometric techniques are usually applied to a limited number of typical tasks, such as authorship attribution, genre analysis, or gender studies. However, they could be applied to several tasks beyond this canonical set, if only stylometric tools were more accessible to users from different areas of the humanities and social sciences. This paper presents a general idea, followed by a fully functional prototype of an open stylometric system that facilitates its wide use through to two aspects: technical and research flexibility. The system relies on a server installation combined with a web-based user interface. This frees the user from the necessity of installing any additional software. At the same time, the system offers a variety of ways in which the input texts can be analysed: they include not only the usual lexical level, but also deep-level linguistic features. This enables a range of possible applications, from typical stylometric tasks to the semantic analysis of text documents. The internal architecture of the system relies on several well-known software packages: a collection of language tools (for text pre-processing, Stylo (for stylometric analysis and Cluto (for text clustering. The paper presents: (1 The idea behind the system from the user’s perspective. (2 The architecture of the system, with a focus on data processing. (3 Features for text description. (4 The use of analytical systems such as Stylo and Cluto. The presentation is illustrated with example applications.   Otwarty system stylometryczny wykorzystujący wielopoziomową analizę języka  Zastosowania metod stylometrycznych na ogół ograniczają się do kilku typowych problemów badawczych, takich jak atrybucja autorska, styl gatunków literackich czy studia nad zróżnicowaniem stylistycznym kobiet i mężczyzn. Z pewnością dałoby się je z powodzeniem zastosować również do wielu innych problem

  7. AN ANALYSIS ON THE ADVANTAGES OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING APPROACH IN TEACHING WRITING

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    Chamisah Chamisah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to explain an analysis of cooperative learning approach advantages in teaching writing. Accordingly, learning writing by using cooperative learning makes the students easier in developing the ideas to write. This approach is more than just putting students into groups, but the students can work together, share information, and they are responsible for completion of the tasks in group as well. Besides, in this approach, the students can transfer their information and knowledge to the others and help each other in getting the ideas to develop in written communication during teaching-learning process.

  8. A Relational Reasoning Approach to Text-Graphic Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Robert W.; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2017-01-01

    We propose that research on text-graphic processing could be strengthened by the inclusion of relational reasoning perspectives. We briefly outline four aspects of relational reasoning: "analogies," "anomalies," "antinomies", and "antitheses". Next, we illustrate how text-graphic researchers have been…

  9. Understanding disciplinary vocabularies using a full-text enabled domain-independent term extraction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Erjia; Williams, Jake; Chen, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Publication metadata help deliver rich analyses of scholarly communication. However, research concepts and ideas are more effectively expressed through unstructured fields such as full texts. Thus, the goals of this paper are to employ a full-text enabled method to extract terms relevant to disciplinary vocabularies, and through them, to understand the relationships between disciplines. This paper uses an efficient, domain-independent term extraction method to extract disciplinary vocabularies from a large multidisciplinary corpus of PLoS ONE publications. It finds a power-law pattern in the frequency distributions of terms present in each discipline, indicating a semantic richness potentially sufficient for further study and advanced analysis. The salient relationships amongst these vocabularies become apparent in application of a principal component analysis. For example, Mathematics and Computer and Information Sciences were found to have similar vocabulary use patterns along with Engineering and Physics; while Chemistry and the Social Sciences were found to exhibit contrasting vocabulary use patterns along with the Earth Sciences and Chemistry. These results have implications to studies of scholarly communication as scholars attempt to identify the epistemological cultures of disciplines, and as a full text-based methodology could lead to machine learning applications in the automated classification of scholarly work according to disciplinary vocabularies.

  10. A GENRE ANALYSIS OF PROMOTIONAL TEXTS IN AN INDONESIAN BATIK INDUSTRY

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    Diah Kristina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explored sales promotion letters (SPLs and company profiles (CPs of two prominent batik companies in Solo, Central Java, Indonesia. This essay draws its data from the most important primary source of information on sales promotion letters and company profiles namely words, phrases, and clauses taken from the SPLs and CPs of batik written in Indonesian. Secondary sources were also consulted in this research, among these transcribed data obtained from in-depth interviews with the text writers and buyers. Three SPLs and two batik CPs were analyzed. In addition, two informants (marketing and promotion managers typifying the text production perspective and two buyers typifying the text consumption perspective were interviewed. This research was guided by theories of genre analysis which focuses on patterns of rhetorical organization and genre-specific language features. This study employed the multi-dimensional and multi perspective model of analysis focusing on textual, socio-cognitive and ethnographic aspects of the texts. This study concludes that the strong Javanese cultural influence has made the underlying intention of gaining profits to be less explicitly stated. Secondly, the textual analysis and the in-depth interviews supported the view that CPs of batik had been ideally used to create a favorable image of the company. Thirdly, the most distinctive feature that differentiated establishing credentials in the Indonesian batik business context had been the utilization of a sense of moral obligation to preserve native culture. Fourthly, the chemistry between writers and readers of SPLs and CPs built a strong foundation for mutual understanding and thus paved the way for making purchases. To conclude, this study has shown how the wider culture and the culture of the discourse community has contributed to the framing and formatting of SPLs and CPs of batik in terms of lexico-grammar, cognitive structuring, intertextuality and

  11. Teaching Text Structure: Examining the Affordances of Children's Informational Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cindy D.; Clark, Sarah K.; Reutzel, D. Ray

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the affordances of informational texts to serve as model texts for teaching text structure to elementary school children. Content analysis of a random sampling of children's informational texts from top publishers was conducted on text structure organization and on the inclusion of text features as signals of text…

  12. Analyzing discourse and text complexity for learning and collaborating a cognitive approach based on natural language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Dascălu, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    With the advent and increasing popularity of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) and e-learning technologies, the need of automatic assessment and of teacher/tutor support for the two tightly intertwined activities of comprehension of reading materials and of collaboration among peers has grown significantly. In this context, a polyphonic model of discourse derived from Bakhtin’s work as a paradigm is used for analyzing both general texts and CSCL conversations in a unique framework focused on different facets of textual cohesion. As specificity of our analysis, the individual learning perspective is focused on the identification of reading strategies and on providing a multi-dimensional textual complexity model, whereas the collaborative learning dimension is centered on the evaluation of participants’ involvement, as well as on collaboration assessment. Our approach based on advanced Natural Language Processing techniques provides a qualitative estimation of the learning process and enhance...

  13. Text mining factor analysis (TFA) in green tea patent data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Sela; Suprijadi, Jadi; Zulhanif

    2017-03-01

    Factor analysis has become one of the most widely used multivariate statistical procedures in applied research endeavors across a multitude of domains. There are two main types of analyses based on factor analysis: Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Both EFA and CFA aim to observed relationships among a group of indicators with a latent variable, but they differ fundamentally, a priori and restrictions made to the factor model. This method will be applied to patent data technology sector green tea to determine the development technology of green tea in the world. Patent analysis is useful in identifying the future technological trends in a specific field of technology. Database patent are obtained from agency European Patent Organization (EPO). In this paper, CFA model will be applied to the nominal data, which obtain from the presence absence matrix. While doing processing, analysis CFA for nominal data analysis was based on Tetrachoric matrix. Meanwhile, EFA model will be applied on a title from sector technology dominant. Title will be pre-processing first using text mining analysis.

  14. Spectral signature verification using statistical analysis and text mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoster, Mallory E.; Firpi, Alexe H.; Jacobs, Samantha K.; Cone, Shelli R.; Tzeng, Nigel H.; Rodriguez, Benjamin M.

    2016-05-01

    In the spectral science community, numerous spectral signatures are stored in databases representative of many sample materials collected from a variety of spectrometers and spectroscopists. Due to the variety and variability of the spectra that comprise many spectral databases, it is necessary to establish a metric for validating the quality of spectral signatures. This has been an area of great discussion and debate in the spectral science community. This paper discusses a method that independently validates two different aspects of a spectral signature to arrive at a final qualitative assessment; the textual meta-data and numerical spectral data. Results associated with the spectral data stored in the Signature Database1 (SigDB) are proposed. The numerical data comprising a sample material's spectrum is validated based on statistical properties derived from an ideal population set. The quality of the test spectrum is ranked based on a spectral angle mapper (SAM) comparison to the mean spectrum derived from the population set. Additionally, the contextual data of a test spectrum is qualitatively analyzed using lexical analysis text mining. This technique analyzes to understand the syntax of the meta-data to provide local learning patterns and trends within the spectral data, indicative of the test spectrum's quality. Text mining applications have successfully been implemented for security2 (text encryption/decryption), biomedical3 , and marketing4 applications. The text mining lexical analysis algorithm is trained on the meta-data patterns of a subset of high and low quality spectra, in order to have a model to apply to the entire SigDB data set. The statistical and textual methods combine to assess the quality of a test spectrum existing in a database without the need of an expert user. This method has been compared to other validation methods accepted by the spectral science community, and has provided promising results when a baseline spectral signature is

  15. Simulation-Based Approach to Operating Costs Analysis of Freight Trucking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozernova Natalja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of costs uncertainty in road freight transportation services. The article introduces the statistical approach, based on Monte Carlo simulation on spreadsheets, to the analysis of operating costs. The developed model gives an opportunity to estimate operating freight trucking costs under different configuration of cost factors. Important conclusions can be made after running simulations regarding sensitivity to different factors, optimal decisions and variability of operating costs.

  16. Portrayals of Wundt and Titchener in Introductory Psychology Texts: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines the content of introductory psychology books by performing a content analysis on texts from the 1970s and 1990s to determine whether the books incorporated recent historical scholarship in discussions of Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener. Finds that some texts still misrepresent the relation between Wundt and Titchener. (CMK)

  17. Approach to mathematics in textbooks at tertiary level - exploring authors' views about their texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randahl, Mira

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this article is to present and discuss some results from an inquiry into mathematics textbooks authors' visions about their texts and approaches they choose when new concepts are introduced. Authors' responses are discussed in relation to results about students' difficulties with approaching calculus reported by previous research. A questionnaire has been designed and sent to seven authors of the most used calculus textbooks in Norway and four authors have responded. The responses show that the authors mainly view teaching in terms of transmission so they focus mainly on getting the mathematical content correct and 'clear'. The dominant view is that the textbook is intended to help the students to learn by explaining and clarifying. The authors prefer the approach to introduce new concepts based on the traditional way of perceiving mathematics as a system of definitions, examples and exercises. The results of this study may enhance our understanding of the role of the textbook at tertiary level. They may also form a foundation for further research.

  18. Text localization using standard deviation analysis of structure elements and support vector machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagoris Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A text localization technique is required to successfully exploit document images such as technical articles and letters. The proposed method detects and extracts text areas from document images. Initially a connected components analysis technique detects blocks of foreground objects. Then, a descriptor that consists of a set of suitable document structure elements is extracted from the blocks. This is achieved by incorporating an algorithm called Standard Deviation Analysis of Structure Elements (SDASE which maximizes the separability between the blocks. Another feature of the SDASE is that its length adapts according to the requirements of the application. Finally, the descriptor of each block is used as input to a trained support vector machines that classify the block as text or not. The proposed technique is also capable of adjusting to the text structure of the documents. Experimental results on benchmarking databases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Social science and linguistic text analysis of nurses’ records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, N.; Hamilton, B. E.

    2016-01-01

    that included analyses of the social and linguistic features of records and recording. Two reviewers extracted data using established criteria for the evaluation of qualitative research papers. A common characteristic of nursing records was the economical use of language with local meanings that conveyed little......' disturbing behaviour. The text analysis methods were rarely transparent in the articles, which could suggest research quality problems. For most articles, the significance of the findings was substantiated more by theoretical readings of the institutional settings than by the analysis of textual data. More...... probing empirical research of nurses' records and a wider range of theoretical perspectives has the potential to expose the situated meanings of nursing work in healthcare organisations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd....

  20. CADDIS Volume 4. Data Analysis: Selecting an Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    An approach for selecting statistical analyses to inform causal analysis. Describes methods for determining whether test site conditions differ from reference expectations. Describes an approach for estimating stressor-response relationships.

  1. A meta-analysis of the effects of texting on driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caird, Jeff K; Johnston, Kate A; Willness, Chelsea R; Asbridge, Mark; Steel, Piers

    2014-10-01

    Text messaging while driving is considered dangerous and known to produce injuries and fatalities. However, the effects of text messaging on driving performance have not been synthesized or summarily estimated. All available experimental studies that measured the effects of text messaging on driving were identified through database searches using variants of "driving" and "texting" without restriction on year of publication through March 2014. Of the 1476 abstracts reviewed, 82 met general inclusion criteria. Of these, 28 studies were found to sufficiently compare reading or typing text messages while driving with a control or baseline condition. Independent variables (text-messaging tasks) were coded as typing, reading, or a combination of both. Dependent variables included eye movements, stimulus detection, reaction time, collisions, lane positioning, speed and headway. Statistics were extracted from studies to compute effect sizes (rc). A total sample of 977 participants from 28 experimental studies yielded 234 effect size estimates of the relationships among independent and dependent variables. Typing and reading text messages while driving adversely affected eye movements, stimulus detection, reaction time, collisions, lane positioning, speed and headway. Typing text messages alone produced similar decrements as typing and reading, whereas reading alone had smaller decrements over fewer dependent variables. Typing and reading text messages affects drivers' capability to adequately direct attention to the roadway, respond to important traffic events, control a vehicle within a lane and maintain speed and headway. This meta-analysis provides convergent evidence that texting compromises the safety of the driver, passengers and other road users. Combined efforts, including legislation, enforcement, blocking technologies, parent modeling, social media, social norms and education, will be required to prevent continued deaths and injuries from texting and driving

  2. Convergence Analysis of a Class of Computational Intelligence Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational intelligence approaches is a relatively new interdisciplinary field of research with many promising application areas. Although the computational intelligence approaches have gained huge popularity, it is difficult to analyze the convergence. In this paper, a computational model is built up for a class of computational intelligence approaches represented by the canonical forms of generic algorithms, ant colony optimization, and particle swarm optimization in order to describe the common features of these algorithms. And then, two quantification indices, that is, the variation rate and the progress rate, are defined, respectively, to indicate the variety and the optimality of the solution sets generated in the search process of the model. Moreover, we give four types of probabilistic convergence for the solution set updating sequences, and their relations are discussed. Finally, the sufficient conditions are derived for the almost sure weak convergence and the almost sure strong convergence of the model by introducing the martingale theory into the Markov chain analysis.

  3. Real Time Text Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Ruchika Mehra Vijayan, E.

    2017-11-01

    This paper aims to illustrate real time analysis of large scale data. For practical implementation we are performing sentiment analysis on live Twitter feeds for each individual tweet. To analyze sentiments we will train our data model on sentiWordNet, a polarity assigned wordNet sample by Princeton University. Our main objective will be to efficiency analyze large scale data on the fly using distributed computation. Apache Spark and Apache Hadoop eco system is used as distributed computation platform with Java as development language

  4. Single Molecule Analysis Research Tool (SMART: an integrated approach for analyzing single molecule data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Greenfeld

    Full Text Available Single molecule studies have expanded rapidly over the past decade and have the ability to provide an unprecedented level of understanding of biological systems. A common challenge upon introduction of novel, data-rich approaches is the management, processing, and analysis of the complex data sets that are generated. We provide a standardized approach for analyzing these data in the freely available software package SMART: Single Molecule Analysis Research Tool. SMART provides a format for organizing and easily accessing single molecule data, a general hidden Markov modeling algorithm for fitting an array of possible models specified by the user, a standardized data structure and graphical user interfaces to streamline the analysis and visualization of data. This approach guides experimental design, facilitating acquisition of the maximal information from single molecule experiments. SMART also provides a standardized format to allow dissemination of single molecule data and transparency in the analysis of reported data.

  5. Adapting computational text analysis to social science (and vice versa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul DiMaggio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Social scientists and computer scientist are divided by small differences in perspective and not by any significant disciplinary divide. In the field of text analysis, several such differences are noted: social scientists often use unsupervised models to explore corpora, whereas many computer scientists employ supervised models to train data; social scientists hold to more conventional causal notions than do most computer scientists, and often favor intense exploitation of existing algorithms, whereas computer scientists focus more on developing new models; and computer scientists tend to trust human judgment more than social scientists do. These differences have implications that potentially can improve the practice of social science.

  6. VisualUrText: A Text Analytics Tool for Unstructured Textual Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainol, Zuraini; Jaymes, Mohd T. H.; Nohuddin, Puteri N. E.

    2018-05-01

    The growing amount of unstructured text over Internet is tremendous. Text repositories come from Web 2.0, business intelligence and social networking applications. It is also believed that 80-90% of future growth data is available in the form of unstructured text databases that may potentially contain interesting patterns and trends. Text Mining is well known technique for discovering interesting patterns and trends which are non-trivial knowledge from massive unstructured text data. Text Mining covers multidisciplinary fields involving information retrieval (IR), text analysis, natural language processing (NLP), data mining, machine learning statistics and computational linguistics. This paper discusses the development of text analytics tool that is proficient in extracting, processing, analyzing the unstructured text data and visualizing cleaned text data into multiple forms such as Document Term Matrix (DTM), Frequency Graph, Network Analysis Graph, Word Cloud and Dendogram. This tool, VisualUrText, is developed to assist students and researchers for extracting interesting patterns and trends in document analyses.

  7. System-synergetic approach to the analysis of Waldorf school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionova E.N.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It is considered the basic aspects of usage a system-synergetic approach to the analysis of Waldorf school as an example of relevant embodiment of synergetic paradigm on the different levels of organization and activity of educational establishment (functioning of school as a social institute; philosophical comprehension of essence of education and education; psychological ground of processes of development and self-development of man; a contents of Waldorf education, forms and methods of his mastering by students; providing of pedagogical influence of personality of teacher on a child.

  8. The Application of Text Mining in Business Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preuss, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a methodological concept in business research that has the potential to become one of the most powerful methods in the upcoming years when it comes to research qualitative phenomena in business and society. It presents a selection of algorithms as well elaborat...... on potential use cases for a text mining based approach to qualitative data analysis....

  9. DNA Microarray Data Analysis: A Novel Biclustering Algorithm Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tewfik Ahmed H

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biclustering algorithms refer to a distinct class of clustering algorithms that perform simultaneous row-column clustering. Biclustering problems arise in DNA microarray data analysis, collaborative filtering, market research, information retrieval, text mining, electoral trends, exchange analysis, and so forth. When dealing with DNA microarray experimental data for example, the goal of biclustering algorithms is to find submatrices, that is, subgroups of genes and subgroups of conditions, where the genes exhibit highly correlated activities for every condition. In this study, we develop novel biclustering algorithms using basic linear algebra and arithmetic tools. The proposed biclustering algorithms can be used to search for all biclusters with constant values, biclusters with constant values on rows, biclusters with constant values on columns, and biclusters with coherent values from a set of data in a timely manner and without solving any optimization problem. We also show how one of the proposed biclustering algorithms can be adapted to identify biclusters with coherent evolution. The algorithms developed in this study discover all valid biclusters of each type, while almost all previous biclustering approaches will miss some.

  10. Goal-oriented failure analysis - a systems analysis approach to hazard identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, A.B.; Davies, J.; Foster, J.; Wells, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    Goal-Oriented Failure Analysis, GOFA, is a methodology which is being developed to identify and analyse the potential failure modes of a hazardous plant or process. The technique will adopt a structured top-down approach, with a particular failure goal being systematically analysed. A systems analysis approach is used, with the analysis being organised around a systems diagram of the plant or process under study. GOFA will also use checklists to supplement the analysis -these checklists will be prepared in advance of a group session and will help to guide the analysis and avoid unnecessary time being spent on identifying obvious failure modes or failing to identify certain hazards or failures. GOFA is being developed with the aim of providing a hazard identification methodology which is more efficient and stimulating than the conventional approach to HAZOP. The top-down approach should ensure that the analysis is more focused and the use of a systems diagram will help to pull the analysis together at an early stage whilst also helping to structure the sessions in a more stimulating way than the conventional techniques. GOFA will be, essentially, an extension of the HAZOP methodology. GOFA is currently being computerised using a knowledge-based systems approach for implementation. The Goldworks II expert systems development tool is being used. (author)

  11. Probing the topological properties of complex networks modeling short written texts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego R Amancio

    Full Text Available In recent years, graph theory has been widely employed to probe several language properties. More specifically, the so-called word adjacency model has been proven useful for tackling several practical problems, especially those relying on textual stylistic analysis. The most common approach to treat texts as networks has simply considered either large pieces of texts or entire books. This approach has certainly worked well-many informative discoveries have been made this way-but it raises an uncomfortable question: could there be important topological patterns in small pieces of texts? To address this problem, the topological properties of subtexts sampled from entire books was probed. Statistical analyses performed on a dataset comprising 50 novels revealed that most of the traditional topological measurements are stable for short subtexts. When the performance of the authorship recognition task was analyzed, it was found that a proper sampling yields a discriminability similar to the one found with full texts. Surprisingly, the support vector machine classification based on the characterization of short texts outperformed the one performed with entire books. These findings suggest that a local topological analysis of large documents might improve its global characterization. Most importantly, it was verified, as a proof of principle, that short texts can be analyzed with the methods and concepts of complex networks. As a consequence, the techniques described here can be extended in a straightforward fashion to analyze texts as time-varying complex networks.

  12. An iterative approach to case study analysis: insights from qualitative analysis of quantitative inconsistencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allain J Barnett

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Large-N comparative studies have helped common pool resource scholars gain general insights into the factors that influence collective action and governance outcomes. However, these studies are often limited by missing data, and suffer from the methodological limitation that important information is lost when we reduce textual information to quantitative data. This study was motivated by nine case studies that appeared to be inconsistent with the expectation that the presence of Ostrom’s Design Principles increases the likelihood of successful common pool resource governance. These cases highlight the limitations of coding and analysing Large-N case studies. We examine two issues: 1 the challenge of missing data and 2 potential approaches that rely on context (which is often lost in the coding process to address inconsistencies between empirical observations theoretical predictions.  For the latter, we conduct a post-hoc qualitative analysis of a large-N comparative study to explore 2 types of inconsistencies: 1 cases where evidence for nearly all design principles was found, but available evidence led to the assessment that the CPR system was unsuccessful and 2 cases where the CPR system was deemed successful despite finding limited or no evidence for design principles.  We describe inherent challenges to large-N comparative analysis to coding complex and dynamically changing common pool resource systems for the presence or absence of design principles and the determination of “success”.  Finally, we illustrate how, in some cases, our qualitative analysis revealed that the identity of absent design principles explained inconsistencies hence de-facto reconciling such apparent inconsistencies with theoretical predictions.  This analysis demonstrates the value of combining quantitative and qualitative analysis, and using mixed-methods approaches iteratively to build comprehensive methodological and theoretical approaches to understanding

  13. Writing Treatment for Aphasia: A Texting Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, Pelagie M.; Higginson, Kristina; Rising, Kindle

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment studies have documented the therapeutic and functional value of lexical writing treatment for individuals with severe aphasia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such retraining could be accomplished using the typing feature of a cellular telephone, with the ultimate goal of using text messaging for…

  14. [Symbol: see text]2 Optimized predictive image coding with [Symbol: see text]∞ bound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Sceuchin; Dumitrescu, Sorina; Wu, Xiaolin

    2013-12-01

    In many scientific, medical, and defense applications of image/video compression, an [Symbol: see text]∞ error bound is required. However, pure[Symbol: see text]∞-optimized image coding, colloquially known as near-lossless image coding, is prone to structured errors such as contours and speckles if the bit rate is not sufficiently high; moreover, most of the previous [Symbol: see text]∞-based image coding methods suffer from poor rate control. In contrast, the [Symbol: see text]2 error metric aims for average fidelity and hence preserves the subtlety of smooth waveforms better than the ∞ error metric and it offers fine granularity in rate control, but pure [Symbol: see text]2-based image coding methods (e.g., JPEG 2000) cannot bound individual errors as the [Symbol: see text]∞-based methods can. This paper presents a new compression approach to retain the benefits and circumvent the pitfalls of the two error metrics. A common approach of near-lossless image coding is to embed into a DPCM prediction loop a uniform scalar quantizer of residual errors. The said uniform scalar quantizer is replaced, in the proposed new approach, by a set of context-based [Symbol: see text]2-optimized quantizers. The optimization criterion is to minimize a weighted sum of the [Symbol: see text]2 distortion and the entropy while maintaining a strict [Symbol: see text]∞ error bound. The resulting method obtains good rate-distortion performance in both [Symbol: see text]2 and [Symbol: see text]∞ metrics and also increases the rate granularity. Compared with JPEG 2000, the new method not only guarantees lower [Symbol: see text]∞ error for all bit rates, but also it achieves higher PSNR for relatively high bit rates.

  15. Place as Text: Approaches to Active Learning. 2nd Edition. National Collegiate Honors Council Monograph Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braid, Bernice, Ed.; Long, Ada, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The decade since publication of "Place as Text: Approaches to Active Learning" has seen an explosion of interest and productivity in the field of experiential education. This monograph presents a story of an experiment and a blueprint of sorts for anyone interested in enriching an existing program or willing to experiment with pedagogy…

  16. Approaches to data analysis of multiple-choice questions

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Ding; Robert Beichner

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces five commonly used approaches to analyzing multiple-choice test data. They are classical test theory, factor analysis, cluster analysis, item response theory, and model analysis. Brief descriptions of the goals and algorithms of these approaches are provided, together with examples illustrating their applications in physics education research. We minimize mathematics, instead placing emphasis on data interpretation using these approaches.

  17. Quantum functional analysis non-coordinate approach

    CERN Document Server

    Helemskii, A Ya

    2010-01-01

    This book contains a systematic presentation of quantum functional analysis, a mathematical subject also known as operator space theory. Created in the 1980s, it nowadays is one of the most prominent areas of functional analysis, both as a field of active research and as a source of numerous important applications. The approach taken in this book differs significantly from the standard approach used in studying operator space theory. Instead of viewing "quantized coefficients" as matrices in a fixed basis, in this book they are interpreted as finite rank operators in a fixed Hilbert space. This allows the author to replace matrix computations with algebraic techniques of module theory and tensor products, thus achieving a more invariant approach to the subject. The book can be used by graduate students and research mathematicians interested in functional analysis and related areas of mathematics and mathematical physics. Prerequisites include standard courses in abstract algebra and functional analysis.

  18. Sensitivity analysis approaches applied to systems biology models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Z

    2011-11-01

    With the rising application of systems biology, sensitivity analysis methods have been widely applied to study the biological systems, including metabolic networks, signalling pathways and genetic circuits. Sensitivity analysis can provide valuable insights about how robust the biological responses are with respect to the changes of biological parameters and which model inputs are the key factors that affect the model outputs. In addition, sensitivity analysis is valuable for guiding experimental analysis, model reduction and parameter estimation. Local and global sensitivity analysis approaches are the two types of sensitivity analysis that are commonly applied in systems biology. Local sensitivity analysis is a classic method that studies the impact of small perturbations on the model outputs. On the other hand, global sensitivity analysis approaches have been applied to understand how the model outputs are affected by large variations of the model input parameters. In this review, the author introduces the basic concepts of sensitivity analysis approaches applied to systems biology models. Moreover, the author discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different sensitivity analysis methods, how to choose a proper sensitivity analysis approach, the available sensitivity analysis tools for systems biology models and the caveats in the interpretation of sensitivity analysis results.

  19. A Text-Mining Framework for Supporting Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dingcheng; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Liwei; Sohn, Sunghwan; Shen, Feichen; Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-11-01

    Systematic reviews (SRs) involve the identification, appraisal, and synthesis of all relevant studies for focused questions in a structured reproducible manner. High-quality SRs follow strict procedures and require significant resources and time. We investigated advanced text-mining approaches to reduce the burden associated with abstract screening in SRs and provide high-level information summary. A text-mining SR supporting framework consisting of three self-defined semantics-based ranking metrics was proposed, including keyword relevance, indexed-term relevance and topic relevance. Keyword relevance is based on the user-defined keyword list used in the search strategy. Indexed-term relevance is derived from indexed vocabulary developed by domain experts used for indexing journal articles and books. Topic relevance is defined as the semantic similarity among retrieved abstracts in terms of topics generated by latent Dirichlet allocation, a Bayesian-based model for discovering topics. We tested the proposed framework using three published SRs addressing a variety of topics (Mass Media Interventions, Rectal Cancer and Influenza Vaccine). The results showed that when 91.8%, 85.7%, and 49.3% of the abstract screening labor was saved, the recalls were as high as 100% for the three cases; respectively. Relevant studies identified manually showed strong topic similarity through topic analysis, which supported the inclusion of topic analysis as relevance metric. It was demonstrated that advanced text mining approaches can significantly reduce the abstract screening labor of SRs and provide an informative summary of relevant studies.

  20. Making School Development Credible. Text, Context, Irony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Börjesson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The article argues for the importance of an open, reflexive-methodological approach when switching between studying text, context and researcher activity. Close linguistic analysis can benefit from being linked with the researcher’s contextualisation of his empirical material as well as with more distanced readings. The more specific starting point for this article is that school development, like other similar terms such as school improvement and the like, makes use of linguistic building blocks with which whole narratives about today’s and tomorrow’s schools can be constructed. The subject of the study is a short text issued by the Swedish Schools Inspectorate (Skolinspektionen. Government language changes according to the authorities’ role in society and their own definitions of their functions, and an important aspect here is the legitimacy of the authorities’ texts. By means of various kinds of close linguistic analysis, the above-mentioned text is studied with regard to choice of categories, hierarchies of modalisation and the rhetorical effects of different types of formulations in a broader political-social landscape. The article concludes with a reflective discussion on the relationship between government language and irony as a stylistic device – a device that is based on the results of the close empirical analysis.[i]



    [i] The article is part of the project ”School  Development as Narrative”, funded by the Swedish Research Council. The author would like to thank the two reviewers for very valuable comments.

  1. Improving Students� Ability in Writing Hortatory Exposition Texts by Using Process-Genre Based Approach with YouTube Videos as the Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fifin naili rizkiyah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research is aimed at finding out how Process-Genre Based Approach strategy with YouTube Videos as the media are employed to improve the students� ability in writing hortatory exposition texts. This study uses collaborative classroom action research design following the procedures namely planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting. The procedures of carrying out the strategy are: (1 relating several issues/ cases to the students� background knowledge and introducing the generic structures and linguistic features of hortatory exposition text as the BKoF stage, (2 analyzing the generic structure and the language features used in the text and getting model on how to write a hortatory exposition text by using the YouTube Video as the MoT stage, (3 writing a hortatory exposition text collaboratively in a small group and in pairs through process writing as the JCoT stage, and (4 writing a hortatory exposition text individually as the ICoT stage. The result shows that the use of Process-Genre Based Approach and YouTube Videos can improve the students� ability in writing hortatory exposition texts. The percentage of the students achieving the score above the minimum passing grade (70 had improved from only 15.8% (3 out of 19 students in the preliminary study to 100% (22 students in the Cycle 1. Besides, the score of each aspect; content, organization, vocabulary, grammar, and mechanics also improved. � Key Words: writing ability, hortatory exposition text, process-genre based approach, youtube video

  2. Intellectual Disabilities, Challenging Behaviour and Referral Texts: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunkoosing, Karl; Haydon-Laurelut, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The texts of referrals written by workers in residential services for people with learning difficulties constitute sites where contemporary discourses of intellectual disabilities are being constructed. This paper uses Critical Discourse Analysis to examine referrals made to a Community Learning Disability Team (CLDT). The study finds referral…

  3. Text Detection and Pose Estimation for a Reading Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Bulacu, Marius; Ezaki, Nobuo; Schomaker, Lambert

    2008-01-01

    One very important advantage of using CoCos for text detection is that they naturally allow the analysis to take place across scales. In this approach, scale does not represent such a problematic issue because the CoCo extraction process is scale independent. CoCos give a prompt, but rather imperfect, hold to the structures present in the image and CoCo selection

  4. Working with Data: Discovering Knowledge through Mining and Analysis; Systematic Knowledge Management and Knowledge Discovery; Text Mining; Methodological Approach in Discovering User Search Patterns through Web Log Analysis; Knowledge Discovery in Databases Using Formal Concept Analysis; Knowledge Discovery with a Little Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jian; Jurisica, Igor; Liddy, Elizabeth D.; Jansen, Bernard J; Spink, Amanda; Priss, Uta; Norton, Melanie J.

    2000-01-01

    These six articles discuss knowledge discovery in databases (KDD). Topics include data mining; knowledge management systems; applications of knowledge discovery; text and Web mining; text mining and information retrieval; user search patterns through Web log analysis; concept analysis; data collection; and data structure inconsistency. (LRW)

  5. From text to political positions: The convergence of political, linguistic and discourse analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elfrinkhof, A.M.E.; Maks, I.; Kaal, A.R.; Kaal, A.R.; Maks, I.; van Elfrinkhof, A.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This chapter explores how three methods of political text analysis can complement each other to differentiate parties in detail. A word-frequency method and corpus linguistic techniques are joined by critical discourse analysis in an attempt to assess the ideological relation between

  6. Towards Technological Approaches for Concept Maps Mining from Text

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Zacche Aguiar; Davidson Cury; Amal Zouaq

    2018-01-01

    Concept maps are resources for the representation and construction of knowledge. They allow showing, through concepts and relationships, how knowledge about a subject is organized. Technological advances have boosted the development of approaches for the automatic construction of a concept map, to facilitate and provide the benefits of that resource more broadly. Due to the need to better identify and analyze the functionalities and characteristics of those approaches, we conducted a detailed...

  7. An Ethnografic Approach to Video Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2007-01-01

    The overall purpose in the ethnographic approach to video analysis is to become aware of implicit knowledge in those being observed. That is, knowledge that cannot be acquired through interviews. In music therapy this approach can be used to analyse patterns of interaction between client and ther......: Methods, Techniques and Applications in Music Therapy for Music Therapy Clinicians, Educators, Researchers and Students. London: Jessica Kingsley.......The overall purpose in the ethnographic approach to video analysis is to become aware of implicit knowledge in those being observed. That is, knowledge that cannot be acquired through interviews. In music therapy this approach can be used to analyse patterns of interaction between client...... a short introduction to the ethnographic approach, the workshop participants will have a chance to try out the method. First through a common exercise and then applied to video recordings of music therapy with children with severe communicative limitations. Focus will be on patterns of interaction...

  8. Introducing the interpretation of medieval Hindi texts into the Hindi curriculum: An alternative approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strnad, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2010), s. 25-38 ISSN 1648-2662. [Regional Conference on Indology for Central and Eastern Europe - New Perspectives in Education about India /2./. Vilnijus, 24.8.2006-26. 8.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90210515 Keywords : Hindi * texts * analysis Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  9. Compatibility between Text Mining and Qualitative Research in the Perspectives of Grounded Theory, Content Analysis, and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chong Ho; Jannasch-Pennell, Angel; DiGangi, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to illustrate that text mining and qualitative research are epistemologically compatible. First, like many qualitative research approaches, such as grounded theory, text mining encourages open-mindedness and discourages preconceptions. Contrary to the popular belief that text mining is a linear and fully automated…

  10. Text linguistics and critical discourse analysis: A multimodal analysis of a magazine advertisement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidnéa Nunes Ferreira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2013n64p111 Drawing on Fairclough’s (1995 three-dimensional framework of discourse analysis of communicative events, in this paper we carry out a multimodal analysis of a diners Club international magazine advertisement. Moving from the description of how textimage (Mitchell 1995 constructs a problem-solution structure in the advertisement to the discussion of its discourse and sociocultural practices, the paper foregrounds a multi-layered ideological message, besides the construal of a need (problem for a product (solution. Through its multimodal structure, the advertisement seems to tap on two important sociological issues: the avoidance of human togetherness and the colonization of travelling by consumer markets (bauman  2007.

  11. Involvement of Thermodynamic Cycle Analysis in a Concurrent Approach to Reciprocating Engine Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Macek

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A modularised approach to thermodynamic optimisation of new concepts of volumetric combustion engines concerning efficiency and emissions is outlined. Levels of primary analysis using a computerised general-change entropy diagram and detailed multizone, 1 to 3-D finite volume methods are distinguished. The use of inverse algorithms based on the same equations is taken into account.

  12. Pragmatics Analysis In Humorous Text In Reader’s Digest Magazine

    OpenAIRE

    Agustina, Sri

    2011-01-01

    Skripsi yang berjudul Pragmatic Analysis in Humorous Text in Reader’s Digest Magazine, menganalisis konteks dari humor yang berbentuk dialog dan bagaimana humor tersebut diinterpretasikan; yang terdapat di dalam teks humor di dalam majalah Reader’s Digest edisi Agustus, September, Oktober, November dan Desember 2010. Analisis ini menggunakan teori Yule tahun 1996 yang mengatakan bahwa beberapa fokus kajian pragmatik adalah mengkaji makna penutur di dalam konteks tertentu dan bagaimana konteks...

  13. Optimizing Short Message Text Sentiment Analysis for Mobile Device Forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Aboluwarin , Oluwapelumi; Andriotis , Panagiotis; Takasu , Atsuhiro; Tryfonas , Theo

    2016-01-01

    Part 2: MOBILE DEVICE FORENSICS; International audience; Mobile devices are now the dominant medium for communications. Humans express various emotions when communicating with others and these communications can be analyzed to deduce their emotional inclinations. Natural language processing techniques have been used to analyze sentiment in text. However, most research involving sentiment analysis in the short message domain (SMS and Twitter) do not account for the presence of non-dictionary w...

  14. Meta-analysis a structural equation modeling approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Mike W-L

    2015-01-01

    Presents a novel approach to conducting meta-analysis using structural equation modeling. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and meta-analysis are two powerful statistical methods in the educational, social, behavioral, and medical sciences. They are often treated as two unrelated topics in the literature. This book presents a unified framework on analyzing meta-analytic data within the SEM framework, and illustrates how to conduct meta-analysis using the metaSEM package in the R statistical environment. Meta-Analysis: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach begins by introducing the impo

  15. Text mining approach to predict hospital admissions using early medical records from the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucini, Filipe R; S Fogliatto, Flavio; C da Silveira, Giovani J; L Neyeloff, Jeruza; Anzanello, Michel J; de S Kuchenbecker, Ricardo; D Schaan, Beatriz

    2017-04-01

    Emergency department (ED) overcrowding is a serious issue for hospitals. Early information on short-term inward bed demand from patients receiving care at the ED may reduce the overcrowding problem, and optimize the use of hospital resources. In this study, we use text mining methods to process data from early ED patient records using the SOAP framework, and predict future hospitalizations and discharges. We try different approaches for pre-processing of text records and to predict hospitalization. Sets-of-words are obtained via binary representation, term frequency, and term frequency-inverse document frequency. Unigrams, bigrams and trigrams are tested for feature formation. Feature selection is based on χ 2 and F-score metrics. In the prediction module, eight text mining methods are tested: Decision Tree, Random Forest, Extremely Randomized Tree, AdaBoost, Logistic Regression, Multinomial Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine (Kernel linear) and Nu-Support Vector Machine (Kernel linear). Prediction performance is evaluated by F1-scores. Precision and Recall values are also informed for all text mining methods tested. Nu-Support Vector Machine was the text mining method with the best overall performance. Its average F1-score in predicting hospitalization was 77.70%, with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.66%. The method could be used to manage daily routines in EDs such as capacity planning and resource allocation. Text mining could provide valuable information and facilitate decision-making by inward bed management teams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Analysis of Stereotypes of Politically Engaged Media Texts in Media Studies in Student Audience (by the Example of Renny Harlin’s films “Born American” (1986 and “Five Days of War” (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Fedorov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of skills for the analysis of media texts is an important task of media education. However, media literacy practice shows that students have problems with the discussion / analysis of some genres in the early stages of media studies, for example, the difficulties in the process of understanding and interpreting the author's conception, plot and genre features. This article substantiates the methodological approaches to the analysis of politically engaged media texts in media studies in the student audience.

  17. Measurement of [Formula: see text] polarisation in [Formula: see text] collisions at [Formula: see text] = 7 TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Counts, I; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dalseno, J; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Esen, S; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Giani, S; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jezabek, M; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lowdon, P; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manzali, M; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, G; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spinella, F; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Stroili, R; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    The polarisation of prompt [Formula: see text] mesons is measured by performing an angular analysis of [Formula: see text] decays using proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0[Formula: see text], collected by the LHCb detector at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The polarisation is measured in bins of transverse momentum [Formula: see text] and rapidity [Formula: see text] in the kinematic region [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], and is compared to theoretical models. No significant polarisation is observed.

  18. The text plan concept: contributions to the writing planning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Tinoco Cabral

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Students - at different levels, ranging from early grades up to PhD - face problems both on comprehension and text production. This paper focuses on the text plan concept according to the DTA (Discourse Text Analysis approach, i.e., a principle of organization that allows students to put into practice the production intention as well as to arrange text information while producing; being responsible for the text compositional structure (Adam, 2008. The study analyzes the relation between text plan and the writing planning process, in which the first one provides the second with theoretical support. In order to develop such research, the study covers some issues related to the reading skill, analyzes an argumentative text as per its textual plan, and presents some reflections on the writing process, focusing on the relation between textual plan and the writing planning process.

  19. A Similarity-Based Approach for Audiovisual Document Classification Using Temporal Relation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrane Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We propose a novel approach for video classification that bases on the analysis of the temporal relationships between the basic events in audiovisual documents. Starting from basic segmentation results, we define a new representation method that is called Temporal Relation Matrix (TRM. Each document is then described by a set of TRMs, the analysis of which makes events of a higher level stand out. This representation has been first designed to analyze any audiovisual document in order to find events that may well characterize its content and its structure. The aim of this work is to use this representation to compute a similarity measure between two documents. Approaches for audiovisual documents classification are presented and discussed. Experimentations are done on a set of 242 video documents and the results show the efficiency of our proposals.

  20. [Causal analysis approaches in epidemiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, O; Siroux, V; Le Moual, N; Varraso, R

    2014-02-01

    Epidemiological research is mostly based on observational studies. Whether such studies can provide evidence of causation remains discussed. Several causal analysis methods have been developed in epidemiology. This paper aims at presenting an overview of these methods: graphical models, path analysis and its extensions, and models based on the counterfactual approach, with a special emphasis on marginal structural models. Graphical approaches have been developed to allow synthetic representations of supposed causal relationships in a given problem. They serve as qualitative support in the study of causal relationships. The sufficient-component cause model has been developed to deal with the issue of multicausality raised by the emergence of chronic multifactorial diseases. Directed acyclic graphs are mostly used as a visual tool to identify possible confounding sources in a study. Structural equations models, the main extension of path analysis, combine a system of equations and a path diagram, representing a set of possible causal relationships. They allow quantifying direct and indirect effects in a general model in which several relationships can be tested simultaneously. Dynamic path analysis further takes into account the role of time. The counterfactual approach defines causality by comparing the observed event and the counterfactual event (the event that would have been observed if, contrary to the fact, the subject had received a different exposure than the one he actually received). This theoretical approach has shown limits of traditional methods to address some causality questions. In particular, in longitudinal studies, when there is time-varying confounding, classical methods (regressions) may be biased. Marginal structural models have been developed to address this issue. In conclusion, "causal models", though they were developed partly independently, are based on equivalent logical foundations. A crucial step in the application of these models is the

  1. Approaches to Data Analysis of Multiple-Choice Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lin; Beichner, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces five commonly used approaches to analyzing multiple-choice test data. They are classical test theory, factor analysis, cluster analysis, item response theory, and model analysis. Brief descriptions of the goals and algorithms of these approaches are provided, together with examples illustrating their applications in physics…

  2. Sea level rise and the geoid: factor analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Sadovski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sea levels are rising around the world, and this is a particular concern along most of the coasts of the United States. A 1989 EPA report shows that sea levels rose 5-6 inches more than the global average along the Mid-Atlantic and Gulf Coasts in the last century. The main reason for this is coastal land subsidence. This sea level rise is considered more as relative sea level rise than global sea level rise. Thus, instead of studying sea level rise globally, this paper describes a statistical approach by using factor analysis of regional sea level rates of change. Unlike physical models and semi-empirical models that attempt to approach how much and how fast sea levels are changing, this methodology allows for a discussion of the factor(s that statistically affects sea level rates of change, and seeks patterns to explain spatial correlations.

  3. Analysis of cohesive devices in a short text: 'Whiskey. No water. No ice.' by Tom Hart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Anita V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was two-fold. Primarily, based on literature review, it presented various takes on what constitutes a text and what makes it cohesive. Secondly, it reported the results of the cohesion analysis performed on a short drama by Tom Hart. This drama was written as a submission for the London Royal Court Theatre competition '100 Word Play'. The author used the model of analysis of a dramatic dialogue proposed by Halliday and Hassan. The dramatic dialogue here is characterized as a speaking text, for the stage; therefore, the stage directions were excluded from the analysis as para-linguistic phenomena. The results of the analysis revealed immediate ellipsis of anaphoric direction as the most common cohesive device in 47 percent of the text. Second in frequency are referencing mechanisms, and finally lexical devices and connectors. Furthermore, the analysis exposed the use of reiteration, both lexical and structural, which is not predicted by the model. However, these instances were explained by Hoey's model of lexical repetition. The thematic progression in the text is linear which is characteristic of dialogues. The analysis noted no usage of substitution nor parallelism, which is in itself indicative of the set hypothesis because parallelisms are characteristic of poetry and political discourse.

  4. Systematic approaches to data analysis from the Critical Decision Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sedlár

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to introduce how to analyse the qualitative data from the Critical Decision Method. At first, characterizing the method provides the meaningful introduction into the issue. This method used in naturalistic decision making research is one of the cognitive task analysis methods, it is based on the retrospective semistructured interview about critical incident from the work and it may be applied in various domains such as emergency services, military, transport, sport or industry. Researchers can make two types of methodological adaptation. Within-method adaptations modify the way of conducting the interviews and cross-method adaptations combine this method with other related methods. There are many decsriptions of conducting the interview, but the descriptions how the data should be analysed are rare. Some researchers use conventional approaches like content analysis, grounded theory or individual procedures with reference to the objectives of research project. Wong (2004 describes two approaches to data analysis proposed for this method of data collection, which are described and reviewed in the details. They enable systematic work with a large amount of data. The structured approach organizes the data according to an a priori analysis framework and it is suitable for clearly defined object of research. Each incident is studied separately. At first, the decision chart showing the main decision points and then the incident summary are made. These decision points are used to identify the relevant statements from the transcript, which are analysed in terms of the Recognition-Primed Decision Model. Finally, the results from all the analysed incidents are integrated. The limitation of the structured approach is it may not reveal some interesting concepts. The emergent themes approach helps to identify these concepts while maintaining a systematic framework for analysis and it is used for exploratory research design. It

  5. Beyond Readability: Investigating Coherence of Clinical Text for Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Scott; Dalrymple, Prudence; Keselman, Alla

    2011-01-01

    Background A basic tenet of consumer health informatics is that understandable health resources empower the public. Text comprehension holds great promise for helping to characterize consumer problems in understanding health texts. The need for efficient ways to assess consumer-oriented health texts and the availability of computationally supported tools led us to explore the effect of various text characteristics on readers’ understanding of health texts, as well as to develop novel approaches to assessing these characteristics. Objective The goal of this study was to compare the impact of two different approaches to enhancing readability, and three interventions, on individuals’ comprehension of short, complex passages of health text. Methods Participants were 80 university staff, faculty, or students. Each participant was asked to “retell” the content of two health texts: one a clinical trial in the domain of diabetes mellitus, and the other typical Visit Notes. These texts were transformed for the intervention arms of the study. Two interventions provided terminology support via (1) standard dictionary or (2) contextualized vocabulary definitions. The third intervention provided coherence improvement. We assessed participants’ comprehension of the clinical texts through propositional analysis, an open-ended questionnaire, and analysis of the number of errors made. Results For the clinical trial text, the effect of text condition was not significant in any of the comparisons, suggesting no differences in recall, despite the varying levels of support (P = .84). For the Visit Note, however, the difference in the median total propositions recalled between the Coherent and the (Original + Dictionary) conditions was significant (P = .04). This suggests that participants in the Coherent condition recalled more of the original Visit Notes content than did participants in the Original and the Dictionary conditions combined. However, no difference was seen

  6. Automated Determination of the Type of Genre and Stylistic Coloring of Russian Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barakhnin Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose the algorithm of automated definition of the genre type and semantic characteristics of poetic texts in Russian. We formulated the approaches to the construction of a joint (“two-dimensional” classifier of genre types and stylistic colouring of poetic texts, based on the definition of interdependence of the type of genre and stylistic colouring of the text. On the basis of these approaches the principles of formation of the training samples for the algorithms for the definition of styles and genre types were analyzed. The computational experiments with a corpus of texts of the Lyceum lyrics of A.S.Pushkin were implemented, which showed good results in determining the stylistic colouring of poetic texts and sufficient results in determining the genres. The proposed algorithms can be used for automation of the complex analysis of Russian poetic texts, significantly facilitating the work of the expert in determining their styles and genres by providing appropriate recommendations.

  7. Multiresolution analysis applied to text-independent phone segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherniz, AnalIa S; Torres, MarIa E; Rufiner, Hugo L; Esposito, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Automatic speech segmentation is of fundamental importance in different speech applications. The most common implementations are based on hidden Markov models. They use a statistical modelling of the phonetic units to align the data along a known transcription. This is an expensive and time-consuming process, because of the huge amount of data needed to train the system. Text-independent speech segmentation procedures have been developed to overcome some of these problems. These methods detect transitions in the evolution of the time-varying features that represent the speech signal. Speech representation plays a central role is the segmentation task. In this work, two new speech parameterizations based on the continuous multiresolution entropy, using Shannon entropy, and the continuous multiresolution divergence, using Kullback-Leibler distance, are proposed. These approaches have been compared with the classical Melbank parameterization. The proposed encodings increase significantly the segmentation performance. Parameterization based on the continuous multiresolution divergence shows the best results, increasing the number of correctly detected boundaries and decreasing the amount of erroneously inserted points. This suggests that the parameterization based on multiresolution information measures provide information related to acoustic features that take into account phonemic transitions

  8. Feasibility and Utility of Lexical Analysis for Occupational Health Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, Philip; Leroy, Gondy

    2017-06-01

    Assess feasibility and potential utility of natural language processing (NLP) for storing and analyzing occupational health data. Basic NLP lexical analysis methods were applied to 89,000 Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) free text records. Steps included tokenization, term and co-occurrence counts, term annotation, and identifying exposure-health effect relationships. Presence of terms in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) was assessed. The methods efficiently demonstrated common exposures, health effects, and exposure-injury relationships. Many workplace terms are not present in UMLS or map inaccurately. Use of free text rather than narrowly defined numerically coded fields is feasible, flexible, and efficient. It has potential to encourage workers and clinicians to provide more data and to support automated knowledge creation. The lexical method used is easily generalizable to other areas. The UMLS vocabularies should be enhanced to be relevant to occupational health.

  9. A multiresolutional approach to fuzzy text meaning: A first attempt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehler, A.

    1996-12-31

    The present paper focuses on the connotative meaning aspect of language signs especially above the level of words. In this context the view is taken that texts can be defined as a kind of supersign, to which-in the same way as to other signs-a meaning can be assigned. A text can therefore be described as the result of a sign articulation which connects the material text sign with a corresponding meaning. For the constitution of the structural text meaning a kind of a semiotic composition principle is responsible, which leads to the emergence of interlocked levels of language units, demonstrating different grades of resolution. Starting on the level of words, and going through the level of sentences this principle reaches finally the level of texts by aggregating step by step the meaning of a unit on a higher level out of the meanings of all components one level below, which occur within this unit. Besides, this article will elaborate the hypothesis that the meaning constitution as a two-stage process, corresponding to the syntagmatic and paradigmatic restrictions of language elements among each other, obtains equally on the level of texts. On text level this two-levelledness leads to the constitution of the connotative text meaning, whose constituents are determined on word level by the syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations of the words. The formalization of the text meaning representation occurs with the help of fuzzy set theory.

  10. English tsotsitaals? − an analysis of two written texts in Surfspeak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... medium of English; (b) give an appreciation of the humour, wit and style associated with English tsotsitaals, via the analysis of two written texts; and (c) show the limitations of tsotsitaals in extended written usage, for which they have to co-exist with more mainstream forms of the dialect of English they utilise for their base.

  11. Interstage Flammability Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jeffrey K.; Eppard, William M.

    2011-01-01

    The Interstage of the Ares I launch platform houses several key components which are on standby during First Stage operation: the Reaction Control System (ReCS), the Upper Stage (US) Thrust Vector Control (TVC) and the J-2X with the Main Propulsion System (MPS) propellant feed system. Therefore potentially dangerous leaks of propellants could develop. The Interstage leaks analysis addresses the concerns of localized mixing of hydrogen and oxygen gases to produce deflagration zones in the Interstage of the Ares I launch vehicle during First Stage operation. This report details the approach taken to accomplish the analysis. Specified leakage profiles and actual flammability results are not presented due to proprietary and security restrictions. The interior volume formed by the Interstage walls, bounding interfaces with the Upper and First Stages, and surrounding the J2-X engine was modeled using Loci-CHEM to assess the potential for flammable gas mixtures to develop during First Stage operations. The transient analysis included a derived flammability indicator based on mixture ratios to maintain achievable simulation times. Validation of results was based on a comparison to Interstage pressure profiles outlined in prior NASA studies. The approach proved useful in the bounding of flammability risk in supporting program hazard reviews.

  12. Text mining from ontology learning to automated text processing applications

    CERN Document Server

    Biemann, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This book comprises a set of articles that specify the methodology of text mining, describe the creation of lexical resources in the framework of text mining and use text mining for various tasks in natural language processing (NLP). The analysis of large amounts of textual data is a prerequisite to build lexical resources such as dictionaries and ontologies and also has direct applications in automated text processing in fields such as history, healthcare and mobile applications, just to name a few. This volume gives an update in terms of the recent gains in text mining methods and reflects

  13. Systemic Analysis Approaches for Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Air transportation system designers have had only limited success using traditional operations research and parametric modeling approaches in their analyses of innovations. They need a systemic methodology for modeling of safety-critical infrastructure that is comprehensive, objective, and sufficiently concrete, yet simple enough to be used with reasonable investment. The methodology must also be amenable to quantitative analysis so issues of system safety and stability can be rigorously addressed. However, air transportation has proven itself an extensive, complex system whose behavior is difficult to describe, no less predict. There is a wide range of system analysis techniques available, but some are more appropriate for certain applications than others. Specifically in the area of complex system analysis, the literature suggests that both agent-based models and network analysis techniques may be useful. This paper discusses the theoretical basis for each approach in these applications, and explores their historic and potential further use for air transportation analysis.

  14. Practical text mining and statistical analysis for non-structured text data applications

    CERN Document Server

    Miner, Gary; Hill, Thomas; Nisbet, Robert; Delen, Dursun

    2012-01-01

    The world contains an unimaginably vast amount of digital information which is getting ever vaster ever more rapidly. This makes it possible to do many things that previously could not be done: spot business trends, prevent diseases, combat crime and so on. Managed well, the textual data can be used to unlock new sources of economic value, provide fresh insights into science and hold governments to account. As the Internet expands and our natural capacity to process the unstructured text that it contains diminishes, the value of text mining for information retrieval and search will increase d

  15. A Sensitivity Analysis Approach to Identify Key Environmental Performance Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessment (LCA is widely used in design phase to reduce the product’s environmental impacts through the whole product life cycle (PLC during the last two decades. The traditional LCA is restricted to assessing the environmental impacts of a product and the results cannot reflect the effects of changes within the life cycle. In order to improve the quality of ecodesign, it is a growing need to develop an approach which can reflect the changes between the design parameters and product’s environmental impacts. A sensitivity analysis approach based on LCA and ecodesign is proposed in this paper. The key environmental performance factors which have significant influence on the products’ environmental impacts can be identified by analyzing the relationship between environmental impacts and the design parameters. Users without much environmental knowledge can use this approach to determine which design parameter should be first considered when (redesigning a product. A printed circuit board (PCB case study is conducted; eight design parameters are chosen to be analyzed by our approach. The result shows that the carbon dioxide emission during the PCB manufacture is highly sensitive to the area of PCB panel.

  16. Meta-analysis of Jelajah Alam Sekitar (JAS Approach Implementation in Learning Procces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ngabekti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of tracer studies on the approach of Jelajah Alam Sekitar (JAS or environment exploring learning has been detected is used in eight provinces in Indonesia and studied in the learning begin primary school to college. Then, how the effectiveness of the implementation of the JAS approach in improving the learning process. This study uses meta-analysis-data in the form of descriptive exploratory qualitative. Data was taken from the various thesis, and research faculty in the last 10 years. Data analysis was performed by calculating the percentage of the same findings for similar problems. The results showed a wide range of studies using different methods and approach such as qualitative descriptive, quasi-experimental, PTK and R and D to produce evidence that the approach JAS effective when applied in teaching, especially teaching biology in a variety of teaching materials. Various studies have shown the approach JAS managed to increase learning outcomes, can differentiate learning outcomes between treatment and control groups in which the treatment group had a mean score higher. Models/strategies/methods centered learning students are very relevant to implementation approach JAS making it seem more real, like a model of cooperative learning, think pair share, strategy role-playing, the investigation group, learning cycle 5e, hands-on activity, and so on, making it possible to continuously assessed and developed in the paradigm of competency-based curriculum developed.

  17. INVESTIGATING TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE: A SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONAL LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF TEACHERS’ REPORT TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarsono M. I. Sudarsono

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at observing the teachers’ professional competence by investigating the report texts written by three English teachers in a junior high school in terms of their schematic structures and linguistic features. To achieve this aim, a qualitative case study design involving analysis of English teachers’ report texts and interviews with these English teachers was employed in this research. The results of this research showed that generally the three English teachers have demonstrated sufficient ability in applying appropriate schematic structures and linguistic features relevant to the criteria of a report text. However, the results of this research also indicate that some improvements in understanding and writing a report text, especially in terms of schematic structure, linguistic features, and theme progressions, are needed to enhance the teachers’ subject matter content knowledge about report text.

  18. Chemical Topic Modeling: Exploring Molecular Data Sets Using a Common Text-Mining Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nadine; Fechner, Nikolas; Landrum, Gregory A; Stiefl, Nikolaus

    2017-08-28

    Big data is one of the key transformative factors which increasingly influences all aspects of modern life. Although this transformation brings vast opportunities it also generates novel challenges, not the least of which is organizing and searching this data deluge. The field of medicinal chemistry is not different: more and more data are being generated, for instance, by technologies such as DNA encoded libraries, peptide libraries, text mining of large literature corpora, and new in silico enumeration methods. Handling those huge sets of molecules effectively is quite challenging and requires compromises that often come at the expense of the interpretability of the results. In order to find an intuitive and meaningful approach to organizing large molecular data sets, we adopted a probabilistic framework called "topic modeling" from the text-mining field. Here we present the first chemistry-related implementation of this method, which allows large molecule sets to be assigned to "chemical topics" and investigating the relationships between those. In this first study, we thoroughly evaluate this novel method in different experiments and discuss both its disadvantages and advantages. We show very promising results in reproducing human-assigned concepts using the approach to identify and retrieve chemical series from sets of molecules. We have also created an intuitive visualization of the chemical topics output by the algorithm. This is a huge benefit compared to other unsupervised machine-learning methods, like clustering, which are commonly used to group sets of molecules. Finally, we applied the new method to the 1.6 million molecules of the ChEMBL22 data set to test its robustness and efficiency. In about 1 h we built a 100-topic model of this large data set in which we could identify interesting topics like "proteins", "DNA", or "steroids". Along with this publication we provide our data sets and an open-source implementation of the new method (CheTo) which

  19. Multi-level approach for parametric roll analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeyoung; Kim, Yonghwan

    2011-03-01

    The present study considers multi-level approach for the analysis of parametric roll phenomena. Three kinds of computation method, GM variation, impulse response function (IRF), and Rankine panel method, are applied for the multi-level approach. IRF and Rankine panel method are based on the weakly nonlinear formulation which includes nonlinear Froude- Krylov and restoring forces. In the computation result of parametric roll occurrence test in regular waves, IRF and Rankine panel method show similar tendency. Although the GM variation approach predicts the occurrence of parametric roll at twice roll natural frequency, its frequency criteria shows a little difference. Nonlinear roll motion in bichromatic wave is also considered in this study. To prove the unstable roll motion in bichromatic waves, theoretical and numerical approaches are applied. The occurrence of parametric roll is theoretically examined by introducing the quasi-periodic Mathieu equation. Instability criteria are well predicted from stability analysis in theoretical approach. From the Fourier analysis, it has been verified that difference-frequency effects create the unstable roll motion. The occurrence of unstable roll motion in bichromatic wave is also observed in the experiment.

  20. A relational approach to support software architecture analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijs, L.M.G.; Krikhaar, R.L.; van Ommering, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on our experience with a relational approach to support the analysis of existing software architectures. The analysis options provide for visualization and view calculation. The approach has been applied for reverse engineering. It is also possible to check concrete designs

  1. Zum Bildungspotenzial biblischer Texte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theis, Joachim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Biblical education as a holistic process goes far beyond biblical learning. It must be understood as a lifelong process, in which both biblical texts and their understanders operate appropriating their counterpart in a dialogical way. – Neither does the recipient’s horizon of understanding appear as an empty room, which had to be filled with the text only, nor is the latter a dead material one could only examine cognitively. The recipient discovers the meaning of the biblical text recomposing it by existential appropriation. So the text is brought to live in each individual reality. Both scientific insights and subjective structures as well as the understanders’ community must be included to avoid potential one-sidednesses. Unfortunately, a special negative association obscures the approach of the bible very often: Still biblical work as part of religious education appears in a cognitively oriented habit, which is neither regarding the vitality and sovereignty of the biblical texts nor the students’ desire for meaning. Moreover, the bible is getting misused for teaching moral terms or pontifications. Such downfalls can be disrupted by biblical didactics which are empowerment didactics. Regarding the sovereignty of biblical texts, these didactics assist the understander with his/her individuation by opening the texts with focus on the understander’s otherness. Thus each the text and the recipient become subjects in a dialogue. The approach of the Biblical-Enabling-Didactics leads the Bible to become always new a book of life. Understanding them from within their hermeneutics, empowerment didactics could be raised to the principle of biblical didactics in general and grow into an essential element of holistic education.

  2. A segmentation algorithm based on image projection for complex text layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wangsheng; Chen, Qin; Wei, Chuanyi; Li, Ziyang

    2017-10-01

    Segmentation algorithm is an important part of layout analysis, considering the efficiency advantage of the top-down approach and the particularity of the object, a breakdown of projection layout segmentation algorithm. Firstly, the algorithm will algorithm first partitions the text image, and divided into several columns, then for each column scanning projection, the text image is divided into several sub regions through multiple projection. The experimental results show that, this method inherits the projection itself and rapid calculation speed, but also can avoid the effect of arc image information page segmentation, and also can accurate segmentation of the text image layout is complex.

  3. Researcher Creations? The Positioning of Policy Texts in Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, Paul; Smith, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article we explore the way in which policy texts are positioned in a selection of higher education journal articles. Previous research has suggested that policy implementation studies have taken an uncritical approach to researching policies. Based on an analysis of articles published in higher education and policy journals in 2011, we…

  4. Approach to uncertainty in risk analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rish, W.R.

    1988-08-01

    In the Fall of 1985 EPA's Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) initiated a project to develop a formal approach to dealing with uncertainties encountered when estimating and evaluating risks to human health and the environment. Based on a literature review of modeling uncertainty, interviews with ORP technical and management staff, and input from experts on uncertainty analysis, a comprehensive approach was developed. This approach recognizes by design the constraints on budget, time, manpower, expertise, and availability of information often encountered in ''real world'' modeling. It is based on the observation that in practice risk modeling is usually done to support a decision process. As such, the approach focuses on how to frame a given risk modeling problem, how to use that framing to select an appropriate mixture of uncertainty analyses techniques, and how to integrate the techniques into an uncertainty assessment that effectively communicates important information and insight to decision-makers. The approach is presented in this report. Practical guidance on characterizing and analyzing uncertainties about model form and quantities and on effectively communicating uncertainty analysis results is included. Examples from actual applications are presented.

  5. Approach to uncertainty in risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rish, W.R.

    1988-08-01

    In the Fall of 1985 EPA's Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) initiated a project to develop a formal approach to dealing with uncertainties encountered when estimating and evaluating risks to human health and the environment. Based on a literature review of modeling uncertainty, interviews with ORP technical and management staff, and input from experts on uncertainty analysis, a comprehensive approach was developed. This approach recognizes by design the constraints on budget, time, manpower, expertise, and availability of information often encountered in ''real world'' modeling. It is based on the observation that in practice risk modeling is usually done to support a decision process. As such, the approach focuses on how to frame a given risk modeling problem, how to use that framing to select an appropriate mixture of uncertainty analyses techniques, and how to integrate the techniques into an uncertainty assessment that effectively communicates important information and insight to decision-makers. The approach is presented in this report. Practical guidance on characterizing and analyzing uncertainties about model form and quantities and on effectively communicating uncertainty analysis results is included. Examples from actual applications are presented

  6. Benefit-Risk Analysis for Decision-Making: An Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, G K; Gurumurthi, K; Domike, R

    2016-12-01

    The analysis of benefit and risk is an important aspect of decision-making throughout the drug lifecycle. In this work, the use of a benefit-risk analysis approach to support decision-making was explored. The proposed approach builds on the qualitative US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approach to include a more explicit analysis based on international standards and guidance that enables aggregation and comparison of benefit and risk on a common basis and a lifecycle focus. The approach is demonstrated on six decisions over the lifecycle (e.g., accelerated approval, withdrawal, and traditional approval) using two case studies: natalizumab for multiple sclerosis (MS) and bedaquiline for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). © 2016 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  7. Analysis of texts produced by students of the early years: guidelines for a possible diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha da Conceição Costa-Hübes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of students’ texts requires from the teacher scientific knowledge about language which provides him subsidies for the diagnosis of the writings. Thus, this paper aims to present some reflections on the possibilities of using a diagnostic table, designed with the purpose of guiding the teacher – when assessing the student’s text – in the identification of the mastered and non-mastered aspects in writing. The designing of the table is the result of studies carried out by a study group on Portuguese language, consisting of teachers of the early years and supported by the theories of speech genres (BAKHTIN, 2003 and text genres (BRONCKART, 2003, the concept of text as a teaching unit (GERALDI, 1984 and, more specifically, the discussions on practices of linguistic analysis (GERALDI, 1984 and 1997. In order to test the use of the table, we will take texts of the genre ‘note’ produced by students of the 3rd year of elementary school, considering genre, text and spelling aspects.

  8. A Run-Length Encoding Approach for Path Analysis of C. elegans Search Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans explores the environment using a combination of different movement patterns, which include straight movement, reversal, and turns. We propose to quantify C. elegans movement behavior using a computer vision approach based on run-length encoding of step-length data. In this approach, the path of C. elegans is encoded as a string of characters, where each character represents a path segment of a specific type of movement. With these encoded string data, we perform k-means cluster analysis to distinguish movement behaviors resulting from different genotypes and food availability. We found that shallow and sharp turns are the most critical factors in distinguishing the differences among the movement behaviors. To validate our approach, we examined the movement behavior of tph-1 mutants that lack an enzyme responsible for serotonin biosynthesis. A k-means cluster analysis with the path string-encoded data showed that tph-1 movement behavior on food is similar to that of wild-type animals off food. We suggest that this run-length encoding approach is applicable to trajectory data in animal or human mobility data.

  9. The integration of Human Factors (HF) in the SAR process training course text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.G.

    1995-03-01

    This text provides the technical basis for a two-day course on human factors (HF), as applied to the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) process. The overall objective of this text and course is to: provide the participant with a working knowledge of human factors-related requirements, suggestions for doing a human safety analysis applying a graded approach, and an ability to demonstrate using the results of the human safety analysis, that human factors elements as defined by DOE (human factors engineering, procedures, training, oversight, staffing, qualifications), can support wherever necessary, nuclear safety commitments in the SAR. More specifically, the objectives of the text and course are: (1) To provide the SAR preparer with general guidelines for doing HE within the context of a graded approach for the SAR; (2) To sensitize DOE facility managers and staff, safety analysts and SAR preparers, independent reviewers, and DOE reviewers and regulators, to DOE Order 5480.23 requirements for HE in the SAR; (3) To provide managers, analysts, reviewers and regulators with a working knowledge of HE concepts and techniques within the context of a graded approach for the SAR, and (4) To provide SAR managers and DOE reviewers and regulators with general guidelines for monitoring and coordinating the work of preparers of HE inputs throughout the SAR process, and for making decisions regarding the safety relevance of HE inputs to the SAR. As a ready reference for implementing the human factors requirements of DOE Order 5480.22 and DOE Standard 3009-94, this course text and accompanying two-day course are intended for all persons who are involved in the SAR

  10. The integration of Human Factors (HF) in the SAR process training course text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, T.G.

    1995-03-01

    This text provides the technical basis for a two-day course on human factors (HF), as applied to the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) process. The overall objective of this text and course is to: provide the participant with a working knowledge of human factors-related requirements, suggestions for doing a human safety analysis applying a graded approach, and an ability to demonstrate using the results of the human safety analysis, that human factors elements as defined by DOE (human factors engineering, procedures, training, oversight, staffing, qualifications), can support wherever necessary, nuclear safety commitments in the SAR. More specifically, the objectives of the text and course are: (1) To provide the SAR preparer with general guidelines for doing HE within the context of a graded approach for the SAR; (2) To sensitize DOE facility managers and staff, safety analysts and SAR preparers, independent reviewers, and DOE reviewers and regulators, to DOE Order 5480.23 requirements for HE in the SAR; (3) To provide managers, analysts, reviewers and regulators with a working knowledge of HE concepts and techniques within the context of a graded approach for the SAR, and (4) To provide SAR managers and DOE reviewers and regulators with general guidelines for monitoring and coordinating the work of preparers of HE inputs throughout the SAR process, and for making decisions regarding the safety relevance of HE inputs to the SAR. As a ready reference for implementing the human factors requirements of DOE Order 5480.22 and DOE Standard 3009-94, this course text and accompanying two-day course are intended for all persons who are involved in the SAR.

  11. Appraising the Corporate Sustainability Reports - Text Mining and Multi-Discriminatory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modapothala, J. R.; Issac, B.; Jayamani, E.

    The voluntary disclosure of the sustainability reports by the companies attracts wider stakeholder groups. Diversity in these reports poses challenge to the users of information and regulators. This study appraises the corporate sustainability reports as per GRI (Global Reporting Initiative) guidelines (the most widely accepted and used) across all industrial sectors. Text mining is adopted to carry out the initial analysis with a large sample size of 2650 reports. Statistical analyses were performed for further investigation. The results indicate that the disclosures made by the companies differ across the industrial sectors. Multivariate Discriminant Analysis (MDA) shows that the environmental variable is a greater significant contributing factor towards explanation of sustainability report.

  12. Using Two Different Approaches to Assess Dietary Patterns: Hypothesis-Driven and Data-Driven Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágatha Nogueira Previdelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of dietary patterns to assess dietary intake has become increasingly common in nutritional epidemiology studies due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the diet. Currently, two main approaches have been widely used to assess dietary patterns: data-driven and hypothesis-driven analysis. Since the methods explore different angles of dietary intake, using both approaches simultaneously might yield complementary and useful information; thus, we aimed to use both approaches to gain knowledge of adolescents’ dietary patterns. Food intake from a cross-sectional survey with 295 adolescents was assessed by 24 h dietary recall (24HR. In hypothesis-driven analysis, based on the American National Cancer Institute method, the usual intake of Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised components were estimated. In the data-driven approach, the usual intake of foods/food groups was estimated by the Multiple Source Method. In the results, hypothesis-driven analysis showed low scores for Whole grains, Total vegetables, Total fruit and Whole fruits, while, in data-driven analysis, fruits and whole grains were not presented in any pattern. High intakes of sodium, fats and sugars were observed in hypothesis-driven analysis with low total scores for Sodium, Saturated fat and SoFAA (calories from solid fat, alcohol and added sugar components in agreement, while the data-driven approach showed the intake of several foods/food groups rich in these nutrients, such as butter/margarine, cookies, chocolate powder, whole milk, cheese, processed meat/cold cuts and candies. In this study, using both approaches at the same time provided consistent and complementary information with regard to assessing the overall dietary habits that will be important in order to drive public health programs, and improve their efficiency to monitor and evaluate the dietary patterns of populations.

  13. The Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA: A Guide to a Good Qualitative Research Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi Alase

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As a research methodology, qualitative research method infuses an added advantage to the exploratory capability that researchers need to explore and investigate their research studies. Qualitative methodology allows researchers to advance and apply their interpersonal and subjectivity skills to their research exploratory processes. However, in a study with an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA approach, the advantageous elements of the study quadruple because of the bonding relationship that the approach allows for the researchers to develop with their research participants. Furthermore, as a qualitative research approach, IPA gives researchers the best opportunity to understand the innermost deliberation of the ‘lived experiences’ of research participants. As an approach that is ‘participant-oriented’, interpretative phenomenological analysis approach allows the interviewees (research participants to express themselves and their ‘lived experience’ stories the way they see fit without any distortion and/or prosecution. Therefore, utilizing the IPA approach in a qualitative research study reiterates the fact that its main objective and essence are to explore the ‘lived experiences’ of the research participants and allow them to narrate the research findings through their ‘lived experiences’. As such, this paper discusses the historical background of phenomenology as both a theory and a qualitative research approach, an approach that has transitioned into an interpretative analytical tradition. Furthermore, as a resource tool to novice qualitative researchers, this paper provides a step-by-step comprehensive guide to help prepare and equip researchers with ways to utilize and apply the IPA approach in their qualitative research studies.  More importantly, this paper also provides an advanced in-depth analysis and usability application for the IPA approach in a qualitatively conducted research study. As such, this

  14. A stylistic classification of Russian-language texts based on the random walk model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramarenko, A. A.; Nekrasov, K. A.; Filimonov, V. V.; Zhivoderov, A. A.; Amieva, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    A formal approach to text analysis is suggested that is based on the random walk model. The frequencies and reciprocal positions of the vowel letters are matched up by a process of quasi-particle migration. Statistically significant difference in the migration parameters for the texts of different functional styles is found. Thus, a possibility of classification of texts using the suggested method is demonstrated. Five groups of the texts are singled out that can be distinguished from one another by the parameters of the quasi-particle migration process.

  15. An efficient Bouc & Wen approach for seismic analysis of masonry tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Facchini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of existing masonry towers under exceptional loads, such as earthquake loads, requires reliable, expedite and efficient methods of analysis. These approaches should take into account both the randomness that affects the masonry properties (in some cases also the distribution of the elastic parameters and, of course, the nonlinear behavior of masonry. Considering the need of simplified but effective methods to assess the seismic response of such structures, the paper proposes an efficient approach for seismic assessment of masonry towers assuming the material properties as a stochastic field. As a prototype of masonry towers a cantilever beam is analyzed assuming that the first modal shape governs the structural motion. With this hypothesis a nonlinear hysteretic Bouc & Wen model is employed to reproduce the system response which is subsequently employed to evaluate the response bounds. The results of the simplified approach are compared with the results of a finite element model to show the effectiveness of the method.

  16. Script-independent text line segmentation in freestyle handwritten documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Zheng, Yefeng; Doermann, David; Jaeger, Stefan; Li, Yi

    2008-08-01

    Text line segmentation in freestyle handwritten documents remains an open document analysis problem. Curvilinear text lines and small gaps between neighboring text lines present a challenge to algorithms developed for machine printed or hand-printed documents. In this paper, we propose a novel approach based on density estimation and a state-of-the-art image segmentation technique, the level set method. From an input document image, we estimate a probability map, where each element represents the probability that the underlying pixel belongs to a text line. The level set method is then exploited to determine the boundary of neighboring text lines by evolving an initial estimate. Unlike connected component based methods ( [1], [2] for example), the proposed algorithm does not use any script-specific knowledge. Extensive quantitative experiments on freestyle handwritten documents with diverse scripts, such as Arabic, Chinese, Korean, and Hindi, demonstrate that our algorithm consistently outperforms previous methods [1]-[3]. Further experiments show the proposed algorithm is robust to scale change, rotation, and noise.

  17. The Deference Due the Oracle: Computerized Text Analysis in a Basic Writing Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, George

    1989-01-01

    Describes how a computerized text analysis program can help students discover error patterns in their writing, and notes how students' responses to analyses can reduce errors and improve their writing. (MM)

  18. More Than Just Coding? Evaluating CAQDAS in a Discourse Analysis of News Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie MacMillan

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer assisted qualitative data ana­lysis software (CAQDAS is frequently described as a tool that can be used for "qualitative research" in general, with qualitative analysis treated as a "catch-all" homogeneous category. Few studies have detailed its use within specific methods, and even fewer have appraised its value for discourse analysis (DA. While some briefly comment that CAQDAS has technical limitations for discourse analysis, in general, the topic as a whole is given scant attention. Our aim is to investigate whether this limited interest in CAQDAS as a qualitative tool amongst discourse analysts, and in DA as a research method amongst CAQDAS users, is prac­tically based; due to an uncertainty about research methods, including DA; or because of method­ol­ogical incompatibilities. In order to address these questions, this study is based not only on a review of the literature on CAQDAS and on DA, but also on our own experience as discourse analysts put­ting some of the main CAQDAS to the test in a media analysis of news texts. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503257

  19. Deconstructing Concealed Gayness Text in The Film Negeri van Oranje: Critical Discourse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Setiawan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most popular creative cultural products, film sometimes speaks beyond what it presents. It is not always produced merely for entertainment purposes, but also to spread a certain ideology and represent a particular culture. Anchored in queer theory, this research looks at the Indonesian film, Negeri Van Oranje, which was chosen purposely to be analyzed using Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis model with an aim to deconstruct the concealed gayness text in the film. From the analysis, it was found that the gay scenes in the film try to tell its audience about the positions, feelings, challenges, and rejections that Indonesian gay people experience living amongst heteronormative surroundings. Some new notions about gay people’s life in Indonesia are extracted based on the analysis of the gay scenes in the film. The strategy of inserting gay content into a film nationally released in Indonesia is also revealed. The results of the analysis could be used to create a picture of what gay life looks like in Indonesia, a multicultural country that is well-known as the place in which the world’s largest Muslim population dwells.

  20. Fourth and fifth grade Latino(a) students making meaning of scientific informational texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, Keri-Anne

    Using a socio-psycholinguistic perspective of literacy and a social-semiotic analysis of texts, this study investigates how six students made meaning of informational texts. The students came to school from a variety of English and Spanish language backgrounds. The research question being asked was 'How do Latino(a) fourth and fifth grade students make meaning of English informational texts?' Miscue analysis was used as a tool to investigate how students who have been labeled non-struggling readers by their classroom teacher and are from various language backgrounds approached five informational texts. In order to investigate students' responses to the nature of informational texts, this dissertation draws on commonly occurring structures within texts. Primary data collected included read alouds and retellings of five texts, retrospective miscue analysis, and interviews with six participant students. Two of these participants are discussed within this dissertation. Secondary data included classroom observations and teacher interviews. This study proposes that non-native speakers may use scientific concept placeholders as they transact with informational texts. The use of scientific concept placeholders by a reader indicates that the reader is engaged in the meaning making process and possesses evolving scientific knowledge about a phenomenon. The findings suggest that Latino(a) students' understandings of English informational texts is influenced not only by a student's language development but also (1) the nature of the text; (2) the reading strategies that a student uses, such as the use of placeholders; (3) the influence of the researcher during the aided retelling. This study contributes methodological tools to assess English language learners' reading. The conclusions presented within this study also support the idea that students from a variety of language backgrounds slightly altered their reliance on certain cuing systems as they encountered various sub

  1. Real Analysis A Historical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Stahl, Saul

    2011-01-01

    A provocative look at the tools and history of real analysis This new edition of Real Analysis: A Historical Approach continues to serve as an interesting read for students of analysis. Combining historical coverage with a superb introductory treatment, this book helps readers easily make the transition from concrete to abstract ideas. The book begins with an exciting sampling of classic and famous problems first posed by some of the greatest mathematicians of all time. Archimedes, Fermat, Newton, and Euler are each summoned in turn, illuminating the utility of infinite, power, and trigonome

  2. Modern terrorism: concept and approach analysis

    OpenAIRE

    CHAIKA ALEXANDER VIKTOROVICH

    2015-01-01

    The problem of modern terrorism as an image of counterculture environment is considered. The analysis of concepts and approaches of foreign and native authors, specialists of terrorism problem research was conducted. Separate features of the modern terrorism are considered and emphasized. The author drew conceptual conclusions on the basis of dialectical approach to modern terrorism counterculture phenomenon research.

  3. LIBERAL THOUGHT IN QUR’ANIC STUDIES: Tracing Humanistic Approach to Sacred Text in Islamic Scholarship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nur Kholis Setiawan

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Literary approach to the Qur’an developed by al-Khuli created deep critiques from its opponents, in whose opinion, the usage of literary paradigm to the study of the Qur’an, according to them, implied a consequence of treating the Qur’an as a human text which clearly indicates a strong influence of a liberal mode of thinking that goes out of the line of the Qur’an’s spirit. This article shows a diametric fact compared to that they have claimed. The data proves that linguistic aspects of the Qur’an have succeeded in making an intellectual connection among progressive and liberal scholars in the classical and modern era. This supports the assumption that progressive and liberal thought whose one of its indicators is freedom of thought in accordance to Charles Kurzman term, is “children” of the Islamic civilization. Freedom of thought in the classical Islamic scholarship should be the élan of intellectualism including the field of Qur’anic studies.

  4. Analyzing 7000 texts on Deep Brain Stimulation: what do they tell us?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eIneichen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The enormous increase in numbers of scientific publications in the last decades requires quantitative methods for obtaining a better understanding of topics and developments in various fields. In this exploratory study, we investigate the emergence, trends and connections of topics within the whole text corpus of the deep brain stimulation (DBS literature based on more than 7000 papers (title and abstracts published between 1991 to 2014 using a network approach. Taking the co-occurrence of basic terms that represent important topics within DBS as starting position, we outline the statistics of interconnections between DBS indications, targets, positive and negative effects, as well as methodological, technological and economic issues. This quantitative approach confirms known trends within the literature (e.g., regarding the emergence of psychiatric indications. The data also reflect an increased discussion about complex issues such as personality connected tightly to the ethical context, as well as an apparent focus on depression as important DBS indication, whereas the co-occurrence of terms related to negative effects is low both for the indication as well as the related targets. We also discuss consequences of the analysis from a bioethical perspective, i.e. how such a quantitative analysis could uncover hidden subject matters that have ethical relevance. For example, we find that hardware-related issues in DBS are far more robustly connected to an ethical context compared to impulsivity, concrete side-effects or death/suicide. Our contribution also outlines the methodology of quantitative text analysis that combines statistical approaches with expert knowledge. It thus serves as an example how innovative quantitative tools can be made useful for gaining a better understanding in the field of DBS.

  5. Analysis of Influence of Different Relations Types on the Quality of Thesaurus Application to Text Classification Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda S. Lagutina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to analyze how effectively different types of thesaurus relations can be used for solutions of text classification tasks. The basis of the study is an automatically generated thesaurus of a subject area, that contains three types of relations: synonymous, hierarchical and associative. To generate the thesaurus the authors use a hybrid method based on several linguistic and statistical algorithms for extraction of semantic relations. The method allows to create a thesaurus with a sufficiently large number of terms and relations among them. The authors consider two problems: topical text classification and sentiment classification of large newspaper articles. To solve them, the authors developed two approaches that complement standard algorithms with a procedure that take into account thesaurus relations to determine semantic features of texts. The approach to topical classification includes the standard unsupervised BM25 algorithm and the procedure, that take into account synonymous and hierarchical relations of the thesaurus of the subject area. The approach to sentiment classification consists of two steps. At the first step, a thesaurus is created, whose terms weight polarities are calculated depending on the term occurrences in the training set or on the weights of related thesaurus terms. At the second step, the thesaurus is used to compute the features of words from texts and to classify texts by the algorithm SVM or Naive Bayes. In experiments with text corpora BBCSport, Reuters, PubMed and the corpus of articles about American immigrants, the authors varied the types of thesaurus relations that are involved in the classification and the degree of their use. The results of the experiments make it possible to evaluate the efficiency of the application of thesaurus relations for classification of raw texts and to determine under what conditions certain relationships affect more or less. In particular, the

  6. A systemic approach for managing extreme risk events-dynamic financial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph.D.Student Rodica Ianole

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the Black Swan logic, it often happens that what we do not know becomes more relevant that what we (believe to know. The management of extreme risks falls under this paradigm in the sense that it cannot be limited to a static approach based only on objective and easily quantifiable variables. Making appeal to the operational tools developed primarily for the insurance industry, the present paper aims to investigate how dynamic financial analysis (DFA can be used within the framework of extreme risk events.

  7. An SQL-based approach to physics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limper, Dr Maaike

    2014-01-01

    As part of the CERN openlab collaboration a study was made into the possibility of performing analysis of the data collected by the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) through SQL-queries on data stored in a relational database. Currently LHC physics analysis is done using data stored in centrally produced 'ROOT-ntuple' files that are distributed through the LHC computing grid. The SQL-based approach to LHC physics analysis presented in this paper allows calculations in the analysis to be done at the database and can make use of the database's in-built parallelism features. Using this approach it was possible to reproduce results for several physics analysis benchmarks. The study shows the capability of the database to handle complex analysis tasks but also illustrates the limits of using row-based storage for storing physics analysis data, as performance was limited by the I/O read speed of the system.

  8. ERRORS AND DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSLATING LEGAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia, CHIRILA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the accurate translation of legal texts has become highly important as the mistranslation of a passage in a contract, for example, could lead to lawsuits and loss of money. Consequently, the translation of legal texts to other languages faces many difficulties and only professional translators specialised in legal translation should deal with the translation of legal documents and scholarly writings. The purpose of this paper is to analyze translation from three perspectives: translation quality, errors and difficulties encountered in translating legal texts and consequences of such errors in professional translation. First of all, the paper points out the importance of performing a good and correct translation, which is one of the most important elements to be considered when discussing translation. Furthermore, the paper presents an overview of the errors and difficulties in translating texts and of the consequences of errors in professional translation, with applications to the field of law. The paper is also an approach to the differences between languages (English and Romanian that can hinder comprehension for those who have embarked upon the difficult task of translation. The research method that I have used to achieve the objectives of the paper was the content analysis of various Romanian and foreign authors' works.

  9. On the analysis of genome-wide association studies in family-based designs: a universal, robust analysis approach and an application to four genome-wide association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Won

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For genome-wide association studies in family-based designs, we propose a new, universally applicable approach. The new test statistic exploits all available information about the association, while, by virtue of its design, it maintains the same robustness against population admixture as traditional family-based approaches that are based exclusively on the within-family information. The approach is suitable for the analysis of almost any trait type, e.g. binary, continuous, time-to-onset, multivariate, etc., and combinations of those. We use simulation studies to verify all theoretically derived properties of the approach, estimate its power, and compare it with other standard approaches. We illustrate the practical implications of the new analysis method by an application to a lung-function phenotype, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 in 4 genome-wide association studies.

  10. [Systematic Readability Analysis of Medical Texts on Websites of German University Clinics for General and Abdominal Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, B Janghorban; Faron, A; Roth, K S; Grimminger, P P; Luers, J C

    2016-12-01

    Background: Besides the function as one of the main contact points, websites of hospitals serve as medical information portals. As medical information texts should be understood by any patients independent of the literacy skills and educational level, online texts should have an appropriate structure to ease understandability. Materials and Methods: Patient information texts on websites of clinics for general surgery at German university hospitals (n = 36) were systematically analysed. For 9 different surgical topics representative medical information texts were extracted from each website. Using common readability tools and 5 different readability indices the texts were analysed concerning their readability and structure. The analysis was furthermore stratified in relation to geographical regions in Germany. Results: For the definite analysis the texts of 196 internet websites could be used. On average the texts consisted of 25 sentences and 368 words. The reading analysis tools congruously showed that all texts showed a rather low readability demanding a high literacy level from the readers. Conclusion: Patient information texts on German university hospital websites are difficult to understand for most patients. To fulfill the ambition of informing the general population in an adequate way about medical issues, a revision of most medical texts on websites of German surgical hospitals is recommended. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. A text-mining system for extracting metabolic reactions from full-text articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Jan; Nobeli, Irene; Smith, Adrian M; Shepherd, Adrian J

    2012-07-23

    Increasingly biological text mining research is focusing on the extraction of complex relationships relevant to the construction and curation of biological networks and pathways. However, one important category of pathway - metabolic pathways - has been largely neglected.Here we present a relatively simple method for extracting metabolic reaction information from free text that scores different permutations of assigned entities (enzymes and metabolites) within a given sentence based on the presence and location of stemmed keywords. This method extends an approach that has proved effective in the context of the extraction of protein-protein interactions. When evaluated on a set of manually-curated metabolic pathways using standard performance criteria, our method performs surprisingly well. Precision and recall rates are comparable to those previously achieved for the well-known protein-protein interaction extraction task. We conclude that automated metabolic pathway construction is more tractable than has often been assumed, and that (as in the case of protein-protein interaction extraction) relatively simple text-mining approaches can prove surprisingly effective. It is hoped that these results will provide an impetus to further research and act as a useful benchmark for judging the performance of more sophisticated methods that are yet to be developed.

  12. Active Collection of Land Cover Sample Data from Geo-Tagged Web Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyang Hou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sample data plays an important role in land cover (LC map validation. Traditionally, they are collected through field survey or image interpretation, either of which is costly, labor-intensive and time-consuming. In recent years, massive geo-tagged texts are emerging on the web and they contain valuable information for LC map validation. However, this kind of special textual data has seldom been analyzed and used for supporting LC map validation. This paper examines the potential of geo-tagged web texts as a new cost-free sample data source to assist LC map validation and proposes an active data collection approach. The proposed approach uses a customized deep web crawler to search for geo-tagged web texts based on land cover-related keywords and string-based rules matching. A data transformation based on buffer analysis is then performed to convert the collected web texts into LC sample data. Using three provinces and three municipalities directly under the Central Government in China as study areas, geo-tagged web texts were collected to validate artificial surface class of China’s 30-meter global land cover datasets (GlobeLand30-2010. A total of 6283 geo-tagged web texts were collected at a speed of 0.58 texts per second. The collected texts about built-up areas were transformed into sample data. User’s accuracy of 82.2% was achieved, which is close to that derived from formal expert validation. The preliminary results show that geo-tagged web texts are valuable ancillary data for LC map validation and the proposed approach can improve the efficiency of sample data collection.

  13. Text Character Extraction Implementation from Captured Handwritten Image to Text Conversionusing Template Matching Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barate Seema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Images contain various types of useful information that should be extracted whenever required. A various algorithms and methods are proposed to extract text from the given image, and by using that user will be able to access the text from any image. Variations in text may occur because of differences in size, style,orientation, alignment of text, and low image contrast, composite backgrounds make the problem during extraction of text. If we develop an application that extracts and recognizes those texts accurately in real time, then it can be applied to many important applications like document analysis, vehicle license plate extraction, text- based image indexing, etc and many applications have become realities in recent years. To overcome the above problems we develop such application that will convert the image into text by using algorithms, such as bounding box, HSV model, blob analysis,template matching, template generation.

  14. Structured Assessment Approach: a microcomputer-based insider-vulnerability analysis tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patenaude, C.J.; Sicherman, A.; Sacks, I.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Structured Assessment Approach (SAA) was developed to help assess the vulnerability of safeguards systems to insiders in a staged manner. For physical security systems, the SAA identifies possible diversion paths which are not safeguarded under various facility operating conditions and insiders who could defeat the system via direct access, collusion or indirect tampering. For material control and accounting systems, the SAA identifies those who could block the detection of a material loss or diversion via data falsification or equipment tampering. The SAA, originally desinged to run on a mainframe computer, has been converted to run on a personal computer. Many features have been added to simplify and facilitate its use for conducting vulnerability analysis. For example, the SAA input, which is a text-like data file, is easily readable and can provide documentation of facility safeguards and assumptions used for the analysis

  15. Sharing problem gamblers’ experiences: a text analysis of gambling stories via online forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Caputo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored some common thematic domains which characterised problem gambling experiences of adult Italian participants with the aim of understanding motivations and expectations of problem gamblers and thus promoting better psychological interventions. Emotional Text Analysis was performed on 24 problem gambling stories collected via online forum in order to detect the main themes (cluster analysis and latent factors (correspondence analysis emerging in gamblers’ narratives. Five themes emerged which respectively refer to guilt (16.15%, obsession (27.60%, disease (30.77%, risk taking (15.89% and emotion regulation (4.17%. In addition, four synthetic dimensions were detected which consent to account the variability of problem gambling experience based on: struggle against compulsion (F1, ambivalent acceptance of gambling (F2, interpersonal detachment (F3 and illusion of control (F4. From the emotional experience shaping the problem gamblers’ narratives, this research study allows the identification of some factors which can contribute to quality research on problem gambling and which can provide some useful suggestion for treatment.

  16. Grandmaster: Interactive text-based analytics of social media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabian, Nathan D.; Davis, Warren Leon,; Raybourn, Elaine M.; Lakkaraju, Kiran; Whetzel, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    People use social media resources like Twitter, Facebook, forums etc. to share and discuss various activities or topics. By aggregating topic trends across many individuals using these services, we seek to construct a richer profile of a person’s activities and interests as well as provide a broader context of those activities. This profile may then be used in a variety of ways to understand groups as a collection of interests and affinities and an individual’s participation in those groups. Our approach considers that much of these data will be unstructured, free-form text. By analyzing free-form text directly, we may be able to gain an implicit grouping of individuals with shared interests based on shared conversation, and not on explicit social software linking them. In this paper, we discuss a proof-of-concept application called Grandmaster built to pull short sections of text, a person’s comments or Twitter posts, together by analysis and visualization to allow a gestalt understanding of the full collection of all individuals: how groups are similar and how they differ, based on their text inputs.

  17. Reliability analysis with linguistic data: An evidential network approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaoge; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Deng, Xinyang

    2017-01-01

    In practical applications of reliability assessment of a system in-service, information about the condition of a system and its components is often available in text form, e.g., inspection reports. Estimation of the system reliability from such text-based records becomes a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a four-step framework to deal with this problem. In the first step, we construct an evidential network with the consideration of available knowledge and data. Secondly, we train a Naive Bayes text classification algorithm based on the past records. By using the trained Naive Bayes algorithm to classify the new records, we build interval basic probability assignments (BPA) for each new record available in text form. Thirdly, we combine the interval BPAs of multiple new records using an evidence combination approach based on evidence theory. Finally, we propagate the interval BPA through the evidential network constructed earlier to obtain the system reliability. Two numerical examples are used to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. We illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method by comparing with Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) results. - Highlights: • We model reliability analysis with linguistic data using evidential network. • Two examples are used to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. • We compare the results with Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS).

  18. INNER DIALOGICITY OF MEDICAL SCIENTIFIC TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efremova Nataliya Vladimirovna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The author studies inner dialogicity as an integral property of a scientist's thinking activity, a way of a scientific idea development, one of the cognitive and discursive mechanisms of new knowledge formation, its crystallization and dementalisation in a text, as a way of search for truth. Such approach to dialogicity in the study of a scientific text makes it possible to analyze the cogitative processes proceeding in human consciousness and cognitive activity, allows to fully understand the stated scientific concept, to define pragmatic strategies of the author, to plunge into his reflexive world. On the material of medical scientific texts of N.M. Amosov and F. G. Uglov, famous scientists in the field of cardio surgery, it is established that traces of internal dialogicity manifestation in the textual space of scientists actualize the origin of new knowledge, the change of author's semantic positions, his ability to reflect, compare, analyze his own thoughts and actions, to estimate oneself and the features of thinking process which are realized in logic of a statement of the scientific concept, an explanation of concepts, terms at judgment of the points of view of contemporaries and predecessors, adherents and scientist's opponents, and also orientation to the addressee's presupposition, activization of his cogitative activity. Linguistic, discursive, verbal analysis singles out the impact on the addressee, his mental activity.

  19. A MANAGERIAL AND COST ACCOUNTING APPROACH OF CUSTOMER PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARDOS Ildiko Reka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last years many organizations realized that market orientation is essential to their success. Satisfying the needs of customers, offering them products and services which meet their desires and demands, customer loyalty can increase profitability for long term. After analyzing the existing journal literature in this field we would like to emphasize that managerial accounting, cost calculation methods and techniques, the analysis of costs provides relevant information when analyzing the customer’s profitability. We pay special attention on cost systems. An activity based costing approach takes customer profitability to new levels of accuracy and usefulness, provides the basis for creating, communicating and delivering value to the customers.

  20. Text in social networking Web sites: A word frequency analysis of Live Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Thelwall, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Social networking sites are owned by a wide section of society and seem to dominate Web usage. Despite much research into this phenomenon, little systematic data is available. This article partially fills this gap with a pilot text analysis of one social networking site, Live Spaces. The text in 3,071 English language Live Spaces sites was monitored daily for six months and word frequency statistics calculated and compared with those from the British National Corpus. The results confirmed the...

  1. Public reactions to e-cigarette regulations on Twitter: a text mining analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazard, Allison J; Wilcox, Gary B; Tuttle, Hannah M; Glowacki, Elizabeth M; Pikowski, Jessica

    2017-12-01

    In May 2016, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a final rule that deemed e-cigarettes to be within their regulatory authority as a tobacco product. News and opinions about the regulation were shared on social media platforms, such as Twitter, which can play an important role in shaping the public's attitudes. We analysed information shared on Twitter for insights into initial public reactions. A text mining approach was used to uncover important topics among reactions to the e-cigarette regulations on Twitter. SAS Text Miner V.12.1 software was used for descriptive text mining to uncover the primary topics from tweets collected from May 1 to May 17 2016 using NUVI software to gather the data. A total of nine topics were generated. These topics reveal initial reactions to whether the FDA's e-cigarette regulations will benefit or harm public health, how the regulations will impact the emerging e-cigarette market and efforts to share the news. The topics were dominated by negative or mixed reactions. In the days following the FDA's announcement of the new deeming regulations, the public reaction on Twitter was largely negative. Public health advocates should consider using social media outlets to better communicate the policy's intentions, reach and potential impact for public good to create a more balanced conversation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. On the origin of long-range correlations in texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Eduardo G; Cristadoro, Giampaolo; Esposti, Mirko Degli

    2012-07-17

    The complexity of human interactions with social and natural phenomena is mirrored in the way we describe our experiences through natural language. In order to retain and convey such a high dimensional information, the statistical properties of our linguistic output has to be highly correlated in time. An example are the robust observations, still largely not understood, of correlations on arbitrary long scales in literary texts. In this paper we explain how long-range correlations flow from highly structured linguistic levels down to the building blocks of a text (words, letters, etc..). By combining calculations and data analysis we show that correlations take form of a bursty sequence of events once we approach the semantically relevant topics of the text. The mechanisms we identify are fairly general and can be equally applied to other hierarchical settings.

  3. Semi-supervised probabilistics approach for normalising informal short text messages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modupe, A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing use of informal social text messages on Twitter is one of the known sources of big data. These type of messages are noisy and frequently rife with acronyms, slangs, grammatical errors and non-standard words causing grief for natural...

  4. The Imbalance Attitude of the Journalists in Six Chemical Castration Texts: An SFLCritical Discourse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustofa Kamal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates how journalists behave in texts. The analysis focuses on the exploitation of attitudinal lexis. This is qualitatively explored through attitude and graduation. The data sources were columns of news, taken from an online version of The Jakarta Post on June sixth 2016. Having been selected using criterion-based sampling technique, the sources of data resulted in six chemical castration texts. The procedure of investigation consists of domain, taxonomic, componential, and cultural value analysis. The result shows that journalists are relatively subjective in reporting news by unbalancing the pros and cons, relatively inconsistent in work from delivering news to criticizing government officials, and relatively provocative by up-scaling critical evaluations against the government policy on sex offenders.

  5. Documentary Analysis in Civilisation Studies: The French Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Francois

    1993-01-01

    A trait of the scholarly tradition of France is explication de texte, associated in the past with philology and the translation of classical texts. This tradition reemerges as a compromise between demands of the communicative approach for practical language skills and the broader linguistic and cultural objectives of foreign language learning.…

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Information Hiding Techniques for Copyright Protection of Text Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Taleby Ahvanooey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the ceaseless usage of web and other online services, it has turned out that copying, sharing, and transmitting digital media over the Internet are amazingly simple. Since the text is one of the main available data sources and most widely used digital media on the Internet, the significant part of websites, books, articles, daily papers, and so on is just the plain text. Therefore, copyrights protection of plain texts is still a remaining issue that must be improved in order to provide proof of ownership and obtain the desired accuracy. During the last decade, digital watermarking and steganography techniques have been used as alternatives to prevent tampering, distortion, and media forgery and also to protect both copyright and authentication. This paper presents a comparative analysis of information hiding techniques, especially on those ones which are focused on modifying the structure and content of digital texts. Herein, various text watermarking and text steganography techniques characteristics are highlighted along with their applications. In addition, various types of attacks are described and their effects are analyzed in order to highlight the advantages and weaknesses of current techniques. Finally, some guidelines and directions are suggested for future works.

  7. Lapin Data Interchange Among Database, Analysis and Display Programs Using XML-Based Text Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of grant NCC3-966 was to investigate and evaluate the interchange of application-specific data among multiple programs each carrying out part of the analysis and design task. This has been carried out previously by creating a custom program to read data produced by one application and then write that data to a file whose format is specific to the second application that needs all or part of that data. In this investigation, data of interest is described using the XML markup language that allows the data to be stored in a text-string. Software to transform output data of a task into an XML-string and software to read an XML string and extract all or a portion of the data needed for another application is used to link two independent applications together as part of an overall design effort. This approach was initially used with a standard analysis program, Lapin, along with standard applications a standard spreadsheet program, a relational database program, and a conventional dialog and display program to demonstrate the successful sharing of data among independent programs. Most of the effort beyond that demonstration has been concentrated on the inclusion of more complex display programs. Specifically, a custom-written windowing program organized around dialogs to control the interactions have been combined with an independent CAD program (Open Cascade) that supports sophisticated display of CAD elements such as lines, spline curves, and surfaces and turbine-blade data produced by an independent blade design program (UD0300).

  8. Argo: an integrative, interactive, text mining-based workbench supporting curation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Rafal; Rowley, Andrew; Black, William; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2012-01-01

    Curation of biomedical literature is often supported by the automatic analysis of textual content that generally involves a sequence of individual processing components. Text mining (TM) has been used to enhance the process of manual biocuration, but has been focused on specific databases and tasks rather than an environment integrating TM tools into the curation pipeline, catering for a variety of tasks, types of information and applications. Processing components usually come from different sources and often lack interoperability. The well established Unstructured Information Management Architecture is a framework that addresses interoperability by defining common data structures and interfaces. However, most of the efforts are targeted towards software developers and are not suitable for curators, or are otherwise inconvenient to use on a higher level of abstraction. To overcome these issues we introduce Argo, an interoperable, integrative, interactive and collaborative system for text analysis with a convenient graphic user interface to ease the development of processing workflows and boost productivity in labour-intensive manual curation. Robust, scalable text analytics follow a modular approach, adopting component modules for distinct levels of text analysis. The user interface is available entirely through a web browser that saves the user from going through often complicated and platform-dependent installation procedures. Argo comes with a predefined set of processing components commonly used in text analysis, while giving the users the ability to deposit their own components. The system accommodates various areas and levels of user expertise, from TM and computational linguistics to ontology-based curation. One of the key functionalities of Argo is its ability to seamlessly incorporate user-interactive components, such as manual annotation editors, into otherwise completely automatic pipelines. As a use case, we demonstrate the functionality of an in

  9. Text Mining Genotype-Phenotype Relationships from Biomedical Literature for Database Curation and Precision Medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayush Singhal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The practice of precision medicine will ultimately require databases of genes and mutations for healthcare providers to reference in order to understand the clinical implications of each patient's genetic makeup. Although the highest quality databases require manual curation, text mining tools can facilitate the curation process, increasing accuracy, coverage, and productivity. However, to date there are no available text mining tools that offer high-accuracy performance for extracting such triplets from biomedical literature. In this paper we propose a high-performance machine learning approach to automate the extraction of disease-gene-variant triplets from biomedical literature. Our approach is unique because we identify the genes and protein products associated with each mutation from not just the local text content, but from a global context as well (from the Internet and from all literature in PubMed. Our approach also incorporates protein sequence validation and disease association using a novel text-mining-based machine learning approach. We extract disease-gene-variant triplets from all abstracts in PubMed related to a set of ten important diseases (breast cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, acute myeloid leukemia, Alzheimer's disease, hemochromatosis, age-related macular degeneration (AMD, diabetes mellitus, and cystic fibrosis. We then evaluate our approach in two ways: (1 a direct comparison with the state of the art using benchmark datasets; (2 a validation study comparing the results of our approach with entries in a popular human-curated database (UniProt for each of the previously mentioned diseases. In the benchmark comparison, our full approach achieves a 28% improvement in F1-measure (from 0.62 to 0.79 over the state-of-the-art results. For the validation study with UniProt Knowledgebase (KB, we present a thorough analysis of the results and errors. Across all diseases, our approach returned 272 triplets

  10. Computing symmetrical strength of N-grams: a two pass filtering approach in automatic classification of text documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, Deepak; Verma, Kesari; Tripathi, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    The contiguous sequences of the terms (N-grams) in the documents are symmetrically distributed among different classes. The symmetrical distribution of the N-Grams raises uncertainty in the belongings of the N-Grams towards the class. In this paper, we focused on the selection of most discriminating N-Grams by reducing the effects of symmetrical distribution. In this context, a new text feature selection method named as the symmetrical strength of the N-Grams (SSNG) is proposed using a two pass filtering based feature selection (TPF) approach. Initially, in the first pass of the TPF, the SSNG method chooses various informative N-Grams from the entire extracted N-Grams of the corpus. Subsequently, in the second pass the well-known Chi Square (χ(2)) method is being used to select few most informative N-Grams. Further, to classify the documents the two standard classifiers Multinomial Naive Bayes and Linear Support Vector Machine have been applied on the ten standard text data sets. In most of the datasets, the experimental results state the performance and success rate of SSNG method using TPF approach is superior to the state-of-the-art methods viz. Mutual Information, Information Gain, Odds Ratio, Discriminating Feature Selection and χ(2).

  11. Active Learning for Text Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Rong

    2011-01-01

    Text classification approaches are used extensively to solve real-world challenges. The success or failure of text classification systems hangs on the datasets used to train them, without a good dataset it is impossible to build a quality system. This thesis examines the applicability of active learning in text classification for the rapid and economical creation of labelled training data. Four main contributions are made in this thesis. First, we present two novel selection strategies to cho...

  12. Text Mining Genotype-Phenotype Relationships from Biomedical Literature for Database Curation and Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Ayush; Simmons, Michael; Lu, Zhiyong

    2016-11-01

    The practice of precision medicine will ultimately require databases of genes and mutations for healthcare providers to reference in order to understand the clinical implications of each patient's genetic makeup. Although the highest quality databases require manual curation, text mining tools can facilitate the curation process, increasing accuracy, coverage, and productivity. However, to date there are no available text mining tools that offer high-accuracy performance for extracting such triplets from biomedical literature. In this paper we propose a high-performance machine learning approach to automate the extraction of disease-gene-variant triplets from biomedical literature. Our approach is unique because we identify the genes and protein products associated with each mutation from not just the local text content, but from a global context as well (from the Internet and from all literature in PubMed). Our approach also incorporates protein sequence validation and disease association using a novel text-mining-based machine learning approach. We extract disease-gene-variant triplets from all abstracts in PubMed related to a set of ten important diseases (breast cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, acute myeloid leukemia, Alzheimer's disease, hemochromatosis, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetes mellitus, and cystic fibrosis). We then evaluate our approach in two ways: (1) a direct comparison with the state of the art using benchmark datasets; (2) a validation study comparing the results of our approach with entries in a popular human-curated database (UniProt) for each of the previously mentioned diseases. In the benchmark comparison, our full approach achieves a 28% improvement in F1-measure (from 0.62 to 0.79) over the state-of-the-art results. For the validation study with UniProt Knowledgebase (KB), we present a thorough analysis of the results and errors. Across all diseases, our approach returned 272 triplets (disease

  13. Understanding the social context of fatal road traffic collisions among young people: a qualitative analysis of narrative text in coroners' records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Paul; Bird, Emma; Gray, Selena; Towner, Elizabeth; Weld, Sarah; McKibben, Mary-Ann

    2014-01-24

    Deaths and injuries on the road remain a major cause of premature death among young people across the world. Routinely collected data usually focuses on the mechanism of road traffic collisions and basic demographic data of those involved. This study aimed to supplement these routine sources with a thematic analysis of narrative text contained in coroners' records, to explore the wider social context in which collisions occur. Thematic analysis of narrative text from Coroners' records, retrieved from thirty-four fatalities among young people (16-24 year olds) occurring as a result of thirty road traffic collisions in a rural county in the south of England over the period 2005-2010. Six key themes emerged: social driving, driving experience, interest in motor vehicles, driving behaviour, perception of driving ability, and emotional distress. Social driving (defined as a group of related behaviours including: driving as a social event in itself (i.e. without a pre-specified destination); driving to or from a social event; driving with accompanying passengers; driving late at night; driving where alcohol or drugs were a feature of the journey) was identified as a common feature across cases. Analysis of the wider social context in which road traffic collisions occur in young people can provide important information for understanding why collisions happen and developing targeted interventions to prevent them. It can complement routinely collected data, which often focuses on events immediately preceding a collision. Qualitative analysis of narrative text in coroner's records may provide a way of providing this type of information. These findings provide additional support for the case for Graduated Driver Licensing programmes to reduce collisions involving young people, and also suggest that road safety interventions need to take a more community development approach, recognising the importance of social context and focusing on social networks of young people.

  14. Attenuation in the translation of bilingual journalistic texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando González Salinas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available First approach to the identification of mitigation/intensification markers in translating journalistic articles from bilingual publication in English and its translation into Spanish. There are three articles from Newsweek Magazine, a useful tool to use with translation students. The objective is the Annotated Translation of finished articles and book chapters that, after a pre-screening analysis, foster the translation of the Spanish version from written English texts. The first journalistic article with a historical theme is: The Return of Ruthless Richard – El Regreso del despiadado Ricardo (Ricardo III, used to detect the mitigation/intensification markers in both versions. Steps: 1. Sentence by sentence analysis in English, to find mitigation characteristics. 2. Review selected sentences in English with the Spanish counterpart. 3. Comparison and contrast of both versions. 4. Discuss similarities/differences to notice if the transfer of markers signals mitigation/intensification in both versions. 5. Discuss findings and write comments of translation aspects whose changes are discussed: annotated translation. Although most mitigation studies are based on oral discourse (not excluding the written text, this research considers written texts as a means and an end, in the observation and description, since original versions are unchangeable; this opens the option to edit and modify, which is promoted, before the final version elaborated between students and researchers is reached. Some comments are included as the result of what is described above.

  15. Plagiarism in Academic Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Eugenia Rojas-Porras

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The ethical and social responsibility of citing the sources in a scientific or artistic work is undeniable. This paper explores, in a preliminary way, academic plagiarism in its various forms. It includes findings based on a forensic analysis. The purpose of this paper is to raise awareness on the importance of considering these details when writing and publishing a text. Hopefully, this analysis may put the issue under discussion.

  16. Functions of Expressions of Futurality in Professional Economic Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikuláš Martin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this corpus-based study is to identify the functions that selected expressions of futurality can express in professional economic texts. The classification of functions is established on the corpus of seven economic books. Excerpted instances of futural constructions are analysed with respect to textual and interpersonal functions as defined by Halliday. Futurality is interpreted broadly to include all lexical and grammatical means referring to the future. This approach makes it also possible to analyse futurality as a means of text coherence. Hence the core grammatical means are interpreted along with co-occurring lexical means under the two categories of functions to provide a comprehensive model of text coherence with regard to futurality. Frequency analysis shows that core futural expressions are not distributed equally throughout the corpus. While some expressions (e.g., will and the present simple tense dominate, others prove to be rather insignificant (e.g., be on the point/verge of, the present progressive tense. In addition, both lexical and grammatical constructions regularly co-occur in clusters, contributing to the coherence of the economic texts.

  17. Imitating manual curation of text-mined facts in biomedicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Rodriguez-Esteban

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Text-mining algorithms make mistakes in extracting facts from natural-language texts. In biomedical applications, which rely on use of text-mined data, it is critical to assess the quality (the probability that the message is correctly extracted of individual facts--to resolve data conflicts and inconsistencies. Using a large set of almost 100,000 manually produced evaluations (most facts were independently reviewed more than once, producing independent evaluations, we implemented and tested a collection of algorithms that mimic human evaluation of facts provided by an automated information-extraction system. The performance of our best automated classifiers closely approached that of our human evaluators (ROC score close to 0.95. Our hypothesis is that, were we to use a larger number of human experts to evaluate any given sentence, we could implement an artificial-intelligence curator that would perform the classification job at least as accurately as an average individual human evaluator. We illustrated our analysis by visualizing the predicted accuracy of the text-mined relations involving the term cocaine.

  18. Connected text reading and differences in text reading fluency in adult readers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Wallot

    Full Text Available The process of connected text reading has received very little attention in contemporary cognitive psychology. This lack of attention is in parts due to a research tradition that emphasizes the role of basic lexical constituents, which can be studied in isolated words or sentences. However, this lack of attention is in parts also due to the lack of statistical analysis techniques, which accommodate interdependent time series. In this study, we investigate text reading performance with traditional and nonlinear analysis techniques and show how outcomes from multiple analyses can used to create a more detailed picture of the process of text reading. Specifically, we investigate reading performance of groups of literate adult readers that differ in reading fluency during a self-paced text reading task. Our results indicate that classical metrics of reading (such as word frequency do not capture text reading very well, and that classical measures of reading fluency (such as average reading time distinguish relatively poorly between participant groups. Nonlinear analyses of distribution tails and reading time fluctuations provide more fine-grained information about the reading process and reading fluency.

  19. Sentence connexion and global text structures: a case study of a political text, English leader article

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Dieter; Mattei, Adriana

    1993-01-01

    The paper first gives a brief overview of the history and theoretical status of discourse analysis, or "text linguistics." The main body of the paper consists of a detailed analysis of sentence connexion, i.e. the logical relationship between sentences and larger chunks of text, performed on a newspaper leader article. The results of this local analysis are then related to the global organisation of text structure with components such as macro- and super-structure by way of int...

  20. Investigating Online Destination Images Using a Topic-Based Sentiment Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Ren

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With the development of Web 2.0, many studies have tried to analyze tourist behavior utilizing user-generated contents. The primary purpose of this study is to propose a topic-based sentiment analysis approach, including a polarity classification and an emotion classification. We use the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model to extract topics from online travel review data and analyze the sentiments and emotions for each topic with our proposed approach. The top frequent words are extracted for each topic from online reviews on Ctrip.com. By comparing the relative importance of each topic, we conclude that many tourists prefer to provide “suggestion” reviews. In particular, we propose a new approach to classify the emotions of online reviews at the topic level utilizing an emotion lexicon, focusing on specific emotions to analyze customer complaints. The results reveal that attraction “management” obtains most complaints. These findings may provide useful insights for the development of attractions and the measurement of online destination image. Our proposed method can be used to analyze reviews from many online platforms and domains.

  1. a Novel Approach for 3d Neighbourhood Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamgholian, S.; Taleai, M.; Shojaei, D.

    2017-09-01

    Population growth and lack of land in urban areas have caused massive developments such as high rises and underground infrastructures. Land authorities in the international context recognizes 3D cadastres as a solution to efficiently manage these developments in complex cities. Although a 2D cadastre does not efficiently register these developments, it is currently being used in many jurisdictions for registering land and property information. Limitations in analysis and presentation are considered as examples of such limitations. 3D neighbourhood analysis by automatically finding 3D spaces has become an issue of major interest in recent years. Whereas the neighbourhood analysis has been in the focus of research, the idea of 3D neighbourhood analysis has rarely been addressed in 3 dimensional information systems (3D GIS) analysis. In this paper, a novel approach for 3D neighbourhood analysis has been proposed by recording spatial and descriptive information of the apartment units and easements. This approach uses the coordinates of the subject apartment unit to find the neighbour spaces. By considering a buffer around the edges of the unit, neighbour spaces are accurately detected. This method was implemented in ESRI ArcScene and three case studies were defined to test the efficiency of this approach. The results show that spaces are accurately detected in various complex scenarios. This approach can also be applied for other applications such as property management and disaster management in order to find the affected apartments around a defined space.

  2. Two approaches to gathering text corpora from the WorldWideWeb

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, G

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Many applications of pattern recognition to natural language processing require large text corpora in a specified language. For many of the languages of the world, such corpora are not readily available, but significant quantities of text...

  3. Statistical Analysis of fMRI Time-Series: A Critical Review of the GLM Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin M Monti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI is one of the most widely used tools to study the neural underpinnings of human cognition. Standard analysis of fMRI data relies on a General Linear Model (GLM approach to separate stimulus induced signals from noise. Crucially, this approach relies on a number of assumptions about the data which, for inferences to be valid, must be met. The current paper reviews the GLM approach to analysis of fMRI time-series, focusing in particular on the degree to which such data abides by the assumptions of the GLM framework, and on the methods that have been developed to correct for any violation of those assumptions. Rather than biasing estimates of effect size, the major consequence of non-conformity to the assumptions is to introduce bias into estimates of the variance, thus affecting test statistics, power and false positive rates. Furthermore, this bias can have pervasive effects on both individual subject and group-level statistics, potentially yielding qualitatively different results across replications, especially after the thresholding procedures commonly used for inference-making.

  4. The specifics of the aplication of social and structural approach to electoral processes analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V F Kovrov

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of a number of problems of the investigation of the electoral process viewed as a social phenomenon contributes to the overcoming of a number of theoretical and methodological obstacles in the process of its sociological cognition. The complexity and delicacy of the electoral process entails the application of a set of distinct approaches, research and description techniques. The article provides the rationale for the most complete insight into the social component of the electoral process via social and structural approach application. The given approach enables one to give concrete expression to the subject matter of electoral sociology at strategic, operational and tactical levels, define the elements of the electoral process, the outcome of the electoral practice, to reveal the invariability of the electoral conscience, psychological attitudes and values of different groups of voters as well as to analyze the evolution of the objective-transforming practice, the electoral activity of the population and to provide the extensive analysis of the results of the material and cultural assimilation of the electoral practice.

  5. Mining consumer health vocabulary from community-generated text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vydiswaran, V G Vinod; Mei, Qiaozhu; Hanauer, David A; Zheng, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Community-generated text corpora can be a valuable resource to extract consumer health vocabulary (CHV) and link them to professional terminologies and alternative variants. In this research, we propose a pattern-based text-mining approach to identify pairs of CHV and professional terms from Wikipedia, a large text corpus created and maintained by the community. A novel measure, leveraging the ratio of frequency of occurrence, was used to differentiate consumer terms from professional terms. We empirically evaluated the applicability of this approach using a large data sample consisting of MedLine abstracts and all posts from an online health forum, MedHelp. The results show that the proposed approach is able to identify synonymous pairs and label the terms as either consumer or professional term with high accuracy. We conclude that the proposed approach provides great potential to produce a high quality CHV to improve the performance of computational applications in processing consumer-generated health text.

  6. Nonverbatim Captioning in Dutch Television Programs: A Text Linguistic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilperoord, Joost; de Groot, Vanja; van Son, Nic

    2005-01-01

    In the Netherlands, as in most other European countries, closed captions for the deaf summarize texts rather than render them verbatim. Caption editors argue that in this way television viewers have enough time to both read the text and watch the program. They also claim that the meaning of the original message is properly conveyed. However, many…

  7. Text Messaging to Communicate With Public Health Audiences: How the HIPAA Security Rule Affects Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasz, Hilary N.; Eiden, Amy; Bogan, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Text messaging is a powerful communication tool for public health purposes, particularly because of the potential to customize messages to meet individuals’ needs. However, using text messaging to send personal health information requires analysis of laws addressing the protection of electronic health information. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Security Rule is written with flexibility to account for changing technologies. In practice, however, the rule leads to uncertainty about how to make text messaging policy decisions. Text messaging to send health information can be implemented in a public health setting through 2 possible approaches: restructuring text messages to remove personal health information and retaining limited personal health information in the message but conducting a risk analysis and satisfying other requirements to meet the HIPAA Security Rule. PMID:23409902

  8. Exploring experiences of cancer care in Wales: a thematic analysis of free-text responses to the 2013 Wales Cancer Patient Experience Survey (WCPES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracher, Michael; Corner, Dame Jessica; Wagland, Richard

    2016-09-02

    To provide the first systematic analysis of a national (Wales) sample of free-text comments from patients with cancer, to determine emerging themes and insights regarding experiences of cancer care in Wales. Thematic analysis of free-text data from a population-based survey. Adult patients with a confirmed cancer diagnosis treated within a 3-month period during 2012 in the 7 health boards and 1 trust providing cancer care in Wales. Free-text categorised by theme, coded as positive or negative, with ratios. Overarching themes are identified incorporating comment categories. 4672 respondents (of n=7352 survey respondents) provided free-text comments. Data were coded using a multistage approach: (1) coding of comments into general categories (eg, nursing, surgery, etc), (2) coding of subcategories within main categories (eg, nursing care, nursing communication, etc), (3) cross-sectional analysis to identify themes cutting across categories, (4) mapping of categories/subcategories to corresponding closed questions in the Wales Cancer Patient Experience Survey (WCPES) data for comparison. Most free-text respondents (82%, n 3818) provided positive comments about their cancer care, with 49% (n=2313) giving a negative comment (ratio 0.6:1, negative-to-positive). 3172 respondents (67.9% of free-text respondents) provided a comment mapping to 1 of 4 overarching themes: communication (n=1673, 35.8% free-text respondents, a ratio of 1.0:1); waiting during the treatment and/or post-treatment phase (n=923, 19.8%, ratio 1.5:1); staffing and resource levels (n=671, 14.4% ratio 5.3:1); speed and quality of diagnostic care (n=374, 8.0%, ratio 1.5:1). Within these areas, constituent subthemes are discussed. This study presents specific areas of concern for patients with cancer, and reveals a number of themes present across the cancer journey. While the majority of comments were positive, analysis reveals concerns shared by significant numbers of respondents. Timely communication can

  9. Tracing Knowledge Transfer from Universities to Industry: A Text Mining Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woltmann, Sabrina; Alkærsig, Lars

    2017-01-01

    This paper identifies transferred knowledge between universities and the industry by proposing the use of a computational linguistic method. Current research on university-industry knowledge exchange relies often on formal databases and indicators such as patents, collaborative publications and l...... is the first step to enable the identification of common knowledge and knowledge transfer via text mining to increase its measurability....... and license agreements, to assess the contribution to the socioeconomic surrounding of universities. We, on the other hand, use the texts from university abstracts to identify university knowledge and compare them with texts from firm webpages. We use these text data to identify common key words and thereby...... identify overlapping contents among the texts. As method we use a well-established word ranking method from the field of information retrieval term frequency–inverse document frequency (TFIDF) to identify commonalities between texts from university. In examining the outcomes of the TFIDF statistic we find...

  10. Inclusion of ethical issues in dementia guidelines: a thematic text analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knüppel, Hannes; Mertz, Marcel; Schmidhuber, Martina; Neitzke, Gerald; Strech, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) aim to improve professionalism in health care. However, current CPG development manuals fail to address how to include ethical issues in a systematic and transparent manner. The objective of this study was to assess the representation of ethical issues in general CPGs on dementia care. To identify national CPGs on dementia care, five databases of guidelines were searched and national psychiatric associations were contacted in August 2011 and in June 2013. A framework for the assessment of the identified CPGs' ethical content was developed on the basis of a prior systematic review of ethical issues in dementia care. Thematic text analysis and a 4-point rating score were employed to assess how ethical issues were addressed in the identified CPGs. Twelve national CPGs were included. Thirty-one ethical issues in dementia care were identified by the prior systematic review. The proportion of these 31 ethical issues that were explicitly addressed by each CPG ranged from 22% to 77%, with a median of 49.5%. National guidelines differed substantially with respect to (a) which ethical issues were represented, (b) whether ethical recommendations were included, (c) whether justifications or citations were provided to support recommendations, and (d) to what extent the ethical issues were explained. Ethical issues were inconsistently addressed in national dementia guidelines, with some guidelines including most and some including few ethical issues. Guidelines should address ethical issues and how to deal with them to help the medical profession understand how to approach care of patients with dementia, and for patients, their relatives, and the general public, all of whom might seek information and advice in national guidelines. There is a need for further research to specify how detailed ethical issues and their respective recommendations can and should be addressed in dementia guidelines. Please see later in the article for the Editors

  11. A Study on Text-Score Disagreement in Online Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazzolari, Michela; Cozza, Vittoria; Petrocchi, Marinella

    2017-01-01

    expressing different sentiments may feature the same score (and vice-versa), and (2) detecting and analyzing the mismatches between the review content and the actual score may benefit both service providers and consumers, by highlighting specific factors of satisfaction (and dissatisfaction) in texts....... To prove the intuitions, we adopt sentiment analysis techniques and we concentrate on hotel reviews, to find polarity mismatches therein. In particular, we first train a text classifier with a set of annotated hotel reviews, taken from the Booking website. Then, we analyze a large dataset, with around 160k...... between the text polarity and the score, we find that-on a scale of five stars-those reviews ranked with middle scores include a mixture of positive and negative aspects. The approach proposed here, beside acting as a polarity detector, provides an effective selection of reviews-on an initial very large...

  12. Formalizing the Austrian Procedure Catalogue: A 4-step methodological analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neururer, Sabrina Barbara; Lasierra, Nelia; Peiffer, Karl Peter; Fensel, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    Due to the lack of an internationally accepted and adopted standard for coding health interventions, Austria has established its own country-specific procedure classification system - the Austrian Procedure Catalogue (APC). Even though the APC is an elaborate coding standard for medical procedures, it has shortcomings that limit its usability. In order to enhance usability and usefulness, especially for research purposes and e-health applications, we developed an ontologized version of the APC. In this paper we present a novel four-step approach for the ontology engineering process, which enables accurate extraction of relevant concepts for medical ontologies from written text. The proposed approach for formalizing the APC consists of the following four steps: (1) comparative pre-analysis, (2) definition analysis, (3) typological analysis, and (4) ontology implementation. The first step contained a comparison of the APC to other well-established or elaborate health intervention coding systems in order to identify strengths and weaknesses of the APC. In the second step, a list of definitions of medical terminology used in the APC was obtained. This list of definitions was used as input for Step 3, in which we identified the most important concepts to describe medical procedures using the qualitative typological analysis approach. The definition analysis as well as the typological analysis are well-known and effective methods used in social sciences, but not commonly employed in the computer science or ontology engineering domain. Finally, this list of concepts was used in Step 4 to formalize the APC. The pre-analysis highlighted the major shortcomings of the APC, such as the lack of formal definition, leading to implicitly available, but not directly accessible information (hidden data), or the poor procedural type classification. After performing the definition and subsequent typological analyses, we were able to identify the following main characteristics of

  13. Text analysis of open-ended survey responses : a complementary method to preference mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Kleij, F; Musters, PAD

    The present study illustrates the use of computer-aided text analysis to evaluate the content of open-ended survey responses. During an in-hall test, different varieties of mayonnaise were evaluated by 165 respondents on a 10-point liking scale, with the option to freely comment on these

  14. Propensity Score Analysis: An Alternative Statistical Approach for HRD Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiffer, Greggory L.; Lane, Forrest C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to introduce matching in propensity score analysis (PSA) as an alternative statistical approach for researchers looking to make causal inferences using intact groups. Design/methodology/approach: An illustrative example demonstrated the varying results of analysis of variance, analysis of covariance and PSA on a heuristic…

  15. A systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions for weight management using text messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siopis, G; Chey, T; Allman-Farinelli, M

    2015-02-01

    Obesity prevalence continues to increase worldwide, with significant associated chronic disease and health cost implications. Among more recent innovations in health service provision is the use of text messaging for health behaviour change interventions including weight management. This review investigates the efficacy of weight management programmes incorporating text messaging. Medical and scientific databases were searched from January 1993 to October 2013. Eligibility criteria included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), pseudoRCTs and before and after studies of weight management, among healthy children and adults, that used text messaging and included a nutrition component. Data extraction and quality assessment followed guidelines from PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) and the Evidence Analysis Manual of the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. From 512 manuscripts retrieved, 14 met the inclusion criteria (five manuscripts in children and nine in adults). Duration of interventions ranged from 1 to 24 months. Frequency of text messaging was from daily to fortnightly. Six studies in adults were included in a meta-analysis with mean body weight change as the primary outcome. The weighted mean change in body weight in intervention participants was -2.56 kg (95% confidence interval = -3.46 to -1.65) and in controls -0.37 kg (95% confidence interval = -1.22 to 0.48). The small body of evidence indicates that text messaging interventions can promote weight loss. However, lack of long-term results indicate that further efficacy studies are required. Future investigations should elucidate the determinants, such as intervention duration, text message frequency and level of interactivity that maximise the success and cost effectiveness of the delivery medium. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  16. The Effects of Using Multimodal Approaches in Meaning-Making of 21st Century Literacy Texts Among ESL Students in a Private School in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malini Ganapathy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In today’s globalised digital era, students are inevitably engaged in various multimodal texts due to their active participation in social media and frequent usage of mobile devices on a daily basis. Such daily activities advocate the need for a transformation in the teaching and learning of ESL lessons in order to promote students’ capabilities in making meaning of different literacy texts which students come across in their ESL learning activities. This paper puts forth the framework of Multimodality in the restructuring of the teaching and learning of ESL with the aim of investigating its effects and students perspectives on the use of multimodal approaches underlying the Multiliteracies theory. Using focus group interviews, this qualitative case study examines the effectiveness of ESL teaching and learning using the Multimodal approaches on literacy in meaning-making among 15 students in a private school in Penang, Malaysia. The results confirm the need to reorientate the teaching and learning of ESL with the focus on multimodal pedagogical practices as it promotes positive learning outcomes among students. The implications of this study suggest that the multimodal approaches integrated in the teaching and learning of ESL have the capacity to promote students’ autonomy in learning, improve motivation to learn and facilitate various learning styles. Keywords: Multimodal Approaches; Multiliteracies; Monomodal; Flipped Classroom; Literacy; Multimodal texts; Ipad

  17. Exploringfactors on Internet Addiction Instudents of Sanandaj Universities: A Study with Content Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ّArezoo Fallahi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The prevalence of Internet addiction is increasing among students. To design preventive interventions and programs, understanding causes of Internet addiction is essential. The aim of the study was exploringfactors on internet addiction instudents of Sanandaj universities, using content analysis approach.Materials and Methods: In this qaulitative study was used a content analysis approach for data analysis. 15 students with internet addiction were chosen using Young internet addiction questionnaire of Sanandaj universities in 2015 year. 7 Face to face and semi-structured interviews and two focus groups were held to gather data. Interviews were recorded, taped and analyzed via the content analysis method. Validity and rigor of the data was obtained from criteria including credibility, dependability, confirmability and transferability.Results: The analysis of qualitative data presented in four major themes: (1 internet features; (2 motives and internal needs; (3 sense of inability; and (4 environmental factors.  The most important causes of Internet addiction was attributed to unemployment and lack of entertainment for the youth.Conclusion: The results of the study showed that causes of trend and dependence on Internet are not only positive and attractive features of Internet but are also individual, social, cultural and economical factors.

  18. Biomarker Identification Using Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying molecular biomarkers has become one of the important tasks for scientists to assess the different phenotypic states of cells or organisms correlated to the genotypes of diseases from large-scale biological data. In this paper, we proposed a text-mining-based method to discover biomarkers from PubMed. First, we construct a database based on a dictionary, and then we used a finite state machine to identify the biomarkers. Our method of text mining provides a highly reliable approach to discover the biomarkers in the PubMed database.

  19. Using text mining for study identification in systematic reviews: a systematic review of current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Thomas, James; McNaught, John; Miwa, Makoto; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2015-01-14

    The large and growing number of published studies, and their increasing rate of publication, makes the task of identifying relevant studies in an unbiased way for inclusion in systematic reviews both complex and time consuming. Text mining has been offered as a potential solution: through automating some of the screening process, reviewer time can be saved. The evidence base around the use of text mining for screening has not yet been pulled together systematically; this systematic review fills that research gap. Focusing mainly on non-technical issues, the review aims to increase awareness of the potential of these technologies and promote further collaborative research between the computer science and systematic review communities. Five research questions led our review: what is the state of the evidence base; how has workload reduction been evaluated; what are the purposes of semi-automation and how effective are they; how have key contextual problems of applying text mining to the systematic review field been addressed; and what challenges to implementation have emerged? We answered these questions using standard systematic review methods: systematic and exhaustive searching, quality-assured data extraction and a narrative synthesis to synthesise findings. The evidence base is active and diverse; there is almost no replication between studies or collaboration between research teams and, whilst it is difficult to establish any overall conclusions about best approaches, it is clear that efficiencies and reductions in workload are potentially achievable. On the whole, most suggested that a saving in workload of between 30% and 70% might be possible, though sometimes the saving in workload is accompanied by the loss of 5% of relevant studies (i.e. a 95% recall). Using text mining to prioritise the order in which items are screened should be considered safe and ready for use in 'live' reviews. The use of text mining as a 'second screener' may also be used cautiously

  20. Fuzzy logic approach to SWOT analysis for economics tasks and example of its computer realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir CHERNOV

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the widely used classic method of analysis, forecasting and decision-making in the various economic problems, called SWOT analysis. As known, it is a qualitative comparison of multicriteria degree of Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat for different kinds of risks, forecasting the development in the markets, status and prospects of development of enterprises, regions and economic sectors, territorials etc. It can also be successfully applied to the evaluation and analysis of different project management tasks - investment, innovation, marketing, development, design and bring products to market and so on. However, in practical competitive market and economic conditions, there are various uncertainties, ambiguities, vagueness. Its making usage of SWOT analysis in the classical sense not enough reasonable and ineffective. In this case, the authors propose to use fuzzy logic approach and the theory of fuzzy sets for a more adequate representation and posttreatment assessments in the SWOT analysis. In particular, has been short showed the mathematical formulation of respective task and the main approaches to its solution. Also are given examples of suitable computer calculations in specialized software Fuzicalc for processing and operations with fuzzy input data. Finally, are presented considerations for interpretation of the results.

  1. SOCIOLOGICAL UNDERSTANDING OF INTERNET: THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO THE NETWORK ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Dobrinskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet studies are carried out by various scientific disciplines and in different research perspectives. Sociological studies of the Internet deal with a new technology, a revolutionary means of mass communication and a social space. There is a set of research difficulties associated with the Internet. Firstly, the high speed and wide spread of Internet technologies’ development. Secondly, the collection and filtration of materials concerning with Internet studies. Lastly, the development of new conceptual categories, which are able to reflect the impact of the Internet development in contemporary world. In that regard the question of the “network” category use is essential. Network is the base of Internet functioning, on the one hand. On the other hand, network is the ground for almost all social interactions in modern society. So such society is called network society. Three theoretical network approaches in the Internet research case are the most relevant: network society theory, social network analysis and actor-network theory. Each of these theoretical approaches contributes to the study of the Internet. They shape various images of interactions between human beings in their entity and dynamics. All these approaches also provide information about the nature of these interactions. 

  2. Common approach of risks analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noviello, L.; Naviglio, A.

    1996-01-01

    Although, following the resolutions of the High German Court, the protection level of the human beings is an objective which can change in time, it is obvious that it is an important point when there is a risk for the population. This is true more particularly for the industrial plants whose possible accidents could affect the population. The accidents risk analysis indicates that there is no conceptual difference between the risks of a nuclear power plant and those of the other industrial plants as chemical plants, the gas distribution system and the hydraulic dams. A legislation analysis induced by the Seveso Directive for the industrial risks give some important indications which should always be followed. This work analyses more particularly the legislative situation in different European countries and identifies some of the most important characteristics. Indeed, for most of the countries, the situation is different and it is a later difficulties source for nuclear power plants. In order to strengthen this reasoning, this paper presents some preliminary results of an analysis of a nuclear power plant following the approach of other industrial plants. In conclusion, it will be necessary to analyse again the risks assessment approach for nuclear power plants because the real protection level of human beings in a country is determined by the less regulated of the dangerous industrial plants existing at the surroundings. (O.M.)

  3. Probabilistic approaches for geotechnical site characterization and slope stability analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Zijun; Li, Dianqing

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to revisit geotechnical site characterization from a probabilistic point of view and provide rational tools to probabilistically characterize geotechnical properties and underground stratigraphy using limited information obtained from a specific site. This book not only provides new probabilistic approaches for geotechnical site characterization and slope stability analysis, but also tackles the difficulties in practical implementation of these approaches. In addition, this book also develops efficient Monte Carlo simulation approaches for slope stability analysis and implements these approaches in a commonly available spreadsheet environment. These approaches and the software package are readily available to geotechnical practitioners and alleviate them from reliability computational algorithms. The readers will find useful information for a non-specialist to determine project-specific statistics of geotechnical properties and to perform probabilistic analysis of slope stability.

  4. New challenges for text mining: mapping between text and manually curated pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Kanae; Kim, Jin-Dong; Ohta, Tomoko; Okanohara, Daisuke; Matsuzaki, Takuya; Tateisi, Yuka; Tsujii, Jun'ichi

    2008-01-01

    Background Associating literature with pathways poses new challenges to the Text Mining (TM) community. There are three main challenges to this task: (1) the identification of the mapping position of a specific entity or reaction in a given pathway, (2) the recognition of the causal relationships among multiple reactions, and (3) the formulation and implementation of required inferences based on biological domain knowledge. Results To address these challenges, we constructed new resources to link the text with a model pathway; they are: the GENIA pathway corpus with event annotation and NF-kB pathway. Through their detailed analysis, we address the untapped resource, ‘bio-inference,’ as well as the differences between text and pathway representation. Here, we show the precise comparisons of their representations and the nine classes of ‘bio-inference’ schemes observed in the pathway corpus. Conclusions We believe that the creation of such rich resources and their detailed analysis is the significant first step for accelerating the research of the automatic construction of pathway from text. PMID:18426550

  5. A quick survey of text categorization algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan MUNTEANU

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains an overview of basic formulations and approaches to text classification. This paper surveys the algorithms used in text categorization: handcrafted rules, decision trees, decision rules, on-line learning, linear classifier, Rocchio’s algorithm, k Nearest Neighbor (kNN, Support Vector Machines (SVM.

  6. Unsupervised information extraction by text segmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Cortez, Eli

    2013-01-01

    A new unsupervised approach to the problem of Information Extraction by Text Segmentation (IETS) is proposed, implemented and evaluated herein. The authors' approach relies on information available on pre-existing data to learn how to associate segments in the input string with attributes of a given domain relying on a very effective set of content-based features. The effectiveness of the content-based features is also exploited to directly learn from test data structure-based features, with no previous human-driven training, a feature unique to the presented approach. Based on the approach, a

  7. Discussion on safety analysis approach for sodium fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Soon Joon; Choo, Yeon Joon; Suh, Nam Duk; Shin, Ahn Dong; Bae, Moo Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of nuclear energy is increasingly necessary not only because of the increasing energy consumption but also because of the controls on greenhouse emissions against global warming. To keep step with such demands, advanced reactors are now world widely under development with the aims of highly economical advances, and enhanced safety. Recently, further elaborating is encouraged on the research and development program for Generation IV (GEN IV) reactors, and in collaboration with other interested countries through the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) is a strong contender amongst the GEN IV reactor concepts. Korea also takes part in that program and plans to construct demonstration reactor of SFR. SFR is under the development for a candidate of small modular reactors, for example, PRISM (Power Reactor Innovative Small Module). Understanding of safety analysis approach has also advanced by the demand of increasing comprehensive safety requirement. Reviewing the past development of the licensing and safety basis in the advanced reactors, such approaches seemed primarily not so satisfactory because the reference framework of licensing and safety analysis approach in the advanced reactors was always the one in water reactors. And, the framework is very plant specific one and thereby the advanced reactors and their frameworks don't look like a well assorted couple. Recently as a result of considerable advances in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), risk informed approaches are increasingly applied together with some of the deterministic approaches like as the ones in water reactors. Technology neutral framework (TNF) can be said to be the utmost works of such risk informed approaches, even though an intensive assessment of the applicability has not been sufficiently accomplished. This study discusses the viable safety analysis approaches for the urgent application to the construction of pool type SFR. As discussed in

  8. Student Evaluation of Teaching: A Study Exploring Student Rating Instrument Free-Form Text Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupans, Ieva; McGuren, Therese; Babey, Anna Marie

    2016-01-01

    Student rating instruments are recognised to be valid indicators of effective instruction, providing a valuable tool to improve teaching. However, free-form text comments obtained from the open-ended question component of such surveys are only infrequently analysed comprehensively. We employed an innovative, systematic approach to the analysis of…

  9. Fatigue Feature Extraction Analysis based on a K-Means Clustering Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F.M. Yunoh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on clustering analysis using a K-means approach for fatigue feature dataset extraction. The aim of this study is to group the dataset as closely as possible (homogeneity for the scattered dataset. Kurtosis, the wavelet-based energy coefficient and fatigue damage are calculated for all segments after the extraction process using wavelet transform. Kurtosis, the wavelet-based energy coefficient and fatigue damage are used as input data for the K-means clustering approach. K-means clustering calculates the average distance of each group from the centroid and gives the objective function values. Based on the results, maximum values of the objective function can be seen in the two centroid clusters, with a value of 11.58. The minimum objective function value is found at 8.06 for five centroid clusters. It can be seen that the objective function with the lowest value for the number of clusters is equal to five; which is therefore the best cluster for the dataset.

  10. Lexical Sentiment Analysis in Slovenian Texts

    OpenAIRE

    VOLČANŠEK, MATEJA

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to create a sentiment dictionary for the Slovenian language which can be used in lexical methods for automatic sentiment analysis. We start from a sentiment dictionary for the English language, translate it semi-automatically to Slovenian and curate its content. We test the performance of using the translated dictionary for automated lexical sentiment analysis on a corpus of 5000 manually annotated Slovenian news articles gathered from the main Slovenian news por...

  11. Analysis of stability and quench in HTS devices-New approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vysotsky, V.S.; Sytnikov, V.E.; Rakhmanov, A.L.; Ilyin, Y.

    2006-01-01

    R and D of HTS devices are in their full steam-more magnets and devices are developed with larger sizes. But analysis of their stability and quench was still old fashioned, based on normal zone determination, analysis of its appearance and propagation. Some peculiarities of HTS make this traditional, quite impractical and inconvenient approach to consideration of HTS devices stability and quench development using normal zone origination and propagation analysis. The novel approaches were developed that consider the HTS device as a cooled medium with non-linear parameters with no mentioning of 'superconductivity' in the analysis. The approach showed its effectiveness and convenience to analyze the stability and quench development in HTS devices. In this paper the analysis of difference between HTS and LTS quench, dependent on index n and specific heat comparison, is followed by the short approach descriptions and by the consequences from it for the HTS devices design. The further development of the method is presented for the analysis of long HTS objects where 'blow-up' regimes may happen. This is important for design and analysis of HTS power cables operations under overloading conditions

  12. Using Semantic Linking to Understand Persons’ Networks Extracted from Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Palmero Aprosio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we describe a methodology to interpret large persons’ networks extracted from text by classifying cliques using the DBpedia ontology. The approach relies on a combination of NLP, Semantic web technologies, and network analysis. The classification methodology that first starts from single nodes and then generalizes to cliques is effective in terms of performance and is able to deal also with nodes that are not linked to Wikipedia. The gold standard manually developed for evaluation shows that groups of co-occurring entities share in most of the cases a category that can be automatically assigned. This holds for both languages considered in this study. The outcome of this work may be of interest to enhance the readability of large networks and to provide an additional semantic layer on top of cliques. This would greatly help humanities scholars when dealing with large amounts of textual data that need to be interpreted or categorized. Furthermore, it represents an unsupervised approach to automatically extend DBpedia starting from a corpus.

  13. Difficulties in translation of socio-political texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Артур Нарманович Мамедов

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Belonging of Russian socio-political texts to publicistic style assumes being guided by functional approach in order to find most adequate linguistic means by transfer of pragmatic meaning of the source text. Intralinguistic meaning can slightly remain by the interpretation of German texts. Lexical and grammatical transformations help preserving semantic-syntactic structure of the target text which means achievement of the same communicative effect by the translate which is being achieved by the source text.

  14. Determining women's sexual self-schemas through advanced computerized text analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Amelia M; Boyd, Ryan L; Pulverman, Carey S; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-08-01

    The meaning extraction method (MEM), an advanced computerized text analysis technique, was used to analyze women's sexual self-schemas. Participants (n=239) completed open-ended essays about their personal feelings associated with sex and sexuality. These essays were analyzed using the MEM, a procedure designed to extract common themes from natural language. Using the MEM procedure, we extracted seven unique themes germane to sexual self-schemas: family and development, virginity, abuse, relationship, sexual activity, attraction, and existentialism. Each of these themes is comprised of frequently used words across the participants' descriptions of their sexual selves. Significant differences in sexual self-schemas were observed to covary with age, relationship status, and sexual abuse history. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Introduction to Real Analysis An Educational Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bauldry, William C

    2011-01-01

    An accessible introduction to real analysis and its connection to elementary calculus Bridging the gap between the development and history of real analysis, Introduction to Real Analysis: An Educational Approach presents a comprehensive introduction to real analysis while also offering a survey of the field. With its balance of historical background, key calculus methods, and hands-on applications, this book provides readers with a solid foundation and fundamental understanding of real analysis. The book begins with an outline of basic calculus, including a close examination of problems illust

  16. Meta-Analysis for Sociology – A Measure-Driven Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfs, David J.; Shor, Eran; Falzon, Louise; Davidson, Karina W.; Schwartz, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analytic methods are becoming increasingly important in sociological research. In this article we present an approach for meta-analysis which is especially helpful for sociologists. Conventional approaches to meta-analysis often prioritize “concept-driven” literature searches. However, in disciplines with high theoretical diversity, such as sociology, this search approach might constrain the researcher’s ability to fully exploit the entire body of relevant work. We explicate a “measure-driven” approach, in which iterative searches and new computerized search techniques are used to increase the range of publications found (and thus the range of possible analyses) and to traverse time and disciplinary boundaries. We demonstrate this measure-driven search approach with two meta-analytic projects, examining the effects of various social variables on all-cause mortality. PMID:24163498

  17. A Link between Nano- and Classical Thermodynamics: Dissipation Analysis (The Entropy Generation Approach in Nano-Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Lucia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The interest in designing nanosystems is continuously growing. Engineers apply a great number of optimization methods to design macroscopic systems. If these methods could be introduced into the design of small systems, a great improvement in nanotechnologies could be achieved. To do so, however, it is necessary to extend classical thermodynamic analysis to small systems, but irreversibility is also present in small systems, as the Loschmidt paradox highlighted. Here, the use of the recent improvement of the Gouy-Stodola theorem to complex systems (GSGL approach, based on the use of entropy generation, is suggested to obtain the extension of classical thermodynamics to nanothermodynamics. The result is a new approach to nanosystems which avoids the difficulties highlighted in the usual analysis of the small systems, such as the definition of temperature for nanosystems.

  18. Functional vs. Traditional Analysis in Biomechanical Gait Data: An Alternative Statistical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jihong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In human motion studies, discrete points such as peak or average kinematic values are commonly selected to test hypotheses. The purpose of this study was to describe a functional data analysis and describe the advantages of using functional data analyses when compared with a traditional analysis of variance (ANOVA approach. Nineteen healthy participants (age: 22 ± 2 yrs, body height: 1.7 ± 0.1 m, body mass: 73 ± 16 kg walked under two different conditions: control and pain+effusion. Pain+effusion was induced by injection of sterile saline into the joint capsule and hypertonic saline into the infrapatellar fat pad. Sagittal-plane ankle, knee, and hip joint kinematics were recorded and compared following injections using 2×2 mixed model ANOVAs and FANOVAs. The results of ANOVAs detected a condition × time interaction for the peak ankle (F1,18 = 8.56, p = 0.01 and hip joint angle (F1,18 = 5.77, p = 0.03, but did not for the knee joint angle (F1,18 = 0.36, p = 0.56. The functional data analysis, however, found several differences at initial contact (ankle and knee joint, in the mid-stance (each joint and at toe off (ankle. Although a traditional ANOVA is often appropriate for discrete or summary data, in biomechanical applications, the functional data analysis could be a beneficial alternative. When using the functional data analysis approach, a researcher can (1 evaluate the entire data as a function, and (2 detect the location and magnitude of differences within the evaluated function.

  19. A statistical approach to plasma profile analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardaun, O.J.W.F.; McCarthy, P.J.; Lackner, K.; Riedel, K.S.

    1990-05-01

    A general statistical approach to the parameterisation and analysis of tokamak profiles is presented. The modelling of the profile dependence on both the radius and the plasma parameters is discussed, and pertinent, classical as well as robust, methods of estimation are reviewed. Special attention is given to statistical tests for discriminating between the various models, and to the construction of confidence intervals for the parameterised profiles and the associated global quantities. The statistical approach is shown to provide a rigorous approach to the empirical testing of plasma profile invariance. (orig.)

  20. Empirical Studies On Machine Learning Based Text Classification Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Shweta C. Dharmadhikari; Maya Ingle; Parag Kulkarni

    2011-01-01

    Automatic classification of text documents has become an important research issue now days. Properclassification of text documents requires information retrieval, machine learning and Natural languageprocessing (NLP) techniques. Our aim is to focus on important approaches to automatic textclassification based on machine learning techniques viz. supervised, unsupervised and semi supervised.In this paper we present a review of various text classification approaches under machine learningparadig...

  1. Approaching the empowerment of roma women: an analysis from an intersectional view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uxue Zugaza Goienetxea

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the process of empowerment of roma women. Considering the intersection of inequalities that they face, the article points out that an analytical turn of these processes is needed in order to approach them from an intersectional view. In this context, the introduction of this perspective in the consideration of the empowerment of roma women is seen as a necessary step in order to inspire and rethink the democratization in terms of recognition of this collective. The article tackles the following question then: what does intersectionality tell about the empowerment of roma women? With this objective, the text discusses the life’s testimonies of five roma women collected through in-depth interviews. Through the analysis of the tensions emerging during their processes of empowerment, the paper concludes with some proposals in order to overcome these obstacles.

  2. Reliability analysis - systematic approach based on limited data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourne, A.J.

    1975-11-01

    The initial approaches required for reliability analysis are outlined. These approaches highlight the system boundaries, examine the conditions under which the system is required to operate, and define the overall performance requirements. The discussion is illustrated by a simple example of an automatic protective system for a nuclear reactor. It is then shown how the initial approach leads to a method of defining the system, establishing performance parameters of interest and determining the general form of reliability models to be used. The overall system model and the availability of reliability data at the system level are next examined. An iterative process is then described whereby the reliability model and data requirements are systematically refined at progressively lower hierarchic levels of the system. At each stage, the approach is illustrated with examples from the protective system previously described. The main advantages of the approach put forward are the systematic process of analysis, the concentration of assessment effort in the critical areas and the maximum use of limited reliability data. (author)

  3. Learning From Short Text Streams With Topic Drifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peipei; He, Lu; Wang, Haiyan; Hu, Xuegang; Zhang, Yuhong; Li, Lei; Wu, Xindong

    2017-09-18

    Short text streams such as search snippets and micro blogs have been popular on the Web with the emergence of social media. Unlike traditional normal text streams, these data present the characteristics of short length, weak signal, high volume, high velocity, topic drift, etc. Short text stream classification is hence a very challenging and significant task. However, this challenge has received little attention from the research community. Therefore, a new feature extension approach is proposed for short text stream classification with the help of a large-scale semantic network obtained from a Web corpus. It is built on an incremental ensemble classification model for efficiency. First, more semantic contexts based on the senses of terms in short texts are introduced to make up of the data sparsity using the open semantic network, in which all terms are disambiguated by their semantics to reduce the noise impact. Second, a concept cluster-based topic drifting detection method is proposed to effectively track hidden topic drifts. Finally, extensive studies demonstrate that as compared to several well-known concept drifting detection methods in data stream, our approach can detect topic drifts effectively, and it enables handling short text streams effectively while maintaining the efficiency as compared to several state-of-the-art short text classification approaches.

  4. Using machine learning to disentangle homonyms in large text corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Uri; Correia, Ricardo A; Berger-Tal, Oded

    2018-06-01

    Systematic reviews are an increasingly popular decision-making tool that provides an unbiased summary of evidence to support conservation action. These reviews bridge the gap between researchers and managers by presenting a comprehensive overview of all studies relating to a particular topic and identify specifically where and under which conditions an effect is present. However, several technical challenges can severely hinder the feasibility and applicability of systematic reviews, for example, homonyms (terms that share spelling but differ in meaning). Homonyms add noise to search results and cannot be easily identified or removed. We developed a semiautomated approach that can aid in the classification of homonyms among narratives. We used a combination of automated content analysis and artificial neural networks to quickly and accurately sift through large corpora of academic texts and classify them to distinct topics. As an example, we explored the use of the word reintroduction in academic texts. Reintroduction is used within the conservation context to indicate the release of organisms to their former native habitat; however, a Web of Science search for this word returned thousands of publications in which the term has other meanings and contexts. Using our method, we automatically classified a sample of 3000 of these publications with over 99% accuracy, relative to a manual classification. Our approach can be used easily with other homonyms and can greatly facilitate systematic reviews or similar work in which homonyms hinder the harnessing of large text corpora. Beyond homonyms we see great promise in combining automated content analysis and machine-learning methods to handle and screen big data for relevant information in conservation science. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Measurement of the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] production cross sections in multilepton final states using 3.2 fb[Formula: see text] of [Formula: see text] collisions at [Formula: see text] = 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaboud, M; Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdinov, O; Abeloos, B; Aben, R; AbouZeid, O S; Abraham, N L; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abreu, R; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Affolder, A A; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Agricola, J; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Ahlen, S P; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Akerstedt, H; Åkesson, T P A; Akimov, A V; Alberghi, G L; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Ali, B; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Alkire, S P; Allbrooke, B M M; Allen, B W; Allport, P P; Aloisio, A; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alpigiani, C; Alstaty, M; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Álvarez Piqueras, D; Alviggi, M G; Amadio, B T; Amako, K; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Amidei, D; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anders, J K; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Angelidakis, S; Angelozzi, I; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antel, C; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aperio Bella, L; Arabidze, G; Arai, Y; Araque, J P; Arce, A T H; Arduh, F A; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Armitage, L J; Arnaez, O; Arnold, H; Arratia, M; Arslan, O; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Artz, S; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ashkenazi, A; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Augsten, K; Avolio, G; Axen, B; Ayoub, M K; Azuelos, G; Baak, M A; Baas, A E; Baca, M J; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baldin, E M; Balek, P; Balestri, T; Balli, F; Balunas, W K; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Bannoura, A A E; Barak, L; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Barillari, T; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnes, S L; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Barnovska-Blenessy, Z; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barranco Navarro, L; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartos, P; Basalaev, A; Bassalat, A; Bates, R L; Batista, S J; Batley, J R; Battaglia, M; Bauce, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beacham, J B; Beattie, M D; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, K; Becker, M; Beckingham, M; Becot, C; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bednyakov, V A; Bedognetti, M; Bee, C P; Beemster, L J; Beermann, T A; Begel, M; Behr, J K; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, A S; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellerive, A; Bellomo, M; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Belyaev, N L; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bender, M; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez, J; Benjamin, D P; Bensinger, J R; Bentvelsen, S; Beresford, L; Beretta, M; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Beringer, J; Berlendis, S; Bernard, N R; Bernius, C; Bernlochner, F U; Berry, T; Berta, P; Bertella, C; Bertoli, G; Bertolucci, F; Bertram, I A; Bertsche, C; Bertsche, D; Besjes, G J; Bessidskaia Bylund, O; Bessner, M; Besson, N; Betancourt, C; Bethke, S; Bevan, A J; 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Wittkowski, J; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Worm, S D; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wu, M; Wu, M; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wyatt, T R; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xu, D; Xu, L; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yakabe, R; Yamaguchi, D; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, S; Yamanaka, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, H; Yang, Y; Yang, Z; Yao, W-M; Yap, Y C; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Wong, K H Yau; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yeletskikh, I; Yen, A L; Yildirim, E; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J M; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yuen, S P Y; Yusuff, I; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zakharchuk, N; Zalieckas, J; Zaman, A; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zeng, J C; Zeng, Q; Zengel, K; Zenin, O; Ženiš, T; Zerwas, D; Zhang, D; Zhang, F; Zhang, G; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, R; Zhang, R; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, X; Zhao, Y; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, C; Zhou, L; Zhou, L; Zhou, M; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhukov, K; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimine, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Zinser, M; Ziolkowski, M; Živković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zwalinski, L

    2017-01-01

    A measurement of the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] production cross sections in final states with either two same-charge muons, or three or four leptons (electrons or muons) is presented. The analysis uses a data sample of proton-proton collisions at [Formula: see text] TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in 2015, corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb[Formula: see text]. The inclusive cross sections are extracted using likelihood fits to signal and control regions, resulting in [Formula: see text] pb and [Formula: see text] pb, in agreement with the Standard Model predictions.

  6. Measuring complexity with multifractals in texts. Translation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ausloos, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Two texts in English and one in Esperanto are transformed into 6 time series. ► D(q) and f(alpha) of such (and shuffled) time series are obtained. ► A model for text construction is presented based on a parametrized Cantor set. ► The model parameters can also be used when examining machine translated texts. ► Suggested extensions to higher dimensions: in 2D image analysis and on hypertexts. - Abstract: Should quality be almost a synonymous of complexity? To measure quality appears to be audacious, even very subjective. It is hereby proposed to use a multifractal approach in order to quantify quality, thus through complexity measures. A one-dimensional system is examined. It is known that (all) written texts can be one-dimensional nonlinear maps. Thus, several written texts by the same author are considered, together with their translation, into an unusual language, Esperanto, and asa baseline their corresponding shuffled versions. Different one-dimensional time series can be used: e.g. (i) one based on word lengths, (ii) the other based on word frequencies; both are used for studying, comparing and discussing the map structure. It is shown that a variety in style can be measured through the D(q) and f(α) curves characterizing multifractal objects. This allows to observe on the one hand whether natural and artificial languages significantly influence the writing and the translation, and whether one author’s texts differ technically from each other. In fact, the f(α) curves of the original texts are similar to each other, but the translated text shows marked differences. However in each case, the f(α) curves are far from being parabolic, – in contrast to the shuffled texts. Moreover, the Esperanto text has more extreme values. Criteria are thereby suggested for estimating a text quality, as if it is a time series only. A model is introduced in order to substantiate the findings: it consists in considering a text as a random Cantor set

  7. A Shot Number Based Approach to Performance Analysis in Table Tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamaki Sho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study proposes a novel approach that improves the conventional performance analysis in table tennis by introducing the concept of frequency, or the number of shots, of each shot number. The improvements over the conventional method are as follows: better accuracy of the evaluation of skills and tactics of players, additional insights into scoring and returning skills and ease of understanding the results with a single criterion. The performance analysis of matches played at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London was conducted using the proposed method. The results showed some effects of the shot number and gender differences in table tennis. Furthermore, comparisons were made between Chinese players and players from other countries, what threw light on the skills and tactics of the Chinese players. The present findings demonstrate that the proposed method provides useful information and has some advantages over the conventional method.

  8. Word2vec and dictionary based approach for uyghur text filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohti, Turdi; Zhao, Yunxing; Musajan, Winira

    2017-08-01

    With emerging of deep learning, the expression of words in computer has made major breakthroughs and the effect of text processing based on word vector has also been significantly improved. This paper maps all patterns into a more abstract vector space by Uyghur-Chinese dictionary and deep learning tool Word2vec, at first. Secondly, a similar pattern is found according the characteristics of the original pattern. Finally, texts are filtered using Wu-Manber algorithm. Experiments show that this method can get obvious filtering accuracy and recall of Uyghur text information improved.

  9. Text mining a self-report back-translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Angel; Aluja, Anton

    2016-06-01

    There are several recommendations about the routine to undertake when back translating self-report instruments in cross-cultural research. However, text mining methods have been generally ignored within this field. This work describes a text mining innovative application useful to adapt a personality questionnaire to 12 different languages. The method is divided in 3 different stages, a descriptive analysis of the available back-translated instrument versions, a dissimilarity assessment between the source language instrument and the 12 back-translations, and an item assessment of item meaning equivalence. The suggested method contributes to improve the back-translation process of self-report instruments for cross-cultural research in 2 significant intertwined ways. First, it defines a systematic approach to the back translation issue, allowing for a more orderly and informed evaluation concerning the equivalence of different versions of the same instrument in different languages. Second, it provides more accurate instrument back-translations, which has direct implications for the reliability and validity of the instrument's test scores when used in different cultures/languages. In addition, this procedure can be extended to the back-translation of self-reports measuring psychological constructs in clinical assessment. Future research works could refine the suggested methodology and use additional available text mining tools. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. A NEW APPROACH TO DETECT CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE USING DETRENDED FLUCTUATION ANALYSIS OF ELECTROCARDIOGRAM SIGNALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHANDRAKAR KAMATH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate how far the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA approach helps to characterize the short-term and intermediate-term fractal correlations in the raw electrocardiogram (ECG signals and thereby discriminate between normal and congestive heart failure (CHF subjects. The DFA-1 calculations were performed on normal and CHF short-term ECG segments, of the order of 20 seconds duration. Differences were found in shortterm and intermediate-term correlation properties and the corresponding scaling exponents of the two groups (normal and CHF. The statistical analyses show that short-term fractal scaling exponent alone is sufficient to distinguish between normal and CHF subjects. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC analysis confirms the robustness of this new approach and exhibits an average accuracy that exceeds 98.2%, average sensitivity of about 98.4%, positive predictivity of 98.00%, and average specificity of 98.00%.

  11. Classifying Written Texts Through Rhythmic Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balint, Mihaela; Dascalu, Mihai; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Rhythm analysis of written texts focuses on literary analysis and it mainly considers poetry. In this paper we investigate the relevance of rhythmic features for categorizing texts in prosaic form pertaining to different genres. Our contribution is threefold. First, we define a set of rhythmic

  12. Intertextuality within the linguistic analysis of a literary text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л Н Лунькова

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the phenomenon of precedent texts in fiction, the ways they are introduced into it and the possibilities of their linguistic interpretation within secondary texts.

  13. Approaches to Enhance Sensemaking for Intelligence Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McBeth, Michael

    2002-01-01

    ..., and to apply persuasion skills to interact more productively with others. Each approach is explained from a sensemaking perspective and linked to Richard Heuer's Psychology of Intelligence Analysis...

  14. Word-Length Correlations and Memory in Large Texts: A Visibility Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Guzmán-Vargas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We study the correlation properties of word lengths in large texts from 30 ebooks in the English language from the Gutenberg Project (www.gutenberg.org using the natural visibility graph method (NVG. NVG converts a time series into a graph and then analyzes its graph properties. First, the original sequence of words is transformed into a sequence of values containing the length of each word, and then, it is integrated. Next, we apply the NVG to the integrated word-length series and construct the network. We show that the degree distribution of that network follows a power law, P ( k ∼ k - γ , with two regimes, which are characterized by the exponents γ s ≈ 1 . 7 (at short degree scales and γ l ≈ 1 . 3 (at large degree scales. This suggests that word lengths are much more strongly correlated at large distances between words than at short distances between words. That finding is also supported by the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA and recurrence time distribution. These results provide new information about the universal characteristics of the structure of written texts beyond that given by word frequencies.

  15. Investigating the similarities of some cultural factors in Ghabousnameh withe Avesta and Pahlavi texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morad Esmaeeli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Qaboosnameh is one of the oldest and most important pre-Mogul invasion prose work that is rich with Iranian culture and traditions. The Iranian cultural identity is greatly and appropriately reflected in this work. The current paper tries to investigate seven important features of this work of literature. By using text analysis method and also document study approach, the authors of the current research paper did their best to conduct extensive research on pre-Islamic texts hoping to present a clearer picture of the country at the time of invasion and cultural exchange.

  16. R Package multiPIM: A Causal Inference Approach to Variable Importance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan J Ritter

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the R package multiPIM, including statistical background, functionality and user options. The package is for variable importance analysis, and is meant primarily for analyzing data from exploratory epidemiological studies, though it could certainly be applied in other areas as well. The approach taken to variable importance comes from the causal inference field, and is different from approaches taken in other R packages. By default, multiPIM uses a double robust targeted maximum likelihood estimator (TMLE of a parameter akin to the attributable risk. Several regression methods/machine learning algorithms are available for estimating the nuisance parameters of the models, including super learner, a meta-learner which combines several different algorithms into one. We describe a simulation in which the double robust TMLE is compared to the graphical computation estimator. We also provide example analyses using two data sets which are included with the package.

  17. Novel approach in quantitative analysis of shearography method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2002-01-01

    The application of laser interferometry in industrial non-destructive testing and material characterization is becoming more prevalent since this method provides non-contact full-field inspection of the test object. However their application only limited to the qualitative analysis, current trend has changed to the development of this method by the introduction of quantitative analysis, which attempts to detail the defect examined. This being the design feature for a ranges of object size to be examined. The growing commercial demand for quantitative analysis for NDT and material characterization is determining the quality of optical and analysis instrument. However very little attention is currently being paid to understanding, quantifying and compensating for the numerous error sources which are a function of interferometers. This paper presents a comparison of measurement analysis using the established theoretical approach and the new approach, taken into account the factor of divergence illumination and other geometrical factors. The difference in the measurement system could be associated in the error factor. (Author)

  18. The Covariance Adjustment Approaches for Combining Incomparable Cox Regressions Caused by Unbalanced Covariates Adjustment: A Multivariate Meta-Analysis Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Dehesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Univariate meta-analysis (UM procedure, as a technique that provides a single overall result, has become increasingly popular. Neglecting the existence of other concomitant covariates in the models leads to loss of treatment efficiency. Our aim was proposing four new approximation approaches for the covariance matrix of the coefficients, which is not readily available for the multivariate generalized least square (MGLS method as a multivariate meta-analysis approach. Methods. We evaluated the efficiency of four new approaches including zero correlation (ZC, common correlation (CC, estimated correlation (EC, and multivariate multilevel correlation (MMC on the estimation bias, mean square error (MSE, and 95% probability coverage of the confidence interval (CI in the synthesis of Cox proportional hazard models coefficients in a simulation study. Result. Comparing the results of the simulation study on the MSE, bias, and CI of the estimated coefficients indicated that MMC approach was the most accurate procedure compared to EC, CC, and ZC procedures. The precision ranking of the four approaches according to all above settings was MMC ≥ EC ≥ CC ≥ ZC. Conclusion. This study highlights advantages of MGLS meta-analysis on UM approach. The results suggested the use of MMC procedure to overcome the lack of information for having a complete covariance matrix of the coefficients.

  19. Translation Analysis on Civil Engineering Text Produced by Machine Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutopo Anam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation is extremely needed in communication since people have serious problem in the language used. Translation activity is done by the person in charge for translating the material. Translation activity is also able to be done by machine. It is called machine translation, reflected in the programs developed by programmer. One of them is Transtool. Many people used Transtool for helping them in solving the problem related with translation activities. This paper wants to deliver how important is the Transtool program, how effective is Transtool program and how is the function of Transtool for human business. This study applies qualitative research. The sources of data were document and informant. This study used documentation and in dept-interviewing as the techniques for collecting data. The collected data were analyzed by using interactive analysis. The results of the study show that, first; Transtool program is helpful for people in translating the civil engineering text and it functions as the aid or helper, second; the working of Transtool software program is effective enough and third; the result of translation produced by Transtool is good for short and simple sentences and not readable, not understandable and not accurate for long sentences (compound, complex and compound complex thought the result is informative. The translated material must be edited by the professional translator.

  20. Making computers noble. An experiment in automatic analysis of medieval texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Colli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available L’analisi informatica di testi filosofici, la creazione di database, ipertesti o edizioni elettroniche non costituiscono più unicamente una ricerca di frontiera, ma sono da molti anni una risorsa preziosa per gli studi umanistici. Ora, non si tratta di richiedere alle macchine un ulteriore sforzo per comprendere il linguaggio umano, quanto piuttosto di perfezionare gli strumenti affinché esse possano essere a tutti gli effetti collaboratori di ricerca. Questo articolo è concepito come il resoconto di un esperimento finalizzato a documentare come le associazioni lessicali di un gruppo selezionato di testi medievali possa offrire qualche suggerimento in merito ai loro contenuti teorici. Computer analysis of texts, creation of databases hypertexts and digital editions are not the final frontier of research anymore. Quite the contrary, from many years they have been representing a significant contribution to medieval studies. Therefore, we do not mean to make the computer able to grasp the meaning of human language and penetrate its secrets, but rather we aim at improving their tools, so that they will become an even more efficient equipment employed in research activities. This paper is thought as a sort of technical report with the proposed task to verify if an automatic identification of some word associations within a selected groups of medieval writings produces suggestions on the subject of the processed texts, able to be used in a theoretical inquiry.

  1. A Novel Synchronization-Based Approach for Functional Connectivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lombardi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex network analysis has become a gold standard to investigate functional connectivity in the human brain. Popular approaches for quantifying functional coupling between fMRI time series are linear zero-lag correlation methods; however, they might reveal only partial aspects of the functional links between brain areas. In this work, we propose a novel approach for assessing functional coupling between fMRI time series and constructing functional brain networks. A phase space framework is used to map couples of signals exploiting their cross recurrence plots (CRPs to compare the trajectories of the interacting systems. A synchronization metric is extracted from the CRP to assess the coupling behavior of the time series. Since the functional communities of a healthy population are expected to be highly consistent for the same task, we defined functional networks of task-related fMRI data of a cohort of healthy subjects and applied a modularity algorithm in order to determine the community structures of the networks. The within-group similarity of communities is evaluated to verify whether such new metric is robust enough against noise. The synchronization metric is also compared with Pearson’s correlation coefficient and the detected communities seem to better reflect the functional brain organization during the specific task.

  2. Text mining to decipher free-response consumer complaints: insights from the NHTSA vehicle owner's complaint database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazizadeh, Mahtab; McDonald, Anthony D; Lee, John D

    2014-09-01

    This study applies text mining to extract clusters of vehicle problems and associated trends from free-response data in the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's vehicle owner's complaint database. As the automotive industry adopts new technologies, it is important to systematically assess the effect of these changes on traffic safety. Driving simulators, naturalistic driving data, and crash databases all contribute to a better understanding of how drivers respond to changing vehicle technology, but other approaches, such as automated analysis of incident reports, are needed. Free-response data from incidents representing two severity levels (fatal incidents and incidents involving injury) were analyzed using a text mining approach: latent semantic analysis (LSA). LSA and hierarchical clustering identified clusters of complaints for each severity level, which were compared and analyzed across time. Cluster analysis identified eight clusters of fatal incidents and six clusters of incidents involving injury. Comparisons showed that although the airbag clusters across the two severity levels have the same most frequent terms, the circumstances around the incidents differ. The time trends show clear increases in complaints surrounding the Ford/Firestone tire recall and the Toyota unintended acceleration recall. Increases in complaints may be partially driven by these recall announcements and the associated media attention. Text mining can reveal useful information from free-response databases that would otherwise be prohibitively time-consuming and difficult to summarize manually. Text mining can extend human analysis capabilities for large free-response databases to support earlier detection of problems and more timely safety interventions.

  3. A Theoretical Analysis of the Mission Statement Based on the Axiological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Costel EŞI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is focused on a theoretical analysis of formulating the mission statement of business organizations in relation to the idea of the organizational axiological core. On one hand, we consider the CSR-Corporate Social Responsibility which, in our view, must be brought into direct connection both with the moral entrepreneurship (which should support the philosophical perspective of the statement of business organizations mission and the purely economic entrepreneurship based on profit maximization (which should support the pragmatic perspective. On the other hand, an analysis of the moral concepts which should underpin business is becoming fundamental, in our view, as far as the idea of the social specific value of the social entrepreneurship is evidenced. Therefore, our approach highlights a number of epistemic explanations in relation to the actual practice dimension.

  4. Sentiment Analysis on Tweets about Diabetes: An Aspect-Level Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Salas-Zárate

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some methods of sentiment analysis have been developed for the health domain; however, the diabetes domain has not been explored yet. In addition, there is a lack of approaches that analyze the positive or negative orientation of each aspect contained in a document (a review, a piece of news, and a tweet, among others. Based on this understanding, we propose an aspect-level sentiment analysis method based on ontologies in the diabetes domain. The sentiment of the aspects is calculated by considering the words around the aspect which are obtained through N-gram methods (N-gram after, N-gram before, and N-gram around. To evaluate the effectiveness of our method, we obtained a corpus from Twitter, which has been manually labelled at aspect level as positive, negative, or neutral. The experimental results show that the best result was obtained through the N-gram around method with a precision of 81.93%, a recall of 81.13%, and an F-measure of 81.24%.

  5. A preliminary approach to creating an overview of lactoferrin multi-functionality utilizing a text mining method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Kei-ichi; Kushida, Tatsuya

    2010-06-01

    Lactoferrin is a multi-functional metal-binding glycoprotein that exhibits many biological functions of interest to many researchers from the fields of clinical medicine, dentistry, pharmacology, veterinary medicine, nutrition and milk science. To date, a number of academic reports concerning the biological activities of lactoferrin have been published and are easily accessible through public data repositories. However, as the literature is expanding daily, this presents challenges in understanding the larger picture of lactoferrin function and mechanisms. In order to overcome the "analysis paralysis" associated with lactoferrin information, we attempted to apply a text mining method to the accumulated lactoferrin literature. To this end, we used the information extraction system GENPAC (provided by Nalapro Technologies Inc., Tokyo). This information extraction system uses natural language processing and text mining technology. This system analyzes the sentences and titles from abstracts stored in the PubMed database, and can automatically extract binary relations that consist of interactions between genes/proteins, chemicals and diseases/functions. We expect that such information visualization analysis will be useful in determining novel relationships among a multitude of lactoferrin functions and mechanisms. We have demonstrated the utilization of this method to find pathways of lactoferrin participation in neovascularization, Helicobacter pylori attack on gastric mucosa, atopic dermatitis and lipid metabolism.

  6. Comparison of governance approaches for the control of antimicrobial resistance: Analysis of three European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Birgand

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Policy makers and governments are calling for coordination to address the crisis emerging from the ineffectiveness of current antibiotics and stagnated pipe-line of new ones – antimicrobial resistance (AMR. Wider contextual drivers and mechanisms are contributing to shifts in governance strategies in health care, but are national health system approaches aligned with strategies required to tackle antimicrobial resistance? This article provides an analysis of governance approaches within healthcare systems including: priority setting, performance monitoring and accountability for AMR prevention in three European countries: England, France and Germany. Advantages and unresolved issues from these different experiences are reported, concluding that mechanisms are needed to support partnerships between healthcare professionals and patients with democratized decision-making and accountability via collaboration. But along with this multi-stakeholder approach to governance, a balance between regulation and persuasion is needed.

  7. Preparing a Safety Analysis Report using the building block approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrington, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    The credibility of the applicant in a licensing proceeding is severely impacted by the quality of the license application, particularly the Safety Analysis Report. To ensure the highest possible credibility, the building block approach was devised to support the development of a quality Safety Analysis Report. The approach incorporates a comprehensive planning scheme that logically ties together all levels of the investigation and provides the direction necessary to prepare a superior Safety Analysis Report

  8. Grandmaster: Interactive text-based analytics of social media [PowerPoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabian, Nathan D.; Davis, Warren Leon,; Raybourn, Elaine M.; Lakkaraju, Kiran; Whetzel, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    People use social media resources like Twitter, Facebook, forums etc. to share and discuss various activities or topics. By aggregating topic trends across many individuals using these services, we seek to construct a richer profile of a person’s activities and interests as well as provide a broader context of those activities. This profile may then be used in a variety of ways to understand groups as a collection of interests and affinities and an individual’s participation in those groups. Our approach considers that much of these data will be unstructured, free-form text. By analyzing free-form text directly, we may be able to gain an implicit grouping of individuals with shared interests based on shared conversation, and not on explicit social software linking them. In this paper, we discuss a proof-of-concept application called Grandmaster built to pull short sections of text, a person’s comments or Twitter posts, together by analysis and visualization to allow a gestalt understanding of the full collection of all individuals: how groups are similar and how they differ, based on their text inputs.

  9. SHAPE OF FEMININITY IN THE TEXT OF GEGURITAN (PHILOSOPICAL VERSE IN BALI: ANALYSIS OF FEMINISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Nyoman Karmini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study is Balinese traditional literature which is the form of geguritan(philosophical verse. The reason why such texts are used as the object of the study is that theycontain very complex and interesting narrations about feminism. The objectives of this studyare to find out the formal and narrative structure of the texts and to describe the shape offemininity in the texts and its relevance to the lives of Balinese women who are Hindufollowers in the society. The objectives are all at once the answers to the problems of the study.The theory applied is that of feminism which emphasizes the concept ofRadical-Cultural Feminism. This study is a qualitative one of which the data were collected bydocumentation method, that is, by the techniques of note taking, observation and interview. Thedata were analyzed using the formal method in accordance with literature studies.There were nine geguritan (philosophical verses which were used as the object of thestudy. From the formal structural analysis, the pupuh (strophe used, its function and literarystyle could be identified. From the content, religious and amusement functions could beidentified. From the narrative structural analysis, it could be identified that the plot waschronological and sorot balik (backward directed; the characters and characterization weredescribed to express extraordinary ability, which was based on Hinduism, while the theme wasdescribed to express the application of panca crada (the five principles in Hinduism. Therewere seven findings as far as the analysis of the text is concerned: they are: (1 the educatedwomen could determine their attitudes, make decisions, show prestige and maintain theirdignity; (2 the women in the texts had extraordinary power. This means that the women werenot weak. Therefore, the stereotype that women were weak was neglected; (3 the educatedwomen who used Hinduism as the reference could become the men’s power; (4 the womenwho could

  10. Parameter identification and global sensitivity analysis of Xin'anjiang model using meta-modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-meng Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parameter identification, model calibration, and uncertainty quantification are important steps in the model-building process, and are necessary for obtaining credible results and valuable information. Sensitivity analysis of hydrological model is a key step in model uncertainty quantification, which can identify the dominant parameters, reduce the model calibration uncertainty, and enhance the model optimization efficiency. There are, however, some shortcomings in classical approaches, including the long duration of time and high computation cost required to quantitatively assess the sensitivity of a multiple-parameter hydrological model. For this reason, a two-step statistical evaluation framework using global techniques is presented. It is based on (1 a screening method (Morris for qualitative ranking of parameters, and (2 a variance-based method integrated with a meta-model for quantitative sensitivity analysis, i.e., the Sobol method integrated with the response surface model (RSMSobol. First, the Morris screening method was used to qualitatively identify the parameters' sensitivity, and then ten parameters were selected to quantify the sensitivity indices. Subsequently, the RSMSobol method was used to quantify the sensitivity, i.e., the first-order and total sensitivity indices based on the response surface model (RSM were calculated. The RSMSobol method can not only quantify the sensitivity, but also reduce the computational cost, with good accuracy compared to the classical approaches. This approach will be effective and reliable in the global sensitivity analysis of a complex large-scale distributed hydrological model.

  11. A new approach to the classification of African oral texts | Kam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toutes ces raisons ont conduit à un nouvel examen des différents genres oraux dans le cadre africain et à proposer une division de ces textes en cinq grandes catégories. Mots clés: littérature orale, genres oraux, textes oraux, discours, énoncés, jeux de plaisanterie, chercheurs en littérature orale. Tydskrif vir Letterkunde ...

  12. A Study of Readability of Texts in Bangla through Machine Learning Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Manjira; Basu, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we have investigated text readability in Bangla language. Text readability is an indicator of the suitability of a given document with respect to a target reader group. Therefore, text readability has huge impact on educational content preparation. The advances in the field of natural language processing have enabled the automatic…

  13. Microscopic saw mark analysis: an empirical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jennifer C; Derrick, Sharon M; Wiersema, Jason M; Peters, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic saw mark analysis is a well published and generally accepted qualitative analytical method. However, little research has focused on identifying and mitigating potential sources of error associated with the method. The presented study proposes the use of classification trees and random forest classifiers as an optimal, statistically sound approach to mitigate the potential for error of variability and outcome error in microscopic saw mark analysis. The statistical model was applied to 58 experimental saw marks created with four types of saws. The saw marks were made in fresh human femurs obtained through anatomical gift and were analyzed using a Keyence digital microscope. The statistical approach weighed the variables based on discriminatory value and produced decision trees with an associated outcome error rate of 8.62-17.82%. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Introduction to audio analysis a MATLAB approach

    CERN Document Server

    Giannakopoulos, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Audio Analysis serves as a standalone introduction to audio analysis, providing theoretical background to many state-of-the-art techniques. It covers the essential theory necessary to develop audio engineering applications, but also uses programming techniques, notably MATLAB®, to take a more applied approach to the topic. Basic theory and reproducible experiments are combined to demonstrate theoretical concepts from a practical point of view and provide a solid foundation in the field of audio analysis. Audio feature extraction, audio classification, audio segmentation, au

  15. Stories of change: the text analysis of handovers in an Italian psychiatric residential care home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accordini, M; Saita, E; Irtelli, F; Buratti, M; Savuto, G

    2017-05-01

    two decades. Method Emotional text analysis (ETA) was used to analyse the MHWs' handovers completed from 1990 to 2011. Results The analysis generated four clusters and three main factors illustrating the change in the MHWs' representations of the residential care home and its occupants. The factors showed: (1) the shift from an individualistic, problem-focused view to an inclusive, community-based approach; (2) the presence of a descriptive as well as a specialized language; and (3) the presence of a double focus: on patients and professionals. Conclusions Handovers transcripts document the following changes: (1) a shift from a symptom-based to a recovery-oriented approach; (2) a modification of the MHWs values towards an holistic view of the patient; (3) a growing importance assigned to accountability, services integration and teamwork. The paper shows that handovers can be used diachronically to document organizational change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Dynamic Chemical Model for $\\text {H} _2 $/$\\text {O} _2 $ Combustion Developed Through a Community Workflow

    KAUST Repository

    Oreluk, James; Needham, Craig D.; Baskaran, Sathya; Sarathy, Mani; Burke, Michael P.; West, Richard H.; Frenklach, Michael; Westmoreland, Phillip R.

    2018-01-01

    Elementary-reaction models for $\\text{H}_2$/$\\text{O}_2$ combustion were evaluated and optimized through a collaborative workflow, establishing accuracy and characterizing uncertainties. Quantitative findings were the optimized model, the importance of $\\text{H}_2 + \\text{O}_2(1\\Delta) = \\text{H} + \\text{HO}_2$ in high-pressure flames, and the inconsistency of certain low-temperature shock-tube data. The workflow described here is proposed to be even more important because the approach and publicly available cyberinfrastructure allows future community development of evolving improvements. The workflow steps applied here were to develop an initial reaction set using Burke et al. [2012], Burke et al. [2013], Sellevag et al. [2009], and Konnov [2015]; test it for thermodynamic and kinetics consistency and plausibility against other sets in the literature; assign estimated uncertainties where not stated in the sources; select key data targets (

  17. Dynamic Chemical Model for $\\text {H} _2 $/$\\text {O} _2 $ Combustion Developed Through a Community Workflow

    KAUST Repository

    Oreluk, James

    2018-01-30

    Elementary-reaction models for $\\\\text{H}_2$/$\\\\text{O}_2$ combustion were evaluated and optimized through a collaborative workflow, establishing accuracy and characterizing uncertainties. Quantitative findings were the optimized model, the importance of $\\\\text{H}_2 + \\\\text{O}_2(1\\\\Delta) = \\\\text{H} + \\\\text{HO}_2$ in high-pressure flames, and the inconsistency of certain low-temperature shock-tube data. The workflow described here is proposed to be even more important because the approach and publicly available cyberinfrastructure allows future community development of evolving improvements. The workflow steps applied here were to develop an initial reaction set using Burke et al. [2012], Burke et al. [2013], Sellevag et al. [2009], and Konnov [2015]; test it for thermodynamic and kinetics consistency and plausibility against other sets in the literature; assign estimated uncertainties where not stated in the sources; select key data targets (

  18. Unsupervised Approach Data Analysis Based on Fuzzy Possibilistic Clustering: Application to Medical Image MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour-Eddine El Harchaoui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and processing of large data are a challenge for researchers. Several approaches have been used to model these complex data, and they are based on some mathematical theories: fuzzy, probabilistic, possibilistic, and evidence theories. In this work, we propose a new unsupervised classification approach that combines the fuzzy and possibilistic theories; our purpose is to overcome the problems of uncertain data in complex systems. We used the membership function of fuzzy c-means (FCM to initialize the parameters of possibilistic c-means (PCM, in order to solve the problem of coinciding clusters that are generated by PCM and also overcome the weakness of FCM to noise. To validate our approach, we used several validity indexes and we compared them with other conventional classification algorithms: fuzzy c-means, possibilistic c-means, and possibilistic fuzzy c-means. The experiments were realized on different synthetics data sets and real brain MR images.

  19. An Information-Based Approach to Precision Analysis of Indoor WLAN Localization Using Location Fingerprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed a novel information-based approach to precision analysis of indoor wireless local area network (WLAN localization using location fingerprint. First of all, by using the Fisher information matrix (FIM, we derive the fundamental limit of WLAN fingerprint-based localization precision considering different signal distributions in characterizing the variation of received signal strengths (RSSs in the target environment. After that, we explore the relationship between the localization precision and access point (AP placement, which can provide valuable suggestions for the design of the highly-precise localization system. Second, we adopt the heuristic simulated annealing (SA algorithm to optimize the AP locations for the sake of approaching the fundamental limit of localization precision. Finally, the extensive simulations and experiments are conducted in both regular line-of-sight (LOS and irregular non-line-of-sight (NLOS environments to demonstrate that the proposed approach can not only effectively improve the WLAN fingerprint-based localization precision, but also reduce the time overhead.

  20. Statistical and machine learning approaches for network analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmer, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Explore the multidisciplinary nature of complex networks through machine learning techniques Statistical and Machine Learning Approaches for Network Analysis provides an accessible framework for structurally analyzing graphs by bringing together known and novel approaches on graph classes and graph measures for classification. By providing different approaches based on experimental data, the book uniquely sets itself apart from the current literature by exploring the application of machine learning techniques to various types of complex networks. Comprised of chapters written by internation

  1. Approach for seismic risk analysis for CANDU plants in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B-S; Kim, T; Kang, S-K [Korea Power Engineering Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, S-Y; Roh, S-R [Korea Electric Power Corp., Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Centre

    1996-12-31

    A seismic risk analysis for CANDU type plants has never been performed. The study presented here suggested that the approach generally applied to LWR type plants could lead to unacceptable result, if directly applied to CANDU plants. This paper presents a modified approach for the seismic risk analysis of CANDU plants. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  2. Determining Women’s Sexual Self-Schemas Through Advanced Computerized Text Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Amelia M.; Boyd, Ryan L.; Pulverman, Carey S.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2015-01-01

    The meaning extraction method (MEM), an advanced computerized text analysis technique, was used to analyze women’s sexual self-schemas. Participants (n = 239) completed open-ended essays about their personal feelings associated with sex and sexuality. These essays were analyzed using the MEM, a procedure designed to extract common themes from natural language. Using the MEM procedure, we extracted seven unique themes germane to sexual self-schemas: family and development, virginity, abuse, relationship, sexual activity, attraction, and existentialism. Each of these themes is comprised of frequently used words across the participants’ descriptions of their sexual selves. Significant differences in sexual self-schemas were observed to covary with age, relationship status, and sexual abuse history. PMID:26146161

  3. Whose American Government? A Quantitative Analysis of Gender and Authorship in American Politics Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassese, Erin C.; Bos, Angela L.; Schneider, Monica C.

    2014-01-01

    American government textbooks signal to students the kinds of topics that are important and, by omission, the kinds of topics that are not important to the discipline of political science. This article examines portrayals of women in introductory American politics textbooks through a quantitative content analysis of 22 widely used texts. We find…

  4. Making Sense of Student Feedback Using Text Analysis--Adapting and Expanding a Common Lexicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Elizabeth; Lynch, Bernardine; Jones, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report the findings of a study into the automated text analysis of student feedback comments to assist in investigating a high volume of qualitative information at various levels in an Australian university. It includes the drawbacks and advantages of using selected applications and established lexicons. There has been…

  5. Short Message Service (SMS) Texting Symbols: A Functional Analysis of 10,000 Cellular Phone Text Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of symbolic expressions (e.g., "BTW," "LOL," "UR") in an SMS text messaging corpus consisting of over 10,000 text messages. More specifically, the purpose was to determine, not only how frequently these symbolic expressions are used, but how they are utilized in terms of the language functions…

  6. Using Web Crawler Technology for Text Analysis of Geo-Events: A Case Study of the Huangyan Island Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H.; Ge, Y. J.

    2013-11-01

    With the social networking and network socialisation have brought more text information and social relationships into our daily lives, the question of whether big data can be fully used to study the phenomenon and discipline of natural sciences has prompted many specialists and scholars to innovate their research. Though politics were integrally involved in the hyperlinked word issues since 1990s, automatic assembly of different geospatial web and distributed geospatial information systems utilizing service chaining have explored and built recently, the information collection and data visualisation of geo-events have always faced the bottleneck of traditional manual analysis because of the sensibility, complexity, relativity, timeliness and unexpected characteristics of political events. Based on the framework of Heritrix and the analysis of web-based text, word frequency, sentiment tendency and dissemination path of the Huangyan Island incident is studied here by combining web crawler technology and the text analysis method. The results indicate that tag cloud, frequency map, attitudes pie, individual mention ratios and dissemination flow graph based on the data collection and processing not only highlight the subject and theme vocabularies of related topics but also certain issues and problems behind it. Being able to express the time-space relationship of text information and to disseminate the information regarding geo-events, the text analysis of network information based on focused web crawler technology can be a tool for understanding the formation and diffusion of web-based public opinions in political events.

  7. Extending Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Approach for Reliability Analysis at the Software Architecture Design Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sözer, Hasan; Tekinerdogan, B.; Aksit, Mehmet; de Lemos, Rogerio; Gacek, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    Several reliability engineering approaches have been proposed to identify and recover from failures. A well-known and mature approach is the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) method that is usually utilized together with Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) to analyze and diagnose the causes of failures.

  8. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis on the Attitude Scale of Constructivist Approach for Science Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Evrekli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Underlining the importance of teachers for the constructivist approach, the present study attempts to develop “Attitude Scale of Construc¬tivist Approach for Science Teachers (ASCAST”. The pre-applications of the scale were administered to a total of 210 science teachers; however, the data obtained from 5 teachers were excluded from the analysis. As a result of the analysis of the data obtained from the pre-applications, it was found that the scale could have a single factor structure, which was tested using the confir¬matory factor analysis. As a result of the initial confirmatory factor analysis, the values of fit were examined and found to be low. Subsequently, by exam¬ining the modification indices, error covariance was added between items 23 and 24 and the model was tested once again. The added error covariance led to a significant improvement in the model, producing values of fit suitable for limit values. Thus, it was concluded that the scale could be employed with a single factor. The explained variance value for the scale developed with a sin¬gle factor structure was calculated to be 50.43% and its reliability was found to be .93. The results obtained suggest that the scale possesses reliable-valid characteristics and could be used in further studies.

  9. Experiences with Text Mining Large Collections of Unstructured Systems Development Artifacts at JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, Dan; Nikora, Allen; Hihn, Jairus; Huang, LiGuo

    2011-01-01

    Often repositories of systems engineering artifacts at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are so large and poorly structured that they have outgrown our capability to effectively manually process their contents to extract useful information. Sophisticated text mining methods and tools seem a quick, low-effort approach to automating our limited manual efforts. Our experiences of exploring such methods mainly in three areas including historical risk analysis, defect identification based on requirements analysis, and over-time analysis of system anomalies at JPL, have shown that obtaining useful results requires substantial unanticipated efforts - from preprocessing the data to transforming the output for practical applications. We have not observed any quick 'wins' or realized benefit from short-term effort avoidance through automation in this area. Surprisingly we have realized a number of unexpected long-term benefits from the process of applying text mining to our repositories. This paper elaborates some of these benefits and our important lessons learned from the process of preparing and applying text mining to large unstructured system artifacts at JPL aiming to benefit future TM applications in similar problem domains and also in hope for being extended to broader areas of applications.

  10. Rethinking Critical Mathematics: A Comparative Analysis of Critical, Reform, and Traditional Geometry Instructional Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantlinger, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a comparative analysis of three similar secondary geometry texts, one critical unit, one standards-based reform unit, and one specialist chapter. I developed the critical unit as I took the tenets of critical mathematics (CM) and substantiated them in printed curricular materials in which to teach as part of a…

  11. Approach for Text Classification Based on the Similarity Measurement between Normal Cloud Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The similarity between objects is the core research area of data mining. In order to reduce the interference of the uncertainty of nature language, a similarity measurement between normal cloud models is adopted to text classification research. On this basis, a novel text classifier based on cloud concept jumping up (CCJU-TC is proposed. It can efficiently accomplish conversion between qualitative concept and quantitative data. Through the conversion from text set to text information table based on VSM model, the text qualitative concept, which is extraction from the same category, is jumping up as a whole category concept. According to the cloud similarity between the test text and each category concept, the test text is assigned to the most similar category. By the comparison among different text classifiers in different feature selection set, it fully proves that not only does CCJU-TC have a strong ability to adapt to the different text features, but also the classification performance is also better than the traditional classifiers.

  12. Parenthetical Cohesive Explicitness: A Linguistic Approach for a Modified Translation of the Quranic Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Hawamdeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the severe criticism the Hilali and Khan (HK Translation of the Holy Quran has received for its too many parenthetical insertions, this study aimed at linguistically realizing how such added pieces of information could be for necessary cohesive explicitness or worthless redundant interpolation. Methodically, the HK translation of the first 8 verses of Chapter 18 (The Cave, Surah Al Kahf of the Holy Quran was selected to be a subject material. A number of 15 instances of explicitation put in parentheses were encountered; they were found to be based upon 23 cohesive (grammatical/lexical relationships and, hence, to be considered as ones of cohesive explicitness. Eventually, such an analysis could be of use for modifying the available translations of the Holy Quran.

  13. Text Mining for Protein Docking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha D Badal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing amount of publicly available information from biomedical research is readily accessible on the Internet, providing a powerful resource for predictive biomolecular modeling. The accumulated data on experimentally determined structures transformed structure prediction of proteins and protein complexes. Instead of exploring the enormous search space, predictive tools can simply proceed to the solution based on similarity to the existing, previously determined structures. A similar major paradigm shift is emerging due to the rapidly expanding amount of information, other than experimentally determined structures, which still can be used as constraints in biomolecular structure prediction. Automated text mining has been widely used in recreating protein interaction networks, as well as in detecting small ligand binding sites on protein structures. Combining and expanding these two well-developed areas of research, we applied the text mining to structural modeling of protein-protein complexes (protein docking. Protein docking can be significantly improved when constraints on the docking mode are available. We developed a procedure that retrieves published abstracts on a specific protein-protein interaction and extracts information relevant to docking. The procedure was assessed on protein complexes from Dockground (http://dockground.compbio.ku.edu. The results show that correct information on binding residues can be extracted for about half of the complexes. The amount of irrelevant information was reduced by conceptual analysis of a subset of the retrieved abstracts, based on the bag-of-words (features approach. Support Vector Machine models were trained and validated on the subset. The remaining abstracts were filtered by the best-performing models, which decreased the irrelevant information for ~ 25% complexes in the dataset. The extracted constraints were incorporated in the docking protocol and tested on the Dockground unbound

  14. Organizational Lerning and Strategy: Information Processing Approach of Organizaitonal Learning to Perform Strategic Choice Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustian Budi Prasetya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Study of organizational learning required to discuss the issue of strategy to understand company’s organizational knowledge and how company applied the organizational knowledge toward the changing of the environment. Method of the analysis for this research was based on desk research thoroughly on the existing literature. This research analyzed the viewpoints of different researchers in organizational learning and elaborates the information processing abilities approach of Organizational Learning (OL. Based on desk research on literature, the research discussed information processing approach to explain organizational learning and strategy choice by describing the importance of information and assumptions, the activities of knowledge acquisition, interpreting and distribution of the knowledge, typology of exploitation and exploration learning. It proposed the importance of the company to perform alignment between internal managerial process arrangement and external environment while doing the learning, based on the strategic choice space, as theatrical clustering map of the learning, the fit, the alignment, and the alliances of the organization. This research finds that the strategic space might help the analysis of balancing between exploitation and exploration learning while applying the analysis of varied firm characteristics, strategic orientation, and industrial environments.

  15. Alternative Approaches to the Analysis of Multidimensional Contingency Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Pecáková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The practical analyses of interactions between categorical variables in various areas (such as public opinion research or marketing research are often only applications of chi-square tests in two-way contingency tables. However, in many situations it is impossible to use large-sample approximations to sampling distributions when theiradequacy can be in doubt. It is known, that these approximations may be very poor when the contingency table contains very small expected frequencies. However, recent work has shown that these approximations can be very poor when the contingency table contains both small and large expected frequencies. Of course, the rule of thumb of a minimum expected frequency is not met either in the case of sparse table. The article deals with alternative approaches to the data analysis in such cases. It points out other possibilities and shows that thanks to the development of computer technology exact methods previously only difficult usable are available for this purpose.

  16. Theological Media Literacy Education and Hermeneutic Analysis of Soviet Audiovisual Anti-Religious Media Texts in Students' Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This article realized the Russian way of theological media education literacy and hermeneutic analysis of specific examples of Soviet anti-religious audiovisual media texts: a study of the process of interpretation of these media texts, cultural and historical factors influencing the views of the media agency/authors. The hermeneutic analysis…

  17. VideoSET: Video Summary Evaluation through Text

    OpenAIRE

    Yeung, Serena; Fathi, Alireza; Fei-Fei, Li

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present VideoSET, a method for Video Summary Evaluation through Text that can evaluate how well a video summary is able to retain the semantic information contained in its original video. We observe that semantics is most easily expressed in words, and develop a text-based approach for the evaluation. Given a video summary, a text representation of the video summary is first generated, and an NLP-based metric is then used to measure its semantic distance to ground-truth text ...

  18. Chapter 16: text mining for translational bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K Bretonnel; Hunter, Lawrence E

    2013-04-01

    Text mining for translational bioinformatics is a new field with tremendous research potential. It is a subfield of biomedical natural language processing that concerns itself directly with the problem of relating basic biomedical research to clinical practice, and vice versa. Applications of text mining fall both into the category of T1 translational research-translating basic science results into new interventions-and T2 translational research, or translational research for public health. Potential use cases include better phenotyping of research subjects, and pharmacogenomic research. A variety of methods for evaluating text mining applications exist, including corpora, structured test suites, and post hoc judging. Two basic principles of linguistic structure are relevant for building text mining applications. One is that linguistic structure consists of multiple levels. The other is that every level of linguistic structure is characterized by ambiguity. There are two basic approaches to text mining: rule-based, also known as knowledge-based; and machine-learning-based, also known as statistical. Many systems are hybrids of the two approaches. Shared tasks have had a strong effect on the direction of the field. Like all translational bioinformatics software, text mining software for translational bioinformatics can be considered health-critical and should be subject to the strictest standards of quality assurance and software testing.

  19. A constructivist approach to e-text design for use in undergraduate physiology courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ashley E; Rozell, Timothy G

    2015-09-01

    Electronic textbooks, or e-texts, will have an increasingly important role in college science courses within the next few years due to the rising costs of traditional texts and the increasing availability of software allowing instructors to create their own e-text. However, few guidelines exist in the literature to aid instructors in the development and design specifically of e-texts using sound learning theories; this is especially true for undergraduate physiology e-texts. In this article, we describe why constructivism is a very important educational theory for e-text design and how it may be applied in e-text development by instructors. We also provide examples of two undergraduate physiology e-texts that were designed in accordance with this educational theory but for learners of quite different backgrounds and prior knowledge levels. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  20. Text Genres in Information Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahotko, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Text genres used by so-called information organizers in the processes of information organization in information systems were explored in this research. Method: The research employed text genre socio-functional analysis. Five genre groups in information organization were distinguished. Every genre group used in information…

  1. Barriers to Women in Roles of Leadership in Higher Education: An Examination of Leadership Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Heather Hall

    2012-01-01

    This content analysis study identifies ten leadership books currently in use in college leadership courses and explores the issues of gender bias as well as masculine and feminine leadership styles throughout the selected texts. An objective of this research was to gain understanding of the unique ways women approach leadership and to determine if…

  2. Layout-aware text extraction from full-text PDF of scientific articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan Cartic

    2012-05-01

    . Finally, we discuss preliminary error analysis for our system and identify further areas of improvement. Conclusions LA-PDFText is an open-source tool for accurately extracting text from full-text scientific articles. The release of the system is available at http://code.google.com/p/lapdftext/.

  3. Improving the extraction of complex regulatory events from scientific text by using ontology-based inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jung-jae

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extraction of complex events from biomedical text is a challenging task and requires in-depth semantic analysis. Previous approaches associate lexical and syntactic resources with ontologies for the semantic analysis, but fall short in testing the benefits from the use of domain knowledge. Results We developed a system that deduces implicit events from explicitly expressed events by using inference rules that encode domain knowledge. We evaluated the system with the inference module on three tasks: First, when tested against a corpus with manually annotated events, the inference module of our system contributes 53.2% of correct extractions, but does not cause any incorrect results. Second, the system overall reproduces 33.1% of the transcription regulatory events contained in RegulonDB (up to 85.0% precision and the inference module is required for 93.8% of the reproduced events. Third, we applied the system with minimum adaptations to the identification of cell activity regulation events, confirming that the inference improves the performance of the system also on this task. Conclusions Our research shows that the inference based on domain knowledge plays a significant role in extracting complex events from text. This approach has great potential in recognizing the complex concepts of such biomedical ontologies as Gene Ontology in the literature.

  4. What Synthesis Methodology Should I Use? A Review and Analysis of Approaches to Research Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara Schick-Makaroff

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: When we began this process, we were doctoral students and a faculty member in a research methods course. As students, we were facing a review of the literature for our dissertations. We encountered several different ways of conducting a review but were unable to locate any resources that synthesized all of the various synthesis methodologies. Our purpose is to present a comprehensive overview and assessment of the main approaches to research synthesis. We use ‘research synthesis’ as a broad overarching term to describe various approaches to combining, integrating, and synthesizing research findings. Methods: We conducted an integrative review of the literature to explore the historical, contextual, and evolving nature of research synthesis. We searched five databases, reviewed websites of key organizations, hand-searched several journals, and examined relevant texts from the reference lists of the documents we had already obtained. Results: We identified four broad categories of research synthesis methodology including conventional, quantitative, qualitative, and emerging syntheses. Each of the broad categories was compared to the others on the following: key characteristics, purpose, method, product, context, underlying assumptions, unit of analysis, strengths and limitations, and when to use each approach. Conclusions: The current state of research synthesis reflects significant advancements in emerging synthesis studies that integrate diverse data types and sources. New approaches to research synthesis provide a much broader range of review alternatives available to health and social science students and researchers.

  5. Layout-aware text extraction from full-text PDF of scientific articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Cartic; Patnia, Abhishek; Hovy, Eduard; Burns, Gully Apc

    2012-05-28

    The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the most commonly used file format for online scientific publications. The absence of effective means to extract text from these PDF files in a layout-aware manner presents a significant challenge for developers of biomedical text mining or biocuration informatics systems that use published literature as an information source. In this paper we introduce the 'Layout-Aware PDF Text Extraction' (LA-PDFText) system to facilitate accurate extraction of text from PDF files of research articles for use in text mining applications. Our paper describes the construction and performance of an open source system that extracts text blocks from PDF-formatted full-text research articles and classifies them into logical units based on rules that characterize specific sections. The LA-PDFText system focuses only on the textual content of the research articles and is meant as a baseline for further experiments into more advanced extraction methods that handle multi-modal content, such as images and graphs. The system works in a three-stage process: (1) Detecting contiguous text blocks using spatial layout processing to locate and identify blocks of contiguous text, (2) Classifying text blocks into rhetorical categories using a rule-based method and (3) Stitching classified text blocks together in the correct order resulting in the extraction of text from section-wise grouped blocks. We show that our system can identify text blocks and classify them into rhetorical categories with Precision1 = 0.96% Recall = 0.89% and F1 = 0.91%. We also present an evaluation of the accuracy of the block detection algorithm used in step 2. Additionally, we have compared the accuracy of the text extracted by LA-PDFText to the text from the Open Access subset of PubMed Central. We then compared this accuracy with that of the text extracted by the PDF2Text system, 2commonly used to extract text from PDF. Finally, we discuss preliminary error analysis for

  6. A Multivariant Stream Analysis Approach to Detect and Mitigate DDoS Attacks in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raenu Kolandaisamy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs are rapidly gaining attention due to the diversity of services that they can potentially offer. However, VANET communication is vulnerable to numerous security threats such as Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS attacks. Dealing with these attacks in VANET is a challenging problem. Most of the existing DDoS detection techniques suffer from poor accuracy and high computational overhead. To cope with these problems, we present a novel Multivariant Stream Analysis (MVSA approach. The proposed MVSA approach maintains the multiple stages for detection DDoS attack in network. The Multivariant Stream Analysis gives unique result based on the Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication through Road Side Unit. The approach observes the traffic in different situations and time frames and maintains different rules for various traffic classes in various time windows. The performance of the MVSA is evaluated using an NS2 simulator. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the MVSA regarding detection accuracy and reducing the impact on VANET communication.

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE APPROACH TO THE ATLANTIC FOREST IN HIGH SCHOOL BIOLOGY TEXTBOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicácio Oliveira Freitas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The textbooks are the main teaching tool for students and teachers. The analysis of these books enables point out several shortcomings in relation to the contents approach. Thus, the objective of this work was to analyze the approach to the Atlantic Forest, considered one of the most degraded environments of the world. A total of seven high school biology textbooks were analyzed, following an evaluation script with general information, biotic and abiotic factors, environmental conservation and anthropic action, which were considered as satisfactory or unsatisfactory in the textbooks evaluation. In general, the Atlantic Forest theme has been addressed by all assessed books, including specific topics, however, some aspects such as the use of images was made improperly, leading to misunderstandings about Atlantic forest. In addition, ecosystem dynamics, its components and the environmental impacts have not been addressed satisfactorily in the majority of the works assessed. In general, the theme Atlantic Forest has been addressed by all assessed books, including specific topics, however, many aspects of this theme presented problems in their approach: update, concepts, definitions and importance, and also presented problems in their illustration of the current situation of Atlantic Forest. Periodic revisions of these textbooks are of great importance to assure student formation that allows them to analyze and know the effects of their actions on the environment and to reflect on ways to alleviates them. Keywords: biology textbooks; ecosystem; contents analysis.

  8. One-way versus two-way text messaging on improving medication adherence: meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, David S; Butt, Shahena; Bestwick, Jonathan P

    2015-10-01

    Mobile telephone text messaging is a simple potential solution to the failure to take medications as directed. There is uncertainty over the effectiveness of 1-way text messaging (sending text message reminders only) compared with 2-way text messaging (sending reminders and receiving replies confirming whether medication has been taken) as a means of improving medication adherence. A meta-analysis of 8 randomized trials (1994 patients) that tested the effectiveness of text messaging on medication adherence was performed. The trials were divided into 2 groups: trials using 1-way text messaging versus no text messaging and trials using 2-way text messaging versus no text messaging. The summary estimates of the effect of the 2 methods of text messaging (1-way or 2-way) were compared. The summary relative risk estimate was 1.04 (95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.11) for 1-way text messaging and 1.23 (95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.35) for 2-way text messaging. The difference in effect between the 2 methods was statistically significant (P = .007). Two-way text messaging is associated with substantially improved medication adherence compared with 1-way text messaging. This has important implications in the provision of mobile-based messaging in the management of patients taking medication for the prevention of chronic disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. NOTICING HYBRID RECASTS IN TEXT CHAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J. Oliver

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined ten EFL learners’ noticing of the corrective nature of a form of text-based SCMC (text chat feedback that combined a recast of a grammatical error with metalinguistic information. The feedback, termed a hybrid recast, was provided by a native-speaker interlocutor during two text chat activities: a spot-the-difference and picture-ordering task. Data was collected in two ways: analysis of task-based dyadic text chat interaction in which uptake was used as an indicator of learner noticing, and a post-task questionnaire containing questions that identified evidence of learner noticing. Interaction analysis showed that learners responded to almost two thirds of the hybrid recasts with uptake. In addition, every learner provided evidence that they had correctly perceived at least some of the hybrid recasts as corrective in their post-task questionnaire responses.

  10. Text mining analysis of public comments regarding high-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugo, Akihide; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Wakabayashi, Yasunaga

    2005-01-01

    In order to narrow the risk perception gap as seen in social investigations between the general public and people who are involved in nuclear industry, public comments on high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal have been conducted to find the significant talking points with the general public for constructing an effective risk communication model of social risk information regarding HLW disposal. Text mining was introduced to examine public comments to identify the core public interest underlying the comments. The utilized test mining method is to cluster specific groups of words with negative meanings and then to analyze public understanding by employing text structural analysis to extract words from subjective expressions. Using these procedures, it was found that the public does not trust the nuclear fuel cycle promotion policy and shows signs of anxiety about the long-lasting technological reliability of waste storage. To develop effective social risk communication of HLW issues, these findings are expected to help experts in the nuclear industry to communicate with the general public more effectively to obtain their trust. (author)

  11. Adolescent Female Text Messaging Preferences to Prevent Pregnancy After an Emergency Department Visit: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernick, Lauren Stephanie; Schnall, Rebecca; Stockwell, Melissa S; Castaño, Paula M; Higgins, Tracy; Westhoff, Carolyn; Santelli, John; Dayan, Peter S

    2016-09-29

    Over 15 million adolescents use the emergency department (ED) each year in the United States. Adolescent females who use the ED for medical care have been found to be at high risk for unintended pregnancy. Given that adolescents represent the largest users of text messaging and are receptive to receiving text messages related to their sexual health, the ED visit represents an opportunity for intervention. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore interest in and preferences for the content, frequency, and timing of an ED-based text message intervention to prevent pregnancy for adolescent females. We conducted semistructured, open-ended interviews in one urban ED in the United States with adolescent females aged 14-19 years. Eligible subjects were adolescents who were sexually active in the past 3 months, presented to the ED for a reproductive health complaint, owned a mobile phone, and did not use effective contraception. Using an interview guide, enrollment continued until saturation of key themes. The investigators designed sample text messages using the Health Beliefs Model and participants viewed these on a mobile phone. The team recorded, transcribed, and coded interviews based on thematic analysis using the qualitative analysis software NVivo and Excel. Participants (n=14) were predominantly Hispanic (13/14; 93%), insured (13/14; 93%), ED users in the past year (12/14; 86%), and frequent text users (10/14; 71% had sent or received >30 texts per day). All were interested in receiving text messages from the ED about pregnancy prevention, favoring messages that were "brief," "professional," and "nonaccusatory." Respondents favored texts with links to websites, repeated information regarding places to receive "confidential" care, and focused information on contraception options and misconceptions. Preferences for text message frequency varied from daily to monthly, with random hours of delivery to maintain "surprise." No participant feared that text

  12. Illustrations as Adjuncts to Prose: A Text-Appropriate Processing Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddill, Paula J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The effects of pictorial illustrations on memory for text were studied in 144 college students. Two experiments indicated that illustrations serve a supplementary function; adjunct pictures alone, without special processing instructions, do not help learners encode information that is not normally encoded in the first place. (SLD)

  13. Liquidity indicator for the Croatian economy – Factor analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Čižmešija

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Croatian business surveys (BS are conducted in the manufacturing industry, retail trade and construction sector. In all of these sectors, manager´s assessments of liquidity are measured. The aim of the paper was to form a new composite liquidity indicator by including business survey liquidity measures from all three covered economic sectors in the Croatian economy mentioned above. In calculating the leading indicator, a factor analysis approach was used. However, this kind of indicator does not exist in a Croatia or in any other European economy. Furthermore, the issue of Croatian companies´ illiquidity is highly neglected in the literature. The empirical analysis consists of two parts. In the first part the new liquidity indicator was formed using factor analysis. One factor (representing the new liquidity indicator; LI was extracted out of the three liquidity variables in three economic sectors. This factor represents the new liquidity indicator. In the second part, econometric models were applied in order to investigate the forecasting properties of the new business survey liquidity indicator, when predicting the direction of changes in Croatian industrial production. The quarterly data used in the research covered the period from January 2000 to April 2013. Based on econometric analysis, it can be concluded that the LI is a leading indicator of Croatia’s industrial production with better forecasting properties then the standard liquidity indicators (formed in a manufacturing industry.

  14. Foreign Policy: Approaches, Levels Of Analysis, Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Šoljan

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of key issues related to foreign policy and foreign policy theories in the wider context of political science. Discussing the origins and development of foreign policy analysis (FPA), as well as scholarly work produced over time, it argues that today FPA encompasses a variety of theoretical approaches, models and tools. These share the understanding that foreign policy outputs cannot be fully explained if analysis is confined to the systemic level. Furthermore,...

  15. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH TO ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF INFORMATION PROTECTION IN INFORMATION SYSTEMS BASED ON VULNERABILITY DANGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Krotiuk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a methodological approach to an analysis and estimation of information security in the information systems which is based on the analysis of vulnerabilities and an extent of their hazard. By vulnerability hazard it is meant a complexity of its operation as a part of an information system. The required and sufficient vulnerability operational conditions  have  been  determined in the paper. The paper proposes a generalized model for attack realization which is used as a basis for construction of an attack realization model for an operation of a particular vulnerability. A criterion for estimation of information protection in the information systems which is based on the estimation of vulnerability hazard is formulated in the paper. The proposed approach allows to obtain a quantitative estimation of the information system security on the basis of the proposed schemes on realization of typical attacks for the distinguished classes of vulnerabilities.The methodical approach is used for choosing variants to be applied for realization of protection mechanisms in the information systems as well as for estimation of information safety in the operating information systems.

  16. Meta-analysis and other approaches for synthesizing structured and unstructured data in plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherm, H; Thomas, C S; Garrett, K A; Olsen, J M

    2014-01-01

    The term data deluge is used widely to describe the rapidly accelerating growth of information in the technical literature, in scientific databases, and in informal sources such as the Internet and social media. The massive volume and increased complexity of information challenge traditional methods of data analysis but at the same time provide unprecedented opportunities to test hypotheses or uncover new relationships via mining of existing databases and literature. In this review, we discuss analytical approaches that are beginning to be applied to help synthesize the vast amount of information generated by the data deluge and thus accelerate the pace of discovery in plant pathology. We begin with a review of meta-analysis as an established approach for summarizing standardized (structured) data across the literature. We then turn to examples of synthesizing more complex, unstructured data sets through a range of data-mining approaches, including the incorporation of 'omics data in epidemiological analyses. We conclude with a discussion of methodologies for leveraging information contained in novel, open-source data sets through web crawling, text mining, and social media analytics, primarily in the context of digital disease surveillance. Rapidly evolving computational resources provide platforms for integrating large and complex data sets, motivating research that will draw on new types and scales of information to address big questions.

  17. Linguacultural space “Man-Nature” in literary texts: cognitive and pragmatic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldarova Ruzanna Alievna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude of representation of nature images, the links to the author’s mind, the hero, the reader can be considered in literary texts as one of the most important sources for identifying the parameters of the national picture of the world and the individually author’s transformation of its components. Researches that identify patterns of functioning linguacultural spaces in the texts are able to give new results projected in the linguistic picture of the ethnic group of the world due to reflections in literary texts of archetypal, stereotyped images of peculiar linguistic culture and ethnic group as a whole as well as individually-copyright, which characterize a particular linguistic identity and its conception of the world. Cognitive paradigm of modern linguistics, anthropocentric in nature allows to consider culture as a process modeling language, which naturally highlights the problem of linguistic linguaculture of predetermined value. Great importance in this regard is the concept of space as linguocultural cognitive model of objective reality. Cognitive-pragmatic potential of a literary text is deepening due to the introduction the descriptions of nature, since they always implement the ethical, aesthetic, and intellectual abilities of the creative subject.

  18. Specifics of Educational Texts Selection for Schoolchildren Doing the Humanities Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Oblasova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the new approach to educational text selection for the humanities teaching. Its specifics is based on the wide interpretation of educational texts, as the culture texts involved in cognitive learning activity and fulfilling the multiple tasks of the related subjects and personal development. The educational text is taken as a generalized model, its content and structure determining the scheme of a speech cognitive activity, as well as the meaning formation mechanism responsible for understanding and personal development. The texts and tasks selection is oriented on schoolchildren’s understanding with the reference to the psycholinguistic, psychological and hermeneutic approaches; information extraction and interpretation level related to the author’s and student’s context. The given approach could provide the basis for developing and structuring the textbooks content for the humanities subjects. 

  19. Degrees of systematic thoroughness: A text analysis of student technical science writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Catherine Julia

    This dissertation investigates student technical science writing and use of evidence. Student writers attended a writing-intensive undergraduate university oceanography course where they were required to write a technical paper drawing from an instructor-designed software program, Our Dynamic Planet. This software includes multiple interactive geological data sets relevant to plate tectonics. Through qualitative text analysis of students science writing, two research questions frame the study asking: How are the papers textually structured? Are there distinctions between high- and low-rated papers? General and specific text characteristics within three critical sections of the technical paper are identified and analyzed (Observations, Interpretations, Conclusions). Specific text characteristics consist of typical types of figures displayed in the papers, and typical statements within each paper section. Data gathering consisted of collecting 15 student papers which constitute the population of study. An analytical method was designed to manage and analyze the text characteristics. It has three stages: identifying coding categories, re-formulating the categories, and configuring categories. Three important elements emerged that identified notable distinctions in paper quality: data display and use, narration of complex geological feature relationships, and overall organization of text structure. An inter-rater coding concordance check was conducted, and showed high concordance ratios for the coding of each section: Observations = 0.95; Interpretations = 0.93; and Conclusions = 0.87. These categories collectively reveal a larger pattern of general differences in the paper quality levels (high, low, medium). This variation in the quality of papers demonstrates degrees of systematic thoroughness, which is defined as how systematically each student engages in the tasks of the assignment, and how thoroughly and consistently the student follows through on that systematic

  20. Machine printed text and handwriting identification in noisy document images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yefeng; Li, Huiping; Doermann, David

    2004-03-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of the identification of text in noisy document images. We are especially focused on segmenting and identifying between handwriting and machine printed text because: 1) Handwriting in a document often indicates corrections, additions, or other supplemental information that should be treated differently from the main content and 2) the segmentation and recognition techniques requested for machine printed and handwritten text are significantly different. A novel aspect of our approach is that we treat noise as a separate class and model noise based on selected features. Trained Fisher classifiers are used to identify machine printed text and handwriting from noise and we further exploit context to refine the classification. A Markov Random Field-based (MRF) approach is used to model the geometrical structure of the printed text, handwriting, and noise to rectify misclassifications. Experimental results show that our approach is robust and can significantly improve page segmentation in noisy document collections.

  1. A Frame Analysis Approach To Cross-Cultural Television Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Noel M. Murray

    2011-01-01

    The role of visuals in advertising research is examined. An argument is developed to support a theory of frame analysis for cross-cultural television advertising. Frame analysis is explained and commercials from Japan and the Dominican Republic are used to illustrate application of the theory. It is hoped that frame analysis will supplement content analysis as a methodological approach to cross-cultural television advertising.

  2. Recent Advances and Emerging Applications in Text and Data Mining for Biomedical Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Graciela H; Tahsin, Tasnia; Goodale, Britton C; Greene, Anna C; Greene, Casey S

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine will revolutionize the way we treat and prevent disease. A major barrier to the implementation of precision medicine that clinicians and translational scientists face is understanding the underlying mechanisms of disease. We are starting to address this challenge through automatic approaches for information extraction, representation and analysis. Recent advances in text and data mining have been applied to a broad spectrum of key biomedical questions in genomics, pharmacogenomics and other fields. We present an overview of the fundamental methods for text and data mining, as well as recent advances and emerging applications toward precision medicine. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. EmoHeart: Conveying Emotions in Second Life Based on Affect Sensing from Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Neviarouskaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The 3D virtual world of “Second Life” imitates a form of real life by providing a space for rich interactions and social events. Second Life encourages people to establish or strengthen interpersonal relations, to share ideas, to gain new experiences, and to feel genuine emotions accompanying all adventures of virtual reality. Undoubtedly, emotions play a powerful role in communication. However, to trigger visual display of user's affective state in a virtual world, user has to manually assign appropriate facial expression or gesture to own avatar. Affect sensing from text, which enables automatic expression of emotions in the virtual environment, is a method to avoid manual control by the user and to enrich remote communications effortlessly. In this paper, we describe a lexical rule-based approach to recognition of emotions from text and an application of the developed Affect Analysis Model in Second Life. Based on the result of the Affect Analysis Model, the developed EmoHeart (“object” in Second Life triggers animations of avatar facial expressions and visualizes emotion by heart-shaped textures.

  4. Development of Workshops on Biodiversity and Evaluation of the Educational Effect by Text Mining Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, R.; Iijima, A.

    2014-12-01

    Conservation of biodiversity is one of the key issues in the environmental studies. As means to solve this issue, education is becoming increasingly important. In the previous work, we have developed a course of workshops on the conservation of biodiversity. To disseminate the course as a tool for environmental education, determination of the educational effect is essential. A text mining enables analyses of frequency and co-occurrence of words in the freely described texts. This study is intended to evaluate the effect of workshop by using text mining technique. We hosted the originally developed workshop on the conservation of biodiversity for 22 college students. The aim of the workshop was to inform the definition of biodiversity. Generally, biodiversity refers to the diversity of ecosystem, diversity between species, and diversity within species. To facilitate discussion, supplementary materials were used. For instance, field guides of wildlife species were used to discuss about the diversity of ecosystem. Moreover, a hierarchical framework in an ecological pyramid was shown for understanding the role of diversity between species. Besides, we offered a document material on the historical affair of Potato Famine in Ireland to discuss about the diversity within species from the genetic viewpoint. Before and after the workshop, we asked students for free description on the definition of biodiversity, and analyzed by using Tiny Text Miner. This technique enables Japanese language morphological analysis. Frequently-used words were sorted into some categories. Moreover, a principle component analysis was carried out. After the workshop, frequency of the words tagged to diversity between species and diversity within species has significantly increased. From a principle component analysis, the 1st component consists of the words such as producer, consumer, decomposer, and food chain. This indicates that the students have comprehended the close relationship between

  5. Basic Test Framework for the Evaluation of Text Line Segmentation and Text Parameter Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Brodić

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Text line segmentation is an essential stage in off-line optical character recognition (OCR systems. It is a key because inaccurately segmented text lines will lead to OCR failure. Text line segmentation of handwritten documents is a complex and diverse problem, complicated by the nature of handwriting. Hence, text line segmentation is a leading challenge in handwritten document image processing. Due to inconsistencies in measurement and evaluation of text segmentation algorithm quality, some basic set of measurement methods is required. Currently, there is no commonly accepted one and all algorithm evaluation is custom oriented. In this paper, a basic test framework for the evaluation of text feature extraction algorithms is proposed. This test framework consists of a few experiments primarily linked to text line segmentation, skew rate and reference text line evaluation. Although they are mutually independent, the results obtained are strongly cross linked. In the end, its suitability for different types of letters and languages as well as its adaptability are its main advantages. Thus, the paper presents an efficient evaluation method for text analysis algorithms.

  6. Integrating text mining, data mining, and network analysis for identifying genetic breast cancer trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurca, Gabriela; Addam, Omar; Aksac, Alper; Gao, Shang; Özyer, Tansel; Demetrick, Douglas; Alhajj, Reda

    2016-04-26

    Breast cancer is a serious disease which affects many women and may lead to death. It has received considerable attention from the research community. Thus, biomedical researchers aim to find genetic biomarkers indicative of the disease. Novel biomarkers can be elucidated from the existing literature. However, the vast amount of scientific publications on breast cancer make this a daunting task. This paper presents a framework which investigates existing literature data for informative discoveries. It integrates text mining and social network analysis in order to identify new potential biomarkers for breast cancer. We utilized PubMed for the testing. We investigated gene-gene interactions, as well as novel interactions such as gene-year, gene-country, and abstract-country to find out how the discoveries varied over time and how overlapping/diverse are the discoveries and the interest of various research groups in different countries. Interesting trends have been identified and discussed, e.g., different genes are highlighted in relationship to different countries though the various genes were found to share functionality. Some text analysis based results have been validated against results from other tools that predict gene-gene relations and gene functions.

  7. IDHEAS – A NEW APPROACH FOR HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. W. Parry; J.A Forester; V.N. Dang; S. M. L. Hendrickson; M. Presley; E. Lois; J. Xing

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes a method, IDHEAS (Integrated Decision-Tree Human Event Analysis System) that has been developed jointly by the US NRC and EPRI as an improved approach to Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) that is based on an understanding of the cognitive mechanisms and performance influencing factors (PIFs) that affect operator responses. The paper describes the various elements of the method, namely the performance of a detailed cognitive task analysis that is documented in a crew response tree (CRT), and the development of the associated time-line to identify the critical tasks, i.e. those whose failure results in a human failure event (HFE), and an approach to quantification that is based on explanations of why the HFE might occur.

  8. Using ontology network structure in text mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Donald J; McCart, James A; Luther, Stephen L

    2010-11-13

    Statistical text mining treats documents as bags of words, with a focus on term frequencies within documents and across document collections. Unlike natural language processing (NLP) techniques that rely on an engineered vocabulary or a full-featured ontology, statistical approaches do not make use of domain-specific knowledge. The freedom from biases can be an advantage, but at the cost of ignoring potentially valuable knowledge. The approach proposed here investigates a hybrid strategy based on computing graph measures of term importance over an entire ontology and injecting the measures into the statistical text mining process. As a starting point, we adapt existing search engine algorithms such as PageRank and HITS to determine term importance within an ontology graph. The graph-theoretic approach is evaluated using a smoking data set from the i2b2 National Center for Biomedical Computing, cast as a simple binary classification task for categorizing smoking-related documents, demonstrating consistent improvements in accuracy.

  9. How do text-messaging smoking cessation interventions confer benefit? A multiple mediation analysis of Text2Quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeppner, Bettina B; Hoeppner, Susanne S; Abroms, Lorien C

    2017-04-01

    To determine the degree to which the observed benefit of Text2Quit was accounted for by psychosocial mechanisms derived from its quit smoking messaging versus from the use of extra-programmatic smoking cessation treatments and services. Prospective, multiple mediation model of a randomized controlled trial (RCT). United States nation-wide. A total of 409 adult daily smokers participated. Participants were, on average, 35 years of age, predominantly female (68%), white (79%), lacked a college degree (70%), had medium nicotine dependence (average Fagerström Nicotine Dependence Score score of 5.2) and more than half (62%) had made a previous quit attempt. Adult daily smokers browsing the web for smoking cessation support (n = 409; recruited 19 May2011-10 July 2012) were randomized to receive smoking cessation support via Text2Quit versus a smoking cessation material. Mediators (i.e. changes in psychosocial constructs of health behavior change, use of extra-programmatic treatment) were assessed at 1 month using single-item measures and outcome (i.e. self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence) at 6-month follow-up. Mediators accounted for 35% of the effect of Text2Quit on smoking cessation. Only psychosocial mechanisms had complete mediational paths, with increases in self-efficacy [b = 0.10 (0.06-0.15)], quitting know-how [b = 0.07 (0.03-0.11)] and the sense that someone cared [b = 0.06 (0.01-0.11)], partially explaining the conferred benefit of Text2Quit. Use of outside resources, including treatments promoted explicitly by Text2Quit, i.e. medication [b = 0.001 (-0.01 to 0.01), quitline [b = -0.002 (-0.01 to 0.04)], treatments and resources not promoted by Text2Quit, i.e. online forums [b = 0.01 (-0.01 to 0.04)] and self-help materials [b = -0.01 (-0.04 to 0.02)], did not have complete mediational paths. An interaction effect existed for medication use that suggested that for participants not using medication, Text2Quit conferred substantial

  10. Text Mining Applications and Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, Michael W

    2010-01-01

    Text Mining: Applications and Theory presents the state-of-the-art algorithms for text mining from both the academic and industrial perspectives.  The contributors span several countries and scientific domains: universities, industrial corporations, and government laboratories, and demonstrate the use of techniques from machine learning, knowledge discovery, natural language processing and information retrieval to design computational models for automated text analysis and mining. This volume demonstrates how advancements in the fields of applied mathematics, computer science, machine learning

  11. New method of steganalysis for text data obtained by synonym run-length encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Nechta

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present a new stegoanalysis method for detecting a text obtained by the synonym Run-Length Encoding. The analyzed RLE-method allows us to keep some statistical properties of the text after a secret message embedding. In particular, the probabilities distribution of the bits in the extracted message and the probabilities distribution of using text synonyms keep unchanged, that ensures a high secrecy degree of the considered embedding method. In this paper we show that the embedded message changes the probabilities distribution of bit-series lengths in the extracted message, and this fact is used for our stegoanalysis. It was shown that the embedded message breaks the statistical structure of the container, and this fact is used for the stegoanalysis. The constructed stegotest compares the probability distribution of runs (with length no more than 5 bits in the message extracted from the container with reference distributions corresponding to an empty and embedded containers.  Reference distributions were obtained by analysing of 1000 natural-text containers taken from the Gutenberg Project library. In this paper we consider two approaches for obtaining reference distributions. The first approach deals with analyzing the statistic of the message extracted from the container in the usual way (using the Tyrannosaurus Lex program. The second approach involves an additional decoding of the message in accordance with the analyzed run-length encoding algorithm. Experimental results allow us to assert that the first approach is more effective. The Kullback-Leibler measure is used as a divergence measure of two probability distributions. It was shown that the proposed method makes it possible to detect presence of the secret message in the container with a number of synonyms equal to 500, while false negative error is 1.5% and false positive error is 1.3%. In comparison with the known analogs, the proposed method demonstrates higher

  12. Data analysis with the DIANA meta-scheduling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjum, A; McClatchey, R; Willers, I

    2008-01-01

    The concepts, design and evaluation of the Data Intensive and Network Aware (DIANA) meta-scheduling approach for solving the challenges of data analysis being faced by CERN experiments are discussed in this paper. Our results suggest that data analysis can be made robust by employing fault tolerant and decentralized meta-scheduling algorithms supported in our DIANA meta-scheduler. The DIANA meta-scheduler supports data intensive bulk scheduling, is network aware and follows a policy centric meta-scheduling. In this paper, we demonstrate that a decentralized and dynamic meta-scheduling approach is an effective strategy to cope with increasing numbers of users, jobs and datasets. We present 'quality of service' related statistics for physics analysis through the application of a policy centric fair-share scheduling model. The DIANA meta-schedulers create a peer-to-peer hierarchy of schedulers to accomplish resource management that changes with evolving loads and is dynamic and adapts to the volatile nature of the resources

  13. Text recognition and correction for automated data collection by mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozarslan, Suleyman; Eren, P. Erhan

    2014-03-01

    Participatory sensing is an approach which allows mobile devices such as mobile phones to be used for data collection, analysis and sharing processes by individuals. Data collection is the first and most important part of a participatory sensing system, but it is time consuming for the participants. In this paper, we discuss automatic data collection approaches for reducing the time required for collection, and increasing the amount of collected data. In this context, we explore automated text recognition on images of store receipts which are captured by mobile phone cameras, and the correction of the recognized text. Accordingly, our first goal is to evaluate the performance of the Optical Character Recognition (OCR) method with respect to data collection from store receipt images. Images captured by mobile phones exhibit some typical problems, and common image processing methods cannot handle some of them. Consequently, the second goal is to address these types of problems through our proposed Knowledge Based Correction (KBC) method used in support of the OCR, and also to evaluate the KBC method with respect to the improvement on the accurate recognition rate. Results of the experiments show that the KBC method improves the accurate data recognition rate noticeably.

  14. Frame-based safety analysis approach for decision-based errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Chin-Feng; Yihb, Swu

    1997-01-01

    A frame-based approach is proposed to analyze decision-based errors made by automatic controllers or human operators due to erroneous reference frames. An integrated framework, Two Frame Model (TFM), is first proposed to model the dynamic interaction between the physical process and the decision-making process. Two important issues, consistency and competing processes, are raised. Consistency between the physical and logic frames makes a TFM-based system work properly. Loss of consistency refers to the failure mode that the logic frame does not accurately reflect the state of the controlled processes. Once such failure occurs, hazards may arise. Among potential hazards, the competing effect between the controller and the controlled process is the most severe one, which may jeopardize a defense-in-depth design. When the logic and physical frames are inconsistent, conventional safety analysis techniques are inadequate. We propose Frame-based Fault Tree; Analysis (FFTA) and Frame-based Event Tree Analysis (FETA) under TFM to deduce the context for decision errors and to separately generate the evolution of the logical frame as opposed to that of the physical frame. This multi-dimensional analysis approach, different from the conventional correctness-centred approach, provides a panoramic view in scenario generation. Case studies using the proposed techniques are also given to demonstrate their usage and feasibility

  15. Approaches to defining «financial potential» concept as of economic analysis object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Dzyubenkо

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research analyzes the works of scientists who studied the issues of financial potential as an economic category. Due to analyzing the approaches of the scientists to the concept of "financial potential" the author identifies six approaches to the interpretation of its essence, they are: the totality of the enterprise financial resources, the sources of the enterprise economic activity financing, the enterprise economic activity development, the enterprise financial indicators, the system of enterprise financial management, the enterprise efficiency characteristics. It is established that the financial potential is the multifaceted category that characterizes the financial and economic activity of enterprises. The author's definition of the financial potential in the context of its place in the objects of economic analysis is proposed. It is established that the financial potential is the object of the enterprise economic activity management and is the subject to analytical assessments for establishing its state and directions of development.

  16. Developing a New Approach for Arabic Morphological Analysis and Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Gridach, Mourad; Chenfour, Noureddine

    2011-01-01

    Arabic morphological analysis is one of the essential stages in Arabic Natural Language Processing. In this paper we present an approach for Arabic morphological analysis. This approach is based on Arabic morphological automaton (AMAUT). The proposed technique uses a morphological database realized using XMODEL language. Arabic morphology represents a special type of morphological systems because it is based on the concept of scheme to represent Arabic words. We use this concept to develop th...

  17. Theoretical and methodological approaches in discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Discourse analysis (DA) embodies two main approaches: Foucauldian DA and radical social constructionist DA. Both are underpinned by social constructionism to a lesser or greater extent. Social constructionism has contested areas in relation to power, embodiment, and materialism, although Foucauldian DA does focus on the issue of power Embodiment and materialism may be especially relevant for researchers of nursing where the physical body is prominent. However, the contested nature of social constructionism allows a fusion of theoretical and methodological approaches tailored to a specific research interest. In this paper, Chris Stevenson suggests a framework for working out and declaring the DA approach to be taken in relation to a research area, as well as to aid anticipating methodological critique. Method, validity, reliability and scholarship are discussed from within a discourse analytic frame of reference.

  18. Theoretical and methodological approaches in discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Chris

    2004-10-01

    Discourse analysis (DA) embodies two main approaches: Foucauldian DA and radical social constructionist DA. Both are underpinned by social constructionism to a lesser or greater extent. Social constructionism has contested areas in relation to power, embodiment, and materialism, although Foucauldian DA does focus on the issue of power. Embodiment and materialism may be especially relevant for researchers of nursing where the physical body is prominent. However, the contested nature of social constructionism allows a fusion of theoretical and methodological approaches tailored to a specific research interest. In this paper, Chris Stevenson suggests a frame- work for working out and declaring the DA approach to be taken in relation to a research area, as well as to aid anticipating methodological critique. Method, validity, reliability and scholarship are discussed from within a discourse analytic frame of reference.

  19. Combined approach based on principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis for investigating hyperspectral plant response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Stellacci

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral (HS data represents an extremely powerful means for rapidly detecting crop stress and then aiding in the rational management of natural resources in agriculture. However, large volume of data poses a challenge for data processing and extracting crucial information. Multivariate statistical techniques can play a key role in the analysis of HS data, as they may allow to both eliminate redundant information and identify synthetic indices which maximize differences among levels of stress. In this paper we propose an integrated approach, based on the combined use of Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA, to investigate HS plant response and discriminate plant status. The approach was preliminary evaluated on a data set collected on durum wheat plants grown under different nitrogen (N stress levels. Hyperspectral measurements were performed at anthesis through a high resolution field spectroradiometer, ASD FieldSpec HandHeld, covering the 325-1075 nm region. Reflectance data were first restricted to the interval 510-1000 nm and then divided into five bands of the electromagnetic spectrum [green: 510-580 nm; yellow: 581-630 nm; red: 631-690 nm; red-edge: 705-770 nm; near-infrared (NIR: 771-1000 nm]. PCA was applied to each spectral interval. CDA was performed on the extracted components to identify the factors maximizing the differences among plants fertilised with increasing N rates. Within the intervals of green, yellow and red only the first principal component (PC had an eigenvalue greater than 1 and explained more than 95% of total variance; within the ranges of red-edge and NIR, the first two PCs had an eigenvalue higher than 1. Two canonical variables explained cumulatively more than 81% of total variance and the first was able to discriminate wheat plants differently fertilised, as confirmed also by the significant correlation with aboveground biomass and grain yield parameters. The combined

  20. HANDBOOK OF SOCCER MATCH ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO IMPROVING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Carling

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION This book addresses and appropriately explains the soccer match analysis, looks at the very latest in match analysis research, and at the innovative technologies used by professional clubs. This handbook is also bridging the gap between research, theory and practice. The methods in it can be used by coaches, sport scientists and fitness coaches to improve: styles of play, technical ability and physical fitness; objective feedback to players; the development of specific training routines; use of available notation software, video analysis and manual systems; and understanding of current academic research in soccer notational analysis. PURPOSE The aim is to provide a prepared manual on soccer match analysis in general for coaches and sport scientists. Thus, the professionals in this field would gather objective data on the players and the team, which in turn could be used by coaches and players to learn more about performance as a whole and gain a competitive advantage as a result. The book efficiently meets these objectives. AUDIENCE The book is targeted the athlete, the coach, the sports scientist professional or any sport conscious person who wishes to analyze relevant soccer performance. The editors and the contributors are authorities in their respective fields and this handbook depend on their extensive experience and knowledge accumulated over the years. FEATURES The book demonstrates how a notation system can be established to produce data to analyze and improve performance in soccer. It is composed of 9 chapters which present the information in an order that is considered logical and progressive as in most texts. Chapter headings are: 1. Introduction to Soccer Match Analysis, 2. Developing a Manual Notation System, 3. Video and Computerized Match Analysis Technology, 4. General Advice on Analyzing Match Performance, 5. Analysis and Presentation of the Results, 6. Motion Analysis and Consequences for Training, 7. What Match

  1. Computer based approach to fatigue analysis and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comstock, T.R.; Bernard, T.; Nieb, J.

    1979-01-01

    An approach is presented which uses a mini-computer based system for data acquisition, analysis and graphic displays relative to fatigue life estimation and design. Procedures are developed for identifying an eliminating damaging events due to overall duty cycle, forced vibration and structural dynamic characteristics. Two case histories, weld failures in heavy vehicles and low cycle fan blade failures, are discussed to illustrate the overall approach. (orig.) 891 RW/orig. 892 RKD [de

  2. Qualitative Analysis of Foundry Industry: A DMAIC Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sehgala, Sumit; Kaushisha, Deepak; Rathia, Vijayesh

    2015-01-01

    DMAIC approach is a business strategy used to improve business profitability and efficiency of all operation to meet customer needs and expectations. In the present research work, an attempt has been made to apply DMAIC (Define, Measure, analysis, improve, control) approach. The emphasis was laid down towards reduction in the defects (Blow holes, Misrun, Slag inclusion, Rough surface) occurred in the sand castings by controlling the parameters with DMAIC technique. The results achieved shows ...

  3. Same Principles, Different Worlds: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Medical Ethics and Nursing Ethics in Finnish Professional Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxén, Salla

    2018-03-01

    This qualitative social scientific study explores professional texts of healthcare ethics to understand the ways in which ethical professionalism in medicine and nursing are culturally constructed in Finland. Two books in ethics, published by Finnish national professional organizations-one for nurses and one for physicians-were analyzed with the method of critical discourse analysis. Codes of ethics for each profession were also scrutinized. Analysis of the texts sought to reveal what is taken for granted in the texts as well as to speculate what appeared to be relegated to the margins of the texts or left entirely invisible. Physicians' ethics was discovered to emphasize objectivity and strong group membership as a basis for ethical professionalism. The discourses identified in the physicians' ethics guidebook were universal ethics, reductionism, non-subjectivity, and threat. Nursing ethics was discovered to highlight reflectivity as its central focus. This idea of reflectivity was echoed in the identified discourses: local ethics, enlightenment, and moral agency. The analysis exposes a cultural gap between the ethics discourses of medicine and nursing. More work is needed to bridge ethics discourses in Finland in a way that can support healthcare professionals to find common ground and to foster inclusivity in ethical dialogue. Further development of bioethical practices is suggested as a potential way forward.

  4. Multimodal Diversity of Postmodernist Fiction Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. I. Tykha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of structural and functional manifestations of multimodal diversity in postmodernist fiction texts. Multimodality is defined as the coexistence of more than one semiotic mode within a certain context. Multimodal texts feature a diversity of semiotic modes in the communication and development of their narrative. Such experimental texts subvert conventional patterns by introducing various semiotic resources – verbal or non-verbal.

  5. Finding text in color images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiangying; Lopresti, Daniel P.; Tasdizen, Tolga

    1998-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of locating and extracting text from WWW images. A previous algorithm based on color clustering and connected components analysis works well as long as the color of each character is relatively uniform and the typography is fairly simple. It breaks down quickly, however, when these assumptions are violated. In this paper, we describe more robust techniques for dealing with this challenging problem. We present an improved color clustering algorithm that measures similarity based on both RGB and spatial proximity. Layout analysis is also incorporated to handle more complex typography. THese changes significantly enhance the performance of our text detection procedure.

  6. CLASSIFICATION OF TRAFFIC RELATED SHORT TEXTS TO ANALYSE ROAD PROBLEMS IN URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. M. Saldana-Perez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Volunteer Geographic Information (VGI can be used to understand the urban dynamics. In the classification of traffic related short texts to analyze road problems in urban areas, a VGI data analysis is done over a social media’s publications, in order to classify traffic events at big cities that modify the movement of vehicles and people through the roads, such as car accidents, traffic and closures. The classification of traffic events described in short texts is done by applying a supervised machine learning algorithm. In the approach users are considered as sensors which describe their surroundings and provide their geographic position at the social network. The posts are treated by a text mining process and classified into five groups. Finally, the classified events are grouped in a data corpus and geo-visualized in the study area, to detect the places with more vehicular problems.

  7. Intergeneric Derivation: on the Genealogy of an LSP text

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askehave, Inger; Kastberg, Peter

    2001-01-01

    is derived from another text or to establish what aspects of the text have been derived, one must gain control over external variables that are not easily controllable. In our approach, we suggest a method that - while controlling external variables - is designed to isolate a suitable text corpus. Contrary...

  8. EXPLORING STUDENTS‟ DIFFICULTIES IN READING ACADEMIC TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Ernawati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Academic texts play an important role for university students. However, those texts are considered difficult. This study is intended to investigate students‘ difficulties in reading academic texts. The qualitative approach was employed in this study. The design was a case study. The participants were ten students from fifth semester of CLS: EE (Classroom Language and Strategy: Explaining and Exemplifying class who were selected by using purposive sampling. The data were gathered from students‘ journal reflections, observation, and interview. The finding shows that the students encountered reading difficulties in area of textual factors, namely vocabulary, comprehending specific information, text organization, and grammar and human factors including background knowledge, mood, laziness, and time constraint.

  9. Estimating Probability of Default on Peer to Peer Market – Survival Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović Andrija

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Arguably a cornerstone of credit risk modelling is the probability of default. This article aims is to search for the evidence of relationship between loan characteristics and probability of default on peer-to-peer (P2P market. In line with that, two loan characteristics are analysed: 1 loan term length and 2 loan purpose. The analysis is conducted using survival analysis approach within the vintage framework. Firstly, 12 months probability of default through the cycle is used to compare riskiness of analysed loan characteristics. Secondly, log-rank test is employed in order to compare complete survival period of cohorts. Findings of the paper suggest that there is clear evidence of relationship between analysed loan characteristics and probability of default. Longer term loans are more risky than the shorter term ones and the least risky loans are those used for credit card payoff.

  10. Oral History as Complement to Place-as-Text: Approaches to Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, JoEllen; Znosko, Jessi; Peters, Jesse; Cannata, Susan M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the advantages of combining place-as-text curriculum with an oral history collection to act as catalysts for transformational learning. These experiential and service learning practices complement each other to enrich the encounters students are afforded. First, the nature and procedures of place-as-text and…

  11. Suggestions toward some discourse-analytic approaches to text difficulty: with special reference to ‘T-unit configuration’ in the textual unfolding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Lotfipour-Saedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents some suggestions towards discourse-analytic approaches for ESL/EFL education, with the focus on identifying the textual forms which can contribute to the textual difficulty. Textual difficulty / comprehensibility, rather than being purely text-based or reader-dependent, is certainly a matter of interaction between text and reader. The paper will look at some of the textual factors which can be argued to make a text more or less readable for the same reader. The main focus here will be on academic texts. The high cognitive load and low readability of the expository texts in various academic disciplines will be argued to belong to certain textual strategies as well as variations in the configurations of the T-units as the prime scaffolding for the textualization process. Different categories of these variations to be discussed here will be exemplified from a few academic and expository registers. More extensive textual analyses will, of course, be necessary in order to be able to make evidential suggestions for possible correlations between certain types and clusters of T-unit configurations on the one hand, and cognitive load and readability indices on the other, across various academic registers, genres and disciplines.

  12. Stopping Antidepressants and Anxiolytics as Major Concerns Reported in Online Health Communities: A Text Mining Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbe, Adeline; Falissard, Bruno

    2017-10-23

    Internet is a particularly dynamic way to quickly capture the perceptions of a population in real time. Complementary to traditional face-to-face communication, online social networks help patients to improve self-esteem and self-help. The aim of this study was to use text mining on material from an online forum exploring patients' concerns about treatment (antidepressants and anxiolytics). Concerns about treatment were collected from discussion titles in patients' online community related to antidepressants and anxiolytics. To examine the content of these titles automatically, we used text mining methods, such as word frequency in a document-term matrix and co-occurrence of words using a network analysis. It was thus possible to identify topics discussed on the forum. The forum included 2415 discussions on antidepressants and anxiolytics over a period of 3 years. After a preprocessing step, the text mining algorithm identified the 99 most frequently occurring words in titles, among which were escitalopram, withdrawal, antidepressant, venlafaxine, paroxetine, and effect. Patients' concerns were related to antidepressant withdrawal, the need to share experience about symptoms, effects, and questions on weight gain with some drugs. Patients' expression on the Internet is a potential additional resource in addressing patients' concerns about treatment. Patient profiles are close to that of patients treated in psychiatry. ©Adeline Abbe, Bruno Falissard. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 23.10.2017.

  13. A novel bi-level meta-analysis approach: applied to biological pathway analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tin; Tagett, Rebecca; Donato, Michele; Mitrea, Cristina; Draghici, Sorin

    2016-02-01

    The accumulation of high-throughput data in public repositories creates a pressing need for integrative analysis of multiple datasets from independent experiments. However, study heterogeneity, study bias, outliers and the lack of power of available methods present real challenge in integrating genomic data. One practical drawback of many P-value-based meta-analysis methods, including Fisher's, Stouffer's, minP and maxP, is that they are sensitive to outliers. Another drawback is that, because they perform just one statistical test for each individual experiment, they may not fully exploit the potentially large number of samples within each study. We propose a novel bi-level meta-analysis approach that employs the additive method and the Central Limit Theorem within each individual experiment and also across multiple experiments. We prove that the bi-level framework is robust against bias, less sensitive to outliers than other methods, and more sensitive to small changes in signal. For comparative analysis, we demonstrate that the intra-experiment analysis has more power than the equivalent statistical test performed on a single large experiment. For pathway analysis, we compare the proposed framework versus classical meta-analysis approaches (Fisher's, Stouffer's and the additive method) as well as against a dedicated pathway meta-analysis package (MetaPath), using 1252 samples from 21 datasets related to three human diseases, acute myeloid leukemia (9 datasets), type II diabetes (5 datasets) and Alzheimer's disease (7 datasets). Our framework outperforms its competitors to correctly identify pathways relevant to the phenotypes. The framework is sufficiently general to be applied to any type of statistical meta-analysis. The R scripts are available on demand from the authors. sorin@wayne.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  14. An alternative methodological approach to value analysis of regions, municipal corporations and clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojmír Sabolovič

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with theoretical conception of value analysis of regions, municipal corporations and clusters. The subject of this paper is heterodox approach to sensitivity analysis of finite set of variables based on non-additive measure. For dynamic analysis of trajectory of general value are sufficient robust models based on maximum entropy principle. Findings concern explanation of proper fuzzy integral – Choquet integral. The fuzzy measure is represented by theory of capacities (Choquet, 1953 on powerset. In fine, the conception of the New integral for capacities (Lehler, 2005 is discussed. Value analysis and transmission constitutes remarkable aspect of performance evaluation of regions, municipal corporations and clusters. In the light of high ratio of soft variables, social behavior, intangible assets and human capital within those types of subjects the fuzzy integral introduce useful tool for modeling. The New integral afterwards concerns considerable characteristic of people behavior – risk averse articulated concave function and non-additive operator. Results comprehended tools enabling observation of synergy, redundancy and inhibition of value variables as consequence of non-additive measure. In fine, results induced issues for future research.

  15. Approach to proliferation risk assessment based on multiple objective analysis framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrianov, A.; Kuptsov, I. [Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering of NNRU MEPhI (Russian Federation); Studgorodok 1, Obninsk, Kaluga region, 249030 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    The approach to the assessment of proliferation risk using the methods of multi-criteria decision making and multi-objective optimization is presented. The approach allows the taking into account of the specifics features of the national nuclear infrastructure, and possible proliferation strategies (motivations, intentions, and capabilities). 3 examples of applying the approach are shown. First, the approach has been used to evaluate the attractiveness of HEU (high enriched uranium)production scenarios at a clandestine enrichment facility using centrifuge enrichment technology. Secondly, the approach has been applied to assess the attractiveness of scenarios for undeclared production of plutonium or HEU by theft of materials circulating in nuclear fuel cycle facilities and thermal reactors. Thirdly, the approach has been used to perform a comparative analysis of the structures of developing nuclear power systems based on different types of nuclear fuel cycles, the analysis being based on indicators of proliferation risk.

  16. Approach to proliferation risk assessment based on multiple objective analysis framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, A.; Kuptsov, I.

    2013-01-01

    The approach to the assessment of proliferation risk using the methods of multi-criteria decision making and multi-objective optimization is presented. The approach allows the taking into account of the specifics features of the national nuclear infrastructure, and possible proliferation strategies (motivations, intentions, and capabilities). 3 examples of applying the approach are shown. First, the approach has been used to evaluate the attractiveness of HEU (high enriched uranium)production scenarios at a clandestine enrichment facility using centrifuge enrichment technology. Secondly, the approach has been applied to assess the attractiveness of scenarios for undeclared production of plutonium or HEU by theft of materials circulating in nuclear fuel cycle facilities and thermal reactors. Thirdly, the approach has been used to perform a comparative analysis of the structures of developing nuclear power systems based on different types of nuclear fuel cycles, the analysis being based on indicators of proliferation risk

  17. A Constructivist Approach to E-Text Design for Use in Undergraduate Physiology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ashley E.; Rozell, Timothy G.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic textbooks, or e-texts, will have an increasingly important role in college science courses within the next few years due to the rising costs of traditional texts and the increasing availability of software allowing instructors to create their own e-text. However, few guidelines exist in the literature to aid instructors in the…

  18. Using computerized text analysis to assess communication within an Italian type 1 diabetes Facebook group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda Troncone

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess messages posted by mothers of children with type 1 diabetes in the Italian Facebook group “Mamme e diabete” using computerized text analysis. The data suggest that these mothers use online discussion boards as a place to seek and provide information to better manage the disease’s daily demands—especially those tasks linked to insulin correction and administration, control of food intake, and bureaucratic duties, as well as to seek and give encouragement and to share experiences regarding diabetes and related impact on their life. The implications of these findings for the management of diabetes are discussed.

  19. Social science and linguistic text analysis of nurses' records: a systematic review and critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buus, Niels; Hamilton, Bridget Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    The two aims of the paper were to systematically review and critique social science and linguistic text analyses of nursing records in order to inform future research in this emerging area of research. Systematic searches in reference databases and in citation indexes identified 12 articles that included analyses of the social and linguistic features of records and recording. Two reviewers extracted data using established criteria for the evaluation of qualitative research papers. A common characteristic of nursing records was the economical use of language with local meanings that conveyed little information to the uninitiated reader. Records were dominated by technocratic-medical discourse focused on patients' bodies, and they depicted only very limited aspects of nursing practice. Nurses made moral evaluations in their categorisation of patients, which reflected detailed surveillance of patients' disturbing behaviour. The text analysis methods were rarely transparent in the articles, which could suggest research quality problems. For most articles, the significance of the findings was substantiated more by theoretical readings of the institutional settings than by the analysis of textual data. More probing empirical research of nurses' records and a wider range of theoretical perspectives has the potential to expose the situated meanings of nursing work in healthcare organisations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. An Inverse Kinematic Approach Using Groebner Basis Theory Applied to Gait Cycle Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    AN INVERSE KINEMATIC APPROACH USING GROEBNER BASIS THEORY APPLIED TO GAIT CYCLE ANALYSIS THESIS Anum Barki AFIT-ENP-13-M-02 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR...copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENP-13-M-02 AN INVERSE KINEMATIC APPROACH USING GROEBNER BASIS THEORY APPLIED TO GAIT CYCLE ANALYSIS THESIS...APPROACH USING GROEBNER BASIS THEORY APPLIED TO GAIT CYCLE ANALYSIS Anum Barki, BS Approved: Dr. Ronald F. Tuttle (Chairman) Date Dr. Kimberly Kendricks

  1. Closed-loop, pilot/vehicle analysis of the approach and landing task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M. R.; Schmidt, D. K.

    1986-01-01

    In the case of approach and landing, it is universally accepted that the pilot uses more than one vehicle response, or output, to close his control loops. Therefore, to model this task, a multi-loop analysis technique is required. The analysis problem has been in obtaining reasonable analytic estimates of the describing functions representing the pilot's loop compensation. Once these pilot describing functions are obtained, appropriate performance and workload metrics must then be developed for the landing task. The optimal control approach provides a powerful technique for obtaining the necessary describing functions, once the appropriate task objective is defined in terms of a quadratic objective function. An approach is presented through the use of a simple, reasonable objective function and model-based metrics to evaluate loop performance and pilot workload. The results of an analysis of the LAHOS (Landing and Approach of Higher Order Systems) study performed by R.E. Smith is also presented.

  2. An approach to multi-attribute utility analysis under parametric uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, M.; Thorne, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    The techniques of cost-benefit analysis and multi-attribute analysis provide a useful basis for informing decisions in situations where a number of potentially conflicting opinions or interests need to be considered, and where there are a number of possible decisions that could be adopted. When the input data to such decision-making processes are uniquely specified, cost-benefit analysis and multi-attribute utility analysis provide unambiguous guidance on the preferred decision option. However, when the data are not uniquely specified, application and interpretation of these techniques is more complex. Herein, an approach to multi-attribute utility analysis (and hence, as a special case, cost-benefit analysis) when input data are subject to parametric uncertainty is presented. The approach is based on the use of a Monte Carlo technique, and has recently been applied to options for the remediation of former uranium mining liabilities in a number of Central and Eastern European States

  3. Analysis of approaches to classification of forms of non-standard employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Dorokhova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently becoming more widespread non-standard forms of employment. If this is not clear approach to the definition and maintenance of non-standard employment. In the article the analysis of diverse interpretations of the concept, on what basis, the author makes a conclusion about the complexity and contradictory nature of precarious employment as an economic category. It examines different approaches to classification of forms of precarious employment. The main forms of precarious employment such as flexible working year, flexible working week, flexible working hours, remote work, employees on call, shift forwarding; Agency employment, self-employment, negotiator, underemployment, over employment, employment on the basis of fixed-term contracts employment based on contract of civil-legal nature, one-time employment, casual employment, temporary employment, secondary employment and part-time. The author’s approach to classification of non-standard forms of employment, based on identifying the impact of atypical employment on the development of human potential. For the purpose of classification of non-standard employment forms from the standpoint of their impact on human development as the criteria of classification proposed in the following: working conditions, wages and social guarantees, possibility of workers ' participation in management, personal development and self-employment stability. Depending on what value each of these criteria, some form of non-standard employment can be attributed to the progressive or regressive. Classification of non-standard forms of employment should be the basis of the state policy of employment management.

  4. Rational kernels for Arabic Root Extraction and Text Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attia Nehar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the problems of Arabic Text Classification and root extraction using transducers and rational kernels. We introduce a new root extraction approach on the basis of the use of Arabic patterns (Pattern Based Stemmer. Transducers are used to model these patterns and root extraction is done without relying on any dictionary. Using transducers for extracting roots, documents are transformed into finite state transducers. This document representation allows us to use and explore rational kernels as a framework for Arabic Text Classification. Root extraction experiments are conducted on three word collections and yield 75.6% of accuracy. Classification experiments are done on the Saudi Press Agency dataset and N-gram kernels are tested with different values of N. Accuracy and F1 report 90.79% and 62.93% respectively. These results show that our approach, when compared with other approaches, is promising specially in terms of accuracy and F1.

  5. Did Shakespeare write double falsehood? Identifying individuals by creating psychological signatures with text analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Ryan L; Pennebaker, James W

    2015-05-01

    More than 100 years after Shakespeare's death, Lewis Theobald published Double Falsehood, a play supposedly sourced from a lost play by Shakespeare and John Fletcher. Since its release, scholars have attempted to determine its true authorship. Using new approaches to language and psychological analysis, we examined Double Falsehood and the works of Theobald, Shakespeare, and Fletcher. Specifically, we created a psychological signature from each author's language and statistically compared the features of each signature with those of Double Falsehood's signature. Multiple analytic approaches converged in suggesting that Double Falsehood's psychological style and content architecture predominantly resemble those of Shakespeare, showing some similarity with Fletcher's signature and only traces of Theobald's. Closer inspection revealed that Shakespeare's influence is most apparent early in the play, whereas Fletcher's is most apparent in later acts. Double Falsehood has a psychological signature consistent with that expected to be present in the long-lost play The History of Cardenio, cowritten by Shakespeare and Fletcher. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Combining machine learning, crowdsourcing and expert knowledge to detect chemical-induced diseases in text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Àlex; Li, Tong Shu; Su, Andrew I; Good, Benjamin M; Furlong, Laura I

    2016-01-01

    Drug toxicity is a major concern for both regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. In this context, text-mining methods for the identification of drug side effects from free text are key for the development of up-to-date knowledge sources on drug adverse reactions. We present a new system for identification of drug side effects from the literature that combines three approaches: machine learning, rule- and knowledge-based approaches. This system has been developed to address the Task 3.B of Biocreative V challenge (BC5) dealing with Chemical-induced Disease (CID) relations. The first two approaches focus on identifying relations at the sentence-level, while the knowledge-based approach is applied both at sentence and abstract levels. The machine learning method is based on the BeFree system using two corpora as training data: the annotated data provided by the CID task organizers and a new CID corpus developed by crowdsourcing. Different combinations of results from the three strategies were selected for each run of the challenge. In the final evaluation setting, the system achieved the highest Recall of the challenge (63%). By performing an error analysis, we identified the main causes of misclassifications and areas for improving of our system, and highlighted the need of consistent gold standard data sets for advancing the state of the art in text mining of drug side effects.Database URL: https://zenodo.org/record/29887?ln¼en#.VsL3yDLWR_V. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Vaccine adverse event text mining system for extracting features from vaccine safety reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsis, Taxiarchis; Buttolph, Thomas; Nguyen, Michael D; Winiecki, Scott; Woo, Emily Jane; Ball, Robert

    2012-01-01

    To develop and evaluate a text mining system for extracting key clinical features from vaccine adverse event reporting system (VAERS) narratives to aid in the automated review of adverse event reports. Based upon clinical significance to VAERS reviewing physicians, we defined the primary (diagnosis and cause of death) and secondary features (eg, symptoms) for extraction. We built a novel vaccine adverse event text mining (VaeTM) system based on a semantic text mining strategy. The performance of VaeTM was evaluated using a total of 300 VAERS reports in three sequential evaluations of 100 reports each. Moreover, we evaluated the VaeTM contribution to case classification; an information retrieval-based approach was used for the identification of anaphylaxis cases in a set of reports and was compared with two other methods: a dedicated text classifier and an online tool. The performance metrics of VaeTM were text mining metrics: recall, precision and F-measure. We also conducted a qualitative difference analysis and calculated sensitivity and specificity for classification of anaphylaxis cases based on the above three approaches. VaeTM performed best in extracting diagnosis, second level diagnosis, drug, vaccine, and lot number features (lenient F-measure in the third evaluation: 0.897, 0.817, 0.858, 0.874, and 0.914, respectively). In terms of case classification, high sensitivity was achieved (83.1%); this was equal and better compared to the text classifier (83.1%) and the online tool (40.7%), respectively. Our VaeTM implementation of a semantic text mining strategy shows promise in providing accurate and efficient extraction of key features from VAERS narratives.

  8. "What is relevant in a text document?": An interpretable machine learning approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Arras

    Full Text Available Text documents can be described by a number of abstract concepts such as semantic category, writing style, or sentiment. Machine learning (ML models have been trained to automatically map documents to these abstract concepts, allowing to annotate very large text collections, more than could be processed by a human in a lifetime. Besides predicting the text's category very accurately, it is also highly desirable to understand how and why the categorization process takes place. In this paper, we demonstrate that such understanding can be achieved by tracing the classification decision back to individual words using layer-wise relevance propagation (LRP, a recently developed technique for explaining predictions of complex non-linear classifiers. We train two word-based ML models, a convolutional neural network (CNN and a bag-of-words SVM classifier, on a topic categorization task and adapt the LRP method to decompose the predictions of these models onto words. Resulting scores indicate how much individual words contribute to the overall classification decision. This enables one to distill relevant information from text documents without an explicit semantic information extraction step. We further use the word-wise relevance scores for generating novel vector-based document representations which capture semantic information. Based on these document vectors, we introduce a measure of model explanatory power and show that, although the SVM and CNN models perform similarly in terms of classification accuracy, the latter exhibits a higher level of explainability which makes it more comprehensible for humans and potentially more useful for other applications.

  9. The same analysis approach: Practical protection against the pitfalls of novel neuroimaging analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgen, Kai; Hebart, Martin N; Allefeld, Carsten; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2017-12-27

    Standard neuroimaging data analysis based on traditional principles of experimental design, modelling, and statistical inference is increasingly complemented by novel analysis methods, driven e.g. by machine learning methods. While these novel approaches provide new insights into neuroimaging data, they often have unexpected properties, generating a growing literature on possible pitfalls. We propose to meet this challenge by adopting a habit of systematic testing of experimental design, analysis procedures, and statistical inference. Specifically, we suggest to apply the analysis method used for experimental data also to aspects of the experimental design, simulated confounds, simulated null data, and control data. We stress the importance of keeping the analysis method the same in main and test analyses, because only this way possible confounds and unexpected properties can be reliably detected and avoided. We describe and discuss this Same Analysis Approach in detail, and demonstrate it in two worked examples using multivariate decoding. With these examples, we reveal two sources of error: A mismatch between counterbalancing (crossover designs) and cross-validation which leads to systematic below-chance accuracies, and linear decoding of a nonlinear effect, a difference in variance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An artificial neural network approach to laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy quantitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Andrea, Eleonora; Pagnotta, Stefano; Grifoni, Emanuela; Lorenzetti, Giulia; Legnaioli, Stefano; Palleschi, Vincenzo; Lazzerini, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    The usual approach to laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) quantitative analysis is based on the use of calibration curves, suitably built using appropriate reference standards. More recently, statistical methods relying on the principles of artificial neural networks (ANN) are increasingly used. However, ANN analysis is often used as a ‘black box’ system and the peculiarities of the LIBS spectra are not exploited fully. An a priori exploration of the raw data contained in the LIBS spectra, carried out by a neural network to learn what are the significant areas of the spectrum to be used for a subsequent neural network delegated to the calibration, is able to throw light upon important information initially unknown, although already contained within the spectrum. This communication will demonstrate that an approach based on neural networks specially taylored for dealing with LIBS spectra would provide a viable, fast and robust method for LIBS quantitative analysis. This would allow the use of a relatively limited number of reference samples for the training of the network, with respect to the current approaches, and provide a fully automatizable approach for the analysis of a large number of samples. - Highlights: • A methodological approach to neural network analysis of LIBS spectra is proposed. • The architecture of the network and the number of inputs are optimized. • The method is tested on bronze samples already analyzed using a calibration-free LIBS approach. • The results are validated, compared and discussed

  11. Chinese legal texts – Quantitative Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľuboš GAJDOŠ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to provide a quantitative description of legal Chinese. This study adopts the approach of corpus-based analyses and it shows basic statistical parameters of legal texts in Chinese, namely the length of a sentence, the proportion of part of speech etc. The research is conducted on the Chinese monolingual corpus Hanku. The paper also discusses the issues of statistical data processing from various corpora, e.g. the tokenisation and part of speech tagging and their relevance to study of registers variation.

  12. Comprehension challenges in the fourth grade: The roles of text cohesion, text genre, and readers’ prior knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle S. McNamara

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We examined young readers’ comprehension as a function of text genre (narrative, science, text cohesion (high, low, and readers’ abilities (reading decoding skills and world knowledge. The overarching purpose of this study was to contribute to our understanding of the fourth grade slump. Children in grade 4 read four texts, including one high and one low cohesion text from each genre. Comprehension of each text was assessed with 12 multiple-choice questions and free and cued recall. Comprehension was enhanced by increased knowledge: high knowledge readers showed better comprehension than low knowledge readers and narratives were comprehended better than science texts. Interactions between readers’ knowledge levels and text characteristics indicated that the children showed larger effects of knowledge for science than for narrative texts, and those with more knowledge better understood the low cohesion, narrative texts, showing a reverse cohesion effect. Decoding skill benefited comprehension, but effects of text genre and cohesion depended less on decoding skill than prior knowledge. Overall, the study indicates that the fourth grade slump is at least partially attributable to the emergence of complex dependencies between the nature of the text and the reader’s prior knowledge. The results also suggested that simply adding cohesion cues, and not explanatory information, is not likely to be sufficient for young readers as an approach to improving comprehension of challenging texts.

  13. Comprehension challenges in the fourth grade: The roles of text cohesion, text genre, and readers’ prior knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle S. McNAMARA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined young readers’ comprehension as a function of text genre (narrative, science, text cohesion (high, low, and readers’ abilities (reading decoding skills and world knowledge. The overarching purpose of this study was to contribute to our understanding of the fourth grade slump. Children in grade 4 read four texts, including one high and one low cohesion text from each genre. Comprehension of each text was assessed with 12 multiple-choice questions and free and cued recall. Comprehension was enhanced by increased knowledge: high knowledge readers showed bettercomprehension than low knowledge readers and narratives were comprehended better than science texts. Interactions between readers’ knowledge levels and text characteristics indicated that thechildren showed larger effects of knowledge for science than for narrative texts, and those with more knowledge better understood the low cohesion, narrative texts, showing a reverse cohesion effect.Decoding skill benefited comprehension, but effects of text genre and cohesion depended less on decoding skill than prior knowledge. Overall, the study indicates that the fourth grade slump is at leastpartially attributable to the emergence of complex dependencies between the nature of the text and the reader’s prior knowledge. The results also suggested that simply adding cohesion cues, and notexplanatory information, is not likely to be sufficient for young readers as an approach to improving comprehension of challenging texts.

  14. Statistical margin to DNB safety analysis approach for LOFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    A method was developed and used for LOFT thermal safety analysis to estimate the statistical margin to DNB for the hot rod, and to base safety analysis on desired DNB probability limits. This method is an advanced approach using response surface analysis methods, a very efficient experimental design, and a 2nd-order response surface equation with a 2nd-order error propagation analysis to define the MDNBR probability density function. Calculations for limiting transients were used in the response surface analysis thereby including transient interactions and trip uncertainties in the MDNBR probability density

  15. Free text adversity statements as part of a contextualised admissions process: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Lysa E; Anderson, Stephanie Ann; Dowell, Johnathan S

    2018-04-02

    Medical schools globally are encouraged to widen access and participation for students from less privileged backgrounds. Many strategies have been implemented to address this inequality, but much still needs to be done to ensure fair access for all. In the literature, adverse circumstances include financial issues, poor educational experience and lack of professional-status parents. In order to take account of adverse circumstances faced by applicants, The University of Dundee School of Medicine offers applicants the opportunity to report circumstances which may have resulted in disadvantage. Applicants do this by completing a free text statement, known as an 'adversity statement', in addition to the other application information. This study analysed adversity statements submitted by applicants during two admissions cycles. Analysis of content and theme was done to identify the information applicants wished to be taken into consideration, and what range of adverse circumstances individuals reported. This study used a qualitative approach with thematic analysis to categorise the adversity statements. The data was initially analysed to create a coding framework which was then applied to the whole data set. Each coded segment was then analysed for heterogeneity and homogeneity, segments merged into generated themes, or to create sub-themes. The data set comprised a total of 384 adversity statements. These showed a wide range of detail involving family, personal health, education and living circumstances. Some circumstances, such as geographical location, have been identified and explored in previous research, while others, such as long term health conditions, have had less attention in the literature. The degree of impact, the length of statement and degree of detail, demonstrated wide variation between submissions. This study adds to the debate on best practice in contextual admissions and raises awareness of the range of circumstances and impact applicants wish to

  16. Network analysis literacy a practical approach to the analysis of networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zweig, Katharina A

    2014-01-01

    Network Analysis Literacy focuses on design principles for network analytics projects. The text enables readers to: pose a defined network analytic question; build a network to answer the question; choose or design the right network analytic methods for a particular purpose, and more.

  17. Adversarial risk analysis with incomplete information: a level-k approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Casey; McLay, Laura; Guikema, Seth

    2012-07-01

    This article proposes, develops, and illustrates the application of level-k game theory to adversarial risk analysis. Level-k reasoning, which assumes that players play strategically but have bounded rationality, is useful for operationalizing a Bayesian approach to adversarial risk analysis. It can be applied in a broad class of settings, including settings with asynchronous play and partial but incomplete revelation of early moves. Its computational and elicitation requirements are modest. We illustrate the approach with an application to a simple defend-attack model in which the defender's countermeasures are revealed with a probability less than one to the attacker before he decides on how or whether to attack. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. An Analysis on Reading Texts in Teaching Turkish to Foreigners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem İŞCAN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Being one of the four basic language skills, reading has a great importance in teaching Turkish to foreigners. It is required to develop reading skills to develop vocabulary. There have been some problems in teaching Turkish as second language. These problems are generally related to difference in alphabet, inadequacy of the sources used in teaching Turkish, methods and techniques used and the texts used. The basic sources used in teaching Turkish to foreigners are texts. This study aims at determination of the opinions of students in Gaziosmanpaşa University and Ondokuz Mayıs University Turkish Education and Application Center (TOMER concerning Turkish reading texts. General browsing method was used in the study. The questionnaire comprising of 24 items was applied to 25 students in beginner level and 7 students in advanced level. With this study, it is foreseen to arrange the texts being the key stone according to the wishes of and in compliance with the levels of students; giving importance to pre-reading, reading and post-reading activities and including questions with short-answer about the text as well as questions to develop high level skills.

  19. Text-Based Language Teaching and the Analysis of Tasks Presented in English Course Books for Students of Information Technology and Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerija Marina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the essential features of a connected text helping to raise learners’ awareness of its structure and organization and improve their skills of reading comprehension. Classroom applications of various approaches to handling texts and text-based activities are also discussed and their main advantages and disadvantages are outlined.Tasks based on text transformation and reconstruction found in the course books of English for students of computing and information technology are analysed and their types are determined. The efficiency of the tasks is determined by considering the experience of the authors gained in using text-based assignments provided in these course books with the students of the above specialities. Some problems encountered in classroom application of the considered text-based tasks are also outlined.

  20. A new approach for reliability analysis with time-variant performance characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zequn; Wang, Pingfeng

    2013-01-01

    Reliability represents safety level in industry practice and may variant due to time-variant operation condition and components deterioration throughout a product life-cycle. Thus, the capability to perform time-variant reliability analysis is of vital importance in practical engineering applications. This paper presents a new approach, referred to as nested extreme response surface (NERS), that can efficiently tackle time dependency issue in time-variant reliability analysis and enable to solve such problem by easily integrating with advanced time-independent tools. The key of the NERS approach is to build a nested response surface of time corresponding to the extreme value of the limit state function by employing Kriging model. To obtain the data for the Kriging model, the efficient global optimization technique is integrated with the NERS to extract the extreme time responses of the limit state function for any given system input. An adaptive response prediction and model maturation mechanism is developed based on mean square error (MSE) to concurrently improve the accuracy and computational efficiency of the proposed approach. With the nested response surface of time, the time-variant reliability analysis can be converted into the time-independent reliability analysis and existing advanced reliability analysis methods can be used. Three case studies are used to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of NERS approach

  1. THEMATIC PROGRESSION VARIATION OF THE GREAT GATSBY ENGLISH-BAHASA INDONESIA TRANSLATIONAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emi Nursanti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The data-based research on which this article is based aimed at (1 describing the thematic progression variation of The Great Gatsby texts, (2 describing the contextual factors that motivate the variation in question, and (3 describing the effects of the variation on the texts as translational texts. The study applied a qualitative approach which employed a sematic-translational content analysis of qualitative and quantiative data. The results show that thematic progression variation falls into the low category at average indicated by the mean score of 0.76. The most prominent variation was repre-sented by the low category of variation. The variations were performed by adding or omitting Themes, splitting one units of thematic structure into more than one unit, downranking, not expressing and creating new clauses. The factors that motivate the variation are the different linguistic properties bet-ween English and Bahasa Indonesia and the situational contexts. In terms of effects, the variation caused dangling clauses which cannot be identified from which they are developed. Keywords: thematic progression, thematic structure, Theme, Rheme

  2. Psychological underpinning of personalized approaches in modern medicine: syndrome analysis of mitral valve prolapsed patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinchenko, Yury P.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to demonstrate a high efficiency of the methodological means suggested by psychological syndrome analysis approach (Vygotsky-Luria school for solving theoretical and applied issues in contemporary person-centered medicine. This is achieved through an example of empirical study meant to construct a psychosomatic syndrome for 290 patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP. Analysis of all collected data was based on psychological syndrome analysis concept (Vygotsky–Luria school and A.R. Luria’s principles for psychological factors (causes selection, which determine the logic and structure of a neuropsychological syndrome. It demonstrated the association between characteristics of emotional experiences and clinical symptoms manifested in MVP patients. This correlation was statistically verified. The results proved that the most important syndrome-establishment factor (radical is a specific emotionality and dysfunction of emotion regulation and emotional control in MVP patients (excessive emotional repression with insufficient reflection of emotional experiences. Features of the motivation sphere of MVP patients appear as a second psychological syndrome-establishment factor: these are domination of the motive of failure avoidance and unsatisfied self-approval need. We argue that psychological syndrome analysis can be used as a means to approach not only diagnostic but also prognostic tasks both in clinical psychology and medicine, as well as for the development and implementation of the person-centered integrative diagnosis model. We maintained that this approach, applied in theoretical and practical fields of clinical psychology and mental health care is highly efficient at the current stage of the science evolution due to prospects revealed by s new methodological context of postnonclassical model of rationality and a comprehensive character of the cultural-historical concept regarding an individual and his mind as a self

  3. Practical approach on gas pipeline compression system availability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sidney Pereira dos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kurz, Rainer; Lubomirsky, Matvey [Solar Turbines, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2009-12-19

    Gas pipeline projects traditionally have been designed based on load factor and steady state flow. This approach exposes project sponsors to project sustainability risks due to potential losses of revenues and transportation contract penalties related to pipeline capacity shortage as consequence of compressor unit's unavailability. Such unavailability should previously be quantified during the design phase. This paper presents a case study and a methodology that highlights the practical benefits of applying Monte Carlo simulation for the compression system availability analysis in conjunction with quantitative risk analysis and economic feasibility study. Project economics main variables and their impacts on the project NPV (Net Present Value) are evaluated with their respective statistics distribution to quantify risk and support decision makers to adopt mitigating measures to guarantee competitiveness while protecting project sponsors from otherwise unpredictable risks. This practical approach is compared to load factor approach and the results are presented and evaluated. (author)

  4. Full-text automated detection of surgical site infections secondary to neurosurgery in Rennes, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo-Gimenez, Boris; Garcelon, Nicolas; Jarno, Pascal; Chapplain, Jean Marc; Cuggia, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The surveillance of Surgical Site Infections (SSI) contributes to the management of risk in French hospitals. Manual identification of infections is costly, time-consuming and limits the promotion of preventive procedures by the dedicated teams. The introduction of alternative methods using automated detection strategies is promising to improve this surveillance. The present study describes an automated detection strategy for SSI in neurosurgery, based on textual analysis of medical reports stored in a clinical data warehouse. The method consists firstly, of enrichment and concept extraction from full-text reports using NOMINDEX, and secondly, text similarity measurement using a vector space model. The text detection was compared to the conventional strategy based on self-declaration and to the automated detection using the diagnosis-related group database. The text-mining approach showed the best detection accuracy, with recall and precision equal to 92% and 40% respectively, and confirmed the interest of reusing full-text medical reports to perform automated detection of SSI.

  5. Health-related hot topic detection in online communities using text clustering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjie Lu

    Full Text Available Recently, health-related social media services, especially online health communities, have rapidly emerged. Patients with various health conditions participate in online health communities to share their experiences and exchange healthcare knowledge. Exploring hot topics in online health communities helps us better understand patients' needs and interest in health-related knowledge. However, the statistical topic analysis employed in previous studies is becoming impractical for processing the rapidly increasing amount of online data. Automatic topic detection based on document clustering is an alternative approach for extracting health-related hot topics in online communities. In addition to the keyword-based features used in traditional text clustering, we integrate medical domain-specific features to represent the messages posted in online health communities. Three disease discussion boards, including boards devoted to lung cancer, breast cancer and diabetes, from an online health community are used to test the effectiveness of topic detection. Experiment results demonstrate that health-related hot topics primarily include symptoms, examinations, drugs, procedures and complications. Further analysis reveals that there also exist some significant differences among the hot topics discussed on different types of disease discussion boards.

  6. Microbial genome analysis: the COG approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galperin, Michael Y; Kristensen, David M; Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2017-09-14

    For the past 20 years, the Clusters of Orthologous Genes (COG) database had been a popular tool for microbial genome annotation and comparative genomics. Initially created for the purpose of evolutionary classification of protein families, the COG have been used, apart from straightforward functional annotation of sequenced genomes, for such tasks as (i) unification of genome annotation in groups of related organisms; (ii) identification of missing and/or undetected genes in complete microbial genomes; (iii) analysis of genomic neighborhoods, in many cases allowing prediction of novel functional systems; (iv) analysis of metabolic pathways and prediction of alternative forms of enzymes; (v) comparison of organisms by COG functional categories; and (vi) prioritization of targets for structural and functional characterization. Here we review the principles of the COG approach and discuss its key advantages and drawbacks in microbial genome analysis. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. A systems biology approach for pathway level analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Draghici, Sorin; Khatri, Purvesh; Tarca, Adi Laurentiu; Amin, Kashyap; Done, Arina; Voichita, Calin; Georgescu, Constantin; Romero, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    A common challenge in the analysis of genomics data is trying to understand the underlying phenomenon in the context of all complex interactions taking place on various signaling pathways. A statistical approach using various models is universally used to identify the most relevant pathways in a given experiment. Here, we show that the existing pathway analysis methods fail to take into consideration important biological aspects and may provide incorrect results in certain situations. By usin...

  8. Advances in Text Mining and Visualization for Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, Graciela; Sarker, Abeed; O'Connor, Karen; Greene, Casey; Liu, Hongfang

    2018-01-01

    According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), precision medicine is "an emerging approach for disease treatment and prevention that takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each person." Although the text mining community has explored this realm for some years, the official endorsement and funding launched in 2015 with the Precision Medicine Initiative are beginning to bear fruit. This session sought to elicit participation of researchers with strong background in text mining and/or visualization who are actively collaborating with bench scientists and clinicians for the deployment of integrative approaches in precision medicine that could impact scientific discovery and advance the vision of precision medicine as a universal, accessible approach at the point of care.

  9. Personalized translational epilepsy research - Novel approaches and future perspectives: Part I: Clinical and network analysis approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenow, Felix; van Alphen, Natascha; Becker, Albert; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Deichmann, Ralf; Deller, Thomas; Freiman, Thomas; Freitag, Christine M; Gehrig, Johannes; Hermsen, Anke M; Jedlicka, Peter; Kell, Christian; Klein, Karl Martin; Knake, Susanne; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Liebner, Stefan; Norwood, Braxton A; Omigie, Diana; Plate, Karlheinz; Reif, Andreas; Reif, Philipp S; Reiss, Yvonne; Roeper, Jochen; Ronellenfitsch, Michael W; Schorge, Stephanie; Schratt, Gerhard; Schwarzacher, Stephan W; Steinbach, Joachim P; Strzelczyk, Adam; Triesch, Jochen; Wagner, Marlies; Walker, Matthew C; von Wegner, Frederic; Bauer, Sebastian

    2017-11-01

    Despite the availability of more than 15 new "antiepileptic drugs", the proportion of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has remained constant at about 20-30%. Furthermore, no disease-modifying treatments shown to prevent the development of epilepsy following an initial precipitating brain injury or to reverse established epilepsy have been identified to date. This is likely in part due to the polyetiologic nature of epilepsy, which in turn requires personalized medicine approaches. Recent advances in imaging, pathology, genetics and epigenetics have led to new pathophysiological concepts and the identification of monogenic causes of epilepsy. In the context of these advances, the First International Symposium on Personalized Translational Epilepsy Research (1st ISymPTER) was held in Frankfurt on September 8, 2016, to discuss novel approaches and future perspectives for personalized translational research. These included new developments and ideas in a range of experimental and clinical areas such as deep phenotyping, quantitative brain imaging, EEG/MEG-based analysis of network dysfunction, tissue-based translational studies, innate immunity mechanisms, microRNA as treatment targets, functional characterization of genetic variants in human cell models and rodent organotypic slice cultures, personalized treatment approaches for monogenic epilepsies, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, therapeutic focal tissue modification, computational modeling for target and biomarker identification, and cost analysis in (monogenic) disease and its treatment. This report on the meeting proceedings is aimed at stimulating much needed investments of time and resources in personalized translational epilepsy research. Part I includes the clinical phenotyping and diagnostic methods, EEG network-analysis, biomarkers, and personalized treatment approaches. In Part II, experimental and translational approaches will be discussed (Bauer et al., 2017) [1]. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc

  10. Metro-Wordle: An Interactive Visualization for Urban Text Distributions Based on Wordle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenlu Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of cities and the explosion of information, vast amounts of geo-tagged textural data about Points of Interests (POIs have been generated. Extracting useful information and discovering text spatial distributions from the data are challenging and meaningful. Also, the huge numbers of POIs in modern cities make it important to have efficient approaches to retrieve and choose a destination. This paper provides a visual design combing metro map and wordles to meet the needs. In this visualization, metro lines serve as the divider lines splitting the city into several subareas and the boundaries to constrain wordles within each subarea. The wordles are generated from keywords extracted from the text about POIs (including reviews, descriptions, etc. and embedded into the subareas based on their geographical locations. By generating intuitive results and providing an interactive visualization to support exploring text distribution patterns, our strategy can guide the users to explore urban spatial characteristics and retrieve a location efficiently. Finally, we implement a visual analysis of the restaurants data in Shanghai, China as a case study to evaluate our strategy. Keywords: Text visualization, Location retrieval, Urban data, Metro map, Word cloud

  11. Discourse Interpretation: A Deconstructive, Reader-oriented Approach to Critical Discourse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Farid Khafaga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the premise that discourse is always under the influence of different ideological readings which not only formulate its meaning but inspire various interpretations as well; hence, it needs a theoretical cover that could justify its multiplicity of meaning. This paper, therefore, discusses the possibility of introducing a deconstructive, reader-oriented approach (DRA to Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA as a model of discourse interpretation. The paper tries to appraise the theoretical framework of CDA and to offer an overview of the fundamental propels of its interpretative task in the light of two poststructuralist literary theories: the deconstruction theory and the reception theory. The paper also endeavours to emphasize the deconstructive nature of CDA by shedding lights on its relationship with the above mentioned theories. The conclusion drawn from this paper shows that introducing a deconstructive, reader-oriented approach to CDA is relevant to the latter's interpretative nature enough to diminish a part of the criticism levelled against its interpretative framework concerning plurality of meaning; and to establish some sort of exoneration for its theoretical shortcomings. The paper recommends that DRA will bridge the gap between theory and practice as it offers a theoretical base to discourse which could advocate its critiques regarding diversity of interpretation.

  12. Extractive text summarization system to aid data extraction from full text in systematic review development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Duy Duc An; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Hurdle, John F; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha

    2016-12-01

    Extracting data from publication reports is a standard process in systematic review (SR) development. However, the data extraction process still relies too much on manual effort which is slow, costly, and subject to human error. In this study, we developed a text summarization system aimed at enhancing productivity and reducing errors in the traditional data extraction process. We developed a computer system that used machine learning and natural language processing approaches to automatically generate summaries of full-text scientific publications. The summaries at the sentence and fragment levels were evaluated in finding common clinical SR data elements such as sample size, group size, and PICO values. We compared the computer-generated summaries with human written summaries (title and abstract) in terms of the presence of necessary information for the data extraction as presented in the Cochrane review's study characteristics tables. At the sentence level, the computer-generated summaries covered more information than humans do for systematic reviews (recall 91.2% vs. 83.8%, p<0.001). They also had a better density of relevant sentences (precision 59% vs. 39%, p<0.001). At the fragment level, the ensemble approach combining rule-based, concept mapping, and dictionary-based methods performed better than individual methods alone, achieving an 84.7% F-measure. Computer-generated summaries are potential alternative information sources for data extraction in systematic review development. Machine learning and natural language processing are promising approaches to the development of such an extractive summarization system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Automated Text Analysis Based on Skip-Gram Model for Food Evaluation in Predicting Consumer Acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine Yongwhi Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evaluate food taste, smell, and characteristics from consumers’ online reviews. Several studies in food sensory evaluation have been presented for consumer acceptance. However, these studies need taste descriptive word lexicon, and they are not suitable for analyzing large number of evaluators to predict consumer acceptance. In this paper, an automated text analysis method for food evaluation is presented to analyze and compare recently introduced two jjampong ramen types (mixed seafood noodles. To avoid building a sensory word lexicon, consumers’ reviews are collected from SNS. Then, by training word embedding model with acquired reviews, words in the large amount of review text are converted into vectors. Based on these words represented as vectors, inference is performed to evaluate taste and smell of two jjampong ramen types. Finally, the reliability and merits of the proposed food evaluation method are confirmed by a comparison with the results from an actual consumer preference taste evaluation.

  14. A Novel Approach in Text-Independent Speaker Recognition in Noisy Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nona Heydari Esfahani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, robust text-independent speaker recognition is taken into consideration. The proposed method performs on manual silence-removed utterances that are segmented into smaller speech units containing few phones and at least one vowel. The segments are basic units for long-term feature extraction. Sub-band entropy is directly extracted in each segment. A robust vowel detection method is then applied on each segment to separate a high energy vowel that is used as unit for pitch frequency and formant extraction. By applying a clustering technique, extracted short-term features namely MFCC coefficients are combined with long term features. Experiments using MLP classifier show that the average speaker accuracy recognition rate is 97.33% for clean speech and 61.33% in noisy environment for -2db SNR, that shows improvement compared to other conventional methods.

  15. New Approach to Quantitative Analysis by Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. H.; Kim, T. H.; Yun, J. I.; Jung, E. C.

    2009-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been studied as the technique of choice in some particular situations like screening, in situ measurement, process monitoring, hostile environments, etc. Especially, LIBS can fulfill the qualitative and quantitative analysis for radioactive high level waste (HLW) glass in restricted experimental conditions. Several ways have been suggested to get quantitative information from LIBS. The one approach is to use the absolute intensities of each element. The other approach is to use the elemental emission intensities relative to the intensity of the internal standard element whose concentration is known already in the specimen. But these methods are not applicable to unknown samples. In the present work, we introduce new approach to LIBS quantitative analysis by using H α (656.28 nm) emission line as external standard

  16. Integrated Risk-Capability Analysis under Deep Uncertainty : An ESDMA Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyt, E.; Kwakkel, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Integrated risk-capability analysis methodologies for dealing with increasing degrees of complexity and deep uncertainty are urgently needed in an ever more complex and uncertain world. Although scenario approaches, risk assessment methods, and capability analysis methods are used, few organizations

  17. The effects of exchange rate volatility on international trade fl ows: evidence from panel data analysis and fuzzy approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Kunst

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the effects of exchange rate volatility on international trade flows by using two different approaches, the panel data analysis and fuzzy logic, and to compare the results. To a panel with the crosssection dimension of 91 pairs of EU15 countries and with time ranging from 1964 to 2003, an extended gravity model of trade is applied in order to determine theeffects of exchange rate volatility on bilateral trade flows of EU15 countries. The estimated impact is clearly negative, which indicates that exchange rate volatility has a negative influence on bilateral trade flows. Then, this traditional panel approach is contrasted with an alternative investigation based on fuzzy logic. The key elements of the fuzzy approach are to set fuzzy decision rules and to assignmembership functions to the fuzzy sets intuitively based on experience. Both approaches yield very similar results and fuzzy approach is recommended to be used as a complement to statistical methods.

  18. Review Essay: On Transparency, Epistemologies, and Positioning in Writing Introductory Qualitative Research Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audra Skukauskaite

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Building on Günter MEY's (2000, para. 2 argument that "reviews should help to promote additional perspectives … and to open up new scientific discourses," in this essay review of Carol GRBICH's (2007 "Qualitative Data Analysis," we present an approach to reading texts ethnographically that enabled us to uncover how the choices GRBICH makes in positioning readers and in choosing particular ways of representing select qualitative approaches inscribes particular worlds and possibilities for qualitative research. In her text GRBICH argues that authors position readers through the ways in which they report and write about their work. In this review essay we use this argument as a basis to uncover how GRBICH positions readers, researchers, those researched, different qualitative traditions and perspectives as well as herself as an author of the text, to lay a foundation for engaging readers of FQS in a hermeneutic dialogue (KELLY, 2006 about the authoring and reviewing processes and their inter-relationships. Through this dialogue, we seek to develop with readers of FQS a new discourse about the necessity of transparency in the position that authors and reviewers take in reporting/reviewing of research, and in representing the traditions that differ from the author's/reviewer's own tradition(s. Our goal in framing this essay review as a hermeneutical dialogue is to identify previously unexamined issues of how the writing of introductory texts is shaped by the often invisible perspectives of authors, which in turn leads to a particular inscription of what counts as qualitative research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1201233

  19. Stability Analysis of a Model of Atherogenesis: An Energy Estimate Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Ibragimov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a disease of the vasculature that is characterized by chronic inflammation and the accumulation of lipids and apoptotic cells in the walls of large arteries. This disease results in plaque growth in an infected artery typically leading to occlusion of the artery. Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of human mortality in the US, much of Europe, and parts of Asia. In a previous work, we introduced a mathematical model of the biochemical aspects of the disease, in particular the inflammatory response of macrophages in the presence of chemoattractants and modified low density lipoproteins. Herein, we consider the onset of a lesion as resulting from an instability in an equilibrium configuration of cells and chemical species. We derive an appropriate norm by taking an energy estimate approach and present stability criteria. A bio-physical analysis of the mathematical results is presented.

  20. The impact of texting on driver behaviour at rail level crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kristie L; Lenné, Michael G; Salmon, Paul M; Stanton, Neville A

    2018-05-21

    A driver text messaging in the vicinity of a rail level crossing represents the merging of a high-risk, high-workload driving environment with a highly distracting secondary task. In this simulator study, we examined how texting impacts driver behaviour on approach to actively controlled urban rail level crossings. Twenty-eight participants drove a series of simulated urban routes containing rail level crossings, while sending text messages and while driving without performing a secondary task. At half of the crossings, drivers were required to respond to the crossing warnings as a train approached. Results revealed that texting on approach to rail level crossings had a detrimental impact on a range of driver behaviour measures. Specifically, texting more than doubled the amount of time spent with eyes off the forward roadway, resulting in drivers spending more than half of their approach time to rail level crossings looking away from the road. This lack of visual attention to the roadway was associated with a range of decrements in driving that may be indicative of a loss of situation awareness, including increased brake reaction time to the crossing warnings and a reduction in lateral position control. The findings have safety implications, not only for urban level crossings, but also for passive level crossings where no warnings are present to re-orient the distracted driver's attention toward an approaching train. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Non-precision approach in manual mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. В. Коршунов

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Considered is the method of non-precision approach of an aircraft in the manual mode with a constant angle of path. Advantage of this method consists in the fact that the construction of approach with a constant angle of path provides the stable path of flight. It is also considered a detailed analysis of the possibility of the approach by the above-mentioned method. Conclusions contain recommendations regarding the use of the described method of non-precision approach during training flights.

  2. A double-loop adaptive sampling approach for sensitivity-free dynamic reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zequn; Wang, Pingfeng

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic reliability measures reliability of an engineered system considering time-variant operation condition and component deterioration. Due to high computational costs, conducting dynamic reliability analysis at an early system design stage remains challenging. This paper presents a confidence-based meta-modeling approach, referred to as double-loop adaptive sampling (DLAS), for efficient sensitivity-free dynamic reliability analysis. The DLAS builds a Gaussian process (GP) model sequentially to approximate extreme system responses over time, so that Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) can be employed directly to estimate dynamic reliability. A generic confidence measure is developed to evaluate the accuracy of dynamic reliability estimation while using the MCS approach based on developed GP models. A double-loop adaptive sampling scheme is developed to efficiently update the GP model in a sequential manner, by considering system input variables and time concurrently in two sampling loops. The model updating process using the developed sampling scheme can be terminated once the user defined confidence target is satisfied. The developed DLAS approach eliminates computationally expensive sensitivity analysis process, thus substantially improves the efficiency of dynamic reliability analysis. Three case studies are used to demonstrate the efficacy of DLAS for dynamic reliability analysis. - Highlights: • Developed a novel adaptive sampling approach for dynamic reliability analysis. • POD Developed a new metric to quantify the accuracy of dynamic reliability estimation. • Developed a new sequential sampling scheme to efficiently update surrogate models. • Three case studies were used to demonstrate the efficacy of the new approach. • Case study results showed substantially enhanced efficiency with high accuracy

  3. Limits and articulations between modalities and meditative as markers of utterance responsibility in academic text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Queiroz Carvalho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we aim to identify and describe the markers of utterance responsibility in academic texts through modality and mediative. The theoretical and methodological approach we follow is based on textual analysis of discourses postulates according to Adam (2011. Our theoretical background is also based on Rabatel (2009 studies on the utterance responsibility; Campos (2004 and Castilho & Castilho (2002 on the category of modalities, Guentchèva (1994 regarding the meditative category, and Neves (2012, which promotes a discussion that articulates both categories. The analysis showed that speakers-utterers (S1/U1 base their points of view on the second utterer's points of view (U2. We also observed that S1/U1 expressed different degrees of engagement in relation to the information reported, assuming or imputing the utterance responsibility

  4. Deep Belief Networks Based Toponym Recognition for Chinese Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In Geographical Information Systems, geo-coding is used for the task of mapping from implicitly geo-referenced data to explicitly geo-referenced coordinates. At present, an enormous amount of implicitly geo-referenced information is hidden in unstructured text, e.g., Wikipedia, social data and news. Toponym recognition is the foundation of mining this useful geo-referenced information by identifying words as toponyms in text. In this paper, we propose an adapted toponym recognition approach based on deep belief network (DBN by exploring two key issues: word representation and model interpretation. A Skip-Gram model is used in the word representation process to represent words with contextual information that are ignored by current word representation models. We then determine the core hyper-parameters of the DBN model by illustrating the relationship between the performance and the hyper-parameters, e.g., vector dimensionality, DBN structures and probability thresholds. The experiments evaluate the performance of the Skip-Gram model implemented by the Word2Vec open-source tool, determine stable hyper-parameters and compare our approach with a conditional random field (CRF based approach. The experimental results show that the DBN model outperforms the CRF model with smaller corpus. When the corpus size is large enough, their statistical metrics become approaching. However, their recognition results express differences and complementarity on different kinds of toponyms. More importantly, combining their results can directly improve the performance of toponym recognition relative to their individual performances. It seems that the scale of the corpus has an obvious effect on the performance of toponym recognition. Generally, there is no adequate tagged corpus on specific toponym recognition tasks, especially in the era of Big Data. In conclusion, we believe that the DBN-based approach is a promising and powerful method to extract geo

  5. Discrete event simulation versus conventional system reliability analysis approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozine, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Discrete Event Simulation (DES) environments are rapidly developing and appear to be promising tools for building reliability and risk analysis models of safety-critical systems and human operators. If properly developed, they are an alternative to the conventional human reliability analysis models...... and systems analysis methods such as fault and event trees and Bayesian networks. As one part, the paper describes briefly the author’s experience in applying DES models to the analysis of safety-critical systems in different domains. The other part of the paper is devoted to comparing conventional approaches...

  6. Introduction to Safety Analysis Approach for Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Suki

    2016-01-01

    The research reactors have a wide variety in terms of thermal powers, coolants, moderators, reflectors, fuels, reactor tanks and pools, flow direction in the core, and the operating pressure and temperature of the cooling system. Around 110 research reactors have a thermal power greater than 1 MW. This paper introduces a general approach to safety analysis for research reactors and deals with the experience of safety analysis on a 10 MW research reactor with an open-pool and open-tank reactor and a downward flow in the reactor core during normal operation. The general approach to safety analysis for research reactors is described and the design features of a typical open-pool and open-tank type reactor are discussed. The representative events expected in research reactors are investigated. The reactor responses and the thermal hydraulic behavior to the events are presented and discussed. From the minimum CHFR and the maximum fuel temperature calculated, it is ensured that the fuel is not damaged in the step insertion of reactivity by 1.8 mk and the failure of all primary pumps for the reactor with a 10 MW thermal power and downward core flow

  7. A note on “A new approach for the selection of advanced manufacturing technologies: Data envelopment analysis with double frontiers”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Azizi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, using the data envelopment analysis (DEA with double frontiers approach, Wang and Chin (2009 proposed a new approach for the selection of advanced manufacturing technologies: DEA with double frontiers and a new measure for the selection of the best advanced manufacturing technologies (AMTs. In this note, we show that their proposed overall performance measure for the selection of the best AMT has an additional computational burden. Moreover, we propose a new measure for developing a complete ranking of AMTs. Numerical examples are examined using the proposed measure to show its simplicity and usefulness in the AMT selection and justification.

  8. The Role of Text Mining in Export Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tae, Jae-woong; Son, Choul-woong; Shin, Dong-hoon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Korean government provides classification services to exporters. It is simple to copy technology such as documents and drawings. Moreover, it is also easy that new technology derived from the existing technology. The diversity of technology makes classification difficult because the boundary between strategic and nonstrategic technology is unclear and ambiguous. Reviewers should consider previous classification cases enough. However, the increase of the classification cases prevent consistent classifications. This made another innovative and effective approaches necessary. IXCRS (Intelligent Export Control Review System) is proposed to coincide with demands. IXCRS consists of and expert system, a semantic searching system, a full text retrieval system, and image retrieval system and a document retrieval system. It is the aim of the present paper to observe the document retrieval system based on text mining and to discuss how to utilize the system. This study has demonstrated how text mining technique can be applied to export control. The document retrieval system supports reviewers to treat previous classification cases effectively. Especially, it is highly probable that similarity data will contribute to specify classification criterion. However, an analysis of the system showed a number of problems that remain to be explored such as a multilanguage problem and an inclusion relationship problem. Further research should be directed to solve problems and to apply more data mining techniques so that the system should be used as one of useful tools for export control.

  9. The Role of Text Mining in Export Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tae, Jae-woong; Son, Choul-woong; Shin, Dong-hoon

    2015-01-01

    Korean government provides classification services to exporters. It is simple to copy technology such as documents and drawings. Moreover, it is also easy that new technology derived from the existing technology. The diversity of technology makes classification difficult because the boundary between strategic and nonstrategic technology is unclear and ambiguous. Reviewers should consider previous classification cases enough. However, the increase of the classification cases prevent consistent classifications. This made another innovative and effective approaches necessary. IXCRS (Intelligent Export Control Review System) is proposed to coincide with demands. IXCRS consists of and expert system, a semantic searching system, a full text retrieval system, and image retrieval system and a document retrieval system. It is the aim of the present paper to observe the document retrieval system based on text mining and to discuss how to utilize the system. This study has demonstrated how text mining technique can be applied to export control. The document retrieval system supports reviewers to treat previous classification cases effectively. Especially, it is highly probable that similarity data will contribute to specify classification criterion. However, an analysis of the system showed a number of problems that remain to be explored such as a multilanguage problem and an inclusion relationship problem. Further research should be directed to solve problems and to apply more data mining techniques so that the system should be used as one of useful tools for export control

  10. The Emar Lexical Texts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gantzert, Merijn

    2011-01-01

    This four-part work provides a philological analysis and a theoretical interpretation of the cuneiform lexical texts found in the Late Bronze Age city of Emar, in present-day Syria. These word and sign lists, commonly dated to around 1100 BC, were almost all found in the archive of a single school.

  11. Iterative Expert-Functional Approach to the SWOT-Analysis in the Context of Strategic Marketing at the Japanese Cuisine Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Dmitrievich Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SWOT-analysis is one of the most common in the world of strategic planning methods used in the intra-firm, corporate, branch and territorial levels. The popularity of this approach is due to the relatively simple intuitive mechanics of its implementation, as well as the minimum cost of financial resources and time. The designed iterative expert-functional approach to the SWOT-analysis and to the development of strategic initiatives suggest analyzing the company at an early stage in the context of its key areas of work, determining the components of internal and external environment from the perspective of core business functions, taking into account the degree of development of the organization, the complexity of its business processes and corporate culture. It is extremely important criteria of the SWOT-analysis, and the development of proposals should be: comprehensive, the most objective approach to the study of the internal and external components of interest management in the analysis and implementation of strategic initiatives, understanding the specifics of the business project manager and its business processes, opportunities and threats surrounding environment, institutional approach to the study of the factors that may affect the economic and financial results of the company and marketing. In practice, the literature is often possible to meet criticism of the SWOT-analysis because of its subjectivity and descriptive results. The proposed procedure does not rule out the nature of these disadvantages, but maximizes the comprehensive assessment of the company’s operations, taking into account the interaction of its structural units and efficiently organize business processes, evaluate the degree of rationality and flexibility in addressing the opportunities and threats of the external environment. The outcome of the expert-functional approach should be the strategic initiatives that take into account the interests and competence of the

  12. #fitspo on Instagram: A mixed-methods approach using Netlytic and photo analysis, uncovering the online discussion and author/image characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarossa, Sara; Coyne, Paige; Lisinski, Carly; Woodruff, Sarah J

    2016-11-01

    The #fitspo 'tag' is a recent trend on Instagram, which is used on posts to motivate others towards a healthy lifestyle through exercise/eating habits. This study used a mixed-methods approach consisting of text and network analysis via the Netlytic program ( N = 10,000 #fitspo posts), and content analysis of #fitspo images ( N = 122) was used to examine author and image characteristics. Results suggest that #fitspo posts may motivate through appearance-mediated themes, as the largest content categories (based on the associated text) were 'feeling good' and 'appearance'. Furthermore, #fitspo posts may create peer influence/support as personal (opposed to non-personal) accounts were associated with higher popularity of images (i.e. number of likes/followers). Finally, most images contained posed individuals with some degree of objectification.

  13. Classification of Traffic Related Short Texts to Analyse Road Problems in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldana-Perez, A. M. M.; Moreno-Ibarra, M.; Tores-Ruiz, M.

    2017-09-01

    The Volunteer Geographic Information (VGI) can be used to understand the urban dynamics. In the classification of traffic related short texts to analyze road problems in urban areas, a VGI data analysis is done over a social media's publications, in order to classify traffic events at big cities that modify the movement of vehicles and people through the roads, such as car accidents, traffic and closures. The classification of traffic events described in short texts is done by applying a supervised machine learning algorithm. In the approach users are considered as sensors which describe their surroundings and provide their geographic position at the social network. The posts are treated by a text mining process and classified into five groups. Finally, the classified events are grouped in a data corpus and geo-visualized in the study area, to detect the places with more vehicular problems.

  14. UNDERSTANDING TENOR IN SPOKEN TEXTS IN YEAR XII ENGLISH TEXTBOOK TO IMPROVE THE APPROPRIACY OF THE TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noeris Meristiani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The goal of English Language Teaching is communicative competence. To reach this goal students should be supplied with good model texts. These texts should consider the appropriacy of language use. By analyzing the context of situation which is focused on tenor the meanings constructed to build the relationships among the interactants in spoken texts can be unfolded. This study aims at investigating the interpersonal relations (tenor of the interactants in the conversation texts as well as the appropriacy of their realization in the given contexts. The study was conducted under discourse analysis by applying a descriptive qualitative method. There were eight conversation texts which function as examples in five chapters of a textbook. The data were analyzed by using lexicogrammatical analysis, described, and interpreted contextually. Then, the realization of the tenor of the texts was further analyzed in terms of appropriacy to suggest improvement. The results of the study show that the tenor indicates relationships between friend-friend, student-student, questioners-respondents, mother-son, and teacher-student; the power is equal and unequal; the social distances show frequent contact, relatively frequent contact, relatively low contact, high and low affective involvement, using informal, relatively informal, relatively formal, and formal language. There are also some indications of inappropriacy of tenor realization in all texts. It should be improved in the use of degree of formality, the realization of societal roles, status, and affective involvement. Keywords: context of situation, tenor, appropriacy.

  15. Mining biological networks from full-text articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Jan; Shepherd, Adrian J

    2014-01-01

    The study of biological networks is playing an increasingly important role in the life sciences. Many different kinds of biological system can be modelled as networks; perhaps the most important examples are protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks, metabolic pathways, gene regulatory networks, and signalling networks. Although much useful information is easily accessible in publicly databases, a lot of extra relevant data lies scattered in numerous published papers. Hence there is a pressing need for automated text-mining methods capable of extracting such information from full-text articles. Here we present practical guidelines for constructing a text-mining pipeline from existing code and software components capable of extracting PPI networks from full-text articles. This approach can be adapted to tackle other types of biological network.

  16. State-Space Modeling and Performance Analysis of Variable-Speed Wind Turbine Based on a Model Predictive Control Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bassi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Advancements in wind energy technologies have led wind turbines from fixed speed to variable speed operation. This paper introduces an innovative version of a variable-speed wind turbine based on a model predictive control (MPC approach. The proposed approach provides maximum power point tracking (MPPT, whose main objective is to capture the maximum wind energy in spite of the variable nature of the wind’s speed. The proposed MPC approach also reduces the constraints of the two main functional parts of the wind turbine: the full load and partial load segments. The pitch angle for full load and the rotating force for the partial load have been fixed concurrently in order to balance power generation as well as to reduce the operations of the pitch angle. A mathematical analysis of the proposed system using state-space approach is introduced. The simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK show that the performance of the wind turbine with the MPC approach is improved compared to the traditional PID controller in both low and high wind speeds.

  17. Critical Discourse Analysis. The Elaboration of a Problem Oriented Discourse Analytic Approach After Foucault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Diaz-Bone

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The German discourse researcher Siegfried JÄGER from Duisburg is the first to have published a German-language book about the methodology of discourse analysis after FOUCAULT. JÄGER integrates in his work the discourse analytic work of Jürgen LINK as well as the interdisciplinary discussion carried on in the discourse analytic journal "kultuRRevolution" (Journal for Applied Discourse Analysis. JÄGER and his co-workers were associated with the Duisburger Institute for Language Research and Social Research (DISS, see http://www.diss-duisburg.de/ for 20 years, developing discourse theory and the methodology of discourse analysis. The interview was done via e-mail. It depicts the discourse analytic approach of JÄGER and his co-workers following the works of FOUCAULT and LINK. The interview reconstructs JÄGERs vita and his academic career. Further topics of the interview are the agenda of JÄGERs discourse studies, methodological considerations, the (problematic relationship between FOUCAULDian discourse analysis and (discourses, linguistics, styles and organization of research and questions concerning applied discourse analytic research as a form of critical intervention. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0603219

  18. The Asian crisis contagion: A dynamic correlation approach analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essaadi Essahbi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are testing for contagion caused by the Thai baht collapse of July 1997. In line with earlier work, shift-contagion is defined as a structural change within the international propagation mechanisms of financial shocks. We adopt Bai and Perron's (1998 structural break approach in order to detect the endogenous break points of the pair-wise time-varying correlations between Thailand and seven Asian stock market returns. Our approach enables us to solve the misspecification problem of the crisis window. Our results illustrate the existence of shift-contagion in the Asian crisis caused by the crisis in Thailand.

  19. Military construction program economic analysis manual: Text and appendixes: Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This manual enables the US Air Force to comprehensively and systematically analyze alternative approaches to meeting its military construction requirements. The manual includes step-by-step procedures for completing economic analyses for military construction projects, beginning with determining if an analysis is necessary. Instructions and a checklist of the tasks involved for each step are provided; and examples of calculations and illustrations of completed forms are included. The manual explains the major tasks of an economic analysis, including identifying the problem, selecting realistic alternatives for solving it, formulating appropriate assumptions, determining the costs and benefits of the alternatives, comparing the alternatives, testing the sensitivity of major uncertainties, and ranking the alternatives. Appendixes are included that contain data, indexes, and worksheets to aid in performing the economic analyses. For reference, Volume 2 contains sample economic analyses that illustrate how each form is filled out and that include a complete example of the documentation required. 6 figs.