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Sample records for texas-mexico border region

  1. International competition and the demand for health insurance in the US: evidence from the Texas-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H Shelton; Pagán, José A; Bastida, Elena

    2009-03-01

    Conventional economic explanations for uninsurance should apply to all geographic regions in the United States. However, the border states of California, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas have the highest rates of uninsurance in the US, accounting for over 30% of the total US uninsured population. We use survey data from the fourth wave of the Border Epidemiologic Study on Aging (BESA), a survey from a predominantly Mexican American region of South Texas from 2005 to 2006, to analyze how health insurance coverage in the US is related to the use of health care services in Mexico. BESA includes data on the use of health care services in the US and Mexico. We estimate probit models to investigate the association between having insurance coverage in the US and having a regular doctor in Mexico, the independent variable of interest. Separate models are estimated with having private insurance, Medicare Part B insurance, and any type of public insurance as dependent variables. We deal with the endogeneity, due to reverse causality, of having a regular doctor in Mexico by using instrumental variables in a bivariate probit model. The instruments are dental care utilization in Mexico and a variable measuring frequently visiting Mexico. The results show that competition from Mexico lowers the demand for health insurance coverage in the US side of the border.

  2. Assessing the roles of temperature, precipitation, and ENSO in dengue re-emergence on the Texas-Mexico border region.

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    Brunkard, Joan M; Cifuentes, Enrique; Rothenberg, Stephen J

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess linkages between microclimate and longer-term ENSO-related weather forcing on the week-to-week changes in dengue prevalence in Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico, over a recent decade of dengue observations. An auto-regressive model to evaluate the role of climatic factors (sea-surface temperature) and weather (maximum temperature, minimum temperature, precipitation) on dengue incidence over the period 1995-2005, was developed by conducting time-series analysis. Dengue incidence increased by 2.6% (95% CI: 0.2-5.1) one week after every 1 degree Celsius increase in weekly maximum temperature and increased 1.9% (95% CI: -0.1-3.9) two weeks after every 1 cm increase in weekly precipitation. Every 1 masculineC increase in sea surface temperatures (El Niño region 3.4 ) was followed by a 19.4% (95% CI: -4.7-43.5) increase in dengue incidence (18 weeks later). Climate and weather factors play a small but significant role in dengue transmission in Matamoros, Mexico. This study may provide baseline information for identifying potential longer-term effects of global climate change on dengue expected in the coming decades. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the potential associations between climate and weather events and dengue incidence in this geographical area.

  3. Physician Assistant Distribution in Texas-Mexico Border Counties: Public Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Eugene Jones

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Texas Medical Board physician assistant (PA data were assessed to assist workforce education and planning strategies for PA programs in regions with high percentages of Hispanic populations. Methods. Data were assessed for gender, ethnicity, program attended and current employment addresses within the 14 Texas-Mexico border counties. Results. Of the 329 border county PAs, 227 self-reported as Hispanic (69%, and 53% were female. Remarkably, 72% of all Hispanic PAs attended two of the six public Texas PA Programs. Conclusions. The Sullivan Commission report of 2004 concluded that the primary cause of poor public health care for minorities resulted from unequal representation of minorities in the health care professions. Two public Texas PA programs have made substantial contributions to public health care access in poverty-stricken border areas by educating and placing Hispanic PAs within medically underserved communities.

  4. Perceptions of Dialect in a Changing Society: Folk Linguistics Along the Texas-Mexico Border.

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    Martinez, Glenn A.

    2003-01-01

    Examines perceptions of dialect along the Texas-Mexico border, where researchers have found many similarities between the Spanish dialects spoken on the Mexican and the American sides of the national boundary. Looks at social change along the border, and discusses results of a dialect perception survey. (Author/VWL)

  5. Oral cancer knowledge and practices of dentists along the Texas-Mexico border.

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    Alonge, Olusegun K; Narendran, Sena

    2004-01-01

    The study assessed the knowledge and clinical practices of Texas-Mexico border dentists in oral cancer prevention and early detection. A pretested, self-administered questionnaire was mailed to all 398 dentists registered to practice along the Texas-Mexico border. Inadequacies and ambivalence in respondents' oral cancer knowledge and practices were evident. Performance of oral cancer examinations was associated with positive perception of undergraduate oral cancer training (P =.02). Most respondents (81%) were interested in oral cancer continuing education (CE). More emphasis on oral cancer training for dental students as well as provision of oral cancer CE to respondents are recommended.

  6. Dengue fever seroprevalence and risk factors, Texas-Mexico border, 2004.

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    Brunkard, Joan Marie; Robles López, Jose Luis; Ramirez, Josue; Cifuentes, Enrique; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A; Moore, Chester G; Brussolo, Regina M; Villarreal, Norma A; Haddad, Brent M

    2007-10-01

    Reported autochthonous dengue fever transmission in the United States has been limited to 5 south Texas border counties since 1980. We conducted a cross-sectional serosurvey in Brownsville, Texas, and Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico (n = 600), in 2004 to assess dengue seroprevalence. Recent dengue infection was detected in 2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5%-3.5%) and 7.3% (95% CI 4.3%-10.3%) of residents in Brownsville and Matamoros, respectively. Past infection was detected in 40% (95% CI 34%-45%) of Brownsville residents and 78% (95% CI 74%-83%) of Matamoros residents. For recent infection, only weekly family income dengue infection were presence of larval habitat, absence of air-conditioning and street drainage, and weekly family income dengue fever is endemic in this area of the southern Texas-Mexico border.

  7. Alcohol and Drug Use, Abuse, and Dependence in Urban Areas and Colonias of the Texas-Mexico Border

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    Wallisch, Lynn S.; Spence, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of alcohol and drug use, abuse, and dependence among adults on the Texas-Mexico border in 2002-2003. The findings are based on survey responses from a random sample of 1,200 adults living in households in three communities: El Paso, a densely populated city in west Texas; the less dense urbanized areas of the…

  8. Acculturation, drinking, and alcohol abuse and dependence among Hispanics in the Texas-Mexico border.

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    Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Wallisch, Lynn S; McGrath, Christine; Spence, Richard T

    2008-02-01

    Acculturation has been linked to an increased prevalence of alcohol-related problems. However, most of the research has been conducted with Hispanic populations in metropolitan areas of the United States, none of which is on the U.S.-Mexico border. This study examines the association between acculturation, heavy episodic drinking, and DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence among Hispanics in the Texas-Mexico border. The study used data from a survey conducted (2002 to 2003) along the Texas-Mexico border and included 472 male and 484 female Hispanic adults from El Paso, the Rio Grande Valley, and colonias. Based on the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II scale, respondents were coded into 4 acculturation categories: "very Mexican oriented,"Mexican bicultural,"Anglo bicultural," or "very Anglo/Anglicized.". Acculturation was related to lower rates of alcohol use disorders among men and a higher frequency of heavy episodic drinking among women. Multivariate analyses indicate that men who report heavy episodic drinking and those who are "very Mexican,"bicultural Mexican," or "bicultural Anglo" are more at higher risk for alcohol abuse and/or dependence compared with "very Anglo/Anglicized" men. For women, acculturation level did not predict alcohol disorders. Statistical analyses included testing for bivariate associations and multivariate logistic regression predicting heavy episodic drinking alcohol abuse or dependence. This study suggests that acculturation has different effects on drinking for men and women. This finding needs some attention as literature also indicates that women drink more and may develop more alcohol-related problems as they acculturate. This increase in women's drinking is probably because of U.S. society's more liberal norms governing female drinking. The "bimodal" distribution of risk, in which only men in "very Anglo" group are at a lower risk than the others, may be unique to the Border. The association between acculturation

  9. Effects of Health Insurance Among Patients on Hepatitis C Treatment Along the Texas-Mexico Border.

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    Romero, Roberta; Campbell, Lisa; Song, Huaxin; Zuckerman, Marc J; Alozie, Ogechika

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is steadily increasing across the world. Increasing morbidity and mortality rates associated with HCV are influencing research on treatment outcomes. The purpose of this project was to examine the effect of health insurance status and office visit compliance on sustained virologic response (SVR) in adult patients living along the Texas-Mexico border treated for HCV and who received dual or triple medication therapy between January 2010 and August 2013. The objective of this project was to determine whether there is an association between health insurance status, and/or office visit compliance, and SVR. We conducted a longitudinal retrospective chart review pilot study of patients who underwent treatment with dual and triple therapy in a border community in Texas. Results revealed that lack of insurance did not affect SVR in the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso-based clinic setting due to enrollment into a managed healthcare program. Providing a financial benefit may improve treatment compliance of HCV-infected individuals, reduce overall cost, and improve the patient's quality of life.

  10. Parental influences on television watching among children living on the Texas-Mexico border.

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    Springer, Andrew E; Kelder, Steven H; Barroso, Cristina S; Drenner, Kelli L; Shegog, Ross; Ranjit, Nalini; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2010-08-01

    We examined the association of parental television (TV) rules and compliance with the American Academy of Pediatrics' (AAP) recommendations of television per day in a primarily Hispanic sample of elementary school children (n=734) living on the U.S. side of the Texas-Mexico border. The potential modifying effects of children's home environment (parental TV watching, parent at home after school, and TV in bedroom) were also examined. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on baseline survey data merged from two waves (2006 and 2007) of a CDC-funded TV reduction intervention with 4th grade children (mean age: 9.5 years). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations. Children who had TV rules were 1.4 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.94) and 1.7 (95% CI: 1.22, 2.32) times more likely to meet the AAP recommendation for weekend and weekday TV watching, respectively. Parental TV watching and TV in bedroom modified the effect of TV rules on children's TV watching, with null associations found for children whose parents watch TV frequently and for children with no TV in bedroom. No interaction effect was found for children's afterschool context. Parental TV limits is one strategy for reducing children's television watching that merits further investigation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Epidemic dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever at the Texas-Mexico border: results of a household-based seroepidemiologic survey, December 2005.

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    Ramos, Mary M; Mohammed, Hamish; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Hayden, Mary H; Lopez, Jose Luis Robles; Fournier, Marta; Trujillo, Alfredo Rodríguez; Burton, Roy; Brunkard, Joan M; Anaya-Lopez, Luis; Banicki, Allison Abell; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Smith, Brian; Muñoz, Jorge L; Waterman, Stephen H

    2008-03-01

    A dengue-2 epidemic causing dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) occurred in the contiguous border cities of Matamoros, Tamaulipas (Mexico), and Brownsville, TX, in 2005. In December, we conducted a household-based epidemiologic survey to determine the incidence and seroprevalence of dengue infection among Matamoros and Brownsville residents and to identify risk factors associated with infection. Antibodies to dengue were measured in 273 individuals. The estimated incidence of recent dengue infection was 32% and 4% among Matamoros and Brownsville participants, respectively. The estimated prevalence of past dengue infection was 77% and 39% among Matamoros and Brownsville participants, respectively. The Breteau index was 28 in Matamoros and 16 in Brownsville, reflecting an abundant winter population of Aedes mosquitoes. Discarded waste tires and buckets were the two largest categories of infested containers found in both cities. Our results underscore the risk for epidemic dengue and DHF in the Texas-Mexico border region.

  12. Saturday Morning Television Advertisements Aired on English and Spanish Language Networks along the Texas-Mexico Border

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    Barroso, Cristina S.; Rodriguez, Dianeth; Camacho, Perla L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this content analysis study is to characterize the TV advertisements aired to an at-risk child population along the Texas-Mexico border. Methods We characterized the early Saturday morning TV advertisements aired by three broadcast network categories (U.S. English language, U.S. Spanish language, and Mexican Spanish language) in Spring 2010. The number, type (food related vs. non-food related), target audience, and persuasion tactics used were recorded. Advertised foods, based on nutrition content, were categorized as meeting or not meeting current dietary guidelines. Results Most commercials were non-food related (82.7%, 397 of 480). The majority of the prepared foods (e.g., cereals, snacks, and drinks) advertised did not meet the current U.S. Dietary Guidelines. Additionally, nutrition content information was not available for many of the foods advertised on the Mexican Spanish language broadcast network category. Conclusions For U.S. children at risk for obesity along the Texas-Mexico border exposure to TV food advertisements may result in the continuation of sedentary behavior as well as an increased consumption of foods of poor nutritional quality. An international regulatory effort to monitor and enforce the reduction of child-oriented food advertising is needed. PMID:22209760

  13. Evaluation of Jump into Action: A Program to Reduce the Risk of Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus in School Children on the Texas-Mexico Border.

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    Holcomb, J. David; Lira, Juanita; Kingery, Paul M.; Smith, D. W.; Lane, Dorothy; Goodway, Jackie

    1998-01-01

    Evaluated Jump into Action, a non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)-prevention program that encouraged students to eat well and exercise regularly to reduce NIDDM risks. Surveys of predominantly Hispanic fifth graders and their teachers at Texas-Mexico border schools indicated that the program increased NIDDM-prevention knowledge and…

  14. Dengue Fever Seroprevalence and Risk Factors, Texas-Mexico Border, 2004

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    Dengue fever is both endemic and underrecognized along a section of the southern Texas–Mexico border, and low income is a primary risk factor for infection. As part of a special section on Global Poverty and Human Development, Dr. Joan Marie Brunkard discusses a dengue seroprevalence survey in this region and what can be done to help prevent infection and to identify and treat those who are infected.  Created: 11/1/2007 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 1/24/2008.

  15. Opinions about oral cancer prevention and early detection among dentists practising along the Texas-Mexico border.

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    Alonge, O K; Narendran, S

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess dentists' opinions about oral cancer (OC) prevention and early detection. Data were collected by a self-administered mail questionnaire sent to all 398 registered dentists practising along the Texas-Mexico border. The effective response rate to the survey was 40%. While 90% of respondents agreed that oral cancer examinations (OCE) should be provided annually for patients 40 years of age and older, only 59% of respondents believed their OC knowledge was current. While 99% agreed that dentists were qualified to perform OCE, only 54 and 68% respectively, agreed that dental hygienists and physicians were similarly qualified. Dentists who rated their undergraduate OC training favorably (OR = 2.68, 1.23-5.81, P = 0.011), had attended their last oral cancer continuing education (OCCE) course within the past 5 years (OR = 2.46, 1.25-4.86, P = 0.009), and those who performed OCE on all patients 40 years and older (OR = 2.64, 1.32-5.26, P = 0.005), were more likely to agree their OC knowledge was current. Respondents expressed diverse opinions about OC prevention and early detection. Positive opinion on currency of OC knowledge was associated with performance of OCE. Results indicate a need for OCCE targeting the study population as well as increased emphasis on OC curriculum in dental schools.

  16. Embracing the local: enriching scientific research, education, and outreach on the Texas-Mexico border through a participatory action research partnership.

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    May, Marlynn L; Bowman, Gloria J; Ramos, Kenneth S; Rincones, Larry; Rebollar, Maria G; Rosa, Mary L; Saldana, Josephine; Sanchez, Adelina P; Serna, Teresa; Viega, Norma; Villegas, Gregoria S; Zamorano, Maria G; Ramos, Irma N

    2003-01-01

    Cameron Park, Texas, is a colonia (an isolated, unincorporated rural settlement without municipal improvements) on the Texas-Mexico border in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, in Cameron County near Brownsville, Texas. Cameron Park has a population of 5,961 residents, 99.3% of whom are Hispanic. The annual median income is 16,934 US dollars, about one-half of the state median. Fifty-eight percent of families generally and 68% of those with children younger than 5 years have incomes below poverty level. Cameron Park resides geographically in a region where agriculture has been, and continues to be, a dominant industry, a fact consistent with the intensive use of pesticides and increased potential for air, water, and ground contamination. The practice of good environmental health is extremely difficult under these conditions. In 1999 the Texas A&M University Center for Housing and Urban Development's Colonias Program and the Center for Environmental and Rural Health teamed up to create an environmental health education and outreach program called the Cameron Park Project (CPP). The CPP focused on how to reduce potential environmental exposures associated with human illness by providing residents with scientifically sound information on positive health practices and how to deal with environmental hazards. In this article we discuss the research methodology used in the CPP, a methodology specifically chosen to address four challenges presented by colonias to conducting valid and reliable research. PMID:14527834

  17. HPV knowledge, attitudes, and cultural beliefs among Hispanic men and women living on the Texas-Mexico border.

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    Fernandez, Maria E; McCurdy, Sheryl A; Arvey, Sarah R; Tyson, Sandra K; Morales-Campos, Daisy; Flores, Belinda; Useche, Bernardo; Mitchell-Bennett, Lisa; Sanderson, Maureen

    2009-12-01

    US Hispanic women have higher cervical cancer incidence rates than non-Hispanic White and African-American women and lower rates of cervical cancer screening. Knowledge, attitudes, and cultural beliefs may play a role in higher rates of infection of human papillomavirus (HPV) and decisions about subsequent diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer. To explore the level of HPV knowledge, attitudes, and cultural beliefs among Hispanic men and women on the Texas-Mexico border. Informed by feminist ethnography, the authors used an interpretive approach to understand local respondents' concerns and interests. Focus group sessions were analyzed using thematic content analysis. RECRUITMENT AND SAMPLE: Promotoras (lay health workers) recruited participants using convenience sampling methods. Group sessions were held in public service centers in Brownsville. Participants' ages ranged from 19 to 76 years. METHODS ANALYSIS: Focus group discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed in Spanish. Researchers read and discussed all the transcripts and generated a coding list. Transcripts were coded using ATLAS.ti 5.0. Participants had little understanding about HPV and its role in the etiology of cervical cancer. Attitudes and concerns differed by gender. Women interpreted a diagnosis of HPV as a diagnosis of cancer and expressed fatalistic beliefs about its treatment. Men initially interpreted a diagnosis of HPV as an indication of their partners' infidelity, but after reflecting upon the ambiguity of HPV transmission, attributed their initial reaction to cultural ideals of machismo. Men ultimately were interested in helping their partners seek care in the event of a positive diagnosis. Results suggest that understanding Hispanics' cultural norms and values concerning disease, sexuality, and gender is essential to the design and implementation of interventions to prevent and treat HPV and cervical cancer.

  18. Colorectal cancer screening among Latinos from U.S. cities along the Texas-Mexico border.

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    Fernandez, Maria E; Wippold, Rosario; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Byrd, Theresa; Freeberg, Diamond; Bains, Yadvindera; Guajardo, Jessica; Coughlin, Steven S; Vernon, Sally W

    2008-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates are comparatively low for U.S. Hispanics. To learn more about the factors influencing CRC screening among Hispanics living along the U.S.-Mexico border, 12 focus groups were conducted with Hispanic men and women aged 50 years and older in three Texas counties; Cameron County (Brownsville), Webb County (Laredo), and El Paso County, (El Paso). The focus group guide contained questions about health care behavior, knowledge about CRC, experiences with cancer, and factors that influence CRC screening. A total of 92 individuals participated with the majority aged 50-69 (75%). Twenty percent were born in the United States and 51% had lived in the United States for more than 20 years. Participants had low levels of education, income, and insurance coverage. The analysis revealed several overarching and contextual themes relating to knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and emotions about cancer and CRC screening. A prevalent theme that emerged from all groups was frustration and a lack of confidence in the U.S. healthcare system. Few participants had been advised by their providers to obtain CRC screening. Lack of patient knowledge about colorectal cancer and screening appeared to be a critical factor influencing screening. Themes about death and pain due to cancer were prevalent as were cultural factors such as machismo and embarrassment. System level barriers such as cost, medical insurance and transportation also impacted screening. These findings suggest that strategies are needed to educate Hispanic residents of border communities about CRC and to motivate them to undergo CRC screening.

  19. A preliminary look at source-receptor relationships in the Texas-Mexico border area.

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    Gebhart, K A; Malm, W C; Flores, M

    2000-05-01

    Several factors have recently caused visibility impairment at Big Bend National Park, TX, to be of interest. Analyses of historical data collected there have shown that visibility is poorer and fine particle concentrations are higher at Big Bend than at other monitored Class I areas in the western United States. In addition, air masses frequently arrive there after crossing Mexico, where emissions are not well known. During September and October 1996, a field study was undertaken to begin examining the aerosol, visibility, and meteorology on both sides of the border. Results indicate that, during the study, the largest fractions of fine mass and light extinction at Big Bend were due to sulfates and the trace elements most closely associated with sulfate particles were Na and Se. Based on back trajectory modeling and the spatial, temporal, and inter-species relationships in the fine particle concentrations measured during the study, sulfates arrived at the park from both Mexico and the United States. Se was higher in Texas than in Northern Mexico, while V, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Mn were on average much higher in Mexico.

  20. The epidemiology of viral hepatitis in children in South Texas: increased prevalence of hepatitis A along the Texas-Mexico border.

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    Leach, C T; Koo, F C; Hilsenbeck, S G; Jenson, H B

    1999-08-01

    An initial retrospective study of 194 children demonstrated a high prevalence of hepatitis A but not hepatitis B or C infection among children living along the Texas-Mexico border. A larger prospective study of hepatitis A was conducted with 285 children (aged 6 months to 13 years) living in 3 sociodemographically dissimilar areas of South Texas. Children living in colonías along the border had a significantly higher prevalence of hepatitis A virus infection (37%) than children living in urban border communities (17%) or in a large metropolitan area (San Antonio [6%]). Independent risk factors for hepatitis A infection included increased age, colonía residence, and history of residence in a developing country. Use of bottled water (vs. municipal or spring/well water) and years of maternal secondary education were protective. Improved sanitation or routine hepatitis A vaccination in early childhood may reduce the prevalence of hepatitis A in these areas.

  1. Physical activity and overweight among adolescents on the Texas-Mexico border

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    Pérez, Adriana; Reininger, Belinda M.; Flores, Maria Isabel Aguirre; Sanderson, Maureen; Roberts, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate differences in associations between physical activity and overweight for students in two adjacent areas on the border between Mexico and the United States of America: students in the city of Matamoros, Mexico, and Mexican-American students in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) area of southern Texas. Since the extremely high prevalence of overweight among Mexican-American adolescents is well-recognized, we wanted to determine whether overweight has become a problem among Mexican adolescents. Methods Students from 6 schools (n = 669), representing 12% of the ninth-grade students in Matamoros during 2002-2003, and students from 13 high schools (n = 4 736), representing 22% of the ninth-grade students in the LRGV during 2000-2001, completed questionnaires. Polytomous logistic regression was performed to estimate the risk of being at risk of overweight (≥85th percentile to ciudad de Matamoros, México, y estudiantes mexicanoestadounidenses del valle a lo largo de la desembocadura del Río Bravo (VRB) en la parte sur del estado de Texas. Dada la consabida prevalencia extremadamente alta de sobrepeso en adolescentes mexicanoestadounidenses, los autores queríamos determinar si el sobrepeso también se ha convertido en un problema entre adolescentes mexicanos. Métodos: Estudiantes de 6 escuelas (n = 653), que comprenden 11% de los estudiantes de noveno grado en Matamoros durante 2002–2003, y estudiantes de 13 bachilleratos (n = 4 736), que comprenden 22% de los estudiantes de noveno grado del VRB durante 2000–2001, contestaron cuestionarios. Se llevó a cabo una regresión logística politómica a fin de calcular el riesgo de estar en riesgo de tener sobrepeso (≥85.° percentil a <95.° percentil de índice de masa corporal (IMC) para la edad y el sexo) y el riesgo de tener sobrepeso (≥95.° percentil de índice de masa corporal (IMC) para la edad y el sexo), frente a un peso normal, que se asociaban con distintos grados de actividad f

  2. Widespread Trypanosoma cruzi infection in government working dogs along the Texas-Mexico border: Discordant serology, parasite genotyping and associated vectors.

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    Meyers, Alyssa C; Meinders, Marvin; Hamer, Sarah A

    2017-08-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the vector-borne protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is increasingly recognized in the southern U.S. Government-owned working dogs along the Texas-Mexico border could be at heightened risk due to prolonged exposure outdoors in habitats with high densities of vectors. We quantified working dog exposure to T. cruzi, characterized parasite strains, and analyzed associated triatomine vectors along the Texas-Mexico border. In 2015-2016, we sampled government working dogs in five management areas plus a training center in Texas and collected triatomine vectors from canine environments. Canine serum was tested for anti-T. cruzi antibodies with up to three serological tests including two immunochromatographic assays (Stat-Pak and Trypanosoma Detect) and indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test. The buffy coat fraction of blood and vector hindguts were tested for T. cruzi DNA and parasite discrete typing unit was determined. Overall seroprevalence was 7.4 and 18.9% (n = 528) in a conservative versus inclusive analysis, respectively, based on classifying weakly reactive samples as negative versus positive. Canines in two western management areas had 2.6-2.8 (95% CI: 1.0-6.8 p = 0.02-0.04) times greater odds of seropositivity compared to the training center. Parasite DNA was detected in three dogs (0.6%), including TcI and TcI/TcIV mix. Nine of 20 (45%) T. gerstaeckeri and T. rubida were infected with TcI and TcIV; insects analyzed for bloodmeals (n = 11) fed primarily on canine (54.5%). Government working dogs have widespread exposure to T. cruzi across the Texas-Mexico border. Interpretation of sample serostatus was challenged by discordant results across testing platforms and very faint serological bands. In the absence of gold standard methodologies, epidemiological studies will benefit from presenting a range of results based on different tests/interpretation criteria to encompass uncertainty. Working dogs are highly trained in security functions and

  3. Exposure to a community-wide campaign is associated with physical activity and sedentary behavior among Hispanic adults on the Texas-Mexico border

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    Natalia I. Heredia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite evidence for the use of community-wide campaigns to promote physical activity, few evaluations of community–wide campaigns in Hispanic communities exist. This study assessed the associations of exposure to a community-wide campaign with physical activity and sedentary behavior among Hispanic adults living on the Texas-Mexico border. Methods The intervention, Tu Salud ¡Si Cuenta! (Your Health Matters!; TSSC, included a newsletter, community health worker discussion, TV and radio segments, which were conducted from 2005 to 2010. We matched an intervention (N = 399 and a control community (N = 400 on demographics and used a cross-sectional assessment in 2010 with randomly sampled adults from both communities. We collected exposure to the campaign, as well as physical activity and sedentary behavior with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. We conducted bivariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression models to assess the association of TSSC exposure and its components with meeting moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA guidelines and exhibiting excessive sedentary behavior, controlling for covariates. Results As compared to the control community, the intervention community has 3 times the odds of meeting MVPA guidelines (Adjusted OR [AOR] = 3.01, 95% CI = 1.85–4.88, p < .05 and 2 times lower odds of excessive sedentary behavior ((AOR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.30–0.70, p < .05. Exposure in the intervention group to any component was associated with five times the odds of meeting MVPA guidelines (AOR = 5.10, 95% CI 2.88–9.03, p < .001 and 3 times lower odds of excessive sedentary behavior (AOR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.17–0.60, p < .001, compared with those unexposed in the control community. Exposure to newsletters, CHW discussions and TV segments were associated with significantly lower odds of excessive sedentary behavior and higher odds of

  4. Exposure to a community-wide campaign is associated with physical activity and sedentary behavior among Hispanic adults on the Texas-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Natalia I; Lee, MinJae; Reininger, Belinda M

    2017-11-16

    Despite evidence for the use of community-wide campaigns to promote physical activity, few evaluations of community-wide campaigns in Hispanic communities exist. This study assessed the associations of exposure to a community-wide campaign with physical activity and sedentary behavior among Hispanic adults living on the Texas-Mexico border. The intervention, Tu Salud ¡Si Cuenta! (Your Health Matters!; TSSC), included a newsletter, community health worker discussion, TV and radio segments, which were conducted from 2005 to 2010. We matched an intervention (N = 399) and a control community (N = 400) on demographics and used a cross-sectional assessment in 2010 with randomly sampled adults from both communities. We collected exposure to the campaign, as well as physical activity and sedentary behavior with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. We conducted bivariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression models to assess the association of TSSC exposure and its components with meeting moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) guidelines and exhibiting excessive sedentary behavior, controlling for covariates. As compared to the control community, the intervention community has 3 times the odds of meeting MVPA guidelines (Adjusted OR [AOR] = 3.01, 95% CI = 1.85-4.88, p < .05) and 2 times lower odds of excessive sedentary behavior ((AOR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.30-0.70, p < .05). Exposure in the intervention group to any component was associated with five times the odds of meeting MVPA guidelines (AOR = 5.10, 95% CI 2.88-9.03, p < .001) and 3 times lower odds of excessive sedentary behavior (AOR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.17-0.60, p < .001), compared with those unexposed in the control community. Exposure to newsletters, CHW discussions and TV segments were associated with significantly lower odds of excessive sedentary behavior and higher odds of meeting MVPA guidelines. Exposure to radio segments was

  5. One Health Interactions of Chagas Disease Vectors, Canid Hosts, and Human Residents along the Texas-Mexico Border.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa N Garcia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi infection is the leading cause of non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy in Latin America. Texas, particularly the southern region, has compounding factors that could contribute to T. cruzi transmission; however, epidemiologic studies are lacking. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of T. cruzi in three different mammalian species (coyotes, stray domestic dogs, and humans and vectors (Triatoma species to understand the burden of Chagas disease among sylvatic, peridomestic, and domestic cycles.To determine prevalence of infection, we tested sera from coyotes, stray domestic dogs housed in public shelters, and residents participating in related research studies and found 8%, 3.8%, and 0.36% positive for T. cruzi, respectively. PCR was used to determine the prevalence of T. cruzi DNA in vectors collected in peridomestic locations in the region, with 56.5% testing positive for the parasite, further confirming risk of transmission in the region.Our findings contribute to the growing body of evidence for autochthonous Chagas disease transmission in south Texas. Considering this region has a population of 1.3 million, and up to 30% of T. cruzi infected individuals developing severe cardiac disease, it is imperative that we identify high risk groups for surveillance and treatment purposes.

  6. One Health Interactions of Chagas Disease Vectors, Canid Hosts, and Human Residents along the Texas-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Melissa N; O'Day, Sarah; Fisher-Hoch, Susan; Gorchakov, Rodion; Patino, Ramiro; Feria Arroyo, Teresa P; Laing, Susan T; Lopez, Job E; Ingber, Alexandra; Jones, Kathryn M; Murray, Kristy O

    2016-11-01

    Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi infection) is the leading cause of non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy in Latin America. Texas, particularly the southern region, has compounding factors that could contribute to T. cruzi transmission; however, epidemiologic studies are lacking. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of T. cruzi in three different mammalian species (coyotes, stray domestic dogs, and humans) and vectors (Triatoma species) to understand the burden of Chagas disease among sylvatic, peridomestic, and domestic cycles. To determine prevalence of infection, we tested sera from coyotes, stray domestic dogs housed in public shelters, and residents participating in related research studies and found 8%, 3.8%, and 0.36% positive for T. cruzi, respectively. PCR was used to determine the prevalence of T. cruzi DNA in vectors collected in peridomestic locations in the region, with 56.5% testing positive for the parasite, further confirming risk of transmission in the region. Our findings contribute to the growing body of evidence for autochthonous Chagas disease transmission in south Texas. Considering this region has a population of 1.3 million, and up to 30% of T. cruzi infected individuals developing severe cardiac disease, it is imperative that we identify high risk groups for surveillance and treatment purposes.

  7. Assessing the roles of temperature, precipitation, and enso in dengue re-emergence on the Texas-Mexico border region Evaluación del clima y del ENSO en la reemergencia del dengue en la frontera Texas-México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan M Brunkard

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to assess linkages between microclimate and longer-term ENSO-related weather forcing on the week-to-week changes in dengue prevalence in Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico, over a recent decade of dengue observations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An auto-regressive model to evaluate the role of climatic factors (sea-surface temperature and weather (maximum temperature, minimum temperature, precipitation on dengue incidence over the period 1995-2005, was developed by conducting time-series analysis. RESULTS: Dengue incidence increased by 2.6% (95% CI: 0.2-5.1 one week after every 1ºC increase in weekly maximum temperature and increased 1.9% (95% CI: -0.1-3.9 two weeks after every 1 cm increase in weekly precipitation. Every 1ºC increase in sea surface temperatures (El Niño region 3.4 was followed by a 19.4% (95% CI: -4.7-43.5 increase in dengue incidence (18 weeks later. CONCLUSIONS: Climate and weather factors play a small but significant role in dengue transmission in Matamoros, Mexico. This study may provide baseline information for identifying potential longer-term effects of global climate change on dengue expected in the coming decades. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the potential associations between climate and weather events and dengue incidence in this geographical area.OBJETIVO: Evaluar los vínculos entre el microclima, las variables relacionadas al fenómeno de El Niño Oscilación del Sur (ENSO y los cambios en el reporte semanal de casos de dengue en el área de Matamoros, Tamaulipas, México, a lo largo de una década de observaciones. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se desarrolló un modelo autorregresivo para evaluar la influencia de factores climáticos (temperatura superficial del mar y tiempo (temperatura máxima, temperatura mínima y precipitación sobre la incidencia de dengue, a lo largo de 11 años (1995-2005, empleando análisis de series de tiempo. RESULTADOS: La incidencia

  8. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Lyme Disease Infected Ticks in the Texas-Mexico Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyme disease (LD) is the most prevalent arthropod-borne infection in the United States, with 33,097 cases of LD reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2011. The disease is transmitted to a mammalian host by Ixodes ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. Efforts to unde...

  9. Border region studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The contemporary conditions of academic capitalism exert pressures on researchers to avoid ‘peripheral’ journals and ‘unfashionable’ topics. Here an attempt is made to shed light onto the structure of one such ‘offbeat’ field, namely ‘border region studies’, by discussing its geographical...... distribution, key themes, significance and impact. The review suggests that border region studies can be considered a significant and important ‘branch’ of regional studies, which accounts for a small but increasing proportion of regional studies research particularly in Europe and North America. Four main...

  10. Association of Household and Community Characteristics with Adult and Child Food Insecurity among Mexican-Origin Households in Colonias along the Texas-Mexico Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Wesley R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food insecurity is a critical problem in the United States and throughout the world. There is little published data that provides insights regarding the extent and severity of food insecurity among the hard-to-reach Mexican-origin families who reside in the growing colonias along the Texas border with Mexico. Considering that culture, economics, and elements of the environment may increase the risk for food insecurity and adverse health outcomes, the purpose of this study was to examine the relation between household and community characteristics and food insecurity. Methods The study used data from the 2009 Colonia Household and Community Food Resource Assessment (C-HCFRA. The data included 610 face-to-face interviews conducted in Spanish by promotoras (indigenous community health workers in forty-four randomly-identified colonias near the towns of Progreso and La Feria in Hidalgo and Cameron counties along the Texas border with Mexico. C-HCFRA included demographic characteristics, health characteristics, food access and mobility, food cost, federal and community food and nutrition assistance programs, perceived quality of the food environment, food security, eating behaviors, and alternative food sources. Results 78% of participants experienced food insecurity at the level of household, adult, or child. The most severe - child food insecurity was reported by 49% of all households and 61.8% of households with children. Increasing levels of food insecurity was associated with being born in Mexico, increasing household composition, decreasing household income, and employment. Participation in federal food assistance programs was associated with reduced severity of food insecurity. Greater distance to their food store and perceived quality of the community food environment increased the odds for food insecurity. Conclusions The Mexican-origin population is rapidly expanding; record numbers of individuals and families are

  11. Association of Household and Community Characteristics with Adult and Child Food Insecurity among Mexican-Origin Households in Colonias along the Texas-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Food insecurity is a critical problem in the United States and throughout the world. There is little published data that provides insights regarding the extent and severity of food insecurity among the hard-to-reach Mexican-origin families who reside in the growing colonias along the Texas border with Mexico. Considering that culture, economics, and elements of the environment may increase the risk for food insecurity and adverse health outcomes, the purpose of this study was to examine the relation between household and community characteristics and food insecurity. Methods The study used data from the 2009 Colonia Household and Community Food Resource Assessment (C-HCFRA). The data included 610 face-to-face interviews conducted in Spanish by promotoras (indigenous community health workers) in forty-four randomly-identified colonias near the towns of Progreso and La Feria in Hidalgo and Cameron counties along the Texas border with Mexico. C-HCFRA included demographic characteristics, health characteristics, food access and mobility, food cost, federal and community food and nutrition assistance programs, perceived quality of the food environment, food security, eating behaviors, and alternative food sources. Results 78% of participants experienced food insecurity at the level of household, adult, or child. The most severe - child food insecurity was reported by 49% of all households and 61.8% of households with children. Increasing levels of food insecurity was associated with being born in Mexico, increasing household composition, decreasing household income, and employment. Participation in federal food assistance programs was associated with reduced severity of food insecurity. Greater distance to their food store and perceived quality of the community food environment increased the odds for food insecurity. Conclusions The Mexican-origin population is rapidly expanding; record numbers of individuals and families are experiencing food insecurity; and

  12. The effect of fever, febrile illnesses, and heat exposures on the risk of neural tube defects in a Texas-Mexico border population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Lucina; Felkner, Marilyn; Hendricks, Kate

    2004-10-01

    Hyperthermia produces neural tube defects (NTDs) in a variety of animal species. Elevated maternal body temperatures may also place the developing human embryo at risk. We examined the relation between maternal hyperthermia and the development of NTDs in a high-risk Mexican-American population. Case-women were Mexican-American women with NTD-affected pregnancies who resided and delivered in any of the 14 Texas counties bordering Mexico, during 1995-2000. Control-women were randomly selected from study area residents delivering normal live births, frequency-matched to cases by hospital and year. Information on maternal fevers, febrile illnesses, exposures to heat generated from external sources, and hyperthermia-inducing activities was gathered through in-person interviews, conducted about six weeks postpartum. The risk effect (OR) associated with maternal fever in the first trimester, compared to no fever, was 2.9 (95% CI, 1.5-5.7). Women taking fever-reducing medications showed a lower risk effect (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.0-5.6) than those who did not (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.4-10.9). First-trimester maternal exposures to heat devices such as hot tubs, saunas, or electric blankets were associated with an OR of 3.6 (95% CI, 1.1-15.9). Small insignificant effects were observed for activities such as cooking in a hot kitchen (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0-2.6) and working or exercising in the sun (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.9-2.2). Maternal hyperthermia increases the risk for NTD-affected offspring. Women intending to become pregnant should avoid intense heat exposures, carefully monitor and manage their febrile illnesses, and routinely consume folic acid supplements. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Physical activity and overweight among adolescents on the Texas-Mexico border La actividad física y el sobrepeso en adolescentes que viven en la frontera mexicanoestadounidense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pérez

    2006-04-01

    overweight. Implementation of interventions on healthful dietary choices and participation in physical education classes and sports teams are essential for reducing the extremely high prevalence of overweight among students on both sides of the Texas/Mexico border.OBJETIVO: Investigar si hay diferencias en las asociaciones entre la actividad física y el sobrepeso observadas en estudiantes de dos zonas colindantes en la frontera mexicanoestadounidense: estudiantes de la ciudad de Matamoros, México, y estudiantes mexicanoestadounidenses del valle a lo largo de la desembocadura del Río Bravo (VRB en la parte sur del estado de Texas. Dada la consabida prevalencia extremadamente alta de sobrepeso en adolescentes mexicanoestadounidenses, los autores queríamos determinar si el sobrepeso también se ha convertido en un problema entre adolescentes mexicanos. MÉTODOS: Estudiantes de 6 escuelas (n = 653, que comprenden 11% de los estudiantes de noveno grado en Matamoros durante 2002-2003, y estudiantes de 13 bachilleratos (n = 4 736, que comprenden 22% de los estudiantes de noveno grado del VRB durante 2000-2001, contestaron cuestionarios. Se llevó a cabo una regresión logística politómica a fin de calcular el riesgo de estar en riesgo de tener sobrepeso (> 85.º percentil a 95.º percentil de índice de masa corporal (IMC para la edad y el sexo, frente a un peso normal, que se asociaban con distintos grados de actividad física. En aras de la sencillez, en la clasificación del peso normal también se abarcó la insuficiencia de peso. RESULTADOS: Un mayor porcentaje de adolescentes estaban en riesgo de sufrir sobrepeso en el VRB (17% que en Matamoros (15%. Los porcentajes de adolescentes de VRB y de Matamoros que tenían sobrepeso fueron idénticos (17%. Los varones adolescentes en el VRB (razón de posibilidades [RP] = 0,87; IC95% = 0,77 a 0,98 que participaron en deportes en equipo tuvieron una menor probabilidad de estar en riesgo de tener sobrepeso. No se encontraron

  14. Structure of the animal vitreoretinal border region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen

    1994-01-01

    Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, animals, ultrastructure, comparative anatomy......Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, animals, ultrastructure, comparative anatomy...

  15. Ethnic and health correlates of diabetes-related amputations at the Texas-Mexico border Correlatos étnicos y de salud de las amputaciones relacionadas con la diabetes en la frontera entre Texas y México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelda Mier

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between diabetes-related lower-extremity amputation (LEA and ethnicity, age, source of payment, geographic location, diabetes severity, and health condition in adults with diabetes mellitus type 2 living in border and non-border counties in Texas, United States of America, and to assess intra-border region geographic differences in post-LEA treatment. METHODS: This correlational study was based on secondary data from the 2003 Texas Inpatient Hospital Discharge Data. The sample consisted of individuals 45 years of age and older with type 2 diabetes who had undergone a nontraumatic LEA (n = 5 865. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were applied. RESULTS: The following characteristics were predictors of LEA: being Hispanic or African American, male, > 55 years old, and a Medicare or Medicaid user, and living in a border county. Persons with moderate diabetes and those who suffered from cardiovascular disease or stroke also had higher odds of undergoing an LEA. Post-LEA occupational therapy was significantly less prevalent among border residents (9.5% than non-border residents (15.3% (P OBJETIVO: Analizar la asociación entre las amputaciones de extremidades inferiores (AEI relacionadas con la diabetes y el grupo étnico, la edad, la procedencia del pago, la ubicación geográfica, la gravedad de la diabetes y el estado de salud de los adultos que padecen diabetes tipo 2 residentes en los condados fronterizos y no fronterizos de Texas (Estados Unidos de América, y evaluar la diferencias geográficas dentro de la zona fronteriza en cuanto al tratamiento posterior a la amputación. MÉTODOS: Este estudio correlacional se basó en datos secundarios procedentes de la información de egreso de pacientes hospitalizados en Texas durante el año 2003. La muestra estuvo integrada por personas de 45 años o mayores con diabetes tipo 2, que habían sido sometidas a la amputación no traumática de una

  16. Cross-border regional innovation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Rohde, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The concept of cross-border regional innovation systems (CBRIS) surfaced in the literature on economic geography through discourses that highlighted the need of broadening innovation systems to cross-border contexts. Since these early discussions, the theoretical backgrounds of CBRIS have been...... elaborated through notions of geographical scale, proximity and related variety in a range of conceptual papers proposing CBRIS as a comprehensive framework for analysing regional cross-border integration. However, the empirical literature on CBRIS has failed to keep up with the advances in conceptualisation...... of understanding how suggested policy measures based on CBRIS reasoning have been implemented in border regions, and their effectiveness in promoting cross-border integration....

  17. Cross-border regional innovation system integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Weidenfeld, Adi; Williams, Allan

    2017-01-01

    The importance of inter-regional cooperation and innovation are widely accepted in the development rhetoric of the European Union. The highlighted importance of both themes in the context of borderlands has recently led to the coining of a new concept, cross-border regional innovation system...... of cross-border cooperation in a regional innovation system setting. The framework was further tested with illustrative empirical cases that demonstrate its feasibility....

  18. Border governance in Mozambique : The intersection of international border controls, regional integration and cross-border regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.L.M. Seda (Fulgêncio)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractA tension exists between the interests of states in protecting national security through border controls and those of communities in cross-border regions, to whom frequent border crossing is part of daily life – a necessary part of achieving their own wellbeing. The interplay between

  19. Border regions as the tourist destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majstorović Vukica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism, as a global phenomenon, has found its place in every corner of the world. During a certain period of time, the tourism market has become saturated by mass tourism causing the creation of new attractive destinations for tourists. Thus, some of the border areas in the world attract and keep passers-by while transforming into the new tourist destinations. In this paper, it is possible to see relations and interconnections between tourism and international boundaries. Tourism in border regions has an opportunity to activate these areas that are often neglected by the state. Some European countries have taken advantage of this opportunity and they improved their tourism industry by developing their border regions. This kind of tourism development can be applied in Serbia and, in that way, activate the border areas of our country. However, in order to develop tourism in these areas, it is necessary to have an adequate international cooperation between two or more states. This can be achieved by various instruments of cross-border cooperation in tourism through the engagement of neighbouring countries in joint plans and cooperation.

  20. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Among the Mexican American Population in the Texas-Mexico Border Region, by Age and Length of Residence in United States

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas, Jennifer J.; Abdelbary, Bassent; Rentfro, Anne; Fisher-Hoch, Susan; McCormick, Joseph B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although the relationship between health behaviors and outcomes such as smoking and obesity with longer residence in the United States among Mexican American immigrants is established, the relationship between length of residency in the United States and risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between immigrant status, length of residence in the United States, age, and CVD markers in a sample of ...

  1. Cardiovascular disease risk among the Mexican American population in the Texas-Mexico border region, by age and length of residence in United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jennifer J; Abdelbary, Bassent; Rentfro, Anne; Fisher-Hoch, Susan; McCormick, Joseph

    2014-04-10

    Although the relationship between health behaviors and outcomes such as smoking and obesity with longer residence in the United States among Mexican American immigrants is established, the relationship between length of residency in the United States and risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between immigrant status, length of residence in the United States, age, and CVD markers in a sample of Mexican American adults living in Brownsville, Texas. We categorized participants in the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort study as immigrants in the United States for 10 years or less, immigrants in the United States for more than 10 years, or born in the United States. We conducted logistic and ordinary least squares regression for self-reported chronic conditions and CVD biomarkers. We found bivariate differences in the prevalence of self-reported conditions and 1 CVD biomarker (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) by length of residence in the middle (41-64 y) and younger (18-40 y) age groups. After adjusting for covariates, the following varied significantly by immigrant status: stroke and high cholesterol (self-reported conditions) and diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (CVD biomarkers). The association between immigrant status, length of residence in the United States, and CVD markers varied. The effect of length of residence in the United States or immigrant status may depend on age and may be most influential in middle or older age.

  2. Measuring cross-border regional integration with composite indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    a sub-category for STI. Consequently, by ignoring cross-border innovation and knowledge flows, the Oresund integration index fails to take into account one of the most important drivers of economic growth in cross-border regions. Therefore, a new composite STI indicator (sub-category) was introduced......Earlier quantitative studies on cross-border regional integration processes have commonly neglected science, technology and innovation (STI) indicators: even the most notable example of a composite indicator approach to measuring cross-border regional integration, i.e. the Oresund index, lacks......-border regions....

  3. Regional trade and border markets between Niger, Benin and Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Tenikué, Michel; Kuepié, Mathias

    The objective of this methodological paper is to identify a number of products or sectors whose trade is relevant for border regions in West Africa. Focusing on Niger, Benin and Nigeria, we start with contextualising the importance of border markets by quantifying the changes in the relative values...... and volumes of imports and exports passing through border posts. In a second step, we determine which are the products most commonly found among the imports and exports of the border posts. The study shows that seven products are recognised as being heavily imported, subject to significant trade from large...

  4. Geology of the border region between Coahuila and Zacatecas, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vloten, van Roger

    1954-01-01

    The border region between Coahuila and Zacatecas is part of the mountainous country south of Parras in northeastern Mexico. It includes a thickness of about 2,600 meters of Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks that were deposited along the northern border of the Mexican geosyncline along the southern

  5. Early seismicity of the Scottish Borders Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. W. Musson

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the seismicity of Southern Scotland and Northern England up to the year 1750. This area was formerly a border area between two states that eventually became politically united. Much of the area is uplands, and the seismicity is moderate to low. This makes for some problems in studying historical seismicity, yet the area provides a number of case studies of general interest in the field of historical seismology, including a rare case of being able to track down a «missing» earthquake.

  6. Cross-border Movement of People between Russia and Poland and Their Influence on the Economy of Border Regions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Natalia A Zaitseva; Valentin S Korneevets; Elena G Kropinova; Tatyana Yu Kuznetsova; Ludmila V Semenova

    2016-01-01

      The ever-increasing role of cross-border movement for the development of the economies of the regions of neighboring countries located in the immediate vicinity of the border defines the topicality of this research...

  7. Social and Symbolic Capital in Border Region Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    to a specific industry sector. The actors have relationships characterised by interdependencies of different strength and quality that define the boundaries. Empirically this contribution is sticking to a firm cluster in the Danish - German border region in Southern Jutland/Danmark. We found global players...... with a high sensitivity regarding the importance of social capital in the process of value creation. Managers on the firm- as well as on the web-level are aware of the potential, but the border between the countries is by the same one border of the cluster as an value adding unit....

  8. Frontier and Border Regions in Early Modern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esser, R.M.; Ellis, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    That regional identities are constructed is now something of a truism in academic research. More recently regions have been conceptualized in the framework of Frontier and Border Studies, thus emphasizing their relationship to their neighbours in another state across a boundary line. In early modern

  9. Mapping and assessing the environmental impacts of border tactical infrastructure in the Sky Island Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroline Patrick-Birdwell; Sergio Avila-Villegas; Jenny Neeley; Louise Misztal

    2013-01-01

    In this project we mapped the different types of border barriers, identified impacts of border infrastructure on public and private lands and conducted spatial analyses within the approximately 200 miles of international border in the Sky Island region. The Sky Island region, bisected by the U.S.-Mexico border, is critically important for its biodiversity and...

  10. Creating a Coyote Cartography: Critical Regionalism at the Border

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Caleb

    2015-01-01

    This article develops and deploys critical regionalism as a theoretical framework that enables a comparative transnational critique of North American border regions. Taking its lead from developments in the field of Postwestern Studies it incorporates critical metaphors drawn from Deleuzian philosophy in the form of nomadism and nomadic thought. Examining the nomadic traits of Coyote (the trickster) and coyote (the people smuggler), the article develops a comparative literature approach that ...

  11. Fuel tourism in border regions: The case of Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banfi, S.; Filippini, M. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland). Department of Management, Technology and Economics, Centre for Energy Policy and Economics; Universita della Svizzera italiana, Lugano (Switzerland). Istituto di microeconomia e economia Pubblica; Hunt, L.C. [University of Surrey (United Kingdom). Department of Economics, Surrey Energy Economics Centre

    2005-09-01

    This paper explores the issue of 'fuel tourism' in Switzerland. For the period 1985-1997, a panel data model for the border regions of Switzerland, (Italy, France, and Germany) is estimated. The results show a significant impact of the gasoline price differential on demand, suggesting that a decrease of 10% in the Swiss gasoline price leads to an increase in demand in the border areas of nearly 17.5%. It is shown that fuel tourism accounted for about 9% of overall gasoline sales in the three regions during the period 1985-1997 and that the recently proposed Swiss CO{sub 2}-tax might, given current conditions, eliminate net fuel tourism. (author)

  12. The region's borders: Heterotopia and identity - Epistemological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Pavle D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has been developed on the margins of Foucault's idea of Heterotopia, on the basic distinction of Utopian and heterotopian. If pre-civil epoch is characterized experience of temporaries, which is overcome by going back (genealogy or leaving to the future (prediction superstition then its main feature is Utopian thinking, which means domination of the conception of Time over the conception of Space. On the contrary, the birth of Moderne introduces, gradually but surely overwhelming of Time over Space, where Utopia is being replaced by Heterotopia. It means, at the same time, abolishing of the eschatology of the pas (myths, genealogy and the future (ideal community, ideal order with an 'eschatology' of the present (here, now, which implies space variables, distribution. If Utopia is the place that is nowhere, then Heterotopia is the place that can be anywhere. Distribution means permanent change of borders, prevents institutionalization in the categories of the classical political theory, and questions categories of Tradition and Identity. In dealing with the problem of a region and regionalization, the paper starts from relation this historical transformation in human through and structuration of relations and the reality derived from these. The basic argument is that a region is paradoxical, if it lies on the local traditional, cultural, which are anachronistic values from the point of view of Heterotopia. At the same time if means that the borders of a region are of changeable, negotiable character, and that they don't have to match the previous administrative, political and cultural entities. The tendency of matching these borders means renewal of Utopia.

  13. Crossing Borders and Building Bridges: A Video Ethnography of Special Education in Nuevo Progresso, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowdermilk, John; Pecina, Julie; Fielding, Cheryl; Beccera, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of a video ethnographic study of a special education school on the Texas/Mexico Border. The public school is located in Nuevo Progreso, which is a town in the Río Bravo Municipality in the state of Tamaulipas in Mexico. The town is located on the United States-Mexico border. The Progreso-Nuevo Progreso International…

  14. Revitalising Borders: Memory, Mobility and Materiality in a Latvian-Russian Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Lulle

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I investigate how an international border is 'revitalised' in political discourses as opposed to lived experiences. Based on narratives I have collected from border dwellers on both sides of the current border between Latvia and Rus-sia and placing them into a broader context of current border debates, I analyse how geographical and social mobility is remembered from Soviet times and reworked in current contexts. I argue that while politically the border is revitalised through aban-doning and forgetting the Soviet past and through the idea of constant threats in the future, locally it is revitalised through giving a life to the abandoned: memories of 'vigorous times' in life-courses and material things. People who dwell at the border did not move themselves: the international border moved several times in one cen-tury leaving border dwellers' memories and significant places on the 'other' side. I focus on how these borders were crossed in the past, how they are (not crossed now, and the social meanings assigned to these circumstances. In the current con-text I follow diverse paths of reasoning that describe how the uneven flow of goods and people through the Latvian-Russian border shapes the power dynamic against which the people living in the border area used to reconstruct imaginaries of 'Soviet times' versus 'Europe' and 'vigorous times' versus decline.

  15. Socio-cultural proximity, daily life and shopping tourism in the Dutch–German border region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szytniewski, Bianca B.; Spierings, Bas; van der Velde, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses feelings of socio-cultural proximity and distance with a specific focus on the tourist experience in cross-border shopping and everyday life practices in border regions. We examined shopping practices of Dutch border crossers who visit the German town Kleve in the Dutch–German

  16. Mladi in življenje v obmejnih regijah Slovenije = The youth and the life in border regions of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Kolenc-Kolnik

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This article present the results of research in which we worked with 523 Slovenian secondary school pupils who live in the border regions of Slovenia and Europe. Their opinion on the state border and multicultural diversity of border regions, their spatial identification and perspectives of their lives in different border regions are discussed.

  17. Colorectal Cancer Screening among Latinos in Three Communities on the Texas-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María E.; Savas, Lara S.; Wilson, Katherine M.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Atkinson, John; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Vernon, Sally W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) prevalence and psychosocial correlates of CRCS among Latinos in South Texas. Method: Using multivariable analyses, we examined the association of perceived susceptibility, self-efficacy, pros and cons, subjective norms, knowledge and fatalism on CRCS among 544 Latinos (50 years and older).…

  18. Anxiety, depression and smoking status among adults of Mexican heritage on the Texas-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Anna V; Vatcheva, Kristina P; Pérez, Adriana; Reininger, Belinda M; McCormick, Joseph B; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P

    2014-08-01

    The goal of the current analysis is to examine relationships between smoking status and anxiety and depression among adults of Mexican heritage to inform the development of culturally relevant smoking cessations efforts. Mexican heritage residents (N=1,791) of the city of Brownsville, TX, aged 18 years or older, enrolled in the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort, were selected through two stage cluster sampling of randomly selected census tracts from the first and third quartile of SES using Census 2000. Among current smokers, anxiety and depression scores were highest among women who had not completed high school (panxiety and depression than never smoking women. Negative affective states may represent a greater barrier to smoking cessation among women than men.

  19. Baltic Subjects of the Russian Federation among Border Regions of Russia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrey P Klemeshev; Gennady M Fedorov; Andrey G Manakov

    2015-01-01

    .... The purpose of this article is to assess the level of economic development of the border regions of the Russian Federation located in the Baltic Sea region as compared to other frontier regions of Russia...

  20. Borders as membranes :metaphors and models for improved policy in border regions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malczynski, Leonard A.; Passell, Howard David; Forster, Craig B. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Cockerill, Kristan (Cockerill Consulting, Boone, NC)

    2005-10-01

    Political borders are controversial and contested spaces. In an attempt to better understand movement along and through political borders, this project applied the metaphor of a membrane to look at how people, ideas, and things ''move'' through a border. More specifically, the research team employed this metaphor in a system dynamics framework to construct a computer model to assess legal and illegal migration on the US-Mexico border. Employing a metaphor can be helpful, as it was in this project, to gain different perspectives on a complex system. In addition to the metaphor, the multidisciplinary team utilized an array of methods to gather data including traditional literature searches, an experts workshop, a focus group, interviews, and culling expertise from the individuals on the research team. Results from the qualitative efforts revealed strong social as well as economic drivers that motivate individuals to cross the border legally. Based on the information gathered, the team concluded that legal migration dynamics were of a scope we did not want to consider hence, available demographic models sufficiently capture migration at the local level. Results from both the quantitative and qualitative data searches were used to modify a 1977 border model to demonstrate the dynamic nature of illegal migration. Model runs reveal that current US-policies based on neo-classic economic theory have proven ineffective in curbing illegal migration, and that proposed enforcement policies are also likely to be ineffective. We suggest, based on model results, that improvement in economic conditions within Mexico may have the biggest impact on illegal migration to the U.S. The modeling also supports the views expressed in the current literature suggesting that demographic and economic changes within Mexico are likely to slow illegal migration by 2060 with no special interventions made by either government.

  1. Supporting decision making in cross-border regions: a health technology assessment tool for hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knies, Saskia; Lombardi, Gloria; Commers, Matt; Dauben, Hans-Peter; Evers, Silvia; Michelsen, Kai; Oortwijn, Wija; Opara, Chibuzo; Brand, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an health technology assessment (HTA) decision tool to support the decision-making process on health technologies for hospital decision makers in cross-border regions. Several methods were used to collect information necessary to develop the cross-border mini-HTA decision tool. The literature was inventoried on HTA in border regions and local settings and the use of HTA by local decision makers. Semi-structured interviews with hospital decision makers in cross-border regions were also performed. Based on group discussion of the resulting information, it was decided to use the Danish mini-HTA guideline as a starting point for development of the decision tool. After finishing the first version of the decision tool it was tested in two pilot studies. Some questions in the Danish mini-HTA guideline were not relevant. Other questions needed rephrasing and questions about cross-border situations were added. The pilots showed several missing topics, including legal questions and reimbursement issues. The final decision tool consists of three sections: a general section, a section for hospitals not cooperating cross-border and a section for hospitals that are cooperating with hospitals across a national or regional border. Based on our literature search, this may be the first cross-border mini-HTA decision tool. The decision tool will be of help for healthcare professionals and decision makers in border settings who would like to use HTA evidence to support their decision-making process.

  2. Scientific collaboration in the Danish-German border region of Southern Jutland-Schleswig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the geographical and organizational patterns of scientific collaboration, in terms of co-authored scientific articles, in the Danish-German border region of Southern Jutland-Schleswig. The motivation behind the approach lies in the fact that scientific collaboration...... in border regions, in general, and the studied region, in particular, has rarely been discussed in the academic literature. The integration model of cross-border regional innovation systems provides the conceptual framework for the task. The paper, thus, gives methodological insights for the measurement...

  3. Proximity and scientific collaboration in Northern European “cross-border regional innovation systems”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2015-01-01

    A novel approach, namely cross-border regional innovation system, has been recently introduced to the literature on economic geography as a framework for studying innovation and scientific collaboration in a cross-border context. However, despite the importance of the topic for cross-border regions......, there are no existing empirical accounts comprehensively validating the concept. Here an attempt to shed some light into this “black box” is made by addressing this research gap via empirical material from Northern European cross-border regions. Specifically this is done by applying data on publications, sectoral...... and cultural statistics together with measures for accessibility and institutional and organisational similarity. These measures are linked to the varying types of proximity discussed in the literature on innovation and scientific collaboration; the impacts of proximity on the volume of cross-border scientific...

  4. Forest land cover change (1975-2000) in the Greater Border Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter T. Wolter; Brian R. Sturtevant; Brian R. Miranda; Sue M. Lietz; Phillip A. Townsend; John. Pastor

    2012-01-01

    This document and accompanying maps describe land cover classifications and change detection for a 13.8 million ha landscape straddling the border between Minnesota, and Ontario, Canada (greater Border Lakes Region). Land cover classifications focus on discerning Anderson Level II forest and nonforest cover to track spatiotemporal changes in forest cover. Multi-...

  5. Contested ‘relational policy spaces’ in two European border regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dörry, Sabine; Walther, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Cross-border cooperation to promote economic development and political integration has been among the EU’s key themes since the 1990s, and contemporary policy networks are considered useful organisational solutions. Focusing on transport policies in the border regions of Basel and Luxembourg, we...

  6. Ecosystem Services and Border Regions. Case Study from Czech – Polish Borderland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Spyra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Land-use management and planning of cross-border regions is a complex problem. Different legislatures, development visions and interests on both sides of the border make it even more complicated. Introducing ecosystem services concept into land-use planning and management at cross-border regions is a challenge.  However not much is said about this issue in literature.This paper aims to present result of the study concerning to ecosystem services concept in the context of cross-border part of Pradziad Euroregion. The studyed area is situated within Czech – Polish borderland. First part of the research concerns to land-cover analyze of the region. The second one to Czech and Polish land-use strategies, which are binding at NUTS 4 and 5 level in the studyed area.Resoults of the research indicates asymmetry of the cross-border landscape of the analyzed region. The asymmetry is indicated by different types, biodiversities and areas of ecosystems identified on both sides of the border. It is also identified by differences in land-use strategies concerning to the region.It is discussed to what extend ecosystem services concept can be implemented in planning legislature of the cross-border region.

  7. Amphibians and land use in the Chihuahuan Desert border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulette L. Ford; Deborah M. Finch

    1999-01-01

    The pressures of growing borderland populations, increased land use, and Increased water use are threatening amphibians in the Chihuahuan Desert border area. In this paper, we describe potential direct threats such as loss or contamination of aquatic habitats, and indirect threats such as the sublethal effects of pesticides on developing larvae and tadpoles. More...

  8. Regional Features and National Differences in Population Distribution in China’s Border Regions (2000–2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen You; Zhiming Feng; Yalin Lei; Yanzhao Yang; Fangzhou Li

    2017-01-01

    China is of great geostrategic significance not only in the Asia-Pacific region, but also in the wider world. The population distribution in China’s border regions is of significance for the development of China and neighboring countries. Based on the LandScan Population Distribution Database, this study used GIS spatial analysis and statistics to investigate national trends in the population distribution of China’s border regions. The study areas were the buffer zones within specified Euclid...

  9. A balanced way for China's inter-regional cross-border insolvency cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, X.

    2016-01-01

    In pursuit of solutions to China’s inter-regional cross-border insolvency cooperation, the doctoral dissertation provides 10 original recommendations accompanied with comments, which are entitled “CICIA”.

  10. Regional-development problematic of area near Slovene-Croatian border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Pak

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Introductory regional developmental activities in European and also in some other border areas are represented in general on some concrete examples. Analysis is following of regional developmental factors, including position, natural environ-ment, political elements as well as general and cultural development. Most border areas near Slovene-Croatian border are not developed also due to many other factors, and further development of such areas is subject to traffic approachability, development of gravitation centers and innovations in these very areas.

  11. Cross-Border Issues and Regional Integration in Financial Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Salami, Iwa

    2016-01-01

    Cross-border banking services by African banks within Africa have been on the rise since the last decade. As these services are provided predominantly by complex financial institutions and involve operating within a number of African financial systems, effective regulation of such entities can be challenging. The challenges are two-fold: regulating complex financial institutions on a consolidated basis and achieving effective supervisory cooperation between home and host country regulators of...

  12. Regional Features and National Differences in Population Distribution in China’s Border Regions (2000–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen You

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available China is of great geostrategic significance not only in the Asia-Pacific region, but also in the wider world. The population distribution in China’s border regions is of significance for the development of China and neighboring countries. Based on the LandScan Population Distribution Database, this study used GIS spatial analysis and statistics to investigate national trends in the population distribution of China’s border regions. The study areas were the buffer zones within specified Euclidean distances from the land borders of China. The results showed that: (1 Although the population agglomeration index and population size inside China’s border areas have increased, the population density inside China’s border areas is still far below China’s average population density; (2 Over the last 15 years, the population of China’s northwestern border has been sparse, with small increases in the population agglomeration index and population size. China’s northeastern and southwestern border regions have several average population density areas, but the northeastern regions have seen a substantial reduction in population size since 2000. Based on our analysis, we propose that the Chinese government introduce supporting policies for the development of border regions to maintain the population size. At the same time, considering the varied living suitability of the natural environment along the northeastern, northwestern, and southwestern borders, “moderate agglomeration” and “moderate evacuation” population development strategies should be implemented in specified areas. Tilt policy should also be implemented in areas of rapid population decline.

  13. Slovene-Croatian border region and its functions in relations between Slovenia and Croatia and in light of European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Klemenčič

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The author treats borders and border regions between Slovenia and Croatia in the context of broader connections between two neighboring states and concepts of broader connections among the European states. The author deals with many problems on the local and macro-regional (European level that came about when the Slovene-Croatian state frontier was established after 1991. This border is something special in Central Europe because it was established during a period when borders between countries of the EU are more or less nonexistent, while the number of border crossings at the borders of Eastern European countries is increasing.

  14. Tuberculosis-diabetes epidemiology in the border and non-border regions of Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelbary, Bassent E; Garcia-Viveros, Moncerrato; Ramirez-Oropesa, Horacio; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Restrepo, Blanca I

    2016-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a re-emerging risk factor for TB development and adverse TB outcomes. As a follow-up of our previous study in 1998-2004, we reassessed prevalence of DM and its associated factors among 8431 TB patients using surveillance data from 2006 to 2013 for the Mexican state of Tamaulipas, across the border with Texas. Prevalence of DM was 25.2%, with an increase of at least 2.8% over the study period. Newly discovered factors associated with TB-DM (versus no DM) were lower education and higher unemployment (p < 0.001), which are reportedly associated with poorer DM management. At least 15% of the DM patients were newly-diagnosed and younger than those previously diagnosed, showing the importance of early DM diagnosis at TB clinics. TB-DM patients were more likely to have smear-positive, pulmonary (versus extra-pulmonary) and drug-resistant TB (1.9-, 3.8- and 1.4-fold, respectively). During treatment, TB-DM patients were more likely to be smear-positive, and less likely to die or abandon TB treatment. Thus, the increasing prevalence of DM among TB, and its association with low education, features of a more contagious TB, and drug resistance, highlight the need for design of TB management programs in DM patients, blood testing of all new TB patients for DM, and if positive for DM, testing for drug resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Establishing cross-border co-operation between professional organizations: police, fire brigades and emergency health services in Dutch border regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Princen, S.; Geuijen, K.; Candel, J.J.L.; Folgerts, O.; Hooijer, R.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the conditions under which local and regional governments will establish and sustain cross-border co-operation in the fields of police, fire fighting and emergency health services. It argues that understanding this type of cross-border co-operation requires a focus on the way

  16. HIV Transmission Networks in the San Diego-Tijuana Border Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sanjay R; Wertheim, Joel O; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Wagner, Karla D; Chaillon, Antoine; Strathdee, Steffanie; Patterson, Thomas L; Rangel, Maria G; Vargas, Mlenka; Murrell, Ben; Garfein, Richard; Little, Susan J; Smith, Davey M

    2015-10-01

    HIV sequence data can be used to reconstruct local transmission networks. Along international borders, like the San Diego-Tijuana region, understanding the dynamics of HIV transmission across reported risks, racial/ethnic groups, and geography can help direct effective prevention efforts on both sides of the border. We gathered sociodemographic, geographic, clinical, and viral sequence data from HIV infected individuals participating in ten studies in the San Diego-Tijuana border region. Phylogenetic and network analysis was performed to infer putative relationships between HIV sequences. Correlates of identified clusters were evaluated and spatiotemporal relationships were explored using Bayesian phylogeographic analysis. After quality filtering, 843 HIV sequences with associated demographic data and 263 background sequences from the region were analyzed, and 138 clusters were inferred (2-23 individuals). Overall, the rate of clustering did not differ by ethnicity, residence, or sex, but bisexuals were less likely to cluster than heterosexuals or men who have sex with men (p = 0.043), and individuals identifying as white (p ≤ 0.01) were more likely to cluster than other races. Clustering individuals were also 3.5 years younger than non-clustering individuals (p < 0.001). Although the sampled San Diego and Tijuana epidemics were phylogenetically compartmentalized, five clusters contained individuals residing on both sides of the border. This study sampled ~ 7% of HIV infected individuals in the border region, and although the sampled networks on each side of the border were largely separate, there was evidence of persistent bidirectional cross-border transmissions that linked risk groups, thus highlighting the importance of the border region as a "melting pot" of risk groups. NIH, VA, and Pendleton Foundation.

  17. International Environment: Environmental Infrastructure Needs in the U.S.-Mexican Border Region Remain Unmet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    potential access to the U.S. job market. The availability of jobs with maquiladoras -companies located in Mexico’s northern border region that use imported...cooperation dating back to the late-1970s. As border 5The Mexican government initiated the maquiladora program in 1965 to attract labor-intensive...industries to Mexico. Mexican law allows maquiladoras to bring materials into Mexico without paying import duties, provided they use these materials to make

  18. Border Position as a Factor of Strategic and Territorial Planning in Russian Regions in the Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorov G.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of globalization, Russian border regions can form transborder regions through cooperation with the neighbouring territories of other states. The optimisation of spatial organisation of economy, social sphere, and nature management using the tools of spatial planning is fully justified in the case of transborder regions as well as in that of national ones. However, in Russia, spatial (strategic and territorial planning does not imply joint development of documents with the border regions of neighbouring states. Nevertheless, the border position of a region (at least, due to the presence of border zones has a significant effect on the content of regional strategies for socioeconomic development and schemes for territorial planning of constituent entities and municipal districts. The result is a combination of measures aimed simultaneously at solving defence problems, delivering economic security, and supporting trans-border cooperation. The Baltic macroregion has vast experience in developing joint Russia-EU programmes. This experience of coordinating activities in the economic and sociocultural spheres, as well as international spatial planning innovations (German landscape planning, etc., can be adopted in Russia.

  19. Limited Access to Healthcare among Hispanics in the US-Mexico Border Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Minghui; Gai, Yunwei; Feng, Li

    2016-09-01

    Using large national databases, we investigated how living in the US-Mexico border region further limited access to healthcare among the non-elderly Hispanic adult population after controlling individual and county-level characteristics. The 2008-2012 individual-level data of non-elderly Hispanic adults from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were merged with county-level data from Area Health Resources File (AHRF). Multivariate logistic analyses were performed to predict insurance status and access to doctors using residency in the US-Mexico border region as the key predictor, adjusting individual and county-level factors. Controlling only individual characteristic, Hispanics living in the US-Mexico border region had significantly lower odds of having health insurance (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49-0.54) and access to doctors (AOR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.66-0.72). After including county-level measurements of healthcare system capacity and other local characteristics, the border region continued to be associated with lower likelihood of healthcare access. Hispanic residents in the U.S.-Mexico border had less access to healthcare than their inland counterparts. The findings highlight unique features in this region and support policies and initiatives to improve minority healthcare access, particularly among disadvantaged populations in this region.

  20. Characterization of emissions sources in the California-Mexico Border Region during Cal-Mex 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, M. A.; Lei, W.; Li, G.; Bei, N.; Barrera, H.; Tejeda, D.; Molina, L. T.; Cal-Mex 2010 Emissions Team

    2010-12-01

    The California-Mexico border region provides an opportunity to evaluate the characteristics of the emission processes in rapidly expanding urban areas where intensive international trade and commerce activities occur. Intense anthropogenic activities, biomass burning, as well as biological and geological sources significantly contribute to high concentration levels of particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), air toxics, and ozone observed in the California-US Baja California-Mexico border region. The continued efforts by Mexico and US for improving and updating the emissions inventories in the sister cities of San Diego-Tijuana and Calexico-Mexicali has helped to understand the emission processes in the border region. In addition, the recent Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign included a series of measurements aimed at characterizing the emissions from major sources in the California-Mexico border region. In this work we will present our analyzes of the data obtained during Cal-Mex 2010 for the characterization of the emission sources and their use for the evaluation of the recent emissions inventories for the Mexican cities of Tijuana and Mexicali. The developed emissions inventories will be implemented in concurrent air quality modeling efforts for understanding the physical and chemical transformations of air pollutants in the California-Mexico border region and their impacts.

  1. Opportunities for Cross-Border Entrepreneurship Development in a Cluster Model Exemplified by the Polish–Czech Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurowska-Pysz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is the analysis and evaluation of cross-border entrepreneurship development opportunities on the basis of cross-border cooperation, which has gradually evolved from consisting of bilateral partnerships to a networking model or even a cluster. The study conducted at the Polish–Czech border area indicates that, in terms of the development of cross-border cooperation, the economic sphere is lagging far behind social activities such as culture, education and tourism. At the same time, Polish and Czech enterprises are not sufficiently mobilized to develop cross-border entrepreneurship, although a number of support instruments in this regard have been proposed. Sustainable development of the border should take into account both social and economic aspects. An important research problem therefore becomes determining the possibility of boosting the development of cross-border entrepreneurship on the basis of the existing forms of cross-border cooperation, including cooperation in the social sphere. The aim of this paper is to define the conditions and opportunities for the development of cluster cooperation in the area of cross-border entrepreneurship. The author has attempted to resolve whether the intensity of cross-border cooperation can be a factor which mobilizes companies to develop their cross-border entrepreneurship and whether cross-border entrepreneurship can be further developed within the cluster model.

  2. Constructing regional advantage in branding the cross-border Euroregion Galicia-northern Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva Oliveira, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    This paper employs a constructing regional advantage (CRA) approach in respect of examining the potential of joint branding strategies intended to position and give visibility to cross-border regions. The CRA concept is introduced here to improve understanding about the empirical significance of a

  3. Structure of the vitreoretinal border region in spontaneously diabetic BB rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, S

    1993-01-01

    The morphology of the vitreoretinal border region, also termed the inner limiting membrane, was examined in spontaneously diabetic rats (BB rats), in non-diabetes-prone rats (WB rats) and in Buffalo rats (BUF rats) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM......). This was performed in order to visualize a possible increase in thickness of the lamina densa or in the whole vitreoretinal border region complex with duration of diabetes. The median thickness of the lamina densa in the three groups varied between 34 and 68 nm. In BB rats the thickness decreased with age...... and duration of diabetes. In WB rats the lamina densa thickened up to the 9th month and then decreased to the level of the young rats. In BUF rats the lamina densa decreased in thickness with age. The median thickness of the whole vitreoretinal border region varied between: BB rats: 84 and 126 nm (SEM) and 68...

  4. Borders and Identity in Theory and Practice of the Eastern Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich N.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available At the present stage of social development in Europe and Russia, studies analyzing and evaluating ethnic and national borders are of increasing relevance. Over the last three decades, the state borders in the Baltic region have been stable, which is not the case in Europe in general. The author believes that the key reason behind the current crisis in Russia-EU relations is the conspicuous neglect of Russian interests in the neighboring countries that formed after the disintegration of the USSR. However, escalation of the conflict was historically and geographically predetermined. The political borders of post-Soviet states do not coincide with the ethnic ones and, therefore, the attempts to consolidate states through ethnic mobilization meet corresponding resistance from groups with a different identity. In the Baltic region, these processes have not reached the Ukrainian scale; however, there are prerequisites for ethno-political conflicts of this type. The post-Crimean political debate in the Baltic states has shown that that hardliners of a strict assimilation model of state identity prevail in Vilnius, Riga, and Tallinn. This study sets out to analyze the political consequences of the conflict between the existing models of ethnopolitical identification in the border areas of the Eastern Baltic region. The main result of the study is that it has proved the existence of a special type of identity characteristic of border regions of the Baltic countries. In the context of this identity, the classic postmodernist dilemma of “us and them” is insufficient for a proper scientific analysis, and even more so for a political forecast. The formation of a special “double” or “transitional” identity in the border areas can serve both as a tool for strengthening of states and intergovernmental relations and as a ground for large-scale conflicts with hardly predictable consequences.

  5. Civil and ethnic identities as markers of inter-ethnic relations in the Russian border regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S G Maximova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study of civil and ethnic identities and the sphere of interethnic relations in eight Russian regions located near the state borders: the Altai region, Amur region, Jewish Autonomous region, Trans-Baikal region, Kemerovo region, Omsk region, Orenburg region, and the Altai Republic. The authors conducted a survey to gather empirical data and identify the priority of civic identity for the residents of border regions of Russia, and the dominant grounds of civil and ethnic identities. The results of the survey show significant regional differences in the level of different identities manifestation: the highest degree of identification with the civil and ethnic communities is typical for the Kemerovo region, the lowest - for the Trans-Baikal region. The authors assess the characteristics of inter-ethnic relations, and make conclusions about their dynamics and the level of inter-ethnic tension in each region: the most problematic regions in this respect are the Trans-Baikal region and Omsk region. The study identified a number of facts, which require further scientific interpretation, for example, in some regions there are statistically significant proportions of the population with a very low level of national-state identification.

  6. The evolution of regional cross-border water regimes, the case of Deltarhine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renner, T.; Meijerink, S; van der Zaag, P.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we look at the evolution of a cooperative water regime in the delta of the Rhine catchment. In a Dutch–German case study, we focus on cross-border cooperation on the local and regional scale, describing and analyzing how a remarkably resilient and robust transboundary water regime

  7. Experiences in Regional Cross Border Co-operation in River Management. Comparing Three Cases at the Dutch–German Border

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, M.A.; Verwijmeren, J.A.; Lulofs, K.; Feld, C.

    2010-01-01

    Cross border co-operation is increasingly viewed as an obvious and logical consequence of an integrated perspective on river management. Consequently, we would expect an increase of cross border co-operation and collaboration in EU member states, through joint planning, co-management or

  8. The Border Health Consortium of the Californias—Forming a Binational (California–Baja California Entity to Address the Health of a Border Region: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Kozo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The California–Baja California border region is one of the most frequently traversed areas in the world with a shared population, environment, and health concerns. The Border Health Consortium of the Californias (the “Consortium” was formed in 2013 to bring together leadership working in the areas of public health, health care, academia, government, and the non-profit sector, with the goal of aligning efforts to improve health outcomes in the region. The Consortium utilizes a Collective Impact framework which supports a shared vision for a healthy border region, mutually reinforcing activities among member organizations and work groups, and a binational executive committee that ensures continuous communication and progress toward meeting its goals. The Consortium is comprised of four binational work groups which address human immunodeficiency virus, tuberculosis, obesity, and mental health, all mutual priorities in the border region. The Consortium holds two general binational meetings each year alternating between California and Baja California. The work groups meet regularly to share information, resources and provide binational training opportunities. Since inception, the Consortium has been successful in strengthening binational communication, coordination, and collaboration by providing an opportunity for individuals to meet one another, learn about each other systems, and foster meaningful relationships. With binational leadership support and commitment, the Consortium could certainly be replicated in other border jurisdictions both nationally and internationally. The present article describes the background, methodology, accomplishments, challenges, and lessons learned in forming the Consortium.

  9. Integration Strategies and Barriers to Co-Operation in Cross-Border Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Povl Adler; Serin, Göran Folke

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: The purpose of the article is to analyze strategies for cross-border integration in the Øresund Region. The point of departure is that the development of strategies for cross-border integration is dependent on the development on both the general level in the EU and deregulation of economy...... and business on the global level. In this respect, the article points out the importance of market forces and their influence on institutional change. Recent economic crises have put growth center stage at both the national and regional level, and have called for regional development programs on both...... the Swedish and Danish sides of the Sound. The strengths and weaknesses of the Øresund Region’s ‘traditional’ and new institutions as instruments for change are examined. The article identifies and discusses the structures, institutions, and players which are the driving forces in the field between markets...

  10. Opportunities for Cross-Border Entrepreneurship Development in a Cluster Model Exemplified by the Polish-Czech Border Region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joanna Kurowska-Pysz

    2016-01-01

    ... such as culture, education and tourism. At the same time, Polish and Czech enterprises are not sufficiently mobilized to develop cross-border entrepreneurship, although a number of support instruments in this regard have been proposed...

  11. Comparison of the organic waste management systems in the Danish-German border region using life cycle assessment (LCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the management of the organic household waste in the Danish-German border region and points out major differences between the systems and their potential effects on the environment using life cycle assessment (LCA). The treatment of organic waste from households in the Danish......-German border region is very different on each side of the border; the Danish region only uses incineration for the treatment of organic household waste while the German region includes combined biogas production and composting, mechanical and biological treatment (MBT) and incineration. Data on all parts...

  12. Texas School Survey of Substance Use among Students on the Border, 1998: Grades 4-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Wallisch, Lynn S.

    This report presents the results of a survey on drug and alcohol use among students in elementary and secondary schools. Schools in 15 counties along the Texas-Mexico border were oversampled so that substance use among students could be looked at in detail. A total of 63,292 students (grades 7-12) and 43,915 students (grades 4-6) were sampled.…

  13. Smart specialisation strategies and cross-border integration of regional innovation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Emmanuel; Zenker, Andrea; Hufnagl, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    by illustrating its practical implementation in the Upper Rhine area (i.e. Alsace in France and Baden-Württemberg in Germany). The first section revisits not only the smart specialisation concept in itself but also discusses it vis-à-vis the thematic of cross-border regional innovation systems and outlines some...... implications that it may have for the choice of innovation policy instruments. The second section introduces the specific framework of the Upper Rhine area and outlines possible options for the co-ordination of innovation policies on the basis of a yet to be developed, theoretically possible joint RIS3...... strategy. The last section brings together these conceptual and applied perspectives on smart specialisation and outlines suggestions for progressive cross-border integration via regional innovation policies....

  14. Cooperation in Crisis? An Analysis of Cross-Border Intermunicipal Relations in the Detroit-Windsor Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Nelles

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Detroit-Windsor region is linked by the automotive industry, significant cross-border labor and recreation flows, cultural similarities, and social problems stemming from the economic downturn. According to theories of cross-border cooperation this case should be one characterized by a degree of institutional integration and intermunicipal coordination. In reality, very few cross-border political relationships exist between local authorities in the region, even in this time of mutual crisis. This paper investigates the reasons for weak cross-border integration by testing theory against practice and argues that existing theoretical frameworks do not satisfactorily account for observed patterns of cooperation in the region. It also explores the different effects that crisis can have on cross-border partnerships at the metropolitan scale.

  15. Becoming Baby-Friendly and Transforming Maternity Care in a Safety-Net Hospital on the Texas-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eganhouse, Deborah J; Gutierrez, Leticia; Cuellar, Lorena; Velasquez, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Nurse leaders used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's survey on Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care, as well as Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative guidelines, to transform maternity care in a safety-net hospital with more than 3,500 births annually. Implementing evidence-based guidelines to support breastfeeding was essential for a vulnerable population characterized by minimal prenatal care and high rates of diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and poverty. Research showing the importance of breastfeeding in protecting against these factors guided extensive changes in our maternity care model. The nursing and medical teams changed long-held practices that separated women from their newborns and observed substantial improvements in breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding rates at discharge. © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  16. Trade Flows Between the United States and Mexico: NAFTA and the Border Region

    OpenAIRE

    Barajas, Ismael Aguilar; Sisto, Nicholas P.; Gaytán, Edgardo Ayala; Cantú, Joana Chapa; López, Benjamín Hidalgo

    2014-01-01

    Since the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) came into force in 1994, U.S.-Mexico trade has soared. The regional structure of trade flows within Mexico however has been hardly documented. This paper offers an analysis of state-level U.S.-Mexico trade flows. We find that the regional structure of bi-national trade under NAFTA has remained quite stable. Border States, in particular Texas and the Northeastern Mexico states, have consistently played a large role in overall U.S.-Mexico tr...

  17. The utopia of cross-border regions : territorial transformation and cross-border governance on Espace Mont-Blanc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lissandrello, Enza

    2006-01-01

    The theories on globalisation, internationalisation, post-nationalism or trans-nationalism dismiss the concept of 'territoriality' within the paradigm of the beyond the 'nation-state' sovereignty. In this work, a diverse idea is sustained: borders and territoriality are not just lost terms within

  18. Pathogenic landscape of transboundary zoonotic diseases in the Mexico-US border along the Rio Grande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dolores Esteve-Gasent

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus, and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only millions of people live in this transboundary region but also a substantial movement of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas-Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico-US border, along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders.

  19. Water Bodies and Vegetation in the California-Baja California Border Region a Remote Sensors Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, A.; Mexicano-Vargas, M. L.; Serrato, B. A.

    2007-05-01

    The California-Baja California border region although they share watersheds, similar climate and landscape, there is a big contrast in the vegetation cover and water bodies between the two countries as seen from remote sensors. There is a stronger signature of vegetation and larger number of water bodies in the California side. To do a quantitative estimate of these differences, a comparative analysis of vegetation and water bodies was perfomerd along a strip of 100 km from both sides of the border with remote sensing techniques using Landsat TM images from 1984 to 2006. The strong absorption of water to short wave infrared radiation captured by band 5 of TM Landsat sensor (1.55- 1.75 micrometers) is use to detect water bodies. The histogram segmentation technique was used with TM 5/1 band ratios reinforced with a shades prediction technique using the sun position and a digital elevation model. The aerial extent of detected water bodies is estimated. Also an analysis from 1972 trough 2002 of the Mexican portion of Colorado river delta will be presented, with emphasis on flood events induced by abnormal snowmelts and higher precipitations in the high basin; 250 Landsat image previews were collected , from which 157 were selected to integrate 63 scenes that provide a dynamic picture of the Colorado delta river over 30 years. A regression with the annual averages of inundated areas and annual water flow data from E.U. to Mexico was made with a correlation coefficient of 0.912. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was used to estimate the vegetation greenness in the agricultural valleys and in natural vegetated areas along the mountains on both sides of the border. The spatial distribution of the NDVI and the differences between zones with the same land use regime on both sides of the border is presented.

  20. Transcarpathia - Ukrainian border region at the edge of the EU. Internal and external representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, P.

    2013-11-01

    Starting from 1918, multiethnic Transcarpathia changed after centuries of being an integrated part of Hungary frequently its political affiliation and is since 2004 a Ukrainian border region to the European Union. Three of the four European Union neighbour countries belong since 21.12.2007 to the Schengen zone (Poland, Slovakia, Hungary), only the southern neighbour Romania is for the time being not yet a Schengen country. After a phase of relatively open borders and relatively intensive neighbourhood relations in the first transformation years, by the Schengen regime the situation for Transcarpathia changed again. The current situation, possibly still to be intensified by the Schengen entry of Romania, is likely to persist for some time. What does this mean for Transcarpathia as well as for the wider region in the northeast of the Pannonian basin? Which factors are determining the development in Transcarpathia? Which position maintains Transcarpathia within the Ukraine, how does it look at Kiev and how is it looked at by Kiev and the cis-Carpathian areas of the Ukraine? The paper deals under these aspects with economic development in Transcarpathia, the interest of foreign investors in the region, its role in the continental transportation network, the identity of the Slavonic population majority and regionalism, also with the position of the large Hungarian minority in the region and its relation to the motherland. The paper is based on a larger research project completed and published already in 2004 (Peter Jordan, Mladen Klemenčić: Transcarpathia - Bridgehead or Periphery?), but adopts also the results of a later diploma work of a student of the author (Berenike Ecker) as well as results of more recent research by the author himself. It is found that shaping by Hungarian history, borderland location and multiethnic structure can be defined as the essential components of Transcarpathian identity. Its economic potentials and perspectives rest mainly in richness

  1. Adults Experiencing Homelessness in the US-Mexico Border Region: A Photovoice Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Eva Margarita; Chavez-Baray, Silvia M; Loweree, Jacqueline; Mattera, Brian; Martinez, Nahomi

    2017-01-01

    Homelessness is a social, economic, and political crisis in the United States. In particular, the US-Mexico Border region has seen a surge of homelessness, specifically among veterans, women victims of intimate partner violence, and immigrants. In 2014, 12 persons in El Paso, TX, with experience of being homeless used the photovoice methodology to participate in a project titled, "The Voices and Images of the Residents of the Opportunity Center for the Homeless: A Visual Project on the Identity and Challenges Homeless Adults Face on the Border Region." The project was led by faculty from the Department of Social Work and facilitated by graduate students from the Departments of Social Work, Sociology, and Anthropology at the University of Texas at El Paso. In partnership with the Opportunity Center for the Homeless, a community-based organization, a gallery of photographs with respective narratives was produced along with a video documentary. The participants identified four themes: broken systems, invisibility, opportunities and what works, and growth and determination. These themes represent participants' life experiences with homelessness and their aspirations. In addition to the photo gallery, participants supported the development of a Call to Action asking the community, policy, and decision makers to commit to changing the current social, economic, and political conditions affecting individuals experiencing homelessness. The gallery, Call to Action, and overall participant experiences with photovoice were shared during local, regional, and national conferences and events, including three State of the Homeless Conferences led by the Opportunity Center for the Homeless in partnership with the university.

  2. Pastoralists at War: Violence and Security in the Kenya-Sudan-Uganda Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonah Leff

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of those living in the border region of Kenya, Sudan, and Uganda are pastoralists, whose livelihoods are dictated by the upkeep and size of their herds. Harsh environmental conditions force pastoralists to migrate in search of water and pasturelands during the dry season. With limited access to water and competing rights to land, intertribal conflict arises when pastoralists from one tribe enter the territory of another. The increased availability of small arms in the region from past wars increasingly makes ordinary clashes fatal. Governments in the region have responded with heavy-handed coercive disarmament operations. These have led to distrust and subsequent violent clashes between communities and security providers. This report reviews the scale, consequences of, and responses to the many pastoral conflicts, utilizing methodological tools such as key informant interviews, retrospective analysis, and a thorough review of available literature.

  3. The Challenging Task of Governing Cross-Border Investment in Peripheral Regions: Polish Investors in Northeast Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinder Sebastian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the challenging task of governing cross-border investment in peripheral regions. The main objective is to identify common opportunities and obstacles in the Pomerania Euroregion by taking the case study of Polish citizens/ entrepreneurs investing in northeast Germany. This relatively new phenomenon is accompanied by large uncertainties and risks, and lacks further empirical insights. At the same time it breaks new ground, creates alternatives, calls for the development of efficient modes of cross-border cooperation and addresses mutual governance issues on an inter-regional basis between manifold stakeholders on both sides of the border. The case study summarises findings from fieldwork, elaborates a quantitative and qualitative assessment of cross-border governance measures within formal and informal institutions, and tries to formulate policy recommendations for prospective approaches

  4. Regional Incentives and Patient Cross-Border Mobility: Evidence from the Italian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenka Brenna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background In recent years, accreditation of private hospitals followed by decentralisation of the Italian National Health Service (NHS into 21 regional health systems has provided a good empirical ground for investigating the Tiebout principle of “voting with their feet”. We examine the infra-regional trade-off between greater patient choice (due to an increase in hospital services supply and financial equilibrium, and we relate it to the significant phenomenon of Cross-Border Mobility (CBM between Italian regions. Focusing on the rules supervising the financial agreements between regional authorities and providers of hospital care, we find incentives for private accredited providers in attracting patient inflows. Methods The analysis is undertaken from an institutional, regulatory and empirical perspective. We select a sample of five regions with higher positive CBM balance and we examine regional regulations governing the contractual agreements between purchasers and providers of hospital care. According to this sample, we provide a statistical analysis of CBM and apply a Regional Attraction Ability Index (RAAI, aimed at testing patient preferences for private/public accredited providers. Results We find that this index is systematically higher for private providers, both in the case of distance/boundary patients and of excellence/general hospitals. Conclusion Conclusions address both financial issues regarding the coverage of regional healthcare systems and equity issues on patient healthcare access. They also raise concerns on the new European Union (EU directive inherent to patient mobility across Europe.

  5. Cross-Border Assessment of Environmental Radioactivity in the Euro-Arctic Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalbandyan, Anna; Gwynn, Justin P.; Moeller, Bredo [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), Section High North, 9296 Tromsoe (Norway); Leppaenen, Ari-Pekka; Rasilainen, Tiina [STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Regional Laboratory in Northern Finland, 96400 Rovaniemi (Finland); Kasatkina, Nadezhda; Usiagina, Irina [Murmansk Marine Biological Institute (MMBI), 183010 Murmansk (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The Euro-Arctic region is currently experiencing rapid changes in environmental, social and economic conditions. The issue of environmental radioactivity is of special concern to the Arctic region due to numerous existing and potential sources of radioactive pollution in the immediate and adjacent areas. Due to cross-border nature of any potential radioactive contamination and common challenges in border countries, one should consider risks related to radioactivity, monitoring and protection at a regional and international level. This research presents results of cross-border cooperation between Norway, Finland and Russia and joint assessment of the status of terrestrial radioactivity in the Euro-Arctic region and in particular across Troms and Finnmark (Norway), Lapland (Finland) and Murmansk Oblast (Russia). To assess current environmental radioactivity levels in the terrestrial environment, environmental samples were collected in each country in 2010-2012. The main focus was comparison of radioactivity levels in the natural food products such as berries, mushrooms and freshwater fish. The results showed that large variations in activity concentrations exist between species and sampling areas. However, activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in all berries and mushrooms in Northern Norway, Finland and Russia were below the national limits set for commercial retail and well below the national limits for freshwater fish from Northern Norway and Finland. The sampled species from three countries were analysed in order to find out reference species available for further monitoring and data comparison. The doses to man arising from consumption of berries, mushrooms and freshwater fish were calculated. To compare overall terrestrial radioactivity levels in the Euro-Arctic region, partners exchanged long-term monitoring data available in the three countries such as data for soil, vegetation, berries, mushrooms, lichens, reindeer meat, freshwater fish, whole body counting

  6. Border markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    regional trade. The last part of the paper argues that more policy attention should be paid to border markets which, despite being at the margin of states, are a vital component of their economy. Fifty years after most West African states became independent and just as NAFTA turns 20, it is high time...... to challenge the conventional wisdom and put border markets at the center of trade policies....... their unequal economic development: the presence of a trade community, the combination of trading and productive activities, and the relative porosity of borders. In a second part, I examine how border markets on the U.S.-Mexico border must simultaneously guarantee the security of the state while favoring...

  7. Analysis of Cross-Border Regional Homogeneity and Its Effects on Regional Resilience and Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazekas Nikolett

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The resilience of a region may affect how it reacts to economic crises and exogenous shocks. In a complex study, it is not sufficient merely to have knowledge of all the macro-indices of the regions, but it is also necessary to study internal micro-structures. This study introduces the regional homogeneity index, using a novel approach and as yet unused indicators by means of the example of two neighbouring NUTS 2 statistical regions. The results can be useful for understanding the regions’ economic development. The methodology and indicators created may also be suitable for European regional pilot research projects.1

  8. Adults Experiencing Homelessness in the US–Mexico Border Region: A Photovoice Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Eva Margarita; Chavez-Baray, Silvia M.; Loweree, Jacqueline; Mattera, Brian; Martinez, Nahomi

    2017-01-01

    Homelessness is a social, economic, and political crisis in the United States. In particular, the US–Mexico Border region has seen a surge of homelessness, specifically among veterans, women victims of intimate partner violence, and immigrants. In 2014, 12 persons in El Paso, TX, with experience of being homeless used the photovoice methodology to participate in a project titled, “The Voices and Images of the Residents of the Opportunity Center for the Homeless: A Visual Project on the Identity and Challenges Homeless Adults Face on the Border Region.” The project was led by faculty from the Department of Social Work and facilitated by graduate students from the Departments of Social Work, Sociology, and Anthropology at the University of Texas at El Paso. In partnership with the Opportunity Center for the Homeless, a community-based organization, a gallery of photographs with respective narratives was produced along with a video documentary. The participants identified four themes: broken systems, invisibility, opportunities and what works, and growth and determination. These themes represent participants’ life experiences with homelessness and their aspirations. In addition to the photo gallery, participants supported the development of a Call to Action asking the community, policy, and decision makers to commit to changing the current social, economic, and political conditions affecting individuals experiencing homelessness. The gallery, Call to Action, and overall participant experiences with photovoice were shared during local, regional, and national conferences and events, including three State of the Homeless Conferences led by the Opportunity Center for the Homeless in partnership with the university. PMID:28580355

  9. Adults Experiencing Homelessness in the US–Mexico Border Region: A Photovoice Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Margarita Moya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Homelessness is a social, economic, and political crisis in the United States. In particular, the US–Mexico Border region has seen a surge of homelessness, specifically among veterans, women victims of intimate partner violence, and immigrants. In 2014, 12 persons in El Paso, TX, with experience of being homeless used the photovoice methodology to participate in a project titled, “The Voices and Images of the Residents of the Opportunity Center for the Homeless: A Visual Project on the Identity and Challenges Homeless Adults Face on the Border Region.” The project was led by faculty from the Department of Social Work and facilitated by graduate students from the Departments of Social Work, Sociology, and Anthropology at the University of Texas at El Paso. In partnership with the Opportunity Center for the Homeless, a community-based organization, a gallery of photographs with respective narratives was produced along with a video documentary. The participants identified four themes: broken systems, invisibility, opportunities and what works, and growth and determination. These themes represent participants’ life experiences with homelessness and their aspirations. In addition to the photo gallery, participants supported the development of a Call to Action asking the community, policy, and decision makers to commit to changing the current social, economic, and political conditions affecting individuals experiencing homelessness. The gallery, Call to Action, and overall participant experiences with photovoice were shared during local, regional, and national conferences and events, including three State of the Homeless Conferences led by the Opportunity Center for the Homeless in partnership with the university.

  10. Fixed Links and Vague Discourses About Culture and the Making of Cross-border Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Stöber

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been en vogue for official bodies to focus on ‘culture’ as a strategic factor for the development of spatial entities such as cross-border regions in the making. This focus places high expectations and a strong belief in the power of ‘culture’. In this paper I will argue that in region building processes the focus on ‘culture’ is often due to an overriding wish to develop an economic well-functioning region. Moreover, it seems like ‘culture’ is used as a tool to distract people from a critique of bigger infrastructure projects that such developments entail. In order to strengthen these arguments, the paper will focus on two examples from Northern Europe, the existing Danish-Swedish Øresund link as well as the planned link between Denmark and Germany across the Femernbelt. In the course of the paper, focus will be on central bodies or actors that are taking up the issue of culture within a regional context. Hence, the concept of governance, particularly that of networked governance structures as well co-governance will be briefly discussed. All in all, the paper shows the ‘fragmented complexity of agency and the multitude of actors related to region building’ (Paasi 2010:2300.

  11. Comparison of the organic waste management systems in the Danish-German border region using life cycle assessment (LCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the management of the organic household waste in the Danish-German border region and points out major differences between the systems and their potential effects on the environment using life cycle assessment (LCA). The treatment of organic waste from households in the Danish-German border region is very different on each side of the border; the Danish region only uses incineration for the treatment of organic household waste while the German region includes combined biogas production and composting, mechanical and biological treatment (MBT) and incineration. Data on all parts of the organic waste treatment was collected including waste composition data and data from treatment facilities and their respective energy systems. Based on that the organic waste management systems in the border region were modelled using the EASETECH waste management LCA-model. The main output is a life cycle assessment showing large differences in the environmental performance of the two different regions with the Danish region performing better in 10 out of 14 impact categories. Furthermore, the importance of the substituted district heating systems was investigated showing an impact up to 34% of the entire system for one impact category and showing large difference between each heating system substituted, e.g. in "Global Warming" the impact was from -16 to -1.1 milli person equivalent/tonne treated waste from substitution of centralised hard coal and decentralised natural gas, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Intestinal parasites in children, in highly deprived areas in the border region of Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Espinoza, Emma Marianela; Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; García-Gil, María del Mar; Vargas-Morales, Guadalupe; Méndez-Sánchez, José Domingo; Pérez-Ramírez, Margarita

    2003-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among children in highly deprived areas, and its possible association with demographic and socioeconomic indicators. From March to September 1998 in a convenience sample of 32 communities of the border region of Chiapas, Mexico, selected at random based on the level of poverty and distance from the community to the nearest health care unit (indigenous language were significantly associated with the presence of E histolytical E dispar and Giardia lamblia. Source of water and lacking a refrigerator and electricity were associated with the presence of Ascaris lumbricoides. Measures should be taken to improve water quality, sewage disposal, and domestic hygiene. Furthermore, health programs should be established to promote breast-feeding, and education policies aimed at reinforcing the use of indigenous languages by physicians in the health services.

  13. «Cross-border Environmental Peace» as the Interaction of Regional Norms and Local Power: Lessons from Cross-Regional Analysis of Water Security Debates

    OpenAIRE

    Koff, Harlan

    2016-01-01

    This article contends that notions of «peace» and «justice» in cross-border water management vary in different world regions. Moreover, it argues that «peace» and «justice» can be explained by analyzing the interaction between «regional» interpretations and implementation of water security norms and local cross-border power structures. «Regional water security» is defined as the normative commitment to provide necessary water resources to communities within world regions. «Power,» which is de...

  14. Bojkovice: Transformation of a peripheral micro-region at the Czech-Slovak border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishar Antonín

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the problem of a rural region in the peripheral position. Bojkovice micro-region on the Czech (Moravian-Slovak border has been chosen as a case study. Economic transformation of productive and non-productive branches, demographic development (depopulation and aging and networking in the area were characterized by using statistical data and field research. Development, understood as improvement in quality of life and not in sense of quantitative growth, is highlighted with regard to the changing perception of the countryside. The question remains: how to use peripherality for prosperity? Peripheral countryside is known as “the right countryside” in comparison to suburbanized and globalized countryside in core regions. Based on the research, production embedded in local sources and traditions, ecological agriculture using the protection of landscape and soft tourism are proposed as solutions. Networking like the association of municipalities, LEADER local action group or White Carpathian Euroregion could be the instruments of micro-regional collaboration. The human and social factors seem to be more important than objective conditions. Long-term population stability is the main advantage. However, a lower level of formal education could be a problem. The character of social capital is considered as a decisive circumstance - whether it is passive social capital resistant to outer innovations or active social capital open for now ideas.

  15. Comparison of the organic waste management systems in the danish-german border region using life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Scheutz, Charlotte; Møller, Jacob

    of the organic waste treatment has been collected including waste composition data and data from treatment facilities and their respective energy systems. Based on that the organic waste management systems in the border region were modelled using the EASETECH waste management LCA-model. The main output is a life......The treatment of organic waste from household in the Danish-German border region is very diverse, the Danish area only uses incineration for the treatment while the German system includes combined biogas and composting, mechanical and biological treatment and incineration. Data on all parts...

  16. Bridging research and policy to address childhood obesity among border Hispanics: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier, Nelda; Smith, Matthew Lee; Irizarry, David; Carrillo-Zuniga, Genny; Lee, Chanam; Trevino, Laura; Ory, Marcia G

    2013-03-01

    Mexican-American children are disproportionately affected by obesity compared to other population groups. Although national guidelines recommend using environmental and policy approaches to address this public health issue, the majority of Mexican-American children do not meet physical activity recommendations. To describe a knowledge transfer process involving local decision makers to address childhood obesity and physical activity needs among low-income, Mexican-American children and to examine environmental policy recommendations generated in this process. This pilot study employed a qualitative research design that included the dissemination of primary research data to local decision makers in the Texas-Mexico border region. Stakeholders attending public meetings were briefed about a research project reporting on the physical activity needs of Mexican-American children from impoverished neighborhoods known as colonias. Seventy-four stakeholders responded to an unstructured questionnaire and proposed policy recommendations. Data were collected January-April 2011 and analyzed July-September 2011. Data were analyzed using a content analysis technique. Four policy themes emerged from the data: (1) establishing sustainable community-based health programs; (2) improving neighborhood infrastructure and safety; (3) increasing access to parks; and (4) supporting community organizations to disseminate health education to parents and children. Knowledge transfer processes planned and facilitated by researchers at public meetings with local decision makers are effective methods to influence policy development related to childhood obesity. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Deep-apical tubules: dynamic lipid-raft microdomains in the brush-border region of enterocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert H; Pedersen, Jens; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte

    2003-01-01

    microdomains. Deep-apical tubules were positioned close to the actin rootlets of adjacent microvilli in the terminal web region, which had a diameter of 50-100 nm, and penetrated up to 1 microm into the cytoplasm. Markers for transcytosis, IgA and the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, as well as the resident...... lipid raft-containing compartments, but little is otherwise known about these raft microdomains. We therefore studied in closer detail apical lipid-raft compartments in enterocytes by immunogold electron microscopy and biochemical analyses. Novel membrane structures, deep-apical tubules, were visualized...... brush-border enzyme aminopeptidase N, were present in these deep-apical tubules. We propose that deep-apical tubules are a specialized lipid-raft microdomain in the brush-border region functioning as a hub in membrane trafficking at the brush border. In addition, the sensitivity to cholesterol depletion...

  18. Fixed Links and Vague Discourses About Culture and the Making of Cross-Border Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stöber, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    It has been en vogue for official bodies to focus on ‘culture’ as a strategic factor for the development of spatial entities such as cross-border regions in the making. This focus places high expectations and a strong belief in the power of ‘culture’. In this paper I will argue that in region...... building processes the focus on ‘culture’ is often due to an overriding wish to develop an economic well-functioning region. Moreover, it seems like ‘culture’ is used as a tool to distract people from a critique of bigger infrastructure projects that such developments entail. In order to strengthen...... these arguments, the paper will focus on two examples from Northern Europe, the existing Danish-Swedish Øresund link as well as the planned link between Denmark and Germany across the Femernbelt. In the course of the paper, focus will be on central bodies or actors that are taking up the issue of culture within...

  19. Nutrition Knowledge Predicts Eating Behavior of All Food Groups "except" Fruits and Vegetables among Adults in the Paso del Norte Region: Que Sabrosa Vida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shreela V.; Gernand, Alison D.; Day, R. Sue

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between nutrition knowledge and eating behavior in a predominantly Mexican American population on the Texas-Mexico border. Design: Cross-sectional using data from the baseline survey of the Que Sabrosa Vida community nutrition initiative. Setting: El Paso and surrounding counties in Texas. Participants: Data…

  20. Crossing the Border: Mobility as a Resource in the Tijuana/San Diego and Tecún Umán/Tapachula Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia E. Campos Delgado

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests that transborder mobility is crucial to the way individuals relate to space and the meanings that they construct about it. Based on ethnographic work carried out in the Tijuana/San Diego and Tecún Umán/Tapachula border regions, an analysis is conducted of the relationship between the border region and the spatial mobility of its inhabitants. We conclude that there are at least four possible ways of constructing mobility in border contexts.

  1. Laser spectroscopy of francium isotopes at the borders of the region of reflection asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Budinčević, I; Bissell, M L; Cocolios, T E; de Groote, R P; De Schepper, S; Fedosseev, V N; Flanagan, K T; Franchoo, S; Garcia Ruiz, R F; Heylen, H; Lynch, K M; Marsh, B A; Neyens, G; Procter, T J; Rossel, R E; Rothe, S; Strashnov, I; Stroke, H H; Wendt, K D A

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic dipole moments and changes in mean-square charge radii of the neutron-rich $^{218m,219,229,231}\\text{Fr}$ isotopes were measured with the newly-installed Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) beam line at ISOLDE, CERN, probing the $7s~^{2}S_{1/2}$ to $8p~^{2}P_{3/2}$ atomic transition. The $\\delta\\langle r^{2}\\rangle^{A,221}$ values for $^{218m,219}\\text{Fr}$ and $^{229,231}\\text{Fr}$ follow the observed increasing slope of the charge radii beyond $N~=~126$. The charge radii odd-even staggering in this neutron-rich region is discussed, showing that $^{220}\\text{Fr}$ has a weakly inverted odd-even staggering while $^{228}\\text{Fr}$ has normal staggering. This suggests that both isotopes reside at the borders of a region of inverted staggering, which has been associated with reflection-asymmetric shapes. The $g(^{219}\\text{Fr}) = +0.69(1)$ value supports a $\\pi 1h_{9/2}$ shell model configuration for the ground state. The $g(^{229,231}\\text{Fr})$ values support the tentative $I^{\\pi}(^...

  2. Laser spectroscopy of francium isotopes at the borders of the region of reflection asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinčević, I.; Billowes, J.; Bissell, M. L.; Cocolios, T. E.; de Groote, R. P.; De Schepper, S.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Flanagan, K. T.; Franchoo, S.; Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Heylen, H.; Lynch, K. M.; Marsh, B. A.; Neyens, G.; Procter, T. J.; Rossel, R. E.; Rothe, S.; Strashnov, I.; Stroke, H. H.; Wendt, K. D. A.

    2014-07-01

    The magnetic dipole moments and changes in mean-square charge radii of the neutron-rich 218m,219,229,231Fr isotopes were measured with the newly installed Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) beam line at the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator (ISOLDE), CERN, probing the 7s2S1/2 to 8p2P3/2 atomic transition. The δA,221 values for 218m,219Fr and 229,231Fr follow the observed increasing slope of the charge radii beyond N =126. The charge radii odd-even staggering in this neutron-rich region is discussed, showing that 220Fr has a weakly inverted odd-even staggering while 228Fr has normal staggering. This suggests that both isotopes reside at the borders of a region of inverted staggering, which has been associated with reflection-asymmetric shapes. The g(219Fr )=+0.69(1) value supports a π1h9/2 shell-model configuration for the ground state. The g(229,231Fr ) values support the tentative Iπ(229,231Fr)=(1/2+) spin and point to a πs1/2-1 intruder ground-state configuration.

  3. «Cross-border Environmental Peace» as the Interaction of Regional Norms and Local Power: Lessons from Cross-Regional Analysis of Water Security Debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlan Koff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contends that notions of «peace» and «justice» in cross-border water management vary in different world regions. Moreover, it argues that «peace» and «justice» can be explained by analyzing the interaction between «regional» interpretations and implementation of water security norms and local cross-border power structures. «Regional water security» is defined as the normative commitment to provide necessary water resources to communities within world regions. «Power,» which is defined traditionally as «the ability of actors to obtain their objectives despite opposition» is viewed as a function of political entrepreneurialism and opportunity structures. This article derives from a review of the pertinent literatures on «water security» and «water justice,» the two elements of «water peace» as well as scholarship on cross-border water management in different world regions. It discusses water governance within the framework of cross-border politics and comparative regional integration. It also includes analysis of the policy documents and websites of seventeen regional organizations as well as interviews with key actors and local experts on water management in specific cross-border case studies. The article is divided into five sections. Following this introduction, part two examines «water security» and «water justice» in international affairs. Part III then discusses «power» in cross-border water governance debates and addresses the transnational face of water security discussions. Part IV presents a comparative examination of cross-border «water justice» in selected world regions which is followed by theoretical considerations that are addressed in part V, the conclusion. In general, the article emphasizes the need to promote comparative cross-regional research on cross-border water governance in order to examine how «peace,» «security» and «justice» are framed in debates over water resources. 

  4. Border Crossings, US-Mexico Border, 2010, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Border Crossings for Region 9. The Border Crossing layer contains all international border crossings for all motorway crossings, as well as other important...

  5. Transgranichnoe sotrudnichestvo Kaliningradskoj oblasti: problemy i perspektivy [Cross-Border Cooperation in the Kaliningrad region: Problems and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plyukhin Mikhail

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the accession of Poland and Lithuania to the EU, the nature, forms and content of their border cooperation with the Kaliningrad region have fundamentally changed. There is a tendency towards strengthening the neighborhood policy. The already gained extensive and varied experience of the participation of the Kaliningrad region in the IN-TERREG Programme contributed to the socio-economic development of the region. The new financial tools should be linked to the regional development strategies of the neighboring territories. Efficient use of both Russian and the EU funds will help develop a new technology for regional development of North-West Russia.

  6. Project GeoPower: Basic subsurface information for the utilization of geothermal energy in the Danish-German border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Reinhard; Balling, Niels; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Fuchs, Sven; Hese, Fabian; Mathiesen, Anders; Møller Nielsen, Carsten; Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Offermann, Petra; Poulsen, Niels Erik; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Thomsen, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    Information on both hydraulic and thermal conditions of the subsurface is fundamental for the planning and use of hydrothermal energy. This is paramount in particular for densely populated international border regions, where different subsurface applications may introduce conflicts of use and require reliable cross-border management and planning tools. In the framework of the Interreg4a GeoPower project, fundamental geological and geophysical information of importance for the planning of geothermal energy utilization in the Danish-German border region was compiled and analyzed. A 3D geological model was developed and used as structural basis for the set-up of a regional temperature model. In that frame, new reflection seismic data were obtained to close local data gaps in the border region. The analyses and reinterpretation of available relevant data (old and new seismic profiles, core and well-log data, borehole data, literature data) and a new time-depth conversion (new velocity model) allowed correlation of seismic profiles across the border. On this basis, new topologically consistent depth and thickness maps for 12 geological/lithological units were drawn, with special emphasis on potential geothermal reservoirs, and a new 3D structural geological model was developed. The interpretation of petrophysical data (core data and well logs) allows to evaluate the hydraulic and thermal rock properties of geothermal formations and to develop a parameterized 3D thermal conductive subsurface temperature model. New local surface heat-flow values (range: 72-84 mW/m²) were determined and predicted temperature were calibrated and validated by borehole temperature observations. Finally, new temperature maps for major geological sections (e.g. Rhaetian/Gassum, Middle Buntsandstein) and selected constant depth intervals (1 km, 2 km, etc.) were compiled. As an example, modelled temperatures for the Middle Buntsandstein geothermal reservoir are shown with temperatures ranging

  7. [Obstacles to overcome in the control of pulmonary tuberculosis in the border region of Chiapas, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Pérez, H J; Halperin Frisch, D

    1997-01-01

    To improve the control of the pulmonary tuberculosis in the Border Region of Chiapas, Mexico. Academic researchers, health development workers from the nongovernmental sector and government health authorities met in a workshop to analyze recent experiences with tuberculosis. Among the important issues addressed were: with regard to official health services, the lack of resources, particularly medication, organizational problems which result in poor or absent communication within and among different health entities, the under diagnosis of cases and the lack of sufficient index of suspicion for tuberculosis among health personnel. With regard to the population at risk, there are profound socio-cultural barriers which include a lack of confidence in the quality of government health care centers and little attention given to chronic cough. Poorest, indigenous and more remote people have less access to care and are more likely to have advanced tuberculosis before seeking treatment if at all. New strategies proposed were to integrate communication efforts in tuberculosis control among all the involved health services, including private physicians, identify those patients at greatest risk, improve diagnostic skills of health providers, develop education campaigns in rural areas. Certain factors which impede better TB control seem amenable to change, others, such as severe poverty, particularly among peasants and indigeneous people, as well as the current political disruption, will require much broader intersectorial interventions.

  8. Successful malaria elimination in the Ecuador-Peru border region: epidemiology and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisher, Lyndsay K; Krisher, Jesse; Ambuludi, Mariano; Arichabala, Ana; Beltrán-Ayala, Efrain; Navarrete, Patricia; Ordoñez, Tania; Polhemus, Mark E; Quintana, Fernando; Rochford, Rosemary; Silva, Mercy; Bazo, Juan; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M

    2016-11-28

    In recent years, malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum) has been successfully controlled in the Ecuador-Peru coastal border region. The aim of this study was to document this control effort and to identify the best practices and lessons learned that are applicable to malaria control and to other vector-borne diseases. A proximal outcome evaluation was conducted of the robust elimination programme in El Oro Province, Ecuador, and the Tumbes Region, Peru. Data collection efforts included a series of workshops with local public health experts who played central roles in the elimination effort, review of epidemiological records from Ministries of Health, and a review of national policy documents. Key programmatic and external factors are identified that determined the success of this eradication effort. From the mid 1980s until the early 2000s, the region experienced a surge in malaria transmission, which experts attributed to a combination of ineffective anti-malarial treatment, social-ecological factors (e.g., El Niño, increasing rice farming, construction of a reservoir), and political factors (e.g., reduction in resources and changes in management). In response to the malaria crisis, local public health practitioners from El Oro and Tumbes joined together in the mid-1990s to forge an unofficial binational collaboration for malaria control. Over the next 20 years, they effectively eradicated malaria in the region, by strengthening surveillance and treatment strategies, sharing of resources, operational research to inform policy, and novel interventions. The binational collaboration at the operational level was the fundamental component of the successful malaria elimination programme. This unique relationship created a trusting, open environment that allowed for flexibility, rapid response, innovation and resilience in times of crisis, and ultimately a sustainable control programme. Strong community involvement, an extensive microscopy network and

  9. [Molecular characteristics of dengue virus outbreak in China-Myanmar border region, Yunnan province, 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaofang; Yang, Mingdong; Jiang, Jinyong; Li, Huachang; Zhu, Chongge; Gui, Qin; Bu, Liqun; Zhou, Hongning

    2016-03-01

    To understand the molecular characteristics of a dengue virus outbreak in China-Myanmar border region, Yunnan province, 2015 and provide etiological evidence for the disease control and prevention. Semi-nested RTPCR was conducted to detect the capsid premembrane (CprM) gene of RNA of dengue virus by using dengue virus NS1 positive serum samples collected in Mengdin township, Gengma county, Yunnan province in July, 2015. Some positive samples were then detected by using PCR with specific primers to amplify the full E gene. The positive PCR products were directly sequenced. Then sequences generated in this study were BLAST in NCBI website and aligned in Megalign in DNAstar program. Multiple sequence alignments were carried out by using Mega 5.05 software based on the sequences generated in this study and sequences downloaded from GenBank, including the representative strains from different countries and regions. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by using Neighbor-Joining tree methods with Mega 5.05 software. Twenty one of 25 local cases and 10 of 14 imported cases from Myanmar were positive for DENV-1. Eight serum samples were negative for dengue virus. A total of 13 strains with E gene (1485 bp), including 8 local strains and 5 imported strains, were sequenced, which shared 100% nucleotide sequence identities. Twelve strains with CprM gene (406 bp) from 9 local cases and 3 imported cases shared 100% nucleotide sequence identities. Phylogenetic analyses based on E gene showed that the new 13 strains clustered in genotype I of dengue virus and formed a distinct lineage. This outbreak was caused by genotype I of DENV-1, which had the closest phylogenetic relationships with dengue virus from neighboring Burma area. Comprehensive measures of prevention and control of dengue fever should be strengthened to prevent the spread of dengue virus.

  10. Floristic diversity and vegetation analysis of Wadi Arar: A typical desert Wadi of the Northern Border region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Osman, Ahmed K.; Al-Ghamdi, Faraj; Bawadekji, Abdulhakim

    2014-01-01

    Wadi Arar in the Northern border region of Saudi Arabia is one of the most important Wadis of the Kingdom. The present study provides an analysis of vegetation types, life forms, as well as floristic categories and species distribution. A total of 196 species representing 31 families of vascular plants were recorded. Compositae, Gramineae and Leguminosae were the most common families. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the most frequent life forms, indicating typical desert spectrum vegetation....

  11. Regional State configuration: The mercantile order and interpretive community on the Mexico-Guatemala border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Saúl Rojas Pérez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We offer an ethnographic description of the circulation of vegetables on the border between Mexico and Guatemala. These goods move from one country to the other through ant-style piecemeal trafficking on misdirected paths: they enter constantly as contraband in small quantities, using tolerated border crossings. The objective is to show how the interactions between the border actors involved construct a local order that is different from that of the State's normative parameters. An order is founded on a series of unwritten rules that govern the practices of crossing, thereby creating an "interpretive community." This paper clarifies why the operating personnel from different levels of the Mexican government charged with overseeing trade are not outside of this community but rather compose an important part of it and how the State is empirically constructed within it, starting from the idea that the State is not an all-encompassing and coherent entity.

  12. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing and conceptualizing the changing character of borders in contemporary Europe, this book examines developments occurring in the light of European integration processes and an on-going tightening of Europe's external borders. Moreover, the book suggests new ways of investigating the nature...... of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level....... It provides border scholars and researchers as well as policymakers with new empirical and theoretical evidence on the de- and re-bordering processes going on in diverse border regions in Europe, both within and outside of the EU....

  13. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level...

  14. Post-socialist forest disturbance in the Carpathian border region of Poland, Slovakia, and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuemmerle, Tobias; Hostert, Patrick; Radeloff, Volker C; Perzanowski, Kajetan; Kruhlov, Ivan

    2007-07-01

    Forests provide important ecosystem services, and protected areas around the world are intended to reduce human disturbance on forests. The question is how forest cover is changing in different parts of the world, why some areas are more frequently disturbed, and if protected areas are effective in limiting anthropogenic forest disturbance. The Carpathians are Eastern Europe's largest contiguous forest ecosystem and are a hotspot of biodiversity. Eastern Europe has undergone dramatic changes in political and socioeconomic structures since 1990, when socialistic state economies transitioned toward market economies. However, the effects of the political and economic transition on Carpathian forests remain largely unknown. Our goals were to compare post-socialist forest disturbance and to assess the effectiveness of protected areas in the border triangle of Poland, Slovakia, and Ukraine, to better understand the role of broadscale political and socioeconomic factors. Forest disturbances were assessed using the forest disturbance index derived from Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ images from 1978 to 2000. Our results showed increased harvesting in all three countries (up to 1.8 times) in 1988-1994, right after the system change. Forest disturbance rates differed markedly among countries (disturbance rates in Ukraine were 4.5 times higher than in Poland, and those in Slovakia were 4.3 times higher than in Poland), and in Ukraine, harvests tended to occur at higher elevations. Forest fragmentation increased in all three countries but experienced a stronger increase in Slovakia and Ukraine (approximately 5% decrease in core forest) than in Poland. Protected areas were most effective in Poland and in Slovakia, where harvesting rates dropped markedly (by nearly an order of magnitude in Slovakia) after protected areas were designated. In Ukraine, harvesting rates inside and outside protected areas did not differ appreciably, and harvests were widespread immediately before the

  15. Project GeoPower: Basic subsurface information for the utilization of geothermal energy in the Danish-German border region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsch, Reinhard; Balling, Niels; Fuchs, Sven

    and require reliable cross-border management and planning tools. In the framework of the Interreg4a GeoPower project, fundamental geological and geophysical information of importance for the planning of geothermal energy utilization in the Danish-German border region was compiled and analyzed. A 3D geological...... on potential geothermal reservoirs, and a new 3D structural geological model was developed. The interpretation of petrophysical data (core data and well logs) allows to evaluate the hydraulic and thermal rock properties of geothermal formations and to develop a parameterized 3D thermal conductive subsurface...... constant depth intervals (1 km, 2 km, etc.) were compiled. As an example, modelled temperatures for the Middle Buntsandstein geothermal reservoir are shown with temperatures ranging between 24 and 192 °C for depths of interest....

  16. Environmental hazard of pesticides applied in the border region between Platinum and Amazon Basins at the turn to century XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Rieder

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To reveal the environmental risk of pesticide prescribed in a border region between the Amazon and Platinum Basins, at the turn of the 21st century. Methods: The study used data of agronomic prescriptions for pesticides issued in the biennium of 1999-2000 in 24 cities located in a border region between the Amazon and Platinum Basins, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Results: The most widely used pesticides in the study region are class II (very dangerous and III (dangerous in number of prescriptions (N = 2,828, 86.8% andquantity prescribed (N = 344,765, 90.4%. Among class III pesticides, a strong inversion was observed in the number of prescriptions (N = 1,274; 39.1% and quantity prescribed (N = 237,319; 62.2%, indicating a lower number of prescriptions, but with higher amountprescribed. The proportion of prescriptions for products amid the various classes of Potential of Environmental Dangers (PPA ranking model, apllied in Brazil changed over the two years (c2=20,814; DF=3; p < 0,01. The 10 most prescribed products (11 activecompounds were: glyphosate, 2,4-D, sulfluramid, chlorimuron ethyl, fipronil, diuron, paraquat, methamidophos, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos and lambda-cyhalothrin, and seven of them were ranked as PPA class I or II. Conclusions: The ratio between the number of pesticide prescriptions and the quantities prescribed among the various classes of PPA showed alteration over crop years. The most reported products in this border region were classified as the most dangerous ones, with diverse mechanisms of action and potential risksto living organisms. This suggests the need to define specific policies and carefully designed strategies to prevent environmental disaster in this region.

  17. Chemical diversity of essential oils from flowers, leaves, and stems of Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. growing in northern border region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Awad

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Essential oils from flowers, leaves and stems of R. epapposum growing in northern border region of Saudi Arabia are considered as a rich source of monoterpenes which have biological activities.

  18. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing and conceptualizing the changing character of borders in contemporary Europe, this book examines developments occuring in the light of European integration processes and an on-going tightening of Europe's external borders. Moreover, the book suggests new ways of investigating the nature...... of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level....... It provides scholars and researchers as well as policymakers with new empirical and theoretical evidence on the de- and re-bordering processes going on in diverse border regions in Europe, both within and outside of the EU....

  19. Transboundary Air-Pollution Transport in the Czech-Polish Border Region between the Cities of Ostrava and Katowice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černikovský, Libor; Krejčí, Blanka; Blažek, Zdeněk; Volná, Vladimíra

    2016-12-01

    The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) estimated the transboundary transport of air pollution between the Czech Republic and Poland by assessing relationships between weather conditions and air pollution in the area as part of the "Air Quality Information System in the Polish-Czech border of the Silesian and Moravian-Silesian region" project (http://www.air-silesia.eu). Estimation of cross-border transport of pollutants is important for Czech-Polish negotiations and targeted measures for improving air quality. Direct measurement of PM10 and sulphur dioxide (SO2) concentrations and the direction and wind speed from measuring stations in the vicinity of the Czech-Polish state border in 2006-2012. Taking into account all the inaccuracies, simplifications and uncertainties, by which all of the measurements are affected, it is possible to state that the PM10 transboundary transport was greater from the direction of Poland to the Czech Republic, rather than the other way around. Nevertheless, the highest share of the overall PM10 concentration load was recorded on days with a vaguely estimated airflow direction. This usually included days with changing wind direction or days with a distinct wind change throughout the given day. A changeable wind is most common during low wind speeds. It can be assumed that during such days with an ambiguous daily airflow, the polluted air saturated with sources on both sides of the border moves from one country to the other. Therefore, we could roughly ascribe an equal level of these concentrations to both the Czech and Polish side. PM10 transboundary transport was higher from Poland to the Czech Republic than from the opposite direction, despite the predominant air flow from the Czech Republic to Poland.

  20. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing and conceptualizing the changing character of borders in contemporary Europe, this book examines developments occurring in the light of European integration processes and an on-going tightening of Europe's external borders. Moreover, the book suggests new ways of investigating the nature...... of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level...

  1. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing and conceptualizing the changing character of borders in contemporary Europe, this book examines developments occuring in the light of European integration processes and an on-going tightening of Europe's external borders. Moreover, the book suggests new ways of investigating the nature...... of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level...

  2. A promotora de salud model for addressing cardiovascular disease risk factors in the US-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcázar, Héctor; Alvarado, Matilde; Cantu, Frank; Pedregon, Veronica; Fulwood, Robert

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute partnered with the Health Resources and Services Administration's (HRSA's) Bureau of Primary Health Care and Office of Rural Health Policy to address cardiovascular health in the US-Mexico border region. From 2003 through 2005, the 2 agencies agreed to conduct an intervention program using Salud para su Corazón with promotores de salud (community health workers) in high-risk Hispanic communities served by community health centers (CHCs) in the border region to reduce risk factors and improve health behaviors. Promotores de salud from each CHC delivered lessons from the curriculum Your Heart, Your Life. Four centers implemented a 1-group pretest-posttest study design. Educational sessions were delivered for 2 to 3 months. To test Salud para su Corazón-HRSA health objectives, the CHCs conducted the program and assessed behavioral and clinical outcomes at baseline, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after the intervention. A 2-sample paired t test and analyses of variance were used to evaluate differences from baseline to postintervention. Changes in heart-healthy behaviors were observed, as they have been in previous Salud para su Corazón studies, lending credibility to the effectiveness of a promotores de salud program in a clinical setting. Positive changes were also observed in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, triglyceride level, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, weight, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Results suggest that integrating promotores de salud into clinical practices is a promising strategy for culturally competent and effective service delivery. Promotores de salud build coalitions and partnerships in the community. The Salud para su Corazón-HRSA initiative was successful in helping to develop an infrastructure to support a promotores de salud workforce in the US-Mexico border region.

  3. EVALUATION OF PROGRAM BORDER MANAGEMENT TO KEEP SOVEREIGN NATION THE NORTH KALIMANTAN (Regional leadership Based on Transformational Leadership and lokal wisdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicky Wainal Usman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate on five (5 steps;: (1 design of Border Management, (2 installation for Border Management,(3 process of Border Management, (4 product of Border Management, and cost / benefit for Border Management, for keep sovereign nation on North Kalimantan, This research is the programme evaluation research use Discrepancy Evaluation Model (DEM, data collection techniques are using; interview, observation, documentation and questionnaire for analyzer discussion support. Analysis of the data uses Raph Tylor model as follows data reduction, data display and verification as conclusion. Results of this research include: (1 draft design, (2 border management plan, (3 compile of policy strategy with the help of stakeholders and HR agencies (4 the process of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting and budgeting for border management, and (5lack of budget management.Besides is non-functioning of transformational leadership and effective local wisdom on North Kalimantan Keywords: Program Evaluation, Border Management, Regional Leadership, Transformational Leadership, Local Wisdom, Discrepancy Evaluation Model (DEM

  4. Toward Building a Cross-Border Integration Region among Five Caribbean Countries /Hacia una región transfronteriza de integración entre cinco países caribeños

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silvia Cristina Mantilla Valbuena; Christian Chacón Herrera; Raúl Román Romero

    2016-01-01

      This article aims to generate data to establish a proposal for a cross-border integration region among f ive countries that share territorial and maritime borders in the caribbean: colombia (san...

  5. Small businesses performance in West African border regions: Do social networks pay off?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuepié, Mathias; Tenikué, Michel; Walther, Olivier

    This paper studies the link between economic performance and social networks in West Africa. Using first-hand data collected on 358 small-scale traders in five border markets between Niger, Nigeria and Benin, we are particularly interested in testing whether the most well-connected actors of trade...... networks are also the most successful in terms of monthly sales and profit. The paper shows that the overall economic performance of traders is affected by the socio-professional position of the actors with whom they are connected. While social ties with local religious leaders have no effect...

  6. Temperature field and heat flow of the Danish-German border region − borehole measurements and numerical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Sven; Balling, Niels

    and validation). The prediction uncertainties between observed and modelled temperatures at deep borehole sites are small (rms = 3.5 °C). For eight deep boreholes, new values of terrestrial surface heat flow are derived, ranging between 72 and 84 mW/m² (mean of 80 ± 5 mW/m²). Those values are up to 20 m......We present a regional 3D numerical crustal temperature model and analyze the present-day conductive thermal field of the Danish-German border region located in the North German Basin. A comprehensive analysis of borehole and well-log data on a regional scale is conducted to derive both the model...

  7. Willingness to use hospice care among caregivers of Latino patients in the United States-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eunjeong; Lee, Jaehoon; Ramirez, Carlos; Martinez, Stephanie; Lopez, Denicka

    2017-06-01

    Hospice is an important method of promoting quality end-of-life (EoL) care, yet its utilization is relatively low in underserved populations. The unique characteristics of a border community-such as a lack of healthcare resources and cultural integration-impact EoL decision making. The aim of our study was to assess the willingness to use hospice care services and its predictors among family caregivers of Latino patients in the United States (U.S.)-Mexico border region of Southern California. This study analyzes secondary data from a home health agency in the U.S.-Mexico border region. Quantitative data were collected via a face-to-face interview with 189 caregivers of patients enrolled in the agency. Bivariate tests and logistic regression were employed to address our study objectives. The majority (83%) of family caregivers were willing to use hospice services for their loved ones. The factors impacting willingness to use hospice services included the primary language of the caregiver (OR = 6.30, CI 95% = 1.68, 23.58); trust in doctors to make the right decisions (OR = 3.77, CI 95% = 1.05, 13.57); and the belief that using hospice care means giving up on life (OR = 0.52, CI 95% = 0.30; 0.88). Caregivers who trusted doctors to make the best decisions for their loved ones and English-speaking caregivers were more willing to utilize hospice services, while caregivers who held a strong belief that hospice care means giving up on life were less likely to consider using hospice care for their loved ones. The willingness of family caregivers to use hospice services for their loved ones is influenced by cultural perspectives about hospice care. As the importance of family involvement in EoL care planning has been highlighted, family caregivers' beliefs about hospice care services need to be addressed within their particular cultural context.

  8. U.S.-MEXICO TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER; BILATERAL TECHNICAL EXCHANGES FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE BORDER REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Richard, D., Dr.

    2007-10-01

    s challenging environmental issues. The results also brought focus to the potential contributions that DOE’s science and technology could make for solving the many difficult, multi-generational problems faced by hundreds of bi-national communities along the 2,000-mile shared border of the United States and Mexico. Efforts to address these U.S.-Mexico border issues were initially sponsored by the DOE’s Albuquerque and Carlsbad offices. In subsequent years, the U.S. Congress directed appropriations to DOE’s Carlsbad office to address public health, safety and security issues prevalent within U.S.-Mexico border communities. With ASL’s assistance, DOE’s Albuquerque office developed contacts and formed partnerships with interested U.S and Mexican government, academic, and commercial organizations. Border industries, industrial effluents, and public health conditions were evaluated and documented. Relevant technologies were then matched to environmental problem sets along the border. Several technologies that were identified and subsequently supported by this effort are now operational in a number of U.S.-Mexico border communities, several communities within Mexico’s interior states, and in other parts of Latin America. As a result, some serious public health threats within these communities caused by exposure to toxic airborne pollutants have been reduced. During this time, DOE’s Carlsbad office hosted a bilateral conference to establish a cross-border consensus on what should be done on the basis of these earlier investigative efforts. Participating border region stakeholders set an agenda for technical collaborations. This agenda was supported by several Members of Congress who provided appropriations and directed DOE’s Carlsbad office to initiate technology demonstration projects. During the following two years, more than 12 private-sector and DOE-sponsored technologies were demonstrated in partnership with numerous border community stakeholders. All technologies

  9. Geographical mobility among retired US migrants living in the Northwestern region of Mexico bordering California, US

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    Lardiés-Bosque Raúl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mexico has become a regular destination for retirees coming from the USA. To date certain aspects of this group of migrants have been analysed, but little is known about those who have changed their place of residence to the Mexico- US border. In this article, the geographical mobility among retired US migrants living in the coastal area of northern Baja California, Mexico, is analysed. Firstly, reasons for retirees moving from the USA to this area are considered, and secondly, the contacts and relationships maintained with the country of origin, measured by the mobility which takes place between both countries; attention will be given to the reasons for these frequent trips, their periodicity, the means of transport used and the impacts. The main source of analysis will be 29 in-depth interviews conducted in 2009 with pensioners living in coastal municipalities of this northern area of Mexico.

  10. Barriers and Challenges of Cancer Patients and Their Experience with Patient Navigators in the Rural US/Mexico Border Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, Helen; Peacher, Diana; Ko, Eunjeong; Woodruff, Susan I; Watson, Mercedes

    2017-03-01

    Patient navigation is a widely used approach to minimize health disparities among socioeconomically marginalized cancer patients. Although patient navigation is widely used, there is a dearth of studies exploring patient experience with navigators among rural cancer patients. This qualitative study explores the challenges and barriers to cancer care faced by cancer patients living in a US/Mexico border region in Southern California. We individually interviewed 22 cancer patients, most of whom were Latino. Data were analyzed using constant comparison with a reiterative analysis method. The main themes relating to barriers to care and experiences with patient navigators include the following: (1) removing financial barriers, (2) coordinating services, and (3) providing therapeutic interventions. The cancer patients highly valued the navigators for their knowledge about community resources, support, and advocacy. This study suggests that it is imperative that navigators know the regional and binational health care utilization issues that impact patients' access to cancer care.

  11. Modeling of Trans-boundary Transport of Air Pollutants in the California-Mexico Border Region during Cal-Mex 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, N.; Zavala, M. A.; Lei, W.; Li, G.; Molina, L. T.

    2010-12-01

    The US and Mexico share a common air basin along the ~200 km border between California and Baja California. The economical activities in this region are heavily influenced by the international trade and commerce between Mexico and the US that mainly occurs through the borders of the sister cities of San Diego-Tijuana and Calexico-Mexicali. The diversity and differences in the characteristics of emissions sources of air pollutants in the California-Mexico border region make this an important area for the study of the chemistry and trans-boundary transport of air pollutants. During May-June of 2010, the Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign included a series of measurements aimed at characterizing the emissions from major sources in the California-Mexico border region and assessing the possible impacts of these emissions on local and regional air quality. In this work we will present the results of the use of the Comprehensive Air quality model with extensions (CAMx) in a modeling domain that includes the sister cities of San Diego-Tijuana and Calexico-Mexicali for studying events of trans-boundary transport of air pollutants during Cal-Mex 2010. The measurements obtained during the Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign are used in the evaluation of the model performance and in the design of air quality improvement policies in the California-Mexico border region.

  12. Supporting the minority physician pipeline: providing global health experiences to undergraduate students in the United States–Mexico border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Jose L.; Yee, Daniel; Csordas, Thomas; Vargas-Ojeda, Adriana C.; Segovia, Luis A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Olivares-Nevarez, Jose A.; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The sizeable US Latino population calls for increasing the pipeline of minority and bilingual physicians who can provide culturally competent care. Currently, only 5.5% of US providers are Hispanic/Latino, compared with 16% of the US population (i.e., >50.5 million persons). By 2060, it is predicted that about one-third of all US residents will be of Latino ethnicity. Activities and outcomes This article describes the Health Frontiers in Tijuana Undergraduate Internship Program (HFiT-UIP), a new quarterly undergraduate internship program based at a US–Mexico binational student-run free clinic and sponsored by the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California in Tijuana, Mexico. The HFiT-UIP provides learning opportunities for students and underrepresented minorities interested in medical careers, specifically Latino health. Discussion The HFiT-UIP might serve as a model for other educational partnerships across the US–Mexico border region and may help minority and other undergraduates seeking academic and community-based enrichment experiences. The HFiT-UIP can also support students’ desires to learn about Latino, border, and global health within resource-limited settings. PMID:26088189

  13. Supporting the minority physician pipeline: providing global health experiences to undergraduate students in the United States–Mexico border region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Burgos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sizeable US Latino population calls for increasing the pipeline of minority and bilingual physicians who can provide culturally competent care. Currently, only 5.5% of US providers are Hispanic/Latino, compared with 16% of the US population (i.e., >50.5 million persons. By 2060, it is predicted that about one-third of all US residents will be of Latino ethnicity. Activities and outcomes: This article describes the Health Frontiers in Tijuana Undergraduate Internship Program (HFiT-UIP, a new quarterly undergraduate internship program based at a US–Mexico binational student-run free clinic and sponsored by the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California in Tijuana, Mexico. The HFiT-UIP provides learning opportunities for students and underrepresented minorities interested in medical careers, specifically Latino health. Discussion: The HFiT-UIP might serve as a model for other educational partnerships across the US–Mexico border region and may help minority and other undergraduates seeking academic and community-based enrichment experiences. The HFiT-UIP can also support students’ desires to learn about Latino, border, and global health within resource-limited settings.

  14. Supporting the minority physician pipeline: providing global health experiences to undergraduate students in the United States-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Jose L; Yee, Daniel; Csordas, Thomas; Vargas-Ojeda, Adriana C; Segovia, Luis A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Olivares-Nevarez, Jose A; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2015-01-01

    The sizeable US Latino population calls for increasing the pipeline of minority and bilingual physicians who can provide culturally competent care. Currently, only 5.5% of US providers are Hispanic/Latino, compared with 16% of the US population (i.e., >50.5 million persons). By 2060, it is predicted that about one-third of all US residents will be of Latino ethnicity. This article describes the Health Frontiers in Tijuana Undergraduate Internship Program (HFiT-UIP), a new quarterly undergraduate internship program based at a US-Mexico binational student-run free clinic and sponsored by the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California in Tijuana, Mexico. The HFiT-UIP provides learning opportunities for students and underrepresented minorities interested in medical careers, specifically Latino health. The HFiT-UIP might serve as a model for other educational partnerships across the US-Mexico border region and may help minority and other undergraduates seeking academic and community-based enrichment experiences. The HFiT-UIP can also support students' desires to learn about Latino, border, and global health within resource-limited settings.

  15. Correction to: Exposure to a community-wide campaign is associated with physical activity and sedentary behavior among Hispanic adults on the Texas-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Natalia I; Lee, MinJae; Reininger, Belinda M

    2017-12-01

    After publication of the article [1], it has been brought to our attention that there is an acknowledgement missing. The authors would like to add the following - "The authors would like to thank the staff and community partners who work to implement the activities of the community wide campaign. In particular we would like to thank Lisa Mitchell-Bennett, Vanessa Saldana, Jennifer Mota, Sister Phylis Peters and the team of community health workers at UT Health and Proyecto Juan Diego who were involved in planning and gathering data."

  16. «Goroda-bliznecy»: novaja forma prigranichnogo sotrudnichestva v Baltijskom regione? [Twin cities: a new form of cross-border cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anishenko Anatoly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates the first attempt in Russian political studies to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the “twin city” movement as a form of cross-border cooperation in the Baltic region. This phenomenon emerged as a result of a global tendency towards more active involvement of municipal units in international cooperation, on the one hand, and aspirations of frontier cities and towns in the Baltic region to solve common problems together, on the other hand. This work is based on a comparative analysis method and a case study methodology. The authors consider four examples (city pairs: Tornio — Haparanda, Valga — Valka, Narva — Ivangorod and Imatra — Svetogorsk. The article specifies the terminological framework used in this field of research. The authors analyse achievements and failures of this type of international inter-municipal cooperation and emphasise that for twin cities it served not only as a means of survival in the difficult situation of the 1990s, but also as an experimental ground for new forms of crossborder cooperation. The authors arrive at the conclusion that this model proves to be promising for further development of integration processes in the Baltic region. This practice can be applied by Russian municipal, regional and federal authorities in promotion of cross-border cooperation not only in the Baltic region, but also in other regions of the country. Thus, influenced by the successful experience of Baltic frontier cities and towns, the Russian city of Nikel and the Norwegian city of Kirkenes decided to adopt this model for further development of their cooperation.

  17. Leisure at urban rivers of Three-Border Region: transformations, contradictions and meanings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Akemi Narita

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research was to identify and discuss the social appropriations and leisure experiences that happen in urban rivers and their margins in Foz do Iguaçu. In order to achieve this goal, the transformations and the contradictions which occur in these fluvial spaces in the city were analyzed. The present study also aimed at understanding how locals signify these rivers. This research activity has been mostly focused on the Paraná River due to its proximity to the population density in Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil. The city is located in the so called “Three-Border Region” along with Puerto Iguazú (Argentina and Ciudad del Este (Paraguay. The Iguaçu River, which is also important, has also been herein contemplated. The methodology of this qualitative research included a bibliographic study, observations and interviews with 23 inhabitants of Foz do Iguaçu. Through this study, it is possible to see that the appropriations and leisure experiences have become punctual as urban and environmental changes basically ignored an integrative sense between the city and its fluvial environments. There is still, in the rivers and their margins, leisure fishing and adventure sports being done, that attribute different meanings to these rivers through ludic, contemplative, spiritual and interactive experience with the waters. A privileged look focused on tourists has been prioritized and this has had an impact on public and democratic leisure areas for dwellers, such as rivers areas and their margins.

  18. Survival of female mallards along the Vermont–Quebec border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, Jerry R.; McAuley, Daniel G.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Bunck, Christine M.; Clugston, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding effects of location and timing of harvest seasons on mortality of ducks and geese from hunting is important in forming regulations that sustain viable waterfowl populations throughout their range. During 1990 and 1991 we alternately marked 80 hatching year (HY), female mallards along the Vermont–Quebec border; half with radio-transmitters and bands and half with only aluminum leg bands. We monitored radio-marked ducks daily and recorded survival status weekly for 15 weeks from August until December each year. Mallard mortalities began 25 September when the hunting season opened in the Province of Quebec, Canada. Overall survival of mallards at week 10 did not differ between years (0.51 in 1990 vs. 0.43 in 1991) or differ from that of HY American black ducks (0.44 females, 0.42 males) based on proportional hazard analysis in a Bayesian framework. The mortality rates for mallards from hunting (0.47) and causes unrelated to hunting (0.06) were similar between years and to those rates for HY black ducks at that same site. Hunter harvest accounted for most of the mortality recorded during this study and illegal feeding (i.e., baiting) at sites just before and during the hunting season was observed. Females with lower body condition index had greater mortality rates; a 1-standard-deviation increase in condition index would reduce mortality hazard by about 29%. Management options that may increase mallard survival in the area include lowering daily bag limit in Quebec and suspending split hunting seasons in Vermont that increase harvest, delaying opening date of hunting in Quebec to allow for increased body condition before hunting season opens, and improving enforcement of baiting restrictions.

  19. Overview Of Cal-Mex 2010: US-Mexico Collaborative Project On Air Quality And Climate Change In The California-Mexico Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, L. T.; Cal-Mex Science Team

    2010-12-01

    The composition of the atmosphere over the US-Mexico border region is affected by cross-border transport of emissions in both directions. Air quality issues in the California-Mexico (Cal-Mex) border are associated with air masses originating in the portion of the border region adjacent to California, which includes two of the sister city pairs (Tijuana-San Diego and Mexicali-Calexico) that have the most severe air pollution problems, posing a serious health threat to their inhabitants as well as affecting ecosystem viability and regional climate for large downwind distances. During May-June 2010, an intensive field study was undertaken by US-Mexico collaborative teams to characterize the major sources of primary and secondary particulate matter and precursor gases in the California-Mexico (Cal-Mex) border region, their transport and transformation, and the impact of these emissions on regional air quality and climate. The ground-based measurements included a central fixed site located in Tijuana that housed state-of-the-science instruments to measure gases, aerosols, radiation and meteorological parameters; a mobile eddy covariance laboratory that measured surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particle number; several mobile units for criteria pollutants and meteorological parameters; and measurements of fine particles and trace gases at the border crossing areas. Preliminary results from the field study will be presented. Cal-Mex Science Team includes: Molina Center for Energy and the Environment, Texas A & M University, Scripps Institution of Oceanography/University of California at San Diego, Virginia Tech, San Diego State University, National University of Mexico, National Institute of Ecology/Mexican Ministry of the Environment, University of the State of Morelos, LT Consulting Group, University of Baja California (Mexicali, Tijuana, Ensenada, Valle de Las Palmas campuses), Secretary of the Environment of Baja California

  20. Assessment and Mitigation of PM pollution in the border regions of Austria and Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrner, Ulrich; Reifeltshammer, Rafael; Lackner, Bettina; Forkel, Renate; Sturm, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Many cities, towns and regions located at the southern fringe of the Alps face remarkably high PM levels particularly during the winter period. The project PMinter aimed 1) to analyse the air quality in S-Styria, S-Carinthia and N-Slovenia, 2) to evaluate local and regional measures to develop effective air quality management plans and finally 3) to support a sustainable improvement of air quality in the project region. Using wood for residential heating is very popular in Austria and in Slovenia. To assess the contribution from wood smoke to the total PM burden and the impact of regional and large scale transport as well as the impact of secondary aerosols were major goals of PMinter. Due to the complex terrain air quality and exposure assessment is challenging. To resolve sources which are located in valleys and basins, emissions were computed or processed on 1 km x 1 km resolution for the entire program area. A new combined model approach was developed and tested successfully using a state-of-the-art CTM (WRF/Chem) on the regional scale and the Lagrangian particle model GRAL on the local scale. A detailed analysis and comparisons with measurements and regional/local scale scenario simulations were carried out. Residential heating using wood was identified as the major source and PM component dominant on the "local scale" ( 10 km), secondary inorganic aerosol was the dominant PM component on the regional scale ( 10 km - 150 km) and above. Various mitigation scenarios for PM were computed. A "local" scenario where individual heating facilities using solid fuels were replaced by district heating and a regional scenario with 35% reduced ammonia emissions from agriculture proved to be most effective.

  1. Diabetes and stress: an anthropological review for study of modernizing populations in the US-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, John J; Zavaskis, Tony; Wilson, Susan L

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes is a growing worldwide problem, characterized by considerable ethnic variation and being particularly common in modernizing populations. Modernization is accompanied by a variety of stressful sociocultural changes that are believed to increase the risk of diabetes. Unfortunately, there is little accurate knowledge about impact of stress on the risk of diabetes in the US-Mexico border area. Literature searches were performed in PubMed and Google Scholar to identify anthropological studies on stress and diabetes. Snowball and opportunistic sampling were used to expand the identified literature. In total, 30 anthropological studies were identified concerning the role of stress and modernization on diabetes among Indigenous peoples. This article reviews the available information regarding stress and diabetes in different populations from various anthropological perspectives. Four different concepts of stress were indentified: physiological, psychological, psychosocial and nutritional stress. Unlike physiological and nutritional theories of diabetes, psychological and psychosocial theories of stress and disease lack etiological specificity. No study addressed all four concepts of stress and few studies addressed more than two concepts. Most studies concerned nutritional stress and the developmental origins of diabetes. Most studies were conducted on the Pima Indians of Arizona and Mexico. All four stress concepts have some evidence as determinants of diabetes. These theoretical concepts and ethnographic results can provide the basis for developing comprehensive research protocols and public health intervention targeted at diabetes. A comprehensive view of stress can potentially explain the high prevalence of diabetes in developing countries and among Indigenous peoples. These results can be used to inform public health interventions aimed at reducing diabetes in the US-Mexico border region or similar areas, help identify at-risk individuals, and guide health

  2. Addressing regional disparities in pediatric oncology: Results of a collaborative initiative across the Mexican-North American border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizabal, Paula; Fuller, Spencer; Rivera-Gomez, Rebeca; Ornelas, Mario; Nuno, Laura; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Ribeiro, Raul; Roberts, William

    2017-06-01

    Cancer is emerging as a major cause of childhood mortality in low- and middle-income countries. In Mexico, cancer is the number one cause of death in children aged 5-14. Until recently, many children with cancer from Baja California, Mexico, went untreated. We reasoned that an initiative inspired by the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital (SJCRH) "twinning" model could successfully be applied to the San Diego-Tijuana border region. In 2008, a twinning project was initiated by Rady Children's Hospital, SJCRH, and the General Hospital Tijuana (GHT). Our aim was to establish a pediatric oncology unit in a culturally sensitive manner, adapted to the local healthcare system. An initial assessment revealed that despite existence of basic hospital infrastructure at the GHT, the essential elements of a pediatric cancer unit were lacking, including dedicated space, trained staff, and uniform treatment. A 5-year action plan was designed to offer training, support the staff financially, and improve the infrastructure. After 7 years, accomplishments include the opening of a new inpatient unit with updated technology, fully trained staff, and a dedicated, interdisciplinary team. Over 700 children have benefited from accurate diagnosis and treatment. Initiatives that implement long-term partnerships between institutions along the Mexican-North American border can be highly effective in establishing successful pediatric cancer control programs. The geographic proximity facilitated accelerated training and close monitoring of project development. Similar initiatives across other disciplines may benefit additional patients and synergize with pediatric oncology programs to reduce health disparities in underserved areas. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The effect of cross-border mobility on alcohol and drug use among Mexican-American residents living at the U.S.-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Ye, Yu; Zemore, Sarah E; Bond, Jason; Borges, Guilherme

    2015-11-01

    Little epidemiological evidence exists on alcohol or other substance use and related problems along the U.S.-Mexico border, although the border has been the focus of recent media attention related to the escalating drug/violence "epidemic". The purpose of this study was to analyze the association of variables related to crossing the border (cross-border mobility) with three substance use outcomes reported for the last year: 1) heavy drinking (5+ drinks per day for men or 4+ for women), 2) alcohol use disorder (AUD), and 3) co-occurring heavy drinking and drug use (any use of illicit and/or non-medically prescribed drugs). Household surveys were conducted, using area probability sampling of 1565 Mexican-American residents, aged 18-65, living at the Texas-Mexico border in the metropolitan areas of Laredo and McAllen/Brownsville. Among those 18-29, more frequent crossing of the border was significantly predictive of AUD (OR = 1.61, p tourism") or for nightlife/drinking were predictive of heavy drinking (ORs = 4.14, p tourism" in substance use across the age spectrum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. THE EFFECT OF CROSS-BORDER MOBILITY ON ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE AMONG MEXICAN-AMERICAN RESIDENTS LIVING AT THE U.S–MEXICO BORDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Ye, Yu; Zemore, Sarah E.; Bond, Jason; Borges, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Little epidemiological evidence exists on alcohol or other substance use and related problems along the U.S.-Mexico border, although the border has been the focus of recent media attention related to the escalating drug/violence “epidemic”. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association of variables related to crossing the border (cross-border mobility) with three substance use outcomes reported for the last year: 1) heavy drinking (5+ drinks per day for men or 4+ for women), 2) alcohol use disorder (AUD), and 3) co-occurring heavy drinking and drug use (any use of illicit and/or non-medically prescribed drugs). Methods Household surveys were conducted, using area probability sampling of 1,565 Mexican-Americans residents, aged 18–65, living at the Texas-Mexico border in the metropolitan areas of Laredo and McAllen/Brownsville. Results Among those 18–29, more frequent crossing of the border was significantly predictive of AUD (OR=1.61, ptourism”) or for nightlife/drinking were predictive of heavy drinking (ORs = 4.14, ptourism” in substance use across the age spectrum. PMID:26103423

  5. Parasites and vectors carry no passport: how to fund cross-border and regional efforts to achieve malaria elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gueye Cara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tremendous progress has been made in the last ten years in reducing morbidity and mortality caused by malaria, in part because of increases in global funding for malaria control and elimination. Today, many countries are striving for malaria elimination. However, a major challenge is the neglect of cross-border and regional initiatives in malaria control and elimination. This paper seeks to better understand Global Fund support for multi-country initiatives. Methods Documents and proposals were extracted and reviewed from two main sources, the Global Fund website and Aidspan.org. Documents and reports from the Global Fund Technical Review Panel, Board, and Secretariat documents such as guidelines and proposal templates were reviewed to establish the type of policies enacted and guidance provided from the Global Fund on multi-country initiatives and applications. From reviewing this information, the researchers created 29 variables according to eight dimensions to use in a review of Round 10 applications. All Round 10 multi-country applications (for HIV, malaria and tuberculosis and all malaria multi-country applications (6 from Rounds 1 – 10 were extracted from the Global Fund website. A blind review was conducted of Round 10 applications using the 29 variables as a framework, followed by a review of four of the six successful malaria multi-country grant applications from Rounds 1 – 10. Findings During Rounds 3 – 10 of the Global Fund, only 5.8% of grants submitted were for multi-country initiatives. Out of 83 multi-country proposals submitted, 25.3% were approved by the Technical Review Panel (TRP for funding, compared to 44.9% of single-country applications. The majority of approved multi-country applications were for HIV (76.2%, followed by malaria (19.0%, then tuberculosis (4.8%. TRP recommendations resulted in improvements to application forms, although guidance was generally vague. The in-depth review of Round 10

  6. Epidemiology of Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamase-Producing E-coli and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in the Northern Dutch-German Cross-Border Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Xuewei; Garcia-Cobos, Silvia; Ruijs, Gijs J. H. M.; Kampinga, Greetje A.; Arends, Jan P.; Borst, Dirk M.; Moller, Lieke V.; Holman, Nicole D.; Schuurs, Theo A.; van Coppenraet, Lesla E. Bruijnesteijn; Weel, Jan F.; van Zeijl, Jan H.; Koeck, Robin; Rossen, John W. A.; Friedrich, Alexander W.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To reveal the prevalence and epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and/or plasmid AmpC (pAmpC)- and carbapenemase (CP) producing Enterobacteriaceae and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) across the Northern Dutch-German border region. Methods: A point-prevalence study

  7. Epidemiology of Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamase-Producing E-coli and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in the Northern Dutch-German Cross-Border Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Xuewei; Garcia-Cobos, Silvia; Ruijs, Gijs J. H. M.; Kampinga, Greetje A.; Arends, Jan P.; Borst, Dirk M.; Moller, Lieke V.; Holman, Nicole D.; Schuurs, Theo A.; van Coppenraet, Lesla E. Bruijnesteijn; Weel, Jan F.; van Zeijl, Jan H.; Koeck, Robin; Rossen, John W. A.; Friedrich, Alexander W.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To reveal the prevalence and epidemiology of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-and/or plasmid AmpC (pAmpC)- and carbapenemase (CP) producing Enterobacteriaceae and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) across the Northern Dutch-German border region. Methods: A point-prevalence

  8. The immigration model of Sardinia, an island and a border region

    OpenAIRE

    Gentileschi, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    With its small numbers of foreign immigrants, originating from both EU and non-EU countries, Sardinia seems to remain a rather distinct and lonely destination compared to the major immigration flows in the Italian peninsula and the other major Italian island, Sicily. High unemployment, especially among the young, which has resulted in persistent labour emigration, is of course the main reason why this region attracts few immigrants, even if they occupy jobs refused by the natives. Moreover, t...

  9. West nile virus infection in the Mesopotamia region, Syria border of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakoç, Zehra Çağla; Tüzüner, Bora Mete; Ergonul, Onder; Pierro, Anna; Di Fonzo, Eugenio; Koruk, İbrahim; Sambri, Vittorio

    2013-10-01

    We described the serological prevalence of West Nile Virus (WNV) antibodies among the human population in a historical and strategic region of Turkey. A serologic survey was conducted based on suspected cases in April, 2009, in the Mesopotamia region of Turkey, in the villages that were located alongside the Zergan River. All the sera were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA (Euroimmune™), and the positive samples were tested by immunofluorescent assay (IFA; Euroimmune™). As confirmation, neutralizing antibodies against WNV were tested by microneutralization assay (MNTA). In total, 307 individuals were included. The MNTA test was found to be positive among 52 individuals out of 307 (17%). In multivariate analysis, age >50 [odds ratio (OR)=5.2, confidence interval (CI) 2.76-9.97, p<0.001) and being in an occupational risk group (OR=2.02, CI 1.02-4.04, p=0.044) were found to be the risk factors for WNV seropositivity with the MNTA test. The physicians in the region should be aware of the risk of WNV infection and should be alerted to detect the clinical cases.

  10. Regional Integration and Pacta Sunt Servanda: Reflections on South African Trans-Border Higher Education Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyayambwa Mwanawina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The underpinning essence of being part of a regional organisation such as the Southern African Development Community (SADC is to achieve development through integration. Regional integration thus becomes the bedrock from which the treaties governing SADC and its member states are to be interpreted. The SADC Treaty and its various protocols articulate that members should eliminate obstacles to the free movement of people, goods and services. This should include the progressive reduction of immigration formalities in order to facilitate the freer movement of students and staff for the specific purposes of study, teaching, research and any other pursuits relating to education and training. Relying on international law principles such as pacta sunt servanda, this article establishes that though South Africa has made much progress in meeting most of the SADC obligations relating to migration and education, there are still grey policy areas that fall short of SADC standards and regional commitments. It also appraises the role of the SADC Council of Ministers, the Parliamentary Forum, the Tribunal and the National Committees in addressing these areas.

  11. Serological survey on immunity status against polioviruses in children and adolescents living in a border region, Apulia (Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafuri, Silvio; Prato, Rosa; Martinelli, Domenico; Calvario, Agata; Bozzi, Anna; Labianca, Michele; Patti, Annamaria; Lopalco, Pietro Luigi; Germinario, Cinzia

    2008-10-30

    In 1988 the World Health Assembly adopted the goal to eradicate poliomyelitis by routine immunization using Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV). On 21 June 2002 the WHO European Region was declared polio-free. In 2008 poliomyelitis is still endemic in 4 countries (Nigeria, India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan), where 1201 new cases were registered in 2007; 107 sporadic cases were also notified in countries where poliovirus is not endemic. The aim of this work was to verify the level of antipoliomyelitis immunity status in children and adolescents in the Apulia region (south of Italy), which may be considered a border region due to its position. 704 blood specimens from a convenience sample were collected in six laboratories. The age of subjects enrolled was 0-15 years. The immunity against poliomyelitis was evaluated by neutralizing antibody titration in tissue culture microplates. Seropositivity (neutralising antibodies titre > or = 8) for polioviruses 1, 2 and 3 was detected in 100%, 99.8% and 99.4% of collected sera. Antibody titres were not lower in subjects who received either four doses of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) or a sequential schedule consisting of two doses of IPV and two of oral polio vaccine than in subjects who received four doses of OPV. These results confirmed current data of vaccine coverage for poliomyelitis: during the last ten years in Apulia, the coverage in 24 months old children was more than 90%. The high level of immunization found confirms the effectiveness both of the sequential schedule IPV-OPV and of the schedule all-IPV. Apulia region has to face daily arrivals of refugees and remains subject to the risk of the importation of poliovirus from endemic areas. Surveys aimed at determining anti-polio immunity in subpopulations as well as in the general population should be carried out.

  12. The transformative role of universities in regional innovations systems: lessons from university engagement in cross-border regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, Jos; Eckardt, Franziska; Benneworth, Paul Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Universities play many important roles in the knowledge-based economy, providing innovation support services directly, but also changing the way that innovation is organised in their regions, and building new economic development pathways. Their roles can be particularly important in less successful

  13. Shallow and intermediate depth earthquakes in the Hindu Kush region across the Afghan-Pakistan border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Khaista; Ali, Wajid; Ali, Asghar; Ali, Aamir; Barkat, Adnan

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the spatio-temporal seismicity parameters of shallow (0-70 km) and intermediate (70-300 km) depth earthquakes in the Hindu Kush region, which is characterized by the occurrence of large earthquakes in a small zone of intense activity. By way of comparison, intermediate depth earthquakes dominate the Hindu Kush seismicity. Using a catalogue of 3820 earthquakes, we determined the various earthquake histograms, time-series plots, variations of frequency-magnitude distribution (b-value) and seismicity rate changes (z-value). Both time periods, encompassing pre- and post-1964 subsets of earthquakes, differ significantly in terms of reporting earthquakes, b- and z-value for shallow and intermediate seismicity. The b-values appear to be lower (1.07 and 0.90) for intermediate depth earthquakes than do the b-values produced by shallow earthquakes (1.32 and 1.06) using the pre- and post-1964 data sets. The three low b-value (<0.9) areas have been identified within the intermediate depth seismicity region of the Hindu Kush. The z-value maps show that the earthquakes with magnitude of 7.0 and above can only be seen in the intermediate depth earthquake maps.

  14. Vivre la frontière : les pratiques spatiales transfrontalières dans l’Arc jurassien franco-suisse Living the border : cross-border spatial practices in the French-Swiss Jura region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Dubois

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La construction européenne a redéfini la signification et les fonctions des frontières nationales. Cet article s’intéresse à cette mutation sous l’angle des pratiques des habitants de l’Arc jurassien franco-suisse. Une enquête par questionnaire a permis de mesurer l’intensité de certaines pratiques spatiales transfrontalières réalisées pendant le temps libre (achats, loisirs, etc. et d’en déterminer les logiques sous-jacentes. L’effet frontière se manifeste sous la forme d’un différentiel de prix (coût de la vie, taux de change, taxation de certains produits et d’un différentiel de connaissances (manque d’informations sur le pays voisin, habitude, etc. qui freinent ou incitent le franchissement de la frontière. L’effet frontière est toutefois atténué dans le contexte territorial étudié par un effet de centralité impliquant un différentiel d’offre (attraction des communes françaises à vocation résidentielle par les centres urbains helvétiques. La combinaison de ces effets explique l’intensité et l’orientation des pratiques spatiales transfrontalières.The European integration has been redefining the meaning and functions of national borders. This paper addresses this mutation from the perspective of the inhabitants’ spatial practices in the French-Swiss Jura region. Through a questionnaire survey we have measured the intensity of cross-border spatial practices done in the free time (purchasing, leisure, etc. and determined the underlying logics. The border effect appears in the form of a price differential (cost of living, exchange rate, taxation of some goods and a knowledge differential (lack of information on the neighbouring country, habits, etc. that curb or stimulate border crossing. The border effect is however mitigated in the spatial context under study by a centrality effect involving a supply differential (attraction of residential French municipalities by Swiss urban centres. The

  15. Modernization and Traditionalism through the Prism of the Events of the 1916 Rebellion in Central Asian Border Regions of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya A. Lysenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article within the framework of modernization theory presents an analysis of ethno-social processes in the period of the rebellion of the peoples of the Steppe Region and Turkestan in 1916. The content of this ethno-region of the Russian Empire and its modernization meant the introduction of outside institutions and values of European culture, however a short time impact of modernization trends on the traditional society (the second half of XIX – the beginning of the XX century could not give a high positive effect in the short historical perspective. Therefore a certain part of the population of Steppes and Turkestan was an active recipient of modernization, integrated into the imperial political and economic space. However, most of the traditional society perceived modernization as a form of coloniality, aimed at suppressing the cultural identity, the transformation of traditional tribal and clan ties and social relations. The analysis of the impact of modernization on the traditional society of the Central Asian border regions of Russia allowed the authors of the article to claim that contradictory of social processes of transition period was fully manifested in the course of the popular uprising in 1916. On the one hand, there were tendencies of the ethno-consolidation processes which gave to that movement a powerful impulse and scale. On the other hand, the events of 1916 demonstrated a certain division of Central Asian society, expressed in the ambiguous position of the intellectuals to the decree of Nicholas II on the mobilization of foreigners working in the rear, intra- and inter-ethnic clashes in the uprising, the restoration of archaic (from the point of view of the theory of modernization and political institutions social norms, the revival of "ethno-psychological stereotypes" of the previous era.

  16. Active Travel Behavior in a Border Region of Texas and New Mexico: Motivators, Deterrents, and Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Ipek N; Lee, Richard J

    2017-08-01

    Active travel has been linked with improved transportation and health outcomes, such as reduced traffic congestion and air pollution, improved mobility, accessibility, and equity, and increased physical and mental health. The purpose of this study was to better understand active travel characteristics, motivators, and deterrents in the El Paso, TX, region. A multimodal transportation survey brought together elements of transportation and health, with a focus on attitudinal characteristics. The analysis consisted of an initial descriptive analysis, spatial analysis, and multivariate binary and ordered-response models of walking and bicycling behavior. The motivators and deterrents of active travel differed for walkers, bicyclists, and noncyclists interested in bicycling. The link between active travel and life satisfaction was moderated by age, with a negative association for older travelers. This effect was stronger for bicycling than it was for walking. Based on the findings, several interventions to encourage walking and bicycling were suggested. These included infrastructure and built environment enhancements, workplace programs, and interventions targeting specific subpopulations.

  17. A transitional volume beneath the Sannio-Irpinia border region (southern Apennines): Different tectonic styles at different depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Matteo, Ada; Massa, Bruno; Milano, Girolamo; D'Auria, Luca

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the border between the Sannio and Irpinia seismogenic regions, a sector of the southern Apennine chain considered among the most active seismic areas of the Italian peninsula, to shed further light on its complex seismotectonic setting. We integrated recent seismicity with literature data. A detailed analysis of the seismicity that occurred in the 2013-2016 time interval was performed. The events were relocated, after manual re-picking, using different approaches. To retrieve information about the stress field active in the area, inversion of Fault Plane Solutions was also carried out. Hypocentral distribution of the relocated events (ML ≤ 3.5), whose depth is included between 5 and 25 km with the deepest ones located in the NW sector of the study area, shows a different pattern between the northern sector and the southern one. The computed Fault Plane Solutions can be grouped in three depth ranges: 18 km, dominated by strike-slip kinematics. Stress field inversion across the whole area shows that we are dealing with an heterogeneous set of data, apparently governed by distinct stress fields. We built an upper crustal model profile through integration of geological data, well logs and seismic tomographic profiles. Our results suggest the co-existence of different tectonic styles at distinct crustal depths: the upper crust seems to be affected mostly by normal faulting, whereas strike-slip faulting prevails in the intermediate and lower crust. We infer about the existence of a transitional volume, located between 12 and 18 km depth, between the Sannio and Irpinia regions, acting as a vertical transfer zone.

  18. Deep-apical tubules: dynamic lipid-raft microdomains in the brush-border region of enterocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Gert H.; Pedersen, Jens,; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte; Immerdal, Lissi; Danielsen, E. Michael

    2003-01-01

    The brush border of small intestinal enterocytes is highly enriched in cholesterol- and glycosphingolipid-containing membrane microdomains, commonly termed as lipid 'rafts'. Functionally, transcytosis of IgA and exocytosis of newly made brush-border proteins in enterocytes occur through apical lipid raft-containing compartments, but little is otherwise known about these raft microdomains. We therefore studied in closer detail apical lipid-raft compartments in enterocytes by immunogold electro...

  19. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN EU’S BORDER AREAS: CROATIA AS A REGIONAL MODEL FOR DESTINATION BRANDING STRATEGY IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja PULIC

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The newest member joined the European Union (EU with a well-conceived destination branding strategy. Croatia is becoming more and more identifiable world-wide by creating a distinctive brand in order to maintain a solid positioning as a destination place. As competition is becoming more intense, an increasing number of countries struggle to make themselves visible in the global tourism market. Tourism dominates the Croatian service sector, where the bulk of the tourist industry is concentrated along the Adriatic Sea coast. Although not very successful in public diplomacy, a complex system of coordinated activities that Croatia implemented resulted in strengthening the perception and image of the overall destination brand. This research aims at exploring the Croatian destination branding strategy as a potential model for its closest neighboring country, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH. Sharing a common history, borders and people, BIH and Croatia represent a unique comparative case study for regional spill-over development between the EU and non-EU countries. Therefore, this study takes into account what has been done so far on both sides regarding destination branding strategy, thus exploring what lessons could be learned from Croatia and what is the best future regional approach for creating a BIH’s destination brand.

  20. Native American lithic procurement along the international border in the boot heel region of southwestern New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Zeigler

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Multidisciplinary field projects can be very useful to a more fundamental understanding of the world around us, though these projects are not as common as they should be. In particular, the combination of archeology and geology combines our understanding of human behavior and human use of the landscape with an intimate knowledge of geologic processes and the materials available for human use in order to gain a broader understanding of human-Earth interaction. Here we present data from a cross-disciplinary project that uses a common dataset, archeological artifacts, to explore the anthropological and geologic implications of useage patterns. Archeological excavations and surveys conducted by the Office of Contract Archeology in 2007 along the route of the proposed international border fence reveal patterns of use of geologic materials by Archaic, Formative and Protohistoric Native Americans in the Boot Heel of southwestern New Mexico. Thousands of artifacts were recorded in multiple sites from Guadalupe Pass in the southern Peloncillo Mountains to the Carrizalillo Hills west of Columbus. We identified the lithologies of artifacts, ranging from projectile points to groundstones, and then constructed material movement maps based on either known procurement sites ("quarries" or outcrops identified as the closest source to a given site for each lithology. Not unexpectedly, the majority of the rock types utilized by native peoples are local siliceous volcanic materials. However, several artifacts constructed from obsidian were transported into the region from northern Mexico and eastern Arizona, indicating long-distance travel and/or trade routes. We also examine useage pattern difference between Archaic, Formative and Protohistoric sites. Additionally, a dramatic change in distribution of sources for geologic materials occurs between one pre-Spanish site and one post-Spanish site that are adjacent to one another.

  1. Metrics for border management systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2009-07-01

    There are as many unique and disparate manifestations of border systems as there are borders to protect. Border Security is a highly complex system analysis problem with global, regional, national, sector, and border element dimensions for land, water, and air domains. The complexity increases with the multiple, and sometimes conflicting, missions for regulating the flow of people and goods across borders, while securing them for national security. These systems include frontier border surveillance, immigration management and customs functions that must operate in a variety of weather, terrain, operational conditions, cultural constraints, and geopolitical contexts. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 08-684 (Year 1), the team developed a reference framework to decompose this complex system into international/regional, national, and border elements levels covering customs, immigration, and border policing functions. This generalized architecture is relevant to both domestic and international borders. As part of year two of this project (09-1204), the team determined relevant relative measures to better understand border management performance. This paper describes those relative metrics and how they can be used to improve border management systems.

  2. Chemical diversity of essential oils from flowers, leaves, and stems of Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. growing in northern border region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Marwa Awad; Abdelrhman Abdelwahab

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the medicinal uses of Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. (R. epapposum) growing in northern border region of Saudi Arabia, through the chemical diversity of essential oils extracted from its flowers, leaves and stems. Methods: Aerial parts of R. epapposum were collected in April 2014. Air dried flowers, leaves, and stems were separately subjected to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus for 4 h to extract the essential oils. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ana...

  3. The Impact of a Nickel-Copper Smelter on Concentrations of Toxic Elements in Local Wild Food from the Norwegian, Finnish, and Russian Border Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Martine D; Nøst, Therese H; Heimstad, Eldbjørg S; Evenset, Anita; Dudarev, Alexey A; Rautio, Arja; Myllynen, Päivi; Dushkina, Eugenia V; Jagodic, Marta; Christensen, Guttorm N; Anda, Erik E; Brustad, Magritt; Sandanger, Torkjel M

    2017-06-28

    Toxic elements emitted from the Pechenganickel complex on the Kola Peninsula have caused concern about potential effects on local wild food in the border regions between Norway, Finland and Russia. The aim of this study was to assess Ni, Cu, Co, As, Pb, Cd, and Hg concentrations in local wild foods from these border regions. During 2013-2014, we collected samples of different berry, mushroom, fish, and game species from sites at varying distances from the Ni-Cu smelter in all three border regions. Our results indicate that the Ni-Cu smelter is the main source of Ni, Co, and As in local wild foods, whereas the sources of Pb and Cd are more complex. We observed no consistent trends for Cu, one of the main toxic elements emitted by the Ni-Cu smelter; nor did we find any trend for Hg in wild food. Concentrations of all investigated toxic elements were highest in mushrooms, except for Hg, which was highest in fish. EU maximum levels of Pb, Cd, and Hg were exceeded in some samples, but most had levels considered safe for human consumption. No international thresholds exist for the other elements under study.

  4. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti from Brazil and the Swiss-Italian border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Tobias; Crespo, Mônica Maria; de Oliveira, Mariana Francelino; de Oliveira, Thaynan Sama Alves; de Melo-Santos, Maria Alice Varjal; de Oliveira, Cláudia Maria Fontes; Ayres, Constância Flávia Junqueira; Barbosa, Rosângela Maria Rodrigues; Araújo, Ana Paula; Regis, Lêda Narcisa; Flacio, Eleonora; Engeler, Lukas; Müller, Pie; Silva-Filha, Maria Helena Neves Lobo

    2017-09-19

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are two highly invasive mosquito species, both vectors of several viruses, including dengue, chikungunya and Zika. While Ae. aegypti is the primary vector in the tropics and sub-tropics, Ae. albopictus is increasingly under the public health watch as it has been implicated in arbovirus-transmission in more temperate regions, including continental Europe. Vector control using insecticides is the pillar of most control programmes; hence development of insecticide resistance is of great concern. As part of a Brazilian-Swiss Joint Research Programme we set out to assess whether there are any signs of existing or incipient insecticide resistance primarily against the larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis svar. israelensis (Bti), but also against currently applied and potentially alternative insecticides in our areas, Recife (Brazil) and the Swiss-Italian border region. Following World Health Organization guidelines, dose-response curves for a range of insecticides were established for both colonized and field caught Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The larvicides included Bti, two of its toxins, Cry11Aa and Cry4Ba, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Vectomax CG®, a formulated combination of Bti and L. sphaericus, and diflubenzuron. In addition to the larvicides, the Swiss-Italian Ae. albopictus populations were also tested against five adulticides (bendiocarb, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, malathion, permethrin and λ-cyhalothrin). Showing a similar dose-response, all mosquito populations were fully susceptible to the larvicides tested and, in particular, to Bti which is currently used both in Brazil and Switzerland. In addition, there were no signs of incipient resistance against Bti as larvae were equally susceptible to the individual toxins, Cry11Aa and Cry4Ba. The field-caught Swiss-Italian populations were susceptible to the adulticides tested but DDT mortality rates showed signs of reduced susceptibility. The insecticides currently used for

  5. Sponge Borders

    OpenAIRE

    Cimadomo, Guido; Martínez Ponce, Pilar

    2005-01-01

    The latest expansion of the EU towards the East has again modified its borders, showing once again the intangibility and flexibility of the latter. The very definition of border acquires different meanings depending on which theme is being discussed: an impenetrable barrier against migratory flows and the introduction of goods, transforming itself into a strainer for the exporting of national products. The new Internal Affairs Commissioner for the EU, Rocco Buttiglione, affirms on the on...

  6. Business, brokers and borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    that decentralized networks are well adapted to the various uncertainties induced by long-distance trade. We also study the trade-offs faced by traders between embeddedness and brokerage and find that long-distance trade relies both on the trust and cooperation shared among local traders, and on the distant ties...... origin of the traders engaged in cross-border activities. In those markets where trade is recent and where most of the traders are not native of the region, national borders are likely to exert a greater influence than in those regions where trade has pre-colonial roots....

  7. Process evaluation of a promotora de salud intervention for improving hypertension outcomes for Latinos living in a rural U.S.-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Victoria; Cacari Stone, Lisa; Moffett, Maurice L; Nguyen, PhoungGiang; Muhammad, Michael; Bruna-Lewis, Sean; Urias-Chauvin, Rita

    2014-05-01

    Hypertension is a growing public health problem for U.S.-Mexico border Latinos, who commonly experience low levels of awareness, treatment, and control. We report on a process evaluation that assessed the delivery of Corazón por la Vida, a 9-week promotora de salud-led curriculum to help Latinos manage and reduce hypertension risks in two rural/frontier counties in the New Mexico border region. Ninety-six adults participated in the program, delivered in three waves and in three communities. We assessed program delivery and quality, adherence, exposure, and participant responsiveness. Participant outcome measures included self-reported eating and physical activities and assessment of community resources. Findings suggest that the program was fully delivered (99%) and that most participants (81.7%) were very satisfied with the educational sessions. The average participant attendance for educational sessions was 77.47%. We found significant differences in self-reported behavioral changes depending on the number of sessions completed: The higher the dose of sessions, the better the self-reported outcomes. These findings suggest that a promotora-led curriculum may be useful for promoting self-management of chronic disease in rural/frontier border Latino populations. Future evaluation should focus on training and implementation adaptations within evidence-based chronic disease programs for diverse Latino communities.

  8. Impacts of using an ensemble Kalman filter on air quality simulations along the California-Mexico border region during Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Naifang; Li, Guohui; Meng, Zhiyong; Weng, Yonghui; Zavala, Miguel; Molina, L T

    2014-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) on air quality simulations in the California-Mexico border region on two days (May 30 and June 04, 2010) during Cal-Mex 2010. The uncertainties in ozone (O3) and aerosol simulations in the border area due to the meteorological initial uncertainties were examined through ensemble simulations. The ensemble spread of surface O3 averaged over the coastal region was less than 10ppb. The spreads in the nitrate and ammonium aerosols are substantial on both days, mostly caused by the large uncertainties in the surface temperature and humidity simulations. In general, the forecast initialized with the EnKF analysis (EnKF) improved the simulation of meteorological fields to some degree in the border region compared to the reference forecast initialized with NCEP analysis data (FCST) and the simulation with observation nudging (FDDA), which in turn leading to reasonable air quality simulations. The simulated surface O3 distributions by EnKF were consistently better than FCST and FDDA on both days. EnKF usually produced more reasonable simulations of nitrate and ammonium aerosols compared to the observations, but still have difficulties in improving the simulations of organic and sulfate aerosols. However, discrepancies between the EnKF simulations and the measurements were still considerably large, particularly for sulfate and organic aerosols, indicating that there are still ample rooms for improvement in the present data assimilation and/or the modeling systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. EVALUATION OF PROGRAM BORDER MANAGEMENT TO KEEP SOVEREIGN NATION THE NORTH KALIMANTAN (Regional leadership Based on Transformational Leadership and lokal wisdom)

    OpenAIRE

    Usman, Dicky Wainal; Djaali, Djaali; R. Madhakomala, R. Madhakomala

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to evaluate on five (5) steps;: (1) design of Border Management, (2) installation for Border Management,(3) process of Border Management, (4) product of Border Management, and cost / benefit for Border Management, for keep sovereign nation on North Kalimantan, This research is the programme evaluation research use Discrepancy Evaluation Model (DEM), data collection techniques are using; interview, observation, documentation and questionnaire for analyzer discussion support...

  10. Impacts of pollution on freshwater communities in the border region between Russia and Norway. Results of the 1990-96 monitoring programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noest, Terje; Lukin, Anatoli; Schartau, Ann Kristin Lien; Kashulin, Nikolai; Berger, Hans Mack; Yakovlev, Valeri; Sharov, Andrey; Dauvalter, Vladimir

    1997-05-01

    This report summarises the results and conclusions of the investigations in the border region between Russia and Norway, primary in selected monitoring lakes during 1990-96. The results of the 1996 investigations are given a more thorough presentation. Results on species composition, abundances and biomasses of phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos and fish communities, as well as population parameters (length and age distribution) for different fish species are presented. Pathological state and trace metal accumulation in fish are analysed. The biological results are related to analyses of chemical parameters in lake sediments and water. 46 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Epidemiology of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing E. coli and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in the Northern Dutch–German Cross-Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewei Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To reveal the prevalence and epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL- and/or plasmid AmpC (pAmpC- and carbapenemase (CP producing Enterobacteriaceae and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE across the Northern Dutch–German border region.Methods: A point-prevalence study on ESBL/pAmpC/CP producing Enterobacteriaceae and VRE was carried out in hospitalized patients in the Northern Netherlands (n = 445, 2012–2013 and Germany (n = 242, 2012. Healthy individuals from the Dutch community (n = 400, 2010–2012 were also screened. In addition, a genome-wide gene-by-gene approach was applied to study the epidemiology of ESBL-Escherichia coli and VRE.Results: A total of 34 isolates from 27 patients (6.1% admitted to Dutch hospitals were ESBL/pAmpC positive and 29 ESBL-E. coli, three pAmpC-E. coli, one ESBL-Enterobacter cloacae, and one pAmpC-Proteus mirabilis were found. In the German hospital, 18 isolates (16 E. coli and 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae from 17 patients (7.7% were ESBL positive. In isolates from the hospitalized patients CTX-M-15 was the most frequently detected ESBL-gene. In the Dutch community, 11 individuals (2.75% were ESBL/pAmpC positive: 10 ESBL-E. coli (CTX-M-1 being the most prevalent gene and one pAmpC E. coli. Six Dutch (1.3% and four German (3.9% hospitalized patients were colonized with VRE. Genetic relatedness by core genome multi-locus sequence typing (cgMLST was found between two ESBL-E. coli isolates from Dutch and German cross-border hospitals and between VRE isolates from different hospitals within the same region.Conclusion: The prevalence of ESBL/pAmpC-Enterobacteriaceae was similar in hospitalized patients across the Dutch–German border region, whereas VRE prevalence was slightly higher on the German side. The overall prevalence of the studied pathogens was lower in the community than in hospitals in the Northern Netherlands. Cross-border transmission of ESBL-E. coli and VRE seems unlikely

  12. Epidemiology of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing E. coli and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in the Northern Dutch-German Cross-Border Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuewei; García-Cobos, Silvia; Ruijs, Gijs J H M; Kampinga, Greetje A; Arends, Jan P; Borst, Dirk M; Möller, Lieke V; Holman, Nicole D; Schuurs, Theo A; Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, Lesla E; Weel, Jan F; van Zeijl, Jan H; Köck, Robin; Rossen, John W A; Friedrich, Alexander W

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To reveal the prevalence and epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and/or plasmid AmpC (pAmpC)- and carbapenemase (CP) producing Enterobacteriaceae and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) across the Northern Dutch-German border region. Methods: A point-prevalence study on ESBL/pAmpC/CP producing Enterobacteriaceae and VRE was carried out in hospitalized patients in the Northern Netherlands (n = 445, 2012-2013) and Germany (n = 242, 2012). Healthy individuals from the Dutch community (n = 400, 2010-2012) were also screened. In addition, a genome-wide gene-by-gene approach was applied to study the epidemiology of ESBL-Escherichia coli and VRE. Results: A total of 34 isolates from 27 patients (6.1%) admitted to Dutch hospitals were ESBL/pAmpC positive and 29 ESBL-E. coli, three pAmpC-E. coli, one ESBL-Enterobacter cloacae, and one pAmpC-Proteus mirabilis were found. In the German hospital, 18 isolates (16 E. coli and 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae) from 17 patients (7.7%) were ESBL positive. In isolates from the hospitalized patients CTX-M-15 was the most frequently detected ESBL-gene. In the Dutch community, 11 individuals (2.75%) were ESBL/pAmpC positive: 10 ESBL-E. coli (CTX-M-1 being the most prevalent gene) and one pAmpC E. coli. Six Dutch (1.3%) and four German (3.9%) hospitalized patients were colonized with VRE. Genetic relatedness by core genome multi-locus sequence typing (cgMLST) was found between two ESBL-E. coli isolates from Dutch and German cross-border hospitals and between VRE isolates from different hospitals within the same region. Conclusion: The prevalence of ESBL/pAmpC-Enterobacteriaceae was similar in hospitalized patients across the Dutch-German border region, whereas VRE prevalence was slightly higher on the German side. The overall prevalence of the studied pathogens was lower in the community than in hospitals in the Northern Netherlands. Cross-border transmission of ESBL-E. coli and VRE seems unlikely based on cg

  13. Impacts of Land Cover and Land Use Change on the Hydrology of the US-Mexico Border Region, 1992-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, T. J.; Vivoni, E. R.; Mascaro, G.; White, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    The semi-arid US-Mexico border region has been experiencing rapid urbanization and agricultural expansion over the last several decades, due in part to the lifting of trade barriers of the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), placing additional pressures on the region's already strained water resources. Here we examine the effects of changes in land cover/use over the period 1992-2011 on the region's hydrology and water resources, using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model with an irrigation module to estimate both natural and anthropogenic water fluxes. Land cover has been taken from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) over the US, and from the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI) database over Mexico, for three snapshots: 1992/3, 2001/2, and 2011. We have performed 3 simulations, one per land cover snapshot, at 6 km resolution, driven by a gridded observed meteorology dataset and a climatology of land surface characteristics derived from remote sensing products. Urban water withdrawal rates were estimated from literature. The primary changes in the region's water budget over the period 1992-2011 consisted of: (1) a shift in agricultural irrigation water withdrawals from the US to Mexico, accompanied by similar shifts in runoff (via agricultural return flow) and evapotranspiration; and (2) a 50% increase in urban water withdrawals, concentrated in the US. Because groundwater supplied most of the additional agricultural withdrawals, and occurred over already over-exploited aquifers, these changes call into question the sustainability of the region's land and water management. By synthesizing the implications of these hydrologic changes, we present a novel view of how NAFTA has altered the US-Mexico border region, possibly in unintended ways.

  14. Assessing a cross-border logistics policy using a performance measurement system framework: the case of Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David W. C.; Choy, K. L.; Chow, Harry K. H.; Lin, Canhong

    2014-06-01

    For the most rapidly growing economic entity in the world, China, a new logistics operation called the indirect cross-border supply chain model has recently emerged. The primary idea of this model is to reduce logistics costs by storing goods at a bonded warehouse with low storage cost in certain Chinese regions, such as the Pearl River Delta (PRD). This research proposes a performance measurement system (PMS) framework to assess the direct and indirect cross-border supply chain models. The PMS covers four categories including cost, time, quality and flexibility in the assessment of the performance of direct and indirect models. Furthermore, a survey was conducted to investigate the logistics performance of third party logistics (3PLs) at the PRD regions, including Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong. The significance of the proposed PMS framework allows 3PLs accurately pinpoint the weakness and strengths of it current operations policy at four major performance measurement categories. Hence, this helps 3PLs further enhance the competitiveness and operations efficiency through better resources allocation at the area of warehousing and transportation.

  15. O processo de integração regional: fronteiras abertas para os trabalhadores do Mercosul The process of regional integration: open borders for Mercosul workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia de Camargo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O que me proponho neste trabalho é discutir o tema da livre circulação dos trabalhadores no Mercosul, levando-se em conta que esta liberdade - diferentemente de outras que aparecem como objetivos essenciais a serem alcançados no processo de integração desta sub-região - não faz parte do texto do Tratado de Assunção, assinado em março de 1991. Esta ausência é reveladora, na medida em que a liberdade de circulação de pessoas constitui um dos elementos que evidencia com maior clareza a existência de um processo de integração, na medida em que afeta diretamente a vida dos cidadãos assegurando seu livre trânsito dentro do bloco e oportunidades iguais entre os nacionais e não nacionais. No texto do referido Tratado, a integração aparece limitada à circulação de capitais, bens e serviços, liberdade assegurada pela eliminação de qualquer medida que possa prejudicá-la. Partindo dessa discussão, pretendo examinar quais os avanços institucionais já alcançados no sentido da criação de políticas que, concretamente, conduzam à abertura de fronteiras entre os países do Mercosul por meio das quais seus cidadãos - neste caso, os trabalhadores - possam se deslocar livremente e residir em seu local de trabalho. Para tanto, acredito que conhecer a experiência da União Europeia possa ser de grande utilidade.My proposal for this article is to discuss the free mobility of workers inside the Mercosul block, bearing in mind that this liberty, in the contrary of others issues that arise as essential aims to be reached in the integration process of the region, wasn't incorporated in the Assunção Treaty, signed in march 1991. This absence is revealing in the sense that the liberty of circulation of persons is one of the elements that show with more evidence the existence of an integration process as it affects directly the life of its citizens ensuring their free displacement inside the region and equal opportunities among

  16. Institutions and Societal Impacts of Climate in the Lower Colorado and San Pedro Basins of the U.S.-Mexico Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varady, R. G.; Wilder, M.; Morehouse, B. J.; Garfin, G. M.

    2007-05-01

    The U.S. Southwest and Mexico border region feature two prominent river basins, the Colorado and Rio Grande, and ecologically important sub-basins such as the San Pedro. The area within which these transboundary basins lie is characterized by overall aridity and high climatic variability over seasonal to decadal and longer time scales. Throughout human occupation, numerous and diverse strategies for buffering climate impacts have emerged. The most notable response has been an increasingly complex system of institutions and structures designed to buffer water scarcity. The Colorado River Compact, and the laws governing allocation of waters from the Rio Grande River, together with the dams, hydropower generators, canals and other engineered features, represent two of the most complex systems. Drought nevertheless remains a looming specter across much of the binational border region. Institutional mechanisms for responding to drought range from awareness-raising and capacity-building efforts, to implementation of formal drought plans, to storing water to make up for deficits, and water conservation rules that become increasingly stringent as drought intensifies. A number of formal and informal binational institutions operate in the region. Some are venerable, like the century-old International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC) and its Mexican counterpart the Comision Internacional de Limites y Agua (CILA). Others, like the Border Environment Cooperation Commission and the North American Development Bank, were created in the mid-1990s with the North American Free Trade Agreement. These institutions, both domestic and transnational, operate in a complex binational, bicultural environment with contrasting legal and administrative traditions. Under such constraints, they manage water resources and ecosystems and attempt to improve water and sanitation infrastructure in the context of deep and extended drought. But in spite of their efforts, society and natural habitat

  17. Opportunities and risks of cross-border cooperation of regions of the southern macroregion of Russia and regions of the South-East of Ukraine in the conditions of uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Mitrofanova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In article the political and economic innovations connected with the transformation of the region "Donbass" in the context of decrease of the risks caused by a military-political and economic conflict in Ukraine are investigated. On the basis of creative synthesis of theoretical and practical approaches of studying the evolution of nonlinear economic systems and the formation of megaregions, and also the analysis of the geopolitical situation developing on the world scene between Russia, the USA and China provisions are developed according to which the region "Donbass" can be considered as "a critical point" of the European regionalization. Authors believe that the important strategic prospect of border cooperation of Russia and Ukraine is connected with the formation of a cross-border agglomeration "Nizhnedonbassky" and "Verkhnedonbassky" the creation of which consists in realization of the linking function between Nizhnedonbassky, Volga region, Moscow and Petersburg transport corridors. One of the condition of social and economic stabilization in the subjects of the foreign Caspian and the Black Sea zones is the realization of geotransit capacity of the region "Donbass" with the formation of a geotransit architecture of its economy. Strategically realization of the processes of an international city formation is possible either on the basis of federal principles or by a geopolitical split of the territory of the region “Donbass” on the line Kharkov – Donetsk – Lugansk with a bent to Russia.

  18. Agroforestry in temperate regions: where does the water go? A case study with ERT in a corn field bordered by poplar trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloteau, Sophie; Coussement, Tom; Pardon, Paul; Artru, Sidonie; Javaux, Mathieu; Garré, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    Recently, agroforestry systems have been recognized to provide an opportunity for "ecological intensification", thereby increasing yield outcome while simultaneously minimizing negative impacts on the environment. Mixtures of trees and crops have the potential to capture more resources of light, water and nutrients than monocultures of trees or crops (Cannell et al. 1996). Nevertheless, few studies are available focusing on the impact of trees on soil moisture dynamics in cropped soil in temperate regions. In this study, we monitored the soil water dynamics in a corn field bordered by poplar trees in Ieper, Belgium using Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and classical soil tension sensors (Watermark) during the entire growing season of 2016 (May-September). We installed four ERT transects of 30 m long with an electrode spacing of 50cm. Three transects were placed in a part of the field bordered by trees and one reference transect was located in a part of the field without trees. Next to each transect, Watermark sensors were installed to estimate the soil water tension. The data allow us to monitor the influence of the trees on the soil water depletion by the crop. Preliminary results show a marked effect of the trees on the measured resistivity distribution, which corresponds to observed patterns in plant growth.

  19. Do Trends in Physical Activity, Sedentary, and Dietary Behaviors Support Trends in Obesity Prevalence in 2 Border Regions in Texas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezendam, Nicole P. M.; Springer, Andrew E.; Brug, Johannes; Oenema, Anke; Hoelscher, Deanna H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the change in energy balance-related behaviors from 2000-2002 to 2004-2005 between 2 Texas regions with distinct patterns in obesity prevalence (decrease in the El Paso region [EP] and leveling off in the Rio Grande Valley region [RGV]) and to determine the role of the behaviors in the difference in…

  20. Attitudes and Prerequisites for the Establishment of an Integrated Cultural Identity within Romanian-Bulgarian Cross-Border Region along the Danube River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Popova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: On the basis of the results from an empirical study this research aims at exploration of the prerequisites for the establishment of an integrated cultural identity within Romanian-Bulgarian Cross-Border Region along the Danube River (RBCBR. Prior Work: The paper is trying to prove the necessity of identity re-negotiation process within RBCBR. The theoretical background of the research is related to some of the most topical considerations in this scientific field. Approach: The research uses an interdisciplinary approach and combines the perspectives of regional studies, cross-cultural psychology and intercultural communication. A representative survey is the main instrument of the research. Results: Among the citizens of the RBCBR there exist favourable attitudes towards closer relations with their neighbours which can serve as a key element of the identity re-negotiation process within the region. Implications: The research results can be used by policy makers and regional authorities in the process of establishment of a new policy for territorial cooperation as well as by researchers in further development of this topic area. Value: the importance of the research is in its new approach towards the establishment of integrated regional identity as well as in the comparison of the Romanian and Bulgarian attitudes towards cooperation in the neighbourhood area.

  1. Substance Use and Cumulative Exposure to American Society: Findings From Both Sides of the US-Mexico Border Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Orozco, Ricardo; Zemore, Sarah E; Wallisch, Lynn; Medina-Mora, Maria-Elena; Breslau, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether Mexican immigration to the United States exerts transnational effects on substance use in Mexico and the United States. We performed a cross-sectional survey of 2336 Mexican Americans and 2460 Mexicans in 3 Texas border metropolitan areas and their sister cities in Mexico (the US-Mexico Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions, 2011-2013). We collected prevalence and risk factors for alcohol and drug use; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, alcohol-use disorders; and 2 symptoms (hazardous use and quit or control) of drug use disorder across a continuum of migration experiences in the Mexican and Mexican American populations. Compared with Mexicans with no migrant experience, the adjusted odds ratios for this continuum of migration experiences ranged from 1.10 to 8.85 for 12-month drug use, 1.09 to 5.07 for 12-month alcohol use disorder, and 1.13 to 9.95 for 12-month drug-use disorder. Odds ratios increased with longer exposure to US society. These findings are consistent with those of 3 previous studies. People of Mexican origin have increased prevalence of substance use and disorders with cumulative exposure to US society.

  2. Depression, Self-Esteem, and Childhood Abuse Among Hispanic Men Residing in the U.S.-Mexico Border Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencio-Vasquez, Elias; Mata, Holly J; Tomaka, Joe; De Santis, Joseph P

    Hispanics experience health disparities in mental health and HIV infection when compared to non-Hispanic Whites, which may be related to childhood abuse. The purpose of our cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms in a sample of Hispanic men (N = 103) living in a metropolitan U.S.-Mexico border area. Secondarily, we examined the role of self-esteem in mediating this relationship, and the moderating role of sexual orientation. Gay/bisexual men (n = 53) were more likely to report childhood abuse than heterosexual (n = 50) counterparts (47.2% vs. 32%). Self-esteem mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and depression for men who have sex with men, but not heterosexual men. Nurses should increase knowledge of mental health disparities that impact Hispanic men to ensure that appropriate treatment can be provided to reduce the risk of co-occurring health risks to these men, including risk for HIV infection. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel method for quantifying in-vivo regional left ventricular myocardial contractility in the border zone of a myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lik Chuan; Wenk, Jonathan F; Klepach, Doron; Zhang, Zhihong; Saloner, David; Wallace, Arthur W; Ge, Liang; Ratcliffe, Mark B; Guccione, Julius M

    2011-09-01

    Homogeneous contractility is usually assigned to the remote region, border zone (BZ), and the infarct in existing infarcted left ventricle (LV) mathematical models. Within the LV, the contractile function is therefore discontinuous. Here, we hypothesize that the BZ may in fact define a smooth linear transition in contractility between the remote region and the infarct. To test this hypothesis, we developed a mathematical model of a sheep LV having an anteroapical infarct with linearly-varying BZ contractility. Using an existing optimization method (Sun et al., 2009, "A Computationally Efficient Formal Optimization of Regional Myocardial Contractility in a Sheep With Left Ventricular Aneurysm," J. Biomech. Eng., 131(11), pp. 111001), we use that model to extract active material parameter T(max) and BZ width d(n) that "best" predict in-vivo systolic strain fields measured from tagged magnetic resonance images (MRI). We confirm our hypothesis by showing that our model, compared to one that has homogeneous contractility assigned in each region, reduces the mean square errors between the predicted and the measured strain fields. Because the peak fiber stress differs significantly (~15%) between these two models, our result suggests that future mathematical LV models, particularly those used to analyze myocardial infarction treatment, should account for a smooth linear transition in contractility within the BZ.

  4. Implications of climate change on the distribution of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis and risk for Lyme disease in the Texas-Mexico transboundary region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disease risk maps are important tools that help ascertain the likelihood of exposure to specific infectious agents. Understanding how climate change may affect the suitability of habitats for ticks will improve the accuracy of risk maps of tick-borne pathogen transmission in humans and domestic anim...

  5. Crossing borders via mental bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Dirk

    administration, and in specific on the attempt to initiate and promote cross-border regional integration via the building of mental bridges between Danish and German parts of the Femern Belt Region. Here one of the first projects aiming primarily at building mental bridges in the Femern Belt Region...

  6. ShakeMap implementation for Pyrenees in France-Spain border: regional adaptation and earthquake rapid response process.

    OpenAIRE

    Bertil, Didier; Roviró, Jordi; Antonio Jara, Jose; Susagna, Teresa; Nus, Eduard; Goula, Xavier; Colas, Bastien; Dumont, Guillaume; Cabañas, Luis; Anton, Resurección; Calvet, Marie

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The USGS-ShakeMap package is used with a regional adaptation to provide automatic shake maps in rapid response for Pyrenean earthquakes. The Near Real Time system relies on servers designed for data exchange between transborder organizations involved in the Sispyr project. First maps will be provide as soon as possible after the shock, and updated with observed macroseismic intensities on the following hours. Regional Predictive Equations Tapia (2006) and Goula et al. ...

  7. Investigation and control of a Plasmodium falciparum malaria outbreak in Shan Special Region II of Myanmar along the China-Myanmar Border from June to December 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Xu, Jian-Wei; Yang, Heng-Lin; Li, Mei; Sun, Cheng-De; Yin, Yi-Jie; Zheng, Zhi-Liang; Zhang, Guang-Yun; Yu, Ai-Shui; Yang, Yong-Hui; Li, Chun-Hui; Ai, Shui

    2016-04-25

    From 2007 to 2013, intensive control measures reduced malaria burden by 90 % along the China-Myanmar border. However, despite these measures a P. falciparum malaria outbreak was reported in the Shan Special Region II of Myanmar in June of 2014. Epidemiological, parasitological and entomological investigations were performed. Dihydroartemisinin piperaquine (DAPQ) was immediately administered to treat parasite positive individuals. Long lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN), indoor residual spraying (IRS) with insecticides and behavior change communication (BCC) were also provided for outbreak control. An embedded efficacy study was conducted evaluating DP. Molecular genotyping via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on the Kelch gene on chromosome 13. All infections were identified as Plasmodium falciparum by RDT and microscopy. Two fatalities resulted from the outbreak. The attack rate was 72.8 % (67/92) and the incidence density rate was 14.2 per 100 person-weeks. The positive rate of rapid diagnostic test (RDT) was 72.2 % (65/90) and microscopically-determine parasite rate 42.2 % (38/90). Adjusted odds ratio (OR) of multivariate logistic regression analysis for aged malaria attacks, parasites and antigen were reduced to zero between July 1 and December 1, 2014. The cure rate of P. falciparum patients at day 42 was 94.3 % (95 % CI, 80.8-99.3 %). The PCR did not detect K13-propeller mutations. Imported P. falciparum caused the outbreak. Age, seeking inappropriate treatment and lack of bed nets were risk factors for infection during the outbreak. P. falciparum was sensitive to treatment with DAPQ. The integrated measures controlled the outbreak and prevented the spread of P. falciparum effectively. The results of this study indicate that malaria control on the China-Myanmar border, especially among special populations, needs further collaboration between China, Myanmar and international societies.

  8. Seroprevalence of select bloodborne pathogens and associated risk behaviors among injection drug users in the Paso del Norte region of the United States – Mexico border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbona Sonia

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The region situated where the borders of Mexico, Texas and New Mexico meet is known as 'Paso del Norte'. The Paso del Norte Collaborative was formed to study the seroprevalence of select pathogens and associated risk behaviors among injection drug users (IDUs in the region. Methods Respondent-driven sampling (RDS was used: 459 IDU participants included 204 from Mexico; 155 from Texas; and 100 from New Mexico. Each of the three sites used a standardized questionnaire that was verbally administered and testing was performed for select bloodborne infections. Results Participants were mostly male (87.4% and Hispanic/Latino (84.7% whose median age was 38. In Mexico, Texas and New Mexico, respectively: hepatitis B virus (HBV was seen in 88.3%, 48.6% and 59.6% of participants; hepatitis C virus (HCV in 98.7%, 76.4% and 80.0%; human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in 2.1%, 10.0% and 1.0%; and syphilis in 4.0%, 9.9% and 3.0%. Heroin was the drug injected most often. More IDUs in New Mexico were aware of and used needle exchange programs compared with Texas and Mexico. Conclusion There was mixed success using RDS: it was more successfully applied after establishing good working relationships with IDU populations. Study findings included similarities and distinctions between the three sites that will be used to inform prevention interventions.

  9. Sheep wool δ13C reveals no effect of grazing on the C3/C4 ratio of vegetation in the inner Mongolia-Mongolia border region grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerswald, Karl; Wittmer, Max H O M; Tungalag, Radnaakhand; Bai, Yongfei; Schnyder, Hans

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether the abundance of C(4) vegetation in grasslands of the Mongolian plateau is influenced by grazing conditions. The analysis exploited the politically originated contrast that exists between Mongolia (low stocking rate, transhumant system) and the district of Inner Mongolia, China (high stocking rate, sedentary system). We estimated the proportion of C(4) carbon (P(C4)) in grazed vegetation from the relative carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)C) of sheep wool sampled from 298 annual shearings originating from 1996 to 2007. Annual stocking rates varying over time and between the districts of both countries were taken from regional statistics. The P(C4) pattern within the 0.7 million km(2) sampling area was geostatistically analyzed and related to stocking rates and temperature gradients. For similar climatic conditions, P(C4) was the same in both countries. Further, a unique relationship was found between P(C4) and July temperature on both sides of the border, which explained 71% of the pattern. Stocking rate and grazing system had no significant influences on present-day C(3)/C(4) abundance ratio. This finding suggests that recent changes in the C(3)/C(4) ratio of these grasslands are mainly a consequence of regional warming, not overgrazing.

  10. Sheep Wool δ13C Reveals No Effect of Grazing on the C3/C4 Ratio of Vegetation in the Inner Mongolia–Mongolia Border Region Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerswald, Karl; Wittmer, Max H.O.M.; Tungalag, Radnaakhand; Bai, Yongfei; Schnyder, Hans

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether the abundance of C4 vegetation in grasslands of the Mongolian plateau is influenced by grazing conditions. The analysis exploited the politically originated contrast that exists between Mongolia (low stocking rate, transhumant system) and the district of Inner Mongolia, China (high stocking rate, sedentary system). We estimated the proportion of C4 carbon (PC4) in grazed vegetation from the relative carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) of sheep wool sampled from 298 annual shearings originating from 1996 to 2007. Annual stocking rates varying over time and between the districts of both countries were taken from regional statistics. The PC4 pattern within the 0.7 million km2 sampling area was geostatistically analyzed and related to stocking rates and temperature gradients. For similar climatic conditions, PC4 was the same in both countries. Further, a unique relationship was found between PC4 and July temperature on both sides of the border, which explained 71% of the pattern. Stocking rate and grazing system had no significant influences on present-day C3/C4 abundance ratio. This finding suggests that recent changes in the C3/C4 ratio of these grasslands are mainly a consequence of regional warming, not overgrazing. PMID:23029090

  11. Sheep wool δ13C reveals no effect of grazing on the C3/C4 ratio of vegetation in the inner Mongolia-Mongolia border region grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Auerswald

    Full Text Available We tested whether the abundance of C(4 vegetation in grasslands of the Mongolian plateau is influenced by grazing conditions. The analysis exploited the politically originated contrast that exists between Mongolia (low stocking rate, transhumant system and the district of Inner Mongolia, China (high stocking rate, sedentary system. We estimated the proportion of C(4 carbon (P(C4 in grazed vegetation from the relative carbon isotope ratio (δ(13C of sheep wool sampled from 298 annual shearings originating from 1996 to 2007. Annual stocking rates varying over time and between the districts of both countries were taken from regional statistics. The P(C4 pattern within the 0.7 million km(2 sampling area was geostatistically analyzed and related to stocking rates and temperature gradients. For similar climatic conditions, P(C4 was the same in both countries. Further, a unique relationship was found between P(C4 and July temperature on both sides of the border, which explained 71% of the pattern. Stocking rate and grazing system had no significant influences on present-day C(3/C(4 abundance ratio. This finding suggests that recent changes in the C(3/C(4 ratio of these grasslands are mainly a consequence of regional warming, not overgrazing.

  12. Kitchen knives and homicide: a systematic study of people charged with murder in the Lothian and Borders region of Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, S H; Hughes, N S; Crichton, J H M

    2014-07-01

    A recent English study demonstrated high rates of kitchen knife use in homicides by mentally disordered offenders subject to independent inquiries. Everyone accused of homicide in Scotland undergoes psychiatric examination; all such evaluations in a Scottish region between 2006 and 2011 were systematically analysed to identify homicide characteristics. It was hypothesised that kitchen knives would be the commonest sharp instruments used, and would be associated with unplanned domestic homicide against known victims, with no independent association with mental disorder. Kitchen knives were used in 32 of 55 homicides: 94% of 34 sharp object homicides (p homicide appears to be a significant public health issue, and not only in the mentally disordered population. Research is recommended into kitchen knife use in non-fatal violence, and weapon control in populations at increased risk of knife violence.

  13. CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION AT THE EXTERNAL BORDERS OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Popescu (Stîngaciu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To cooperate means to work and act together for a common advantage or purpose. The cooperation across borders, between different countries and regions sharing the same border, to reach common goals, is aimed to increase the overall competitiveness of the regional economy and to improve the quality of living standards for the these areas. European Union’s programmes are good accelerators for cross-border cooperation. The paper is focused on cross-border cooperation programmes at the external border of the EU and the expected impact of the allocated funds. The cross-border cooperation programmes are creating the conditions to exist the relationships between different social and economic stakeholders in order to contribute to economic and social development by supporting SME development, innovation, human resources development, civil society and local communities, increasing educational, social, cultural and sporting exchanges, improving local governance in different cross-border areas.

  14. A Public Health Preparedness Logic Model: Assessing Preparedness for Cross-border Threats in the European Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoto, Michael A; Nelson, Christopher; Savoia, Elena; Ljungqvist, Irina; Ciotti, Massimo

    Improving preparedness in the European region requires a clear understanding of what European Union (EU) member states should be able to do, whether acting internally or in cooperation with each other or the EU and other multilateral organizations. We have developed a preparedness logic model that specifies the aims and objectives of public health preparedness, as well as the response capabilities and preparedness capacities needed to achieve them. The capabilities, which describe the ability to effectively use capacities to identify, characterize, and respond to emergencies, are organized into 5 categories. The first 3 categories-(1) assessment; (2) policy development, adaptation, and implementation; and (3) prevention and treatment services in the health sector-represent what the public health system must accomplish to respond effectively. The fourth and fifth categories represent a series of interrelated functions needed to ensure that the system fulfills its assessment, policy development, and prevention and treatment roles: (4) coordination and communication regards information sharing within the public health system, incident management, and leadership, and (5) emergency risk communication focuses on communication with the public. This model provides a framework for identifying what to measure in capacity inventories, exercises, critical incident analyses, and other approaches to assessing public health emergency preparedness, not how to measure them. Focusing on a common set of capacities and capabilities to measure allows for comparisons both over time and between member states, which can enhance learning and sharing results and help identify both strengths and areas for improvement of public health emergency preparedness in the EU.

  15. Temporal and spatial distributions of precursory seismicity rate changes in the Thailand-Laos-Myanmar border region: implication for upcoming hazardous earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puangjaktha, Prayot; Pailoplee, Santi

    2017-10-01

    To study the prospective areas of upcoming strong-to-major earthquakes, i.e., M w ≥ 6.0, a catalog of seismicity in the vicinity of the Thailand-Laos-Myanmar border region was generated and then investigated statistically. Based on the successful investigations of previous works, the seismicity rate change (Z value) technique was applied in this study. According to the completeness earthquake dataset, eight available case studies of strong-to-major earthquakes were investigated retrospectively. After iterative tests of the characteristic parameters concerning the number of earthquakes (N) and time window (T w ), the values of 50 and 1.2 years, respectively, were found to reveal an anomalous high Z-value peak (seismic quiescence) prior to the occurrence of six out of the eight major earthquake events studied. In addition, the location of the Z-value anomalies conformed fairly well to the epicenters of those earthquakes. Based on the investigation of correlation coefficient and the stochastic test of the Z values, the parameters used here (N = 50 events and T w = 1.2 years) were suitable to determine the precursory Z value and not random phenomena. The Z values of this study and the frequency-magnitude distribution b values of a previous work both highlighted the same prospective areas that might generate an upcoming major earthquake: (i) some areas in the northern part of Laos and (ii) the eastern part of Myanmar.

  16. The importance of drought–pathogen interactions in driving oak mortality events in the Ozark Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jeffrey D.; Knapp, Benjamin O.; Muzika, Rose-Marie; Stambaugh, Michael C.; Gu, Lianhong

    2018-01-01

    Forests are expected to become more vulnerable to drought-induced tree mortality owing to rising temperatures and changing precipitation patterns that amplify drought lethality. There is a crucial knowledge gap regarding drought–pathogen interactions and their effects on tree mortality. The objectives of this research were to examine whether stand dynamics and ‘background’ mortality rates were affected by a severe drought in 2012; and to evaluate the importance of drought–pathogen interactions within the context of a mortality event that killed 10.0% and 26.5% of white (Quercus alba L.) and black (Q. velutina Lam.) oak stems, respectively, in a single year. We synthesized (i) forest inventory data (24 years), (ii) 11 years of ecosystem flux data with supporting biological data including predawn leaf water potential and annual forest inventories, (iii) tree-ring analyses of individual white oaks that were alive and ones that died in 2013, and (iv) documentation of a pathogen infection. This forest displayed stand dynamics consistent with expected patterns of decreasing tree density and increasing basal area. Continued basal area growth outpaced mortality implying a net accumulation of live biomass, which was supported by eddy covariance ecosystem carbon flux observations. Individual white and black oaks that died in 2013 displayed historically lower growth with the majority of dead trees exhibiting Biscogniauxia cankers. Our observations point to the importance of event-based oak mortality and that drought–Biscogniauxia interactions are important in shaping oak stand dynamics in this region. Although forest function has not been significantly impaired, these drought–pathogen interactions could amplify mortality under future climate conditions and thus warrant further investigation.

  17. Business, brokers and borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to show how a formal approach to networks can make a significant contribution to the study of cross-border trade in West Africa. Building on the formal tools and theories developed by Social Network Analysis, we examine the network organization of 136 large traders...... and cooperation shared among local traders, and on the distant ties developed with foreign partners from a different origin, religion or culture. Studying the spatial structure of trade networks, we find that in those markets where trade is recent and where most of the traders are not native of the region...

  18. Role and movement of nilgai antelope, Boselaphus tragocamelus, in the epizootiology of cattle fever ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in re-infestations along the Texas/Mexico border in south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilgai antelope are the largest Asian antelope and are originally endemic to the Indian subcontinent. Nilgai were introduced into Texas in the 1940s for hunting purposes and are now the most abundant free-ranging ungulate in south Texas with population estimates in the early 1990s of more than 36,0...

  19. The U.S.-Mexico Border and Children’s Social Imaginary: An Analysis of Wacha el Border and Beyond the Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Iglesias-Prieto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Norma Iglesias-Prieto’s article is based on the films Wacha el border, created by twelve children from Tijuana, and Beyond the Border, created by ten children from San Diego. It aims at understanding the extent to which the U.S.-Mexico border is significant in children’s social representations of themselves and others. Focusing on the Tijuana/San Diego transboundary urbanized region, Iglesias-Prieto questions traditional representations and perceptions of the border.

  20. Attitudes of inhabitants of border areas of Slovenia towards the Slovene-Croatian state border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Špes

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Article represents basic geographical characteristics of four sample border areas (Slovenska Istra, Bela Krajina, Spodnje Posavje and Spodnje Podravje, which were included in the research about the effects of a new state border on the living of inhabitants. We analysed their comprehension of changes in economic and social conditions, traffic currencies, interethnic relations, etc. Questioned persons (1200 questionnaires were estimating also development possibilities of domestic region in the light of its border position as well as obstacles for cooperation with the neighbouring Croatia and first of all with its border regions. Also current projects of transborder cooperation are represented.

  1. Border information flow architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    This brochure describes the Border Information Flow Architecture (BIFA). The Transportation Border Working Group, a bi-national group that works to enhance coordination and planning between the United States and Canada, identified collaboration on th...

  2. Mapping the potential of cross-border cooperation in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Mapping the socio-economic potential of border regions can provide great insights as to where cross-border co-operation could be intensified in West Africa.......Mapping the socio-economic potential of border regions can provide great insights as to where cross-border co-operation could be intensified in West Africa....

  3. Elastic and hegemonic borders and discourse theory: Mexico’s southern border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marengo Camacho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Discourse theory is useful for understanding the creation of borders, whether material or imaginary. This paper addresses three situations on Mexico’s southern border between 2000 and 2015 in which elements of discourse theory may be applied. The outcomes were the following: 1 correlations may be made between the elements of the discourse moving from the northern to the southern border, but not in the opposite direction; 2 the process of securitising the discourse about migrants is continuous, and new securitising elements are regularly added; 3 an “elastic borders” phenomenon exists, where borders extend or retract, thereby creating new border regions; and 4 discourses around the southern border are constructed with more pejorative elements than the northern, despite the fact that crime rates are higher in the north.

  4. Cross-border shopping and tourism destination marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated...... just south of the same border enable Danes to capitalize on the lower value added tax levels in Germany–is utilized as an illustrative case example. The data was collected by analysing the relevant tourism destination marketing material and via interviews with local destination marketing organizations...... and tourism firms. Based on the empirical evidence it seems that the positive impact that cross-border shopping can have on attracting large numbers of tourists into the region can outweigh the negative impact of tourists preferring border shops to local products and services: cross-border shopping has become...

  5. Borders, Violence, Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER DE LUCAS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between violence, law and borders by analyzing both the violence at the borders and the violence of the borders. In both cases, the author states that violence exerted by means of law, as well as migratory and asylum policies, threaten the universal human rights of the most vulnerable people and cannot be seen as exercising the legitimate monopoly of force, resulting in the destruction of the Rule of Law.

  6. Changing European borders: from separation to interface? An introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Nelles

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this special issue is to address the evolution of European borders from a comparative perspective. This collection of papers spans a wide variety of topics in the realm of borderland studies. Although each engages with a single empirical or theoretical case collectively they identify nuances relevant to the theoretical elaboration of borders, and particularly contribute to the field of sub-national cross-border cooperation. In the course of its analysis each paper contributes to a broader understanding of the definition of cross-border regions; identifies a set of barriers to cooperation in these contexts; explores the role of identities on cooperation and of the role of borders in constructing those identities; and reflects on the socio-political meanings and uses of these international boundaries. This introduction discusses theoretical significance of these contributions to major debates in the study of borders and border regions.

  7. Border Crossing Points, US-Mexico Border, 2015, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Border Crossings for the United States. The Border Crossing layer contains all international border crossings for all motorway crossings, as well as other...

  8. Straddling the border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael

    2011-01-01

    border between the Indonesian province of West Kalimantan and the Malaysian state of Sarawak on the island of Borneo. Based on local narratives, the aim of this paper is to unravel the little known history of how the Iban segment of the border population in West Kalimantan became entangled in the highly...

  9. Cross-border potential study on the use of sustainable energy in the Dutch-German border region 'GrensRegio Maas-Niers (region Geldern - Straelen - Venlo). Summary; Grensoverschrijdende potentieelstudie naar het gebruik van duurzame energie in de GrensRegio Maas-Niers (regio Geldern - Straelen - regio Venlo). Samenvatting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmers, R.; Schulz, D. [Synergie Komm Agentur fuer Nachhaltigkeit und Innovation, Schumannstrasse 35, 53113 Bonn (Germany); Eberhard, J. [Planungsbuero Heide undEberhard, Im Wiesengrund 29, 53175 Bonn (Germany); Zijlstra, G.J. [Advies en management in energie, KNSM laan 853, NL-1019 LK Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-07-01

    Full utilization of the energy efficiency potential and the local sustainable energy carriers for decentralized generation are important for strengthening the security of supply and protection of the climate. The Dutch project 'Energie zonder grenzen' (energy without borders - Program INTERREG IV A Deutschland-Netherlands) addresses these themes with a special focus on trans-boundary opportunities. The cities of Geldern and Straelen in Germany and the Venlo region including the municipalities of Peel and Maas, Venray, Beesel Gennep and Horst aan de Maas and the city of Venlo in the Netherlands were commissioned to conduct several pilot projects and a 'study of the potential for deployment of sustainable energy'. The results of the study are elaborated on a report. This summary presents the main results. [Dutch] Het volledig benutten van het potentieel aan energie-efficiency en de benutting van de lokale duurzame energiedragers voor decentrale opwekking zijn belangrijk voor de versterking van de voorzieningszekerheid en voor de bescherming van het klimaat. In het project 'Energie zonder grenzen' (Programma INTERREG IV A Deutschland-Nederland) worden deze thema's opgepakt met een bijzondere focus op de grensoverschrijdende mogelijkheden. Voor de steden Geldern en Straelen in Duitsland en de regio Venlo met de gemeenten Peel en Maas, Venray, Beesel, Gennep en Horst aan de Maas en de stad Venlo in Nederland werd opdracht gegeven tot enkele pilotprojecten en een 'onderzoek naar het potentieel voor de benutting van duurzame energie'. De resultaten van het onderzoek worden in een uitvoerig rapport gepresenteerd. Deze samenvatting geeft de belangrijkste resultaten weer.

  10. Small Border Traffic and Cross-Border Tourism Between Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisiewicz Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polish and Russian cross-border cooperation is governed by lawful agreements. The enlargement of the Schengen Area had a significant impact on Kaliningrad Oblast relations and cross-border cooperation with its neighbours. The introduction of visas between Poland and Russia hindered and restricted local border trade which had for years been the only measure mitigating social and economic problems of the cross-border regions. Nevertheless, border traffic between Poland and Kaliningrad grew steadily, to exceed four million in 2012.

  11. Waiting line, the border and modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Tejeda González

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The philosophic discussion is the departure point related to Nietzsche and Heiddeger, about the coming of the nihilism to introduce us in the subjects of the border in the modern and postmodern world. That existencial condition approaches us the experience in the border, and to the fact to transfer and to live in the edges. In other dimensions, we found the present time of that philosophic debate, since the border subject acquires centrality. In the social, politic, and cultural land we paradoxically see as globalization leads to an weakeing of the borders and an increase of its importances. The border demarcation continues being important, but now it has to do with the proliferation of agents, regional and global forces, and tendencies make of the border a blurred and opened institution. The increase of the interdependence are causing that migration and border transfering to be changing the face of communities of many countries of the present world. The national states are painted of color by those migratory movements that give the diversity, the pluralidad and the multiculturalismo in the before homogeneous societies.

  12. The California Border Health Collaborative: A Strategy for Leading the Border to Better Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Charles Edwards; Wooten, Wilma; Gomez, María Gudelia Rangel; Kozo, Justine; Fernandez, April; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2015-01-01

    There are hundreds of people and organizations working on border health issues in the California-Baja California border region trying to protect and improve health. These efforts are being conducted without a collaborative structure that integrates jurisdictions and organizations. Thus, there is a need to coordinate these organizations to work together and benefit from their collective effort and each other's best practices. The outcome of such an effort could effectively improve the health in the border region. The newly developed "California Border Health Collaborative" unites organizations and provides the leadership and collaborative culture to positively improve the health of the border region; it is referred to as the "Collaborative." This article describes the developmental process of this Collaborative, including partner engagement, governance, strategic planning, key elements for success, the roles of multi-level jurisdictions, and policy implications. This paper focuses on describing the preparation and processes that created the U.S./California side of this binational collaborative effort and is a strong reflection of the theory of border collaboration as described by Denman and De Sonora (1) in "Working beyond Borders: A Handbook for Transborder Projects in Health."

  13. Infiltrating to Win: The Conduct of Border Denial Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    declared anyone found within the restricted zones hostile. Friendly population buffers involved screening and removing all guerrilla supporters and...terrain was advantageous to infiltrators. The difficulty to secure border regions intensified if adjacent states were weak, developing or hostile to...region facilitated infiltration into South Vietnam because of mountainous terrain, double canopy jungle, and opportunistic international border seams. The

  14. Networks communities within and across borders

    CERN Document Server

    Cerina, Federica; Pammolli, Fabio; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the impact of borders on the topology of spatially embedded networks. Indeed territorial subdivisions and geographical borders significantly hamper the geographical span of networks thus playing a key role in the formation of network communities. This is especially important in scientific and technological policy making and highlights the interplay of the internationalization pressure toward a global innovation system against the administrative borders imposed by the national and continental institutions. In this study we introduce an outreach index to quantify the impact of borders on the community structure and apply it to the case of the European and US patent co-inventors networks. We find that (a) the US connectivity decays as a power of distance, whereas we observe a faster exponential decay for Europe; (b) European network communities essentially correspond to nations and contiguous regions while US communities span multiple states across the whole country without any characteristic geog...

  15. Cost-Effectiveness of an Intervention to Reduce HIV/STI Incidence and Promote Condom Use among Female Sex Workers in the Mexico–US Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, José L.; Gaebler, Julia A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Staines, Hugo; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research demonstrated efficacy of a brief behavioral intervention to reduce incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, cities on Mexico's border with the US. We assessed this intervention's cost-effectiveness. Methodology and Principal Findings A life-time Markov model was developed to estimate HIV cases prevented, changes in quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE), and costs per additional quality-adjusted life year gained (QALY), comparing (in US$2,009) no intervention to a once-only and annual intervention. Future costs and health benefits were discounted annually at 3%. Sensitivity analyses evaluated model robustness. We found that for a hypothetical 1,000 FSWs receiving the once-only intervention, there were 33 HIV cases prevented and 5.7 months of QALE gained compared to no intervention. The additional cost per QALY gained was US$183. For FSWs receiving the intervention annually, there were 29 additional HIV cases prevented and 4.5 additional months of QALE compared to the once-only intervention. The additional cost per QALY was US$1,075. When highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was included in the model, the annual intervention strategy resulted in net savings and dominated both once-only and no intervention strategies, and remained robust across extensive sensitivity analyses. Even when considering clinical benefits from HAART, ignoring added costs, the cost per QALY gained remained below three times the Mexican GDP per capita, and below established cost-effectiveness thresholds. Conclusions/Significance This brief intervention was shown to be cost-effective among FSWs in two Mexico-US border cities and may have application for FSWs in other resource-limited settings. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00338845 PMID:20617193

  16. Customizing survey instruments and data collection to reach Hispanic/Latino adults in border communities in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hegarty, Michelle; Pederson, Linda L; Thorne, Stacy L; Caraballo, Ralph S; Evans, Brian; Athey, Leslie; McMichael, Joseph

    2010-04-01

    We sought to modify an instrument and to use it to collect information on smoking knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors among Hispanics/Latinos, and to adapt survey methods to obtain high participation levels. Methods. Promotoras (outreach workers) conducted face-to-face interviews with 1485 Hispanic adults (July 2007-April 2008). The project team used GeoFrame field enumeration methods to develop a sampling frame from households in randomly selected colonias (residential areas along the Texas-Mexico border that may lack some basic necessities (e.g. portable water), in El Paso, Texas. The revised questionnaire included 36 unchanged items from the State Adult Tobacco Survey, 7 modified items, and 17 new items focusing on possible culturally specific quitting methods, secondhand smoke issues, and attitudes and knowledge about tobacco use that might be unique for Hispanic/Latino groups. The eligibility rate was 90.2%, and the conservative combined completed screener and interview response rate was 80.0%. Strategic, targeted, carefully designed methods and surveys can achieve high reach and response rates in hard-to-reach populations. Similar procedures could be used to obtain cooperation of groups who may not be accessible with traditional methods.

  17. Cross-border mobility and social networks: Laotians seeking medical treatment along the Thai border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochaton, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Drawing upon research conducted on cross-border patients living in Laos and seeking care in Thailand, this paper examines the important role played by social networks in patients' decision-making and on the itineraries they choose to seek treatment on the Thai side of the border. Due to the vastly contrasting situations between the two countries in terms of healthcare supply, and considering Laotians' increasing demand for high quality healthcare, a number of them have managed to satisfy their needs by combining cross-border treatment with the use of the healthcare facilities provided by their own country. This study consisted first of household surveys conducted in five border areas (2006-2007) in Laos in order to quantify and map out cross-border healthcare-related travel patterns. Afterwards, interviews were conducted with cross-border patients (55), Laotian and Thai medical doctors (6), Thai social workers (5), and officials working in public institutions (12). While socioeconomic and spatial factors partly explain cross-border mobility, patients' social networks significantly influence treatment itineraries throughout the decision-making process, including logistical and financial considerations. The social networks existing at different geographical levels (neighbourhood, regional and global) are therefore a powerful analytical tool not only for understanding the emergence of these cross-border movements but also for justifying them in an authoritarian political environment such as Lao PDR's. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisak Bhumiratana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world’s most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders.

  19. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhumiratana, Adisak; Intarapuk, Apiradee; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa; Maneekan, Pannamas; Koyadun, Surachart

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR) malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world's most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders. PMID:23865048

  20. Border Crossing Entry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for inbound crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican...

  1. The Borders of "Shopluk" and/or Shops without Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hristov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A historic and cultural region exists at the heart of the Balkans, known in geographic and ethnographic research as Shopluk. This is a region in which, over the last 150 years, state boundaries were moved several times as a result of 5 different wars. Today, the historic Shopluk is where the borders of three nations converge – Republic of Bulgaria, Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia – and, during the last decade, the region was declared one of the “Euroregions” on the Balkans. Despite the historical similarities in traditional culture and language of this population, in the 19th century it became a subject of nationalist ambitions and a propaganda “wars” between the new national states of Serbia and Bulgaria. The joining of Bulgarian-inhabited parts of Shopluk (the regions of today’s Dimitrovgrad and Bosilegrad in Serbia to the Kingdom of Serbs, Slovenes and Croats in 1919 created a long-lasting tension between the two countries, some residues of which can be felt in everyday relations even today. On the other hand, it has been a century-long tradition for men in this region to take part in seasonal labour migrations all over the Balkan Peninsula, despite political borders. In this way, preserving their cultural and lingual specifics, the groups of seasonal workers – migrants from Shopluk, became a bridge for cultural interaction and exchange with other regions in the neighbour countries. Even though today the population of Shopluk exhibits different national identities, historical similarities in culture and language can turn the Euroregion between Nish, Sofia and Skopje from one of the poorest on the Balkans to one of the most integrated and prosperous.

  2. Heavy metals in geochemical sediment fractions of the border region between Baja California, Mexico, and California, USA; Metales pesados en fracciones geoquimicas de sedimentos de la region fronteriza de Baja California, Mexico, y California, EUA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villaescusa-Celaya, Julio A; Gutierrez-Galindo, Efrain A; Flores-Munoz, Gilberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanologicas, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Ensenada, B.C., (Mexico)

    1997-03-01

    The concentrations of the heavy metals Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd, Ag, Mn and Fe in the different geochemical sediment fractions are determined in this study, as a means of assessing the impact of residual wastewater on the coastal sediments of the region. During an oceanographic cruise in April 1992 (ECOBAC IV), 20 samples of surface sediments were collected from the coastal shelf of the border region between Baja California (Mexico) and California (USA), The sediment samples were subjected to a sequential extraction procedure designed to obtain the geochemical fractions defined as: exchangeable (F1), carbonates (F2), Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides (F3), organic matter/sulfides (F4) and residual or lithogenic (F5). The operational speciation of the metals indicates that the principal phases in the sediments that accumulate metal are the detrital or lithogenic matrix, the Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides and the organic Matter/sulfides, in this order. In general, the spatial distribution of the heavy metals in the reactive phase (defined as the sum of F1-F4) tended to increase in concentration in offshore sediments. The heavy metals in the reactive phase are apparently controlled by the concentration of reactive iron in the sediments, except for Pb, Cd and Ag, suggesting that the latter elements are controlled by other processes, such as particulate matter of biogenic origin. In contrast, the spatial distribution of heavy metals in the detrital phase behaved inversely, that is, the greatest concentrations of metals are found close to the coast off the wastewater treatment plant at Punta Bandera, Baja California. The average concentrations of total metals (sum of F1-F5) were 7.6, 40, 21, 68, 428, 11, 0.10 and 0.025 {mu}g{sup -}1 for Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Mn, Pb, Cd and Ag, respectively, and 2.3% for Fe. These concentrations are similar to those reported for uncontaminated reference sediments from southern California, indicating that a large amount of pollutants from the effluent of residual

  3. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Border Policies in Dehong Prefecture of Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianlong Bie

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the process of globalization, many political geographers and research institutions have begun to focus on borders and border areas. Faced with the current debate on the border policies, this paper reviews the former research relating to border studies and provides an evaluation of China’s border policies. The literatures on border effects reveal that national boundaries have a significant impact on the economic, social and cultural relations of both border regions. Because of these effects, each country has to adjust its border policies in different periods. In this paper, a perspective is provided for evaluating the effectiveness of China’s border policy based on the Kaldor-Hicks analysis method. We investigated the border policies in Dehong Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan province of China from 1949 to 2012, and evaluated the effectiveness of the border policy using the Kaldor-Hicks method. The conclusions include: first, the Kaldor-Hicks method can be seen as effective method to evaluate the effectiveness of China’s border policies. Second, based on the Kaldor-Hicks method, we observe the overall effects of the adjustments made to the border policies in Dehong Prefecture were positive. However, sometimes the border trade policy is good for the country as a whole, but not necessarily for Dehong Prefecture. For the sake of the whole country, adjustments in border trade policy need to be compensated by financial transfer payments. In addition, the combined effects of the cross-border marriages policy are not immediately obvious.

  4. Seeking a Rational Approach to a Regional Refugee Crisis: Lessons from the Summer 2014 “Surge” of Central American Women and Children at the US-Mexico Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Musalo

    2017-03-01

    arrangements for unaccompanied children as required by federal law. Images of children crowded shoulder to shoulder in US Customs and Border Patrol holding cells generated a sense of urgency across the political spectrum (e.g., Fraser-Chanpong 2014; Tobias 2014. Responses to this “surge,” and explanations for it, varied widely in policy, media, and government circles. Two competing narratives emerged, rooted in two very disparate views of the “crisis.” One argues that “push” factors in the home countries of El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala drove children and families to flee as bona fide asylum seekers; the other asserted that “pull” factors drew these individuals to the United States. For those adopting the “push” factor outlook, the crisis is a humanitarian one, reflecting human rights violations and deprivations in the region, and the protection needs of refugees (UNHCR 2015b; UNHCR 2014; Musalo et al. 2015. While acknowledging that reasons for migration may be mixed, this view recognizes the seriousness of regional refugee protection needs. For those focusing on “pull” factors, the crisis has its roots in border enforcement policies that were perceived as lax by potential migrants, and that thereby acted as an inducement to migration (Harding 2014; Navarette, Jr. 2014. Each narrative, in turn, suggests a very different response to the influx of women and children at US borders. If “push” factors predominately drive migration, then protective policies in accordance with international and domestic legal obligations toward refugees must predominately inform US reaction. Even apart from the legal and moral rightness of this approach, any long-term goal of lowering the number of Central American migrants at the US-Mexico border, practically speaking, would have to address the root causes of violence in their home countries. On the other hand, if “pull” factors are granted greater causal weight, it would seem that stringent enforcement

  5. Cross-border policy effects on alcohol outcomes: drinking without thinking on the u.s.-Mexico border?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Britain A; Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice

    2014-11-01

    Rates of alcohol-related outcomes are sensitive to policy differences in politically distinct, adjacent territories. Factors that shape these cross-border effects, particularly when the policy differences are longstanding, remain poorly understood. We compared the ability of 2 classes of variables with theoretical relevance to the U.S.-Mexico border context-bar attendance and alcohol-related social-cognitive variables-to explain elevated drinking on the U.S. side of the border relative to other areas of the United States. Data were collected from multistage cluster samples of adult Mexican Americans on and off the U.S.-Mexico border (current drinker N = 1,351). Structural equation models were used to test drinking context (frequency of bar attendance) and 6 different social-cognitive variables (including alcohol-related attitudes, norms, motives, and beliefs) as mediators of border effects on a composite drinking index. The border effect on drinking varied by age (with younger adults showing a stronger effect), consistent with previous findings and known risk factors in the region. Contrary to theoretical expectations, 6 different social-cognitive variables-despite relating strongly with drinking-were comparable in border and nonborder areas (within and across age) and played no role in elevated drinking on the border. Conversely, elevated drinking among border youth was mediated by bar attendance. This mediated moderation effect held after adjusting for potential sociodemographic and neighborhood-level confounders. Increased drinking among U.S.-Mexico border youth is explained by patterns of bar attendance, but not by more permissive alcohol-related social-cognitive variables in border areas: Border youth attend bars and drink more than their nonborder counterparts, despite having comparable alcohol-related beliefs, attitudes, norms, and motives for use. Alcohol's heightened availability and visibility on both sides of the border may create opportunities for

  6. Detecting human presence at the border of the Northeastern Italian Pre-Alps. 14C dating at Rio Secco cave as expression of the first Gravettian and the late mousterian in the Northern Adriatic Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahra Talamo

    Full Text Available In the northern Adriatic regions, which include the Venetian region and the Dalmatian coast, late Neanderthal settlements are recorded in few sites and even more ephemeral are remains of the Mid-Upper Palaeolithic occupations. A contribution to reconstruct the human presence during this time range has been produced from a recently investigated cave, Rio Secco, located in the northern Adriatic region at the foot of the Carnic Pre-Alps. Chronometric data make Rio Secco a key site in the context of recording occupation by late Neanderthals and regarding the diffusion of the Mid-Upper Palaeolithic culture in a particular district at the border of the alpine region. As for the Gravettian, its diffusion in Italy is a subject of on-going research and the aim of this paper is to provide new information on the timing of this process in Italy. In the southern end of the Peninsula the first occupation dates to around 28,000 14C BP, whereas our results on Gravettian layer range from 29,390 to 28,995 14C years BP. At the present state of knowledge, the emergence of the Gravettian in eastern Italy is contemporaneous with several sites in Central Europe and the chronological dates support the hypothesis that the Swabian Gravettian probably dispersed from eastern Austria.

  7. Harmony and Discord in Planning : A comparative history of post-war welfare policies in a Dutch-German border region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molema, A.M.; Fenoulhet, Jane; Quist, Gerdi; Tiedau, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the process of consensus building within the do-main of policies and politics. It concentrates on Dutch and German regional economic development policies, to illustrate the similarities and differences in the policymaking process. Regional economic policies flourished in

  8. The relation between extracellular potassium concentration and pH in the border zone during regional ischemia in isolated porcine hearts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coronel, R.; Wilms-Schopman, F. J.; Fiolet, J. W.; Opthof, T.; Janse, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    During regional ischemia gradients of extracellular potassium concentration ([K+]o) and extracellular pH (pHo) exist. In globally ischemic papillary muscles increased PCO2 causes a rise in [K+]o. We studied whether pHo and [K+]o are causally related during acute regional ischemia in the isolated

  9. From Borders to Margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel

    2009-01-01

    upon Deleuze's philosophy to set out an ontology in which the continual reformulation of entities in play in ‘post-international' society can be grasped.  This entails a strategic shift from speaking about the ‘borders' between sovereign states to referring instead to the ‘margins' between a plethora...... of entities that are ever open to identity shifts.  The concept of the margin possesses a much wider reach than borders, and focuses continual attention on the meetings and interactions between a range of indeterminate entities whose interactions may determine both themselves and the types of entity...

  10. Comparative balance of border regulations in four neighboring Caribbean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Mantilla Valbuena

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to investigate whether there is a potential for border integration among four adjoining Caribbean countries: Colombia, Nicaragua, Panama and Costa Rica. The discussion is part of the “cross-border” concept and the integration of subnational entities in two or more nation states, with particular emphasis on the role played by the societies that inhabit border regions. A comparative analysis model is used to assess border regulations in each country’s various territorial levels based on relevant legal elements, autonomous processes and decentralization. The article concludes that the more modern each country’s border regulations and constitutional, political and administrative reforms are, the greater the likelihood of cross-border integration. Colombia and Nicaragua have the highest potential for integrating their borders, whereas Panama and Costa Rica have the lowest potential.

  11. Algeria Post Arab Spring : The Forced Virtualisation of the Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa Dris-Aït Hamadouche

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Algeria is the core of the Maghreb and shares land borders with seven countries Maghreb and Sahel countries. However, since 2011, none of the seven land borders is stable and se-cure. So, even if Algeria is considered as a stable country, this stability is fragile and is likely to be more precarious if the country has to face simultaneously an economic crisis and deli-cate presidential succession. Domestic incertitude coupled to regional conflicts puts the Algerian borders under unprecedented pressure. Consequently, almost all the governmental declarations expressed worries about the vulnerability of the borders, and assurances about the security services determination to assure the state security. However, to what extant this promise can be entirely fulfilled, regarding the borders’ characteristics and the specificity of the context? Why is the virtualization of the borders forced? As regards to the growing per-meability of the borders, can their militarization guarantee their security?

  12. The Health Mobility Is All True Mobility?; Comment on “Regional Incentives and Patient Cross-border Mobility: Evidence From the Italian Experience”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Olivadoti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In their study, Brenna and Spandonaro analyzed the mobility into Italian regions. In particular, it analyzes the situation of 5 regions, with very different backgrounds. With this paper, we try to better define the meaning of health mobility and to find its underlying causes. Furthermore, we propose a strategy that could help in controlling mobility flows that currently are the source of health inequalities.

  13. Avocados Crossing Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Bjørn-Andersen, Niels; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    This paper address indirect global interactions that involve collaboration across continents involving different cultures, languages, technologies and nations. Specifically, we are concerned with analyzing international trade of avocados from trees in Africa to grocery store shelves in the Europe......, the description format developed for this case can be useful for visualizing and analyzing other supply chains involving collaborations across borders....

  14. Borders of Discourse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Janni Berthou

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to discuss a fundamentally different approach to discourse analysis by using a pragmatic point of departure for understanding use of language. Using an empirical example from a construction project it is discussed how material as well as societal dimensions of collaboration func...... functions as borders for transformations of discourse – and these dimensions are most often intertwined...

  15. Illela border market: origin and contributions to trans-border ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the origin and development of Illela Border Market in Sokoto State, Nigeria. The paper shows that attempts by Nigeria to promote social and economic activities with her neighbours encourage the establishment of Border Markets and Illela Border Market is not an exception. The article sheds light on the ...

  16. "Border Sexualities, Border Families in Schools": Queering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John

    2012-01-01

    This essay reviews Maria Pallotta-Chiarolli's (2010) Lambda Award-winning monograph "Border Sexualities, Border Families in Schools", in which queer and mestizage pedagogies frame a groundbreaking and highly accessible exploration of the issues that sexual border dwellers experience. Her particular focus areas are bisexual "sexually fluid"…

  17. Canada and Mexico Border Crossings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Border Crossing Ports are points of entry for land modes along the U.S. - Canadian and U.S.- Mexcian borders. The ports of entry are located in 15 states along the...

  18. Biodiversity of the deep-sea continental margin bordering the Gulf of Maine (NW Atlantic: relationships among sub-regions and to shelf systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreen E Kelly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In contrast to the well-studied continental shelf region of the Gulf of Maine, fundamental questions regarding the diversity, distribution, and abundance of species living in deep-sea habitats along the adjacent continental margin remain unanswered. Lack of such knowledge precludes a greater understanding of the Gulf of Maine ecosystem and limits development of alternatives for conservation and management. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We use data from the published literature, unpublished studies, museum records and online sources, to: (1 assess the current state of knowledge of species diversity in the deep-sea habitats adjacent to the Gulf of Maine (39-43°N, 63-71°W, 150-3000 m depth; (2 compare patterns of taxonomic diversity and distribution of megafaunal and macrofaunal species among six distinct sub-regions and to the continental shelf; and (3 estimate the amount of unknown diversity in the region. Known diversity for the deep-sea region is 1,671 species; most are narrowly distributed and known to occur within only one sub-region. The number of species varies by sub-region and is directly related to sampling effort occurring within each. Fishes, corals, decapod crustaceans, molluscs, and echinoderms are relatively well known, while most other taxonomic groups are poorly known. Taxonomic diversity decreases with increasing distance from the continental shelf and with changes in benthic topography. Low similarity in faunal composition suggests the deep-sea region harbours faunal communities distinct from those of the continental shelf. Non-parametric estimators of species richness suggest a minimum of 50% of the deep-sea species inventory remains to be discovered. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The current state of knowledge of biodiversity in this deep-sea region is rudimentary. Our ability to answer questions is hampered by a lack of sufficient data for many taxonomic groups, which is constrained by sampling biases, life

  19. Cross-Border Tourism and its Significance for Tourism Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman LIVANDOVSCHI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with cross-border tourism. It enhances the importance of cross-border cooperation in tourism. Cross-border cooperation is a form of international cooperation, along with interregional, transitional and trans-frontier cooperation. Cross-border regions often share the same historical and cultural traditions and attractive natural landscapes, such is the case of the Republic of Moldova and Romania. In both cases, cross-border regions can benefit from cooperation – cooperation can help create greater diversity and differentiation of the range of tourism and environmental products; create economies of scale and make promotion more effective, and can help better address specific problems or issues for tourism development.

  20. Healthy Border 2020 Embassy Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S.-Mexico Border Health Commission launched the Healthy Border 2020 at the Mexican Embassy in the United States on June 24, 2015. This new initiative aims to strengthening what was accomplished on the previous plan of action entitled Healthy Border 2010.

  1. Russia-Kazakhstan Border-Zone: Sociological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Kamchybekovna Biizhanova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article, based on the research conducted by the Center for Regional Sociology and Conflictology Studies of the Institute of Sociology of RAS, discusses the features of cross-border cooperation of Russia and Kazakhstan. It considers works of Western and Russian scientists to identify major approaches to the study of cross-border cooperation. It discusses strengthening of inter-ethnic and socio-economic integration and cross-border cooperation at the regional level. The borderland as a social phenomenon is an object of our study; the research is focused on local communities, understood as residents of Russian regions bordering with neighboring countries. This means that the research is devoted to local communities of the areas, located on Russia’s borders with different states – with the new neighbors, which appeared after the USSR collapse (e.g., Ukraine, Belarus, the Baltic States in the West, Kazakhstan in the East and the long-existing ones – Turkey, China, Mongolia, etc. For analysis we select the Orenburg Oblast, which has one of the longest border lines with Kazakhstan. We make an attempt to identify whether the border-zone can serve as a frontier base for the creation of a successful brand of the region based on the self-identification of local people and thereby increase the level of socio-cultural and socio-economic development of the region through the attraction of additional tourist flows and investment in the region. What is the specificity of self-identification of the border region population and how can border relations become a tool for development of socio-economic, socio-cultural and inter-state relations?

  2. Cross border relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Sriram, Sujata

    2010-01-01

    in which they were born. These movements also imply human relationships across the borders in different contexts with various cultural, psychological consequences. Relationships of members of migrant groups with each other, and also with the host community have important implications on the health and well......-being of not just the migrant population, but also the host communities. These relationships represent the microcosm of societal and cultural integration and cohesion at the broader levels. Studies of how and how well migrants, especially youth handle migration indicate transformations in paradigms as both...... the borders in the context of modernity such as will also be discussed. In the backdrop of polarisation of populations into us and them, still there are increasing trends towards intermarriage, which challenge the idea of who belongs together and earlier taboos against such mixing. The symposia will explore...

  3. Border cell release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mravec, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Plant border cells are specialised cells derived from the root cap with roles in the biomechanics of root growth and in forming a barrier against pathogens. The mechanism of highly localised cell separation which is essential for their release to the environment is little understood. Here I present...... in situ analysis of Brachypodium distachyon, a model organism for grasses which possess type II primary cell walls poor in pectin content. Results suggest similarity in spatial dynamics of pectic homogalacturonan during dicot and monocot border cell release. Integration of observations from different...... species leads to the hypothesis that this process most likely does not involve degradation of cell wall material but rather employs unique cell wall structural and compositional means enabling both the rigidity of the root cap as well as detachability of given cells on its surface....

  4. Border Security and Military Support: Legal Authorizations and Restrictions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vina, Stephen R

    2006-01-01

    .... Reported escalations in criminal activity and illegal immigration, however, have prompted some law makers to reevaluate the extent and type of military support that occurs in the Mexico-United States border region...

  5. Motherhood and Risk for Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Sex Workers in the Mexico-US Border Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servin, Argentina E; Reed, Elizabeth; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Boyce, Sabrina; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Silverman, Jay G

    2017-08-01

    Globally, female sex workers (FSWs) have been identified as a high-risk group for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, as women of reproductive age, FSWs also have children. Few studies have investigated if financial responsibilities associated with motherhood increase women's vulnerability to HIV and STIs among FSWs. From March 2013 to March 2014, 603 FSWs aged ≥18 years were recruited from Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez (Mexico) to participate in a study assessing HIV/STI risk environments. Findings from logistic regression models indicate that FSWs who reported motherhood were more likely to report (in the past 30 days): a higher client volume (>30 clients) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-2.87) and always using alcohol right before or during sex with clients in the past 30 days (AOR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.19-2.61). In contrast, they were more likely to report consistent condom use for vaginal or anal sex with clients (AOR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.10-2.55), less likely to report using drugs right before or during sex with clients (AOR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.26-0.56) and less likely to have tested positive for STIs at baseline (AOR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.43-0.91). These results provide a glimpse of the complex relationship between motherhood and women who are sex workers. Understanding the convergence of motherhood and sex work and how this can influence a woman's decision when engaging in sex work and affect her health is essential to designing effective programs addressing reduce risk for HIV and STIs among FSWs in this region and elsewhere.

  6. Collaborating Across Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatten, Amy

    Physicists transcend national boundaries, ethnic differences, and scientific disciplines to address globally shared problems and questions. This talk will highlight how scientists have collaborated across borders - both geographic and scientific - to achieve ground-breaking discoveries through international scientific cooperation. The speaker also will address how international collaborations will be even more crucial for addressing future challenges faced by the physics community, such as building large-scale research facilities, strengthening scientific capacity in developing countries, fostering ''science for diplomacy'' in times of political tensions and other critical issues.

  7. Electricity without borders - The need for cross-border transmission investment in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brancucci Martínez-Anido, C.

    2013-01-01

    An increase in cross-border electricity flows is foreseen in Europe in the coming decades due to large-scale penetration of renewable energy, the electrical integration of the Euro-Mediterranean region, the electrification of transport, and possible shifts in electricity generation dispatch caused

  8. Border blocking effects in collaborative firm innovation: exploring the factors related with scientist' willingness to incorporating external knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, Jos; Benneworth, Paul Stephen; Rutten, Roel

    2016-01-01

    Border regions are not often associated with innovation and economic prosperity. Nevertheless, the opening up of borders in Europe has presented new opportunities for firms located in these border regions to co-operate and find necessary resources for their innovation process. Despite the reduction

  9. Prevalence and characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains isolated from stray dog and coyote feces in a major leafy greens production region at the United States-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay-Russell, Michele T; Hake, Alexis F; Bengson, Yingjia; Thiptara, Anyarat; Nguyen, Tran

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stray domestic dogs and free-roaming coyotes are a significant problem due to intrusions into their crop fields. During the 2010-2011 leafy greens growing season, we conducted a prevalence survey of STEC and Salmonella presence in stray dog and coyote feces. Fresh fecal samples from impounded dogs and coyotes from lands near produce fields were collected and cultured using extended enrichment and serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation (IMS) followed by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 461 fecal samples were analyzed including 358 domestic dog and 103 coyote fecals. STEC was not detected, but atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) strains comprising 14 different serotypes were isolated from 13 (3.6%) dog and 5 (4.9%) coyote samples. Salmonella was cultured from 33 (9.2%) dog and 33 (32%) coyote samples comprising 29 serovars with 58% from dogs belonging to Senftenberg or Typhimurium. PFGE analysis revealed 17 aEPEC and 27 Salmonella distinct pulsotypes. Four (22.2%) of 18 aEPEC and 4 (6.1%) of 66 Salmonella isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotic classes. Our findings suggest that stray dogs and coyotes in the desert southwest may not be significant sources of STEC, but are potential reservoirs of other pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. These results underscore the importance of good agriculture practices relating to mitigation of microbial risks from animal fecal deposits in the produce

  10. Prevalence and characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains isolated from stray dog and coyote feces in a major leafy greens production region at the United States-Mexico border.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele T Jay-Russell

    Full Text Available In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stray domestic dogs and free-roaming coyotes are a significant problem due to intrusions into their crop fields. During the 2010-2011 leafy greens growing season, we conducted a prevalence survey of STEC and Salmonella presence in stray dog and coyote feces. Fresh fecal samples from impounded dogs and coyotes from lands near produce fields were collected and cultured using extended enrichment and serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation (IMS followed by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 461 fecal samples were analyzed including 358 domestic dog and 103 coyote fecals. STEC was not detected, but atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC strains comprising 14 different serotypes were isolated from 13 (3.6% dog and 5 (4.9% coyote samples. Salmonella was cultured from 33 (9.2% dog and 33 (32% coyote samples comprising 29 serovars with 58% from dogs belonging to Senftenberg or Typhimurium. PFGE analysis revealed 17 aEPEC and 27 Salmonella distinct pulsotypes. Four (22.2% of 18 aEPEC and 4 (6.1% of 66 Salmonella isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotic classes. Our findings suggest that stray dogs and coyotes in the desert southwest may not be significant sources of STEC, but are potential reservoirs of other pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. These results underscore the importance of good agriculture practices relating to mitigation of microbial risks from animal fecal deposits in the

  11. The ethnically mixed area of the commune of Lendava, along the newly established stat border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Zupančič

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with regional impacis of the new state border benveen Slovenia and Croatia on ethnically mixed area of the commune Lendava in northeast Slovenia. Different social, age and ethnic groups have dissimilar relations towards the influence of that new element in regional structure. Key words: Ethnic groups, border regions, political geography, Prekmurje, Slovenia

  12. Three intelligence methodologies for border defence and border ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Border defence is predominately against the armed forces of other states requiring tanks, aircraft and ships. Traditionally, border security includes the mission roles of immigration, crime, agriculture, finance, disease control and terrorism. Intelligence gathering and analysis using three methodologies - trends and patterns, ...

  13. three intelligence methodologies for border defence and border ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Johnston (2005:12) in identifying various methods and a taxonomy for intelligence analysis. Of these there are ..... It follows that accurate intelligence prediction and forecasting in trends and patterns will determine ... for power projection and not based on territorial border threats for her land borders with Canada and Mexico ...

  14. Satisfaction in border tourism: An analysis with structural equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Jimber del Río

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Border tourism is the temporary displacement of people to the dividing line between two countries contiguous areas. This activity promotes the economic development of these geographical regions. The aim of this research is to analyze visitors from the Dominican Republic and Haiti border. We propose the results of an empirical study with structural equations that show correlations between the attitude factor towards the border tourism, the value factors perceived by the tourist, satisfaction and loyalty of the visitor in the destination place.

  15. Morphology of the Vitreoretinal Border Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen

    Ophthalmology, vitreoretinal, morphology, ultrastructure, microscopy, membrana limitans interna retinae, inner limiting membrane......Ophthalmology, vitreoretinal, morphology, ultrastructure, microscopy, membrana limitans interna retinae, inner limiting membrane...

  16. Stretching the Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I hope to add a complementary perspective to James Scott’s recent work on avoidance strategies of subaltern mountain people by focusing on what I call the refugee public. The educated Karen elite uses the space of exile in the Thai borderland to reconstitute resources and to re......-enter Karen state in Eastern Burma as humanitarians, providing medical, educational resources and help to document human rights violations and do advocacy work. In addition, local missionaries and faith-based groups also use the corridor to spread the word of God. I argue that Karen humanitarian community......-based organizations succeed to stretch the border by establishing a firm presence that is supported by the international humanitarian economy in the refugee camps in Northwestern Thailand....

  17. A Voice of the US Southwestern Border: The 2012 “We the Border: Envisioning a Narrative for Our Future” Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah McC. Heyman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In July 2012, a diverse group of US residents living near the US-Mexico border met in El Paso, Texas for a conference entitled, We the Border: Envisioning a Narrative for Our Future.  This paper describes a vision for the US-Mexico border by diverse border residents that is at odds with the widespread view of the border as a threat to the United States. These border residents viewed their region as a set of human communities with rights, capacities, and valuable insights and knowledge. They embraced an alternative vision of border enforcement that would focus on “quality” (dangerous entrants and contraband over “quantity” (mass migration enforcement.  They called for investments in the functionality and security of ports of entry, rather than in between ports of entry.  They noted the low crime rate in US border cities, and examined how policies of not mixing local law enforcement with federal immigration enforcement contributed to this achievement. They saw the border region as the key transportation and brokerage zone of the emerging, integrated North American economy. In their view, the bilingual, bicultural, and binational skills that characterize border residents form part of a wider border culture that embraces diversity and engenders creativity. Under this vision the border region is not an empty enforcement zone, but is part of the national community and its residents should enjoy the same constitutional and human rights as other US residents. The conference participants emphasized the necessity and value of accountability and oversight of central government enforcement operations, and the need for border communities to participate in federal decision-making that affects their lives. 

  18. Border mythology: Turner and modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Brenna B.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Modernity has been creating spaces, new boundaries and borders, as metaphysical, mythological and symbolic marks of physical and imaginary territories. Modern space and its borders are metaphors, boundaries that are created, walls that rise to identify with some and categorize others. In this short paper we want to approach the problem of the transformation of the idea of border (geographical, cultural, symbolic, etc., for a reflection on the transformations of that civilized obsession called border. The border has always been a reference in facing the identities, names, symbols, different imaginary: it is more confrontational line between two otherness. From the previous framework, we reflect on Turnerian mythology, as we believe that behind the creation of the imagination of the northern border is the mythical vision of the American frontier as ideological canon that explains and confirms the presence of the white race in a border re–made in the image and likeness of the “American Dream”. Frederick Turner’s reflection on the role of the frontier in American history is not only the study of the importance of progress towards the West but –even more so, is the analysis of meaning that had the American frontier as a historical process that ended in 1893, as Turner said, but rather extended into the twentieth century and continues to constantly shaping the process of territorialization of the border.

  19. Developing survey metrics for analysing cross-border proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Cross-border innovation cooperation (CBIC) has been heralded as one of the corner stones of innovation-driven growth opportunities for firms located in cross-border regions (CBRs). The success of this cooperation is affected by varying types of proximities identified in the literature....... The findings indicate that the developed survey metrics are effective in depicting the phenomenon of proximity. The foundational work undertaken in this research note provides a platform, and catalyst, for more extensive investigations of the topic....

  20. Geographical, Sociological and Metaphysical Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto Choza Armenta

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available During the different ages of history and prehistory, borders have possessed different kinds of natures. Sometimes they did not exist, at other times they have been very diffuse, while at others they have been impassable. There were no borders in the Paleolithic age, or during Greece’s Heroic Age. It was not until the creation of the city-states and the empires that borders began to be consolidated. Territorial demarcations were not very strict during the Middle Ages, either. It was in the modern age that borders acquired an impassable nature, following the birth of the modern State, and they began to weaken with the crisis of the modern State that began in the 20th century. Thus, the author claims, the construction of borders is not a fundamentally political-administrative event. Instead, it seems to be primarily a phenomenon of a cultural nature and, more specifically, of a metaphysical nature.

  1. Cross-border Co-operation and Policy Networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trémolières, Marie; Walther, Olivier

    This publication examines how policy actors involved in cross-border co-operation contribute to the regional integration process in West Africa. It uses a pioneering methodology, known as social network analysis, to visualise the formal and informal relationships between actors involved in cross......-border policy networks, showing that borders have notable and diverse impacts on exchanges of information and the relative power of networks. The report then analyses a range of regional indicators of co-operation potential, visually demonstrating that borders can also affect the ability of sub-regions within...

  2. The Protracted Border and Territorial Disputes Between Kyrgyzstan and Its Neighbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    and Pakistan conflicts and their long term consequences. He focused on the unresolved border dispute over Kashmir region between India and Pakistan...result of this continuing conflict can predetermine the future development and stability on the borderlands.75 Due to frequent border incidents...of border disputes. These facts increase the risk of future conflicts within the region, and affect overall peace, stability, and security of the

  3. Microsensors for border patrol applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkofske, Dwight; Krantz, Brian; Shimazu, Ron; Berglund, Victor

    2005-05-01

    A top concern in homeland security efforts is the lack of ability to monitor the thousands of miles of open border with our neighbors. It is not currently feasible to continually monitor the borders for illegal intrusions. The MicroSensor System (MSS) seeks to achieve a low-cost monitoring solution that can be efficiently deployed for border patrol applications. The modifications and issues regarding the unique requirements of this application will be discussed and presented. The MicroSensor System was developed by the Defense Microelectronics Activity (DMEA) for military applications, but border patrol applications, with their unique sensor requirements, demand careful adaptation and modification from the military application. Adaptation of the existing sensor design for border applications has been initiated. Coverage issues, communications needs, and other requirements need to be explored for the border patrol application. Currently, border patrol has a number of deficiencies that can be addressed with a microsensor network. First, a distributed networked sensor field could mitigate the porous border intruder detection problem. Second, a unified database needs to be available to identify aliens attempting to cross into the United States. This database needs to take unique characteristics (e.g. biometrics, fingerprints) recovered from a specialized field unit to reliably identify intruders. Finally, this sensor network needs to provide a communication ability to allow border patrol officers to have quick access to intrusion information as well as equipment tracking and voice communication. MSS already addresses the sensing portion of the solution, including detection of acoustic, infrared, magnetic, and seismic events. MSS also includes a low-power networking protocol to lengthen the battery life. In addition to current military requirements, MSS needs a solar panel solution to extend its battery life to 5 years, and an additional backbone communication link

  4. The Danish-German police cooperation cross Danish-German land border in Schleswig-/South Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battrup, Gerd

    including members of the national minorities. However, the 'opening' of the now 'internal EU border' after the Danish implementation of the Schengen Agreement in March 2001 as well as a massive growth in the demand of labour in South Jutland from 2004-2009, led to a rapid increase in the cross......-border traffic and migration and presumably also to intensified cross-border regional integration in terms of both scope of cross-border relations as well as the intensity of cross-border relationships (Levring, Lyck, Olshov & Karringer 2005). The number of cross-border job commuters rose from about 3000 in 2001...

  5. Firemen without borders

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Fire knows no borders and neither should the tools for fighting it. It was with this aim in mind that delegates from 14 different countries came to CERN at the beginning of April to take part in the twentieth of a series of twice-yearly international conferences organised by the Federation of European Union Fire Officer Associations (FEU). This latest conference allowed participants to keep abreast of new developments with a view to improving the safety techniques used in their own countries. The first in the series was held in Tampere, Finland, in 1994. The FEU network's objective is to harmonise safety policies and modernise the fire-fighting programme. In particular, it aims to develop an international system for testing hotels' fire alarm systems and to improve language learning in all countries' fire-fighting services. "We want authorities throughout Europe to be aware of the importance of a good joint fire-prevention policy in order to avoid catastrophes such as the fire that destroyed Madrid's Winds...

  6. Cross-border Place Branding: Zooming in the potential case of Galicia and Northern Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva Oliveira, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter adopts a strategic spatial planning approach to think strategically about potential joint place branding initiatives between cross-border regions. The case study focuses on the extended cross-border European region composed of the NUTS 3 Minho-Lima, Cávado, Ave, Grande Porto, Tâmega,

  7. Definig the US-Mexico border as hyperreality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Duarte-Herrera

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The US-Mexico border has been defined as a periphery, as a transborder social system, and more currently, as a station in transnational circuits. The two first definitions presuppose the strongly criticized concepts of region and cultural area. The third definition shares, along with the other two definitions, the positivist epistemological supposition that the border is a specific entity that can be known and experienced as such by any observer, no matter their social site. This paper is to support the definition of the border as a hyperreality constituted by speeches, practices, and experiences of the different social actors. From this posture, the image of the border as a formal geopolitical division is interpreted as a sustained image and reproduced by government agencies. Likewise, this writing is to support the documentation and promotion of alternative images constructed and reproduced by social actors from different power sites.

  8. Radioactivity in groundwater along the borders of Oman and UAE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murad, A.; Alshamsi, D.; Hou, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the quality and radioactivity of groundwater is vital as it represents valuable resource in arid regions. Here we present radioactivity level in groundwater collected from wells in a region along the border between Sultanate of Oman and United Arab Emirates (UAE). The aquifers...

  9. Greening transportation at the border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    On February 2324, 2011, Federal agencies from the United : States, Canada, and Mexico sponsored a workshop in San : Diego, California, to discuss opportunities for improvement : regarding the greening of transportation at the borders.1 : The works...

  10. Brujeria and the U.S.-Mexico Border Outlaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Conover

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the death metal band Brujeria, their use of both traditional and contemporary outlaw imagery, and their connection to the narcocorrido, in order to examine the tenacity of the outlaw paradigm as an expression of resistance by subordinate groups in situations of social inequality. It deals with the contemporary figure of the outlaw in connection to the U.S.-Mexico border region, as influenced by outlaw traditions in the area, and as an expression of specific contemporary historical circumstances of that region, including Mexican economic crisis, globalization, and border conflicts surrounding immigration, drug trafficking, and labor.

  11. Requirements for cross-border spatial planning technologies in the European context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication paper investigates requirements for cross-border spatial planning technologies. We refer to European cross-border regions, which are located in the European Baltic Sea Region. We hypothesize that there is no efficient cross-border spatial planning without engagement from various stakeholders, supported by novel spatial planning technologies. This study presents the results from a survey that identifies the requirements for spatial planning technologies adequate for cross - border regions. On the basis of this survey, carried out within the INTECRE project partners coming from the Baltic Sea Region, the study provides general recommendations about cross - border spatial planning technologies. Addressed in the survey are the following central issues: definition of the scope of such technologies, the data base and international planning data provision, features and properties of planning technologies, and stakeholder involvement. The research findings are transferable to wider European and extra- European contexts.

  12. Cassiterides Islands: in the borders of reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo PLÁCIDO SUAREZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cassiterides Islands are mentioned, since the first moments in the texts, as a place of the western extremes, where the valuable products proceed. Any way, the attraction of wealthy rises the imagination. In references apparently far of epic traditions, tha names on Artabri, cited as a people from Norwest of Iberian Peninsula, can do allu- sion to the region of South of Galicia and North of Portugal, «last of Lusitania through North and South West», as a border and mysterious space.

  13. The South African Border War (1966 - 1989) a Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    rivaling tribes. The post-colonial states, which subsequently emerged from the struggle, were mostly characterized by dictatorships, instability, and poverty and often with a mainly Marxist political agenda. In contrast South Africa was not ruled by any colonial power and continued throughout......The South African Border War – or the Bush War - was a quite remarkable conflict that took place in the border region between South-West-Africa (Namibia), Angola and the Republic of South Africa between 1966 and 1989 which makes it one of the longest conflicts on the African continent. The conflict...... between the South West Africa People’s Organization (SWAPO) and South Africa in the border region between Namibia and Angola. Further the paper will discuss and compare the actual course of the campaign with some of the basic tenants of counterinsurgency strategies as defined by Dr. Paul Melschen in his...

  14. Distance, Borders, and Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skillicorn, David; Walther, Olivier; Zheng, Quan

    project (ACLED) dataset that, inter alia, meticulously catalogues violent extremist incidents in North and West Africa since 1997, to generate a network whose nodes are administrative regions. These nodes are connected by edges of qualitatively different types: undirected edges representing geographic...

  15. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2017-01-01

    Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark by focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection...... cooperation patterns of Danish firms focusing on their choices of foreign innovation partners. The results indicate that firm size and research and development (R&D) intensity have a positive effect on firm’s propensity to cooperate on innovation and that having R&D activities abroad as well as high level...... of innovativeness increase the likelihood of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on selecting partners within the European Union. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic...

  16. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2014-01-01

    of Danish firms focusing on their choices of foreign innovation partners. The results indicate that firm size and R&D intensity have a positive effect on firm’s propensity to cooperate on innovation and that having R&D activities abroad as well as high level of innovativeness increase the likelihood...... of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on choosing partners within EU. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic innovation partner is independent of the choice...

  17. Prospects for the Cross-Border Cooperation between Russia and Poland in the Field of Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, Natalia A.; Korneevets, Valentin S.; Semenova, Lyudmila V.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research topic is driven by the increasing role of cross-border cooperation for economic development of regions of the neighbouring countries located in the immediate vicinity to the border, as well as for the tourism development. The purpose of scientific research, the results of which are presented in the article, was the…

  18. Seismicity at Jalisco-Nayarit Border, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, M.; Nunez-Cornu, F.; Camarena, M.; Trejo, E.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plasencia, C.

    2003-12-01

    Since 2002 a regional seismic network from Jalisco Civil Defense and University of Guadalalajara is monitoring seismicity at the northwest border of Jalisco block. With the installation of a seismic station on Ceboruco Volcano, by Nayarit Civil Defense, coverage of the network extends to east. Ceboruco Volcano is located on the Tepic-Zacoalco graben, the east border of Jalisco block, this allow us to begin to monitoring this area. The zone of Bahia de Banderas, between the north coast of Jalisco and south coast of Nayarit, probably on a tectonic triple point, is a region of high seismic potential. Activ tectonic structures and clusters in the zone of El Tuito and the Dam Cajon de Pe¤as have been identified. The seismicity in the north area of the bay is low, meanwhile in the south, where the bay is deeper, the seismicity level is higher with an East-West tendency. At the east, the Amatlan de Ca¤as-Ameca zone presents continue activity, here have been possible to locate events with local magnitude between 2 and 4. Tectonovolcanic events registred at Ceboruco station presents waveform with scattering. The seismic distribution of the coast of Jalisco shows parallel alignments to the trench throughout al the coast. Other perpendicular alignments to the coastline show active morphologic structures within the Jalisco block related to the subduction of the Rivera plate under the Jalisco block.

  19. Overweight and aerobic fitness in children in the United States/Mexico border region El sobrepeso y el acondicionamiento aeróbico en niños de la frontera mexicanoestadounidense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Coleman

    2004-04-01

    overweight than were non-Hispanic white children throughout the United States. In addition, the children in El Paso were less aerobically fit than were non-Hispanic white children and than were other Mexican-American children in the United States. These results clearly show that efforts should be made in the border regions of both Mexico and the United States to develop physical activity and nutrition programs to help stem rising rates of overweight.OBJETIVO: Estudiar el sobrepeso y el acondicionamiento aeróbico en niños de tercero y cuarto grado de primaria en una ciudad de Estados Unidos de América (El Paso, Texas y una ciudad de México (Chihuahua, Chihuahua, ambas situadas en la frontera entre esos dos países o cerca de ella, así como comparar los resultados observados en esas dos ciudades con resultados obtenidos anteriormente en otras muestras infantiles en Estados Unidos. MÉTODOS: Seguimos a un grupo de niños en El Paso (427 varones y 385 niñas, 93% de los cuales eran de ascendencia mexicana que cursaban el tercero o cuarto grado de primaria y evaluamos cambios en el índice de masa corporal (IMC. En la ciudad de Chihuahua medimos el IMC en una muestra transversal de niños de tercer grado (221 varones y 237 niñas y de cuarto grado (268 varones y 215 niñas. A todos los niños estudiados en ambas ciudades se les tomaron mediciones de IMC y del pliegue cutáneo del tríceps. El IMC se usó para estimar el riesgo de sobrepeso (un IMC igual o mayor al del percentil 85 para la edad y el sexo y para detectar la presencia de sobrepeso (un IMC igual o mayor al del percentil 95 para la edad y el sexo. La distancia que los niños en El Paso corrieron en nueve minutos se usó para evaluar su grado de acondicionamiento aeróbico (el cual no se midió en los niños de Chichuaua. En El Paso los datos se recolectaron en 1999, 2000 y 2001 y en Chichuahua, en 2000 y 2001. RESULTADOS: En los varones de El Paso se observó un aumento significativo de 22 a 28% en la frecuencia

  20. Building better borders in Latin America | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-10-21

    Oct 21, 2016 ... Illegal trading and the violence that can accompany it is a scourge along Latin America's borders, but researchers from across the region are working together to find ways to combat the problem. This article is part of an ongoing series of stories about innovative projects in the developing world, ...

  1. The New Wild West: Military Support in Border Security Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    necessary to analyze the current situation in the Southwest Border Region as it relates to the national security threat posed by Mexican TCOs......interdependence of Mexico and the United States through NAFTA has formed a strong cultural and economic bond between the two countries. Nearly 350,000,000

  2. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Boarder Crossing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for incoming crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican border at the port level. Data are available...

  3. The Analysis of the Determinants of Sustainable Cross-Border Cooperation and Recommendations on Its Harmonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurowska-Pysz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cross-border partnerships are a distinctive example of inter-organizational cooperation, embedded, in terms of territory, in the neighboring borderland regions of two or more countries. The aim of this paper is to identify factors that contribute to the sustainable cross-border cooperation and affect motivation to increase cooperation between cross-border partners. The objective implementation is connected with the verification of a hypothesis referring to the possible impact of the European Union funds on the trans-boundary cooperation transformations. Results of desk research and quantitative research involving IDI, CATI, CAWI and CATI and PAPI data collection methods, implemented in the Polish–Czech borderland in 2016 were used in this paper. Research on the Polish–Lithuanian borderland was also used in the paper to conduct comparative analysis, useful to identify and evaluate factors motivating sustainable cross-border cooperation in the Czech–Polish borderland. The sustainable, cross-border and inter-organizational cooperation in the borderlands results from the simultaneous interaction of three groups of factors: (1 people and institutions (the quality of interpersonal relationships; (2 cross-border planning, procedures and support mechanisms (e.g., the possibility of jointly planning the cross-border cooperation and obtaining EU funds for the development of the borderlands as well as the availability of other funds helpful in this kind of cooperation; and (3 environment (historical affinity and geographical proximity of neighboring border regions, system support at the regional and local level in neighboring countries.

  4. Challenges and Opportunities in Border Health

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Rodríguez-Saldaña, MD

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 11.5 million people reside in the 42 counties and 39 Mexican municipalities located along the U.S.-Mexico border, and 86% of those people reside in 14 pairs of sister cities, metropolitan areas divided by the international border (1). Border residents share similar resources and environmental problems: issues of great concern include air quality, water quantity and quality, and animal control. The communities along the border are economically and socially interdependent, with mo...

  5. The impact of Border policy effect on cross-border ethnic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, Q. L.; Zhou, S. Y.; Li, C. S.

    2013-11-01

    Boundary effect analysis is related to border policy making in the cross-border ethnic area. The border effect literatures show that geographic boundaries have obvious impacts on economic, social and cultural relations in both sides of a nation border. Particularly in cross-border ethnic areas, each ethnic group has strong internal spatial structure relevance, and the boundary effect is more obvious. However, most of China's border areas are cross-border ethnic areas, each of border issues is unique. Under this perspective, we analyze the border effects of various boundaries can provide basis for formulating border management policies. For small scale of cross-border ethnic minority areas, how to formulate the boundary management policy is a good question to explore. This paper is demonstrated by a study of the impact of border management policies in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province at the border area to Burma. The comparative method is used to analysis the border management policies in past 50 decades for the border area of Yunnan Province .This research aims to define trends within border policy and its influences to national security. This paper also examines Wendy Brown's liberal theory of border management policy. We found that it is not suitable for Sino-Burma border area. The conclusion is that the changes or instability of international economic and political situation has more influence to this cross-border ethnic area, and only innovative policy will be effective in cross-border ethnic area. So the border management policies should reflect the change of international context.

  6. Security Governance on Ecuador's Northern Border | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Security Governance on Ecuador's Northern Border. The northern border of Ecuador has been prone to conflict over the past several years. Security policy as applied in the area is based on the presumption that the northern border is homogeneous. In fact, however, the three provinces that make up the area - Esmeraldas, ...

  7. Recent trends in cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haas, Ralph; van Horen, Neeltje; Beck, Thorsten; Casu, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This chapter identifies a number of recent trends in European cross-border banking. The authors first distinguish between two main modes of international banking: cross-border versus multinational banking. Cross-border banking occurs when a bank in country A lends directly to a borrower in country

  8. Briefing : the Eritrean-Ethiopian border dispute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    On 6 May 1998, a violent conflict erupted in the Ethiopian-Eritrean border area. This article contends that this border crisis is neither unexpected nor the result of a real border dispute. Rather, it is due to three factors: the particular history and relationship of the two insurgent movements

  9. Old Borders and New Bordering Capabilities: Cities as Frontier Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Sassen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The global city is a new frontier zone. Deregulation, privatization, and new fiscal and monetary policies create the formal instruments to construct their equivalent of the old military “fort”. The city is also a strategic frontier zone for those who lack power, and allows the making of informal politics. At the same time the border is a mix of regimes, marked by protections and opportunities for corporations and high-level professionals, and implies confinement, capture and detention for migrants. The essay discusses the transformation of the city in a frontier zone and analyses the separation between the capabilities entailed by territoriality and the geographic territory tout court. The analysis focuses on the effects of neoliberal policies that, far from making this a borderless world, have actually multiplied the bordered spaces that allow firms and markets to move across conventional borders. Cities are therefore one of the key sites where new neoliberal norms are made and where new identities emerge.

  10. First Philosophy in the Border Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viggo Rossvaer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article will be devoted to such problems as a idea of subsidiarity, a cosmopolitan right and a visitor figure in context and interpretation of ancient and modern philosophy. The article deals with the concept of subsidiarity which is taken as a point of departure for the discipline of borderology, an academic study with Kantian roots. Borderology, according to the principle of subsidiarity, can present as a new field of investigation which invites philosophers and social scientists to replace a “top down” with a “bottom up” procedure. The figure of the visitor is close linked with the experience of subsidiarity which means the freedom and initiative below the level of State. In Immanuel Kant’s strategy for perpetual peace, the figure of the visitor launches a critique of a tendency to self-aggrandizement, characteristic of the modern State and thereby a defense of the political independence of local border regions. The visitor also invites us to see, think and work to liberate our own subjectivity from false voices of sovereignty. Kant articulates the offer of the visitor by bringing in the term Verkehr. Using Kant scholar Otfried Höffe,s methodology we show how idea of subsidiarity is overlooked in international political theory, explain some constitutive principles of borderology, from which is more important is the methodological principle of an intercultural discourse and presents borderology as an anti-Huntingtonian model for border studies.

  11. A Strategic Spatial Planning Approach to Cross-Border Place Branding with References to Galicia and Northern Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva Oliveira, Eduardo; Zenker, Sebastian; Jacobsen, Björn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter adopts a strategic spatial planning approach to think strategically about potential joint place-branding initiatives between cross-border regions. The case study focuses on the extended cross-border European region composed of the NUTS III Alto Minho, Cávado, Ave, Área Metropolitina do

  12. Cultural cross-border co-operation among Balkan's countries with the case of Serbia and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojkov Borislav

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural cross-border cooperation includes all fields of cross-border cooperation and gives base for main connections and interactions. Without strengthening cultural cross-border cooperation, it is impossible to build significant relations between neighbors. Culture, as a foundation, an activator and a purpose of development in cross-border regions, represents a cardinal and conditional factor of cross-border cooperation. Today's situation in the Balkans reveals ethnic diversity of this region and territorial dispersion of ethnic groups. This implies at the same time great cultural diversity as well as dispersal of various national cultures over the Balkan's states. During the 20th century Serbia and Bulgaria have very complex political and intrastate relations. But in the last 10 years there have been significant improvements in the cross-border cooperation between Serbia and Bulgaria. The results of these improvements are established Euro-regions and implemented cross-border projects between these two countries. Existing Euro-regions between Serbia and Bulgaria created links between various local authorities and made excellent basis for cross-border initiatives and joint projects to promote common interests across the border and cooperation for the common good of the border areas populations. The well managed cultural cross-border cooperation between these two countries will provide a clear view of common features and raise common identity for the region, contribute to tolerance and understanding between people in this area and enable them to overcome the peripheral status of the border region in their countries and improve the living conditions of the population.

  13. Internal Border Controls in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten Willemoes; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2012-01-01

    Recent events, involving inter alia France and Denmark, have stimulated renewed interest in the introduction of different forms of border controls at the internal borders within the European Union. These border control measures are aimed at checking either persons or goods or both. Against...... the background of these events, this article analyses the existing rules regulating controls of persons and goods, and explores how these rules may or may not stand in the way of introducing border controls at the European Union’s internal borders. These events have resulted in a call for reforms of the current...

  14. Is tuberculosis crossing borders at the Eastern boundary of the European Union?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, Marieke J.; Hollo, Vahur; Noori, Teymur

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Eastern border of the European Union (EU) consists of 10 countries after the expansion of the EU in 2004 and 2007. These 10 countries border to the East to countries with high tuberculosis (TB) notification rates. We analyzed the notification data of Europe to quantify the impact of cross-border TB at the Eastern border of the EU. Methods: We used TB surveillance data of 2010 submitted by 53 European Region countries to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Notified TB cases were stratified by origin of the case (national/foreign). We calculated the contribution of foreign to overall TB notification. Results: In the 10 EU countries located at the EU Eastern border, 618 notified TB cases (1.7% of all notified TB cases) were of foreign origin. Of those 618 TB cases, 173 (28.0%) were from countries bordering the EU to the East. More specifically, 90 (52.0%) were from Russia, 33 (19.1%) from Belarus, 33 (19.1%) from Ukraine, 13 (7.5%) from Moldova and 4 (2.3%) from Turkey. Conclusions: Currently, migrants contribute little to TB notifications in the 10 EU countries at the Eastern border of the EU, but changes in migration patterns may result in an increasing contribution. Therefore, EU countries at the Eastern border of the EU should strive to provide prompt diagnostic services and adequate treatment of migrants. PMID:23813718

  15. Fighting to Make a Point: Policy-Making by Aggressive War on the Chinese Borders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pettis, Jr, Roy C

    2002-01-01

    .... China invaded India in 1962 and, after a month of uninterrupted military success, withdrew its forces and established unchallenged control of a border region that had been under PRC control at the beginning of the war...

  16. Mariposa port of entry bottleneck study : facilitating efficient, secure and economical cross-border transportation movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    The Arizona-Sonora border has become increasingly important to both states economy : due to increased trade between the regions following the 1994 passage of the North American : Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the establishment of maquiladora in...

  17. Border malaria in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Liu, H

    1997-09-01

    Yunnan Province, due its international borders with Myanmar, Vietnam and Lao PDR has a large number of imported cases of malaria, including a high proportion of Plasmodium falciparum, as a result of the mobility of the population. This movement is due to workers coming from other provinces where there is no malaria to work in the productive tropical lowlands. Chinese nationals who have gone to work in neighboring countries, border trade and refugees from Myanmar. Much of Yunnan is peopled by ethnic minorities living in remote mountainous and forested areas which are difficult to reach. However, surveillance has been strengthened by training 3,900 primary health care workers and combining the search for visiting foreigners, returning Chinese and people from other provinces with public security, customs formalities and employers. Any visitor detected by these services is obliged to have a blood slide taken. This has resulted in an earlier and more complete detection of malaria cases, reducing incidence from 19.19 to 12.12/10,000 in the border area over the last 10 years. This is despite a considerable increase in population movement and the threat of drug resistant malaria.

  18. Malaria ecology along the Thailand-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Daniel M; Carrara, Verena I; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; McGready, Rose; Nosten, François H

    2015-10-05

    Malaria in Southeast Asia frequently clusters along international borders. For example, while most of Thailand is malaria free, the border region shared with Myanmar continues to have endemic malaria. This spatial pattern is the result of complex interactions between landscape, humans, mosquito vectors, and malaria parasites. An understanding of these complex ecological and socio-cultural interactions is important for designing and implementing malaria elimination efforts in the region. This article offers an ecological perspective on the malaria situation along the Thailand-Myanmar border. This border region is long (2000 km), mountainous, and the environment ranges from thick forests to growing urban settlements and wet-rice fields. It is also a biologically diverse region. All five species of malaria known to naturally infect humans are present. At least three mosquito vector species complexes, with widely varying behavioural characteristics, exist in the area. The region is also a hub for ethnic diversity, being home to over ten different ethnolinguistic groups, several of which have been engaged in conflict with the Myanmar government now for over half a century. Given the biological and ethnic diversity, as well as the complex socio-political context, malaria control and elimination in the region is challenging. Despite these complexities, multipronged approaches including collaborations with multiple local organizations, quick access to diagnosis and treatment, prevention of mosquito bites, radical cure of parasites, and mass drug administration appear to be drastically decreasing Plasmodium falciparum infections. Such approaches remain crucial as the region moves toward elimination of P. falciparum and potentially Plasmodium vivax.

  19. How Neighbours Communicate: The Role of Language in Border Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonni Olsen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study of the linguistic situation in the border region where Norway meets Russia in the north. The aim of the study was to investigate language use when contact is revitalised after a long period with closed borders. The Norwegian and Russian languages are very different in vocabulary and structure, which makes communication difficult. How are the two languages affected by extended contact and migration across the border? The study was carried out by the author and Marit Bjerkeng through interviews, a questionnaire and observation of the linguistic situations in two Norwegian communities. The results show an ongoing development where the neighbouring language is increasingly noticeable, and there is a clear link between attitudes, identity and language use. The role of public policy seems to play an important role for the developing linguistic situation, as the Barents region as a political concept introduced in the 1990s has led to cross-border contact within various fields and also inspired local language policy, contributing to cultural pride an

  20. Informal transborder trade between México and Guatemala from permissive border perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ernesto Ruiz Juárez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes processes of interaction, tension, conflict and economic interests in one of the major border areas between Mexico and Guatemala. Informal transborder trade involves several actors who have been building these processes pursuant to agency initiatives. Among these actors, Guatemalan transborder traders who come to buy goods from their Mexican counterparts (retail and wholesale shop owners play a prominent role, as do the camareros who transport the traders and their merchandise across the Suchiate River on rafts and other actors such as moneychangers and rickshaw drivers who participate in economic and social interaction in the region. From a conceptual perspective, supported by the dialectical relationship between the notions of a border the behavior of transborder actors, it is concluded that in the study area, an informal border-trade integration process has developed and its actors transcend the border, rendering that border permissive.

  1. Alleviating Border Effects in Wavelet Transforms for Nonlinear Time-varying Signal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SU, H.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Border effects are very common in many finite signals analysis and processing approaches using convolution operation. Alleviating the border effects that can occur in the processing of finite-length signals using wavelet transform is considered in this paper. Traditional methods for alleviating the border effects are suitable to compression or coding applications. We propose an algorithm based on Fourier series which is proved to be appropriate to the application of time-frequency analysis of nonlinear signals. Fourier series extension method preserves the time-varying characteristics of the signals. A modified signal duration expression for measuring the extent of border effects region is presented. The proposed algorithm is confirmed to be efficient to alleviate the border effects in comparison to the current methods through the numerical examples.

  2. Local Border Traffic as a Form of Visa Liberalisation and Territorial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the issue of visa liberalisation between Russia and the European Union, which constitutes a key aspect of the parties’ diplomatic cooperation. This work sets out to identify the main results of Russia/EU cooperation. The authors have conducted a brief historical analysis of this area of relations. The visa “regionalisation” is considered in the context of identifying the key actors of the EU — Russia negotiations: the Kaliningrad region, Germany, Poland, and Lithuania. In their analysis, the authors rely mostly on primary sources: intergovernmental agreements on simplified border traffic, border-crossing statistics for the Kaliningrad region in the framework of the local border traffic, expert interviews, and related analytic reports. Specifically, local border traffic is viewed as the most effective form of interaction in the field of visa regime simplification and border territory development. An assessment of the positions of key negotiators shows that local border traffic between the Kaliningrad region of Russia and the Polish border voivodeships is a success, which stresses the need for a prompt transition to a visa-free regime with the EU.

  3. Bridging regional innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis

    2013-01-01

    to assess the progress of integration in the regions, as well as the effect of cross-border innovation policies. Consequently, important questions are left unanswered, including the central research question of this paper: does the sudden removal of significant physical barriers directly impacts......The topics of regional innovation systems (RIS) and cross-border regions attract increasing attention, but few studies combine the themes. Further, the existing empirical studies of cross-border innovation and knowledge creation analyse one case at one point in time, thus, making it difficult...... collaboration activity in cross-border innovation systems? This paper examines regional integration in the Oresund Region over time. It deals with a specific part of the RIS, as it analyses research collaboration between actors from the Danish and Swedish sides, with a specific emphasis on the biotech industry...

  4. Attempted Breastfeeding Before Hospital Discharge on Both Sides of the US-Mexico Border, 2005: The Brownsville-Matamoros Sister City Project for Women’s Health

    OpenAIRE

    Brian C. Castrucci, MA; Leticia E. Piña Carrizales, MD; Denise V. D’Angelo, MPH; Jill A. McDonald, PhD; Hillary Foulkes, MPH; Indu B. Ahluwalia, PhD; Ginger L. Gossman, PhD; Juan Acuña, MD, MSc; Tracy Erickson, RD, LD; Kathy Clatanoff, RN, MSN; Kayan Lewis, PhD; Gita Mirchandani, PhD; Brian Smith, MD

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The US-Mexico border region has a growing population and limited health care infrastructure. Preventive health behaviors such as breastfeeding ease the burden on this region's health care system by reducing morbidity and health care costs. We examined correlates of attempted breastfeeding before hospital discharge on each side of the US-Mexico border and within the border region. Methods The cross-sectional study included women who delivered a live infant in Matamoros, Tamaulipas...

  5. Mitigating the Exploitation of U.S. Borders by Jihadists and Criminal Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Steinmetz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the events of September 11, 2001, the U.S. Government began improving security in large population centers and near potential highvalue terrorist targets. Included in these efforts was the development of a more robust border security program, with an emphasis on reducing the threat of terrorist infiltration at America's borders. However, nearly a decade after 9/11, terrorism and organized crime continue to pose significant threats to the United States. As many of these threats emanate from other nations, improved border security helps mitigate these threats. This article summarizes known terrorist activity along the U.S. northern and southern borders, and highlights the threat of organized crime in the southwest border region. Furthermore, it analyzes current border security efforts and identifies key deficiencies in the system. Finally, it provides a tool kit for future border security endeavors that center on developing a larger but more coordinated and nimble border security force, driven by intelligence, and supported by proven technologies and tactical infrastructure.

  6. Aymara paradiplomacy: Empowerment in the border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Aranda Bustamante

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the border paradiplomacy used by more than 50 municipalities from Bolivia, Chile and Peru, named “Aymaras without Borders Strategic Alliance”. In spite of the differentiated historical construction of national identities, according to a literature review, it could be argued that there is an unprecedented border relation between these three countries. Furthermore, it is possible to conclude that this non-violent strategy has been successful in the last 15 years.

  7. A model for international border management systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2008-09-01

    To effectively manage the security or control of its borders, a country must understand its border management activities as a system. Using its systems engineering and security foundations as a Department of Energy National Security Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories has developed such an approach to modeling and analyzing border management systems. This paper describes the basic model and its elements developed under Laboratory Directed Research and Development project 08-684.

  8. Cross-Border Higher Education for Regional Integration:Analysis of the JICA-RI Survey on Leading Universities in East Asia. JICA-RI Working Paper. No. 26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kazuo; Yuki, Takako; Kang, Kyuwon

    2010-01-01

    Set against the backdrop of increasing economic interdependence in East Asia, the idea of regional integration is now being discussed as a long-term political process in the region. As in the field of the international economy, de facto integration and interdependence exist with respect to the internationalization of the higher education system…

  9. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Border Crossing/Entry Data Time Series tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The dataset is known as “Border Crossing/Entry Data.” The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics to the...

  10. Novel Cross-Border Approaches to Optimise Identification of Asymptomatic and Artemisinin-Resistant Plasmodium Infection in Mobile Populations Crossing Cambodian Borders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah M Edwards

    Full Text Available Human population movement across country borders presents a real challenge for malaria control and elimination efforts in Cambodia and its neighbouring countries. To quantify Plasmodium infection among the border-crossing population, including asymptomatic and artemisinin resistant (AR parasites, three official border crossing points, one from each of Cambodia's borders with Thailand, Laos and Vietnam, were selected for sampling.A total of 3206 participants (of 4110 approached were recruited as they crossed the border, tested for malaria and interviewed. By real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, 5.4% of all screened individuals were found to harbour Plasmodium parasites. The proportion was highest at the Laos border (11.5%. Overall there were 97 P. vivax (55.7%, 55 P. falciparum (31.6%, two P. malariae (1.1% and 20 mixed infections (11.5%. Of identified infections, only 20% were febrile at the time of screening. Of the 24 P. falciparum samples where a further PCR was possible to assess AR, 15 (62.5% had mutations in the K13 propeller domain gene, all from participants at the Laos border point. Malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT pLDH/HRP-2 identified a positivity rate of 3.2% overall and sensitivity compared to RT-PCR was very low (43.1%. Main individual risk factors for infection included sex, fever, being a forest-goer, poor knowledge of malaria prevention methods and previous malaria infection. Occupation, day of the week and time of crossing (morning vs. afternoon also appeared to play an important role in predicting positive cases.This study offers a novel approach to identify asymptomatic infections and monitor AR parasite flow among mobile and migrant populations crossing the borders. Similar screening activities are recommended to identify other hot borders and characterise potential hot spots of AR. Targeted "customised" interventions and surveillance activities should be implemented in these sites to accelerate elimination efforts

  11. Novel Cross-Border Approaches to Optimise Identification of Asymptomatic and Artemisinin-Resistant Plasmodium Infection in Mobile Populations Crossing Cambodian Borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Hannah M; Canavati, Sara E; Rang, Chandary; Ly, Po; Sovannaroth, Siv; Canier, Lydie; Khim, Nimol; Menard, Didier; Ashton, Ruth A; Meek, Sylvia R; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa

    2015-01-01

    Human population movement across country borders presents a real challenge for malaria control and elimination efforts in Cambodia and its neighbouring countries. To quantify Plasmodium infection among the border-crossing population, including asymptomatic and artemisinin resistant (AR) parasites, three official border crossing points, one from each of Cambodia's borders with Thailand, Laos and Vietnam, were selected for sampling. A total of 3206 participants (of 4110 approached) were recruited as they crossed the border, tested for malaria and interviewed. By real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), 5.4% of all screened individuals were found to harbour Plasmodium parasites. The proportion was highest at the Laos border (11.5%). Overall there were 97 P. vivax (55.7%), 55 P. falciparum (31.6%), two P. malariae (1.1%) and 20 mixed infections (11.5%). Of identified infections, only 20% were febrile at the time of screening. Of the 24 P. falciparum samples where a further PCR was possible to assess AR, 15 (62.5%) had mutations in the K13 propeller domain gene, all from participants at the Laos border point. Malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) pLDH/HRP-2 identified a positivity rate of 3.2% overall and sensitivity compared to RT-PCR was very low (43.1%). Main individual risk factors for infection included sex, fever, being a forest-goer, poor knowledge of malaria prevention methods and previous malaria infection. Occupation, day of the week and time of crossing (morning vs. afternoon) also appeared to play an important role in predicting positive cases. This study offers a novel approach to identify asymptomatic infections and monitor AR parasite flow among mobile and migrant populations crossing the borders. Similar screening activities are recommended to identify other hot borders and characterise potential hot spots of AR. Targeted "customised" interventions and surveillance activities should be implemented in these sites to accelerate elimination efforts in

  12. Interoperability at the Border: Coordinated Border Management Best Practices & Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank

    2010-01-01

    Interoperability among government agencies at national borders, also known as coordinated border management (CBM), is a fundamental component of a nation's modernized customs and border control strategy. It comprises the streamlining of parallel processes and technologies enabling different government agencies to effectively work together on border issues. By 4 implementing CBM strategies at both the domestic and international levels, countries can reduce internal costs and inefficiencies, im...

  13. Region 9 Tribal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset of all Indian Reservations in US EPA Region 9 (California, Arizona and Nevada) with some reservation border areas of adjacent states included (adjacent areas...

  14. Health status of southern Arizona border counties: a Healthy Border 2010 midterm review Situación de salud de los condados de la frontera sur de Arizona: examen a mitad de período del programa "Frontera saludable 2010"

    OpenAIRE

    Keisha L. Robinson; Kacey C. Ernst; Babs L. Johnson; Cecilia Rosales

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The region on the United States (US) side of the US-Mexico border consists of 44 counties in four states; populations on both sides of the border have similar health problems. Healthy Border 2010: An Agenda for Improving Health on the US-Mexico Border (HB 2010) is a binational agenda of health promotion and disease prevention for individuals in the region. This study reports on the health status of the four southern Arizona border counties. METHODS: Data on health indicators for Co...

  15. International Issues, High-Stakes Testing, and Border Pedagogy: Social Studies at Border High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Timothy G.; McDermott, Benjamin R.

    2013-01-01

    A recently constructed border wall stands within walking distance of Border High School (BHS) and was created to impede the flow of people, goods, fauna, and contraband from Mexico into the United States (U.S.). The reality, however, is that this geopolitical border is fluid, allowing connections between sociopolitical zones. The researchers…

  16. [Population in the northern border area. Urban dynamism and binational interrelation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham Chande, R

    1988-01-01

    The 3300 km border between Mexico and the US constitutes the geopolitical separation between an underdeveloped country on the 1 hand and 1 of the most technologically and economically powerful countries in the world on the other. The border region is characterized by the contrasts on either side of the border and by the strong interrelation between both sides. Vast streams of persons, merchandise, money, services, communications, and cultural influences flow from 1 side to the other. The border region as a seat of population has a recent history. The border was defined in near current form only in the mid-19th century, when the expansionist tendencies of the US encountered a vast area of very sparse population. In 1900, the principal localities of the border zone had only about 39,000 inhabitants, of whom fewer than 5000 lived west of Ciudad Juarez. Between 1910-20, the population of the border region increased from 53,000 to 96,000 as a result of migrants fleeing the ravages of the revolution. The population of the border region was estimated at 3.826 million in 1988, resulting from rates of growth above Mexico's national average. Settlement in the area has depended on events and conditions in Mexico and on such US occurrences as Prohibition, the Great Depression, the 2nd World War, the Bracero program, and the Program of Border Industrialization. 82% of the border population lives in urban zones, partly because of lack of water. 80% of the urban population is concentrated in 6 cities, Juarez, Tijuana, Mexicali, Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa, and Matamoros. Much of the population of the 6 cities is composed of persons born elsewhere. The border area also has a large floating population of undocumented migrants in transit to or from the US. The high rates of urbanization and of binational interaction are reflected in demographic dynamics. In 1979, 71% of women in union in the border area vs 54% in the rest of Mexico had used contraception, and the infant mortality rate was

  17. Responding to Communicable Diseases in Internationally Mobile Populations at Points of Entry and along Porous Borders, Nigeria, Benin, and Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Rebecca D; Rogers, Kimberly; Ward, Sarah; Ojo, Olubumni; Kakaī, Clement Glele; Agbeko, Tamekloe Tsidi; Garba, Hassan; MacGurn, Amanda; Oppert, Marydale; Kone, Idrissa; Bamsa, Olutola; Schneider, Dana; Brown, Clive

    2017-12-01

    Recent multinational disease outbreaks demonstrate the risk of disease spreading globally before public health systems can respond to an event. To ensure global health security, countries need robust multisectoral systems to rapidly detect and respond to domestic or imported communicable diseases. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention International Border Team works with the governments of Nigeria, Togo, and Benin, along with Pro-Health International and the Abidjan-Lagos Corridor Organization, to build sustainable International Health Regulations capacities at points of entry (POEs) and along border regions. Together, we strengthen comprehensive national and regional border health systems by developing public health emergency response plans for POEs, conducting qualitative assessments of public health preparedness and response capacities at ground crossings, integrating internationally mobile populations into national health surveillance systems, and formalizing cross-border public health coordination. Achieving comprehensive national and regional border health capacity, which advances overall global health security, necessitates multisectoral dedication to the aforementioned components.

  18. Policing bodies at the border and the borders within : immigration enforcement and detention in San Diego County and North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Griesbach, Kathleen Ann

    2011-01-01

    This thesis analyzes immigration enforcement and detention in San Diego County and North Carolina, using ethnographic interviews, local media, public records, and other data. It finds that immigration enforcement practices historically confined to the border are in many ways moving into the interior, largely through local law enforcement collaborations with federal immigration officials. This analysis argues that both regions see expanding local law enforcement collaboration with federal immi...

  19. Border Pedagogy Cafes: Grassroots Conversations that Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necochea, Juan; Cline, Zulmara

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study uses qualitative methods to analyze the impact of conversations in the Border Pedagogy "Cafes" on more than 500 binational educators from the Tijuana/San Diego area on the U.S.-Mexico border. Four important themes emerged from the analysis that describe the impact of the cafes and offer a strong foundation on which…

  20. Green Belt Europe - borders separate, nature unites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwe Friedel

    2015-01-01

    During the period of the Cold War between 1945 and 1989, a "Green Belt" of valuable pristine landscapes developed along the border line between Eastern and Western Europe, the intensively fortified and guarded so called Iron Curtain. Due to the remoteness of the border areas, a high number of national parks and other large conservation areas can be found...

  1. Sprouting of dormant buds on border trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.R., Jr. Trimble; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1970-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of silvicultura1 systems used in managing Appalachian hardwoods, we are studying degrade of border trees surrounding harvest-cut openings made in the patch cutting and group selection systems. One facet of this research dealt with determining what portion of visually evident dormant buds on border tree boles sprouted when the openings were cut...

  2. Knowledge-based urban development of cross-border twin cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Weidenfeld, Adi

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge-based urban development (KBUD) has recently emerged as a central topic of discussion among scholars and practitioners interested in urban development tools and policies. However, what has rarely been discussed before is whether KBUD can be achieved in a cross-border context. This paper......-Malmö. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the framework, guide potential further studies on KBUD and twin cities and raise relevant suggestions for urban policy-makers in border regions....

  3. Fan Letters to the Cultural Industries: Border Literature about Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Fox

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of the Mexican and U.S. cultural industries in cities outside of the border region and the intermittent outsourcing of Hollywood movies to production facilities in Baja, California, have had a marked impact on the literary practice of "fronterizo" 'border' intellectuals. This essay discusses the theme of the cinema in three narratives by authors from the U.S.-Mexico border region: "Hotel Frontera" ("Border Hotel", by Gabriel Trujillo Muñoz, "Canícula," by Norma Elia Cantú, and "The Magic of Blood," by Dagoberto Gilb. These narratives provide ethnographic information about the reception of nationally distributed mass media in the border region; at the same time they produce a contestatory discourse that challenges the manner in which the border and its populations have been portrayed and employed in the U.S. and Mexican film industries. The study of film culture must take into consideration patterns of consumption as well as production, and literature about mass media is one arena through which it is possible to focus on both of these processes simultaneously. Fronteriza/o writing about cinema reveals a desire to inhabit popular cinematic genres such as film noir and the western while at the same time retaining a critical stance towards them. This ambivalence is understood as a localist response to the marginalization of fronteriza/o cultural production in a bi-national context, rather than as general suspicion toward visual mass media on the part of "traditional" literary intellectuals.

  4. Economic integration and cross-border economic organizations: The case of San Diego-Tijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Mendoza Cota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic integration between the United States and Mexico has affected the economic, political and social relations in the border region. The paper seeks to relate the increasing economic integration and business cycles of the economies of San Diego and Tijuana to the development of both national and binational economic organizations in the border region. The methodology of analysis uses both statistical estimations of the economic integration of San Diego and Tijuana and semi-structured interviews of economic organizations to analyze the increasing economic integration and the role and achievements of the cross-border economic organizations. The results showed that cross-border cooperation is predominately controlled by federal and state governments on both sides of the border. However, the main achievements of cross-border economic cooperation have been accomplished by local private organizations. The perspective of further local economic development greatly depends on both the possibility of increased involvement of federal governments and the growing encouragement of regional organizations.

  5. Blood pressure control, hypertension, awareness, and treatment in adults with diabetes in the United States-Mexico border region Control de la presión arterial, hipertensión, concientización y tratamiento en adultos con diabetes de la zona fronteriza entre México y los Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Vijayaraghavan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: To determine prevalence of blood pressure control, hypertension, hypertension awareness, and antihypertensive treatment among adults (> 18 years old with diabetes living in the border region between the United States of America and Mexico, and to explore variation in those variables between all adults on the Mexican side of the border ("Mexicans" and three groups on the U.S. side of the border ("all U.S. adults," "U.S.-born Hispanics," and "Mexican immigrants". METHODS: Using data from Phase I (February 2001-October 2002 of the U.S.-Mexico Border Diabetes Prevention and Control Project, a prevalence study of type 2 diabetes and its risk factors, age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension-related variables was calculated for the sample (n = 682 and differences between the border groups were examined through logistic regression. RESULTS: Less than one-third of the sample had controlled blood pressure (140/90 mm Hg, and hypertension awareness and treatment were inadequate. After adjusting for demographics, body mass index, and access to health care, there were no differences in blood pressure control, hypertension, hypertension awareness, or treatment between Mexicans and both U.S. adults and Mexican immigrants. However, compared to Mexicans and Mexican immigrants, U.S.-born Hispanics, particularly younger individuals, had the lowest rates of blood pressure control (17.3% and the highest rates of coexisting hypertension (54.8%. Compared to Mexicans, U.S.-born Hispanics had lower odds of controlled blood pressure (odds ratio [OR] 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.09-0.95 and greater odds of hypertension (OR 3.75, 95% CI 1.51-9.29 and hypertension awareness (OR 6.19, 95% CI 1.46-26.15. CONCLUSION: Co-occurrence of diabetes and hypertension is a major public health problem among U.S.-Mexico border residents. The low rate of blood pressure control among various border groups, especially younger U.S.-born Hispanics, suggests that initiatives

  6. Border Collision Route to Quasiperiodicity: Numerical Investigation and Experimental Confirmation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai; Mosekilde, Erik; Maity, S.

    2006-01-01

    periodicity, e.g., a period-5 focus. This article also contains a discussion of torus destruction via a homoclinic bifurcation in the piecewise-linear normal map. Using a dc–dc converter with two-level control as an example, we report the first experimental verification of the direct transition......Numerical studies of higher-dimensional piecewise-smooth systems have recently shown how a torus can arise from a periodic cycle through a special type of border-collision bifurcation. The present article investigates this new route to quasiperiodicity in the two-dimensional piecewise-linear normal...... form map. We have obtained the chart of the dynamical modes for this map and showed that border-collision bifurcations can lead to the birth of a stable closed invariant curve associated with quasiperiodic or periodic dynamics. In the parameter regions leading to the existence of an invariant closed...

  7. Languaging the Borders of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Kramsch

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Emerging from a discomfort with the blind spots encountered within and across theorizations of language and space in the field of human geography, in this article, we argue for “making space” for conceptualizations that speak from and through the everyday territories of migrants in Europe today. Inspired by a range of writers thinking postcolonially and multi/trans-lingually, the authors draw on their own embodied migrant experience to argue for re-envisioning Europe’s borders through multiple languaging practices. “Languaging”, in this view, takes linguistic practices in a migrant context as an inherently prosthetic activity, whereby any dominant, national host language is inevitably subject to the subterranean rumblings of all the languages a migrant brings with her on her global journeys. Conceived as being saturated with prosthetic “absence(s”, migrant languaging practices rework cultural geography’s bounded, inward-looking, and security-fixated understanding of the language/territory nexus, the better to open a vital space for re-envisioning language’s everyday territories as sites for translational solidarity and becoming.

  8. Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pinciaroli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available “Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes” is the title of the residential workshop offered to a group of young adults (aged 18-25 of the Centro di Salute Mentale (Mental Health Center of the DSM Basaglia of ASL TO2 in Turin. The idea of the workshop, the definition of the objectives and the topics, which are clearly expressed in the title, come from the work of the team dedicated to group psychotherapies, which has been offering group psychodrama sessions to young adults of this age since 2008. In the delicate move to the adult age, these young adults are lost and stuck in static realities where it is not possible to open up to the dimension of desire nor to the transforming encounter with the Other, since they didn’t have the experience of boundaries and lack. These two elements are necessary to acquire the ability to make projects for oneself. During the workshop the following instruments were used: group, psychodrama and art therapy. The group, as a paternal function, ensured the presence of safe boundaries enabling individuals to experiment; psychodrama and art therapy enabled the bodies to experience encounters and transformations, using doing as a metaphor for the movement against the inhibition of doing and as a way to show oneself to the Other and be able to see the Other. 

  9. Environmental exposure of road borders to zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blok, J. [Royal Haskoning, P.O. Box 151, 6500 Ad Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: Han.Blok@royalhaskoning.com

    2005-09-15

    The emissions of zinc along roads originating from tyre wear, corrosion of safety fence and other traffic-related sources have been quantified and validated by measured long-term loads in road run-off and airborne solids (drift) for 29 published case studies. The distribution pattern over the road border at various distances from the edge of the paved surface is assessed on the basis of 38 published case studies with measured concentrations in soil. For the impact assessment, the road border is differentiated into a zone that is part of the 'technosphere' and the 'target zone' beyond that technosphere that can be considered as part of the receiving environment. The 'technosphere' of the road includes the central reservation, the hard and the soft shoulder or, if one or both shoulders are not present, the so-called obstacle 'free zone' that is defined by road engineers. Pollution within the technosphere may require appropriate management of solid disposal and isolation from groundwater to prevent further distribution of pollutants to the environment. In the target zone along regional roads, the zinc load is about 4 mg/m{sup 2} year and this is of the same order of magnitude as that of atmospheric deposition in areas beyond the influence of roads (background). In the target zone along highways, the zinc load is increased in comparison to the background deposition. The average load of about 38 mg/m{sup 2} year is similar to that in fertilised agricultural land. Because most of the emitted zinc stays in the technosphere, the total amount entering this target zone along highways is limited. From the 140 tons of zinc per year that is released from tyre wear in The Netherlands, 64 tons is emitted in the urban area, 6.5 tons reaches to the target zones of all roads and only 1.1 tons of zinc will enter the target zone along highways. This amount will be further decreased by the application of porous asphalt in the near future. The

  10. Environmental exposure of road borders to zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, J

    2005-09-15

    The emissions of zinc along roads originating from tyre wear, corrosion of safety fence and other traffic-related sources have been quantified and validated by measured long-term loads in road run-off and airborne solids (drift) for 29 published case studies. The distribution pattern over the road border at various distances from the edge of the paved surface is assessed on the basis of 38 published case studies with measured concentrations in soil. For the impact assessment, the road border is differentiated into a zone that is part of the "technosphere" and the "target zone" beyond that technosphere that can be considered as part of the receiving environment. The "technosphere" of the road includes the central reservation, the hard and the soft shoulder or, if one or both shoulders are not present, the so-called obstacle "free zone" that is defined by road engineers. Pollution within the technosphere may require appropriate management of solid disposal and isolation from groundwater to prevent further distribution of pollutants to the environment. In the target zone along regional roads, the zinc load is about 4 mg/m(2) year and this is of the same order of magnitude as that of atmospheric deposition in areas beyond the influence of roads (background). In the target zone along highways, the zinc load is increased in comparison to the background deposition. The average load of about 38 mg/m(2) year is similar to that in fertilised agricultural land. Because most of the emitted zinc stays in the technosphere, the total amount entering this target zone along highways is limited. From the 140 tons of zinc per year that is released from tyre wear in The Netherlands, 64 tons is emitted in the urban area, 6.5 tons reaches to the target zones of all roads and only 1.1 tons of zinc will enter the target zone along highways. This amount will be further decreased by the application of porous asphalt in the near future. The emission from safety fence corrosion does not enter

  11. INTERCEPTION OF ANIMAL-ORIGIN PRODUCTS AT LAND BORDERS IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Janice Eidt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Infectious agents and veterinary diseases can be disseminated across borders and contribute to change the country sanitary status. The aim of this study was to identify the main animal products intercepted and seized by the agricultural surveillance units. This paper studied three Agricultural Surveillance Units located at land borders in the North region of Brazil: Assis Brasil and Epitaciolândia (Acre State and Pacaraima (Roraima State, respectively borders with Peru, Bolivia and Venezuela. The main animal products confiscated were dairy products, fish, meat, sausage, veterinary products (drugs, animal food (pet foods and apiculture products. Given the clandestine nature of animal transit and its products in these borders, the possibilities of introduction of infectious agents and diseases must be better evaluated, considering the type of products confiscated, as well as the sanitary status of the countries of origin.

  12. Cross-border patterns in DNA matches between the Netherlands and Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverne, M D; Broeders, A P A

    2017-01-01

    In this article we present the results of a study to explore if cross-border DNA matches between the Netherlands and Belgium are relatively more likely to occur in areas near the Dutch-Belgian border than in areas at some distance from this border. For this study we used the results of the transnational DNA profile exchange and comparison between the Belgian and Dutch DNA databases, which first took place in 2014. It appears that the Dutch regions adjacent to Belgium, i.e., Zeeland-West-Brabant, Oost-Brabant and Limburg, have relatively more DNA matches with Belgium than the other Dutch regions. In other words, a DNA profile obtained from a crime scene close to the Dutch border with Belgium is more likely to match with the profile of a person whose DNA profile is stored in the Belgian database than a DNA profile that originates from a crime scene further afield. Our data suggest that crimes committed by repeat offenders show a spatial pattern despite the presence of a national border, with crime scenes clustering in relatively close proximity to each other. The results of this study provide a better understanding of geographical patterns of cross-border criminal mobility. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Contrast kinetics of the malignant breast tumour-Border versus centre enhancement on dynamic midfield MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marklund, Mette [Parker Institute, Frederiksberg Hospital, Ndr. Fasanvej 57-59, DK-2000 Frederiksberg (Denmark)], E-mail: mm@frh.regionh.dk; Torp-Pedersen, Soren [Parker Institute, Frederiksberg Hospital, Ndr. Fasanvej 57-59, DK-2000 Frederiksberg (Denmark)], E-mail: stp@frh.regionh.dk; Bentzon, Niels [Department of Breast Surgery, Herlev University Hospital (Denmark)], E-mail: niben@heh.regionh.dk; Thomsen, Carsten [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Copenhagen (Denmark)], E-mail: thomsen.carsten@mail-telia.dk; Roslind, Anne [Department of Oncology, Herlev University Hospital (Denmark)], E-mail: annro@heh.regionh.dk; Nolsoe, Christian P. [Department of Radiology, Frederiksberg Hospital (Denmark)], E-mail: cnolsoe@dadlnet.dk

    2008-02-15

    Purpose: To quantify the border versus centre enhancement of malignant breast tumours on dynamic magnetic resonance mammography. Materials and methods: Fifty-two women diagnosed with primary breast cancer underwent dynamic magnetic resonance mammography (Omniscan 0.2 mmol/kg bodyweight) on a midfield scanner (0.6 T), prior to surgery. The following five variables were recorded from the border and centre regions of the tumours: Early Enhancement, Time to Peak, Wash-in rate, Wash-out rate and Area under Curve. Information on histology type, oestrogen and progesterone receptor status was collected. Statistical analysis was performed in SAS 9.1 as paired samples t-tests. Results: Fifty of 52 malignant tumours displayed a faster Early Enhancement in the border region compared to the centre (p < 0.0001). Significant differences between the border and centre values were found for Time to Peak, Wash-in rate, Wash-out rate and Area under Curve. Hormone receptor positive tumours displayed an over-all highly significant difference between border and centre enhancement, whereas no significant differences for any of the five variables were recorded in neither oestrogen nor progesterone hormone receptor negative tumours. Conclusion: The border/centre enhancement difference in malignant breast tumours is easily visualized on midfield dynamic magnetic resonance mammography. The dynamic behaviour is significantly correlated to histological features and receptor status of the tumours.

  14. Regulation of ion gradients across myocardial ischemic border zones: a biophysical modelling analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Niederer

    Full Text Available The myocardial ischemic border zone is associated with the initiation and sustenance of arrhythmias. The profile of ionic concentrations across the border zone play a significant role in determining cellular electrophysiology and conductivity, yet their spatial-temporal evolution and regulation are not well understood. To investigate the changes in ion concentrations that regulate cellular electrophysiology, a mathematical model of ion movement in the intra and extracellular space in the presence of ionic, potential and material property heterogeneities was developed. The model simulates the spatial and temporal evolution of concentrations of potassium, sodium, chloride, calcium, hydrogen and bicarbonate ions and carbon dioxide across an ischemic border zone. Ischemia was simulated by sodium-potassium pump inhibition, potassium channel activation and respiratory and metabolic acidosis. The model predicted significant disparities in the width of the border zone for each ionic species, with intracellular sodium and extracellular potassium having discordant gradients, facilitating multiple gradients in cellular properties across the border zone. Extracellular potassium was found to have the largest border zone and this was attributed to the voltage dependence of the potassium channels. The model also predicted the efflux of [Formula: see text] from the ischemic region due to electrogenic drift and diffusion within the intra and extracellular space, respectively, which contributed to [Formula: see text] depletion in the ischemic region.

  15. Borders in Europe: From history to everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcís Bassols

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available

    This article reflects on European borders and their everyday dynamics from a cross-border perspective. The article begins with a discussion of recent events that question current border policies in the European Union, reviews the literature on borders and border territories, and finally moves on to a discussion of the everyday effects of cross-border practices on the inhabitants of border spaces. Occasional reference is made to borders in the Americas to complete the picture of this topic. Although the issue of security is indeed relevant, we focus on the economic and social dimensions of cooperation. Three aspects are essential for border residents who attempt to use the advantages of the territories for their global nature: work, shopping, and place of residence. In conclusion, there has been a tendency toward the softening of borders and greater integration of border zones in the European Union.

  16. DIFFUSE FRONTIERS AND HALF-BREED SOCIAL ACTORS: CONCEPTUAL DEBATES AND ANALYTICAL DEVELOPMENTS REGARDING BORDERING SPACES AND THEIR LINKS TO THE WHITE INDIANS IN THE CHACO REGION DURING THE SECOND HALF OF THE XIX CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Spota

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the frontier drawn between the Argentine State and the different aborigine groups of the Chaco region during the second half of the XIX century, different half-breed social identities that escape simple dichotomies between whites and Indians, civilized people and savage people were formed. The historical practice of considering social actors as white Indians (deserting soldiers, fugitive criminals, political exiles and refugees, as well as merchants who were incorporated to the Indian groups provides a privileged space for anthropological observation which has been relatively little explored until now. This paper investigates the historical reasons that motivated the migration of Creoles and recovers the perspective of social actors who took a leading role in the facts studied.

  17. Abuses at Europe’s borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Breen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Refugees and migrants have been regularly subjected to widespread rights violations by officials at some European borders. The EU needs to allow more legal avenues for people seeking protection to reach Europe safely.

  18. Externalization and Border-induced Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemberg-Pedersen, Martin

    and the international banking sector all have overlapping interests in privatized border control. Chapter five identifies the multiple flows, technological, personnel, funds and data, maintaining Europe’s border infrastructure, As migrants are circulated between detention camps and countries, dumped in deserts......This multidisciplinary Ph.D. dissertation engages with the timely and much debated topic of European border control. The first two chapters discuss several moral arguments claiming that border control facilitates solidarity and autonomy. These are assessed with reference to central debates...... in political philosophy concerning coercion, entry/exit, protection elsewhere and self-determination, and against the backdrop of empirical cases, such as the EU Commission’s UNHCR-donations, the Dublin II Regulation and the export of migrant camps to North Africa. In the third article the governance of asylum...

  19. Conservative Libertarianism and the Ethics of Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Camacho Beltran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many conservatives endorse a defence of closed borders grounded in basic liberal rights such as the basic right of association. Some conservatives also endorse libertarian principles of legitimacy. It is not clear though that this sort of defence of closed borders is somehow coherent with these libertarian ideals. I argue that conservative libertarians of this kind must reject this defence of closed borders because either it collapses into a form of statism incoherent with libertarian principles of legitimacy, or into an ideal precept without appeal regarding reality in the here and now that could only be applied to changing the very nature of the societies we know. As a result, at least conservative libertarians need to find a different source of justification for closed borders.

  20. Genetic variation of Border disease virus species strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giangaspero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 5´-untranslated region of Pestivirus strains isolated from domestic and wild animals were analysed to determine their taxonomic status according to nucleotide changes in the secondary genomic structure using the palindromic nucleotide substitutions (PNS method. A total of 131 isolates out of 536 Pestivirus strains evaluated, were clustered as Border disease virus (BDV species. The BDV strains were further divided into at least 8 genotypes or subspecies. Thirty-two isolates from small ruminants suffering from clinical symptoms of Border disease were clustered into bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and classical swine fever (hog cholera virus species and also into the tentative BDV-2 species. Since the definition of an infectious disease is based primarily on a specific causative pathogen and taking into account the heterogeneity of the genus Pestivirus, clinical cases should be named according to the laboratory results. The PNS procedure could be useful for laboratory diagnosis of Border disease in domestic and wild ruminants.

  1. Immigrants and Cross-Border Workers in the U.S.-Mexico Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo ORRACA ROMANO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia las diferencias entre los mexicanos que residen y trabajan en la zona fronteriza de Estados Unidos y los mexicanos que viven en México pero trabajan en Estados Unidos. Los inmigrantes y los trabajadores transfronterizos son comparados en términos de su magnitud, características socioeconómicas, estructura ocupacional e ingresos. De 2000 a 2010 se observa un aumento en el número de inmigrantes y una caída en la cantidad de trabajadores transfronterizos. Por otro lado, la población inmigrante tiende a ser más joven, tener mayores niveles de educación, estar empleada en mejores ocupaciones y percibir mayo - res ingresos que los trabajadores transfronterizos.

  2. Regional Joint Border Commands: A Pathway to Improving Collaboration and Effectiveness for Border Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    information. But what exactly is collaboration in DHS? Eugene Bardach simply defines collaboration as any joint activity by two or more agencies intended to...increase pubic value by working together rather than separately ( Bardach , 1998, p. 8). Raymond L. Kay II looked at this more deeply when he... Bardach , E. (1998). Getting agencies to work together: The practice and theory of managerial craftsmanship. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution

  3. Nutrition knowledge predicts eating behavior of all food groups except fruits and vegetables among adults in the Paso del Norte region: Qué Sabrosa Vida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shreela V; Gernand, Alison D; Day, R Sue

    2008-01-01

    To examine the association between nutrition knowledge and eating behavior in a predominantly Mexican American population on the Texas-Mexico border. Cross-sectional using data from the baseline survey of the Qué Sabrosa Vida community nutrition initiative. El Paso and surrounding counties in Texas. Data gathered in 2000 using random-digit dialing telephone survey. Response rate was 42.6% and final sample size was 963. Knowledge of recommended servings of food items was the independent variable and number of servings of food items consumed was the dependent variable. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association between nutrition knowledge and eating behavior. 74% of the population was Mexican American. Nutrition knowledge was a significant predictor of eating behavior for grains (odds ratio [OR] = 6.42; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.4, 17.1), dairy (OR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.5, 3.4), meats (OR = 2.02; 95% CI: 1.5, 2.8), beans (OR = 8.18; 95% CI: 5.1, 13.0), water (OR = 2.49; 95% CI: 1.7, 3.6), but not for fruits and (nonstarchy) vegetables (OR = 1.69; 95% CI: 0.89, 3.2). Nutrition knowledge predicts eating behavior for all food groups except fruits and vegetables. The role of cultural factors in eating behavior should be investigated to elucidate this finding. Results have implications for developing nutrition education programs for Mexican Americans.

  4. Tectono-magmatic evolution of the Chihuahua-Sinaloa border region in northern Mexico: Insights from zircon-apatite U-Pb geochronology, zircon Hf isotope composition and geochemistry of granodiorite intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Munazzam Ali; Goodell, Philip C.; Feinstein, Michael Nicholas

    2016-11-01

    We present the whole-rock geochemistry, LA-ICP-MS zircon-apatite U-Pb ages and zircon Hf isotope composition of the granodioritic plutons at the southwestern boundary of Chihuahua with the states of Sinaloa and Sonora. These granodiorites are exposed in the north and south of the Rio El Fuerte in southwest Chihuahua and northern Sinaloa. The magmatism spans over a time period of 37 Ma from 90 to 53 Ma. Zircons are exclusively magmatic with strong oscillatory zoning. No inheritance of any age has been observed. Our new U-Pb dating ( 250 analyses) does not support the involvement of older basement lithologies in the generation of the granitic magmas. The U-Pb apatite ages from granodiorites in southwest Chihuahua vary from 52 to 70 Ma. These apatite ages are 1 to 20 Ma younger than the corresponding zircon U-Pb crystallization ages, suggesting variable cooling rates from very fast to 15 °C/Ma ( 800 °C to 500 °C) and shallow to moderate emplacement depths. In contrast, U-Pb apatite ages from the Sinaloa batholith are restricted from 64 to 61 Ma and are indistinguishable from the zircon U-Pb ages range from 67 to 60 Ma within the error, indicating rapid cooling and very shallow emplacement. However, one sample from El Realito showed a larger difference of 20 Ma in zircon-apatite age pair: zircon 80 ± 0.8 Ma and apatite 60.6 ± 4 Ma, suggesting a slower cooling rate of 15 °C/Ma. The weighted mean initial εHf (t) isotope composition (2σ) of granodiorites varies from + 1.8 to + 5.2. The radiogenic Hf isotope composition coupled with previous Sr-Nd isotope data demonstrates a significant shift from multiple crustal sources in the Sonoran batholithic belt to the predominant contribution of the mantle-derived magmas in the southwest Chihuahua and northern Sinaloa. Based on U-Pb ages, the absence of inheritance, typical high Th/U ratio and radiogenic Hf isotope composition, we suggest that the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene magmatic rocks in this region are not derived from

  5. Cross-border teleradiology-Experience from two international teleradiology projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Peeter [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tallinn University of Technology, East Tallinn Central Hospital, Paernu mnt 104, 11312 Tallinn (Estonia)], E-mail: Peeter.Ross@itk.ee; Sepper, Ruth [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 15, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia)], E-mail: Ruth.Sepper@gmail.com; Pohjonen, Hanna [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 15, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia)], E-mail: Hanna.Pohjonen@rosalieco.fi

    2010-01-15

    Teleradiology aims to even radiologists' workload, ensure on-call services, reduce waiting lists, consult other specialists and cut costs. Cross-border teleradiology widens this scope beyond the country borders. However, the new service should not reduce the quality of radiology. Quality and trust are key factors in establishment of teleradiology. Additionally there are organizational, technical, legal, security and linguistic issues influencing the service. Herein, we have used experiences from two partially European Union funded telemedicine projects to evaluate factors affecting cross-border teleradiology. Clinical partners from Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Lithuania and the Netherlands went through 649 radiology test cases in two different teleradiology projects to build trust and agree about the report structure. Technical set-up was established using secure Internet data transfer, streaming technology, integration of workflows and creating structured reporting tool to overcome language barriers. The biggest barrier to overcome in cross-border teleradiology was the language issue. Establishment of the service was technically and semantically successful but limited to knee and hip X-ray examinations only because the structured reporting tool did not cover any other anatomical regions yet. Special attention has to be paid to clinical quality and trust between partners in cross-border teleradiology. Our experience shows that it is achievable. Legal, security and financial aspects are not covered in this paper because today they differ country by country. There is however an European Union level harmonization process started to enable cross-border eHealth in general.

  6. TACTICS OF BORDER CROSSING MOVEMENT: EXPLORING THE MOBILITY OF BRAZILIANS THROUGH THE SCHENGEN AND UK AIRSPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Dias

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the relations between migrants, mobility, tactics, negotiation, and the contemporary definition of borders in the aftermath of 9/11.The empirical focus of this paper is how Brazilians from Alto Paranaiba journey through airports located in the Schengen area and in the British territory to London. As a main research orientation, I use the notion of journey as approached by mobility studies, where actions and skills remain an important link between the wayfarer and the social space in which s/he moves through, the embodied practice to how we grasp the world. Migrants deal and struggle against border regime, but they are not powerless social actors. They rather produce creative resistance to reinvent their journey through the surveillance apparatus, which manage and delimit places with targets and threats. In this process, I explore the notion of border crossing movement as a tactical mobility developed by migrants to overcome the border control imposed by governments in airports. The article was drawn through fieldwork conducted initially in London, between 2009 and 2013, and afterwards in Alto Paranaiba, during 2013. The ethnographic study consisted in semi-structured interviews, participant observation through snowball technique, which enabled me to access a considerable number of participants in these two regions explored. The argument that I develop is that migrants as social actors are part important in the dialogue produced between border crossing and border reinforcement.

  7. Left ventricle myocardial border detection in three-dimensional intracardiac ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Weidong; Kanani, Prapti; Allan, John; Kerber, Richard; McKay, Charles R.; Sonka, Milan

    1997-05-01

    We have previously reported an automated approach to detection of endocardial and epicardial borders in individual intracardiac ultrasound (ICUS) images. Here, we report the method's extension to 3D ICUS image data sets. Our method is based on fully automated detection of epicardial and endocardial borders inside a single interactively identified region of interest. BOrder detection is based on an optimal graph-searching approach that utilizes a priori knowledge about left ventricular (LV) anatomy and ultrasound imaging physics. Eight cadaveric pig hearts were used for validation. Two ICUS sequences were obtained from each heart, with a 10 MHz CVIS 10F catheter positioned in the LV across (1) the aortic valve and (2) the mitral valve. Performance of the 3D automated border detection method was assessed by comparing the observer- defined and computer-determined quantitative indices of LV volume and by border positioning errors. The 3D reconstruction of the lV was performed from the sequences of the detected epicardial and endocardial borders using shape- based interpolation and surface rendering.

  8. Cross- border interfirm knowledge generation and enterprise development in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2015-01-01

    This chapter is grounded in the theoretical understanding that knowledge provides the foundation for innovation within fi rms and industries and propels economic growth. Furthermore, the amount and value of the learning that takes place within and between fi rms locally and in cross- border...... collaborative engagements depends on the dominant characteristics of the national and regional systems of knowledge management and innovation. The chapter therefore seeks to shed light on how individual and fi rm- level characteristics, as well as the institutional and cultural contexts of collaboration, infl...

  9. Cross-border Co-operation Networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    Long seen as artificial barriers inherited from decolonisation, West African borders now lie at the heart of policies designed to encourage regional trade and combat political instability. This rediscovery of the peripheries of the nation state has fostered a proliferation of institutional...... largely unknown across West Africa. The purpose of this paper is to fill that gap, with an analysis of both the social structure and the geography of West African governance networks. On the basis of this structural and geographic analysis, policy recommendations are formulated aimed at implementing...

  10. The Canarian linguistic heritage in the Mexican border with Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Arístides Pérez Aguilar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of words that arrived in the Mexican border with Belize during the first half of the XVIII century with Canarian colonizers whom were brought by the governor of Yucatán to populate the village of Salamanca de Bacalar in order to built a fortress to stop the English advance in the region. It is about verbs, nouns and adjectives that became embedded within certain blocks of the material life of the society from Bacalar made of indios, mestizos and Spanish whom their percentages allowed the ingrainment and diffusion of these voices which until today still have a peculiar vitality on both sides of the river.

  11. Measuring cross-border travel times for freight : Otay Mesa international border crossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Cross border movement of people and goods is a vital part of the North American economy. : Accurate real-time data on travel times along the US-Mexico border can help generate a range : of tangible benefits covering improved operations and security, ...

  12. Tribal Boundary Polygons, Region 9, 2007, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset of all Indian Reservations in US EPA Region 9 (California, Arizona and Nevada) with some reservation border areas of adjacent states included (adjacent areas...

  13. Consistency of Border-Ownership Cells across Artificial Stimuli, Natural Stimuli, and Stimuli with Ambiguous Contours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Janis K; Tsao, Doris Y

    2016-11-02

    Segmentation and recognition of objects in a visual scene are two problems that are hard to solve separately from each other. When segmenting an ambiguous scene, it is helpful to already know the present objects and their shapes. However, for recognizing an object in clutter, one would like to consider its isolated segment alone to avoid confounds from features of other objects. Border-ownership cells (Zhou et al., 2000) appear to play an important role in segmentation, as they signal the side-of-figure of artificial stimuli. The present work explores the role of border-ownership cells in dorsal macaque visual areas V2 and V3 in the segmentation of natural object stimuli and locally ambiguous stimuli. We report two major results. First, compared with previous estimates, we found a smaller percentage of cells that were consistent across artificial stimuli used previously. Second, we found that the average response of those neurons that did respond consistently to the side-of-figure of artificial stimuli also consistently signaled, as a population, the side-of-figure for borders of single faces, occluding faces and, with higher latencies, even stimuli with illusory contours, such as Mooney faces and natural faces completely missing local edge information. In contrast, the local edge or the outlines of the face alone could not always evoke a significant border-ownership signal. Our results underscore that border ownership is coded by a population of cells, and indicate that these cells integrate a variety of cues, including low-level features and global object context, to compute the segmentation of the scene. To distinguish different objects in a natural scene, the brain must segment the image into regions corresponding to objects. The so-called "border-ownership" cells appear to be dedicated to this task, as they signal for a given edge on which side the object is that owns it. Here, we report that individual border-ownership cells are unreliable when tested across

  14. Job market in the northern border of Mexico: Structure and employment policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Mendoza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the factors that have impacted the labor market and employment in the northern border of Mexico and in its most important border cities. The economic growth of the region is related to the labor market. Additionally, the most important employment policies, both at the national and the regional level, are described showing their advantages and limitations. It is shown that the rates of open unemployment are lower in the northern border, although there is an important pressure to provide employment for the increasing labor force. With respect to training, the states of Baja California and Nuevo Leon stand out for their industrial, technical and managerial courses. The employment polices have been an important tool for offsetting the increasing unemployment rates but have been only a partial instrument, since structural reforms in education and infrastructure development are required to promote investment and create employment.

  15. Child hunger and the protective effects of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and alternative food sources among Mexican-origin families in Texas border colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Nalty, Courtney C

    2013-09-13

    Nutritional health is essential for children's growth and development. Many Mexican-origin children who reside in limited-resource colonias along the Texas-Mexico border are at increased risk for poor nutrition as a result of household food insecurity. However, little is known about the prevalence of child hunger or its associated factors among children of Mexican immigrants. This study determines the prevalence of child hunger and identifies protective and risk factors associated with it in two Texas border areas. This study uses 2009 Colonia Household and Community Food Resource Assessment (C-HCFRA) data from 470 mothers who were randomly recruited by promotora-researchers. Participants from colonias near two small towns in two South Texas counties participated in an in-home community and household assessment. Interviewer-administered surveys collected data in Spanish on sociodemographics, federal food assistance program participation, and food security status. Frequencies and bivariate correlations were examined while a random-effects logistic regression model with backward elimination was used to determine correlates of childhood hunger. Hunger among children was reported in 51% (n = 239) of households in this C-HCFRA sample. Bivariate analyses revealed that hunger status was associated with select maternal characteristics, such as lower educational attainment and Mexican nativity, and household characteristics, including household composition, reliance on friend or neighbor for transportation, food purchase at dollar stores and from neighbors, and participation in school-based nutrition programs. A smaller percentage of households with child hunger participated in school-based nutrition programs (51%) or used alternative food sources, while 131 households were unable to give their child or children a balanced meal during the school year and 145 households during summer months. In the random effects model (RE = small town), increased household

  16. Border effects among Catalan dialects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieling, Martijn; Valls, Esteve; Baayen, R. Harald; Nerbonne, John; Speelman, Dirk; Heylen, Kris; Geeraerts, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigate which factors influence the linguistic distance of Catalan dialectal pronunciations from standard Catalan. We use pronunciations from three regions where the northwestern variety of the Catalan language is spoken (Catalonia, Aragon and Andorra). In contrast to Aragon,

  17. Sustainable rural development and cross-border cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Žaklina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable rural development comprises three aspects - social, economical and ecological. They are supposed to act in synergy, but, at the same time, these aspects are supposed to be competitive. Agriculture, as a traditional activity of rural economy, contributes to the sustainable development of rural areas only if there is an adequate resources management. If not, there will be a significant degradation of rural environment. These are the reasons why sustainable agriculture development is emphasized since it maximizes productivity and minimizes negative effects on nature and human resources. In this context, one should observe the connection between agriculture and tourism existing in the EU, where the application of sustainable agricultural development concept produces external effects connected to biodiversity protection and environment in rural areas. These become a good foundation for the development of rural and ecotourism. EU enlargement induced diversification of support programmes that EU gives to the candidate countries, as well as to those who are just entering the process of stabilization and association to the EU. Through cross-border cooperation projects, many goals can be accomplished, among which aspiration for promotion of sustainable economical and social development in border regions is one of the leading. Knowing that these regions are usually passive and underdeveloped, the projects of cross-border cooperation could induce development of those activities in local economy, which could bring better living conditions and economic prosperity on the one hand, and protection of environment on the other. Examples of this kind of projects in Serbia can usually be found in rural and ecotourism development.

  18. BTFS: The Border Trade Facilitation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, L.R.

    1999-03-18

    The author demonstrates the Border Trade Facilitation System (BTFS), an agent-based bilingual e-commerce system built to expedite the regulation, control, and execution of commercial trans-border shipments during the delivery phase. The system was built to serve maquila industries at the US/Mexican border. The BTFS uses foundation technology developed here at Sandia Laboratories' Advanced Information Systems Lab (AISL), including a distributed object substrate, a general-purpose agent development framework, dynamically generated agent-human interaction via the World-Wide Web, and a collaborative agent architecture. This technology is also the substrate for the Multi-Agent Simulation Management System (MASMAS) proposed for demonstration at this conference. The BTFS executes authenticated transactions among agents performing open trading over the Internet. With the BTFS in place, one could conduct secure international transactions from any site with an Internet connection and a web browser. The BTFS is currently being evaluated for commercialization.

  19. The Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Border: Institutional Legitimacy and Regional Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    foreign aid 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 161 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE...0002764209338797. From a sociological perspective on institutions, see Talcott Parsons, The Social System (Glencoe, IL : Free Press, 1951). Parsons...arguments continued as part of Cold War geopolitics, the emergence of the oil-rich Gulf and the later destabilization of the Afghanistan– Pakistan

  20. Networked governance in Ecuador’s border regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Balyk

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve security for both Colombian forced migrants andEcuadorians in the communities where they live, an approach thattakes advantage of governance networks can allow residents tonegotiate access to resources and rights that they otherwise wouldnot be able to enjoy. It can also improve relations between the twogroups.

  1. Russo-Japanese Territorial Dispute from the Border Region Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Kuroiwa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la disputa territorial creada a partir del final de la IIª Guerra Mundial, Japón y la Unión Soviética llevan manteniendo posturas opuestas y tienen desde entonces como consecuencia, pendiente la firma de un tratado de paz. Las negociaciones territoriales entre Japón y Rusia que se reanudaron con el fin de la Guerra Fría se llevan manteniendo desde hace más de veinte años. Sin embargo, no hay resolución a la vista. Japón persiste en su petición de que le sean devueltos los conocidos como Territorios del Norte (Islas Kuriles del Sur, según su definición rusa y que efectivamente se mantienen bajo administración rusa. ¿Cuál es la razón por la que Japón y Rusia son incapaces de alcanzar acuerdo alguno sobre la posesión de estas pequeñas islas? El propósito de este artículo es el de demostrar dónde se sitúan los obstáculos que se interponen en la resolución de esta disputa desde la perspectiva de una región fronteriza. En primer lugar, este artículo reastrea los orígenes y vicisitudes de la disputa y a continuación, examina las posturas de los pueblos indígenas y japoneses que anteriormente habitaban las Islas Kuriles, así como de la población rusa que actualmente reside en ellas. Se va a examinar igualmente la situación en Nemuro, Hokkaido, que se encuentra cerca de la frontera Rusia-Japón. Al haberse hecho esperar tanto la resolución de la disputa territorial, se han acabado estableciendo "mitos territoriales" a ambos lados de la frontera, reforzándose con ello las respectivas narrativas, lo cual hace que la resolución de la disputa se vuelva aún más difícil.

  2. Russo-Japanese Territorial Dispute from the Border Region Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Yukiko Kuroiwa

    2013-01-01

    Debido a la disputa territorial creada a partir del final de la IIª Guerra Mundial, Japón y la Unión Soviética llevan manteniendo posturas opuestas y tienen desde entonces como consecuencia, pendiente la firma de un tratado de paz. Las negociaciones territoriales entre Japón y Rusia que se reanudaron con el fin de la Guerra Fría se llevan manteniendo desde hace más de veinte años. Sin embargo, no hay resolución a la vista. Japón persiste en su petición de que le sean devueltos los conocidos c...

  3. Civic and Ethnic Identity of Citizens of Russian Border Regions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Svetlana Maximova; Oksana Noyanzina; Daria Omelchenko; Anastasiia Morkovkina

    2016-01-01

      According to English psychologist H. Tajfel, social identity is 'the part of Self-concept of individual, that emerge from understanding of own group membership together with value and emotional significance of the group [4], i.e...

  4. Cross-border mobility of workers between Galicia and north of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Falagán Mota

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we deal with cross-border flows of people within the Euroregion Galicia-North of Portugal, paying particular attention to those led by workers. Based on data for daily mobility between the places of residence and work (commuters, it can be defined, within this territory, the so-called Polycentric Urban Regions (PUR of Vigo and Porto. These regions should constitute significant referents of cross-border mobility, whose importance we begin to realize by estimating the movement of passengers across border crossings linking the south of Galicia and the north of Portugal. In this context, given the non-existence of official statistics, the reports prepared by the Eures Galicia/Região Norte office provide relevant information about the flow of cross-border workers in the area, which we have complemented by conducting two surveys directed, respectively, to involved workers and companies, and data from a recent study on labour mobility in the Euroregion. The evidence demonstrates the quantitative importance achieved in the territory analyzed by this interesting phenomenon of cross-border work and allows a description of its characteristics that shows the difficulties faced by the process of construction of a European labor market.

  5. Writing on the Edge: Impressions of a U.S.-Mexico Border in Rolando Hinojosa's Estampas del Valle

    OpenAIRE

    CANTU, MARIA GUADALUPE

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation engages in a critical reading of Rolando Hinojosa's early fiction in Estampas del Valle as an example of a unique border literature that highlights the multiplicity of elements that exist along the Rio Grande. By using the work of an author that has direct experience with life along the U.S.-Mexico border the aim of this study is to look at how the border region and its cultural and spatial manifestations impact on writings concerned with memory, the personal and the self. ...

  6. The changing forms and nature of borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Walther

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary borders are not always where you would expect them to be. On a flight to America, for instance, the crew will inform you that passengers are not allowed to congregate in groups around the toilets or anywhere in the aircraft. This US State Department regulation applies whether you are on Swiss soil waiting for takeoff, contemplating the Atlantic Ocean at an altitude of 33’000 feet above international waters, or landing at John F. Kennedy Airport in New York City. Borders are no lo...

  7. A CART extension using Quadratic Decision Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    -space into subsets which are successively more class-homogeneous. Guided by the fact that class-distributions in feature-space are very often hyper-elliptical shaped, we give an extension to the original CART which also uses quadratic shaped decision borders which can be modelled by a mean-vector and a dispersion......In this article we put forward an extention to the hierarchical CART classification method which uses quadratic decision borders. The original CART applies univariate splits on individual variables as well as splits on combinations of variables to recursively partition the feature...

  8. A CART extention using Quadratic Decision Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    -space into subsets which are successively more class-homogeneous. Guided by the fact that class-distributions in feature-space are very often hyper-elliptical shaped, we give an extension to the original CART which also uses quadratic shaped decision borders which can be modelled by a mean-vector and a dispersion......In this article we put forward an extention to the hierarchical CART classification method which uses quadratic decision borders. The original CART applies univariate splits on individual variables as well as splits on combinations of variables to recursively partition the feature...

  9. of the U. S.-Mexico Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Meritet

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the possible impacts of liquefied natural gas (LNG projects on natural gas prices on both sides of the U. S.-Mexico border in California. In that state gas prices are high and demand is expected to grow. Several projects for LNG facilities have been proposed and have to cope with public opinions against them. In Baja California, four LNG projects are under development given the rising demand forecasted for the next years. After a detailed study of the opportunity for LNG projects, we conclude with an analysis of the fundamentals of the current and future price formation in both sides of the U. S.- Mexico border.

  10. Dimeric assembly of enterocyte brush border enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    The noncovalent, dimeric assembly of small intestinal brush border enzymes was studied by sedimentation analysis in density gradients of extracts of pulse-labeled pig jejunal mucosal explants. Like aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2), sucrase-isomaltase (EC 3.2.1.48-10), aminopeptidase A (EC 3...... appearance of the liposome-reconstituted enzyme [Norén et al. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 12306-12309], showing only the inner, membrane-anchored domains of the monomers to be in close contact with one another while the outer domains are far apart. In contrast to the other brush border enzymes studied...

  11. The EU Border Assistance Mission in Libya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højstrup Christensen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    The EU Border Assistance Mission in Libya (EUBAM), with the objective of supporting Libyan authorities in improving and developing the security of the country’s borders, was launched in May 2013 but suspended during the summer of 2014, because the security situation in Libya deteriorated. Therefore......’s assessment of the EU Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) mission, EUBAM Libya, and its contribution to the country’s overall security situation12. It takes departure in the complete deliverables of the Work Package 3, with The Libyan Review as the main source of reference. The aim of this chapter...

  12. Crossing the Borders: An Eco-cinecritical Analysis of Plant Wars and Bird Without Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Ching Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay reads two Asian nature-oriented films from the perspective of ecocinecriticism,an ecologically minded film criticism. Plant Wars, produced by PTSTaiwan, questions the demarcation between native plants and exotic plants as well asbetween plants and human beings so as to remap the in-between border area. Thestorytelling method it applies is to feature 14 currently native plants as the maincharacters, and illustrates their relationship to aboriginal people, farmers, beekeepersand to other insect species. Bird Without Borders, also produced by PTS, tells the storyof the migration journey of a group of black-faced spoonbills flying 16,000 kilometersall the way from Tainan, Taiwan, to Japan, along the border of South and North Korea,to a remote island of China to look for feeding places and then back to Taiwan to spendthe winter. Different layers of border-crossing are shown in Bird. One similarity ofthese two PTS productions is the search for border-crossing so as to redefine or revisewhat the border means. Plant questions the biological categorization of the native plantsand the exotic plants; Bird illustrates how the crew physically follows the route of thebirds’ flight which crosses the national borders to provide a vision of remapping thenatural territory through challenging the idea of a fixed “place.” Both are seeking forways to trespass the man-made borders: Plant via environmental imagination; Bird viasome physical movement. While the title of Plant Wars seemingly expresses its positionmore strongly through “wars,” Bird Without Borders explicitly asserts a dream of noborders.

  13. “Cross-border environmental peace” in development contexts: the convergence of peace with de-territorialized development

    OpenAIRE

    Koff, Harlan; Maganda, Carmen; Conde, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    This article contends that notions of «peace» and «justice» in cross-border water management vary in different world regions. Moreover, it argues that «peace» and «justice» can be explained by analyzing the interaction between «regional» interpretations and implementation of water security norms and local cross-border power structures. «Regional water security» is defined as the normative commitment to provide necessary water resources to communities within world regions. «Powe...

  14. Nigeria; Publication of Financial Sector Assessment Program Documentation––Technical Note of Banking Cross-Border Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    The global financial crisis provided Nigerian banks with opportunities to expand within Sub-Saharan Africa. Nigerian banks have active cross-border liquidity flows, which may complicate the operation of monetary policy. The Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) should enhance further its work in improving cross-border supervision, including home-host coordination and cooperation. The CBN may also consider taking initiative in establishing a regional coordination group similar to the Vienna Initiative...

  15. Demographic Processes in the Southern Part of the Hungarian – Romanian Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EGON NAGY

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a demographic comparative study of two neighboring regions along the southern part of the Romanian-Hungarian border region, which serves as a fundament for further analyses concerning the verification of cohesion between the two parts of the border. We have concluded our study with the statement that in spite of its traditionally low population increase, the Romanian Timiş and Arad counties have a more advantageous demographical condition than the neighboring Hungarian Békés and Csongrád counties, which can be described as having a generalized demographical decline. Though in Romania the Banat region for many decades is classified as a crisis-zone from a demographical point of view, it can show off an impressive attractiveness in terms of inner-migration in contrast to its Hungarian neighbors. In contrast with the northern part of the Romanian-Hungarian border, in this region the border strip does not overlap with a socio-economic periphery, because this phenomenon is more scattered in space.

  16. 76 FR 57751 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Northern Border...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ..., Bottineau, ND 58318. October 6 St. Albans, VT......... The Senator Historical Museum, 9 Church Street, St... Northern Border, rather than four separate, regional PEISs. This new approach was designed to ensure that... roads, and related facilities. The barriers would include selective fencing and vehicle barriers at...

  17. 75 FR 43225 - Finding of No Significant Impact: San Diego-Tijuana Airport Cross Border Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... and Purpose The San Diego/Tijuana region is the largest urban area along the U.S.--Mexico border, with... stormwater runoff and direct it toward the south. Vacant acres directly north of the project site are.... Public services and utilities: The applicant shall prepare and implement a waste management plan that...

  18. Comparative Structures and Attitudes Along the U.S.-Mexican Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Ellwyn R.

    Most on-going research on the U.S.-Mexican Border region is in the major content areas of political structure and urbanization, disaster relief, law enforcement, and self-identity studies. Political interaction contrasts the centrally controlled power structures of Mexico with the more complex economic and social structures of the United States.…

  19. Threats to cross-border wildlife linkages in the Sky Islands Wildlands Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Vacariu

    2005-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing conservationists in the Sky Islands region is finding a realistic means to maintain historic travel routes for wide-ranging species crossing the United States-Mexico border. This challenge is made difficult due to the ongoing efforts by the Federal government to install additional security infrastructure to stem the flood of...

  20. Risk for HIV Infection among Adolescents in the Border City of Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Donate, Ana P.; Blumberg, Elaine J.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Sipan, Carol L.; Zellner, Jennifer A.; Hughes, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested high rates of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections in theU.S.-Mexico border region. However, no information is available on the risk for HIV infection among Mexican adolescents living in this geographic area. This study examines the prevalence of HIV risk practices and psychosocial correlates…

  1. Fronteras 1976. San Diego/Tijuana--The International Border in Community Relations: Gateway or Barrier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, Kiki, Ed.

    Nine papers comprise the proceedings from the conference on cultural interdependence between the border regions of San Diego, California, and Tijuana, Mexico. The papers discuss the following: (1) insurgence of the Southwest's Spanish-speaking minority since 1960; (2) opportunities for cooperation between the United States and Mexican governments;…

  2. Indigenous Resistance and Racist Schooling on the Borders of Empires: Coast Salish Cultural Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Coast Salish people of British Columbia and Washington State inhabit a borderlands region where they have negotiated the sometimes contrasting policies of two empires. Families belong to more than one village and must travel across the Canada-USA border frequently for ceremonies and events that bind the Coast Salish world together. Both…

  3. Border Security: A Conceptual Model of Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    and poverty issues),89 distance to POEs, and risk of deportation , cross-border attendance has reduced significantly, in turn slowing the passing down...plants eradicated in Colombia , or the number of illegal immigrants apprehended, or the number of assault weapons interdicted enroute to Mexico, for

  4. International Taxation and Cross-Border Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998-2008 - period. Home country corporate income taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  5. Estimating Border Tax Evasion in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Van Dunem, Joao Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between border tax rates and evasion is examined for Mozambique using the methodology developed by Fisman and Wei (2004). We find that high tax rates are associated with high levels of under-reporting of import values and that tax rates have a strong and positive effect on tax ev...

  6. THE LESSONS OF THE BORDER WAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Willem Scholtz

    spare parts, etc. This was true of the Border War as well. In general, the troops fighting the counter-insurgency war in the north of Namibia were well supplied. Most of the ... body. This meant that the loading of supplies were undertaken haphazardly, without the needs of the frontline troops being taken into account, with the.

  7. International taxation and cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998�2008 period. International double taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  8. Sharing Knowledge and Experience Across Borders | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Yemeni farmers have to drill their wells as deep as six metres to get enough water to irrigate crops. In this parched country — bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north and Oman to the east ... Qahtan has noticed that engineering students are now working at a faster pace. "Designs are readily available on the Internet," he adds.

  9. Crossing Pedagogical Borders in the Yucatan Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhauck, Susan

    2009-01-01

    A challenging intercultural teaching experience provided an opportunity for engaging embodied pedagogies that facilitated border crossings of language, age, gender, and experience. Influenced by the work of Augusto Boal, the author describes how improvisation, role-play, music, and drawing led seminary students in Mexico into sacred time and space…

  10. Border Lakes land-cover classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin Bauer; Brian Loeffelholz; Doug. Shinneman

    2009-01-01

    This document contains metadata and description of land-cover classification of approximately 5.1 million acres of land bordering Minnesota, U.S.A. and Ontario, Canada. The classification focused on the separation and identification of specific forest-cover types. Some separation of the nonforest classes also was performed. The classification was derived from multi-...

  11. Developing a simulation for border safeguarding

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rooyen, S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available ). It deals with situations such as rhino poaching, smuggling of narcotics into South Africa, and transporting stolen goods and vehicles out and across the border. In Section 2 we discuss the JC2 concept as well as the role of the Interoperability...

  12. Cross-border flow of health information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Iorio, Concetta Tania; Carinci, Fabrizio; Brillante, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The EUBIROD project aims to perform a cross-border flow of diabetes information across 19 European countries using the BIRO information system, which embeds privacy principles and data protection mechanisms in its architecture (privacy by design). A specific task of EUBIROD was to investigate...... the variability in the implementation of the EU Data Protection Directive (DPD) across participating centres....

  13. Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan

    This paper focuses on three topics in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (CBM&As) field: motivations for CBM&As, valuation techniques and CBM&A performance (assessment and the determinants). By taking an overview of what have been found so far in academic field and investigating...

  14. e Ethiopia-Eritrea Border Conflict

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siphamandla Zondi and Emmanuel Réjouis the ruling of the Eritrea–Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC) as agreed at. Algiers, and Eritrea laments the disregard of agreements, especially by the inter- national community that witnessed them. The Boundary Commission, charged with adjudicating a ruling on the border ...

  15. Leishmaniasis: sickness without borders | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A fly carrying a deadly parasite is endemic in the jungles of the Iguazu Falls, located where the borders of Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay meet. For centuries, this insect did not bother anyone in this remote area. But as its territory has been encroached on by settlements, the disease has spread. With IDRC's support ...

  16. FURGY – Cross-border Networking with Focus on Renewable Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstlberger, Wolfgang; Siegl, Michael; Vedder, Jan-Frederik

    FURGY (Future Renewable Energies) which is a project supported by European INTERREG IV A funds shall establish a joint center of competence in the regions north and south of the German-Danish border for renewable resources and energy efficiency, helping to build a sustainable energy cluster status...... on international level. The project started in late 2009 with a runtime of 3 years. The FURGY project pursues the goal to strengthen this existing location advantage by a vital cross-border network. In the sector of renewable energy surveys, interdisciplinary networks and active information policies shall optimize...

  17. Restructuring locality: practice, identity and place-making on the German-Polish border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, Marie

    2016-01-01

    ′ leaderships are attempting to wrestle the cities out of their downmarket positioning in the global economy. Deploying a performative research strategy of methodological relationalism, the article examines intersections between these cities′ strategies of situating local youth within urban regeneration...... and cross-border projects and local youth′s preferences for engaging in other kinds of place-making. By ‘seeing’ the cities in border regions through practices of place-making within the multiscalar processes of urban regeneration, new insights about ‘place’ are generated in which city branding...

  18. Border Security: The Role of the U.S. Border Patrol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nunez-Neto, Blas

    2005-01-01

    .... Today, the USBP's primary mission is to detect and prevent the entry of terrorists, weapons of mass destruction, and illegal aliens into the country, and to interdict drug smugglers and other criminals along the border...

  19. O papel estratégico de cidades gêmeas no controle de mercadorias em regiões de fronteira no contexto do MERCOSUL: Uruguaiana (BR e Paso de los Libres (AR / The strategic role of twin cities in controlling goods in border regions in the MERCOSUR context: Uruguaiana (BR and Paso de los Libres (AR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleniza Ávila Campos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O território fronteiriço, enquanto espaço potencial para projetos de desenvolvimento compartilhados entre países, apresenta, na realidade política latino-americana, claras limitações de integração. Mesmo assim, os interesses comerciais regionais apontam para uma necessária revisão dos limites e barreiras ali existentes. Neste sentido, o Mercado Comum do Sul - MERCOSUL tem se constituído, desde 1991 (ano de sua criação, em um bloco de países sul-americanos que visa a ampliar a circulação de bens, serviços e pessoas. No entanto, os projetos regionais de caráter econômico conflituam-se com a realidade desigual de suas cidades gêmeas, as quais não possuem infraestrutura nem investimentos sociais para tais dinâmicas. No contexto da América do Sul, mais especificamente da Bacia Platina, destacam-se as cidades gêmeas de Uruguaiana (BR e Paso de los Libres (AR, que têm representado um importante papel no controle de fluxos de mercadorias e pessoas, de acordo com demandas comerciais, embora suas condições de desenvolvimento sejam precárias. O artigo se propõe a discutir o papel das cidades gêmeas como nós funcional e espacialmente estratégicos no MERCOSUL. Abstract Border territory is a potential space for shared development projects between countries, but there are many challenges for integration policies in South America. Nonetheless, regional trade interests point to a necessary revision of the existing limits and barriers. In this sense, the Common Market of the South (MERCOSUL, since 1991 (year of its creation, made an agreement among its member states aiming to improve goods, services and people flow. However, regional projects has been in conflict with the unequal reality of their twin cities, which do not have infrastructure or social conditions for such dynamics. In this context, more specifically the Platina Basin, the twin cities of Uruguaiana (BRA-Paso de los Libres (ARG have assumed an important role

  20. Border Security: Immigration Issues in the 108th Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seghetti, Lisa M

    2004-01-01

    .... Prior to the terrorist attacks, the priorities for border security policy were beginning to shift from immigration-related issues to issues related to facilitating legitimate cross-border commerce...

  1. API and PNR data in use for border control authorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Chang; McGauran, Rachel; Nelen, Hans

    Airplanes transport a large number of travelers simultaneously, and airports are often described as inland borders where strangers converge and disperse. They are also a conduit for terrorism and transnational crimes. Border control authorities have endeavored to obtain information regarding

  2. An Analysis on Religious-Ethnic Geopolitics, Security and Development in Border Towns. Case Study: Sistan and Baluchestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISSA EBRAHIMZADEH

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Borders and border areas require security measures, which are very important to create security on the borders. The paper also analyzes the role of ethnic groups living near borderlines. Iran is an ethnically varied country and distinguishing characteristics of ethnic groups from each other in Iran is particularly concentrated on language, religion and ethnic components. These ethnic groups have been scattered as certain minority groups in border provinces and areas. The presence of Iranian nationals in the Western, Eastern and Northern borders which are contiguous with countries with the same religion and language creates by itself an appropriate context for the occurrence of ethnic crises in border areas and boundary underdevelopment is an another cause for this problem. In addition, the three components, namely religion, ethnicity, and language, should be taken into consideration in adopting policies and strategies to deal with these areas. In Sistan and Baluchestan, Iran, there are effective national strategies taking advantage of the presence and existence of religious and ethnic groups in the border towns, adopting security and development policies taking into account these two issues. They have a deep effect on regional development and national solidarity due to construction activities and infrastructure investments on the one hand and reducing insecurity and trafficking on the other hand.

  3. Border bases and order ideals: a polyhedral characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Gábor; Pokutta, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Border bases arise as a canonical generalization of Gr\\"obner bases. We provide a polyhedral characterization of all order ideals (and hence border bases) that are supported by a zero-dimensional ideal: order ideals that support a border basis correspond one-to-one to integral points of the order ideal polytope. In particular, we establish a crucial connection between the ideal and its combinatorial structure. Based on this characterization we adapt the classical border basis algorithm to all...

  4. International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program : visions and strategies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Michael; Mohagheghi, Amir Hossein

    2011-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program is working to establish a long-term border security strategy with United States Central Command (CENTCOM). Efforts are being made to synthesize border security capabilities and technologies maintained at the Laboratories, and coordinate with subject matter expertise from both the New Mexico and California offices. The vision for SNL is to provide science and technology support for international projects and engagements on border security.

  5. Hmong Across Borders or Borders Across Hmong? Social and Political Influences Upon Hmong People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasit Leepreecha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hmong are a transnational ethnic people, because of their dispersal from China into Southeast Asia in the early 19th century and from Southeast Asia to Western countries from 1975 onward. However, even within the context of Southeast Asia and southern China, the Hmong are a transnational ethnic group, due to state boundaries and the enforcement of international laws.Scholars speak as though the Hmong population has crossed political and legal borders by their movement across state boundaries and international borders. However, I argue that it is the political, social, and legal borders that have cut across the Hmong people and subjected them to be citizens of different modern nation-states. Even in the present time, these borders still, and continuously, play important roles that cross and divide the Hmong people into distinctive subgroups and fragments. In this article, I will start by describing the generally understood situation of Hmong being across national borders, and then will explain my argument that borders are across the Hmong.

  6. State, socioenvironmental conflict and violence in the Amazon border of Brazil, Colombia and Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gilberto Zárate Botía

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Amazonian border region of Brazil, Colombia and Peru has been place or stage to extraction, trade and transport of a wide variety of forest and aquatic resources, including those associated with activities considered illegal like drug or some types of mining. Aditionally the borders have also been converted in areas of conflict, violence and insecurity, and these, at the same time, are produced and exacerbated by state and institutional weakness of the three states, trying substitute it increasing the military presence, with little and contested results, on the one hand, by different public policies or the existence of rules and laws also different and incompatible. In a historical and current perspective, the article shows the relationship between the state, extractive economies of natural resources and conflict in the brazilian, colombian and peruvian amazon border, taking into account the limitations and possibilities of agreements recently signed between the government Colombian Juan Manuel Santos and FARC guerrillas.

  7. Alternatives of Cross-Border Securities Settlement System in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Yul Chai

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of cross-border securities settlement system is a very important element of regional capital market integration. Despite its importance, relatively few arguments, both theoretical and practical, have been advanced on the subject. This paper aims to examine the alternatives of cross-border securities settlement system in East Asia, and analyse the feasibility and the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative. The paper underlines the need to develop a multi-currency DVP securities settlement system. The conceivable alternatives of East Asia's cross-border securities settlement system can be divided into decentralized system and centralized system. It is possible to consider a large array of institutional settings according to the depository/settlement methods. The comparison of the alternatives is based on economic efficiency, feasibility and institutional location of settlement system. In view of these criteria, it is argued that a 'big-bang' approach toward imperfectly cenralized system is the most desirable alternative.

  8. Space imagination and mixed identity in Russian towns bordering on Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Okunev

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative analysis of an opinion poll conducted in October 2013 in three Russian cities located near Finnish border (St-Petersburg, Kronstadt and Vyborg explores European identity of their citizens. This area was chosen to illustrate the crucial importance of space interpretation in spatial identity formation by using critical geopolitical approach. The study shows how different images of space on the same territory act as intermediate variables between objective territorial characteristics and citizens’ identities. As the geographical position at the border of Russia provides the citizens with geopolitical alternatives to identify their location as a fortress defending the nation (as in the case of Kronstadt or a bridge between cultures, the given study allows us to compare reasons for these geopolitical choices of inhabitants. Furthermore, the research aims at bridging the gap in the studies of European and multiple identity in Russian regions and provides Northwest Russian perspective on the perpetual discussion about subjective Eastern border of Europe.

  9. Managing Migration: Is border control fundamental to anti-trafficking and anti- smuggling interventions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Miller

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several decades, globalisation and a growing concern over security issues, including transnational crime and terrorism, has shaped migration policies and the priorities of states. As migration rose to the top of many government agendas, a rapid tightening and regularisation of borders ensued in an attempt to keep undesirable, high-risk migrants out of potential destination countries. Concomitantly, transnational crimes, such as trafficking in persons and the smuggling of migrants, have been increasingly defined as border security problems. This article examines the extent to which border control is fundamental to anti-trafficking and anti-smuggling interventions, situating the debate within the wider nexus of globalisation and the securitisation of migration. Based upon their work with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC Regional Centre for Southeast Asia and the Pacific, the authors take the standpoint that given it is the sovereign right of each state to control its border and regulate migration, the human rights of migrants must be considered within this realpolitik. Clearly, though, this claim is highly political and contentious. In the article, we explore some of the tensions and contradictions that have emerged in this debate, and then develop an argument to suggest that it is possible for states to combine managed migration and strict border controls with the protection of human rights in the current context of globalisation.

  10. Cross-Border Clusters in Coastal Zones: Factors and Characteristics of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druzhinin A.G.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the current issues of coastal zones’ development through the prism of the cluster approach. Coastal zone is viewed to be the area with high potential of cluster formation, including cross-border clustering. Based on the modeling of inter-organizational interactions within the cluster, the research identifies the main factors and conditions, as well as the specifics of the formation of cross-border clusters in coastal zones. The classification of cross-border clusters, based on territorial, market and other factors of their life is given. Cross-aquatorial cluster is identified to be an independent typological unit. Its characteristics and the conditions of formation and development are viewed within the framework of contemporary globalization trends. The main cross-border clusters, forming and existing in the regions of Russia and abroad are reviewed. The specificity of cross-aquatory clusters and the large number of species are predetermined by the conditions of the development of international cooperation in coastal zones, as well as the logistical specifics of port facilities as key points of contact economic counterparties belonging to different jurisdictions. The relevance of the identification and cultivation of observation of cross-border clusters in the sustainable development of coastal zones and the building of a multi-vector foreign economic interactions steadily increases, including for Russia.

  11. [Priority health problems in the Mexico-United States border].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, H

    1991-01-01

    This paper shows a general scope of migration and border health in the US-Mexico border. Project CONSENSO's methodology and the results founded by the local and state health personnel are presented. This activity enabled health personnel from both countries to identify the most relevant health problems at the Northern and Southern US and Mexico border.

  12. Integrated control of the South African border environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taute, BJE

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available border environment. This environment includes land border lines and ports of entry; the harbours, coastline and Exclusive Economic Zone in the sea; and the airports and air borders that can essentially be anywhere in the country where international...

  13. Gender, Cross-border Migrant Workers and Citizenship : Case Study ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gender, Cross-border Migrant Workers and Citizenship : Case Study of the Burmese-Thai Border. Burmese women workers in Thai border factories are generally excluded from the benefits and protection that define citizenship entitlements. Their employment contracts are not protected by the regulations drawn up for ...

  14. Proceedings of Border Institute VI: transboundary ecosystem management

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Rick Van Schoik

    2005-01-01

    Ecosystems are bisected by international borders along the United States-Mexican border; infrastructure and the heightened security activities bisect the north-south cores, corridors, and buffers essential to preservation of ecosystems. The Southwest Consortium for Environmental Research and Policy (SCERP) and its partners convened an annual policy conference, Border...

  15. 78 FR 35044 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Visa Waiver Program Carrier Agreement (CBP Form I-775) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland...: 1651-0110. SUMMARY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) of the Department of Homeland Security...

  16. 77 FR 1497 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Withdrawal of Bonded Stores for Fishing Vessels and Certificate of Use AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... comments to U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Attn: Tracey Denning, Regulations and Rulings, Office of...

  17. Picking and Choosing the ‘Sovereign’Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel; Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    We argue that the continued persistence of borders is an effect of their constitutive role for the many dimensions of a social particular. States cannot choose to have a border; but they can and do make choices amongst the materials available on the various planes of inscription for bordering. Fo...

  18. U.S. Border Patrol Fiscal Year Statistics Southwest border sector deaths - FY 1998 through FY 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Southwest Border Sectors include: Del Rio, El Centro, El Paso, Laredo, Rio Grande Valley, San Diego, Tucson, Yuma Southwest Border Deaths By Fiscal Year (Oct. 1st...

  19. Environmental health and hazardous waste issues related to the U.S.-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, D E; Peña, C; Varady, R; Suk, W A

    1996-06-01

    Environmental health and environmental quality issues along the U.S.-Mexico border have been of concern for several years. The enactment of the North American Free Trade Agreement and the presence of the maquiladoras (foreign-owned industries using imported raw materials) have intensified those concerns recently. Efforts to assess these issues are complicated by the fact that many of the issues affecting the border region are within federal jurisdiction, but the problems are regional and local in nature. Thus, state and local governments become involved with public concerns about real and potential problems. One major problem is that environmental health data from this region are lacking, particularly from Mexico. Some new agencies such as the Border Environment Cooperation Commission, the United States-Mexico Border Health Commission, and the North American Commission on Environmental Cooperation have joined several existing agencies at the federal and state level to address environmental quality and health. Several studies have been initiated to determine air and water quality, but little is being done in the areas of hazardous waste and health assessment. Several problems are anticipated in the generation of such data, such as its format and accessibility. Data gaps and research needs are discussed.

  20. People’s Health Service Preference at the State Borders [A Policy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turniani Laksmiarti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indonesian has 497 District consisting of 399 districts and 98 cities, some districts are adjacent to other countries with relatively short travel time and easily, so presumably there are 12.000 Indonesian citizens who went to Malaysia each year and the data of National Health Care Group international Business Development -Singapore claimed 50 percent of international patients seeking treatment in Singapore is a citizen of Indonesia. This study aims to describe of the state border regions, in particular aspects of health regulations. Methods:Operational research with cross sectional design, in which data are collected in the same time (the same fiscal year. The research was conducted in 2012 in Sanggau and Batam District. The unit of analysis is the health workers and communities in the border region. Results: People in the border region who have the financial capability prefer to have treatment in the neighboring countries because of the resources (personnel, health equipment in the border areas health facilities are still inadequate and the referral access to the capital city could not be reached by the people compared to neighboring countries’ hospitals. Recommendations:The government and local governments improve preventive programs and health promotion, improve the health facilities so that there will be no lost of foreign exchange from the health sector towards the neighboring countries.

  1. Sustainable Development Aspects in Cross-Border Cooperation Programmes: The Case of Macedonia and Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klodjan Seferaj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The cross-border area between Albania and Macedonia can be considered as a region with agrarian or industrial-agrarian economy, although the overall picture should take into account significant contrasts within the region, between the two countries, but also between the southern and northern part, and between mountainous areas and lowlands. Agriculture, agribusiness, light industry, mining, energy production and tourism are the main economic sectors, which also have the biggest potential in the cross-border region. Both countries are gaining experience in EU funded cross-border cooperation programmes with other neighbouring countries and with each other. The scope of the research is the evaluation and analysis of the Integrated Pre-accession Assistance (IPA Cross-border Cooperation (CBC Programme Macedonia-Albania 2007-2013 and its sustainable development aspects. The research is trying to assess the impact of the programme since its start in 2007 and the impact of the implemented grants on the sustainable development. The importance of the sustainable development aspect is recognized and is formally included into various national strategic documents, however implementation is often problematic and sustainability aspects need to be examined on a more concrete level. The methodology used was qualitative with research tools such as desk studies of relevant program documentation, strategic and planning documentation and other relevant published materials. The desk review considered well over 40 documents relevant to the program, most of which were shared by the Ministry of European Integration (MoEI and other actors.

  2. The context of leprosy in Brazil-Paraguay border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajalla, Maria Elizabeth Araujo; Andrade, Sonia Maria Oliveira de; Tamaki, Edson Mamoru; Waissmann, William; Diettrich, Sandra Helena Correia; Silva, Baldomero Antônio Kato da

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, leprosy is endemic in three regions: the North, Northeast, and Mid-West. Counties with contiguous binational urban areas are characterized by a constant flow of people, goods, and services, which facilitates the transmission of diseases and influences the epidemiological profile of leprosy. The purpose of this study was to examine territorial differences in relation to the incidence of leprosy, focusing on border counties with contiguous binational urban areas or otherwise. Each county was taken as an information unit for leprosy cases reported during 2001-2011, based on data from original notification records of the state's Department of Health. In counties with contiguous binational urban areas detection rates showed tendency to increase, Virchowian (lepromatous) disease and disability grade II predominated when compared with Groups II and III: 0.64 and 0.54/100,000 inhabitants for Virchowian disease and 0.14 and 0.27/100,000 inhabitants for disability grade II respectively, and were associated with higher transmission rates. The findings demonstrate the role of border areas in maintaining the endemicity of leprosy.

  3. The Nature and Functions of European Political Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Zupančič

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The political border limits a state’s territory and symbolizes the extent of a state’s power and ownership. Borders give integrity to the inner state territory which they enclose (the role of establishing national integrity and at the same time form an outer boundary segregating the state territory from the surrounding politicial entities (the segregation role. European borders are old and reflect the political history of an old continent. The last major border changes happened after World War II. Over the centuries borders were merely lines separating one territory from another. Such borders were understood as »frontiers«. Forming an effective barrier against enemies was the overriding function of borders. Many borders were fortified and further enhanced by means of various defensive systems. In the second half of the 20th century the character of political borders changed. They became a contact area between countries, nations and cultures. Contemporary European borders reflect the colourful history of an old continent. They are predominantely functional markers: they represent the political and juridical delimitation of territories, they mark economic barriers and show their defensive nature and reveal the extent of cultural contact. As a result of European integration processes, the nature of political borders has changed: instead of division, their integration role is brought to the fore. A united Europe is nevertheless still not a borderless Europe! The borders within the »Schengen-area« have retained their political and administrative functions, it is just that the customs and security checks at the borders have been removed. During the period of European integration, borderlines were stabilized in accordance with the 1974 Helsinki Agreement. But despite this we can still observe ongoing changes to state borders, particularly in areas of conflict such as the Balkan peninsula. It seems after all that the process of demarcation

  4. Deaths at the borders database : evidence of deceased migrants’ bodies found along the southern external borders of the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Last, T.K.; Mirto, Giorgia; Ulusoy, O.; Urquijo, Ignacio; Harte, J.M.; Bami, Nefeli; Pérez Pérez, Marta; Macias Delgado, Flor; Tapella, Amélie; Michalaki, Alexandra; Michalitsi, Eirini; Latsoudi, Efi; Tselepi, Naya; Chatziprokopiou, Marios; Spijkerboer, T.P.

    2017-01-01

    Irregular migrants and asylum seekers have died and continue to die attempting to cross the external borders of the EU without authorisation, seeking to enter the territories of its Member States. Yet, remarkably little is known about these ‘border deaths’. In 2015, the Human Costs of Border Control

  5. Off-shoring and out-sourcing the borders of EUrope: Libya and EU border work in the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialasiewicz, L.

    2012-01-01

    The article examines some of the novel ways in which the European Union carries out its ‘border-work’- border-work that stretches far beyond the external borders of the current Union. It highlights, in particular, the role of EUrope's neighbours in new strategies of securitisation, drawing attention

  6. Cross-border cooperation potential in fostering redevelopment of degraded border areas - a case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre Castanho, Rui; Ramírez, Beatriz; Loures, Luis; Fernández-Pozo, Luis; Cabezas, José

    2017-04-01

    Border interactions have reached unprecedented levels in recent decades, not only due to their potential for territorial integration but also considering their role in supranational processes, such as landscape reclamation, infrastructure development and land use planning on European territory. In this scenario, successful examples related to the redevelopment of degraded areas have been showing positive impacts at several levels, such as the social, economic, environmental and aesthetic ones which have ultimately related this process, positively, to sustainability issues. However, concerning to border areas, and due to their inherent legislative and bureaucratic conflicts, the intervention in these areas is more complex. Still, and taking into account previously developed projects and strategies of cross-border cooperation (CBC) in European territory it is possible to identified that the definition of common master plans and common objectives are critical issues to achieve the desired territorial success. Additionally, recent studies have put forward some noteworthy ideas highlighting that it is possible to establish a positive correlation between CBC processes and an increasing redevelopment of degraded border areas, with special focus on the reclamation of derelict landscapes fostering soil reuse and redevelopment. The present research, throughout case study analysis at the Mediterranean level - considering case studies from Portugal, Spain, Monaco and Italy - which presents specific data on border landscape redevelopment, enables us to conclude that CBC processes have a positive influence on the potential redevelopment of degraded border areas, considering not only urban but also rural land. Furthermore, this paper presents data obtained through a public participation process which highlights that these areas present a greater potential for landscape reclamation, fostering resource sustainability and sustainable growth. Keywords: Spatial planning; Land

  7. PNMBG: Point Neighborhood Merging with Border Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renxia Wan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The special clustering algorithm is attractive for the task of grouping arbitrary shaped database into several proper classes. Up to now, a wide variety of clustering algorithms designed for this task have been proposed, the majority of these algorithms is density-based. But the effectivity and efficiency still is the great challenges for these algorithms as far as the clustering quality of such task is concerned. In this paper, we propose an arbitrary shaped clustering method with border grids (PNMBG, PNMBG is a crisp partition method. It groups objects to point neighborhoods firstly, and then iteratively merges these point neighborhoods into clusters via grids, only bordering grids are considered during the merging stage. Experiments show that PNMBG has a good efficiency especially on the database with high dimension. In general, PNMBG outperforms DBSCAN in the term of efficiency and has an almost same effectivity with the later.

  8. Cross-border emergency management. Grenzueberschreitender Notfallschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, A.; Lombard, J.; Rauber, D. (eds.)

    1999-01-01

    The papers presented at the seminar give a survey of the cooperative activities, the national organisations, and the main aspects involved in cross-border emergency management by the neighbour states Germany, France, Switzerland and Austria. These major aspects are the leading themes of the various sessions of the seminar, devoted to: The legal bases and their implementation within national law; tasks and means in emergency management; bilateral agreements; decision-making processes in the early phase of an event, and in the late phase of an event; determination of the radiological situation; procedures of information and data exchange; information of the population; experience gained from cross-border emergency management exercises, and provision of bilateral assistance. (orig./CB)

  9. Borders, Tensegrity and Development in Dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsico, Giuseppina; Tateo, Luca

    2017-12-01

    In this article we propose a development of the Dialogical Self Theory by introducing the notions of borders, cogenetic logic and tensegrity that we have elaborated during the last 5 years, in order to introduce a stronger developmental and dynamic perspective within the theory. We start from the discussion of some recent advancements of the model proposed by Hermans et al. (Integrative Psychological and Behavioural Science, 51(4), 2017), who refer to the metaphor of democratic society of the Self to understand the challenges and possible directions of adaptation that the persons can face in those border-crossing processes characterizing contemporary western societies. We conceptualized the Self as a dynamic semiotic system in constant evolutive tension, rather than a system in equilibrium adapting to the environmental changing conditions. Then, we propose to replace the concept of stability and continuity of the Self with the more fruitful idea of tensional integrity.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF CROSS-BORDER AREAS. STUDY CASES REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela\tȘLUSARCIUC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to review study cases found in the scientific literature concerning the development of cross- border areas in European Union and its neighbourhood. The introductory part of the paper is drawing few considerations about the cross-border areas. Further we identified in the specific literature relevant study cases that provide lessons learned, tools and models that can contribute to the development of the cross-border areas. The last part of the paper is focusing on an inquiry about how this lessons, learned, tools and models may be adapted in case of cross-border areas along the Romanian border with the EU Eastern Neighbourhood.

  11. Intestinal parasites in children, in highly deprived areas in the border region of Chiapas, Mexico Parasitosis intestinal en niños, en áreas de alta marginación socioeconómica de la región fronteriza de Chiapas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Marianela Morales-Espinoza

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among children in highly deprived areas, and its possible association with demographic and socioeconomic indicators. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From March to September 1998 in a convenience sample of 32 communities of the border region of Chiapas, Mexico, selected at random based on the level of poverty and distance from the community to the nearest health care unit (OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de parasitosis intestinal en niños de zonas de alta marginación y su asociación con indicadores demográficos y socioeconómicos de interés. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En una muestra de 1478 menores de edad, de entre 1 a 14 años, provenientes de 32 comunidades de la región fronteriza de Chiapas, México, de marzo a septiembre de 1998, se recolectaron tres muestras de heces fecales, seleccionadas aleatoriamente a partir del grado de marginación (alto y muy alto del municipio al que pertenecen, y distancia de la unidad de salud más cercana a la comunidad (<1 hora; 1 hora o más. En una de cada cuatro viviendas con niños menores de 15 años de edad, seleccionadas aleatoriamente, se obtuvieron tres muestras de heces fecales de éstos. Se efectuaron análisis bivariados con la prueba de ji cuadrada y multivariados con modelos lineales generalizados. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia global de parasitosis fue de 67% (intervalo de confianza IC 95% 64-70%. Sesenta por ciento de los niños estaban multiparasitados. La prevalencia de Entamoeba histolytica/E dispar fue de 51.2%, de Giardia lamblia, 18.3% y de Ascaris lumbricoides, 14.5%. La mayor prevalencia de E histolytica/E dispar se asoció con la edad y hablar algún idioma indígena; la de Ascaris lumbricoides con el sitio de obtención de agua y la carencia de refrigerador y electricidad. CONCLUSIONES: Es necesario hacer intervenciones locales de salud (calidad del agua, sistemas de desagüe, programas de educación sanitaria (promoción de la

  12. Borders and Borderlands in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    and deterrents to participate in that activity because the risk premium creates high rewards for successful entrepreneurs . This also attracts a...it comes to the rights of individual citizens. For example, U.S. officials have found it more difficult to collaborate with Canadian than Mexican ...Security.” 13 Phil Williams, “ Mexican Drug Violence: Contextual or Contagious?” Paper presented at workshop Borders and Borderlands in the

  13. Implementation Issues of Cross-border Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid; Kuada, John

    This study investigates the impacts of main implementation activities on the success of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs) using the survey data from a sample of 103 CBAs conducted by the companies in Scandinavia. The results of regression analysis indicate that due diligence, integration extent......, while acquisition experience exerts negative effect. However, the evidence does not support that planning and coordination will contribute to CBA performance....

  14. Antecedents of Cross-Border Acquisition Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid; Kuada, John Ernest

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the impacts of main implementation activities on the success of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs), using survey data from a sample of 103 CBAs conducted by the companies in Nordic countries. The results of OLS regression analysis indicate that due diligence, integration ext......, with the aim to empirically investigate their relative importance and joint effect on the performance of cross-border acquisitions. Such integrative understanding of how and why these actions explain acquisition success also yields important implications for managers.......This study investigates the impacts of main implementation activities on the success of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs), using survey data from a sample of 103 CBAs conducted by the companies in Nordic countries. The results of OLS regression analysis indicate that due diligence, integration...... impact on the success, while acquisition experience exerts negative effect. However, the evidence does not support that planning and coordination will contribute to CBA performance. Taking a process perspective, this study specially focuses on the main implementation activities during acquisition process...

  15. Polish-Russian Small Border Traffic in the Context of Russia-EU Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żęgota K.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to analyse the Polish-Russian agreement on small border traffic in the context of relations between the European Union and the Russian Federation. The analysis focuses on the role of the Kaliningrad region of the Russian Federation in relations between the EU and Russia and conditions of the Polish-Russian agreement on small border traffic. The methodology employed is based on analysing primary (documents and secondary (scholarly publications, press articles sources. The article also addresses the “Kaliningrad question” — one of the most important issues in Russia-EU relations. The analysis shows that the signing of the Polish-Russian agreement on small border traffic should be viewed as a success. Based on the agreement, the inhabitants of borderlands in Poland and Russia (the Kaliningrad region can cross the border without obtaining an entry visa. For the inhabitants of the borderlands, the agreement brings a range of significant advantages relating to the intensification of social, cultural, touristic, and economic contacts. It is worth noting that the agreement is one of very few examples of EU —Russia cooperation, especially in context of deterioration thereof observed over the last several years.

  16. CHIPS: Monitoring Colonias along the United States-Mexico border in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.

    2008-01-01

    Colonias, which are unincorporated border settlements in the United States, have emerged in rural areas without the governance and services normally provided by local government. The expansion of colonias in the United States-Mexico border region can be traced to the rapid growth associated with the Mexican Border Industrial Program during the 1960s. This rapid population growth created a lack of affordable housing, causing new migrants in the United States to purchase rural homestead lots through a contract-for-deed program from land developers. Because of the need to keep prices affordable and the absence of effective land-use controls, these homesteads expanded into rural subdivisions, commonly called colonias, without proper infrastructure. Colonias have been identified in the four U.S. border states, with Texas having designated the majority, which numbered over 1,400 colonias in 2001. Because the region is binationally interconnected economically, politically, and socially, the phenomenon of colonias in the United States is a transborder issue.

  17. Freight Shuttle System: Cross-Border Movement of Goods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levien, Mary

    2011-05-31

    The Freight Shuttle System (FSS) is designed to provide freight transportation services between those short and intermediate distance locations (within 600 miles) that are currently handling large volumes of freight traffic. Much like trucks, the FSS's transporters are autonomous: each transporter has its own propulsion and travels independently of other transporters. Inspired by railroads, each FSS transporter has steel wheels operating on a steel running surface and can carry either a standardsize freight container or an over-the-road truck trailer. However, unlike either rail or trucks, the FSS runs on an elevated, dedicated guideway to avoid the interference of other transportation systems. The objective of this report is to examine the potential viability for an alternative transportation system for trailers and containers in a multi-national, cross-border setting. The El Paso-Ciudad Juarez region serves as the environment of this analysis.

  18. The municipality borders and interdepartmental Antioquia in current territorial proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucella Gómez Giraldo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide elements to make visible the historical, socio-economic, political and administrative dynamics that characterize the interdepartmental border towns, particularly those that have not played a central role in the current proposals of land use planning and ordering developed by the Department of Antioquia, but which should be considered because they have particular features that may have great significance in the land use planning and ordering proposals, aimed to reduce municipal and regional imbalances. For this purpose, the analysis is based on the case study of the creation processes of the municipalities of La Pintada, Vigía del Fuerte and Yondó and of the socio-territorial relations and interactions that occur inside and outside of Antioquia.

  19. The shape of soap films and Plateau borders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, M A [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais and Instituto de Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais e SuperfIcies, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Teixeira, P I C [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa Rua Conselheiro EmIdio Navarro 1, P-1950-062 Lisbon (Portugal); Deus, A M [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais and Instituto de Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais e SuperfIcies, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2007-06-20

    We have calculated the shapes of flat liquid films, and of the transition region to the associated Plateau borders (PBs), by integrating the Laplace equation with a position-dependent surface tension {gamma}(x), where 2x is the local film thickness. We discuss films in either zero or non-zero gravity, using standard {gamma}(x) potentials for the interaction between the two bounding surfaces. We have investigated the effects of the film flatness, liquid underpressure, and gravity on the shape of films and their PBs. Films may exhibit 'humps' and/or 'dips' associated with inflection points and minima of the film thickness. Finally, we propose an asymptotic analytical solution for the film width profile.

  20. The shape of soap films and Plateau borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, M A; Teixeira, P I C; Deus, A M

    2007-06-20

    We have calculated the shapes of flat liquid films, and of the transition region to the associated Plateau borders (PBs), by integrating the Laplace equation with a position-dependent surface tension γ(x), where 2x is the local film thickness. We discuss films in either zero or non-zero gravity, using standard γ(x) potentials for the interaction between the two bounding surfaces. We have investigated the effects of the film flatness, liquid underpressure, and gravity on the shape of films and their PBs. Films may exhibit 'humps' and/or 'dips' associated with inflection points and minima of the film thickness. Finally, we propose an asymptotic analytical solution for the film width profile.

  1. Symptoms of anxiety on both sides of the US-Mexico border: the role of immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Zamora, Beatriz; García, José; Orozco, Ricardo; Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Zemore, Sarah E; Breslau, Joshua

    2015-02-01

    Home to about 15 million people, the US-Mexico border area has suffered stresses from increased border security efforts and a costly drug war in Mexico. Whether immigration patterns add to increasing levels of anxiety for the Mexican population and the Mexican-origin individuals living in the US-Mexico border and near the border is unknown. We used the US-Mexico Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions (UMSARC), a cross-sectional survey (2011-2013) of individuals living in border and non-border cities of the US (n = 2336) and Mexico (n = 2460). In Mexico respondents were asked if they ever migrated to the US or have a family member living in the US (328) or not (2124), while in the US respondents were asked if they were born in Mexico (697), born in the US with no US-born parents (second generation, 702) or born in the US with at least one US-born parent (third generation, 932). The prevalence and risk factors for symptoms of anxiety using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (>=10) were obtained. Mexicans with no migrant experience had a prevalence of anxiety and adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) within the last month of 6.7% (PR = reference), followed by Mexicans with migration experience of 13.1% (PR = 1.8), Mexican-born respondents living in the US of 17.3% (PR = 2.6), US born Mexican-Americans of 2nd generation of 18.6% (PR = 3.3) and finally US born 3rd + generation of 25.9% (PR = 3.8). Results help to identify regions and migration patterns at high risk for anxiety and may help to unravel causal mechanisms that underlie this risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Caspian Region in the System of International Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosov Gennadiy Vladimirovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The given research paper presents an attempt to analyze the Caspian region from the point of view of its cross-border specifics. In contrast to the traditional understanding of the Caspian region as the region of heightened geopolitical significance the authors analyze its peculiarities and potential in the context of the cross-border cooperation dynamics. It is especially emphasized that the Caspian region may be considered as a cross-border region which, despite the substantial similarities is different from international transnational regions. The authors focus attention on a key contradiction of the Caspian region. On the one hand, national interests and foreign policy of the states-members of the Caspian region (Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkmenistan have a national country and regional importance, since their implementation will form an effective regional security system. On the other hand, the Caspian region attracts the attention of the world powers, becoming a subject of their interest, as it is of great importance for world energy markets and has status of a transit zone between Europe and Asia. For Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, Turkmenistan the Caspian status is combined with their most important characteristic of post-Soviet states - shared long historical stage of development within the Soviet Union. The article distinguished and analyzed four main periods of establishment of cross-border cooperation in the Caspian region. The national specificity of modernization reforms in all the countries of the Caspian region have interrelations with further development of cross-border cooperation, the priority of that performs convergence of Caspian states on a number of strategic issues, including economic cooperation and security.

  3. Application of a Novel Method for Assessing Cumulative Risk Burden by County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Sexton

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to apply the Human Security Index (HSI as a tool to detect social and economic cumulative risk burden at a county-level in the state of Texas. The HSI is an index comprising a network of three sub-components or “fabrics”; the Economic, Environmental, and Social Fabrics. We hypothesized that the HSI will be a useful instrument for identifying and analyzing socioeconomic conditions that contribute to cumulative risk burden in vulnerable counties. We expected to identify statistical associations between cumulative risk burden and (a ethnic concentration and (b geographic proximity to the Texas-Mexico border. Findings from this study indicate that the Texas-Mexico border region did not have consistently higher total or individual fabric scores as would be suggested by the high disease burden and low income in this region. While the Economic, Environmental, Social Fabrics (including the Health subfabric were highly associated with Hispanic ethnic concentration, the overall HSI and the Crime subfabric were not. In addition, the Education, Health and Crime subfabrics were associated with African American racial composition, while Environment, Economic and Social Fabrics were not. Application of the HSI to Texas counties provides a fuller and more nuanced understanding of socioeconomic and environmental conditions, and increases awareness of the role played by environmental, economic, and social factors in observed health disparities by race/ethnicity and geographic region.

  4. Interferon gamma-based detection of latent tuberculosis infection in the border states of Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal eOren

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nearly one-third of the world’s population is infected with latent tuberculosis (LTBI. Tuberculosis (TB rates in the border states are higher than national rates in both countries, with the border accounting for 30% of total registered TB cases in both the US and Mexico. However, LTBI rates in the general population in Mexican border states are unknown. In this region, LTBI is diagnosed using the tuberculin skin test (TST. New methods of detection more specific than TST have been developed, although there is currently no gold standard for LTBI detection. Our objective is to demonstrate utility of the Quantiferon TB gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT test compared with the TST to detect LTBI among border populations. This is an observational, cross-sectional study carried out in border areas of the states of Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas, Mexico. Participants (n=210 provided a TST and blood sample for the QFT-GIT. Kappa coefficients assessed agreement between TST and QFT-GIT. Participant characteristics were compared using Fisher Exact tests. Thirty-eight percent of participants were diagnosed with LTBI by QFT-GIT. The proportion of LTBI detected using QFT-GIT was almost double (38% [79/210] that found by TST (19% [39/210] (P<0.001. Concordance between TST and QFT-GIT was low (Kappa = 0.37. We recommend further studies utilizing the QFT-GIT test to detect LTBI among border populations.

  5. A Himalayan Border Trilogy: The Political Economies of Transport Infrastructure and Disaster Relief between China and Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galen Murton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This photo essay illustrates and contrasts the infrastructure and operations of three international border posts between China and Nepal. Located at Zhangmu-Kodari, Kyirong-Rasuwa, and Likse-Neychung borders, these posts function as the only motorable China-Nepal border crossings and represent half of the six official, open borders recognized by Kathmandu and Beijing. In addition to China’s new position as Nepal’s number-one source of foreign direct investment, bilateral trade, humanitarian aid, and tourism traffic between the two countries continue to expand annually. As infrastructure development facilitates new political-economic dynamics between China and Nepal, these three border posts are becoming increasingly potent symbols of ongoing evolutions in Sino-Nepal relations. Because each crossing is also located at Nepal’s border with the Tibet Autonomous Region, each site exhibits a complex politics of identity, citizenship, and mobility with respect to the movement and control of local traders, Tibetan exiles, the Nepali Army, and the Chinese State Police, among other actors.

  6. Interferon Gamma-Based Detection of Latent Tuberculosis Infection in the Border States of Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Eyal; Alatorre-Izaguirre, Gabriela; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Moreno-Treviño, Maria Guadalupe; Garcialuna-Martinez, Javier; Gonzalez-Salazar, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Nearly one-third of the world’s population is infected with latent tuberculosis (LTBI). Tuberculosis (TB) rates in the border states are higher than national rates in both the US and Mexico, with the border accounting for 30% of total registered TB cases in both countries. However, LTBI rates in the general population in Mexican border states are unknown. In this region, LTBI is diagnosed using the tuberculin skin test (TST). New methods of detection more specific than TST have been developed, although there is currently no gold standard for LTBI detection. Our objective is to demonstrate utility of the Quantiferon TB gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) test compared with the TST to detect LTBI among border populations. This is an observational, cross-sectional study carried out in border areas of the states of Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas, Mexico. Participants (n = 210) provided a TST and blood sample for the QFT-GIT. Kappa coefficients assessed the agreement between TST and QFT-GIT. Participant characteristics were compared using Fisher exact tests. Thirty-eight percent of participants were diagnosed with LTBI by QFT-GIT. The proportion of LTBI detected using QFT-GIT was almost double [38% (79/210)] that found by TST [19% (39/210)] (P < 0.001). Concordance between TST and QFT-GIT was low (kappa = 0.37). We recommend further studies utilizing the QFT-GIT test to detect LTBI among border populations. PMID:26484340

  7. Of States and Borders on the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shklovski, Irina; Struthers, David

    2010-01-01

    in Kazakhstan shows that the naming of a state-controlled space on the Internet, through the use of country code top-level domain names (ccTLDs), does in fact matter to the average user. People are aware of national boundary traversals as they navigate the Internet. Respondents in our study identified...... their activity on the Internet as happening within or outside the space of the state to which they felt allegiance and belonging. National borders are demarcated on the Internet through naming via ccTLDs and can result in individual expressions of various types of nationalism online. We find that cc...

  8. Economic growth in border areas of the state of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Terezinha Michelon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of a region is connected with economic growth and the movement of people and capital. The State of Paraná is bordered by São Paulo, Santa Catarina, Mato Grosso do Sul, Argentina, Paraguay and the port of Paranaguá which is the main gateway to the outside world. Mesoregions the State of Paraná define the object to be studied, because since its occupation in the sixteenth century to the present day, over and undergoes great changes in population location and in their productive matrix. The Paraná from a primarily agricultural situation for an industrialized State and services with gradual economic growth. In this regard the purpose of this paper is to analyze occupational changes and capital by inserting the three sectors, agricultural, industrial and commercial / services, in Paraná state border. The methodology used to study the growth of mesoregions were the locational quotient and structural-differential analysis. The secondary data were collected from the sources IPEADATA (2013 and RAIS (2013. The procedures have shown the region that had better growth in the state: the periphery of the state or border region. It was found that the region that stood out was that of Curitiba due to proximity to the Port of Paranaguá

  9. Promoting regional mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne

    Pricing of transport has been part of EU's common transport policy since this gained momentum in the early 1990s. Since then, it has been closely connected to the trans-European transport network (TEN-T) and to rising demands of efficient mobility systems at a local, regional and Community scale....... Development of pricing policies is contested at Community level and has taken place in a clash between different policy rationalities. Significantly though, the effects of the pricing policies are closely related to regional mobility systems, e.g. through financing large trans-border infrastructure projects...... and establishing common technical charging systems thus changing the conditions for regional mobility. This paper explores how policies of infrastructure pricing shape new ways of governing mobility which influences trans-border, regional policy-making. The key findings are that there is a tendency to include...

  10. STUDY REGARDING OVER BORDERS TOURISM AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP CULTURE IN THE DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreş Solomia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was regarded as a qualitative research that measures entrepreneurship tendencies of the two regions from the border rural environment, initiation and management measures of business in the rural environment. The study regarding entrepreneurship education knowledge of target member groups from the partner border communities from Caras-Severin and Serbia has as main objective the evaluating of entrepreneurship knowledge of communities from the two regions of the rural environment, both with a strong touristic and cultural potential, for the purpose of rebirth of border socio-economical activities and the improvement of life quality by developing rural tourism. The objective desired from this study were: a quantitative and qualitative of information level gained by the members of the target groups regarding the initiation and development of business in tourism; the establishing of an entrepreneur profile for the respondents; the identification of the activity domain with a high potential of economical exploitation. Starting from the premises that only a correct evaluation and a detailed information of these aspects will determine the fact that the results of the research will represent the basis of the elaborati2ng of a development strategy for the rural tourism for the border rural communities, the research team, to which I was also a member of, has used the method of investigation and questionnaires as useful instruments in the development of the activities of the Centre for Border Rural Tourism. These instruments have contributed to the knowledge and measuring of present dimensions from the two dimensions, qualitative and quantitative, of the level of basic entrepreneurship knowledge in order to stimulate in the future the inhabitants’ involvment in the development of tourism activities and of economical-social ones.

  11. Managing US-Mexico "border health": an organizational field approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Dogrul, Julie

    2006-12-01

    During World War II Mexican and US health professionals and organizations constructed a transnational organizational field to manage the border's public health problems. Despite barriers to inter-organizational cooperation, including disparate administrative structures and North-South stratification, the field's transnational approach to health on the border has continued for 60 years. Using archival data to track changes in the number and types of organizations, this article argues that the field practitioners call "border health" reconfigured during the North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA) decade from an era of loosely organized professionals to a specialized bureaucracies era. This change brought new vitality to border health, with transnational ties increasing and diversifying, but has not weakened entrenched cross-border inequalities. The organizational history of the US-Mexico border health field demonstrates how macro-politics and inter-organizational stratification shape transnational public health problems.

  12. Temporary reintroduction of border controls at French borders inside the Schengen Area

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The French authorities have informed CERN that, in view of the upcoming COP21 Paris Climate Conference, France will exceptionally reintroduce controls at its borders with Schengen states for one month from 13 November to 13 December 2015. All border posts and crossing points between France and Switzerland will be affected by this measure.   Members of the personnel are therefore reminded that, when crossing borders within the Schengen Area*, they must carry: either, in the case of citizens of European Economic Area (EEA) countries and Switzerland, an official identity document (identity card or passport); or, in the case of non-EEA and non-Swiss citizens, an identity document together with a Schengen visa if they are subject to this obligation, or an identity document together with a residence permit issued by a Schengen state** if they have one.   The French authorities will make every effort to limit the impact of this measure on cross-border traffic, and wish to thank the members of th...

  13. Health, migration and border management: analysis and capacity-building at Europe's borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollings, Jennifer; Samuilova, Mariya; Petrova-Benedict, Roumyana

    2012-04-01

    Three key elements were analysed in Hungary, Poland and Slovakia as a basis for strengthening the capacity of staff and structures related to health, migration and border management: public health concerns linked to migration, health needs and rights of migrants and the occupational health of staff. This IOM project was implemented through an in-depth situation analysis as well as the development of training modules and public health guidelines. Findings indicate a paucity of existing data, gaps in the health care for migrants and few existing tools for border officials and health professionals. Sets of training modules were developed for each of these groups, including common modules on migration and the right to health and intercultural communication, as well as targeted health modules. The guidelines promote good practices in the context of border management and detention. The EU is working towards a common immigration policy and integrated border management; however, a harmonized approach to migration and health is still lacking. Further research and piloting of the developed materials is needed to fully establish an adaptable, common toolkit.

  14. Nonstate Actors and the Open Border Policy: The Border Security Case Study of Nepal and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Cross-Border Labour Mobility,” 9. 265 Jaroslaw Brezezinksi, “Poland in the European Union -Experiences First Year of Membership,” 2005, accessed... Labour Mobility,” 9. 267 Brzezinski, “Poland in the European Union ,” 47. 268 Ibid., 46. 66 expansion in air transport. Jaroslaw Brzezinski, a...a. Joining the European Union ..................................................60 6. Crime

  15. Cross-Border Political Donations and Pareto-Efficient Tariffs

    OpenAIRE

    Endoh, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of lobbying activities across international borders, on determining each country’s import tariff in a multi-principal, multi-agent, menu-auction model. Cross-border political donations could promote international policy cooperation because of two of their distinctive characteristics. First, special interest groups use cross-border donations as tools to wield their influence on ruling parties of other countries directly, which promotes efficiency of policy forma...

  16. Safe safekeeping: Protection for peace keepers / border control

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ahmed, R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available for Peace Keepers / Border Control 4th Biennial Conference Rayeesa Ahmed 10 October 2012 Outline ? Introduction ? Landward Sciences competency areas ? Border safeguarding: ? Mobility packages ? Protection against dangerous animals ? Camouflage... and equipment against both existing and emerging threats, the threats must be researched and new protection concepts devised. ? CSIR 2012 Slide 4 Outline ? Introduction ? Landward Sciences key competency areas ? Border safeguarding: ? Mobility packages...

  17. European Union and the Smart Borders Package: A Critical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Valkama, Tuuli

    2017-01-01

    The European Commission suggested in 2008 that the EU border management should take a step forward to combat organised crime and illegal immigration. In 2013 the European Commission published its legislative proposal on the European Smart Borders package for automated border controls. The legislative proposal included three regulations: (1) a proposal to establish the Entry/Exit System that would automatically alert the authorities if a visa holder has exceed his/her stay; (2) a proposal...

  18. Beneficial insect borders provide northern bobwhite brood habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E Moorman

    Full Text Available Strips of fallow vegetation along cropland borders are an effective strategy for providing brood habitat for declining populations of upland game birds (Order: Galliformes, including northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus, but fallow borders lack nectar-producing vegetation needed to sustain many beneficial insect populations (e.g., crop pest predators, parasitoids, and pollinator species. Planted borders that contain mixes of prairie flowers and grasses are designed to harbor more diverse arthropod communities, but the relative value of these borders as brood habitat is unknown. We used groups of six human-imprinted northern bobwhite chicks as a bioassay for comparing four different border treatments (planted native grass and prairie flowers, planted prairie flowers only, fallow vegetation, or mowed vegetation as northern bobwhite brood habitat from June-August 2009 and 2010. All field border treatments were established around nine organic crop fields. Groups of chicks were led through borders for 30-min foraging trials and immediately euthanized, and eaten arthropods in crops and gizzards were measured to calculate a foraging rate for each border treatment. We estimated arthropod prey availability within each border treatment using a modified blower-vac to sample arthropods at the vegetation strata where chicks foraged. Foraging rate did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Total arthropod prey densities calculated from blower-vac samples did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Our results showed plant communities established to attract beneficial insects should maximize the biodiversity potential of field border establishment by providing habitat for beneficial insects and young upland game birds.

  19. Distinctive origin of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum on the China-Myanmar border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Run; Hu, Dongwei; Zhang, Yilong; Huang, Yufu; Sun, Xiaodong; Wang, Jian; Chen, Xuedi; Zhou, Hongning; Zhang, Dongmei; Mungthin, Mathirut; Pan, Weiqing

    2016-01-01

    The artemisinin (ART), discovered in China, has been widely used against malaria in China over the last 30 years. Understanding the emergence and origin of ART resistance in China is therefore of great interest. We analyzed 111 culture-adapted isolates of P. falciparum from China-Myanmar (CM) border for their susceptibility to dihydroartemisinin using the ring stage survival assay (RSA0−3h) and genotyped their K13 genes. Of the isolates, 59 had a wild type of the K13 marker and a median ring survival rate of 0.26% (P95 = 1.005%). Among the remaining isolates harboring single mutations in the K13 marker, 26 survived at >P95(median survival rate = 2.95%). Further, we genotyped the K13 gene of 693 isolates collected from different regions in China and China-Myanmar/Thai-Cambodia/Thai-Myanmar (CM/TC/TM) borders, 308 (44.4%) had K13 mutations and marked differences in the patterns of K13 mutations were observed between the CM and the TC/TM borders. A network diagram showed that majority of the K13 mutant alleles from the CM border clustered together including those harboring the high resistant-associated R539T mutations. The resistant parasites carrying distinct halplotypes suggested the multiple indigenous origins of the resistant alleles, which highlight the importance of surveillance of resistance in all malaria endemic areas where ART has been introduced. PMID:26831371

  20. Mexico-Guatemala border mobility as represented in the everyday lives of Central American workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Noel Ramos Rojas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the human mobility experience of transborder workers who travel to localities in Chiapas for the purpose of working in a specific economic sector. The workers, who are primarily Central Americans, experience everyday life trajectories that are shaped by mobility practices linked to migratory, labor, and private spheres. From the social perspective of everyday life, the author seeks to analyze this sector's border crossing experience, which occurs in one of the most important regions with regard to population flow: the southern border between Mexico and Guatemala. A labor market has been formed in this region in which some social actors are able to construct ways of life based on their daily mobility and their recognition of a difficult and controlled spatial and temporal dimension.

  1. Criminal offences in trans-border territories. Drug trade in the Province of Tamarugal, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Corder Tapia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research addresses the drug trade in Tamarugal Province for the years 2003 to 2010, through an analysis of crime statistics from the police (Chilean Carabineros and Police Investigations Unit, and penal system institutions (National Prison Service and the Office of the Prosecutor. The analysis of the drug trade situates the drug trafficking issue in the international context of globalization and in a border area emergency that does not necessarily correspond to the traditional definition of the nation state. The research proposes to situate this issue of criminal offence in the context of the international legal order, focusing on the specific characteristics of the Tarapacá region and its condition as a trans border territory. It also proposes to situate this issue in a regional context, as well as in terms of the efforts of the international order to control illegal trafficking of drugs.

  2. National Borders and Transport corridors in Europe: Evidence of linkages in the Dublin-Belfast corridor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrov, Laura Oana; Williams, Brendan; Shahumyan, Harutyun

    2012-01-01

    Europe’s urban life focuses around a major network of cities, which exchange population, goods, and services of every kind both within regions and across borders. By their very nature, urban questions thus have a transnational dimension, and constitute a fruitful area of Euro-pean cooperation. Th...... Member States (MS) where a new phase of urbanization is un-derway, dramatically changing land use patterns. The aim of the present work is to reflect on the European perspective concerning spatial development strategies, particularly cross-border transport corridors; to assess the role......-transport constructs across Europe and beyond. It contributes to the achievement of the Lisbon and Gothenburg Agendas as well as providing a policy benefit to decision makers and stakeholders at local, regional and national levels across Europe....

  3. Geo-Located Tweets. Enhancing Mobility Maps and Capturing Cross-Border Movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine I Blanford

    Full Text Available Capturing human movement patterns across political borders is difficult and this difficulty highlights the need to investigate alternative data streams. With the advent of smart phones and the ability to attach accurate coordinates to Twitter messages, users leave a geographic digital footprint of their movement when posting tweets. In this study we analyzed 10 months of geo-located tweets for Kenya and were able to capture movement of people at different temporal (daily to periodic and spatial (local, national to international scales. We were also able to capture both long and short distances travelled, highlighting regional connections and cross-border movement between Kenya and the surrounding countries. The findings from this study has broad implications for studying movement patterns and mapping inter/intra-region movement dynamics.

  4. Nataniel, NAFTA, and Public Health at the U.S.-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Tom; Tapia, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Advocating overall improvements in health for individuals and communities is a daunting but important task for nurses in particular, and for health care professionals in general. This is particularly true when focusing on the population along the 2,000-mile U.S.-Mexico border, a unique region in which distinct cultures, economies, and political systems meet. The purpose of this paper is to confront the assumption that trade and economic expansion automatically translate into improved public health, and to explore policy implications of the public health situation at the border. It uses a meta-narrative, an overarching story that draws on and illustrates collective stories from 300 participants in a study of mental health disparities, to argue for a more nuanced and complex understanding of health among the largely Hispanic population in this region.

  5. The Border Community & Immigration Stress Scale: A Preliminary Examination of a Community Responsive Measure in Two Southwest Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Scott C.; Rosales, Cecilia; Rubio-Goldsmith, Raquel; Sabo, Samantha; Ingram, Maia; McClelland, Debra Jean; Redondo, Floribella; Torres, Emma; Romero, Andrea J.; Oleary, Anna Ochoa; Sanchez, Zoila; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding contemporary socio-cultural stressors may assist educational, clinical and policy-level health promotion efforts. This study presents descriptive findings on a new measure, the Border Community & Immigration Stress Scale (BCISS). Methods The data were from two community surveys as part of community based participatory projects conducted in the Southwestern US border region. This scale includes stressful experiences reflected in extant measures, with new items reflecting heightened local migration pressures and health care barriers. Results Stressors representing each main domain, including novel ones, were reported with frequency and at high intensity in the predominantly Mexican-descent samples. Total stress was also significantly associated with mental and physical health indicators. Discussion The study suggests particularly high health burdens tied to the experience of stressors in the US border region. Further, many of the stressors are also likely relevant for other communities within developed nations also experiencing high levels of migration. PMID:22430894

  6. The border community and immigration stress scale: a preliminary examination of a community responsive measure in two Southwest samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Scott C; Rosales, Cecilia; Rubio-Goldsmith, Raquel; Sabo, Samantha; Ingram, Maia; McClelland, Debra Jean; Redondo, Floribella; Torres, Emma; Romero, Andrea J; O'Leary, Anna Ochoa; Sanchez, Zoila; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey

    2013-04-01

    Understanding contemporary socio-cultural stressors may assist educational, clinical and policy-level health promotion efforts. This study presents descriptive findings on a new measure, the border community and immigration stress scale. The data were from two community surveys as part of community based participatory projects conducted in the Southwestern US border region. This scale includes stressful experiences reflected in extant measures, with new items reflecting heightened local migration pressures and health care barriers. Stressors representing each main domain, including novel ones, were reported with frequency and at high intensity in the predominantly Mexican-descent samples. Total stress was also significantly associated with mental and physical health indicators. The study suggests particularly high health burdens tied to the experience of stressors in the US border region. Further, many of the stressors are also likely relevant for other communities within developed nations also experiencing high levels of migration.

  7. Prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants: probability survey in the north border of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudelia Rangel M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants (MMIs in different geographic contexts, including the sending communities in Mexico, the receiving communities in the United States (US, and the Mexican North border region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a probability survey among MMIs traveling through key border crossing sites in the Tijuana (Baja California, Mexico-San Diego (California, US border region (N=1 429. RESULTS: The survey revealed substantial rates of reported sexually transmitted infections, needle-sharing and sexual risk practices in all migration contexts. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated levels of HIV risk call for further binational research and preventive interventions in all key geographic contexts of the migration experience to identify and tackle the different personal, environmental, and structural determinants of HIV risk in each of these contexts.

  8. Spectrum of critical illness in undocumented border crossers. The Arizona-Mexico border experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Candy; Hsu, Wendy; Carr, Gordon E

    2015-03-01

    Approximately 150-250 migrants die each year while attempting to cross the border from Mexico to the Southwest United States. Many border crossers survive the journey, but some develop life-threatening medical complications. Such complications have been subject to little formal analysis. We sought to determine the causes of critical illness in this population and to analyze the hospital course and outcomes of these patients. We retrospectively identified border crossers admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) of two major teaching hospitals in southern Arizona. We recorded admitting diagnoses, severity of illness, length of stay, resource use, discharge diagnoses, and mortality. Our investigation identified 55 admissions to adult ICUs between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012. The median age of patients was 27 years. The median hospital length of stay was 7 days, with a median ICU length of stay of 3 days. The median temperature on arrival to the emergency department was 36.8°C. The most common admission diagnoses included trauma (40), rhabdomyolysis (27), acute liver injury (25), dehydration (24), acute kidney injury (19), and encephalopathy (17). Thirteen patients presented with respiratory failure, six patients with severe sepsis, and two with septic shock. A total of 19 patients required ventilator support during their hospital stay, and 30 required at least one surgical intervention. One patient required renal replacement therapy. The median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was 6. All but one patient survived to discharge from the hospital. Border crossers are a unique population of young individuals exposed to high temperatures and extreme conditions. Our review of border crosser admissions showed that most patients demonstrated signs of dehydration and leukocytosis, despite a normal median temperature. The median ICU stay was short, despite a high number of patients requiring ventilator support and surgical intervention. Only

  9. "Crossing Borders" ja valmimislootuses Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia / Malle Maltis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maltis, Malle, 1977-

    2010-01-01

    19. - 29. augustini EMTAs toimunud rahvusvahelisest suvekursusest "Crossing Borders in Interpretation of Classical Music and Jazz". Kooli välissuhete prorektor sellest projektist ja muusikaakadeemia juurdeehitusest

  10. Impacting Binational Health through Leadership Development: A Program Evaluation of the Leaders across Borders Program, 2010–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A. Contreras

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWorkforce and leadership development is imperative for the advancement of public health along the U.S./Mexico border. The Leaders across borders (LaB program aims to train the public health and health-care workforce of the border region. The LaB is a 6-month intensive leadership development program, which offers training in various areas of public health. Program curriculum topics include: leadership, border health epidemiology, health diplomacy, border public policies, and conflict resolution.MethodsThis article describes the LaB program evaluation outcomes across four LaB cohort graduates between 2010 and 2014. LaB graduates received an invitation to participate via email in an online questionnaire. Eighty-five percent (n = 34 of evaluation participants indicated an improvement in the level of binationality since participating in the LaB program. Identified themes in the evaluation results included increased binational collaborations and partnerships across multidisciplinary organizations that work towards improving the health status of border communities. Approximately 93% (n = 37 of the LaB samples were interested in participating in future binational projects while 80% (n = 32 indicated interest in the proposal of other binational initiatives. Participants expressed feelings of gratitude from employers who supported their participation and successful completion of LaB.DiscussionPrograms such as LaB are important in providing professional development and education to a health-care workforce along the U.S./Mexico border that is dedicated to positively impacting the health outcomes of vulnerable populations residing in this region.

  11. Intelligence networks and the tri border area of South America : the dilemma of efficiency versus oversight

    OpenAIRE

    Wishart, Eric Gregory

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. This thesis examines the intelligence communities of Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay to determine how to better coordinate and share information between themselves and the United States to combat the emerging threat of terrorism within the border region shared by the three Latin American countries. The thesis argues from the standpoint that the primary intelligence effort should be economic and HUMINT due to the currently low threat l...

  12. Who’s Who at the Border? A rights-based approach to identifying human trafficking at international borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika McAdam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available International borders are widely touted as bastions in the fight against trafficking in persons. This article acknowledges the important role border officials play in preventing human trafficking, but calls for expectations to be tempered by deference to the conceptual complexity of cross-border trafficking and the migration processes involved. The fact that many trafficked victims begin their journeys as irregular or smuggled migrants highlights the challenge posed to border officials in identifying trafficked persons among the people they encounter. Indicators of trafficking generally relate to the exploitation phase, leaving border officials with little guidance as to how persons vulnerable to trafficking can be accurately identified before any exploitation has occurred. Ultimately, this paper advocates a pragmatic rights-based approach in designating anti-trafficking functions to border officials. A rights-based approach to border control acknowledges the core work of border officials as being to uphold border integrity, while ensuring that their performance of this role does not jeopardise the rights of those they intercept nor result in missed opportunities for specialists to identify trafficked persons and other vulnerable people among them.

  13. Ursachen und Folgen der politischen Teilung in den Alpen -das Beispiel Dreiländereck = The causes and consequences of border settings in the Alps - the case of the "Dreilaendereck/Tre Confini/Tromeja"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Moritsch

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on the topic of »open borders« is at the dawn of the 21st century replaced with studies on landscapes without borders, but living with inherited problems of them. The process of denying the nation-state’s sole sovereignty was recently introduced in the area of the Austro-Italo-Slovene juncture. There, the communes of the region have opted to organize Winter Olympic Games in 2006 on sporting grounds and in towns of all three countries. The devolution of the nation state idea is an European process which is (or will eliminating borders among states. The border between Austria and Italy has fallen in 1998, the state of Slovenia will face the consequences of it as soon as Slovenia joins the European Union. Living without borders will change the perception of the space and of the culural landscape. Historians, geographers, anthropologists and economists from the universities of Klagenfurt and Graz in Austria, Trieste and Udine in Italy and Maribor and Ljubljana in Slovenia study the consequences and causes of the border settings in the Alps, in particular in the Dreilaendereck / Tre Confini / Tromeja region where the borders were introduced in this century. The fall of the border will have several impacts. To live without the border will be a new phenomenon which should be taught. Science and education must both do better and more in this regard.

  14. Everyday violence, structural racism and mistreatment at the US-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Samantha; Shaw, Susan; Ingram, Maia; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette; Carvajal, Scott; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Rosales, Cecilia; Redondo, Flor; Garcia, Gina; Rubio-Goldsmith, Raquel

    2014-05-01

    Immigration laws that militarize communities may exacerbate ethno-racial health disparities. We aimed to document the prevalence of and ways in which immigration enforcement policy and militarization of the US-Mexico border is experienced as everyday violence. Militarization is defined as the saturation of and pervasive encounters with immigration officials including local police enacting immigration and border enforcement policy with military style tactics and weapons. Data were drawn from a random household sample of US citizen and permanent residents of Mexican descent in the Arizona border region (2006-2008). Qualitative and quantitative data documented the frequency and nature of immigration related profiling, mistreatment and resistance to institutionalized victimization. Participants described living and working in a highly militarized environment, wherein immigration-related profiling and mistreatment were common immigration law enforcement practices. Approximately 25% of respondents described an immigration-related mistreatment episode, of which 62% were personally victimized. Nearly 75% of episodes occurred in a community location rather than at a US port of entry. Participant mistreatment narratives suggest the normalization of immigration-related mistreatment among the population. Given border security remains at the core of immigration reform debates, it is imperative that scholars advance the understanding of the public health impact of such enforcement policies on the daily lives of Mexican-origin US permanent residents, and their non-immigrant US citizen co-ethnics. Immigration policy that sanctions institutional practices of discrimination, such as ethno-racial profiling and mistreatment, are forms of structural racism and everyday violence. Metrics and systems for monitoring immigration and border enforcement policies and institutional practices deleterious to the health of US citizens and residents should be established. Copyright © 2014

  15. Geothermal resources in the northwestern border

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eibenschutz, J.

    1982-10-01

    The Valley of Mexicali, located in one of the rifting zones of the world, has been assessed to contain a potential of between 850 and 1700 MW of electric capacity with present technology. Cerro Prieto, one of the areas in the valley, has a present operating capacity of 180 MW. Two more plants with a capacity of 220 MW each are being built for operation in 1983 and 1984 respectively. Aside from the electricity producing application of geothermal fluids, a process has been developed for the production of potassium chloride by evaporating the brine in a solar pond and further crystallizing the residues. Some processes are also being developed to use the hot water in hydroponics, aqua culture, etc. Collaboration with bordering bodies involved in geothermal energy has been very fruitful for the exchange of technical information. Agreements have been signed with San Diego Gas and Electric Company and Southern California Edison for the export of a total capacity of 275 MW.

  16. European Enlargement Across Rounds and Beyond Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enlargement has been an almost constant part of European integration history – going from an improvised exercise to the EU’s most developed foreign policy tool. However, neither the longevity nor the complexity of enlargement has been properly historicised. European Enlargement across Rounds...... and Beyond Borders offers three interdisciplinary, innovative, and indeed radical, new ways of understanding and analysing EC/EU enlargements: first, tracing Longue Durée developments; second, investigating enlargement Beyond the Road to Membership; and third, exploring the Entangled Exchanges and synergies...... between the EC/EU and its outside. This edited volume will provide fresh perspectives on enlargement as one of the defining processes in Europe in the second half of the 20th century: How are we to understand enlargement as a policy? How has it changed the EU? What is the historical role of the British...

  17. Globalization and Cross-Border Labor Organizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Armbruster

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world economy has opened up new possibilities for cross-border labor organizing. In fact, several U.S. unions are working together with unions from Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, Japan, South Korea, and many European nations. For example, over the last several years, UNITE (Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees, the AFL-CIO, and the international garment workers trade secretariat have worked directly with maquiladora workers in Honduras and the Dominican Republic. These efforts led to the formation of several labor unions and the first contracts ever negotiated in the maquiladoras in the Dominican Republic. In addition, labor rights and solidarity organizations, like the Campaign for Labor Rights, Witness for Peace, and the US/Guatemala Labor Education Project (US/GLEP, along with many other groups, have also played key roles in the formation of maquiladora unions in Nicaragua and Guatemala.

  18. A Practical Spanish Grammar for Border Patrol Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Border Patrol Academy, El Paso, TX.

    Designed to be used in the Spanish training program for probationary officers at the Border Patrol Academy in El Paso, Texas, this revised 21-lesson traditional grammar text includes special features that make it pertinent to the job of a patrol inspector in the Mexican border area. An extensive appendix is comprised of exercise translations,…

  19. Communicative challenges of interpreting in cross-border ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents some of the challenges encountered by court interpreters who interpret in cross-border languages, i.e. languages spoken across the borders of two neighbouring countries. Data used in the article were collected from participants by adopting a qualitative approach, based on the observation of courtroom ...

  20. Cross-Border Banking in Europe : What's Next?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, F.; Beck, T.H.L.; Carletti, E.; Lane, P.; Schoenmaker, D.; Wagner, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the role of banks in cross-border finance has become an urgent priority. Cross-border banks have played a central role in the dynamics of the global crisis of 2007-2009. First, European banks had a surprisingly large exposure to the US securitised asset markets, which arose to a