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Sample records for texas state lands

  1. Characterization of oil and gas reservoirs and recovery technology deployment on Texas State Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, R.; Major, R.P.; Holtz, M.H. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Texas State Lands oil and gas resources are estimated at 1.6 BSTB of remaining mobile oil, 2.1 BSTB, or residual oil, and nearly 10 Tcf of remaining gas. An integrated, detailed geologic and engineering characterization of Texas State Lands has created quantitative descriptions of the oil and gas reservoirs, resulting in delineation of untapped, bypassed compartments and zones of remaining oil and gas. On Texas State Lands, the knowledge gained from such interpretative, quantitative reservoir descriptions has been the basis for designing optimized recovery strategies, including well deepening, recompletions, workovers, targeted infill drilling, injection profile modification, and waterflood optimization. The State of Texas Advanced Resource Recovery program is currently evaluating oil and gas fields along the Gulf Coast (South Copano Bay and Umbrella Point fields) and in the Permian Basin (Keystone East, Ozona, Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields). The program is grounded in advanced reservoir characterization techniques that define the residence of unrecovered oil and gas remaining in select State Land reservoirs. Integral to the program is collaboration with operators in order to deploy advanced reservoir exploitation and management plans. These plans are made on the basis of a thorough understanding of internal reservoir architecture and its controls on remaining oil and gas distribution. Continued accurate, detailed Texas State Lands reservoir description and characterization will ensure deployment of the most current and economically viable recovery technologies and strategies available.

  2. 30 CFR 943.25 - Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Texas abandoned mine land... STATE TEXAS § 943.25 Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following is... reclamation on all lands adversely impacted by past coal mining. August 24, 1997 January 30, 1997...

  3. A Texas Flood from Land to Ocean Observed by SMAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, S.; Reager, J. T., II; Lee, T.; Vazquez, J.; David, C. H.; Gierach, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    Floods are natural hazards that can have damaging impacts not only on affected land areas but also on the adjacent coastal waters. NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission provides measurements of both surface soil moisture and sea surface salinity (SSS), offering the opportunity to study the effects of flooding events on both terrestrial and marine environments. Here, we present analysis of a severe flood that occurred in May 2015 in Texas using SMAP observations and ancillary satellite and in situ data that describe the precipitation intensity, the evolving saturation state of the land surface, the flood discharge peak, and the resulting freshwater plume in the Gulf of Mexico. We describe the spatiotemporal evolution of the different variables, their relationships, and the associated physical processes. Specifically, we identify a freshwater plume in the north-central Gulf, being distinct from the typical Mississippi River plume, that is attributable to the Texas flood.

  4. US State Submerged Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submerged Lands Act (43 U.S.C. Section 1301 et seq.) grants coastal states title to natural resources located within their coastal submerged lands and navigable...

  5. 30 CFR 943.20 - Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 943.20 Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on April 24, 1980, and amended on May 30, 1980, June 2... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Texas abandoned mine land...

  6. Land Cover Vegetation Changes and Hydrology in Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, J. R.; Slattery, R.

    2013-12-01

    Encroachment of woody vegetation into traditional savanna grassland ecosystems in central Texas has largely been attributed to land use practices of settlers, most notably overgrazing and fire suppression. Implementing changes in land cover vegetation (removing the woody vegetation and allowing native grasses to reestablish in the area, commonly referred to as brush management), could potentially change the hydrology in a watershed. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with several local, State, and Federal agencies, studied the hydrologic effects of ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei) removal as a brush management conservation practice in the Honey Creek State Natural Area in Comal County, Tex. Two adjacent watersheds of 104 and 159 hectares were used in a paired study. Rainfall, streamflow, evapotranspiration (Bowen ratio method), and water quality data were collected in both watersheds. Using a hydrologic mass balance approach, rainfall was allocated to surface-water runoff, evapotranspiration, and potential groundwater recharge. Groundwater recharge was not directly measured, but estimated as the residual of the hydrologic mass balance. After hydrologic data were collected in both watersheds for 3 years, approximately 80 percent of the woody vegetation (ashe juniper) was selectively removed from the 159 hectare watershed (treatment watershed). Brush management was not implemented in the other (reference) watershed. Hydrologic data were collected in both watersheds for six years after brush management implementation. The resulting data were examined for differences in the hydrologic budget between the reference and treatment watersheds as well as between pre- and post-brush management periods to assess effects of the treatment. Results indicate there are differences in the hydrologic budget and water quality between the reference and treatment watersheds, as well as between pre- and post-brush management periods.

  7. State Agency Applications of EOS Data in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, G. L.

    2001-05-01

    Texas offers a good model for the introduction of remotely sensed data products into the daily operations of state agencies by virtue of its large size and population. The diversity of the Texas landscape coupled with the long distances traveled to perform site inspections place special burdens on the land resource agencies responsible for monitoring crop conditions, water availability, environmental hazards and other natural resource issues. To assist these agencies, the Texas Synergy team has adopted a two-phase approach that incorporates framework geospatial data products designed for the broad user community with remote sensing applications developed for user-specific analyses. A key element to the success of the effort is the development of remote sensing products within a Texas Reference Frame that corresponds to the components of the high-resolution National Spatial Data Infrastructure developed by the state, such as 1-meter CIR digital orthophotographs, digital elevation models, and vector layers for hypsography, hydrography, soils, transportation and boundaries. Users accustomed to working with NSDI products can easily begin to include recently-collected EOS data presented within the same reference frame. Examples of statewide data products made available through the Texas Synergy project are AVHRR NDVI and MODIS imagery, Landsat 7 ETM+ scenes and SPOT 10-meter panchromatic image tiles. Delivery of the products involves a number of mechanisms from CD distribution to Internet FTP downloads, but increasingly relies upon Internet map services, such as ESRI's ArcIMS. Beyond release of the base imagery products, the Texas Synergy team has worked with the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Texas Soil and Water Conservation Board, Texas Department of Agriculture, Texas Water Development Board, National Park Service and USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service on a wide range of data applications. Throughout 1999-2000, the magnitude of drought conditions was

  8. 2015 State Geodatabase for Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 TIGER Geodatabases are extracts of selected nation based and state based geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  9. Land subsidence associated with hydrocarbon production, Texas Gulf Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreitler, C.W.; White, W.A.; Akhter, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Although ground-water withdrawal has been the predominant cause of land subsidence in the Texas Gulf Coast, localized subsidence and faulting have also resulted from hydrocarbon production. Subsidence was documented as early as the 1920s over the Goose Creek field. Since then, subsidence and/or faulting have been identified over the Saxet, South Houston, Chocolate Bayou, Hastings, Alco-Mag, Clinton, Mykawa, Blue Ridge, Webster, and Caplen oil fields. Oil-production-related subsidence over these fields generally creates few environmental or engineering problems. One exception is the subsidence and faulting over the Caplen oil field on Bolivar Peninsula, where more than 1,000 ac of saltwater marsh has been replaced by subaqueous flats. Subsidence may be occurring over other fields but has not been identified because of limited releveled benchmark data. An evaluation of drill-stem and bottom-hole pressure data for the Frio Formation in Texas indicates extensive depressurization presumably from hydrocarbon production. Nearly 12,000 measurements from a pressure data base of 17,000 measurements indicate some depressurization. Some of the Frio zones have pressure declines of more than 1,500 psi from original hydrostatic conditions. Subsidence and faulting may be associated with these fields in the Frio as well as other Tertiary formations where extensive hydrocarbon production and subsequent depressurization have occurred.

  10. Was everything bigger in Texas? Characterization and trends of a land-based recreational shark fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajemian, Matthew J.; Jose, Philip D.; Froeschke, John T.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Stunz, Gregory W.

    2016-01-01

    Although current assessments of shark population trends involve both fishery-independent and fishery-dependent data, the latter are generally limited to commercial landings that may neglect nearshore coastal habitats. Texas has supported the longest organized land-based recreational shark fishery in the United States, yet no studies have used this “non-traditional” data source to characterize the catch composition or trends in this multidecadal fishery. We analyzed catch records from two distinct periods straddling heavy commercial exploitation of sharks in the Gulf of Mexico (historical period = 1973–1986; modern period = 2008–2015) to highlight and make available the current status and historical trends in Texas’ land-based shark fishery. Catch records describing large coastal species (>1,800 mm stretched total length [STL]) were examined using multivariate techniques to assess catch seasonality and potential temporal shifts in species composition. These fishery-dependent data revealed consistent seasonality that was independent of the data set examined, although distinct shark assemblages were evident between the two periods. Similarity percentage analysis suggested decreased contributions of Lemon Shark Negaprion brevirostris over time and a general shift toward the dominance of Bull Shark Carcharhinus leucas and Blacktip Shark C. limbatus. Comparisons of mean STL for species captured in historical and modern periods further identified significant decreases for both Bull Sharks and Lemon Sharks. Size structure analysis showed a distinct paucity of landed individuals over 2,000 mm STL in recent years. Although inherent biases in reporting and potential gear-related inconsistencies undoubtedly influenced this fishery-dependent data set, the patterns in our findings documented potential declines in the size and occurrence of select large coastal shark species off Texas, consistent with declines reported in the Gulf of Mexico. Future management efforts

  11. Economic impacts of current-use assessment of rural land in the east Texas pineywoods region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford A. Hickman; Kevin D. Crowther

    1991-01-01

    Those provisions of Texas law that authorize optional current-use property tax assessment for forest and other rural land were studied to: (1) estimate the extent of adoption by qualifying property owners, (2) estimate the effects on assessments and taxes of enrolled land, (3) estimate the impacts on revenues received by local units of government, (4) estimate the...

  12. The State of Education Reform in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, William N.

    1986-01-01

    A review is presented of recent educational changes affecting or taking place in Texas, including discussion regarding improved testing measures and results, remedial instruction, programs for students with special needs, grading and promotion standards for students, teacher salaries, teaching conditions, and funding. (CB)

  13. The First State Dream Act: In-State Resident Tuition and Immigration in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Stella M.

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, Texas became the first state to pass an in-state resident tuition policy that benefits undocumented immigrant students, a majority of whom are of Latino/a origin. This analysis estimates the effect of the Texas in-state resident tuition policy on students likely to be undocumented. Using a differences-in-differences strategy and two…

  14. 76 FR 28885 - Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis-Free States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 78 Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis- Free... comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the brucellosis regulations concerning the interstate movement of swine by adding Texas to the list of validated brucellosis-free States. We have determined that Texas meets...

  15. Land development risks along state transportation corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Land development that is not coordinated with transportation planning can compromise the performance : of Washingtons state routes. Identifying land at risk for development along state routes can provide : opportunities for proactive, collaborativ...

  16. 77 FR 71344 - Texas: Final Authorization of State-initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... pollution control, Water supply. Authority: This rule is issued under the authority of Sections 2002(a...) Texas Water Code (TWC), Texas Codes Annotated, as amended effective September 1, 2009: Chapter 5... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 271 and 272 Texas: Final Authorization of State-initiated Changes and Incorporation...

  17. 40 CFR 282.93 - Texas State-Administered Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Underground Storage Tank Program, Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, P.O. Box 13087, Austin, TX... reference herein for enforcement purposes. (A) The statutory provisions include: (1) Texas Water Code, Title... Resource Conservation Commission (2) 31 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 337—Enforcement. (i) Subchapter...

  18. Retrenchment Policies in Public 2-Year Community Colleges in the State of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Martha; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a 1993 study examining retrenchment policies at Texas community colleges and their relation to fluctuations in enrollment and state funding. Indicates that 41% of Texas's community colleges had retrenchment policies and that administrative decisions regarding the adoption of retrenchment policies were based on state revenue declines…

  19. CHIPS: Monitoring Colonias along the United States-Mexico border in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.

    2008-01-01

    Colonias, which are unincorporated border settlements in the United States, have emerged in rural areas without the governance and services normally provided by local government. The expansion of colonias in the United States-Mexico border region can be traced to the rapid growth associated with the Mexican Border Industrial Program during the 1960s. This rapid population growth created a lack of affordable housing, causing new migrants in the United States to purchase rural homestead lots through a contract-for-deed program from land developers. Because of the need to keep prices affordable and the absence of effective land-use controls, these homesteads expanded into rural subdivisions, commonly called colonias, without proper infrastructure. Colonias have been identified in the four U.S. border states, with Texas having designated the majority, which numbered over 1,400 colonias in 2001. Because the region is binationally interconnected economically, politically, and socially, the phenomenon of colonias in the United States is a transborder issue.

  20. State Lands by Administrator - Forestry

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — DNR land ownership and administrative interest mapped to the PLS forty level. This layer merges the DNR Control Point Generated PLS layer with IBM mainframe-based...

  1. State Lands by Administrator - County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — DNR land ownership and administrative interest mapped to the PLS forty level. This layer merges the DNR Control Point Generated PLS layer with IBM mainframe-based...

  2. State Lands by Administrator - Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — DNR land ownership and administrative interest mapped to the PLS forty level. This layer merges the DNR Control Point Generated PLS layer with IBM mainframe-based...

  3. State Lands by Administrator - Wildlife

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — DNR land ownership and administrative interest mapped to the PLS forty level. This layer merges the DNR Control Point Generated PLS layer with IBM mainframe-based...

  4. 77 FR 57188 - Rusk, Palestine & Pacific Railroad, LLC-Operation Exemption-Texas State Railroad Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... Surface Transportation Board Rusk, Palestine & Pacific Railroad, LLC--Operation Exemption-- Texas State Railroad Authority Rusk, Palestine & Pacific Railroad, LLC (RP&P), formerly American Heritage Railways of...) between Rusk and Palestine, Tex., currently owned by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Authority. The Line is...

  5. 78 FR 58381 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on State Highway 288 in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Water Conservation Fund (LWCF), 16 U.S.C. 4601-4604. 8. Executive Orders: E.O. 11990 Protection of... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on State Highway 288 in Texas AGENCY... County Road (CR) 60 in Brazoria County, Texas. Those actions grant licenses, permits, and approvals for...

  6. Major land uses in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of major land uses in the United States. The source of the coverage is the map of major land uses in the National Atlas, pages 158-159,...

  7. Texas School Dropout Survey: A Report to the 69th Legislature, State of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Dept. of Community Affairs, Austin. Training and Employment Development Div.

    As a response to legislative demands, the Texas School Dropout Survey described in this document attempted to identify the magnitude of the dropout problem, regional characteristics or causes of the problem, costs associated with dropping out, and programs currently available for serving the dropout population. Twenty-four major findings of the…

  8. Agricultural Land in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Agricultural land cover for the western United States. This dataset was developed from Sagestitch, the Eastern Washington Shrubsteppe Mapping Project, and several...

  9. State Conservation Lands; StaCons11

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — Approximate edges of Conservation Lands protected by the State of Rhode Island through Fee Title Ownership, Conservation Easement, or Deed Restriction. Includes:...

  10. Evaluation and analysis of Texas biofuel supply chains originating in the United States Midwest and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This 2009 study, funded by the Southwest Region University Transportation Center, investigates : competing ethanol supply chains terminating in the State of Texas. Midwest corn ethanol and : Brazilian sugarcane ethanol constitute two sources of the b...

  11. Texas State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The Texas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactivee waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Texas. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Texas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Texas.

  12. Public health surveillance using emergency medical service logs - U.S.--Mexico land border, El Paso, Texas, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    In 2008, approximately 358 million travelers entered the United States, of whom 206 million arrived via land ports of entry (POEs) on the U.S.--Mexico border. Effective response to infectious diseases of public health importance among travelers requires timely identification and reporting to state and federal health authorities. Currently, notifications are made primarily by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) officers to CDC quarantine stations. However, CBP personnel have competing priorities and limited public health training.To evaluate the utility of monitoring emergency medical service (EMS) dispatch and response logs for ill travelers with symptoms or signs suggestive of infectious diseases, CDC screened medical records of patients transported by EMS during 2009 from the four POEs in El Paso, Texas. The screening was conducted using commercial software that monitors EMS logs and sends alerts in real time based on preestablished criteria (i.e., records containing keywords suggesting infectious diseases). Records that met the criteria were forwarded to El Paso Quarantine Station personnel and reviewed within 24 hours. If a reportable infectious disease was suspected, the final diagnosis was requested from the receiving hospital.This report summarizes the results of the evaluation, which found that, of 50,779 EMS responses in the city of El Paso, 455 (0.9%) records met alert criteria, 86 (0.2%) needed diagnostic confirmation, and nine (POEs but requires additional screening and follow-up by CDC.

  13. Land-Cover Change in the East Central Texas Plains, 1973-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstensen, Krista A.

    2009-01-01

    Project Background: The Geographic Analysis and Monitoring (GAM) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Land Cover Trends project is focused on understanding the rates, trends, causes, and consequences of contemporary U.S. land-use and land-cover change. The objectives of the study are to: (1) develop a comprehensive methodology for using sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) data for measuring regional land-cover change across the United States, (2) characterize the types, rates and temporal variability of change for a 30-year period, (3) document regional driving forces and consequences of change, and (4) prepare a national synthesis of land-cover change (Loveland and others, 1999). Using the 1999 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions derived from Omernik (1987) as the geographic framework, geospatial data collected between 1973 and 2000 were processed and analyzed to characterize ecosystem responses to land-use changes. The 27-year study period was divided into five temporal periods: 1973-1980, 1980-1986, 1986-1992, 1992-2000, and 1973-2000. General land-cover classes such as water, developed, grassland/shrubland, and agriculture for these periods were interpreted from Landsat MSS, TM, and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery to categorize land-cover change and evaluate using a modified Anderson Land-Use Land-Cover Classification System for image interpretation. The interpretation of these land-cover classes complement the program objective of looking at land-use change with cover serving as a surrogate for land use. The land-cover change rates are estimated using a stratified, random sampling of 10-kilometer (km) by 10-km blocks allocated within each ecoregion. For each sample block, satellite images are used to interpret land-cover change for the five time periods previously mentioned. Additionally, historical aerial photographs from similar timeframes and other

  14. 78 FR 23630 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on State Highway 99 (Segment C) in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    .... 1251- 1342; Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF), 16 U.S.C. 4601-4604. 8. Executive Orders: E.O... Texas AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Limitation on Claims for...) to SH 288 in Fort Bend and Brazoria Counties, Texas. Those actions grant licenses, permits, and...

  15. 75 FR 3277 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on State Highway 99 (Segment F-2) in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    .... 1251- 1342]; Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF) . 8. Executive Orders: E.O. 11990 Protection of... Texas AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of limitation on claims for... Highway 249 to Interstate Highway 45 (I-45) in Harris County, Texas. Those actions grant licenses, permits...

  16. Groundwater withdrawals 1976, 1990, and 2000--10 and land-surface-elevation changes 2000--10 in Harris, Galveston, Fort Bend, Montgomery, and Brazoria Counties, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    The study area comprising Harris County and parts of Galveston, Fort Bend, Montgomery, and Brazoria Counties in southeastern Texas forms part of one of the largest areas of land-surface-elevation change in the United States. Land-surface-elevation change in the study area primarily is caused by the withdrawal of groundwater. Groundwater withdrawn from the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers has been the primary source of water for municipal supply, industrial and commercial use, and irrigation in the study area. Groundwater withdrawals cause compaction of clay and silt layers abundant in the aquifers, which has in turn resulted in the widespread, substantial land-surface-elevation changes in the region with increased flooding. To estimate land-surface-elevation changes, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Subsidence District (HGSD), documented land-surface-elevation changes in the study area that occurred during 2000–10 and 2005–10 based on elevation data measured by 11 USGS borehole-extensometer sites, a National Geodetic Survey Continuously Operating Reference Station, and Global Positioning System Port-A-Measure (PAM) sites operated by the HGSD and the Fort Bend Subsidence District. Groundwater withdrawals in the study area also were documented for 1976, 1990, and 2000–10.

  17. 78 FR 9047 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... adopted three EPA drinking water rules, namely the: (1) Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule... Environmental Quality, Water Supply Division, Public Drinking Water Section (MC-155), Building F, 12100 Park 35... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Texas AGENCY: United States...

  18. Public Land Survey System of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set portrays the Public Land Surveys of the United States, including areas of private survey, Donation Land Claims, and Land Grants and Civil Colonies....

  19. Does state budget pressure matter for uncompensated care spending in hospitals? Findings from Texas and California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jongwha; Patel, Isha; Suh, Won S; Lin, Hsien-Chang; Kim, Sunjung; Balkrishnan, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of state budget cuts on uncompensated care at general acute care hospital organizations. This study capitalized on the variations in the states of Texas and California to form a natural experiment testing the joint impact of budget cut status on uncompensated care costs, as well as specific charity care costs and bad debt expenses from indigent patients. Budget cuts in the state of Texas occurred in the year 2004. Information was obtained from the Texas Department of Health and the California Department of Health Services regarding financial characteristics of hospitals and from the American Hospital Directory annual survey regarding organizational characteristics of hospitals. We created three dependent variables: R(UC) (the ratio of total uncompensated care costs to gross patient revenue), R(CC) (the ratio of charity care to total patient revenue) and R(BD) (the ratio of bad debt expenses to gross patient revenue). Using a two-period panel data set and individual hospital fixed effects, we captured hospital uncompensated care spending that could also have influenced budget cut status. Additionally, the impact of the state budget cut status on hospitals' uncompensated care spending, charity care spending and bad debt expenses was also estimated using the similar methodology. In this study, we included 416 (in Texas) and 352 (in California) public, not-for-profit (NFP) and for-profit (FP) hospitals that completed the annual survey during the study period 2002-2005. For the state of Texas, results from the fixed effect model confirmed that the year 2005 was directly related to increased R(UC) and R(CC) . The coefficients of 2005 were significantly and positively associated with R(UC) (0.43, p budget cut pressure on uncompensated care provided in Texas general acute care hospitals. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Gender Association with Stringed Instruments: A Four-Decade Analysis of Texas All-State Orchestras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Vicki D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to track the gender makeup of the five string sections (Violin 1, Violin 2, Viola, Cello, and String Bass) of Texas Music Educators Association (TMEA) All-State Orchestras from 1971 to 2010, to determine if a clear gender stereotype was evident in any of the sections and if there had been a trend towards a change in…

  1. Family Members' Views on Seeking Placement in State-Supported Living Centers in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Alex D.; Larke, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the factors that influence family members' decisions to seek placement for relatives with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (ID/DD) into state-supported living centers in Texas. The sample included 51 family caregivers between the ages of 26 and 95. Using descriptive statistics, correlation, and inferential…

  2. 76 FR 65935 - Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis-Free States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 78 Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis- Free States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... interim rule that amended the brucellosis regulations concerning the interstate movement of swine by...

  3. Substate federalism and fracking policies: does state regulatory authority trump local land use autonomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Charles

    2014-01-01

    State officials responsible for the regulation of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) operations used in the production of oil and gas resources will inevitably confront a key policy issue; that is, to what extent can statewide regulations be developed without reducing land use autonomy typically exercised by local officials? Most state regulators have historically recognized the economic importance of industry jobs and favor the adoption of uniform regulatory requirements even if these rules preempt local policymaking authority. Conversely, many local officials seek to preserve land use autonomy to provide a greater measure of protection for public health and environmental quality goals. This paper examines how public officials in three states-Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Texas-address the question of state control versus local autonomy through their efforts to shape fracking policy decisions. While local officials within Texas have succeeded in developing fracking ordinances with relatively little interference from state regulators, Colorado and Pennsylvania have adopted a tougher policy stance favoring the retention of preemptive oil and gas statutes. Key factors that account for between state differences in fracking policy decisions include the strength of home rule provisions, gubernatorial involvement, and the degree of local experience with industrial economic activities.

  4. Louisiana State Lands and Buildings, Geographic NAD83, LA State Land Office (2007) [slabs_slo_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This dataset represents land and/or building areas for the state of Louisiana. This dataset was compiled by the State Land Office from Historical Records (SLABS)...

  5. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Texas' test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in reading at grades 4 and 8 and in math at grade 8. In grade 4 math, however, the percentage scoring…

  6. Houston-Galveston Bay area, Texas, from space; a new tool for mapping land subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, Sylvia V.; Sneed, Michelle

    2002-01-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a powerful new tool that uses radar signals to measure displacement (subsidence and uplift) of the Earth's crust at an unprecedented level of spatial detail and high degree of measurement resolution.The Houston-Galveston Bay area, possibly more than any other metropolitan area in the United States, has been adversely affected by land subsidence. Extensive subsidence, caused mainly by ground-water pumping but also by oil and gas extraction, has increased the frequency of flooding, caused extensive damage to industrial and transportation infrastructure, motivated major investments in levees, reservoirs, and surfacewater distribution facilities, and caused substantial loss of wetland habitat. Ongoing patterns of subsidence in the Houston area have been carefully monitored using borehole extensometers, Global Positioning System (GPS) and conventional spirit-leveling surveys, and more recently, an emerging technology—Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR)—which enables development of spatially-detailed maps of land-surface displacement over broad areas. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, briefly summarizes the history of subsidence in the area and the local consequences of subsidence and describes the use of InSAR as one of several tools in an integrated subsidence-monitoring program in the area.

  7. Terrestrial Ecosystems - Land Surface Forms of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has generated land surface form classes for the contiguous United States. These land surface form classes were created as part of...

  8. Hydrological responses of land use change from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) to cellulosic bioenergy crops in the Southern High Plains of Texas, USA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Yong; Ale, Srinivasulu; Rajan, Nithya; Morgan, Cristine L. S; Park, Jongyoon

    2016-01-01

    The Southern High Plains ( SHP ) region of Texas in the United States, where cotton is grown in a vast acreage, has the potential to grow cellulosic bioenergy crops such as perennial grasses and biomass sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor...

  9. Neighborhood Landscape Spatial Patterns and Land Surface Temperature: An Empirical Study on Single-Family Residential Areas in Austin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Hyun; Gu, Donghwan; Sohn, Wonmin; Kil, Sung-Ho; Kim, Hwanyong; Lee, Dong-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanization has accelerated land use and land cover changes, and generated the urban heat island effect (UHI). Previous studies have reported positive effects of neighborhood landscapes on mitigating urban surface temperatures. However, the influence of neighborhood landscape spatial patterns on enhancing cooling effects has not yet been fully investigated. The main objective of this study was to assess the relationships between neighborhood landscape spatial patterns and land surface temperatures (LST) by using multi-regression models considering spatial autocorrelation issues. To measure the influence of neighborhood landscape spatial patterns on LST, this study analyzed neighborhood environments of 15,862 single-family houses in Austin, Texas, USA. Using aerial photos, geographic information systems (GIS), and remote sensing, FRAGSTATS was employed to calculate values of several landscape indices used to measure neighborhood landscape spatial patterns. After controlling for the spatial autocorrelation effect, results showed that larger and better-connected landscape spatial patterns were positively correlated with lower LST values in neighborhoods, while more fragmented and isolated neighborhood landscape patterns were negatively related to the reduction of LST. PMID:27598186

  10. Neighborhood Landscape Spatial Patterns and Land Surface Temperature: An Empirical Study on Single-Family Residential Areas in Austin, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hyun Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization has accelerated land use and land cover changes, and generated the urban heat island effect (UHI. Previous studies have reported positive effects of neighborhood landscapes on mitigating urban surface temperatures. However, the influence of neighborhood landscape spatial patterns on enhancing cooling effects has not yet been fully investigated. The main objective of this study was to assess the relationships between neighborhood landscape spatial patterns and land surface temperatures (LST by using multi-regression models considering spatial autocorrelation issues. To measure the influence of neighborhood landscape spatial patterns on LST, this study analyzed neighborhood environments of 15,862 single-family houses in Austin, Texas, USA. Using aerial photos, geographic information systems (GIS, and remote sensing, FRAGSTATS was employed to calculate values of several landscape indices used to measure neighborhood landscape spatial patterns. After controlling for the spatial autocorrelation effect, results showed that larger and better-connected landscape spatial patterns were positively correlated with lower LST values in neighborhoods, while more fragmented and isolated neighborhood landscape patterns were negatively related to the reduction of LST.

  11. Private lands and outdoor recreation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Jeff Teasley; John C. Bergstrom; H. Ken Cordell; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Paul Gentle

    1999-01-01

    Outdoor recreation on private land is influenced by myriad factors. To provide background and context on these factors, this chapter first overviews the private land situation in the United States and provides general information and discussion related to ownership and tenure, land-use patterns, legal restrictions, and economic conditions, including taxation issues....

  12. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 4, Oklahoma, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Paul D.

    1996-01-01

    The two States, Oklahoma and Texas, that compose Segment 4 of this Atlas are located in the south-central part of the Nation. These States are drained by numerous rivers and streams, the largest being the Arkansas, the Canadian, the Red, the Sabine, the Trinity, the Brazos, the Colorado, and the Pecos Rivers and the Rio Grande. Many of these rivers and their tributaries supply large amounts of water for human use, mostly in the eastern parts of the two States. The large perennial streams in the east with their many associated impoundments coincide with areas that have dense populations. Large metropolitan areas such as Oklahoma City and Tulsa, Okla., and Dallas, Fort Worth, Houston, and Austin, Tex., are supplied largely or entirely by surface water. However, in 1985 more than 7.5 million people, or about 42 percent of the population of the two States, depended on ground water as a source of water supply. The metropolitan areas of San Antonio and El Paso, Tex., and numerous smaller communities depend largely or entirely on ground water for their source of supply. The ground water is contained in aquifers that consist of unconsolidated deposits and consolidated sedimentary rocks. This chapter describes the geology and hydrology of each of the principal aquifers throughout the two-State area. Precipitation is the source of all the water in Oklahoma and Texas. Average annual precipitation ranges from about 8 inches per year in southwestern Texas to about 56 inches per year in southeastern Texas (fig. 1). In general, precipitation increases rather uniformly from west to east in the two States. Much of the precipitation either flows directly into rivers and streams as overland runoff or indirectly as base flow that discharges from aquifers where the water has been stored for some time. Accordingly, the areal distribution of average annual runoff from 1951 to 1980 (fig. 2) reflects that of average annual precipitation. Average annual runoff in the two-State area ranges

  13. Energy Sprawl Is the Largest Driver of Land Use Change in United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Trainor

    Full Text Available Energy production in the United States for domestic use and export is predicted to rise 27% by 2040. We quantify projected energy sprawl (new land required for energy production in the United States through 2040. Over 200,000 km2 of additional land area will be directly impacted by energy development. When spacing requirements are included, over 800,000 km2 of additional land area will be affected by energy development, an area greater than the size of Texas. This pace of development in the United States is more than double the historic rate of urban and residential development, which has been the greatest driver of conversion in the United States since 1970, and is higher than projections for future land use change from residential development or agriculture. New technology now places 1.3 million km2 that had not previously experienced oil and gas development at risk of development for unconventional oil and gas. Renewable energy production can be sustained indefinitely on the same land base, while extractive energy must continually drill and mine new areas to sustain production. We calculated the number of years required for fossil energy production to expand to cover the same area as renewables, if both were to produce the same amount of energy each year. The land required for coal production would grow to equal or exceed that of wind, solar and geothermal energy within 2-31 years. In contrast, it would take hundreds of years for oil production to have the same energy sprawl as biofuels. Meeting energy demands while conserving nature will require increased energy conservation, in addition to distributed renewable energy and appropriate siting and mitigation.

  14. Overcoming the Barriers to Organic Adoption in the United States: A Look at Pragmatic Conventional Producers in Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Young Choi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Organics is the one of the fastest growing segments in food sales. Though the amount of certified organic land is increasing, the supply of organic foods lags behind demand in the United States. The reasons for this gap include a lack of government support for organics, and the peculiarities of organics as an innovation. In an attempt to close this gap, and increase the environmental sustainability of U.S. agriculture, this paper has two objectives. The first is to document the structural and institutional constraints to organic adoption. This is accomplished through a review of organic programs and policies in the U.S., in particular the National Organic Program. The second objective is to investigate the predictors of interest and the perceived barriers to organic adoption among pragmatic conventional producers in Texas, compared to organic and conventional producers. This is accomplished through a survey of a representative sample of producers in Texas. The results indicate that more than forty percent of producers who currently have conventional operations have at least some interest in organic production (pragmatic conventional producers. There are significant differences among the three groups in their structural and attitudinal characteristics related to organic adoption. For the pragmatic conventional producers, an increase in revenue would be a major facilitator of organic adoption. Their high levels of uncertainty regarding organic production and marketing, and especially organic certification constrain organic adoption. The results also reveal that the institutional setting in the U.S. hindered adoption. The paper concludes that increased institutional support would facilitate organic adoption.

  15. Detecting coastline change with all available Landsat data: a case study for the State of Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, N.; Gong, P.

    2016-12-01

    Tracking coastline change is essential to deepen our understanding of coastal responses to rises in sea level and human activity. In general, more frequent observations are needed for better estimation of the long-term trend due to high short-term variability of coastline position caused by water level fluctuation, seasonal variation, rapid storm erosion, subsequent recovery and other factors. Limited observations have been adopted in many conventional studies, and the coastline change rates obtained from remotely sensed data tends to exhibit large uncertainty. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to collect all available Landsat TM data for improved estimation of the rate of coastline change. The State of Texas was chosen as our study area and all Landsat TM data during the period 1984-2011 were used to derive the change rates. The rates of change were calculated with a simple linear regression model after extracting multi-temporal coastlines using a threshold-based approach. To demonstrate the importance of frequent observations, the results derived from all available Landsat data and from one scene per year were compared. In addition, a significant negative correlation between the observation frequency and the uncertainty of change was uncovered by gradually reducing the used data. The rates of coastline change in Texas varied from -23.73 to 22.90 m/yr with a regionally averaged rate of -0.62 0.021 m/yr, which indicates that the coastline mainly experienced erosion from 1984 to 2011. Specifically, 56.54 % of the entire coastline retreated to the land while a 43.46% portion advanced to the ocean. Overall, our study emphasizes that increasing the observation frequency can effectively improve the accuracy of coastline change rate.

  16. State Lands by Administrator - Other DNR Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — DNR land ownership and administrative interest mapped to the PLS forty level. This layer merges the DNR Control Point Generated PLS layer with IBM mainframe-based...

  17. State Lands by Administrator - Trails and Waterways

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — DNR land ownership and administrative interest mapped to the PLS forty level. This layer merges the DNR Control Point Generated PLS layer with IBM mainframe-based...

  18. State Lands by Administrator - Ecological Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — DNR land ownership and administrative interest mapped to the PLS forty level. This layer merges the DNR Control Point Generated PLS layer with IBM mainframe-based...

  19. State Lands by Administrator - Parks and Recreation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — DNR land ownership and administrative interest mapped to the PLS forty level. This layer merges the DNR Control Point Generated PLS layer with IBM mainframe-based...

  20. Angelo State Society of Physics Students Science Outreach: West Texas Road Trip 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Lacy; Sauncy, Toni

    2008-10-01

    The Angelo State Society of Physics Students readily embraces the opportunity to give back to the community. For the past three years, the ASU Peer Pressure Team has presented science demonstrations to elementary and junior high students in the West Texas area. The annual week-long trip involves college students seeking to inspire a younger generation about physics and science in general. The Road Trip 2008 took ten undergraduate students on a nearly 600 mile round trip. The reactions and responses from the students, teachers and administrators received by the local SPS chapter's efforts have been overwhelmingly positive, and opportunities continue to present themselves.

  1. Land use change effects on forest carbon cycling throughout the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Peter B; Heath, Linda S; Smith, James E

    2006-01-01

    We modeled the effects of afforestation and deforestation on carbon cycling in forest floor and soil from 1900 to 2050 throughout 13 states in the southern United States. The model uses historical data on gross (two-way) transitions between forest, pasture, plowed agriculture, and urban lands along with equations describing changes in carbon over many decades for each type of land use change. Use of gross rather than net land use transition data is important because afforestation causes a gradual gain in carbon stocks for many decades, while deforestation causes a much more rapid loss in carbon stocks. In the South-Central region (Texas to Kentucky) land use changes caused a net emission of carbon before the 1980s, followed by a net sequestration of carbon subsequently. In the Southeast region (Florida to Virginia), there was net emission of carbon until the 1940s, again followed by net sequestration of carbon. These results could improve greenhouse gas inventories produced to meet reporting requirements under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Specifically, from 1990 to 2004 for the entire 13-state study area, afforestation caused sequestration of 88 Tg C, and deforestation caused emission of 49 Tg C. However, the net effect of land use change on carbon stocks in soil and forest floor from 1990 to 2004 was about sixfold smaller than the net change in carbon stocks in trees on all forestland. Thus land use change effects and forest carbon cycling during this period are dominated by changes in tree carbon stocks.

  2. Problems of administration of ACCOUNTING OF QUALITY OF LANDs in system of state land of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tykhenko O.V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Conditions of land resources of Ukraine and quality of soil getting worse, increasing areas of technogenic pollution. Uncontrolled land use leads to deterioration of soil fertility. To maintain a high level of natural properties of lands is necessary to monitor over their use, which can be achieved by accounting of land quality. Information about the quantity and quality of lands summarizing by the central executive authority that implements the state policy in the sphere of land relations. Summarized information on the quantity and quality of land on gratis personnel provided to state authorities and local governments according to Order of conducting of State Land Cadastre. One of the main problems of accounting quality of lands is in Ukraine now is not only the absence of regulatory documents, but also the reliability of available information According to it’s providing is necessary of availability of actual information about the status of land resources. The absence of qualitative characteristics land plots in cadastral system complicates state control over land use and protection, because there are no grounds for levy fines for the catastrophic decline of soil fertility. One of the layers of Public Cadastral Map of Ukraine are soils. Nowadays is approved by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine ( № 1051 nomenclature list of agro-industrial group of soils, which includes 222 of the agro groups with deciphering by granulometric composition. If with soil units identified, so the indicators that characterize them more difficult. That indicators, which were the basis for accounting of the quality of lands should check up to modern realities and condition of soils. According to the Law of Ukraine "On Land Protection", in the field of land protection and restoration of soil fertility establishes the following standards: maximum allowable soil contamination; qualitative condition of soils; the optimum ratio of lands; indicators of land and soils

  3. Texas State Building Energy Code: Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Commercial Lighting Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, Eric E.; Belzer, David B.; Winiarski, David W.

    2005-09-15

    The State Energy Conservation Office of Texas has asked the U.S. Department of Energy to analyze the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in the 2003 IECC as they consider adoption of this energy code. The new provisions of interest in the lighting section of IECC 2003 include new lighting power densities (LPD) and requirements for automatic lighting shutoff controls. The potential effect of the new LPD values is analyzed as a comparison with previous values in the nationally available IECC codes and ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1. The basis for the analysis is a set of lighting models developed as part of the ASHRAE/IES code process, which is the basis for IECC 2003 LPD values. The use of the models allows for an effective comparison of values for various building types of interest to Texas state. Potential effects from control requirements are discussed, and available case study analysis results are provided but no comprehensive numerical evaluation is provided in this limited analysis effort.

  4. Implications of Biofuel-Induced Land Use Change and Management on Irrigated Agriculture in the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, S.; Chen, Y.; Rajan, N.

    2016-12-01

    Texas High Plains (THP) is one of the important cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) growing regions in the US. Agriculture in the THP faces several challenges from declining groundwater levels and deteriorating groundwater quality in the underlying Ogallala Aquifer, and recurring droughts and severe wind erosion. Groundwater conservation districts in the THP have started setting up limits on annual allowable groundwater pumping for irrigation. Introducing cover crops in to the cotton production systems in the THP and/or changing land use from cotton to perennial bioenergy crops could not only address the above challenges, but also assist in meeting the national biofuel target. The overall goal of this study is to assess the implications of biofuel-indced land use managemt (growing winter wheat as a cover crop along with cotton) and land use change (replacing cotton with Alamo switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and Miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus)) on hydrology, water quality, wind erosion and biofuel production potential in the Double Mountain Fork Brazos watershed in the THP using the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model. Results showed that, in comparison to the baseline (cotton monoculture) scenario, the average annual wind erosion reduced by 59% and 37% in irrigated and dryland areas, respectively, when winter wheat was grown as a cover crop along with cotton under the current 18-inch groundwater pumping restriction set up by the High Plains Water District. In addition, winter wheat produced about 2.6 and 2.0 Mg ha-1 of biomass for biofuel purposes under the irrigated and dryland conditions, respectively. Furthermore, the total nitrogen (TN) load and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) leaching decreased by more than 43% and 73%, respectively, under the cover crop scenario. The land use change from cotton to switchgrass (in irrigated areas) and Miscanthus (in dryland areas) decreased the TN load, NO3-N leaching and wind erosion by more than 89% relative to

  5. Study of Effective Land Registration Usage in State-Subsidised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Project II is the third case study to be reported on land tenure administration in state-subsidised housing projects the Western Cape which indicate that registration is effective in administering ownership. Internationally, many land titling programmes have not produced the benefits envisaged. In a number of South African ...

  6. Classes of land-surface form in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset describes classes of land-surface form in the conterminous United States. The source of the data is the map of land-surface form in the 1970...

  7. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow and land-surface subsidence in the northern part of the Gulf Coast aquifer system, Texas, 1891-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmarek, Mark C.

    2012-01-01

    In cooperation with the Harris–Galveston Subsidence District, Fort Bend Subsidence District, and Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District, the U.S. Geological Survey developed and calibrated the Houston Area Groundwater Model (HAGM), which simulates groundwater flow and land-surface subsidence in the northern part of the Gulf Coast aquifer system in Texas from predevelopment (before 1891) through 2009. Withdrawal of groundwater since development of the aquifer system has resulted in potentiometric surface (hydraulic head, or head) declines in the Gulf Coast aquifer system and land-surface subsidence (primarily in the Houston area) from depressurization and compaction of clay layers interbedded in the aquifer sediments.

  8. Hydropedological model of vertisol formation along the Gulf Coast Prairie land resource area of Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Driese

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Vertisols are clayey soils containing slickensides and wedge-shaped aggregates formed by shrink-swell processes in seasonally wet climates. The dynamic distribution of macro- and microvoids as a by-product of this unique pedoturbation process, accompanied by microtopographic lows and highs (gilgai, mitigate our ability to make accurate and precise interpretations of aquic and hydric conditions in these problem soils. We studied Vertisols across a subhumid to humid climosequence to assess the formation of redoximorphic features on shallow, linear (nondepressional landscape positions in response to varying levels of rainfall. Approximately 1000 mm of mean annual precipitation (MAP is required to form soft iron masses that then increase in abundance, and to shallower depths, with increasing rainfall. Soft iron masses with diffuse boundaries become more abundant with higher rainfall in microlows, whereas masses with nondiffuse boundaries become more common in microhighs. Most soft iron masses form in oxygenated ped interiors as water first saturates and then reduces void walls where iron depletions form. In contrast, at least 1276 mm of MAP is needed to form iron pore linings in both microlow and microhigh topographic positions. Iron depletions do not correlate with rainfall in terms of abundance or depth of occurrence. The quantity of crayfish burrows co-varies with rainfall and first appears coincidentally with soft iron masses in microlows near 1000 mm of MAP; they do not appear until nearly 1400 mm of MAP in microhighs. Dithionite-citrate extractable and ammonium-oxalate extractable iron oxides increase systematically with rainfall indicating more frequent episodes of iron reduction and precipitation into pedogenic segregations. The sum of our data suggests that Vertisols forming in the Coast Prairie of Texas with MAP greater than 1276 mm should be classified as aquerts because of the presence of aquic conditions. These same soils may also meet

  9. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: NLCD 2001 Land Use and Land Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the estimated area of land use and land cover from the National Land Cover Dataset 2001 (LaMotte, 2008), compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for 2001. The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5) and the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins.

  10. The utility of ERTS-1 data for applications in land use classification. [Texas Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornbach, J. E.; Mckain, G. E.

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive study has been undertaken to determine the extent to which conventional image interpretation and computer-aided (spectral pattern recognition) analysis techniques using ERTS-1 data could be used to detect, identify (classify), locate, and measure current land use over large geographic areas. It can be concluded that most of the level 1 and 2 categories in the USGS Circular no. 671 can be detected in the Houston-Gulf Coast area using a combination of both techniques for analysis. These capabilities could be exercised over larger geographic areas, however, certain factors such as different vegetative cover, topography, etc. may have to be considered in other geographic regions. The best results in identification (classification), location, and measurement of level 1 and 2 type categories appear to be obtainable through automatic data processing of multispectral scanner computer compatible tapes.

  11. LandCarbon Conterminous United States Land-Use/Land-Cover Mosaics 1992-2050

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Source data for this variable were obtained from the USGS Land Cover Trends Project. Annual maps of LULC were extrapolated for baseline years (1992 to 2005) and...

  12. Texas motorcycle crash countermeasure workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) contracted with the Texas A&M : Transportation Institute (TTI) to develop a 5-year strategic plan for improving motorcycle safety : in the State of Texas. The Texas Strategic Action Plan for Motorcycl...

  13. The persistence of Black males in the STEM fields at Texas State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Beverly Woodson

    For the past five years, enrollment in the College of Science and Engineering by first-time undergraduate students has steadily increased. However, retaining the students through their first-year and their persistence to their second year of college and beyond has been problematic. The purpose of this study is to add to the knowledge of why Black students, specifically Black men, are not persisting at Texas State University in the STEM majors. It will also determine if specific factors like the SAT scores, parent's education, high school rank, college GPA, college science and math courses (physics, math, biology and chemistry), college credits earned and average GPA in all science and math college courses predict college preparation and college performance for all students and for Black male students.

  14. Outcomes of Project Wall Talk: An HIV/AIDS Peer Education Program Implemented within the Texas State Prison System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael W.; Harzke, Amy Jo; Scott, Deborah P.; McCann, Kelly; Kelley, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We report select outcomes from an evaluation of Project Wall Talk, a community-based, peer-led HIV prevention education program implemented in 36 Texas State prison units. Peer educators completed questionnaires prior to receipt of a 40-hour intensive training (N = 590) and at 9-month follow-up (N = 257). Students (N = 2506) completed…

  15. State formation, religion, and land tenure in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilder, K.; African Studies Centre, Leiden

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this analytical bibliography is to provide an overview of the recently published social science literature on State formation, religion, and land tenure in Cameroon. The 800 entries have been arranged under the following subject headings: The Cameroon State (nation building, political

  16. Effects of Land Degradation on Agriculture in Anambra State: Issue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effects of land degradation on agriculture in Anambra state. Two Local Government Areas were purposively selected from the state while a town community was purposively selected from each of the Local Government Areas. Proportionate sampling technique was used to select 50% of the villages ...

  17. IMPROVEMENT OF DATA FORMATION IN THE MODE OF LAND USE AND LAND PLOTS IN THE NEW REGISTRATION FORMS OF THE STATE LAND CADASTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalyshyn O.F.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Adjusting of economic information and statistics to international standards leads to improvement of obtaining the data in the State Land Cadastre. In this regard, the state implemented new methodological approaches and registration forms of data acquisition. Materials for our research are the new forms of records statements, approved by Order number 337 of December 30, 2015 of the Ministry of Regional Development, Construction and Housing and Communal Services of Ukraine "On approval of new forms of administrative reports quantifying land" and instructions for filling them out. The reliability of the information provided in the process of formation and registration of land in the State Land Cadastre System in Land Register, its completeness - while holding the records of number and quality of land. According to Art. 203 of the Land Code, "Records of the number of lands - is the reflection in the statements and documents of data that characterize every land, the land areas and land structure, land distribution by owners, land users." The main objective of land records is to provide assessments of land, land tenure and land use on their actual use. That is the accumulation and systematization of information about the size, composition of land, its subspecies according to the adopted classification and economic use of land and its natural state. Along with the positive changes in the approval of new forms there are some drawbacks on their content and structural construction. Addressing these deficiencies in the structural construction of the new forms and mechanisms of formation of these improvements they enhance the reliability and transparency of obtaining credentials for the mode of land use and land in SLC. From their completeness depends the future performance of fiscal system and land use management at the local level, information provision of organizations interested in its use and regulation of land relations and land administration.

  18. Birch management on New Hampshire state lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent. Goodhue

    1969-01-01

    Paper birch occurs on New Hampshire's state forests in association with almost all other upland species. The quality wood is found as far south as the Sunapee Range and the Lake Winnipesaukee area. In this northern zone, there is a ready market that recognizes grade and makes paper birch management worthwhile. In the white pine area in the southeastern part of the...

  19. Texas Chenier Plain Refuge Complex: Final Environmental Impact Statement, Comprehensive Conservation Plan, and Land Protection Plan (Volumes 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Texas Chenier Plains Refuge Complex for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the...

  20. Water and the arid lands of the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ashry, M.T.; Gibbons, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    The United States is water-rich, but conflicts over water development and use are increasing. Today, economic scarcity - not absolute physical scarcity - is the key issue in many places. In the arid American West, traditionally over 90 percent of the water consumed has been used to irrigate agriculture. But as cities grow and the states's economies diversify, municipal, commercial, and industrial uses exert more pressure. At the same time, groundwater mining and water quality degradation are becoming commonplace. The challenge is to increase productivity while equitably distributing the costs and benefits of water use. This book includes three case studies that cover primarily agricultural areas (the Central Valley of California, the High Plains of Texas, and the upper Colorado River basin) and three on the problems of metropolitan areas (Denver, Tucson, and the southern California megalopolis). The authors also identify policies that could help the West sustain economic growth without destroying or undervaluing its natural resources.

  1. Finding the Common Ground: A Comparison of Writing Expectations and Outcomes between the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills and the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Pat; Vasinda, Sheri

    2014-01-01

    In the Winter 2013 edition of the "Texas Journal of Literacy Education," we announced that a special task force from the TALE board would be sharing the common ground among the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS), Common Core State Standards (CCSS), and the College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS). In that first edition, we…

  2. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Texas. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  3. Oceanographic measurements from the Texas Automated Buoy System (TABS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Texas Automated Buoy System contains daily oceanographic measurements from seven buoys off the Texas coast from Brownsville to Sabine. The Texas General Land...

  4. A Rare Case of Amatoxin Poisoning in the State of Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chung Chen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of mushrooms from the genus Amanita can present detrimental consequences to the human body. The mushroom is frequently found in the coastal Pacific Northwest, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Ohio. Amanitin, one of the two distinct toxins isolated from the Amanita mushroom, is responsible for the majority of symptoms and signs seen with mushroom poisoning. Clinically, ingestion of these mushrooms can result in a wide range of clinical symptoms including nausea, vomiting, crampy abdominal pain, and diarrhea. There have been several case reports of patients who developed severe hepatic failure that required liver transplantation. Thus, it is important to recognize the symptoms early and treat the patients with the available agents including multidose activated charcoal, N-acetylcysteine, penicillin G, and Silybum. Through an extensive literature search, we found no published literature on amatoxin poisoning in the state of Texas. With new cases of amatoxin poisoning emerging in the state, it is important for healthcare providers and workers to have a better awareness and early recognition of the detrimental effects of Amanita species poisoning and to be educated to provide the proper care for this group of patients.

  5. Eutrophication potential of lakes: an integrated analysis of trophic state, morphometry, land occupation, and land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvino, R F; Barbosa, F A R

    2015-08-01

    Despite being inside a protected area, Lake Sumidouro has been impacted by the anthropogenic occupation of the surrounding area since the 1970's, compromising the ecological integrity of the lake and the sustainable use of natural resources. This study examined the current trophic classification of the lake and developed methods for improving it through an integrated analysis of morphometric and limnological parameters, land use and land occupation in the watershed, and eutrophication potential. Data for the limnological parameters, land use and land occupation, and morphometric characteristics of Lake Sumidouro were collected in the rainy and dry seasons of 2009 and 2010. Depending on the trophic classification system used, Lake Sumidouro is classified as oligotrophic to hypereutrophic. In our study, the highest concentration of nutrients occurred in the rainy season, indicating that high nutrient inputs played an important role during this period. Areas of anthropogenic occupation comprised approximately 62.9% of the total area of the watershed, with pasture and urban settlement as the main types of land use. The influent total phosphorus load was estimated to be 15,824.3 kg/year. To maintain mesotrophic conditions, this load must be reduced by 29.4%. By comparing the isolated use of trophic state indices, this study demonstrated that comparing the trophic state classification with morphometric analyses, land use and land occupation types in the watershed, and potential phosphorus load provided better information to guide management actions for restoration and conservation. Furthermore, this approach also allowed for evaluating the vulnerability of the environment to the eutrophication process.

  6. Eutrophication potential of lakes: an integrated analysis of trophic state, morphometry, land occupation, and land use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RF Silvino

    Full Text Available AbstractDespite being inside a protected area, Lake Sumidouro has been impacted by the anthropogenic occupation of the surrounding area since the 1970’s, compromising the ecological integrity of the lake and the sustainable use of natural resources. This study examined the current trophic classification of the lake and developed methods for improving it through an integrated analysis of morphometric and limnological parameters, land use and land occupation in the watershed, and eutrophication potential. Data for the limnological parameters, land use and land occupation, and morphometric characteristics of Lake Sumidouro were collected in the rainy and dry seasons of 2009 and 2010. Depending on the trophic classification system used, Lake Sumidouro is classified as oligotrophic to hypereutrophic. In our study, the highest concentration of nutrients occurred in the rainy season, indicating that high nutrient inputs played an important role during this period. Areas of anthropogenic occupation comprised approximately 62.9% of the total area of the watershed, with pasture and urban settlement as the main types of land use. The influent total phosphorus load was estimated to be 15,824.3 kg/year. To maintain mesotrophic conditions, this load must be reduced by 29.4%. By comparing the isolated use of trophic state indices, this study demonstrated that comparing the trophic state classification with morphometric analyses, land use and land occupation types in the watershed, and potential phosphorus load provided better information to guide management actions for restoration and conservation. Furthermore, this approach also allowed for evaluating the vulnerability of the environment to the eutrophication process.

  7. Federal Lands of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  8. Geothermal resource assessment for the state of Texas: status of progress, November 1980. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, C.M. Jr.; Caran, S.C.; Gever, C.; Henry, C.D.; Macpherson, G.L.; McBride, M.W.

    1982-03-01

    Data pertaining to wells and thermal aquifers and data interpretation methods are presented. Findings from a program of field measurements of water temperatures (mainly in South-Central Texas) and an assessment of hydrologic properties of three Cretaceous aquifers (in North-Central Texas) are included. Landsat lineaments and their pertinance to the localization of low-temperature geothermal resources are emphasized. Lineament data were compared to structural and stratigraphic features along the Balcones/Ouachita trend in Central Texas to test for correlations. (MHR)

  9. A comparative integrated geophysical study of Horseshoe Chimney Cave, Colorado Bend State Park, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Wesley A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated geophysical study was performed over a known cave in Colorado Bend State Park (CBSP, Texas, where shallow karst features are common within the Ellenberger Limestone. Geophysical survey such as microgravity, ground penetrating radar (GPR, direct current (DC resistivity, capacitively coupled (CC resistivity, induced polarization (IP and ground conductivity (GC measurements were performed in an effort to distinguish which geophysical method worked most effectively and efficiently in detecting the presence of subsurface voids, caves and collapsed features. Horseshoe Chimney Cave (HCC, which is part of a larger network of cave systems, provides a good control environment for this research. A 50 x 50 meter grid, with 5 m spaced traverses was positioned around the entrance to HCC. Geophysical techniques listed above were used to collect geophysical data which were processed with the aid of commercial software packages. A traditional cave survey was conducted after geophysical data collection, to avoid any bias in initial data collection. The survey of the cave also provided ground truthing. Results indicate the microgravity followed by CC resistivity techniques worked most efficiently and were most cost effective, while the other methods showed varying levels of effectiveness.

  10. State of Texas - Highlighting low-lying areas derived from USGS Digital Elevation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosovich, John J.

    2008-01-01

    In support of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) disaster preparedness efforts, this map depicts a color shaded relief representation of Texas and a grayscale relief of the surrounding areas. The first 30 feet of relief above mean sea level are displayed as brightly colored 5-foot elevation bands, which highlight low-elevation areas at a coarse spatial resolution. Standard USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) 1 arc-second (nominally 30-meter) digital elevation model (DEM) data are the basis for the map, which is designed to be used at a broad scale and for informational purposes only. The NED data were derived from the original 1:24,000-scale USGS topographic map bare-earth contours, which were converted into gridded quadrangle-based DEM tiles at a constant post spacing (grid cell size) of either 30 meters (data before the mid-1990s) or 10 meters (mid-1990s and later data). These individual-quadrangle DEMs were then converted to spherical coordinates (latitude/longitude decimal degrees) and edge-matched to ensure seamlessness. The NED source data for this map consists of a mixture of 30-meter- and 10-meter-resolution DEMs. State and county boundary, hydrography, city, and road layers were modified from USGS National Atlas data downloaded in 2003. The NED data were downloaded in 2002. Shaded relief over Mexico was obtained from the USGS National Atlas.

  11. Advanced Laboratory at Texas State University: Error Analysis, Experimental Design, and Research Experience for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrice, Carl

    2009-04-01

    Physics is an experimental science. In other words, all physical laws are based on experimentally observable phenomena. Therefore, it is important that all physics students have an understanding of the limitations of certain experimental techniques and the associated errors associated with a particular measurement. The students in the Advanced Laboratory class at Texas State perform three detailed laboratory experiments during the semester and give an oral presentation at the end of the semester on a scientific topic of their choosing. The laboratory reports are written in the format of a ``Physical Review'' journal article. The experiments are chosen to give the students a detailed background in error analysis and experimental design. For instance, the first experiment performed in the spring 2009 semester is entitled Measurement of the local acceleration due to gravity in the RFM Technology and Physics Building. The goal of this experiment is to design and construct an instrument that is to be used to measure the local gravitational field in the Physics Building to an accuracy of ±0.005 m/s^2. In addition, at least one of the experiments chosen each semester involves the use of the research facilities within the physics department (e.g., microfabrication clean room, surface science lab, thin films lab, etc.), which gives the students experience working in a research environment.

  12. Modeled historical land use and land cover for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, Terry L.; Reker, Ryan; Bouchard, Michelle A.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Dornbierer, Jordan; Wika, Steve; Quenzer, Robert; Friesz, Aaron M.

    2016-01-01

    The landscape of the conterminous United States has changed dramatically over the last 200 years, with agricultural land use, urban expansion, forestry, and other anthropogenic activities altering land cover across vast swaths of the country. While land use and land cover (LULC) models have been developed to model potential future LULC change, few efforts have focused on recreating historical landscapes. Researchers at the US Geological Survey have used a wide range of historical data sources and a spatially explicit modeling framework to model spatially explicit historical LULC change in the conterminous United States from 1992 back to 1938. Annual LULC maps were produced at 250-m resolution, with 14 LULC classes. Assessment of model results showed good agreement with trends and spatial patterns in historical data sources such as the Census of Agriculture and historical housing density data, although comparison with historical data is complicated by definitional and methodological differences. The completion of this dataset allows researchers to assess historical LULC impacts on a range of ecological processes.

  13. Investigation of land use, development, and parking policies to support the use of high-occupancy vehicles in Texas. Final research report, September 1993-August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, K.F.; Turner, P.A.; Lindquist, N.F.

    1995-11-01

    The research study examined the factors that influence commuting behavior, the reaction of commuters to various strategies and techniques to encourage alternative commute modes, and the use of different programs by public agencies and businesses in Texas. This was accomplished through a state-of-the-art literature review; discussion groups with representatives from the public and private sectors in Dallas, Houston, and Austin; an evaluation of the Houston Employer Trip Reduction Plans; and surveys of bus riders, carpoolers, and motorists on HOV lanes and freeways in Dallas and Houston. The research results identify the strategies that appear most appropriate for further application in Texas and potential implementation techniques. The results indicate that voluntary efforts are favored over mandatory programs. Further, support was strongest for transit services and support facilities, ridesharing, employee incentives, and on-site amenities. Less support was voiced for pricing strategies, including congestion pricing, increasing parking rates, and raising the tax on gasoline.

  14. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Public Land Survey System of the United States 201011 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set portrays the Public Land Surveys of the United States, including areas of private survey, Donation Land Claims, and Land Grants and Civil Colonies....

  15. Land Use in Myanmar with a Case Study in Southern Shan State

    OpenAIRE

    Egashira, Kazuhiko; Than, Aye Aye

    2006-01-01

    General aspects of land use in Myanmar were evaluated according to the statistical data issued from FAO. Following it, features of land use in Southern Shan State situated in the eastern hilly region were described as a case study. Ten types of land use were recognized in Southern Shan State. Major land use type was upland field which occupied about 50% of the cultivated area in Southern Shan State, followed by paddy field. Characteristics of individual land use type were discussed.

  16. EnviroAtlas - Land Cover for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the percentage of land area that is classified as forest land cover, modified forest land cover, and natural land cover using the 2006...

  17. Reconstructed historical land cover and biophysical parameters for studies of land-atmosphere interactions within the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyaert, Louis T.; Knox, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 350 years, the eastern half of the United States experienced extensive land cover changes. These began with land clearing in the 1600s, continued with widespread deforestation, wetland drainage, and intensive land use by 1920, and then evolved to the present-day landscape of forest regrowth, intensive agriculture, urban expansion, and landscape fragmentation. Such changes alter biophysical properties that are key determinants of land-atmosphere interactions (water, energy, and carbon exchanges). To understand the potential implications of these land use transformations, we developed and analyzed 20-km land cover and biophysical parameter data sets for the eastern United States at 1650, 1850, 1920, and 1992 time slices. Our approach combined potential vegetation, county-level census data, soils data, resource statistics, a Landsat-derived land cover classification, and published historical information on land cover and land use. We reconstructed land use intensity maps for each time slice and characterized the land cover condition. We combined these land use data with a mutually consistent set of biophysical parameter classes, to characterize the historical diversity and distribution of land surface properties. Time series maps of land surface albedo, leaf area index, a deciduousness index, canopy height, surface roughness, and potential saturated soils in 1650, 1850, 1920, and 1992 illustrate the profound effects of land use change on biophysical properties of the land surface. Although much of the eastern forest has returned, the average biophysical parameters for recent landscapes remain markedly different from those of earlier periods. Understanding the consequences of these historical changes will require land-atmosphere interactions modeling experiments.

  18. Browns Park state lands ecological site inventory and grazing plan alternatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is prepared for the Colorado State Land Board on field studies conducted on state lands in the Browns Park Resource Management Area. Inventories and...

  19. 100-Meter Resolution Land/Water Mask of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This Land/Water Mask is a 100-meter resolution image of the conterminous United States, with separate values for oceans and for land areas of the United States,...

  20. When Race Disappears: College Admissions Policy Discourse in the State of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle; Sulè, V. Thandi; Maramba, Dina C.

    2014-01-01

    What happens to race in public discussions about "race-neutral" college admissions policies? This article shows how race disappeared from elite political debate during hearings on Texas Senate Bill 175 (2009), the Top Ten Percent Plan (the Plan), which guaranteed college admissions to high school graduates from the top 10% of their…

  1. Base flow (1966-2009) and streamflow gain and loss (2010) of the Brazos River from the New Mexico-Texas State line to Waco, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldys, Stanley; Schalla, Frank E.

    2012-01-01

    During 2010–11, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, used hydrograph separation to quantify historical base flow at 11 USGS streamflow-gaging stations between water years 1966–2009 and streamflow gains and losses from two sets of synoptic measurements of streamflow and specific conductance (the first in June 2010, followed by another set in October 2010) in the upper Brazos River Basin from the New Mexico–Texas State line to Waco, Texas. The following subbasins compose the study area: Salt Fork Brazos River Basin, Double Mountain Fork Brazos River Basin, Clear Fork Brazos River Basin, North Bosque River Basin, and the Brazos River Basin (main stem) (including its tributaries). Base-flow analysis was done using historical streamflow data from 11 USGS streamflow-gaging stations in the upper Brazos River Basin to compute yearly base-flow indexes (base flow divided by total streamflow) for each station. The base-flow index was used to indicate the fraction of flow consisting of base flow on an annual basis for the period of record evaluated at each streamflow-gaging station. At nine stations there were long-term streamflow data from water years 1966–2009 (October 1965 through September 2009); at two stations slightly shorter periods of record (water years 1967–2009 and 1969–2009) were available. The median base-flow indexes were 0.16 and 0.15 at USGS streamflow-gaging stations 08082000 Salt Fork Brazos River near Aspermont, Tex., and 08080500 Double Mountain Fork Brazos River near Aspermont, Tex., respectively. The amount of the total streamflow consisting of base flow was larger at sites in the Clear Fork Brazos River Basin compared to sites in the Salt Fork Brazos River Basin or Double Mountain Fork Brazos River Basin; at USGS streamflow-gaging stations 08084000 Clear Fork Brazos River at Nugent, Tex., and at 08085500 Clear Fork Brazos River at Fort Griffin, Tex., the median base-flow indexes were 0

  2. Population stress: A spatiotemporal analysis of population change and land development at the county level in the contiguous United States, 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Guangqing; Ho, Hung Chak

    2018-01-01

    The past century has witnessed rapidly increasing population-land conflicts due to exponential population growth and its many consequences. Although the measures of population-land conflicts are many, there lacks a model that appropriately considers both the social and physical contexts of population-land conflicts. In this study we introduce the concept of population stress, which identifies areas with populations growing faster than the lands available for sustainable development. Specifically, population stress areas are identified by comparing population growth and land development as measured by land developability in the contiguous United States from 2001 to 2011. Our approach is based on a combination of spatial multicriteria analysis, zonal statistics, and spatiotemporal modeling. We found that the population growth of a county is associated with the decrease of land developability, along with the spatial influences of surrounding counties. The Midwest and the traditional "Deep South" counties would have less population stress with future land development, whereas the Southeast Coast, Washington State, Northern Texas, and the Southwest would face more stress due to population growth that is faster than the loss of suitable lands for development. The factors contributing to population stress may differ from place to place. Our population stress concept is useful and innovative for understanding population stress due to land development and can be applied to other regions as well as global research. It can act as a basis towards developing coherent sustainable land use policies. Coordination among local governments and across different levels of governments in the twenty-first century is a must for effective land use planning.

  3. Assessing the Impacts of Climate and Land Use Change on Streamflow and Nutrient Loading in the Arroyo Colorado Watershed in Southern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osidele, O.; Sun, A.; Green, R.

    2011-12-01

    Based on results of the Second National Climate Assessment reported in 2009, the U.S. Global Change Research Program projects temperatures in southern Texas will increase 5 to 8° F by the end of the 21st century, with larger changes occurring under scenarios of higher greenhouse gas emissions. Temperature increases in summer are projected to be larger than in winter. Although drier conditions are expected in the region, sea-level rise, extreme rainfall events, and associated storm surges are projected to occur more frequently because of the likely increase in intensity of hurricanes and tropical storms in the Gulf of Mexico. The range of possible responses to climate change is attributable to a combination of characteristics at global, regional, and local scales. The risk of flooding and catastrophic infrastructure damage due to global climate phenomena has been incorporated into local climate adaptation plans for many low-lying areas and communities in the Gulf Coast region of southern Texas. However, because this region is dominated by irrigated agriculture and the population is projected to double by 2050, it is important to examine how climate change will affect water resources and environmental quality. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential hydrologic and water quality impacts of projected climate change, land use change, and population change scenarios in the headwaters of the Arroyo Colorado. The results of this work will provide content for a web-based, collaborative geospatial decision support system being developed to support environmental management in the Arroyo Colorado Watershed. Presently, land use in the Arroyo Colorado Watershed is more than 50 percent agricultural and almost 25 percent residential with varying levels of urbanization. As a result, flow in the Arroyo Colorado is sustained primarily by discharge from municipal wastewater treatment facilities, irrigation return flows, and urban storm runoff. In this study

  4. The discovery and character of Pleistocene calcrete uranium deposits in the Southern High Plains of west Texas, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Hall, Susan M.

    2017-12-18

    This report describes the discovery and geology of two near-surface uranium deposits within calcareous lacustrine strata of Pleistocene age in west Texas, United States. Calcrete uranium deposits have not been previously reported in the United States. The west Texas uranium deposits share characteristics with some calcrete uranium deposits in Western Australia—uranium-vanadium minerals hosted by nonpedogenic calcretes deposited in saline lacustrine environments.In the mid-1970s, Kerr-McGee Corporation conducted a regional uranium exploration program in the Southern High Plains province of the United States, which led to the discovery of two shallow uranium deposits (that were not publicly reported). With extensive drilling, Kerr-McGee delineated one deposit of about 2.1 million metric tons of ore with an average grade of 0.037 percent U3O8 and another deposit of about 0.93 million metric tons of ore averaging 0.047 percent U3O8.The west-Texas calcrete uranium-vanadium deposits occur in calcareous, fine-grained sediments interpreted to be deposited in saline lakes formed during dry interglacial periods of the Pleistocene. The lakes were associated with drainages upstream of a large Pleistocene lake. Age determinations of tephra in strata adjacent to one deposit indicate the host strata is middle Pleistocene in age.Examination of the uranium-vanadium mineralization by scanning-electron microscopy indicated at least two generations of uranium-vanadium deposition in the lacustrine strata identified as carnotite and a strontium-uranium-vanadium mineral. Preliminary uranium-series results indicate a two-component system in the host calcrete, with early lacustrine carbonate that was deposited (or recrystallized) about 190 kilo-annum, followed much later by carnotite-rich crusts and strontium-uranium-vanadium mineralization in the Holocene (about 5 kilo-annum). Differences in initial 234U/238U activity ratios indicate two separate, distinct fluid sources.

  5. Parasites of edible land snails in Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igbinosa I. B.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Land snails are sources of protein to man and are hosts to a number of parasites. It is imperative that the roles of the snail hosts and parasites are clearly defined. Before then however, the parasites of the different land snails collected in any locality should be identified. Land snails were collected in the wild in both dry and wet seasons. The internal organs and the faeces were examined for the presence of parasite. In the rainy season of 2015, a total of 272 snails were collected across four major towns (Benin, Uromi, Ekpoma and Auchi in Edo State, Nigeria, while in the dry season, fewer snails (n=91 were handpicked. The snail species seen are: Achatina achatina (Linnaeus, 1758, Achatina fulica (Férussac, 1821, Acharchatina marginata (Swainson, 1982, Limicolaria aurora (Jay, 1839, L. flammea (Müller, 1774 and Limicolariopsis spp. The larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis were isolated from the various snail species with overall prevalence of 54.04 %. Snails positive with Alaria mesocercariae were L. aurora, L. flammea and Limicolariopsis spp. Additionally, few L. flammea were positive of the cercariae of Drocoelium dedriticum. Meanwhile, some samples of A. fulica harboured larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonesis, sporocysts of Fasciola gigantica and Schistosoma mansoni. Therefore, these edible snails could pose serious health hazard to man and animals by serving as a possible alternative parasite transmission route.

  6. Mining claim activity on Federal Land in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Public Land spatial data sets (shapefile) contains Public Land Survey section polygons that had mining claims recorded in the U.S. Bureau of Land Management's...

  7. Texas Affordable Baccalaureate Program: A Collaboration between the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, South Texas College, and Texas A&M University-Commerce. CBE Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Collins, Rebecca; Glancey, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    This case study is part of a series on newer competency-based degree programs that have been emerging in recent years. In January 2014, the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB), South Texas College (STC), and Texas A&M University-Commerce (A&M Commerce) launched the Texas Affordable Baccalaureate Program, the state's first…

  8. Historical trends and projections of land use for the South-Central United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SoEun Ahn; Andrew J. Plantinga; Ralph J. Alig

    2000-01-01

    This report presents historical trends and future projections of forest, agricultural, and urban and other land uses for the South-Central United States. A land use share model is used to investigate the relation between the areas of land in alternative uses and economic and demographic factors influencing land use decisions. Two different versions of the empirical...

  9. Legalising land rights. Local Practices, State Responses and Tenure Security in Africa, Asia and Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Ubink, Janine M.; Hoekema, André J.; Assies, Willem J.

    2009-01-01

    Millions of people live and work on land that they do not legally own in accordance with enforceable state law. The absence of state recognition for local property rights affects people's tenure security and impedes development. Efforts to legalise extra-legal land tenure have traditionally emphasised individual titling and registration. Disappointment with such approaches have led to a search for 'a third way' in land tenure regulation that will reconcile state perspectives with local land r...

  10. Detecting and Measuring Land Subsidence in Houston-Galveston, Texas using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Global Positioning System Data, 2012-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, A.; Baker, S.

    2016-12-01

    Several cities in the Houston-Galveston (HG) region in Texas have subsided up to 13 feet over several decades due to natural and anthropogenic processes [Yu et al. 2014]. Land subsidence, a gradual sinking of the Earth's surface, is an often human-induced hazard and a major environmental problem expedited by activities such as mining, oil and gas extraction, urbanization and excessive groundwater pumping. We are able to detect and measure subsidence in HG using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and global positioning systems (GPS). Qu et al. [2015] used ERS, Envisat, and ALOS-1 to characterize subsidence in HG from 1995 to 2011, but a five-year gap in InSAR measurements exists due to a lack of freely available SAR data. We build upon the previous study by comparing subsidence patterns detected by Sentinel-1 data starting in July 2015. We used GMT5SAR to generate a stack of interferograms with perpendicular baselines less than 100 meters and temporal baselines less than 100 days to minimize temporal and spatial decorrelation. We applied the short baseline subset (SBAS) time series processing using GIAnT and compared our results with GPS measurements. The implications of this work will strengthen land subsidence monitoring systems in HG and broadly aid in the development of effective water resource management policies and strategies.

  11. Africa for sale? Positioning the state, land and society in foreign large-scale land acquisitions in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, S.; Seagle, C.; Krijtenburg, F.

    2013-01-01

    The past several decades have witnessed a rise in foreign and domestic investments in Africa's arable land. While such land projects are currently the focus of widespread media and scholarly interest, the role of the state in driving, negotiating and facilitating these acquisitions deserves closer

  12. Land surface sensitivity of monsoon depressions formed over Bay of Bengal using improved high-resolution land state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, P. V.; Pattnaik, S.; Mohanty, U. C.; Rai, D.; Baisya, H.; Pandey, P. C.

    2017-12-01

    Monsoon depressions (MDs) constitute a large fraction of the total rainfall during the Indian summer monsoon season. In this study, the impact of high-resolution land state is addressed by assessing the evolution of inland moving depressions formed over the Bay of Bengal using a mesoscale modeling system. Improved land state is generated using High Resolution Land Data Assimilation System employing Noah-MP land-surface model. Verification of soil moisture using Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and soil temperature using tower observations demonstrate promising results. Incorporating high-resolution land state yielded least root mean squared errors with higher correlation coefficient in the surface and mid tropospheric parameters. Rainfall forecasts reveal that simulations are spatially and quantitatively in accordance with observations and provide better skill scores. The improved land surface characteristics have brought about the realistic evolution of surface, mid-tropospheric parameters, vorticity and moist static energy that facilitates the accurate MDs dynamics in the model. Composite moisture budget analysis reveals that the surface evaporation is negligible compared to moisture flux convergence of water vapor, which supplies moisture into the MDs over land. The temporal relationship between rainfall and moisture convergence show high correlation, suggesting a realistic representation of land state help restructure the moisture inflow into the system through rainfall-moisture convergence feedback.

  13. Hanford Federal Facility state of Washington leased land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This report was prepared to provide information concerning past solid and hazardous waste management practices for all leased land at the US DOE Hanford Reservation. This report contains sections including land description; land usage; ground water, air and soil monitoring data; and land uses after 1963. Numerous appendices are included which provide documentation of lease agreements and amendments, environmental assessments, and site surveys.

  14. Identifying Potential Conflict Associated with Oil and Gas Exploration in Texas State Coastal Waters: A Multicriteria Spatial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Samuel D.; Grover, Himanshu; Bernhardt, Sarah; Tang, Zhenghong; Whitaker, Bianca; Spence, Colin

    2006-10-01

    Recent interest in expanding offshore oil production within waters of the United States has been met with opposition by groups concerned with recreational, environmental, and aesthetic values associated with the coastal zone. Although the proposition of new oil platforms off the coast has generated conflict over how coastal resources should be utilized, little research has been conducted on where these user conflicts might be most intense and which sites might be most suitable for locating oil production facilities in light of the multiple, and often times, competing interests. In this article, we develop a multiple-criteria spatial decision support tool that identifies the potential degree of conflict associated with oil and gas production activities for existing lease tracts in the coastal margin of Texas. We use geographic information systems to measure and map a range of potentially competing representative values impacted by establishing energy extraction infrastructure and then spatially identify which leased tracts are the least contentious sites for oil and gas production in Texas state waters. Visual and statistical results indicate that oil and gas lease blocks within the study area vary in their potential to generate conflict among multiple stakeholders.

  15. Potential Impacts Related to the Air Training Command Realignments. Institutional Characteristics, Transportation, Civilian Community Utilities, Land Use for Craig AFB, Alabama, Webb AFB, Texas, Columbus AFB, Mississippi, Laughlin AFB, Texas, Reese AFB, Texas, Vance AFB, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-30

    8217 adn _AERN 4.4.1.3) Automobile traffic in Big Spring is not noticeably affected by AFB operations. Base empioyees arrive at and depart from the base...67 TRANSPORTATION ( ARN 4.4.1) Off-Base CAFERN 4.4.1.2) The impact of the proposed expansion upon off-base trans- portetion systems is not expected to...The area has been planning for increased growth in both land use arn trans- portation for some time and the increased population due to the alter

  16. 30 CFR 948.20 - Approval of State abandoned mine lands reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VIRGINIA § 948.20 Approval of State abandoned mine lands reclamation plan. The West Virginia Abandoned Mine... Mine Lands and Reclamation, 601 57th Street SE., Charleston, West Virginia 25304-2345, Telephone (304... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of State abandoned mine lands...

  17. 76 FR 80394 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Alaska State Office, Bureau of Land Management, Anchorage, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Inventory Completion: Alaska State Office, Bureau of Land Management, Anchorage, AK AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Alaska State Office, Bureau of Land Management has... completion of an inventory of human remains in the control of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) that are...

  18. 78 FR 12349 - Proposed Information Collection; Land and Water Conservation Fund State Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; Land and Water Conservation Fund State Assistance... INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 (LWCF Act) (16 U.S.C. 460l-4 et seq... discussed in detail in the Land and Water Conservation Fund State Assistance Program Federal Financial...

  19. Radiative forcing over the conterminous United States due to contemporary land cover land use albedo change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Christopher; Roy, David P.

    2008-01-01

    Recently available satellite land cover land use (LCLU) and albedo data are used to study the impact of LCLU change from 1973 to 2000 on surface albedo and radiative forcing for 36 ecoregions covering 43% of the conterminous United States (CONUS). Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-free broadband albedo values are derived from Landsat LCLU classification maps located using a stratified random sampling methodology to estimate ecoregion estimates of LCLU induced albedo change and surface radiative forcing. The results illustrate that radiative forcing due to LCLU change may be disguised when spatially and temporally explicit data sets are not used. The radiative forcing due to contemporary LCLU albedo change varies geographically in sign and magnitude, with the most positive forcings (up to 0.284 Wm−2) due to conversion of agriculture to other LCLU types, and the most negative forcings (as low as −0.247 Wm−2) due to forest loss. For the 36 ecoregions considered a small net positive forcing (i.e., warming) of 0.012 Wm−2 is estimated.

  20. Techniques for delineation and portrayal of land cover types using ERTS-1 data. [Pennsylvania, Montana, and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator); Wilson, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS data was used to map land cover in agricultural areas, although in some parts of Pennsylvania, with small irregular fields, many of the pixels overlap field boundaries and cause difficulties in classification. Various techniques and devices were used to display the results of these land cover analyses. The most promising approach would be a user-interactive color monitor interfaced with a large computer so that classification results could be displayed on the CRT and these results output by a hard complete copier.

  1. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Tile 4, Southeast United States: NLCD01_4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This 30-meter data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to...

  2. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Tile 2, Northeast United States: NLCD01_2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This 30-meter data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to...

  3. Changes in land use and housing on resource lands in Washington state, 1976–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew N. Gray; David L. Azuma; Gary J. Lettman; Joel L. Thompson; Neil McKay

    2013-01-01

    Changes in human land use patterns have wide-ranging social, economic and ecological implications. How urban and residential areas develop to accommodate population increase can have varying effects on forest and agricultural production from resource lands. Estimates of the amount and type of land use change differ substantially with definitions and analytical methods...

  4. Spatially explicit land-use and land-cover scenarios for the Great Plains of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, Terry L.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Bouchard, Michelle A.; Reker, Ryan R.; Bennett, Stacie L.; Sleeter, Rachel R.; Kanengieter, Ronald L.; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2012-01-01

    The Great Plains of the United States has undergone extensive land-use and land-cover change in the past 150 years, with much of the once vast native grasslands and wetlands converted to agricultural crops, and much of the unbroken prairie now heavily grazed. Future land-use change in the region could have dramatic impacts on ecological resources and processes. A scenario-based modeling framework is needed to support the analysis of potential land-use change in an uncertain future, and to mitigate potentially negative future impacts on ecosystem processes. We developed a scenario-based modeling framework to analyze potential future land-use change in the Great Plains. A unique scenario construction process, using an integrated modeling framework, historical data, workshops, and expert knowledge, was used to develop quantitative demand for future land-use change for four IPCC scenarios at the ecoregion level. The FORE-SCE model ingested the scenario information and produced spatially explicit land-use maps for the region at relatively fine spatial and thematic resolutions. Spatial modeling of the four scenarios provided spatial patterns of land-use change consistent with underlying assumptions and processes associated with each scenario. Economically oriented scenarios were characterized by significant loss of natural land covers and expansion of agricultural and urban land uses. Environmentally oriented scenarios experienced modest declines in natural land covers to slight increases. Model results were assessed for quantity and allocation disagreement between each scenario pair. In conjunction with the U.S. Geological Survey's Biological Carbon Sequestration project, the scenario-based modeling framework used for the Great Plains is now being applied to the entire United States.

  5. Urban and community forests of the South Central West region: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends, changes...

  6. Pygmy rabbit surveys on state lands in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Joan; Lienkaemper, George

    2007-01-01

    The pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis) is classified by the federal government as a species of concern (i.e., under review by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for consideration as a candidate for listing as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act) because of its specialized habitat requirements and evidence of declining populations. The Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) lists pygmy rabbits as “sensitive-vulnerable,” meaning that protective measures are needed if sustainable populations are to be maintained over time (Oregon Natural Heritage Program, 2001). The Oregon Natural Heritage Program considers this species to be threatened with extirpation from Oregon. Pygmy rabbits also are a species of concern in all the other states where they occur (NatureServe, 2004). The Washington population, known as the Columbia Basin pygmy rabbit, was listed as endangered by the federal government in 2003. Historically, pygmy rabbits have been collected from Deschutes, Klamath, Crook, Lake, Grant, Harney, Baker, and Malheur Counties in Oregon. However, the geographic range of pygmy rabbit in Oregon may have decreased in historic times (Verts and Carraway, 1998), and boundaries of the current distribution are not known. Not all potentially suitable sites appear to be occupied, and populations are susceptible to rapid declines and local extirpation (Weiss and Verts, 1984). In order to protect and manage remaining populations on State of Oregon lands, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife needs to identify areas currently occupied by pygmy rabbits, as well as suitable habitats. The main objective of this survey was document to presence or absence of pygmy rabbits on state lands in Malheur, Harney, Lake, and Deschutes counties. Knowledge of the location and extent of pygmy rabbit populations can provide a foundation for the conservation and management of this species in Oregon. The pygmy rabbit is just one of a suite of species of concern

  7. Sustainability for the Americas Initiative: Land Design Institute, Ball State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. L. Motloch; Pedro Pacheco; Eloy F. Jr. Casagrande

    2006-01-01

    The Ball State University Land Design Institute (LDI) pursues ecologically and culturally sustainable land design through education, research, outreach, and demonstration. LDI seeks to lead communities (local, regional, global) to sustainable futures. It connects communities and sustainability experts to optimize education about land management, planning, and design...

  8. The driving forces of land change in the Northern Piedmont of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auch, Roger F.; Napton, Darrell E.; Kambly, Steven; Moreland, Thomas R.; Sayler, Kristi L.

    2012-01-01

    Driving forces facilitate or inhibit land-use/land-cover change. Human driving forces include political, economic, cultural, and social attributes that often change across time and space. Remotely sensed imagery provides regional land-change data for the Northern Piedmont, an ecoregion of the United States that continued to urbanize after 1970 through conversion of agricultural and forest land covers to developed uses. Eight major driving forces facilitated most of the land conversion; other drivers inhibited or slowed change. A synergistic web of drivers may be more important in understanding land change than individual drivers by themselves.

  9. 78 FR 39765 - Notice of Proposed Classification of Public Lands/Minerals for State Indemnity Selection, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Classification of Public Lands/Minerals for State Indemnity Selection, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Classification. SUMMARY: The Colorado State Board of Land Commissioners (State) has filed a petition for classification...

  10. Study of Effective Land Registration Usage in State-Subsidised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MichaelB

    intend to use to secure their interests in land, plus their perceptions of official land tenure administration systems, i.e. the artifacts, institutions and processes that constitute these systems. The paper proceeds by describing the theory building approach which has guided a number of case studies, followed by the methodology ...

  11. Conservation and Recreation Lands with Public Access in the State of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This dataset represents conservation and recreation lands in the state of Iowa. Boundaries of areas represent differences in ownership and managing agency of the...

  12. Assessment of emerging contaminants including organophosphate esters and pyrethroids during DISCOVER-AQ in Houston, Texas, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenko, Sascha; Clark, Addie; Sheesley, Rebecca

    2015-04-01

    DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) is a NASA-funded air quality research program that focused on Houston, Texas, United States in September 2013. In conjunction with DISCOVER-AQ, particulate matter was collected for the month of September from four ground-based sampling sites across the Houston metropolitan area. The Houston metropolitan area is one of the most populous cities in the United States. Sampling sites included an upwind and downwind site as well as an urban (i.e. downtown) and industrial/port areas (i.e. Houston Ship Channel). Particulate matter samples were collected to examine both spatial and temporal trends (including day versus night). Particulate matter was collected on quartz fiber filters, which were analyzed for emerging classes of concern including organophosphate esters (OPEs; including flame retardants) and pyrethroids. OPEs have in recent years increased in both use and production as they replaced polybrominated diphenyl ethers flame retardants. Permethrin is one of the most commonly used mosquito adulticides in the United States.

  13. 75 FR 23804 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Alaska State Office, Bureau of Land Management, Anchorage, AK...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Alaska State Office, Bureau of Land Management... completion of an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects in the control of the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Alaska State Office, Anchorage, AK, and in the...

  14. 75 FR 68291 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; Texas; Revisions to Chapters 39, 55, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... these regulations to EPA as revisions to the SIP in a letter dated July 2, 2010. Also at this time, TCEQ..., 2010) between EPA and the BCCA Appeal Group, Texas Association of Business, and Texas Oil and Gas... notices, and is noted in the Commission's adoption order and transmittal letter to EPA. See, e.g...

  15. A state-impact-state methodology for assessing environmental impact in land use planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Longgao [Institute of land resources, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Yang, Xiaoyan [Institute of land resources, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China); School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Chen, Longqian, E-mail: cumt_chenlongqian@163.com [School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Potter, Rebecca; Li, Yingkui [Department of Geography, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The implementation of land use planning (LUP) has a large impact on environmental quality. There lacks a widely accepted and consolidated approach to assess the LUP environmental impact using Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). In this paper, we developed a state-impact-state (SIS) model employed in the LUP environmental impact assessment (LUPEA). With the usage of Matter-element (ME) and Extenics method, the methodology based on the SIS model was established and applied in the LUPEA of Zoucheng County, China. The results show that: (1) this methodology provides an intuitive and easy understanding logical model for both the theoretical analysis and application of LUPEA; (2) the spatial multi-temporal assessment from base year, near-future year to planning target year suggests the positive impact on the environmental quality in the whole County despite certain environmental degradation in some towns; (3) besides the spatial assessment, other achievements including the environmental elements influenced by land use and their weights, the identification of key indicators in LUPEA, and the appropriate environmental mitigation measures were obtained; and (4) this methodology can be used to achieve multi-temporal assessment of LUP environmental impact of County or Town level in other areas. - Highlights: • A State-Impact-State model for Land Use Planning Environmental Assessment (LUPEA). • Matter-element (ME) and Extenics methods were embedded in the LUPEA. • The model was applied to the LUPEA of Zoucheng County. • The assessment shows improving environment quality since 2000 in Zoucheng County. • The method provides a useful tool for the LUPEA in the county level.

  16. Tracking federal land management: Report No. 3 on federal land management actions impacting geothermal commecialization at selected target prospects in the five Pacific Rim states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-20

    Generic land management actions affecting geothermal commerializtion in Pacific River states are reviewed. Specific federal land management actions affecting geothermal prospects in California and the Pacific Northwest are described. (MHR)

  17. 76 FR 12283 - Texas: Final Authorization of State-initiated Changes and Incorporation by Reference of State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... Waste; Land Disposal Restrictions (HSWA) (Checklist 187). Zinc Fertilizers Made from Recycled 67 FR... (HSWA/Non- HSWA) (Checklist Rule 195.1). Hazardous Air Pollutant Standards for 67 FR 6792 February 13... Radioactively Contaminated Cadmium, Mercury-Containing Batteries and Silver- Containing Batteries (HSWA...

  18. High-resolution Continental Scale Land Surface Model incorporating Land-water Management in United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S.; Pokhrel, Y. N.

    2016-12-01

    Land surface models have been used to assess water resources sustainability under changing Earth environment and increasing human water needs. Overwhelming observational records indicate that human activities have ubiquitous and pertinent effects on the hydrologic cycle; however, they have been crudely represented in large scale land surface models. In this study, we enhance an integrated continental-scale land hydrology model named Leaf-Hydro-Flood to better represent land-water management. The model is implemented at high resolution (5km grids) over the continental US. Surface water and groundwater are withdrawn based on actual practices. Newly added irrigation, water diversion, and dam operation schemes allow better simulations of stream flows, evapotranspiration, and infiltration. Results of various hydrologic fluxes and stores from two sets of simulation (one with and the other without human activities) are compared over a range of river basin and aquifer scales. The improved simulations of land hydrology have potential to build consistent modeling framework for human-water-climate interactions.

  19. Citizenship Education in Texas: Gaps between Theory and Practice in the State Curriculum Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunc, Abbie; King, Kelley

    2013-01-01

    One of the most controversial notions of the twenty and twenty-first centuries is defining citizenship among nations. The power to decide who is and is not a citizen has become so prominent in the culture of the United States that the topic now pervades the curriculum, particularly in states with diverse and rapidly growing populations, such as…

  20. Land-cover change and avian diversity in the conterminous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenhouse, Chadwick D; Pidgeon, Anna M; Albright, Thomas P; Culbert, Patrick D; Clayton, Murray K; Flather, Curtis H; Masek, Jeffrey G; Radeloff, Volker C

    2012-10-01

    Changes in land use and land cover have affected and will continue to affect biological diversity worldwide. Yet, understanding the spatially extensive effects of land-cover change has been challenging because data that are consistent over space and time are lacking. We used the U.S. National Land Cover Dataset Land Cover Change Retrofit Product and North American Breeding Bird Survey data to examine land-cover change and its associations with diversity of birds with principally terrestrial life cycles (landbirds) in the conterminous United States. We used mixed-effects models and model selection to rank associations by ecoregion. Land cover in 3.22% of the area considered in our analyses changed from 1992 to 2001, and changes in species richness and abundance of birds were strongly associated with land-cover changes. Changes in species richness and abundance were primarily associated with changes in nondominant types of land cover, yet in many ecoregions different types of land cover were associated with species richness than were associated with abundance. Conversion of natural land cover to anthropogenic land cover was more strongly associated with changes in bird species richness and abundance than persistence of natural land cover in nearly all ecoregions and different covariates were most strongly associated with species richness than with abundance in 11 of 17 ecoregions. Loss of grassland and shrubland affected bird species richness and abundance in forested ecoregions. Loss of wetland was associated with bird abundance in forested ecoregions. Our findings highlight the value of understanding changes in nondominant land cover types and their association with bird diversity in the United States. Conservation Biology©2012 Society for Conservation Biology  No claim to original US government works.

  1. Hydrologic and water-quality data at Government Canyon State Natural Area, Bexar County, Texas, 2002-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, J. Ryan; Slattery, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service, the Edwards Aquifer Authority, and the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, collected rainfall, streamflow, evapotranspiration, and stormflow water-quality data at the Laurel Canyon Creek watershed, within the Government Canyon State Natural Area, Bexar County, Tex. The purpose of the data collection was to support evaluations of the effects of brush management conservation practices on components of the hydrologic budget and water quality. One component of brush management was to take endangered wildlife into consideration, specifically the golden-cheeked warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia). Much of the area that may have been considered for brush management was left intact to protect habitat for the golden-cheeked warbler. The area identified for brush management was approximately 10 percent of the study watershed. The hydrologic data presented here (2002–10) represent pre- and post-treatment periods, with brush management treatment occurring from winter 2006–07 to spring 2008.

  2. Collaboration in nuclear engineering education between France and the United States: Participation of French students at Texas A M University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peddicord, K.L.; Durand, J.L.; Gousty, Y.; Jeneveau, A.; Erdman, C.A. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (USA))

    1988-01-01

    Universities in the United States have had a long tradition of accepting students from other countries to pursue graduate degrees. This has particularly been the case in the fields of engineering and science. This trend has grown to the point that in several graduate engineering fields, the percentage of foreign nationals outnumbers US enrollees. Historically, most foreign students studying in the US universities have been from developing countries. Usually these students apply and are accepted on a case-by-case basis. For a number of reasons, less emphasis has been placed on programs with western Europe. In this paper, a program of collaboration is described in which the Department of Nuclear Engineering at Texas A M University has entered into memoranda of agreement with two institutions in France. The two universities are the Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble (INPG) in Grenoble and the Ecole Polytechnique Feminine (EPF) in Sceaux. The purpose of the program is to enable students in nuclear engineering to simultaneously complete requirements for the diploma and the MS degree.

  3. Undocumented Immigrants and State Higher Education Policy: The Politics of In-State Tuition Eligibility in Texas and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Kevin J.; Nienhusser, H. Kenny; Vega, Blanca E.

    2010-01-01

    Every year about 65,000 undocumented students graduate from U.S. high schools. A major obstacle to their attending college is not being eligible for in-state tuition. Today, nine states permit it while four prohibit it. Even if the federal DREAM Act passes, state policy decisions will continue to strongly shape college opportunities for…

  4. STATE AND PROBLEMS TRAINING, ADVANCED TRAINING AND RETRAINING IN THE FIELD OF LAND PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tretiak A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and technological progress and improve land relations, land use and organization of work makes the need for systematic improvement of forms and methods of preparation, training and retraining in the land. Training in the land - is the formation of staff knowledge and skills in a particular professional field, that training people who want to get a profession in the field of land relations and the use and protection of land and other natural resources. In this connection the question the quality of the professionals who work in the system of land and land management enterprises. So in recent years, the system of land worked by 25 thousand. People .. to 28 thousand. People. The number of employees of DerzhzemahenstvaUkraine(and today DerzhheokadastruUkraine ranged from 9.5 - 10 thousand. People. Thus, in stateenterprisesLandManagement Institute, Centre of state land cadastre and land management of private enterprises and entrepreneurs are about 18 thousand. People. In the system of fixed services is almost 90% of workers with higher education. But of these, only about about 70% have higher education universities III-IV accreditation levels, and only about 50% - land management. Managers and professionals who have land management and land use close to education up together with the Bachelor education only 64% of the total number of employees. Thus, the problem of professional education in the field of land is very relevant. It is necessary to consider further training of land-management education for integrated communities. The article is justification for expanding areas of training in the field of land management and the introduction of new professions (specializations and the management of natural areas. According to Article 66 of the Law of Ukraine "On Land Management" of 22.05.2003 number 858-IV, professional activities in the field of land may engage citizens with special higher education levels and appropriate professional

  5. Southern United States climate, land use, and forest conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; Thomas L. Mote; J. Marshall Shepherd; K. C. Benita; Christopher W. Strother

    2014-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has concluded, with 90% certainty, that human or "anthropogenic" activities (emissions of greenhouse gases, aerosols and pollution, landuse/land-cover change) have altered global temperature patterns over the past 100-150 years (IPCC 2007a). Such temperature changes have a set of cascading, and sometimes...

  6. Texas Yehaa !!!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellberg, Kurt

    2001-01-01

    Indtryk fra et besøg på SLA, Special Libraries Associations årlige konference, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 9.-13. juni 2001. "An Information Odyssey: Seizing the Competitive Advantage"......Indtryk fra et besøg på SLA, Special Libraries Associations årlige konference, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 9.-13. juni 2001. "An Information Odyssey: Seizing the Competitive Advantage"...

  7. The Need for the United States Army to Possess a Landing Craft with Maneuver Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    landing craft after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and the 2009 Myanmar cyclone.9 The landing craft enabled the relief effort to bypass partially...in Vietnam and Panama to disaster relieve efforts in Haiti, the Indian Ocean , and within the United States. The Army Concept Framework, informed by...

  8. Alternative method to validate the seasonal land cover regions of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiliang Zhu; Donald O. Ohlen; Raymond L. Czaplewski; Robert E. Burgan

    1996-01-01

    An accuracy assessment method involving double sampling and the multivariate composite estimator has been used to validate the prototype seasonal land cover characteristics database of the conterminous United States. The database consists of 159 land cover classes, classified using time series of 1990 1-km satellite data and augmented with ancillary data including...

  9. Effect of land cover change on snow free surface albedo across the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land cover changes (e.g., forest to grassland) affect albedo, and changes in albedo can influence radiative forcing (warming, cooling). We empirically tested albedo response to land cover change for 130 locations across the continental United States using high resolution (30 m-&t...

  10. Economic factors influencing land use changes in the South-Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph J. Alig; Fred C. White; Brian C. Murray

    1988-01-01

    Econometric models of land use change were estimated for two physiographic regions in the South-Central United States. Results are consistent-with the economic hierarchy of land use, with population and personal income being significant explanatory variables. Findings regarding the importance of relative agricultural and forestry market-based incomes in influencing...

  11. Role of land state in a high resolution mesoscale model for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    global models predicted the large scale event, they failed to predict realistic location, timing, amount, intensity and distribution of rainfall over the region. The goal of this study is to assess the impact of land state conditions in simulating this severe event using a high resolution mesoscale model. The land conditions such as ...

  12. Analysis of drought impacts on electricity production in the Western and Texas interconnections of the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harto, C. B.; Yan, Y. E.; Demissie, Y. K.; Elcock, D.; Tidwell, V. C.; Hallett, K.; Macknick, J.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Tesfa, T. K. (Environmental Science Division); (Sandia National Laboratory); (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2012-02-09

    Electricity generation relies heavily on water resources and their availability. To examine the interdependence of energy and water in the electricity context, the impacts of a severe drought to assess the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the western and Texas interconnections has been examined. The historical drought patterns in the western United States were analyzed, and the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the region was evaluated. The results of this effort will be used to develop scenarios for medium- and long-term transmission modeling and planning efforts by the Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). The study was performed in response to a request developed by the Western Governors Association in conjunction with the transmission modeling teams at the participating interconnections. It is part of a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored, national laboratory-led research effort to develop tools related to the interdependency of energy and water as part of a larger interconnection-wide transmission planning project funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. This study accomplished three main objectives. It provided a thorough literature review of recent studies of drought and the potential implications for electricity generation. It analyzed historical drought patterns in the western United States and used the results to develop three design drought scenarios. Finally, it quantified the risk to electricity generation for each of eight basins for each of the three drought scenarios and considered the implications for transmission planning. Literature on drought impacts on electricity generation describes a number of examples where hydroelectric generation capacity has been limited because of drought but only a few examples of impact on thermoelectric generation. In all documented cases, shortfalls of generation were met by purchasing power

  13. Response of deep groundwater to land use change in desert basins of the Trans-Pecos region, Texas, USA: Effects on infiltration, recharge, and nitrogen fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Wendy Marie; Böhlke, John Karl; Sharp, John M.

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying the effects of anthropogenic processes on groundwater in arid regions can be complicated by thick unsaturated zones with long transit times. Human activities can alter water and nutrient fluxes, but their impact on groundwater is not always clear. This study of basins in the Trans-Pecos region of Texas links anthropogenic land use and vegetation change with alterations to unsaturated zone fluxes and regional increases in basin groundwater NO3−concentrations. Median increases in groundwater NO3− (by 0.7–0.9 mg-N/l over periods ranging from 10 to 50+ years) occurred despite low precipitation (220–360 mm/year), high potential evapotranspiration (~1570 mm/year), and thick unsaturated zones (10–150+ m). Recent model simulations indicate net infiltration and groundwater recharge can occur beneath Trans-Pecos basin floors, and may have increased due to irrigation and vegetation change. These processes were investigated further with chemical and isotopic data from groundwater and unsaturated zone cores. Some unsaturated zone solute profiles indicate flushing of natural salt accumulations has occurred. Results are consistent with human-influenced flushing of naturally accumulated unsaturated zone nitrogen as an important source of NO3− to the groundwater. Regional mass balance calculations indicate the mass of natural unsaturated zone NO3− (122–910 kg-N/ha) was sufficient to cause the observed groundwater NO3− increases, especially if augmented locally with the addition of fertilizer N. Groundwater NO3− trends can be explained by small volumes of high NO3− modern recharge mixed with larger volumes of older groundwater in wells. This study illustrates the importance of combining long-term monitoring and targeted process studies to improve understanding of human impacts on recharge and nutrient cycling in arid regions, which are vulnerable to the effects of climate change and increasing human reliance on dryland ecosystems.

  14. Effects of brush management on the hydrologic budget and water quality in and adjacent to Honey Creek State Natural Area, Comal County, Texas, 2001-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, J. Ryan; Slattery, Richard N.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service, the Edwards Region Grazing Lands Conservation Initiative, the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, the San Antonio River Authority, the Edwards Aquifer Authority, Texas Parks and Wildlife, the Guadalupe Blanco River Authority, and the San Antonio Water System, evaluated the hydrologic effects of ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei) removal as a brush management conservation practice in and adjacent to the Honey Creek State Natural Area in Comal County, Tex. By removing the ashe juniper and allowing native grasses to reestablish in the area as a brush management conservation practice, the hydrology in the watershed might change. Using a simplified mass balance approach of the hydrologic cycle, the incoming rainfall was distributed to surface water runoff, evapotranspiration, or groundwater recharge. After hydrologic data were collected in adjacent watersheds for 3 years, brush management occurred on the treatment watershed while the reference watershed was left in its original condition. Hydrologic data were collected for another 6 years. Hydrologic data include rainfall, streamflow, evapotranspiration, and water quality. Groundwater recharge was not directly measured but potential groundwater recharge was calculated using a simplified mass balance approach. The resulting hydrologic datasets were examined for differences between the watersheds and between pre- and post-treatment periods to assess the effects of brush management. The streamflow to rainfall relation (expressed as event unit runoff to event rainfall relation) did not change between the watersheds during pre- and post-treatment periods. The daily evapotranspiration rates at the reference watershed and treatment watershed sites exhibited a seasonal cycle during the pre- and post-treatment periods, with intra- and interannual variability. Statistical analyses indicate the mean

  15. 15 CFR 923.43 - Direct State land and water use planning and regulation-Technique B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Authorities and Organization § 923.43 Direct State land and water use planning and regulation—Technique B. (a... control technique, at subsection 306(d)(11)(B) of the Act, is direct state land and water use planning and... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Direct State land and water use...

  16. Predicting the natural state of fractured carbonate reservoirs: An Andector Field, West Texas test of a 3-D RTM simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuncay, K.; Romer, S.; Ortoleva, P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Hoak, T. [Kestrel Geoscience, Littleton, CO (United States); Sundberg, K. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The power of the reaction, transport, mechanical (RTM) modeling approach is that it directly uses the laws of geochemistry and geophysics to extrapolate fracture and other characteristics from the borehole or surface to the reservoir interior. The objectives of this facet of the project were to refine and test the viability of the basin/reservoir forward modeling approach to address fractured reservoir in E and P problems. The study attempts to resolve the following issues: role of fracturing and timing on present day location and characteristics; clarifying the roles and interplay of flexure dynamics, changing rock rheological properties, fluid pressuring and tectonic/thermal histories on present day reservoir location and characteristics; and test the integrated RTM modeling/geological data approach on a carbonate reservoir. Sedimentary, thermal and tectonic data from Andector Field, West Texas, were used as input to the RTM basin/reservoir simulator to predict its preproduction state. The results were compared with data from producing reservoirs to test the RTM modeling approach. The effects of production on the state of the field are discussed in a companion report. The authors draw the following conclusions: RTM modeling is an important new tool in fractured reservoir E and P analysis; the strong coupling of RTM processes and the geometric and tensorial complexity of fluid flow and stresses require the type of fully coupled, 3-D RTM model for fracture analysis as pioneered in this project; flexure analysis cannot predict key aspects of fractured reservoir location and characteristics; fracture history over the lifetime of a basin is required to understand the timing of petroleum expulsion and migration and the retention properties of putative reservoirs.

  17. 75 FR 45695 - Final Federal Agency Actions on Trans-Texas Corridor 35 (TTC-35) in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ...- 1342; Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF), 16 U.S.C. 4601-4604. 8. Executive Orders: E.O. 11990... Federal Highway Administration Final Federal Agency Actions on Trans-Texas Corridor 35 (TTC-35) in Texas..., extending from the Texas- Oklahoma line to the City of Laredo, generally paralleling existing I- 35 in the...

  18. Land use and beach closure 2004-2013 in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset contains the beach closure data and land use information around each beach in 2006 and 2011 in the United States. The original data are created by EPA...

  19. EnviroAtlas - Percent Urban Land Cover by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates the percent urban land for each 12-digit hydrologic unit code (HUC) in the conterminous United States. For the purposes of this...

  20. Integrating Ecosystem Carbon Dynamics into State-and-Transition Simulation Models of Land Use/Land Cover Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, B. M.; Daniel, C.; Frid, L.; Fortin, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    State-and-transition simulation models (STSMs) provide a general approach for incorporating uncertainty into forecasts of landscape change. Using a Monte Carlo approach, STSMs generate spatially-explicit projections of the state of a landscape based upon probabilistic transitions defined between states. While STSMs are based on the basic principles of Markov chains, they have additional properties that make them applicable to a wide range of questions and types of landscapes. A current limitation of STSMs is that they are only able to track the fate of discrete state variables, such as land use/land cover (LULC) classes. There are some landscape modelling questions, however, for which continuous state variables - for example carbon biomass - are also required. Here we present a new approach for integrating continuous state variables into spatially-explicit STSMs. Specifically we allow any number of continuous state variables to be defined for each spatial cell in our simulations; the value of each continuous variable is then simulated forward in discrete time as a stochastic process based upon defined rates of change between variables. These rates can be defined as a function of the realized states and transitions of each cell in the STSM, thus providing a connection between the continuous variables and the dynamics of the landscape. We demonstrate this new approach by (1) developing a simple IPCC Tier 3 compliant model of ecosystem carbon biomass, where the continuous state variables are defined as terrestrial carbon biomass pools and the rates of change as carbon fluxes between pools, and (2) integrating this carbon model with an existing LULC change model for the state of Hawaii, USA.

  1. Land

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Audouin, M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsustainable agricultural practices have had a role to play in the degradation of land on which agriculture depends. South Africa has an international obligation to develop a National Action Programme (NAP), the purpose of which is to identify...

  2. State standards, norms and rules as a mechanism of formation of the institutional environment of territorial planning of land use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Dorosh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article states, that coordinated system of national standards, rules and regulations is an important mechanism for regional land use planning for sustainable land use and for the ways of its improvement. Research provides an idea, that norms should be focused in a single system of legal acts both in land management and in the field of land protection (SSLA.

  3. 77 FR 7600 - Notice of Segregation of Public Lands in the State of Arizona for the Restoration Design Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Segregation of Public Lands in the State of Arizona for the... this segregation total approximately 20,776 acres in Yuma County. DATES: This segregation is effective...: This segregation of public lands corresponds with the analysis of these same public lands as a proposed...

  4. Effect of land cover change on snow free surface albedo across the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, J.; Nash, M.S.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Land cover changes (e.g., forest to grassland) affect albedo, and changes in albedo can influence radiative forcing (warming, cooling). We empirically tested albedo response to land cover change for 130 locations across the continental United States using high resolution (30 m-×-30 m) land cover change data and moderate resolution (~ 500 m-×-500 m) albedo data. The land cover change data spanned 10 years (2001 − 2011) and the albedo data included observations every eight days for 13 years (2001 − 2013). Empirical testing was based on autoregressive time series analysis of snow free albedo for verified locations of land cover change. Approximately one-third of the autoregressive analyses for woody to herbaceous or forest to shrub change classes were not significant, indicating that albedo did not change significantly as a result of land cover change at these locations. In addition, ~ 80% of mean differences in albedo arising from land cover change were less than ± 0.02, a nominal benchmark for precision of albedo measurements that is related to significant changes in radiative forcing. Under snow free conditions, we found that land cover change does not guarantee a significant albedo response, and that the differences in mean albedo response for the majority of land cover change locations were small.

  5. Land-Use Requirements for Solar Power Plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, S.; Campbell, C.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Heath, G.

    2013-06-01

    This report provides data and analysis of the land use associated with utility-scale ground-mounted solar facilities, defined as installations greater than 1 MW. We begin by discussing standard land-use metrics as established in the life-cycle assessment literature and then discuss their applicability to solar power plants. We present total and direct land-use results for various solar technologies and system configurations, on both a capacity and an electricity-generation basis. The total area corresponds to all land enclosed by the site boundary. The direct area comprises land directly occupied by solar arrays, access roads, substations, service buildings, and other infrastructure. As of the third quarter of 2012, the solar projects we analyze represent 72% of installed and under-construction utility-scale PV and CSP capacity in the United States.

  6. HB 2578--Relating to the School Meals Program. Testimony, 79th Texas State Legislature (April 26, 2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagert, Celia

    2005-01-01

    The Center for Public Policy Priorities supports HB 2574. Why encourage school districts to offer free meals to all students? The link between adequate nutrition and improved academic performance creates a clear incentive for Texas to increase participation in the school breakfast and lunch programs, particularly among low-income children.…

  7. Spatiotemporal Variation of China’s State-Owned Construction Land Supply from 2003 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jiang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available State-owned construction land is the dominant legal land source for construction in China and its supply influences urban expansion, house prices, and economic development, among other factors. Surprisingly, limited attention has been directly devoted to the spatiotemporal variation in land supply or the driving factors. This paper applied a centroid model and hotspot analysis, and created a newly increased construction land dependence-degree index (NCD to present the spatiotemporal variations of China’s construction land supply magnitude and pattern from 2003 to 2014, using land supply data from 339 cities. A two-way fixed effect model was introduced to reveal the influence of the socio-economic driving factors. The results showed that China’s state-owned construction land supply area (CLSA and newly increased construction land supply area (NCSA both increased during the period from 2003 to 2014, the geographic centroid of CLSA and NCSA moved northwest. NCD showed an overall increasing trend, and hotspots with high NCD migrated from the east region to the west region and shifted from an “east hot and west cold” pattern in 2003 to an “east cold and west hot” pattern in 2014. The gross domestic product (GDP has a U-shape effect on CLSA and NCD. The population, average annual wage of workers, and investment in fixed assets (fiv have positive effects on CLSA, and fiv also has a positive effect on NCD. The increasing ratio of tertiary industry added value to secondary industry added value reduces CLSA and NCD, and the effects of state policies vary from year to year. Different land supply policies should be implemented for cities in different development stages.

  8. Land use change effects on forest carbon cycling throughout the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter B. Woodbury; Linda S. Heath; James E. Smith

    2006-01-01

    We modeled the effects of afforestation and deforestation on carbon cycling in forest floor and soil from 1900 to 2050 throughout 13 states in the southern United States. The model uses historical data on gross (two-way) transitions between forest, pasture, plowed agriculture, and urban lands along with equations describing changes in carbon over many decades for each...

  9. General Land Office_GLO_Vegetation from the Years 1832 to 1859 of the State of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The Goverment Land Office (GLO) conducted the orginal public land survey of Iowa during the period 1832 to 1859. Deputy Surveyors and their assistants produced both...

  10. Autonomous Control Modes and Optimized Path Guidance for Shipboard Landing in High Sea States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-15

    the influence of the unsteady ship airwake is extremely challenging. In high sea states, gusty conditions , and a degraded visual environment...workload during the landing task begins to approach the limits of a human pilot’s capability. It is a similarly demanding task for shipboard launch and...operational conditions in which safe landings for both manned and unmanned rotorcraft can be performed. For piloted rotorcraft, the current piloting

  11. Multifunctional Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Land Use Planning in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Taylor Lovell

    2010-01-01

    Urban agriculture offers an alternative land use for integrating multiple functions in densely populated areas. While urban agriculture has historically been an important element of cities in many developing countries, recent concerns about economic and food security have resulted in a growing movement to produce food in cities of developed countries including the United States. In these regions, urban agriculture offers a new frontier for land use planners and landscape designers to become i...

  12. Land use and transport relationships: A perspective from the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seskin, S.N.

    1995-12-31

    As transportation and land use planners and policy makers world wide grapple with the increasingly challenging consequences of automobile use, there is a growing need to communicate globally about both the knowledge of interactions between transport and land use and the ability to analyze these relationships in a systematic manner. As the world`s largest consumer of energy in general and petroleum in particular, the United States continues to conduct research and innovate in integrated transportation and land use policy issues. The need for improving the state of knowledge and practice, however, is more compelling in developing nations, such as Chile and Thailand, from which, despite their transportation and environmental problems, the United States in fact has much to learn. Nevertheless it is instructive to take a long and broad look at the way the United States is planning and building urban environments. This paper focuses on four aspects of that effort. The first is the state of knowledge on the relationships between land use and travel demand. The second is the analytic tools used to evaluate these relationships. Third is the array of approaches used by government to integrate transport and land use. The last is the ways in which individuals and organizations outside of the formal structure of government participate in metropolitan planning and development.

  13. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: NLCD 2001 Land Use and Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated area of land use and land cover from the National Land Cover Dataset 2001 (LaMotte, 2008), compiled for every catchment of...

  14. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Tile 3, Southwest United States: NLCD01_3

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This 30-meter data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-partition.jpg).The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004), (see: http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp). The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping zones. A total of 68 mapping zones (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg), were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  15. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Tile 4, Southeast United States: NLCD01_4

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This 30-meter data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-partition.jpg). The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004), (see: http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp). The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping zones. A total of 68 mapping zones (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg), were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  16. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Tile 1, Northwest United States: NLCD01_1

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This 30-meter data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-partition.jpg). The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004), (see: http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp). The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping zones. A total of 68 mapping zones (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg), were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  17. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Tile 2, Northeast United States: NLCD01_2

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This 30-meter data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-partition.jpg). The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004), (see: http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp). The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping zones. A total of 68 mapping zones (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg), were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  18. Projected land-use change impacts on ecosystem services in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Joshua J; Lewis, David J; Nelson, Erik; Plantinga, Andrew J; Polasky, Stephen; Withey, John C; Helmers, David P; Martinuzzi, Sebastián; Pennington, Derric; Radeloff, Volker C

    2014-05-20

    Providing food, timber, energy, housing, and other goods and services, while maintaining ecosystem functions and biodiversity that underpin their sustainable supply, is one of the great challenges of our time. Understanding the drivers of land-use change and how policies can alter land-use change will be critical to meeting this challenge. Here we project land-use change in the contiguous United States to 2051 under two plausible baseline trajectories of economic conditions to illustrate how differences in underlying market forces can have large impacts on land-use with cascading effects on ecosystem services and wildlife habitat. We project a large increase in croplands (28.2 million ha) under a scenario with high crop demand mirroring conditions starting in 2007, compared with a loss of cropland (11.2 million ha) mirroring conditions in the 1990s. Projected land-use changes result in increases in carbon storage, timber production, food production from increased yields, and >10% decreases in habitat for 25% of modeled species. We also analyze policy alternatives designed to encourage forest cover and natural landscapes and reduce urban expansion. Although these policy scenarios modify baseline land-use patterns, they do not reverse powerful underlying trends. Policy interventions need to be aggressive to significantly alter underlying land-use change trends and shift the trajectory of ecosystem service provision.

  19. State of the Efficiency of Land in the “Lower Danube” Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrii Parmacli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the essence of land capacity and methods of calculating it in agriculture. It states that alongside the traditional indicators efficiency of productive land use it is reasonable to use the figure indicating the land capacity realization level. The article provides analysis of land use efficiency in producing the leading crops in Ismail, Kiliya and Reni regions of the Odessa Province as well as the Autonomous Territorial Unit of Gagauzia, Cahul, Cantemir and Taraclia regions of the Republic of Moldova for years 2012 to 2014. It also presents the yield dynamics of cereal crops, sunflower and grapes in the above-mentioned regions as well as the indicators of their resistance in the period of 2001-2014. Furthermore, the figures of potential yield for each region are substantiated.

  20. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Ft. Hood Military Base Outside Killeen, Texas. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, J.; Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative through the Region 6 contract, selected Ft. Hood Army Base in Killeen, Texas, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study is to assess the site for possible photovoltaic (PV) system installations and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  1. Catalogue of Texas spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, David Allen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This catalogue lists 1,084 species of spiders (three identified to genus only) in 311 genera from 53 families currently recorded from Texas and is based on the “Bibliography of Texas Spiders” published by Bea Vogel in 1970. The online list of species can be found at http://pecanspiders.tamu.edu/spidersoftexas.htm. Many taxonomic revisions have since been published, particularly in the families Araneidae, Gnaphosidae and Leptonetidae. Many genera in other families have been revised. The Anyphaenidae, Ctenidae, Hahniidae, Nesticidae, Sicariidae and Tetragnathidae were also revised. Several families have been added and others split up. Several genera of Corinnidae were transferred to Phrurolithidae and Trachelidae. Two genera from Miturgidae were transferred to Eutichuridae. Zoridae was synonymized under Miturgidae. A single species formerly in Amaurobiidae is now in the Family Amphinectidae. Some trapdoor spiders in the family Ctenizidae have been transferred to Euctenizidae. Gertsch and Mulaik started a list of Texas spiders in 1940. In a letter from Willis J. Gertsch dated October 20, 1982, he stated “Years ago a first listing of the Texas fauna was published by me based largely on Stanley Mulaik material, but it had to be abandoned because of other tasks.” This paper is a compendium of the spiders of Texas with distribution, habitat, collecting method and other data available from revisions and collections. This includes many records and unpublished data (including data from three unpublished studies). One of these studies included 16,000 adult spiders belonging to 177 species in 29 families. All specimens in that study were measured and results are in the appendix. Hidalgo County has 340 species recorded with Brazos County at 323 and Travis County at 314 species. These reflect the amount of collecting in the area. PMID:27103878

  2. 76 FR 50708 - Texas Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... established five years after the last year of augmented seeding, fertilizing, irrigation, or other work in... after the last year of augmented seeding, fertilizing, irrigation, or other work in order to assure... augmented seeding, fertilizing, irrigation, or other work, if the land is previously mined land. E. Texas...

  3. Land Use Change from Biofuels Derived from Forest Residue: A Case of Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brent

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel policy in the United States is transitioning away from corn towards second-generation biofuels in part because of the debate over environmental damages from indirect land use change. We combine a spatially explicit parcel level model for land use change in Washington State with simulations for biofuel policy aimed at utilizing forest residue as feedstock. Using a spatially explicit model provides greater precision in measuring net returns to forestland and development and indicates which areas will be most impacted by biofuel policy. The effect of policy is simulated via scenarios of increasing net returns to forestry and of siting feedstock-processing plants. Our results suggest that forestland will increase from such a policy, leading to a net reduction in atmospheric carbon from indirect land use change. This is in contrast to the experience of corn ethanol where the change in carbon emissions is potentially positive and large in magnitude.

  4. PLACE AND FUNCTONS OF STATE LAND CADASTRE IN FORMING THE NATIONAL ECOLOGICAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Козлова

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is determination of functions of the state land cadastre in forming thenational ecological network. In the article the importance of further development of the Ukrainiannational ecological network is justified by means of an analysis of trends in modern ecological stageof environment, its structural phenomena are represented, the dynamics of the area changes of thenatural reserve fund as its general element is analyzed. On this basis the prerequisites for increasingthe area of ecological network, which have been emerged in the process of reforming the economicrelations in the land utilization are defined and the priority functions of the state land cadastre forsolving the mentioned above range of problems are determined

  5. DRAFT LANDSAT DATA MOSAIC: MONTGOMERY COUNTY, TEXAS; HARRIS COUNTY, TEXAS; FORT BEND COUNTY, TEXAS; BRAZORIA COUNTY, TEXAS; GALVESTON COUNTY, TEXAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a draft Landsat Data Mosaic, which contains remote sensing information for Montgomery County, Texas Harris County, Texas Fort Bend County, Texas Brazoria County, Texas Galveston County, and Texas Imagery dates on the following dates: October 6, 1999 and September 29, 200...

  6. DS-777 Annual Model-Backcasted Land-Use/Land-Cover Rasters from 1949 to 2008 for the High Plains Aquifer in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Estimates of land use categories are an essential component for computing the water budget of the High Plains aquifer. These raster land-use data represent yearly...

  7. Land-Grant Extension as a Global Endeavor: Connecting Knowledge and International Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    Two land-grant institutions, Michigan State University (MSU) and Texas A&M University (TAMU) used funding from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) to partner with the National University of Rwanda (NUR) to support the agriculture faculty in Rwanda following the 1994 genocide. In addition, the three institutions…

  8. Attribution of net carbon change by disturbance type across forest lands of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. L. Harris; S. C. Hagen; S. S. Saatchi; T. R. H. Pearson; Christopher W. Woodall; Grant M. Domke; B. H. Braswell; Brian F. Walters; S. Brown; W. Salas; A. Fore; Y. Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Locating terrestrial sources and sinks of carbon (C) will be critical to developing strategies that contribute to the climate change mitigation goals of the Paris Agreement. Here we present spatially resolved estimates of net C change across United States (US) forest lands between 2006 and 2010 and attribute them to natural and anthropogenic processes....

  9. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Conterminous United States Land Cover 1992 - 200-Meter Resolution 200509 TIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is GeoTIFF of 1992 land cover for the conterminous United States, at a resolution of 200 meters. The map layer was compiled by staff in the National...

  10. USGS 1:1,000,000-Scale Indian Lands of the United States 201412 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Indian lands of the United States. For the most part, only areas of 320 acres or more are included; some smaller areas deemed to be important or...

  11. Description of a land classification system and its application to the management of Tennessee's state forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendon W. Smalley; S. David Todd; K. Ward Tarkington

    2006-01-01

    The Tennessee Division of Forestry has adopted a land classification system developed by the senior author as the basic theme of information for the management of its 15 state forests (162,371 acres) with at least 1 in each of 8 physiographic provinces. This paper summarizes the application of the system to six forests on the Cumberland Plateau. Landtypes are the most...

  12. USGS 1:1,000,000-Scale Federal Lands of the United States 201412 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. For the most part, only areas of 320...

  13. Evaluation of current state of agricultural land using problem-oriented fuzzy indicators in GIS environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current state of agricultural lands is defined under influence of processes in soil, plants and atmosphere and is described by observation data, complicated models and subjective opinion of experts. Problem-oriented indicators summarize this information in useful form for decision of the same specif...

  14. Effects of land-use transport scenarios on travel patterns: a multi-state supernetwork application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, F; Arentze, T; Molin, E.J.E.; Bohte, W.; Timmermans, H

    2015-01-01

    Understanding travellers’ response is essential to address policy questions arising from spatial and transport planning sectors. This paper demonstrates the usefulness of the multi-state supernetwork approach to investigate the effects of land-use transport scenarios on individuals’ travel patterns.

  15. Land grants of New Mexico and the United States Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol Raish; Alice M. McSweeney

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service (FS) has a long, shared history with the Spanish and Mexican land grants of northern New Mexico. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which ended the war between the United States and Mexico, was supposed to recognize and respect the property rights of the resident Hispano population. In many cases the intent of the Treaty was not honored. During...

  16. The Role of Gender in Management Behaviors on Family Forest Lands in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah M. Butler; Emily S. Huff; Stephanie A. Snyder; Brett J. Butler; Mary Tyrrell

    2017-01-01

    In the United States, 58% of the 11 million family forest ownerships with at least 10 acres of forestland have at least one female owner. Within the single-owner population of landowners, women are the sole owners of and primary decisionmakers for 31% of ownerships. Despite the number of female family forest owners (FFOs), little research has focused on whether land-...

  17. Seasonal temperature responses to land-use change in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, L.M.; Snyder, M.A.; Sloan, L.C.; Cayan, D.; Jin, J.; Kanamaru, H.; Kanamitsu, M.; Miller, N.L.; Tyree, Mary; Du, H.; Weare, B.

    2008-01-01

    In the western United States, more than 79 000??km2 has been converted to irrigated agriculture and urban areas. These changes have the potential to alter surface temperature by modifying the energy budget at the land-atmosphere interface. This study reports the seasonally varying temperature responses of four regional climate models (RCMs) - RSM, RegCM3, MM5-CLM3, and DRCM - to conversion of potential natural vegetation to modern land-cover and land-use over a 1-year period. Three of the RCMs supplemented soil moisture, producing large decreases in the August mean (- 1.4 to - 3.1????C) and maximum (- 2.9 to - 6.1????C) 2-m air temperatures where natural vegetation was converted to irrigated agriculture. Conversion to irrigated agriculture also resulted in large increases in relative humidity (9% to 36% absolute change). Modeled changes in the August minimum 2-m air temperature were not as pronounced or consistent across the models. Converting natural vegetation to urban land-cover produced less pronounced temperature effects in all models, with the magnitude of the effect dependent upon the preexisting vegetation type and urban parameterizations. Overall, the RCM results indicate that the temperature impacts of land-use change are most pronounced during the summer months, when surface heating is strongest and differences in surface soil moisture between irrigated land and natural vegetation are largest. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. How conflict affects land use: agricultural activity in areas seized by the Islamic State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Lina; Degerald, Michael; Brandt, Martin; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Pilesjö, Petter

    2017-05-01

    Socio-economic shocks, technogenic catastrophes, and armed conflicts often have drastic impacts on local and regional food security through disruption of agricultural production and food trade, reduced investments, and deterioration of land and infrastructure. Recently, more research has focused on the effects of armed conflict on land systems, but still little is known about the processes and outcomes of such events. Here we use the case of Syria and Iraq and the seizure of land by the Islamic State (IS) since 2014 as an example of armed conflict, where we investigate the effects on agricultural land use. We apply a reproducible approach using 250 m satellite-based time-series data to quantify the areas under cultivation from 2000 to 2015. Despite a common belief about widespread land abandonment in areas under conflict, results point to multiple trajectories regarding cropland cultivation in the IS seized area: (1) expansion of cropland to formerly un-cultivated areas, (2) cropland abandonment, and (3) decrease of high-intensity cropland. Our study highlights the need to understand these diverse conflict-related and context-dependent changes to the land system.

  19. State-of-the-art of land treatment of corrosive and ignitable waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villacorta, B.F.

    1985-01-01

    This research was conducted to provide state-of-the-art information on land application of ignitable (D001) and corrosive (D002) waste (ICW). Land application is considered a relatively new technology and there is very little experience in industry on land application of ICW. The report provides information on existing current practices relating to land treatment of ignitable and corrosive wastes. Data is presented on current disposal methods, characteristics and quantities of ICW generated by EPA Region, total number of facilities generating ICW, current pretreatment and post-treatment technology. An important section discusses the general considerations, design criteria and site-specific design for land application of ICW. The laboratory study emphasizes the concept of biodegradation in the assimilative capacity of the soil for ICW whereby the effect of solvent recovery waste on bacterial populations in the unsaturated zone was studied. The final section of this report discusses life cycle cost, site specific life cycle cost, and a comparative technique to evaluate alternative treatment technologies and risk assessment which are important parameters of land application.

  20. Land-cover change in the conterminous United States from 1973 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sohl, Terry L.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Auch, Roger F.; Acevedo, William; Drummond, Mark A.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Stehman, Stephen V.

    2013-01-01

    Land-cover change in the conterminous United States was quantified by interpreting change from satellite imagery for a sample stratified by 84 ecoregions. Gross and net changes between 11 land-cover classes were estimated for 5 dates of Landsat imagery (1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). An estimated 673,000 km2(8.6%) of the United States’ land area experienced a change in land cover at least one time during the study period. Forest cover experienced the largest net decline of any class with 97,000 km2 lost between 1973 and 2000. The large decline in forest cover was prominent in the two regions with the highest percent of overall change, the Marine West Coast Forests (24.5% of the region experienced a change in at least one time period) and the Eastern Temperate Forests (11.4% of the region with at least one change). Agriculture declined by approximately 90,000 km2 with the largest annual net loss of 12,000 km2 yr−1 occurring between 1986 and 1992. Developed area increased by 33% and with the rate of conversion to developed accelerating rate over time. The time interval with the highest annual rate of change of 47,000 km2 yr−1 (0.6% per year) was 1986–1992. This national synthesis documents a spatially and temporally dynamic era of land change between 1973 and 2000. These results quantify land change based on a nationally consistent monitoring protocol and contribute fundamental estimates critical to developing understanding of the causes and consequences of land change in the conterminous United States.

  1. Threats and opportunities for freshwater conservation under future land use change scenarios in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinuzzi, Sebastián; Januchowski-Hartley, Stephanie R; Pracheil, Brenda M; McIntyre, Peter B; Plantinga, Andrew J; Lewis, David J; Radeloff, Volker C

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems provide vital resources for humans and support high levels of biodiversity, yet are severely threatened throughout the world. The expansion of human land uses, such as urban and crop cover, typically degrades water quality and reduces freshwater biodiversity, thereby jeopardizing both biodiversity and ecosystem services. Identifying and mitigating future threats to freshwater ecosystems requires forecasting where land use changes are most likely. Our goal was to evaluate the potential consequences of future land use on freshwater ecosystems in the coterminous United States by comparing alternative scenarios of land use change (2001-2051) with current patterns of freshwater biodiversity and water quality risk. Using an econometric model, each of our land use scenarios projected greater changes in watersheds of the eastern half of the country, where freshwater ecosystems already experience higher stress from human activities. Future urban expansion emerged as a major threat in regions with high freshwater biodiversity (e.g., the Southeast) or severe water quality problems (e.g., the Midwest). Our scenarios reflecting environmentally oriented policies had some positive effects. Subsidizing afforestation for carbon sequestration reduced crop cover and increased natural vegetation in areas that are currently stressed by low water quality, while discouraging urban sprawl diminished urban expansion in areas of high biodiversity. On the other hand, we found that increases in crop commodity prices could lead to increased agricultural threats in areas of high freshwater biodiversity. Our analyses illustrate the potential for policy changes and market factors to influence future land use trends in certain regions of the country, with important consequences for freshwater ecosystems. Successful conservation of aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem services in the United States into the future will require attending to the potential threats and opportunities

  2. Using GIS in ecological management: green assessment of the impacts of petroleum activities in the state of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merem, Edmund; Robinson, Bennetta; Wesley, Joan M; Yerramilli, Sudha; Twumasi, Yaw A

    2010-05-01

    Geo-information technologies are valuable tools for ecological assessment in stressed environments. Visualizing natural features prone to disasters from the oil sector spatially not only helps in focusing the scope of environmental management with records of changes in affected areas, but it also furnishes information on the pace at which resource extraction affects nature. Notwithstanding the recourse to ecosystem protection, geo-spatial analysis of the impacts remains sketchy. This paper uses GIS and descriptive statistics to assess the ecological impacts of petroleum extraction activities in Texas. While the focus ranges from issues to mitigation strategies, the results point to growth in indicators of ecosystem decline.

  3. Recurrent outbreaks of Salmonella Enteritidis infections in a Texas restaurant: phage type 4 arrives in the United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Boyce, T. G.; Koo, D.; Swerdlow, D. L.; Gomez, T. M.; Serrano, B.; Nickey, L. N.; Hickman-Brenner, F. W.; Malcolm, G. B.; Griffin, P. M.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years infection caused by Salmonella serotype Enteritidis (SE) phage type 4 has spread through Europe but has been uncommon in the USA. The first recognized outbreak of this strain in the USA occurred in a Chinese restaurant in EI Paso, Texas, in April 1993; no source was identified. In September 1993, a second outbreak caused by SE phage type 4 was associated with the same restaurant. To determine the cause of the second outbreak, we compared food exposures of the 19 patients with ...

  4. EnviroAtlas - Percent Land Cover with Potentially Restorable Wetlands on Agricultural Land per 12-Digit HUC - Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the percent land cover with potentially restorable wetlands on agricultural land for each 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) watershed in...

  5. Cardiovascular disease risk among the Mexican American population in the Texas-Mexico border region, by age and length of residence in United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jennifer J; Abdelbary, Bassent; Rentfro, Anne; Fisher-Hoch, Susan; McCormick, Joseph

    2014-04-10

    Although the relationship between health behaviors and outcomes such as smoking and obesity with longer residence in the United States among Mexican American immigrants is established, the relationship between length of residency in the United States and risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between immigrant status, length of residence in the United States, age, and CVD markers in a sample of Mexican American adults living in Brownsville, Texas. We categorized participants in the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort study as immigrants in the United States for 10 years or less, immigrants in the United States for more than 10 years, or born in the United States. We conducted logistic and ordinary least squares regression for self-reported chronic conditions and CVD biomarkers. We found bivariate differences in the prevalence of self-reported conditions and 1 CVD biomarker (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) by length of residence in the middle (41-64 y) and younger (18-40 y) age groups. After adjusting for covariates, the following varied significantly by immigrant status: stroke and high cholesterol (self-reported conditions) and diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (CVD biomarkers). The association between immigrant status, length of residence in the United States, and CVD markers varied. The effect of length of residence in the United States or immigrant status may depend on age and may be most influential in middle or older age.

  6. Scenarios of land use and land cover change in the conterminous United States: Utilizing the special report on emission scenarios at ecoregional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sohl, Terry L.; Bouchard, Michelle A.; Reker, Ryan R.; Soulard, Christopher E.; Acevedo, William; Griffith, Glenn E.; Sleeter, Rachel R.; Auch, Roger F.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Prisley, Stephen; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2012-01-01

    Global environmental change scenarios have typically provided projections of land use and land cover for a relatively small number of regions or using a relatively coarse resolution spatial grid, and for only a few major sectors. The coarseness of global projections, in both spatial and thematic dimensions, often limits their direct utility at scales useful for environmental management. This paper describes methods to downscale projections of land-use and land-cover change from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Special Report on Emission Scenarios to ecological regions of the conterminous United States, using an integrated assessment model, land-use histories, and expert knowledge. Downscaled projections span a wide range of future potential conditions across sixteen land use/land cover sectors and 84 ecological regions, and are logically consistent with both historical measurements and SRES characteristics. Results appear to provide a credible solution for connecting regionalized projections of land use and land cover with existing downscaled climate scenarios, under a common set of scenario-based socioeconomic assumptions.

  7. Chagas disease risk in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sahotra; Strutz, Stavana E; Frank, David M; Rivaldi, Chissa-Louise; Sissel, Blake; Sánchez-Cordero, Victor

    2010-10-05

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, remains a serious public health concern in many areas of Latin America, including México. It is also endemic in Texas with an autochthonous canine cycle, abundant vectors (Triatoma species) in many counties, and established domestic and peridomestic cycles which make competent reservoirs available throughout the state. Yet, Chagas disease is not reportable in Texas, blood donor screening is not mandatory, and the serological profiles of human and canine populations remain unknown. The purpose of this analysis was to provide a formal risk assessment, including risk maps, which recommends the removal of these lacunae. The spatial relative risk of the establishment of autochthonous Chagas disease cycles in Texas was assessed using a five-stage analysis. 1. Ecological risk for Chagas disease was established at a fine spatial resolution using a maximum entropy algorithm that takes as input occurrence points of vectors and environmental layers. The analysis was restricted to triatomine vector species for which new data were generated through field collection and through collation of post-1960 museum records in both México and the United States with sufficiently low georeferenced error to be admissible given the spatial resolution of the analysis (1 arc-minute). The new data extended the distribution of vector species to 10 new Texas counties. The models predicted that Triatoma gerstaeckeri has a large region of contiguous suitable habitat in the southern United States and México, T. lecticularia has a diffuse suitable habitat distribution along both coasts of the same region, and T. sanguisuga has a disjoint suitable habitat distribution along the coasts of the United States. The ecological risk is highest in south Texas. 2. Incidence-based relative risk was computed at the county level using the Bayesian Besag-York-Mollié model and post-1960 T. cruzi incidence data. This risk is concentrated in south Texas. 3. The

  8. Chagas disease risk in Texas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahotra Sarkar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, remains a serious public health concern in many areas of Latin America, including México. It is also endemic in Texas with an autochthonous canine cycle, abundant vectors (Triatoma species in many counties, and established domestic and peridomestic cycles which make competent reservoirs available throughout the state. Yet, Chagas disease is not reportable in Texas, blood donor screening is not mandatory, and the serological profiles of human and canine populations remain unknown. The purpose of this analysis was to provide a formal risk assessment, including risk maps, which recommends the removal of these lacunae. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The spatial relative risk of the establishment of autochthonous Chagas disease cycles in Texas was assessed using a five-stage analysis. 1. Ecological risk for Chagas disease was established at a fine spatial resolution using a maximum entropy algorithm that takes as input occurrence points of vectors and environmental layers. The analysis was restricted to triatomine vector species for which new data were generated through field collection and through collation of post-1960 museum records in both México and the United States with sufficiently low georeferenced error to be admissible given the spatial resolution of the analysis (1 arc-minute. The new data extended the distribution of vector species to 10 new Texas counties. The models predicted that Triatoma gerstaeckeri has a large region of contiguous suitable habitat in the southern United States and México, T. lecticularia has a diffuse suitable habitat distribution along both coasts of the same region, and T. sanguisuga has a disjoint suitable habitat distribution along the coasts of the United States. The ecological risk is highest in south Texas. 2. Incidence-based relative risk was computed at the county level using the Bayesian Besag-York-Mollié model and post-1960 T. cruzi incidence data. This

  9. Prognostic framing of stakeholders' subjectivities: A case of all-terrain vehicle management on state public lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley T. Asah; David N. Bengston; Keith Wendt; Leif. DeVaney

    2012-01-01

    Management of all-terrain vehicle (ATV) use on Minnesota state forest lands has a contentious history and land managers are caught between ATV riders, nonmotorized recreationists, private landowners, and environmental advocates. In this paper, we demonstrate the usefulness of framing distinct perspectives about ATV management on Minnesota state public forests,...

  10. State-dependent errors in a land surface model across biomes inferred from eddy covariance observations on multiple timescales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, T.; Brender, P.; Ciais, P.; Piao, S.; Mahecha, M.D.; Chevallier, F.; Reichstein, M.; Ottle, C.; Maignan, F.; Arain, A.; Bohrer, G.; Cescatti, A.; Kiely, G.; Law, B.E.; Lutz, M.; Montagnani, L.; Moors, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of state-dependent model biases in land surface models can highlight model deficiencies, and provide new insights into model development. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used to estimate the state-dependent biases of a land surface model (ORCHIDEE: ORganising

  11. Implications of land-use change on forest carbon stocks in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhlick, Joshua; Woodall, Christopher; Weiskittel, Aaron

    2017-02-01

    Given the substantial role that forests play in removing CO2 from the atmosphere, there has been a growing need to evaluate the carbon (C) implications of various forest management and land-use decisions. Although assessment of land-use change is central to national-level greenhouse gas monitoring guidelines, it is rarely incorporated into forest stand-level evaluations of C dynamics and trajectories. To better inform the assessment of forest stand C dynamics in the context of potential land-use change, we used a region-wide repeated forest inventory (n = 71 444 plots) across the eastern United States to assess forest land-use conversion and associated changes in forest C stocks. Specifically, the probability of forest area reduction between 2002-2006 and 2007-2012 on these plots was related to key driving factors such as proportion of the landscape in forest land use, distance to roads, and initial forest C. Additional factors influencing the actual reduction in forest area were then used to assess the risk of forest land-use conversion to agriculture, settlement, and water. Plots in forests along the Great Plains had the highest periodic (approximately 5 years) probability of land-use change (0.160 ± 0.075; mean ± SD) with forest conversion to agricultural uses accounting for 70.5% of the observed land-use change. Aboveground forest C stock change for plots with a reduction in forest area was -4.2 ± 17.7 Mg ha-1 (mean ± SD). The finding that poorly stocked stands and/or those with small diameter trees had the highest probability of conversion to non-forest land uses suggests that forest management strategies can maintain the US terrestrial C sink not only in terms of increased net forest growth but also retention of forest area to avoid conversion. This study highlights the importance of considering land-use change in planning and policy decisions that seek to maintain or enhance regional C sinks.

  12. Suspended sediment yield in Texas watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coonrod, Julia Ellen Allred

    The Texas Water Development Board collected suspended sediment samples across the state of Texas for approximately 60 years. Until this research, no comprehensive analysis of the data had been conducted. This study compiles the suspended sediment data along with corresponding streamflow and rainfall. GIS programs are developed which characterize watersheds corresponding to the sediment gauging stations. The watersheds are characterized according to topography, climate, soils, and land use. All of the data is combined to form several SAS data sets which can subsequently be analyzed using regression. Annual data for all of the stations across the state are classified temporally and spatially to determine trends in the sediment yield. In general, the suspended sediment load increases with increasing runoff but no correlation exists with rainfall. However, the annual average rainfall can be used to classify the watersheds according to climate, which improves the correlation between sediment load and runoff. The watersheds with no dams have higher sediment loads than watersheds with dams. Dams in the drier parts of Texas reduce the sediment load more than dams in the wetter part of the state. Sediment rating curves are developed separately for each basin in Texas. All but one of the curves fall into a band which varies by about two orders of magnitude. The study analyzes daily time series data for the Lavaca River near Edna station. USGS data are used to improve the sediment rating curve by the addition of physically related variables and interaction terms. The model can explain an additional 41% of the variability in sediment concentration compared to a simple bivariate regression of sediment load and flow. The TWDB daily data for the Lavaca River near Edna station are used to quantify temporal trends. There is a high correlation between sediment load and flowrate for the Lavaca River. The correlation can be improved by considering a flow-squared term and by

  13. 76 FR 71260 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Revisions to the New Source Review (NSR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... permitting under Title 30 of the Texas Administrative Code (30 TAC), Chapter 116--Control of Air Pollution by...: Our Land, Our Lives; Texas Protecting Our Land, Water, and Environment; Citizens for a Clean... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Revisions to the New...

  14. Data compilation and assessment for water resources in Pennsylvania state forest and park lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeone, Daniel G.

    2011-01-01

    As a result of a cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (PaDCNR), available electronic data were compiled for Pennsylvania state lands (state forests and parks) to allow PaDCNR to initially determine if data exist to make an objective evaluation of water resources for specific basins. The data compiled included water-quantity and water-quality data and sample locations for benthic macroinvertebrates within state-owned lands (including a 100-meter buffer around each land parcel) in Pennsylvania. In addition, internet links or contacts for geographic information system coverages pertinent to water-resources studies also were compiled. Water-quantity and water-quality data primarily available through January 2007 were compiled and summarized for site types that included streams, lakes, ground-water wells, springs, and precipitation. Data were categorized relative to 35 watershed boundaries defined by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection for resource-management purposes. The primary sources of continuous water-quantity data for Pennsylvania state lands were the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Weather Service (NWS). The USGS has streamflow data for 93 surface-water sites located in state lands; 38 of these sites have continuous-recording data available. As of January 2007, 22 of these 38 streamflow-gaging stations were active; the majority of active gaging stations have over 40 years of continuous record. The USGS database also contains continuous ground-water elevation data for 32 wells in Pennsylvania state lands, 18 of which were active as of January 2007. Sixty-eight active precipitation stations (primarily from the NWS network) are located in state lands. The four sources of available water-quality data for Pennsylvania state lands were the USGS, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP), and

  15. Land Degradation States and Trends in the Northwestern Maghreb Drylands, 1998–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel del Barrio

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available States of ecological maturity and temporal trends of drylands in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia north of 28°N are reported for 1998–2008. The input data were Normalized Difference Vegetation Index databases and corresponding climate fields, at a spatial resolution of 1 km and a temporal resolution of one month. States convey opposing dynamics of human exploitation and ecological succession. They were identified synchronically for the full period by comparing each location to all other locations in the study area under equivalent aridity. Rain Use Efficiency (RUE at two temporal scales was used to estimate proxies for biomass and turnover rate. Biomass trends were determined for every location by stepwise regression using time and aridity as predictors. This enabled human-induced degradation to be separated from simple responses to interannual climate variation. Some relevant findings include large areas of degraded land, albeit improving over time or fluctuating with climate, but rarely degrading further; smaller, but significant areas of mature and reference vegetation in most climate zones; very low overall active degradation rates throughout the area during the decade observed; biomass accumulation over time exceeding depletion in most zones; and negative feedback between land states and trends suggesting overall landscape persistence. Semiarid zones were found to be the most vulnerable. Those results can be disaggregated by country or province. The combination with existing land cover maps and national forest inventories leads to the information required by the two progress indicators associated with the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification strategic objective to improve the conditions of ecosystems and with the Sustainable Development Goal Target 15.3 to achieve land degradation neutrality. Beyond that, the results are also useful as a basis for land management and restoration.

  16. Current State and Development of Land Degradation Processes Based on Soil Monitoring in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobza Jozef

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Current state and development of land degradation processes based on soil monitoring system in Slovakia is evaluated in this contribution. Soil monitoring system in Slovakia is consistently running since 1993 year in 5-years repetitions. Soil monitoring network in Slovakia is constructed using ecological principle, taking into account all main soil types and subtypes, soil organic matter, climatic regions, emission regions, polluted and non-polluted regions as well as various land use. The result of soil monitoring network is 318 sites on agricultural land in Slovakia. Soil properties are evaluated according to the main threats to soil relating to European Commission recommendation for European soil monitoring performance as follows: soil erosion and compaction, soil acidification, decline in soil organic matter and soil contamination. The most significant change has been determined in physical degradation of soils. The physical degradation was especially manifested in compacted and the eroded soils. It was determined that about 39% of agricultural land is potentially affected by soil erosion in Slovakia. In addition, slight decline in soil organic matter indicates the serious facts on evaluation and extension of soil degradation processes during the last period in Slovakia. Soil contamination is without significant change for the time being. It means the soils contaminated before soil monitoring process this unfavourable state lasts also at present.

  17. Identification of cotton fleahopper (Hemiptera: Miridae) host plants in central Texas and compendium of reported hosts in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, J F; Esquivel, S V

    2009-06-01

    The cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter), is an early-season pest of developing cotton in Central Texas and other regions of the Cotton Belt. Cotton fleahopper populations develop on spring weed hosts and move to cotton as weed hosts senesce or if other weed hosts are not readily available. To identify weed hosts that were seasonably available for the cotton fleahopper in Central Texas, blooming weed species were sampled during early-season (17 March-31 May), mid-season (1 June-14 August), late-season (15 August-30 November), and overwintering (1 December-16 March) periods. The leading hosts for cotton fleahopper adults and nymphs were evening primrose (Oenothera speciosa T. Nuttall) and Mexican hat [Ratibida columnifera (T. Nuttall) E. Wooton and P. Standley], respectively, during the early season. During the mid-season, silver-leaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium A. Cavanilles) was consistently a host for fleahopper nymphs and adults. Woolly croton (Croton capitatus A. Michaux) was a leading host during the late season. Cotton fleahoppers were not collected during the overwintering period. Other suitable hosts were available before previously reported leading hosts became available. Eight previously unreported weed species were documented as temporary hosts. A compendium of reported hosts, which includes >160 plant species representing 35 families, for the cotton fleahopper is provided for future research addressing insect-host plant associations. Leading plant families were Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, and Onagraceae. Results presented here indicate a strong argument for assessing weed species diversity and abundance for the control of the cotton fleahopper in the Cotton Belt.

  18. Implementing SDG 15.3 on Land Degradation Neutrality in the EU and EU Member States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunder, Stephanie; Starke, Sue Martina; Frelih-Larsen, Ana; Kaphengst, Timo

    2017-04-01

    The continuing degradation of land and soils is a severe threat to the provision of ecosystem services and economic development. Sustainable use of land and soils are therefore an integral part of the "Agenda 2030" with its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 targets adopted by the UNGeneral Assembly in September 2015. The SDGs provide new opportunities for an ambitious and integrated environmental policy worldwide and in the EU. Among the many relevant targets that directly or indirectly address soils (such as goals on zero hunger, well being, clean energy, climate change, water and sustainable cities), target 15.3 that aims to achieve "a land degradation-neutral world" by 2030 is the most relevant. The concept of "Land Degradation Neutrality" (LDN) is not only about halting the loss of healthy and fertile land, but also actively reversing degradation by restoring land in order to counterbal-ance losses that cannot be avoided. It is a very ambitious target but due to a lack of balancing mechanisms for degradation and restoration in most countries also a new concept. Land Degra-dation Neutrality therefore both needs a scientific conceptual framework as well as a political debate about its implementation and development of instruments. In the EU and its Member States, this debate can also serve as a catalyst to revive the discussion on a common soil policy in Europe after the withdrawal of the proposal for a soil framework directive in 2014. To analyze options for the implementation of target 15.3 in Germany and Europe the research project "Implementing the Sustainable Development Goals on Soils in Germany" (http://ecologic.eu/12876) is currently carried out by the Ecologic Institute on behalf of the Ger-man Environment Agency (UBA) and the German Federal Environment Ministry (BMUB). The project will run until spring 2017 and the session "European Environmental Policies and Sustainability" at the EGU will be an ideal opportunity to present the final

  19. Economic-based projections of future land use in the conterminous United States under alternative policy scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeloff, V C; Nelson, E; Plantinga, A J; Lewis, D J; Helmers, D; Lawler, J J; Withey, J C; Beaudry, F; Martinuzzi, S; Butsic, V; Lonsdorf, E; White, D; Polasky, S

    2012-04-01

    Land-use change significantly contributes to biodiversity loss, invasive species spread, changes in biogeochemical cycles, and the loss of ecosystem services. Planning for a sustainable future requires a thorough understanding of expected land use at the fine spatial scales relevant for modeling many ecological processes and at dimensions appropriate for regional or national-level policy making. Our goal was to construct and parameterize an econometric model of land-use change to project future land use to the year 2051 at a fine spatial scale across the conterminous United States under several alternative land-use policy scenarios. We parameterized the econometric model of land-use change with the National Resource Inventory (NRI) 1992 and 1997 land-use data for 844 000 sample points. Land-use transitions were estimated for five land-use classes (cropland, pasture, range, forest, and urban). We predicted land-use change under four scenarios: business-as-usual, afforestation, removal of agricultural subsidies, and increased urban rents. Our results for the business-as-usual scenario showed widespread changes in land use, affecting 36% of the land area of the conterminous United States, with large increases in urban land (79%) and forest (7%), and declines in cropland (-16%) and pasture (-13%). Areas with particularly high rates of land-use change included the larger Chicago area, parts of the Pacific Northwest, and the Central Valley of California. However, while land-use change was substantial, differences in results among the four scenarios were relatively minor. The only scenario that was markedly different was the afforestation scenario, which resulted in an increase of forest area that was twice as high as the business-as-usual scenario. Land-use policies can affect trends, but only so much. The basic economic and demographic factors shaping land-use changes in the United States are powerful, and even fairly dramatic policy changes, showed only moderate

  20. Population trends of red-cockaded woodpeckers in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph

    2006-01-01

    tracked population trends of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in eastern Texas from 1983 through 2004. After declining precipitously during the 1980s, woodpecker population trends on federal lands (National Forests and Grasslands in Texas, but excluding the Big Thicket National Preserve) increased between 1990 and 2000, and have been...

  1. Future water supply and demand in response to climate change and agricultural expansion in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K.; Zhou, T.; Gao, H.; Huang, M.

    2016-12-01

    With ongoing global environmental change and an increasing population, it is challenging (to say the least) to understand the complex interactions of irrigation and reservoir systems. Irrigation is critical to agricultural production and food security, and is a vital component of Texas' agricultural economy. Agricultural irrigation currently accounts for about 60% of total water demand in Texas, and recent occurrences of severe droughts has brought attention to the availability and use of water in the future. In this study, we aim to assess future agricultural irrigation water demand, and to estimate how changes in the fraction of crop irrigated land will affect future water availability in Texas, which has the largest farm area and the highest value of livestock production in the United States. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, which has been calibrated and validated over major Texas river basins during the historical period, is employed for this study. The VIC model, coupling with an irrigation scheme and a reservoir module, is adopted to simulate the water management and regulations. The evolution on agricultural land is also considered in the model as a changing fraction of crop for each grid cell. The reservoir module is calibrated and validated based on the historical (1915-2011) storage records of major reservoirs in Texas. The model is driven by statistically downscaled climate projections from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) model ensembles at a spatial resolution of 1/8°. The lowest (RCP 2.6) and highest (RC P8.5) greenhouse-gas concentration scenarios are adopted for future projections to provide an estimate of uncertainty bounds. We expect that our results will be helpful to assist decision making related to reservoir operations and agricultural water planning for Texas under future climate and environmental changes.

  2. Land Use Intensification Effects in Soil Arthropod Community of an Entisol in Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Siqueira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between soil invertebrates and land use and management are fundamental for soil quality assessment but remain largely unaddressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in soil arthropod community of an entisol brought about by different land use systems under semiarid climate in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The soil invertebrate community was sampled using pitfall traps from areas with eight vegetation types by the end of the austral winter. The land uses studied were native thorn forest plus seven agricultural fields planted with elephant grass, apple guava, passion fruit, carrot, maize, tomato, and green pepper. Native vegetation was considered as a reference, whereas the agricultural fields showed a range of soil use intensities. The abundance of organisms, the total and average richness, Shannon’s diversity index, and the Pielou uniformity index were determined, and all of these were affected by several crop and soil management practices such as residue cover, weed control, and pesticide application. Our study found differences in community assemblages and composition under different land use systems, but no single taxa could be used as indicator of soil use intensity.

  3. Long-term trends in restoration and associated land treatments in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Stella M.; Munson, Seth M.; Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.; Bradford, John B.; Butterfield, Bradley J.

    2017-01-01

    Restoration treatments, such as revegetation with seeding or invasive species removal, have been applied on U.S. public lands for decades. Temporal trends in these management actions have not been extensively summarized previously, particularly in the southwestern United States where invasive plant species, drought, and fire have altered dryland ecosystems. We assessed long-term (1940–2010) trends in restoration using approximately 4,000 vegetation treatments conducted on Bureau of Land Management lands across the southwestern United States. We found that since 1940, the proportions of seeding and vegetation/soil manipulation (e.g. vegetation removal or plowing) treatments have declined, while the proportions of prescribed burn and invasive species treatments have increased. Treatments in pinyon-juniper and big sagebrush communities declined in comparison to treatments in desert scrub, creosote bush, and riparian woodland communities. Restoration-focused treatment objectives increased relative to resource extraction objectives. Species richness and proportion of native species used in seeding treatments also increased. Inflation-adjusted costs per area rose 750% for vegetation/soil manipulation, 600% for seeding, and 400% for prescribed burn treatments in the decades from 1981 to 2010. Seeding treatments were implemented in warmer and drier years when compared to the climate conditions of the entire study period and warmer and wetter years relative to several years before and after the treatment. These results suggest that treatments over a 70-year period on public lands in the southwestern United States are shifting toward restoration practices that are increasingly large, expensive, and related to fire and invasive species control.

  4. Multifunctional Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Land Use Planning in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Taylor Lovell

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban agriculture offers an alternative land use for integrating multiple functions in densely populated areas. While urban agriculture has historically been an important element of cities in many developing countries, recent concerns about economic and food security have resulted in a growing movement to produce food in cities of developed countries including the United States. In these regions, urban agriculture offers a new frontier for land use planners and landscape designers to become involved in the development and transformation of cities to support community farms, allotment gardens, rooftop gardening, edible landscaping, urban forests, and other productive features of the urban environment. Despite the growing interest in urban agriculture, urban planners and landscape designers are often ill-equipped to integrate food-systems thinking into future plans for cities. The challenge (and opportunity is to design urban agriculture spaces to be multifunctional, matching the specific needs and preferences of local residents, while also protecting the environment. This paper provides a review of the literature on urban agriculture as it applies to land use planning in the United States. The background includes a brief historical perspective of urban agriculture around the world, as well as more recent examples in the United States. Land use applications are considered for multiple scales, from efforts that consider an entire city, to those that impact a single building or garden. Barriers and constraints to urban agriculture are discussed, followed by research opportunities and methodological approaches that might be used to address them. This work has implications for urban planners, landscape designers, and extension agents, as opportunities to integrate urban agriculture into the fabric of our cities expand.

  5. Groundwater recharge to the Gulf Coast aquifer system in Montgomery and Adjacent Counties, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Timothy D.; Delin, Geoffrey N.

    2013-01-01

    Simply stated, groundwater recharge is the addition of water to the groundwater system. Most of the water that is potentially available for recharging the groundwater system in Montgomery and adjacent counties in southeast Texas moves relatively rapidly from land surface to surface-water bodies and sustains streamflow, lake levels, and wetlands. Recharge in southeast Texas is generally balanced by evapotranspiration, discharge to surface waters, and the downward movement of water into deeper parts of the groundwater system; however, this balance can be altered locally by groundwater withdrawals, impervious surfaces, land use, precipitation variability, or climate, resulting in increased or decreased rates of recharge. Recharge rates were compared to the 1971–2000 normal annual precipitation measured Cooperative Weather Station 411956, Conroe, Tex.

  6. Projected surface radiative forcing due to 2000--2050 land-cover land-use albedo change over the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Christopher A.; Roy, David P.; Loveland, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Satellite-derived contemporary land-cover land-use (LCLU) and albedo data and modeled future LCLU are used to study the impact of LCLU change from 2000 to 2050 on surface albedo and radiative forcing for 19 ecoregions in the eastern United States. The modeled 2000–2050 LCLU changes indicate a future decrease in both agriculture and forested land and an increase in developed land that induces ecoregion radiative forcings ranging from −0.175 to 0.432 W m−2 driven predominately by differences in the area and type of LCLU change. At the regional scale, these projected LCLU changes induce a net negative albedo decrease (−0.001) and a regional positive radiative forcing of 0.112 W m−2. This overall positive forcing (i.e., warming) is almost 4 times greater than that estimated for documented 1973–2000 LCLU albedo change published in a previous study using the same methods.

  7. Land Acquisitions, the Politics of Dispossession, and State-Remaking in Gambella, Western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fana Gebresenbet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that development through large-scale land acquisitions (LSLAs in Gambella, western Ethiopia, belies a state-remaking project under a dispossessive political economy. This argument is based on fieldwork in Gambella, Addis Ababa, and Minneapolis and is situated within the broader development agenda pursued by Ethiopia’s ruling party. The political economy of LSLAs tells us that the deals are not occurring in a predominantly economic manner; rather, extra-economic state intervention clears the way for, facilitates, and ensures sustained accumulation. This political intervention is “unlocking” and making the lowland resources accessible and extractable by the state, while a concomitant villagisation project is guaranteeing continued accumulation by disempowering the local population by making the community legible, governable, and controllable. Through a combination of these processes, the Ethiopian state is mastering, and building itself in, Gambella’s lowlands.

  8. Using the FORE-SCE model to project land-cover change in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, Terry; Sayler, Kristi L.

    2008-01-01

    A wide variety of ecological applications require spatially explicit current and projected land-use and land-cover data. The southeastern United States has experienced massive land-use change since European settlement and continues to experience extremely high rates of forest cutting, significant urban development, and changes in agricultural land use. Forest-cover patterns and structure are projected to change dramatically in the southeastern United States in the next 50 years due to population growth and demand for wood products [Wear, D.N., Greis, J.G. (Eds.), 2002. Southern Forest Resource Assessment. General Technical Report SRS-53. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Asheville, NC, 635 pp]. Along with our climate partners, we are examining the potential effects of southeastern U.S. land-cover change on regional climate. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Land Cover Trends project is analyzing contemporary (1973-2000) land-cover change in the conterminous United States, providing ecoregion-by-ecoregion estimates of the rates of change, descriptive transition matrices, and changes in landscape metrics. The FORecasting SCEnarios of future land-cover (FORE-SCE) model used Land Cover Trends data and theoretical, statistical, and deterministic modeling techniques to project future land-cover change through 2050 for the southeastern United States. Prescriptions for future proportions of land cover for this application were provided by ecoregion-based extrapolations of historical change. Logistic regression was used to develop relationships between suspected drivers of land-cover change and land cover, resulting in the development of probability-of-occurrence surfaces for each unique land-cover type. Forest stand age was initially established with Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data and tracked through model iterations. The spatial allocation procedure placed patches of new land cover on the landscape until the scenario

  9. Recurrent outbreaks of Salmonella Enteritidis infections in a Texas restaurant: phage type 4 arrives in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, T G; Koo, D; Swerdlow, D L; Gomez, T M; Serrano, B; Nickey, L N; Hickman-Brenner, F W; Malcolm, G B; Griffin, P M

    1996-08-01

    In recent years infection caused by Salmonella serotype Enteritidis (SE) phage type 4 has spread through Europe but has been uncommon in the USA. The first recognized outbreak of this strain in the USA occurred in a Chinese restaurant in EI Paso, Texas, in April 1993; no source was identified. In September 1993, a second outbreak caused by SE phage type 4 was associated with the same restaurant. To determine the cause of the second outbreak, we compared food exposures of the 19 patients with that of two control groups. Egg rolls were the only item significantly associated with illness in both analyses (first control group: odds ratio [OR] 8.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3-31.6; second control group: OR 13.1, 95% CI 2.1-97.0). Retrospective analysis of the April outbreak also implicated egg rolls (OR 32.4, 95% CI 9.1-126.6). Egg roll batter was made from pooled shell eggs and was left at room temperature throughout the day. These two outbreaks of SE phage type 4 likely could have been prevented by using pasteurized eggs and safe food preparation practices.

  10. Completion of the 2011 National Land Cover Database for the conterminous United States – Representing a decade of land cover change information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Collin G.; Dewitz, Jon; Yang, Limin; Jin, Suming; Danielson, Patrick; Xian, George Z.; Coulston, John; Herold, Nathaniel; Wickham, James; Megown, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) provides nationwide data on land cover and land cover change at the native 30-m spatial resolution of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). The database is designed to provide five-year cyclical updating of United States land cover and associated changes. The recent release of NLCD 2011 products now represents a decade of consistently produced land cover and impervious surface for the Nation across three periods: 2001, 2006, and 2011 (Homer et al., 2007; Fry et al., 2011). Tree canopy cover has also been produced for 2011 (Coluston et al., 2012; Coluston et al., 2013). With the release of NLCD 2011, the database provides the ability to move beyond simple change detection to monitoring and trend assessments. NLCD 2011 represents the latest evolution of NLCD products, continuing its focus on consistency, production, efficiency, and product accuracy. NLCD products are designed for widespread application in biology, climate, education, land management, hydrology, environmental planning, risk and disease analysis, telecommunications and visualization, and are available for no cost at http://www.mrlc.gov. NLCD is produced by a Federal agency consortium called the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium (MRLC) (Wickham et al., 2014). In the consortium arrangement, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) leads NLCD land cover and imperviousness production for the bulk of the Nation; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) completes NLCD land cover for the conterminous U.S. (CONUS) coastal zones; and the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) designs and produces the NLCD tree canopy cover product. Other MRLC partners collaborate through resource or data contribution to ensure NLCD products meet their respective program needs (Wickham et al., 2014).

  11. 77 FR 12874 - Notice of Segregation of Public Lands in the State of Arizona Associated With the Proposed Mohave...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Segregation of Public Lands in the State of Arizona Associated With... not the mineral leasing or material sales acts, for a period of 2 years. This segregation is being... Wind Energy North America's Mohave County Wind Farm Project (Proposed Project). This segregation covers...

  12. 77 FR 12873 - Notice of Segregation of Public Lands in the State of Arizona Associated With the Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Segregation of Public Lands in the State of Arizona Associated With... not the mineral leasing or material sales acts, for a period of 2 ] years. This segregation is being... Energy, LLC's Quartzsite Solar Energy Project (Proposed Project). This segregation covers approximately 2...

  13. An Examination of the Leadership Practices of University Presidents of Land-Grant Universities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldighrir, Wafa M.

    2013-01-01

    A great deal of research has been done to understand leadership styles in different organizational settings. In this study, the researcher focused on the leadership practices of university presidents of land-grant universities (LGUs) in the United States. The study examined the leadership practices of presidents of land-grant universities as…

  14. Changes in population and agricultural land in conterminous United States counties, 1790 to 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisanen, Pamela J.; Bliss, Norman B.

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a data set of changes in population and agricultural land for the conterminous United States at the county level, resulting in more spatial detail than in previously available compilations. The purpose was to provide data on the timing of land conversion as an input to dynamic models of the carbon cycle, although a wide variety of applications exist for the physical, biological, and social sciences. The spatial data represent the appropriate county boundaries for each census year between 1790 and 1997, and the census attributes are attached to the appropriate spatial region. The resulting time series and maps show the history of population (1790-1990) and the history of agricultural development (1850-1997). The patterns of agricultural development reflect the influences of climate, soil productivity, increases in population size, variations in the general economy, and technological changes in the energy, transportation, and agricultural sectors.

  15. Changes in population and agricultural land in conterminous United States counties, 1790 to 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisanen, Pamela J.; Bliss, Norman B.

    2002-12-01

    We have developed a data set of changes in population and agricultural land for the conterminous United States at the county level, resulting in more spatial detail than in previously available compilations. The purpose was to provide data on the timing of land conversion as an input to dynamic models of the carbon cycle, although a wide variety of applications exist for the physical, biological, and social sciences. The spatial data represent the appropriate county boundaries for each census year between 1790 and 1997, and the census attributes are attached to the appropriate spatial region. The resulting time series and maps show the history of population (1790-1990) and the history of agricultural development (1850-1997). The patterns of agricultural development reflect the influences of climate, soil productivity, increases in population size, variations in the general economy, and technological changes in the energy, transportation, and agricultural sectors.

  16. Land distribution and acquisition practices in Ghana’s cocoa frontier: The impact of a state-regulated marketing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Michael Helt; Fold, Niels

    2010-01-01

    of land over the last decade has mainly taken place via inheritance (among indigenous farmers) without takeovers of land and dispossession of small-scale farmers outside the extended family. Land accumulation among migrant farmers is rare beyond the initial acquisition. Large-scale farmers transfer...... surplus from their higher volume of cocoa production into investments in non-farm activities and construction of new residential houses—and not in land acquisition based on market transactions. State regulation of the cocoa sector has spurred increased efficiency among private cocoa purchasing companies...

  17. USGS 1:1,000,000-Scale Federal Lands of the United States - Parkways and Scenic Rivers 201506 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the linear federally owned or administered land features (i.e., national parkways, wild and scenic rivers, etc.) of the United States and...

  18. RAP workshop : Buda-TxAPA, Texas, August 27, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-27

    Presentation Outline : RAP overview : RAP stockpile survey: state of practice : RAP processing and RAP variability : RAP characterization : RAP mix design : Field performance of Texas high RAP test sections

  19. The state of digitisation of the land registry operations in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ngulup

    Makerere University, Department of Library and Information Science, Uganda dennisfo@mlhud.go. ... Keywords: Digitisation, land management, land information system, records and archives management, land ... the land sector by implementing a digitised land registry system through the introduction of an electronic and ...

  20. Land-cover change and avian diversity in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Anna M. Pidgeon; Thomas P. Albright; Patrick D. Culbert; Murray K. Clayton; Curtis H. Flather; Jeffrey G. Masek; Volker C. Radeloff

    2012-01-01

    Changes in land use and land cover have affected and will continue to affect biological diversity worldwide. Yet, understanding the spatially extensive effects of land-cover change has been challenging because data that are consistent over space and time are lacking. We used the U.S. National Land Cover Dataset Land Cover Change Retrofit Product and North American...

  1. The role of protected areas in land use/land cover change and the carbon cycle in the conterminous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaoliang; Zhou, Yuyu; Liu, Yaling; Le Page, Yannick

    2018-02-05

    Protected areas (PAs) cover about 22% of the conterminous United States. Understanding their role on historical land use and land cover change (LULCC) and on the carbon cycle is essential to provide guidance for environmental policies. In this study, we compiled historical LULCC and PAs data to explore these interactions within the terrestrial ecosystem model (TEM). We found that intensive LULCC occurred in the conterminous United States from 1700 to 2005. More than 3 million km2 of forest, grassland and shrublands were converted into agricultural lands, which caused 10,607 Tg C release from land ecosystems to atmosphere. PAs had experienced little LULCC as they were generally established in the 20th century after most of the agricultural expansion had occurred. PAs initially acted as a carbon source due to land use legacies, but their accumulated carbon budget switched to a carbon sink in the 1960s, sequestering an estimated 1,642 Tg C over 1700–2005, or 13.4% of carbon losses in non-PAs. We also find that PAs maintain larger carbon stocks and continue sequestering carbon in recent years (2001–2005), but at a lower rate due to increased heterotrophic respiration as well as lower productivity associated to aging ecosystems. It is essential to continue efforts to maintain resilient, biodiverse ecosystems and avoid large-scale disturbances that would release large amounts of carbon in PAs.

  2. The role of protected areas in land use/land cover change and the carbon cycle in the conterminous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoliang; Zhou, Yuyu; Liu, Yaling; Le Page, Yannick

    2018-02-01

    Protected areas (PAs) cover about 22% of the conterminous United States. Understanding their role on historical land use and land cover change (LULCC) and on the carbon cycle is essential to provide guidance for environmental policies. In this study, we compiled historical LULCC and PAs data to explore these interactions within the terrestrial ecosystem model (TEM). We found that intensive LULCC occurred in the conterminous United States from 1700 to 2005. More than 3 million km 2 of forest, grassland and shrublands were converted into agricultural lands, which caused 10,607 Tg C release from land ecosystems to atmosphere. PAs had experienced little LULCC as they were generally established in the 20th century after most of the agricultural expansion had occurred. PAs initially acted as a carbon source due to land use legacies, but their accumulated carbon budget switched to a carbon sink in the 1960s, sequestering an estimated 1,642 Tg C over 1700-2005, or 13.4% of carbon losses in non-PAs. We also find that PAs maintain larger carbon stocks and continue sequestering carbon in recent years (2001-2005), but at a lower rate due to increased heterotrophic respiration as well as lower productivity associated to aging ecosystems. It is essential to continue efforts to maintain resilient, biodiverse ecosystems and avoid large-scale disturbances that would release large amounts of carbon in PAs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Land Use Adaptation to Climate Change: Economic Damages from Land-Falling Hurricanes in the Atlantic and Gulf States of the USA, 1900–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Zia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change, especially the phenomena of global warming, is expected to increase the intensity of land-falling hurricanes. Societal adaptation is needed to reduce vulnerability from increasingly intense hurricanes. This study quantifies the adaptation effects of potentially policy driven caps on housing densities and agricultural cover in coastal (and adjacent inland areas vulnerable to hurricane damages in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal regions of the U.S. Time series regressions, especially Prais-Winston and Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA models, are estimated to forecast the economic impacts of hurricanes of varying intensity, given that various patterns of land use emerge in the Atlantic and Gulf coastal states of the U.S. The Prais-Winston and ARMA models use observed time series data from 1900 to 2005 for inflation adjusted hurricane damages and socio-economic and land-use data in the coastal or inland regions where hurricanes caused those damages. The results from this study provide evidence that increases in housing density and agricultural cover cause significant rise in the de-trended inflation-adjusted damages. Further, higher intensity and frequency of land-falling hurricanes also significantly increase the economic damages. The evidence from this study implies that a medium to long term land use adaptation in the form of capping housing density and agricultural cover in the coastal (and adjacent inland states can significantly reduce economic damages from intense hurricanes. Future studies must compare the benefits of such land use adaptation policies against the costs of development controls implied in housing density caps and agricultural land cover reductions.

  4. Treasured Texas Theaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Dallas artist Jon Flaming's deep love of Texas is evident in his paintings and sculpture. Although he has created one sculptural Texas theater, his work primarily showcases old Texas barbershops, vacant homes, and gas stations. In this article, the author describes how her students, inspired by Flaming's works, created three-dimensional historical…

  5. 77 FR 8144 - Texas Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... new definition for ``Previously mined land,'' adding new language on the effects of previous mining...-FOR. Texas proposed revisions in TX-061-FOR by ] adding language that no longer requires an operation... new language explaining performance standards for revegetation liability timeframes for coal mining...

  6. Status of the peregrine falcon in the Rocky Mountains and the southwestern United States, Baja California, and Mexico (south of Texas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Ron; Craig, G.R.; Ellis, D.H.; Enderson, J.H.; Hunt, W.G.; Schaeffer, Philip P.; Ehlers, Sharyn M.

    1978-01-01

    About 31 pairs of peregrines still nest north of Mexico, from Idaho and Montana south through West Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. At least thirty-six additional pairs nest in Mexico. Although the nesting sites are occupied, the tissues of the peregrine?s prey species still contain high concentrations of pesticides. The eggs in some Rocky Mountain eyries have shells which are precariously thin and have high residue levels of DDE in their contents. Increasing economic development is encroaching on the peregrine habitat throughout its range in western North America. In Baja California. and Mexico south of Texas this involves increased agricultural activity including use of organochlorine pesticides, increased tourism and increased use of the Gulf of California both for commercial and sport fishing, with their potential disturbance of eyrie sites and reduction of the peregrine?s aquatic feeding prey base. As the fish in the Gulf decrease in number, some of the avian species on which peregrines prey will likewise decrease. This ultimately may effect the peregrine. These factors may have been involved in the demise of the peregrine on Baja California?s Pacific coast. Furthermore, throughout its range, residential, industrial, mining, geothermal, recreational and other types of development and land use practices sometimes destroy habitat essential to the survival of the peregrine. A recent request for the protection of an historical site in California as Critical Habitat under Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act was rejected because peregrines, although observed there, were not known to have produced eggs or young at the site for several decades. With inadequate protection of abandoned, but still suitable, historical eyrie sites, the peregrine may have an insufficient number of eyries to reoccupy in recovery attempts. The lack of present occupancy of a site, without biological evidence that the site is no longer suitable for reoccupancy, is insufficient cause to give

  7. Medical support at a large-scale motorsports mass-gathering event: the inaugural Formula One United States Grand Prix in Austin, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabra, John P; Cabañas, José G; Bedolla, John; Borgmann, Shirley; Hawley, James; Craven, Kevin; Brown, Carlos; Ziebell, Chris; Olvey, Steve

    2014-08-01

    Formula One returned to the United States on November 16-18, 2012, with the inaugural United States Grand Prix in Austin, Texas. Medical preparedness for motorsports events represents a unique challenge due to the potential for a high number of spectators seeking medical attention, and the possibility for a mass-casualty situation. Adequate preparation requires close collaboration across public safety agencies and hospital networks to minimize impact on Emergency Medical Services (EMS) resources. To report the details of preparation for an inaugural mass-gathering motorsports event, and to describe the details of the medical care rendered during the 3-day event. A retrospective analysis was completed utilizing postevent summaries, provided by the medical planning committee, by the Federation Internationale de L'Automobile (FIA), and Austin Travis County Emergency Medical Services (ATCEMS). Patient data were collected from standardized patient care records for descriptive analysis. Medical usage rates (MURs) are reported as a rate of patients per 10,000 (PPTT) participants. A total of 566 patients received medical care over the 3-day period with the on-site care rate of 95%. Overall, MUR was 21.3 PPTT attendees. Most patients had minor problems, and there were no driver injuries or deaths. This mass-gathering motorsport event had a moderate number of patients requiring medical attention. The preparedness plan was implemented successfully with minimal impact on EMS resources and local medical facilities. This medical preparedness plan may serve as a model to other cities preparing for an inaugural motorsports event.

  8. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  9. Characterizing Land-cover Changes Since 1650 in the Southeastern United States for Application to Regional Climate Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reker, R. R.; Loveland, T. R.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Hostetler, S. W.; Sundquist, E. T.; Thompson, R. S.; Willard, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Land-cover change is a fundamental contributor to changes in climate, hydrology, and carbon cycling. European settlers introduced a series of widespread land-cover changes in eastern North America beginning in the early 17th century. These changes varied both temporally and spatially, and were related to population growth, emerging technology, and land-use. To examine the potential influence of historical land-cover changes on local to regional climate, we adapted reconstructed fractional land cover from 1650, 1850, and 1920 as well as land cover interpreted from Landsat imagery circa 1992 (Steyaert and Knox, 2008) as input for regional climate model experiments. Observed changes included: deforestation and conversion to agriculture in the mid-Atlantic region from 1650 to 1850, region-wide expansion of agriculture from 1850 to 1920, and wetland drainage, reforestation, and increased urbanization from 1920 to 1992. We translated the land cover datasets to the BATS (Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme) thematic classification on a 20 km2 grid for ingestion into the RegCM4 regional climate model. In BATS, land-cover classifications determine biophysical parameters such as the seasonal albedo cycle, fractional vegetation condition, stomatal resistance, leaf area index (LAI), and rooting depth. By defining and characterizing land cover in a consistent manner across the four time slices, we are able to explore interactions and feedbacks between land cover and regional climate in late prehistoric and historic times. Steyaert, L. T., & Knox, R. G. (2008). Reconstructed historical land cover and biophysical parameters for studies of land-atmosphere interactions within the eastern United States. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 113(D2).

  10. Combining NLCD and MODIS to create a land cover-albedo database for the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, J.; Barnes, Christopher A.; Nash, M.S.; Wade, T.G.

    2015-01-01

    Land surface albedo is an essential climate variable that is tightly linked to land cover, such that specific land cover classes (e.g., deciduous broadleaf forest, cropland) have characteristic albedos. Despite the normative of land-cover class specific albedos, there is considerable variability in albedo within a land cover class. The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) albedo product were combined to produce a long-term (14 years) integrated land cover-albedo database for the continental United States that can be used to examine the temporal behavior of albedo as a function of land cover. The integration identifies areas of homogeneous land cover at the nominal spatial resolution of the MODIS (MCD43A) albedo product (500 m × 500 m) from the NLCD product (30 m × 30 m), and provides an albedo data record per 500 m × 500 m pixel for 14 of the 16 NLCD land cover classes. Individual homogeneous land cover pixels have up to 605 albedo observations, and 75% of the pixels have at least 319 MODIS albedo observations (≥ 50% of the maximum possible number of observations) for the study period (2000–2013). We demonstrated the utility of the database by conducting a multivariate analysis of variance of albedo for each NLCD land cover class, showing that locational (pixel-to-pixel) and inter-annual variability were significant factors in addition to expected seasonal (intra-annual) and geographic (latitudinal) effects.

  11. Geothermal resource assessment for the state of Texas: status of progress, November 1980. Final report. Appendices A through D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, C.M. Jr.; Caran, S.C.; Gever, C.; Henry, C.D.; Macpherson, G.L.; McBride, M.W.

    1982-03-01

    These appendices include: a folio of county maps showing locations of well data across the state; a computerized tabulation of the wells depicted; an explanation of the computer coding procedures; and a selected bibliography on heat flow and geothermics. (MHR)

  12. The Industrialization of Agriculture in Texas and the Nation: Implications for the Family Farm, Community, and Land Grant University System. Technical Report No. 83-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Don E.

    This report demonstrates the complexity and diversity of agricultural structures in the United States and discusses changes produced in the family farm by agricultural industrialization. Data from the Economic Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the 1978 Census of Agriculture describe similarities and differences in social…

  13. Effects of brush management on the hydrologic budget and water quality in and adjacent to Honey Creek State Natural Area, Comal County, Texas, 2001--10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, J. Ryan; Slattery, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    Woody vegetation, including ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei), has encroached on some areas in central Texas that were historically oak grassland savannah. Encroachment of woody vegetation is generally attributed to overgrazing and fire suppression. Removing the ashe juniper and allowing native grasses to reestablish in the area as a brush management conservation practice (hereinafter referred to as "brush management") might change the hydrology in the watershed. These hydrologic changes might include changes to surface-water runoff, evapotranspiration, or groundwater recharge. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Federal, State, and local partners, examined the hydrologic effects of brush management in two adjacent watersheds in Comal County, Tex. Hydrologic data were collected in the watersheds for 3-4 years (pre-treatment) depending on the type of data, after which brush management occurred on one watershed (treatment watershed) and the other was left in its original condition (reference watershed). Hydrologic data were collected in the study area for another 6 years (post-treatment). These hydrologic data included rainfall, streamflow, evapotranspiration, and water quality. Groundwater recharge was not directly measured, but potential groundwater recharge was calculated by using a simplified mass balance approach. This fact sheet summarizes highlights of the study from the USGS Scientific Investigations Report on which it is based.

  14. The State and the Land Question in Botswana. | Molomo | Review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The drive towards capital accumulation has led to the individualisation of land tenure, which undermines communal land tenure as well as the infringement of land rights of Basarwa. This paper concludes that the privatisation of the land, and more broadly the enclosure process, has led to the alienation of poor peasants and ...

  15. Land-use change, economics, and rural well-being in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, William R.; Hoag, Dana L.K.; Johnson, Rex R.; Koontz, Lynne M.; Thomas, Catherine Cullinane

    2013-01-01

    This fact sheet highlights findings included in a comprehensive new report (see USGS Professional Paper 1800) which investigated land-use change, economic characteristics, and rural community well-being in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States. Once one of the largest grassland-wetlands ecosystems on earth, the North American prairie has experienced extensive conversion to cultivated agriculture, with farming becoming the dominant land use in the region over the last century. Both perennial habitat lands and agricultural croplands retain importance economically, socially, and culturally. Greatly increased oil and gas development in recent years brought rises in employment and income but also stressed infrastructure, cost of living, and crime rates. Research described in these reports focuses on land-use dynamics and illuminates how economic variables and rural development in the Prairie Pothole Region might be influenced as land uses change.

  16. Spatially explicit modeling of 1992-2100 land cover and forest stand age for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, Terry L.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Bouchard, Michelle; Reker, Ryan R.; Friesz, Aaron M.; Bennett, Stacie L.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sleeter, Rachel R.; Wilson, Tamara; Soulard, Christopher E.; Knuppe, Michelle; Van Hofwegen, Travis

    2014-01-01

    Information on future land-use and land-cover (LULC) change is needed to analyze the impact of LULC change on ecological processes. The U.S. Geological Survey has produced spatially explicit, thematically detailed LULC projections for the conterminous United States. Four qualitative and quantitative scenarios of LULC change were developed, with characteristics consistent with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on 5 Emission Scenarios (SRES). The four quantified scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, and B2) served as input to the Forecasting Scenarios of Land-use Change (FORE-SCE) model. Four spatially explicit datasets consistent with scenario storylines were produced for the conterminous United States, with annual LULC maps from 1992 through 2100. The future projections are characterized by a loss of natural land covers in most scenarios, with corresponding expansion of 10 anthropogenic land uses. Along with the loss of natural land covers, remaining natural land covers experience increased fragmentation under most scenarios, with only the B2 scenario remaining relatively stable in both proportion of remaining natural land covers and basic fragmentation measures. Forest stand age was also modeled. By 2100, scenarios and ecoregions with heavy forest cutting have relatively lower mean stand ages compared to those with less 15 forest cutting. Stand ages differ substantially between unprotected and protected forest lands, as well as between different forest classes. The modeled data were compared to the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) and other data sources to assess model characteristics. The consistent, spatially explicit, and thematically detailed LULC projections and the associated forest stand age data layers have been used to analyze LULC impacts on carbon and greenhouse gas fluxes, 20 biodiversity, climate and weather variability, hydrologic change, and other ecological processes.

  17. Spatially explicit modeling of 1992-2100 land cover and forest stand age for the conterminous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, Terry L; Sayler, Kristi L; Bouchard, Michelle A; Reker, Ryan R; Friesz, Aaron M; Bennett, Stacie L; Sleeter, Benjamin M; Sleeter, Rachel R; Wilson, Tamara; Soulard, Chris; Knuppe, Michelle; Van Hofwegen, Travis

    2014-07-01

    Information on future land-use and land-cover (LULC) change is needed to analyze the impact of LULC change on ecological processes. The U.S. Geological Survey has produced spatially explicit, thematically detailed LULC projections for the conterminous United States. Four qualitative and quantitative scenarios of LULC change were developed, with characteristics consistent with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). The four quantified scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, and B2) served as input to the forecasting scenarios of land-use change (FORE-SCE) model. Four spatially explicit data sets consistent with scenario storylines were produced for the conterminous United States, with annual LULC maps from 1992 through 2100. The future projections are characterized by a loss of natural land covers in most scenarios, with corresponding expansion of anthropogenic land uses. Along with the loss of natural land covers, remaining natural land covers experience increased fragmentation under most scenarios, with only the B2 scenario remaining relatively stable in both the proportion of remaining natural land covers and basic fragmentation measures. Forest stand age was also modeled. By 2100, scenarios and ecoregions with heavy forest cutting had relatively lower mean stand ages compared to those with less forest cutting. Stand ages differed substantially between unprotected and protected forest lands, as well as between different forest classes. The modeled data were compared to the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) and other data sources to assess model characteristics. The consistent, spatially explicit, and thematically detailed LULC projections and the associated forest stand-age data layers have been used to analyze LULC impacts on carbon and greenhouse gas fluxes, biodiversity, climate and weather variability, hydrologic change, and other ecological processes.

  18. Estimating ecosystem carbon change in the Conterminous United States based on 40 years of land-use change and disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, B. M.; Rayfield, B.; Liu, J.; Sherba, J.; Daniel, C.; Frid, L.; Wilson, T. S.; Zhu, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Since 1970, the combined changes in land use, land management, climate, and natural disturbances have dramatically altered land cover in the United States, resulting in the potential for significant changes in terrestrial carbon storage and flux between ecosystems and the atmosphere. Processes including urbanization, agricultural expansion and contraction, and forest management have had impacts - both positive and negative - on the amount of natural vegetation, the age structure of forests, and the amount of impervious cover. Anthropogenic change coupled with climate-driven changes in natural disturbance regimes, particularly the frequency and severity of wildfire, together determine the spatio-temporal patterns of land change and contribute to changing ecosystem carbon dynamics. Quantifying this effect and its associated uncertainties is fundamental to developing a rigorous and transparent carbon monitoring and assessment programs. However, large-scale systematic inventories of historical land change and their associated uncertainties are sparse. To address this need, we present a newly developed modeling framework, the Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator (LUCAS). The LUCAS model integrates readily available high quality, empirical land-change data into a stochastic space-time simulation model representing land change feedbacks on carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. We applied the LUCAS model to estimate regional scale changes in carbon storage, atmospheric flux, and net biome production in 84 ecological regions of the conterminous United States for the period 1970-2015. The model was parameterized using a newly available set of high resolution (30 m) land-change data, compiled from Landsat remote sensing imagery, including estimates of uncertainty. Carbon flux parameters for each ecological region were derived from the IBIS dynamic global vegetation model with full carbon cycle accounting. This paper presents our initial findings describing regional and

  19. Making Texas Restaurants Healthier for Children

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-30

    Sylvia Crixell, PhD, RD, Professor of Nutrition at Texas State University, discusses her study which details the success of a community-based program in Texas aimed at combatting childhood obesity by improving children’s menus in restaurants.  Created: 12/30/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/30/2014.

  20. 19 CFR 10.63 - Landing of supplies and stores from receiving vessel in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Landing of supplies and stores from receiving vessel in the United States. 10.63 Section 10.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... supplies and stores from receiving vessel in the United States. Supplies or stores laden on a vessel duty...

  1. State Land-Use Laws in the Northeast: A Compendium and Classification of Selected Statutes. Publication 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Leslie C.

    Prepared as part of the program of the Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development under Title V of the Rural Development Act of 1972, this compendium cites 194 state laws related to public control of privately owned land outside developed urban areas in 12 Northeastern States. Arranged alphabetically and ordered chronologically, this…

  2. Extent and Distribution of Old Forest Conditions on DNR-Managed State Trust Lands in Eastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry F. Franklin; Miles Hemstrom; Robert Van Pelt; Joe Buchanan; Sabra Hull; Rex Crawford; Steve Curry; Walt Obermeyer

    2007-01-01

    An inventory was conducted of old forests on state trust lands in Eastern Washington managed by the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR), in response to legislative direction (ESSB 6384, Section 189,2006). This inventory was conducted with guidance from an independent science panel, chaired by Jerry Franklin of the University of Washington. As...

  3. Geothermal resource assessment for the state of Texas: status of progress, November 1980. Final report. Appendices E through H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, C.M. Jr.; Caran, S.C.; Gever, C.; Henry, C.D.; Macpherson, G.L.; McBride, M.W.

    1982-03-01

    These appendices include: a folio of maps showing lineaments perceived across the state; an index and critique of the Landsat images used in perceiving the lineaments; a selected bibliography on lineaments; and a discussion of area-specific assessments of geothermal resources near military bases in Bexar, Travis, and Val Verde Counties. (MHR)

  4. Socioeconomic effect of land grab on farming household (HH heads in Delta Central Agricultural Zone, Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Ukaro Ofuoku

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study examined socioeconomic effects of land grab on farming HH heads in Delta Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Ten percent (10% of identified farming HH heads were involved in the study. Most (50.37% of the respondents had farms of the sizes of between 0.10 and 1.99ha with a mean farm size of 2.4ha. Their mean farm income was N400, 000. Most (84.44% of them were employed by the agricultural investors after their plots of land were grabbed; 52.59% had fair health status. Sizes of land grabbed from individual farmers ranged between 0.10 and 5.99ha. The lands grabbed were for plantation agricultural, and food crops production. Few of the land deals (24.44% were sealed with the involvement of the farmers and the investors and the farmers were adequately compensated. The results of the hypothesis showed that land grab had negative effects on farming HH heads’ socio-economic variables of farm size, farm income, employment status, health status and social status. It was recommended that land deals should involve the investors, government, community leaders and the land holders.

  5. Human health risk assessment related to contaminated land: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartjes, F A

    2015-08-01

    Exposure of humans to contaminants from contaminated land may result in many types of health damage ranging from relatively innocent symptoms such as skin eruption or nausea, on up to cancer or even death. Human health protection is generally considered as a major protection target. State-of-the-art possibilities and limitations of human health risk assessment tools are described in this paper. Human health risk assessment includes two different activities, i.e. the exposure assessment and the hazard assessment. The combination of these is called the risk characterization, which results in an appraisal of the contaminated land. Exposure assessment covers a smart combination of calculations, using exposure models, and measurements in contact media and body liquids and tissue (biomonitoring). Regarding the time frame represented by exposure estimates, biomonitoring generally relates to exposure history, measurements in contact media to actual exposures, while exposure calculations enable a focus on exposure in future situations. The hazard assessment, which is different for contaminants with or without a threshold for effects, results in a critical exposure value. Good human health risk assessment practice accounts for tiered approaches and multiple lines of evidence. Specific attention is given here to phenomena such as the time factor in human health risk assessment, suitability for the local situation, background exposure, combined exposure and harmonization of human health risk assessment tools.

  6. Thematic accuracy of the NLCD 2001 land cover for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, J.D.; Stehman, S.V.; Fry, J.A.; Smith, J.H.; Homer, C.G.

    2010-01-01

    The land-cover thematic accuracy of NLCD 2001 was assessed from a probability-sample of 15,000 pixels. Nationwide, NLCD 2001 overall Anderson Level II and Level I accuracies were 78.7% and 85.3%, respectively. By comparison, overall accuracies at Level II and Level I for the NLCD 1992 were 58% and 80%. Forest and cropland were two classes showing substantial improvements in accuracy in NLCD 2001 relative to NLCD 1992. NLCD 2001 forest and cropland user's accuracies were 87% and 82%, respectively, compared to 80% and 43% for NLCD 1992. Accuracy results are reported for 10 geographic regions of the United States, with regional overall accuracies ranging from 68% to 86% for Level II and from 79% to 91% at Level I. Geographic variation in class-specific accuracy was strongly associated with the phenomenon that regionally more abundant land-cover classes had higher accuracy. Accuracy estimates based on several definitions of agreement are reported to provide an indication of the potential impact of reference data error on accuracy. Drawing on our experience from two NLCD national accuracy assessments, we discuss the use of designs incorporating auxiliary data to more seamlessly quantify reference data quality as a means to further advance thematic map accuracy assessment.

  7. Land classification of the standing stone state forest and state park on the eastern highland rim in Tennessee: the interaction of geology, topography, and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendon W. Smalley; Carlie McCowan; S. David Todd; Phillip M. Morrissey; J. Andrew McBride

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the application of a land classification system developed by the senior author to the Standing Stone State Forest and State Park (SSSF&SP) on the Eastern Highland Rim. Landtypes are the most detailed level in the hierarchical system and represent distinct units of the landscape (mapped at a scale of 1:24,000) as defined by climate, geology,...

  8. State property tax incentives for promoting ecosystem goods and services from private forest land in the United States: a review and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Kilgore; Paul B. Ellefson; Travis J. Funk; Gregory E. Frey

    2017-01-01

    Financial incentives provided by State property tax programs are a means of promoting ecosystem services from private forest land. Identified by this 50-State 2015 review, categories of ecosystem services frequently promoted by such programs are open space and scenic resources, conservation of...

  9. Groundwater monitoring plan for the proposed state-approved land disposal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidel, S.P.

    1993-10-13

    This document outlines a detection-level groundwater monitoring program for the state-approved land disposal structure (SALDS). The SALDS is an infiltration basin proposed for disposal of treated effluent from the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site. The purpose of this plan is to present a groundwater monitoring program that is capable of determining the impact of effluent disposal at the SALDS on the quality of groundwater in the uppermost aquifer. This groundwater monitoring plan presents an overview of the SALDS, the geology and hydrology of the area, the background and indicator evaluation (detection) groundwater monitoring program, and an outline of a groundwater quality assessment (compliance) program. This plan does not provide a plan for institutional controls to track tritium beyond the SALDS.

  10. Rates, trends, causes, and consequences of urban land-use change in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, William; Taylor, Janis L.; Hester, Dave J.; Mladinich, Carol S.; Glavac, Sonya

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 200 years, changes to the Nation's urban areas have been dramatic. Changes that have occurred relate both to the location of urban centers, as well as to the spatial extent of land dedicated to urban uses. Urban areas at the beginning of the 19th century were located primarily along major rivers or bodies of water, as waterways provided the most efficient means for transporting goods and people. As railroads became prominent, urban areas were able to expand or develop away from the water's edge.Geographic features such as steep slopes, wetlands, and lack of freshwater impeded settlement. In 1902, the National Reclamation Act was passed and with it came funding for the construction of water storage and transportation systems. This encouraged urban expansion in the arid west. After World War II, the Nation's urban areas continued to expand outward away from the city center as populations migrated to the margins of urban areas, where land was less expensive and the environment was less polluted. In 1956, the Federal Highway Act and the building of Interstate highways further facilitated urban expansion across the Unite States. Rural towns, small industrial centers, and farmland were engulfed by expanding urban centers.Over the past 200 years, numerous social, cultural, economic, and political incentives have encouraged urban expansion. In the 1800s, the industrial revolution influenced where people lived and worked. Many people shifted from agricultural production in rural areas to factory work in urban centers. Advances in transportation systems, such as rail transport in the 19th and early 20th centuries, followed by the mass production of the automobile and convenient air travel, facilitated a mobile society and a national economy. Economic growth and a population boom after World War II spurred increased suburbanization-the shifting of residential areas to the outlying section of a city or to a separate municipality-on the fringe of urban areas

  11. State waste discharge permit application for the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Application is being made for a permit pursuant to Chapter 173--216 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), to discharge treated waste water and cooling tower blowdown from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) to land at the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). The ETF is located in the 200 East Area and the SALDS is located north of the 200 West Area. The ETF is an industrial waste water treatment plant that will initially receive waste water from the following two sources, both located in the 200 Area on the Hanford Site: (1) the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and (2) the 242-A Evaporator. The waste water discharged from these two facilities is process condensate (PC), a by-product of the concentration of waste from DSTs that is performed in the 242-A Evaporator. Because the ETF is designed as a flexible treatment system, other aqueous waste streams generated at the Hanford Site may be considered for treatment at the ETF. The origin of the waste currently contained in the DSTs is explained in Section 2.0. An overview of the concentration of these waste in the 242-A Evaporator is provided in Section 3.0. Section 4.0 describes the LERF, a storage facility for process condensate. Attachment A responds to Section B of the permit application and provides an overview of the processes that generated the wastes, storage of the wastes in double-shell tanks (DST), preliminary treatment in the 242-A Evaporator, and storage at the LERF. Attachment B addresses waste water treatment at the ETF (under construction) and the addition of cooling tower blowdown to the treated waste water prior to disposal at SALDS. Attachment C describes treated waste water disposal at the proposed SALDS.

  12. Land change variability and human-environment dynamics in the United States Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Mark A.; Auch, Roger F.; Karstensen, Krista A.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Taylor, Janis L.; Loveland, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Land use and land cover changes have complex linkages to climate variability and change, biophysical resources, and socioeconomic driving forces. To assess these land change dynamics and their causes in the Great Plains, we compare and contrast contemporary changes across 16 ecoregions using Landsat satellite data and statistical analysis. Large-area change analysis of agricultural regions is often hampered by change detection error and the tendency for land conversions to occur at the local-scale. To facilitate a regional-scale analysis, a statistical sampling design of randomly selected 10 km × 10 km blocks is used to efficiently identify the types and rates of land conversions for four time intervals between 1973 and 2000, stratified by relatively homogenous ecoregions. Nearly 8% of the overall Great Plains region underwent land-use and land-cover change during the study period, with a substantial amount of ecoregion variability that ranged from less than 2% to greater than 13%. Agricultural land cover declined by more than 2% overall, with variability contingent on the differential characteristics of regional human–environment systems. A large part of the Great Plains is in relatively stable land cover. However, other land systems with significant biophysical and climate limitations for agriculture have high rates of land change when pushed by economic, policy, technology, or climate forcing factors. The results indicate the regionally based potential for land cover to persist or fluctuate as land uses are adapted to spatially and temporally variable forcing factors.

  13. Gambling in Texas: 1995 Surveys of Adult and Adolescent Gambling Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallisch, Lynn S.

    The impact of the Texas State Lottery on gambling patterns, expenditures on gambling, and the prevalence of problem gambling in Texas is assessed. Background and methodology is presented in Part 1. Data are compared with a survey run prior to the introduction of the first state lottery. Part 2, "Gambling among Texas Adults," includes…

  14. From the Battlefront of the Texas History Wars: Contending with "American Exceptionalism"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noboa, Julio

    2011-01-01

    It was in late May of 2010 that the Texas State Board of Education (SBOE) took their final vote on the curriculum standards that will have an impact on what millions of students in Texas as well as dozens of other states will learn about history and social studies for the next 10 years. These "Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills" (TEKS)…

  15. 77 FR 50767 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Four Central Texas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... primary threat to the four central Texas salamander species. Water quality degradation in salamander... the Texas State Data Center (2008, p. 1) estimate that Travis County will increase in population from... size over this 40-year period. The Texas State Data Center also estimates an increase in human...

  16. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  17. Addressing Climate Change at the State and Local Level: Using Land Use Controls to Reduce Automobile Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Medina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Automobiles are a major source of CO2 emissions. Because there is no immediate technological fix to reduce these emissions, the most promising current strategy is to promote less automobile use. In the United States, this is difficult because federal programs such as the interstate highway system and local land use planning and regulation have encouraged suburban sprawl. In 2006, the state of California passed legislation to roll back greenhouse emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. This legislation did not link the roll back target with land use policies. However, NGOs and the state Attorney General used the state’s pre-existing environmental impact assessment act to sue a large county east of Los Angeles alleging that its revised land use plan was inconsistent with the 2006 legislation. The state and the county settled the suit after the county agreed to new greenhouse gas mitigation duties, and in 2008 California passed additional legislation to implement its 2006 statute. Communities are strongly encouraged to adopt compact, transit-oriented development strategies to limit automobile use. The new legislation gives the attorney general and NGOs additional legal authority to challenge local land use plans and regulatory decisions which fail to adopt these strategies. California’s important experiment has lessons for all urban areas struggling to reduce automobile CO2 emissions. It suggests that local land use controls can be added to the list of workable greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

  18. Potential of satellite-based land emissivity estimates for the detection of high-latitude freeze and thaw states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Satya; Norouzi, Hamid; Azarderakhsh, Marzi; Blake, Reginald; Khanbilvardi, Reza

    2017-03-01

    Reliable detection of freeze and thaw (FT) states is crucial for the terrestrial water cycle, biogeochemical transitions, carbon and methane feedback to the atmosphere, and for the surface energy budget and its associated impacts on the global climate system. This paper is novel in that for the first time a unique approach to examine the potential of passive microwave remotely sensed land emissivity and its added values of being free from the atmospheric effects and being sensitive to surface characteristics is being applied to the detection of FT states for latitudes north of 35°N. Since accurate characterizations of the soil state are highly dependent on land cover types, a novel threshold-based approach specific to different land cover types is proposed for daily FT detection from the use of 3 years (August 2012 to July 2015) of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-2 land emissivity estimates. Ground-based soil temperature observations are used as reference to develop threshold values for FT states. Preliminary evaluation of the proposed approach with independent ground observations over Alaska for the year 2015 shows that the use of land emissivity estimates for high-latitude FT detection is promising.

  19. NLCD - MODIS land cover- albedo dataset for the continental United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The NLCD-MODIS land cover-albedo database integrates high-quality MODIS albedo observations with areas of homogeneous land cover from NLCD. The spatial resolution...

  20. How do land-use legacies affect ecosystem services in United States cultural landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carly Ziter; Rose A. Graves; Monica G. Turner

    2017-01-01

    ContextLandscape-scale studies of ecosystem services (ES) have increased, but few consider land-use history. Historical land use may be especially important in cultural landscapes, producing legacies...

  1. EnviroAtlas - 2011 Land Cover by 12-digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset represents the percentage of land area that is classified as natural, forest, wetland, agricultural, natural, and developed land cover using...

  2. EnviroAtlas - 2011 Agricultural Land Cover on Steep Slopes for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset represents the percentage land area that is classified as agricultural land cover that occurs on slopes above a given threshold for each...

  3. The ways to improve state regulation of land turnover which are in a government and municipal property in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Serdyuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available After comprehensive scientific exploration the ways of improvement of state regulation of land turnover which are in a government and state municipal property in Ukraine have been identified. Also it was proposed and justified the conceptual bases of strategy in development of state regulation. As a result of scientific exploration the directions of improvement of organizational mechanism have been formed also and wich a viev to improve legal mechanism of state regulation of land turnover it was suggested the modern approach of it. The main problem that constrains mechanical development of state regulation is non-compliance with legal principles, corruption and low motivation of officials. Approach to improvement is necessity of strategic development by the way of compliance law principles, realization of identified steps in development, using the practice of international regulation in land turnover. Strategic goals are in improvement of procedure of land turnover in public property by the way of advance mechanisms of state regulation; in a finding of effective approaches to improvement components of the legal mechanism; to produce and to offer propositions about development of components legal mechanism; to create clear and understandable procedure of land turnover for all participants in relationships in accordance with European legal traditions etc.Scenario of development that was elected is strategic and directed to solve the problems, perfection of economic, organizational and legal mechanisms of land turnover and also system development. But there are some risks that can interfere realization of strategic priorities. They are in outside threat, political instability, the economic downturn and corruption. We have chosen the next evaluation criteria: the level of investment attractiveness; the level of perception corruption in the society; the level of rating and satisfying quality of in land turnover process by the market participants with

  4. Public Outreach of the South Texas Health Physic Society and Texas A&M University Nuclear Engineering Department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, R. O.

    2003-02-24

    In a cooperative effort of the members of the South Texas Chapter of the Heath Physics Society (STC-HPS) and the Texas A&M University Nuclear Engineering Department, great efforts have been made to reach out and provide educational opportunities to members of the general public, school age children, and specifically teachers. These efforts have taken the form of Science Teacher Workshops (STW), visits to schools all over the state of Texas, public forums, and many other educational arenas. A major motivational factor for these most recent efforts can be directly tied to the attempt of the State of Texas to site a low-level radioactive waste facility near Sierra Blanca in West Texas. When the State of Texas first proposed to site a low level radioactive waste site after the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 was passed, many years of political struggle ensued. Finally, a site at Sierra Blanca in far West Texas was selected for study and characterization for a disposal site for waste generated in the Texas Compact states of Maine, Vermont and Texas. During this process, the outreach to and education of the local public became a paramount issue.

  5. Rising Above the Storm: DIG TEXAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellins, K. K.; Miller, K. C.; Bednarz, S. W.; Mosher, S.

    2011-12-01

    For a decade Texas educators, scientists and citizens have shown a commitment to earth science education through planning at the national and state levels, involvement in earth science curriculum and teacher professional development projects, and the creation of a model senior level capstone Earth and Space Science course first offered in 2010 - 2011. The Texas state standards for Earth and Space Science demonstrate a shift to rigorous content, career relevant skills and use of 21st century technology. Earth and Space Science standards also align with the Earth Science, Climate and Ocean Literacy framework documents. In spite of a decade of progress K-12 earth science education in Texas is in crisis. Many school districts do not offer Earth and Space Science, or are using the course as a contingency for students who fail core science subjects. The State Board for Educator Certification eliminated Texas' secondary earth science teacher certification in 2009, following the adoption of the new Earth and Space Science standards. This makes teachers with a composite teacher certification (biology, physics and chemistry) eligible to teach Earth and Space Science, as well other earth science courses (e.g., Aquatic Science, Environmental Systems/Science) even if they lack earth science content knowledge. Teaching materials recently adopted by the State Board of Education do not include Earth and Space Science resources. In July 2011 following significant budget cuts at the 20 Education Service Centers across Texas, the Texas Education Agency eliminated key staff positions in its curriculum division, including science. This "perfect storm" has created a unique opportunity for a university-based approach to confront the crisis in earth science education in Texas which the Diversity and Innovation in the Geosciences (DIG) TEXAS alliance aims to fulfill. Led by the Texas A&M University College of Geosciences and The University of Texas Jackson School of Geosciences, with

  6. Texas floods of 1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding, Seth D.

    1948-01-01

    Basin between Smithville and La Grange, amounting to 550 square miles, had an average rainfall of 19.3 inches, of which 11.5 inches appeared as runoff. The maximum discharge at La Grange was 182,000 second-feet, with much the greater part coming from below Smithville. This is probably a record-breaking flood for the area between Smithville and La Grange, but stages as much as 16 feet higher have occurred at La Grange. Heavy rainfall over the east half of Texas November 21-26 caused large floods in all streams in Texas east of the Guadalupe River. The maximum recorded rainfall for the 2-day period November 24-25 was 20.46 inches at Hempstead, of which 16.00 inches fell in 24 hours or less. The storm occurred during the period November 20-26, with the greater part of the rain falling November 23-25. During the period November 20-26, rainfall in Texas amounted to more than 15 inches over an area of 3,380 square miles, and 'to more than 10 inches over an area of 17,570 square miles. The average annual rainfall for the area in Texas experiencing more than 10 inches of rain during this storm ranges from 501 inches on the east border of the State to 35 inches near the west edge of the area. The study of this storm for the purposes of this report is limited to the San Jacinto River Basin, which had an average rainfall of 13.6 inches. This basin has an area of 2,791 square miles above the gaging station near Huffman and is typical in topographic and hydrologic features of much of eastern Texas. The stage reached at the gage near Huffman was about 1 foot higher than known before, the maximum discharge was 253,000 second-feet, and the runoff from the storm amounted to 8.8 inches. The November flood came after crops had been harvested, and its damage was mainly the destruction of highways and railways and the drowning of livestock. The storage reservoirs on the Colorado River located well upstream from the storm areas herein studied had very little effect on

  7. Applying morphometrics to early land plant systematics: a new Leclercqia (Lycopsida) species from Washington State, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benca, Jeffrey P; Carlisle, Maureen H; Bergen, Silas; Strömberg, Caroline A E

    2014-03-01

    Early land plant fossils can be challenging to interpret due to their morphological simplicity and often fragmentary nature. Morphometric techniques using commonly preserved characters might increase diagnostic value of such material. To evaluate the utility of morphometrics in assessing morphospecies boundaries in the Devonian, we compared degrees of variation within the cosmopolitan lycopsid genus Leclercqia with that of living relatives (Lycopodium-Spinulum spp.) Of particular interest was determining whether a new morphotype of Leclercqia from the Middle Devonian Chilliwack flora of Washington State fell within or outside the range of variation of previously described species. Morphological variation of Leclercqia was assessed across the geographic range of the genus using six vegetative and three reproductive characters. The new morphotype and two previously described species (L. complexa, L. andrewsii) were compared using linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Extant Lycopodium-Spinulum species and variants were similarly analyzed to assess inter- vs. intraspecific variation in living lycopsids. The LDA comparisons of Lycopodium-Spinulum yielded notable morphological disparity between species but substantial overlap between intraspecific variants. Among the fossils, LDA separates the new morphotype, Leclercqia complexa, and L. andrewsii to a similar degree as Lycopodium and Spinulum species. Based on these results and further study, we describe a new species of Leclercqia: Leclercqia scolopendra Benca et Strömberg sp. nov. Morphometric analyses can aid in informing taxonomic assignment of fragmentary early land plant fossils using readily preserved features, even in the absence of reproductive structures. Applications of this approach to the Chilliwack flora suggest Leclercqia displayed greater morphological variation, taxonomic diversity, and biogeographic extent than previously thought.

  8. Determination and Evaluation of Factors Associated with Sustainable Land Management (SLM Practices byFarmers in Osun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Adedapo Adesoji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study identified the sustainable land management practices being used by farmers in Osun State. The analysis determinedthe factors associated with the use of the land management practices and the best of the practices being used. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 256 farmers from eight Local Government Areas (LGAs of the State. Eight different enterprise farmers were selected from the LGAs and four farmers were purposively selected from each enterprise. Data collected were described with frequency, mean and standard deviation while factor and regression analyses were used to make inferences for the study. The results revealed that the mean age of the farmers was 48.0±10.3, majority was married and about 60% were male. The mean household size was 6.6±2.8 and majority was able to read and write. The study identified 35 sustainable land management practices which were known to the farmers, out of which 28 were being practiced. Seven factors associated with the use ofsustainable land management practices are:farming experience, economic, educational, accessibility to inputs, personal and family characteristics as well as soil fertility status. These factors were statistically significant (P < .05 to the use of soil management practices. Weconcluded that the level of awareness and use of sustainable land management practices in the state was still below the expected standard.

  9. Future scenarios of land-use and land-cover change in the United States--the Marine West Coast Forests Ecoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tamara S.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sohl, Terry L.; Griffith, Glenn; Acevedo, William; Bennett, Stacie; Bouchard, Michelle; Reker, Ryan; Ryan, Christy; Sayler, Kristi L.; Sleeter, Rachel; Soulard, Christopher E.

    2012-01-01

    Detecting, quantifying, and projecting historical and future changes in land use and land cover (LULC) has emerged as a core research area for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Changes in LULC are important drivers of changes to biogeochemical cycles, the exchange of energy between the Earth’s surface and atmosphere, biodiversity, water quality, and climate change. To quantify the rates of recent historical LULC change, the USGS Land Cover Trends project recently completed a unique ecoregion-based assessment of late 20th century LULC change for the western United States. To characterize present LULC, the USGS and partners have created the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) for the years 1992, 2001, and 2006. Both Land Cover Trends and NLCD projects continue to evolve in an effort to better characterize historical and present LULC conditions and are the foundation of the data presented in this report. Projecting future changes in LULC requires an understanding of the rates and patterns of change, the major driving forces, and the socioeconomic and biophysical determinants and capacities of regions. The data presented in this report is the result of an effort by USGS scientists to downscale the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) to ecoregions of the conterminous United States as part of the USGS Biological Carbon Sequestration Assessment. The USGS biological carbon assessment was mandated by Section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. As part of the legislative mandate, the USGS is required to publish a methodology describing, in detail, the approach to be used for the assessment. The development of future LULC scenarios is described in chapter 3.2 and appendix A. Spatial modeling is described in chapter 3.3.2 and appendix B and in Sohl and others (2011). In this report, we briefly summarize the major components and methods used to downscale IPCC-SRES scenarios to ecoregions of the

  10. The wildland-urban interface in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan I. Stewart; Volker C. Radeloff; Roger B. Hammer

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a map of the wildland-urban interface (WUI) in 2000 for the lower 48 States of the United States. The WUI was extensive, covering 9 percent of the land area in the lower 48 States and encompassing 38 percent of all homes. Major WUI areas are located along the west coast, the Colorado Front Range, southeast Texas, the Great Lakes States, and across...

  11. Biofuel, dairy production and beef in Brazil: competing claims on land use in São Paulo state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, André Luiz Monteiro; Jansen, Kees; Slingerland, Maja; Giller, Ken

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the competing claims on land use resulting from the expansion of biofuel production. Sugarcane for biofuel drives agrarian change in So Paulo state, which has become the major ethanol-producing region in Brazil. We analyse how the expansion of sugarcane-based ethanol in So Paulo state has impacted dairy and beef production. Historical changes in land use, production technologies, and product and land prices are described, as well as how these are linked to changing policies in Brazil. We argue that sugarcane/biofuel expansion should be understood in the context of the dynamics of other agricultural sectors and the long-term national political economy rather than as solely due to recent global demand for biofuel. This argument is based on a meticulous analysis of changes in three important sectors - sugarcane, dairy farming, and beef production - and the mutual interactions between these sectors.

  12. Recent and Future Anthropogenic Land-Cover Change in the United States and Its Impact on Climate Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, B. M.; Liu, J.; Zhu, Z.; Barnes, C. A.; Sherba, J.

    2014-12-01

    Forestry, cultivation, and urbanization result in distinct changes in land-cover, which in turn affect biogeochemical and biogeophysical process. Due to the nature of each type of land conversion, the associated climate forcing response may range from short to long-term, with some persisting for decades or longer. To understand how anthropogenic land cover change may impact the climate system in the future, projections are often developed based on an overarching scenario framework. An increasingly expanding set of land-use change scenarios has been developed to assess global environmental change under a range of alternative storylines. However, utilizing these frameworks at local to regional scales needed for environmental management is problematic due to their coarse spatial and (often) thematic resolution. We have developed techniques to extend global change projections to ecoregions of the conterminous United States, while maintaining coherence at global and local scales. We present a comparison of 1) scenario frameworks, and 2) scenario downscaling methods, and the effect each has on the composition of land-cover over the 21st century. Second, we demonstrate how historical and future projections of land-cover change impact at the regional scale 1) the capacity of ecosystems to store and sequester carbon, and 2) land-cover albedo induced changes to surface radiative forcing. Downscaled projections for IPCC SRES scenarios and Representative Concentration Pathways were developed along with business-as-usual scenarios based on local scale land-use histories. Three downscaling techniques were explored, where coarse-scale gridded data (half-degree) was allocated to ecoregions based on 1) an area weighting method, 2) land-cover composition, and 3) land-use histories. Each resulting scenario was then simulated using stochastic Monte Carlo methods within a state and transition simulation model. In addition to land-cover change, we also tracked changes across a range of

  13. Bilingual Education Candidates' Challenges Meeting the Spanish Language/Bilingual Certification Exam and the Impact on Teacher Shortages in the State of Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Romano, Jacqueline Elena

    2016-01-01

    Recruiting certified bilingual teachers have been difficult since 2010 as new testing policies and exams are implemented. Advanced high levels of writing and speaking language proficiency are required from the bilingual education candidate to perform his or her job. This essay examines the impact of Texas language policy for bilingual education…

  14. Forests, Water and People: Drinking water supply and forest lands in the Northeast and Midwest United States, June 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina Barnes; Albert Todd; Rebecca Whitney Lilja; Paul Barten

    2009-01-01

    Forests are critically important to the supply of clean drinking water in the Northeast and Midwest portion of the United States. In this part of the country more than 52 million people depend on surface water supplies that are protected in large part by forested lands. The public is generally unaware of the threats to their water supplies or the connection between...

  15. USGS 1:1,000,000-Scale Indian Lands of the United States 201412 FileGDB

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Indian lands of the United States. For the most part, only areas of 320 acres or more are included; some smaller areas deemed to be important or...

  16. USGS 1:1,000,000-Scale Federal Lands of the United States 201412 FileGDB

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. For the most part, only areas of 320...

  17. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: NLCD 2001 Land Use and Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the estimated area of land use and land cover from the National Land Cover Dataset 2001 (LaMotte, 2008), compiled for every...

  18. An initial SPARROW model of land use and in-stream controls on total organic carbon in streams of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Alexander, Richard B.; Smith, Richard A.; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; Shwarz, Grogory E.; Chung, Susie

    2010-01-01

    Watersheds play many important roles in the carbon cycle: (1) they are a site for both terrestrial and aquatic carbon dioxide (CO2) removal through photosynthesis; (2) they transport living and decomposing organic carbon in streams and groundwater; and (3) they store organic carbon for widely varying lengths of time as a function of many biogeochemical factors. Using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Spatially Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) model, along with long-term monitoring data on total organic carbon (TOC), this research quantitatively estimates the sources, transport, and fate of the long-term mean annual load of TOC in streams of the conterminous United States. The model simulations use surrogate measures of the major terrestrial and aquatic sources of organic carbon to estimate the long-term mean annual load of TOC in streams. The estimated carbon sources in the model are associated with four land uses (urban, cultivated, forest, and wetlands) and autochthonous fixation of carbon (stream photosynthesis). Stream photosynthesis is determined by reach-level application of an empirical model of stream chlorophyll based on total phosphorus concentration, and a mechanistic model of photosynthetic rate based on chlorophyll, average daily solar irradiance, water column light attenuation, and reach dimensions. It was found that the estimate of in-stream photosynthesis is a major contributor to the mean annual TOC load per unit of drainage area (that is, yield) in large streams, with a median share of about 60 percent of the total mean annual carbon load in streams with mean flows above 500 cubic feet per second. The interquartile range of the model predictions of TOC from in-stream photosynthesis is from 0.1 to 0.4 grams (g) carbon (C) per square meter (m-2) per day (day-1) for the approximately 62,000 stream reaches in the continental United States, which compares favorably with the reported literature range for net carbon fixation by

  19. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Tree Canopy Layer Tile 4, Southeast United States: CNPY01_4

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Andrew E.; Wieczorek, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This 30-meter resolution data set represents the tree canopy layer for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System, browse graphic: nlcd01-partition.jpg The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004) and http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp. The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping-zones. A total of 68 mapping-zones browse graphic: nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping-zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  20. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Tree Canopy Layer Tile 2, Northeast United States: CNPY01_2

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Andrew E.; Wieczorek, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This 30-meter resolution data set represents the tree canopy layer for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System, browse graphic: nlcd01-partition.jpg The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004) and http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp. The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping-zones. A total of 68 mapping-zones browse graphic: nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping-zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  1. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Tree Canopy Layer Tile 3, Southwest United States: CNPY01_3

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Andrew E.; Wieczorek, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This 30-meter resolution data set represents the tree canopy layer for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System, browse graphic: nlcd01-partition.jpg The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004) and http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp. The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping-zones. A total of 68 mapping-zones browse graphic: nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping-zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  2. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Imperviousness Layer Tile 2, Northeast United States: IMPV01_2

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Andrew E.; Wieczorek, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This 30-meter resolution data set represents the imperviousness layer for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System, browse graphic: nlcd01-partition. The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004) and http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp.. The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping-zones. A total of 68 mapping-zones browse graphic: nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping-zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  3. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Imperviousness Layer Tile 1, Northwest United States: IMPV01_1

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Andrew E.; Wieczorek, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This 30-meter resolution data set represents the imperviousness layer for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System, browse graphic: nlcd01-partition. The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004) and http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp.. The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping-zones. A total of 68 mapping-zones browse graphic: nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping-zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  4. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Tree Canopy Layer Tile 1, Northwest United States: CNPY01_1

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Andrew E.; Wieczorek, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This 30-meter resolution data set represents the tree canopy layer for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System, browse graphic: nlcd01-partition.jpg. The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004) and http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp. The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping-zones. A total of 68 mapping-zones browse graphic: nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping-zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov

  5. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Imperviousness Layer Tile 4, Southeast United States: IMPV01_4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This 30-meter resolution data set represents the imperviousness layer for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System, browse graphic: nlcd01-partition. The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004) and http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp.. The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping-zones. A total of 68 mapping-zones browse graphic: nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping-zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  6. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Imperviousness Layer Tile 3, Southwest United States: IMPV01_3

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Andrew E.; Wieczorek, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This 30-meter resolution data set represents the imperviousness layer for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System, browse graphic: nlcd01-partition. The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004) and http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp.. The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping-zones. A total of 68 mapping-zones browse graphic: nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping-zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  7. Facts about Texas Children. Excerpted from Children, Choice, and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lorwen Connie

    The environment in which Texas children grow up is crucial to their future and to the future of the state. Almost 500,000 Texas families were poor in 1985. Poverty sets the stage for numerous childhood maladies: infant mortality, health problems, child abuse, learning disabilities, malnutrition, and mental health problems. As poor children grow up…

  8. Regulating Abortion: Impact on Patients and Providers in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Silvie; Joyce, Ted

    2011-01-01

    The State of Texas began enforcement of the Woman's Right to Know (WRTK) Act on January 1, 2004. The law requires that all abortions at or after 16 weeks' gestation be performed in an ambulatory surgical center (ASC). In the month the law went into effect, not one of Texas's 54 nonhospital abortion providers met the requirements of a surgical…

  9. Instructional Technology Practices in Developmental Education in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirosyan, Nara M.; Kennon, J. Lindsey; Saxon, D. Patrick; Edmonson, Stacey L.; Skidmore, Susan T.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the current state of technology integration in developmental education in Texas higher education. Analyzing survey data from developmental education faculty members in 70 2- and 4-year colleges in Texas, researchers identified instructor-reported best instructional technology practices in developmental…

  10. Mapping land slide occurrence zones using Remote Sensing and GIS techniques in Kelantan state, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, M.; Pour, A. B.; Misbari, S.

    2017-05-01

    Integration of satellite remote sensing data and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques is one of the most applicable approach for landslide mapping and identification of high potential risk and susceptible zones in tropical environments. Yearly, several landslides occur during heavy monsoon rainfall in Kelantan river basin, Peninsular Malaysia. In this investigation, Landsat-8 and Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) remote sensing data sets were integrated with GIS analysis for detect, map and characterize landslide occurrences during December 2014 flooding period in the Kelantan river basin. Landslides were determined by tracking changes in vegetation pixel data using Landsat-8 images that acquired before and after December 2014 flooding for the study area. The PALSAR-2 data were used for mapping of major geological structures and detailed characterizations of lineaments in the state of Kelantan. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach was used for landslide susceptibility mapping. Several factors such as slope, aspect, soil, lithology, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), land cover, distance to drainage, precipitation, distance to fault, and distance to road were extracted from remote sensing satellite data and fieldwork to apply AHP approach. Two main outputs of this study were landslide inventory occurrences map during 2014 flooding episode and landslide susceptibility map for entire the Kelantan state. Modelled/predicted landslides with susceptible map generated prior and post flood episode, confirmed that intense rainfall in the Kelantan have contributed to weightage of numerous landslides with various sizes. It is concluded that precipitation is the most influential factor that bare to landslide event.

  11. Managing United States public lands in response to climate change: a view from the ground up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenwood, Mikaela S; Dilling, Lisa; Milford, Jana B

    2012-05-01

    Federal land managers are faced with the task of balancing multiple uses and goals when making decisions about land use and the activities that occur on public lands. Though climate change is now well recognized by federal agencies and their local land and resource managers, it is not yet clear how issues related to climate change will be incorporated into on-the-ground decision making within the framework of multiple use objectives. We conducted a case study of a federal land management agency field office, the San Juan Public Lands Center in Durango, CO, U.S.A., to understand from their perspective how decisions are currently made, and how climate change and carbon management are being factored into decision making. We evaluated three major management sectors in which climate change or carbon management may intersect other use goals: forests, biofuels, and grazing. While land managers are aware of climate change and eager to understand more about how it might affect land resources, the incorporation of climate change considerations into everyday decision making is currently quite limited. Climate change is therefore on the radar screen, but remains a lower priority than other issues. To assist the office in making decisions that are based on sound scientific information, further research is needed into how management activities influence carbon storage and resilience of the landscape under climate change.

  12. Land Use Requirements of Modern Wind Power Plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Hand, M.; Jackson, M.; Ong, S.

    2009-08-01

    This report provides data and analysis of the land use associated with modern, large wind power plants (defined as greater than 20 megawatts (MW) and constructed after 2000). The analysis discusses standard land-use metrics as established in the life-cycle assessment literature, and then discusses their applicability to wind power plants. The report identifies two major 'classes' of wind plant land use: 1) direct impact (i.e., disturbed land due to physical infrastructure development), and 2) total area (i.e., land associated with the complete wind plant project). The analysis also provides data for each of these classes, derived from project applications, environmental impact statements, and other sources. It attempts to identify relationships among land use, wind plant configuration, and geography. The analysts evaluated 172 existing or proposed projects, which represents more than 26 GW of capacity. In addition to providing land-use data and summary statistics, they identify several limitations to the existing wind project area data sets, and suggest additional analysis that could aid in evaluating actual land use and impacts associated with deployment of wind energy.

  13. Chemical and physical characteristics of water in estuaries of Texas; October 1978-September 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J.C.; Grozier, R.U.

    1985-01-01

    The Texas Water Plan (Texas Water Development Board, 1968) proposed development and utilization of water resources in Texas and included a provision for the use and preservation of water in the estuaries of the State. Management of estuarine waters requires knowledge of the hydrodynamics and of the continuing changes in the chemical and physical characteristics of water in the estuaries.

  14. Sylvatic trichinellosis in Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pence D.B.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available There are no published reports of domestic or sylvatic trichinellosis in Texas. The aim of the present survey was to determine the presence of Trichinella species in selected representative species of potential wildlife reservoirs in southern Texas. In 1998-99, tongues of 211 wild mammals were collected in southern Texas: 154 coyotes (Canis latrans, three bobcats (Lynx rufus, 32 racoons (Procyon lotor, 1 3 opossum (Didelphis marsupialis, four ocelots (Leopardus pardalis and five wild boars (Sus scrofa. Presence of Trichinella sp. larvae was investigated by artificial digestion and larvae of positive samples were identified at the species level by a multiple-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Nine (5.8 % coyotes had trichinellosis ; in the muscles of seven of these coyotes, the larvae were identified as Trichinella murrelli. This is the first report of sylvatic trichinellosis in Texas.

  15. Texas MODIS Experiment 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Terra eXperiment 2001 was conducted from Kelly AFB San Antonio, Texas from March 14 to April 4 to improve calibration of the MODerate resolution Imaging...

  16. Characterization of Pollution Transport into Texas Using OMI and TES Satellite and In Situ data, and HYSPLIT Back Trajectory Analyses: implications for TCEQ State Implementation Plans and High School/Undergraduate STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxe, C.; Bella, D.; Khaimova, J.; Culpepper, J.; Ahmed, N.; Belkalai, A.; Ealy, J.; Arroyo, I.; Lahoumh, M.; Jenkins, O.; Emmanuel, S.; Andrews, J.; Fu, D.; Wu, L.; Choi, Y.; Morris, G.; Osterman, G. B.; Johnson, L. P.; Austin, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Using an online trajectory analysis tool NASA, ArcGIS, Satellite and EPA in situ data, we assess whether high pollution events in Texas are primarily sourced locally or remotely. We focus satellite data that exemplify high O3 and NO2 over Texas's lower troposphere. Four day back trajectory analyses of all dates show that upper-, mid-, and lower-tropospheric air over Texas, containing high O3, is transported from the Gulf of Mexico, Southeast USA, Midwest USA, Northeast USA, the Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Mexico, etc. Only day showed air at 1 km is sourced within Texas. Satellite data show O3 enhancements in the boundary layer and O3 and NO2 enhancements via tropospheric column profiles. These enhancements complement four-day trajectory analysis. This study provides a viable basis for more quantifiable and accurate information for developing effective air quality State Implementation Plans. STEM Impact: (i) D. Bella was an NSF-LSAMP undergraduate research mentee with me at Medgar Evers College-CUNY; she received a B.S. in Environmental Science (and a Chemistry Minor) and is now a Ph.D. graduate student at University at Albany's School of Public Health. (ii) J. Khaimova is an undergraduate Geology and Planetary Science B.S. major at Brooklyn College-CUNY. I have supported Jessica's summer internship in summer 2013 as a CUNY Summer Research Fellow, where she is currently an NSF-REU research mentee at Pennsylvania State University's Meteorology Department. (iii) J. Culpepper received his B.S. in Environmental Science from MEC-CUNY and will be a Ph.D. student, Fall 2014 at University of Iowa's Civil and Environmental Engineering Department. (iv) S. Gentle was a high school researcher with me within ACS's Project SEED Program for high school students. S. Gentle will start her undergraduate career Fall 2014 at Pennsylvania State University and seeks to attain a B.S. in Chemistry. (v). All parties, including high school and undergraduate researchers seek to attend

  17. Typhus in Texas

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-07-06

    Dr. Kristy Murray, an associate professor in pediatrics and assistant dean of the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children’s Hospital, discusses increased cases of typhus in southern Texas.  Created: 7/6/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/6/2017.

  18. 76 FR 44649 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... 1899 ; and Land and Water Conservation Fund . 8. Executive Orders: E.O. 11990 Protection of Wetlands; E... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Texas AGENCY... Texas. Those actions grant licenses, permits and approvals for the project. DATES: By this notice, the...

  19. 77 FR 55896 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Loop 1 in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ..., Section 401, Section 319) ; Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF) ; Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) [42 U... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Loop 1 in Texas AGENCY: Federal..., Texas. Those actions grant licenses, permits, and approvals for the project. DATES: By this notice, the...

  20. Texas trip generation manual : 1st edition-volume 1 : user's guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this Manual is to provide a summary of Texas trip generation data for various : Land Use Codes (LUCs) and time periods, for data obtained from workplace and special : generator (WSG) surveys performed as part of the Texas Travel Survey...

  1. State and local governments plan for development of most land vulnerable to rising sea level along the US Atlantic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, J. G.; Hudgens, D. E.; Trescott, D. L.; Craghan, M.; Nuckols, W. H.; Hershner, C. H.; Kassakian, J. M.; Linn, C. J.; Merritt, P. G.; McCue, T. M.; O'Connell, J. F.; Tanski, J.; Wang, J.

    2009-10-01

    Rising sea level threatens existing coastal wetlands. Overall ecosystems could often survive by migrating inland, if adjacent lands remained vacant. On the basis of 131 state and local land use plans, we estimate that almost 60% of the land below 1 m along the US Atlantic coast is expected to be developed and thus unavailable for the inland migration of wetlands. Less than 10% of the land below 1 m has been set aside for conservation. Environmental regulators routinely grant permits for shore protection structures (which block wetland migration) on the basis of a federal finding that these structures have no cumulative environmental impact. Our results suggest that shore protection does have a cumulative impact. If sea level rise is taken into account, wetland policies that previously seemed to comply with federal law probably violate the Clean Water Act. The opinions expressed in this letter do not necessarily reflect the official positions of either the US Environmental Protection Agency, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, any state or national Sea Grant Program, or the US Government.

  2. EnviroAtlas - Farm Service Land Rental Rates by County for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas data set depicts estimates for mean cash rent paid for land by farmers, sorted by county for irrigated cropland, non-irrigated cropland, and pasture...

  3. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  4. C-CAP Land Cover, United States Virgin Islands, St John, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land cover derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to...

  5. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  6. EnviroAtlas - Potentially Restorable Wetlands on Agricultural Land - Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EnviroAtlas Potentially Restorable Wetlands on Agricultural Land (PRW-Ag) dataset shows potentially restorable wetlands at 30-meter resolution. Beginning two...

  7. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2006 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  8. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  9. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2010 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  10. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  11. Application of fertilizer nitrogen to nonfarm land in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the amount of fertilizer nitrogen that was applied to nonfarm land in the Pacific...

  12. Global Land Use Implications of Biofuels: State-of-the-Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kløverpris, Jesper; Wenzel, Henrik; Banse, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Background, Aims and Scope. On 4-5 June 2007, an international On 4-5 June 2007, an international conference was held in Copenhagen. It provided an interdisciplinary forum where economists and geographers met with LCA experts to discuss the challenges of modelling the ultimate land use changes...... caused by an increased demand for biofuels. Main Features. The main feature of the conference was the crossbreeding The main feature of the conference was the crossbreeding of experience from the different approaches to land use modelling: The field of LCA could especially benefit from economic modelling...... at the conference showed that the Results presented at the conference showed that the magnitude and location of land use changes caused by biofuels demand depend on where the demand arises. For instance, man- datory blending in the EU will increase land use both within and outside of Europe, especially in South...

  13. Application of fertilizer phosphorus to farm land in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the amount of fertilizer phosphorus that was applied to farm land in the Pacific...

  14. EnviroAtlas - Percent Stream Buffer Zone As Natural Land Cover for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the percentage of land area within a 30 meter buffer zone along the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) high resolution stream network,...

  15. 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns, Level I, State of Kansas (300m buffer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns map represents Phase 1 of a two-phase mapping initiative occurring over a three-year period. The map is designed to be explicitly...

  16. Application of fertilizer nitrogen to farm land in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the amount of fertilizer nitrogen that was applied to farm land in the Pacific...

  17. 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns, Level IV, State of Kansas (300m buffer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns (KLCP) Mapping Initiative was a two-phase mapping endeavor that occurred over a three-year period (2007-2009). Note that while...

  18. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2016 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  19. Integrating Air Quality Data and Eulerian Modeling Results to Apportion Big Bend Texas' Sulfate Among Sources in the United States and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schichtel, B. A.; Barna, M. G.; Gebhart, K. A.; Malm, W. C.

    2003-12-01

    The Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Study (BRAVO) was an intensive air quality monitoring project that measured speciated fine aerosols from July through October 1999 at 36 sites throughout Texas. A primary goal of BRAVO is to identify the major emission sources that contribute to haze in Big Bend National Park (BBNP), which is located in southwestern Texas. In support of this, the Regional Modeling System for Aerosols and Deposition (REMSAD) was used to predict the sulfate concentrations in most of North America, and estimate the contribution of sulfate from ten U.S. and Mexican source regions to sulfate concentrations measured at Big Bend and the other BRAVO monitoring sites. Several biases were identified in the original REMSAD source apportionment results. For example, during October the predicted contribution of the eastern U.S. sources to eastern Texas were up to two times larger than the measured sulfate. In addition, on days with transport predominately from Mexico to southwest Texas, including Big Bend, the predicted sulfate concentrations systematically underestimated the measured sulfate. Thus, indicating an underestimation of Mexico's contributions. In order to remove these biases, the REMSAD source apportionment results were merged with the measured sulfate data using a synthesis conservation of mass inversion technique to derive daily source apportionment scaling factors. This technique essentially regresses the source apportionment estimates against the measured data. Measured data from all 36 monitoring sites were used in the analysis. Due to the inherent ill-posed nature of this inversion problem constrained least-squares regression was used allowing the coefficients to vary from 0 to 4. The synthesis inversion reduced the average eastern U.S. contribution to sulfate at Big Bend from 42 to 30%, while Mexico's contribution increased from 23 to 41%. Texas's contribution changed from 16 to 14%. In addition to the large source areas, REMSAD

  20. United states national land cover data base development? 1992-2001 and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L.

    2008-01-01

    An accurate, up-to-date and spatially-explicate national land cover database is required for monitoring the status and trends of the nation's terrestrial ecosystem, and for managing and conserving land resources at the national scale. With all the challenges and resources required to develop such a database, an innovative and scientifically sound planning must be in place and a partnership be formed among users from government agencies, research institutes and private sectors. In this paper, we summarize major scientific and technical issues regarding the development of the NLCD 1992 and 2001. Experiences and lessons learned from the project are documented with regard to project design, technical approaches, accuracy assessment strategy, and projecti imiplementation.Future improvements in developing next generation NLCD beyond 2001 are suggested, including: 1) enhanced satellite data preprocessing in correction of atmospheric and adjacency effect and the topographic normalization; 2) improved classification accuracy through comprehensive and consistent training data and new algorithm development; 3) multi-resolution and multi-temporal database targeting major land cover changes and land cover database updates; 4) enriched database contents by including additional biophysical parameters and/or more detailed land cover classes through synergizing multi-sensor, multi-temporal, and multi-spectral satellite data and ancillary data, and 5) transform the NLCD project into a national land cover monitoring program. ?? 2008 IEEE.

  1. Radiative forcing over the conterminous United States due to contemporary land cover land use change and sensitivity to snow and interannual albedo variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Christopher A.; Roy, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite-derived land cover land use (LCLU), snow and albedo data, and incoming surface solar radiation reanalysis data were used to study the impact of LCLU change from 1973 to 2000 on surface albedo and radiative forcing for 58 ecoregions covering 69% of the conterminous United States. A net positive surface radiative forcing (i.e., warming) of 0.029 Wm−2 due to LCLU albedo change from 1973 to 2000 was estimated. The forcings for individual ecoregions were similar in magnitude to current global forcing estimates, with the most negative forcing (as low as −0.367 Wm−2) due to the transition to forest and the most positive forcing (up to 0.337 Wm−2) due to the conversion to grass/shrub. Snow exacerbated both negative and positive forcing for LCLU transitions between snow-hiding and snow-revealing LCLU classes. The surface radiative forcing estimates were highly sensitive to snow-free interannual albedo variability that had a percent average monthly variation from 1.6% to 4.3% across the ecoregions. The results described in this paper enhance our understanding of contemporary LCLU change on surface radiative forcing and suggest that future forcing estimates should model snow and interannual albedo variation.

  2. Controlling the Charge State and Redox Properties of Supported Polyoxometalates via Soft Landing of Mass Selected Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunaratne, Kalupathirannehelage Don D.; Johnson, Grant E.; Andersen, Amity; Du, Dan; Zhang, Weiying; Prabhakaran, Venkateshkumar; Lin, Yuehe; Laskin, Julia

    2014-12-04

    We investigate the controlled deposition of Keggin polyoxometalate (POM) anions, PMo12O403- and PMo12O402-, onto different self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces via soft landing of mass-selected ions. Utilizing in situ infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), ex situ cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electronic structure calculations, we examine the structure and charge retention of supported multiply-charged POM anions and characterize the redox properties of the modified surfaces. SAMs of alkylthiol (HSAM), perfluorinated alkylthiol (FSAM), and alkylthiol terminated with NH3+ functional groups (NH3+SAM) are chosen as model substrates for soft landing to examine the factors which influence the immobilization and charge retention of multiply charged anionic molecules. The distribution of charge states of POMs on different SAM surfaces are determined by comparing the IRRAS spectra with vibrational spectra calculated using density functional theory (DFT). In contrast to the results obtained previously for multiply charged cations, soft landed anions are found to retain charge on all three SAM surfaces. This charge retention is attributed to the substantial electron binding energy of the POM anions. Investigation of redox properties by CV reveals that, while surfaces prepared by soft landing exhibit similar features to those prepared by adsorption of POM from solution, the soft landed POM2- has a pronounced shift in oxidation potential compared to POM3- for one of the redox couples. These results demonstrate that ion soft landing is uniquely suited for precisely controlled preparation of substrates with specific electronic and chemical properties that cannot be achieved using conventional deposition techniques.

  3. EnviroAtlas - Synthetic N fertilizer application to agricultural lands by 12-digit HUC in the Conterminous United States, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset contains data on the mean synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer application to cultivated crop and hay/pasture lands per 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) in 2006. Synthetic N fertilizer inputs in 2006 were estimated using county-level estimates of farm N fertilizer inputs. We acquired county-level data describing total farm-level inputs (kg N/yr) of synthetic N fertilizer to individual counties in 2006 from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) (http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2012/5207/). These data were converted to per area rates (kg N/ha/yr) of synthetic N fertilizer application by dividing the total N input by the land area (ha) of combined cultivated crop and hay/pasture lands within a county as determined from county-level (http://cta.ornl.gov/transnet/Boundaries.html) summarization of the 2006 National Land Cover Database (NLCD; http://www.mrlc.gov/nlcd06_data.php). We distributed county-specific, annual per area N inputs rates (kg N/ha/yr) to cultivated crop and hay/pasture lands (30 x 30 m pixels) within the corresponding county using the raster calculator tool in ArcMap 10.0 (ESRI, Inc., Redlands, CA). Fertilizer data described here represent an average input to a typical agricultural land type within a county, i.e., they are not specific to individual crop types. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the us

  4. THE STATE MEASURES HOW TO IMPROVE THE USE AND PROTECTION OF LAND PLANTED BY PROTECTIVE FOREST BELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentyna Boklag

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A problem of protective forest belt control expends because with the General deterioration of the existing forest belt is considered this article; a number of measures for the transfering of land plandet by protective forest belt to municipal authority, are suggested village councils. Methodоlogy. The study is based on the analysis of modern legislation, which regulates the use of the territories occupied by forest belts. We used statistical data, as well as the work of scientists who have examined the current state, the rational use and the question of the protection land for shelterbelts. The research results showed that at the moment there is no clear (correct information, which is true for the use of forest plantations, their quantitative and qualitative characteristics. There is a need for reconstruction of the existing and creation of new belts to improve their protective function for the productive land. The practical importance. The results are scientifically substantiating the improvement of the legislative framework to regulate the use of forest windbreaks, as well as the need to transfer the shelterbelts from the state to the municipal property. Value/originality. These results provide justification for the adoption of the «Transferring Program of forest belts from the state to municipal ownership of rural and urban councils».

  5. 78 FR 48764 - Texas Disaster # TX-00413

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... State of Texas (FEMA-4136- DR), dated 08/02/2013. Incident: Explosion. Incident Period: 04/17/2013 through 04/20/2013. Effective Date: 08/02/2013. Physical Loan Application Deadline Date: 10/01/2013. Economic Injury (EIDL) Loan Application Deadline Date: 05/02/2014. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan...

  6. Innovative Developmental Education Programs: A Texas Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Eric A.; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.; Chaudhuri, Nandita; Dyer, James; Marchbanks, Miner P., III

    2014-01-01

    This article provides insights from a 2-year, cross-site evaluation of state funded developmental education sites and serves as a focus article for response by those sites. Receiving grants from the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB), nine sites (5 community colleges and 4 universities) implemented innovative developmental education…

  7. Zero-Based Budgeting: The Texas Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, William L.

    1982-01-01

    Zero-based budgeting was instituted in all Texas state-funded agencies in 1975-76, including colleges. The first two years of using this procedure are reviewed and its applicability to higher education institutions is examined in light of the need to consider educational quality as well as costs. (MSE)

  8. 75 FR 81122 - Texas Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... did not respond to our request. State Historical Preservation Officer (SHPO) and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) Under 30 CFR 732.17(h)(4), we are required to request comments from... Part 943, which codify decisions concerning the Texas program. We find that good cause exists under 5 U...

  9. Improving urban change maps for the conterminous United States from 1992 to 2011 by disaggregating roads from the National Land Cover Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulard, C. E.; Acevedo, W.

    2016-12-01

    Urban lands represent a small part of the United States' landscape, but contribute to a range of environmental impacts linked with urban land use practices. A variety of tabular and spatially-explicit data products exist for monitoring developed lands in the conterminous United States, yet each dataset has limitations. One common problem with existing maps of built-up land is the misclassification of roads in non-urban areas. To improve our understanding of urban change rates and patterns in the conterminous United States, and assist the USGS National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) program in future mapping efforts, researchers with the USGS Western Geographic Science Center merged independent land use and road data in a spatial fusion process to disaggregate roads from NLCD developed classes. Results include four wall-to-wall maps of urban lands in the United States (1992, 2001, 2006, and 2011). A formal accuracy assessment was conducted for 2001 and 2006 maps to measure the relative improvement between NLCD and updated map products. Through this clean-up process, we have removed roads and other egregious errors from the urban footprint to more reliably map the extent of urban land and change in the conterminous United States over a 19-year period.

  10. Effects of land use/cover change and harvests on forest carbon dynamics in northern states of the United States from remote sensing and inventory data: 1992-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daolan Zheng; Linda S. Heath; Mark J. Ducey; James E. Smith

    2011-01-01

    We examined spatial patterns of changes in forest area and nonsoil carbon (C) dynamics affected by land use/cover change (LUC) and harvests in 24 northern states of the United States using an integrated methodology combining remote sensing and ground inventory data between 1992 and 2001. We used the Retrofit Change Product from the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics...

  11. Attribution of Net Carbon Change by Disturbance Type across Forest Lands of the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, S. C.; Harris, N.; Saatchi, S. S.; Domke, G. M.; Woodall, C. W.; Pearson, T.

    2016-12-01

    We generated spatially comprehensive maps of carbon stocks and net carbon changes from US forestlands between 2005 and 2010 and attributed the changes to natural and anthropogenic processes. The prototype system created to produce these maps is designed to assist with national GHG inventories and support decisions associated with land management. Here, we present the results and methodological framework of our analysis. In summary, combining estimates of net C losses and gains results in net carbon change of 269±49 Tg C yr-1 (sink) in the coterminous US forest land, with carbon loss from harvest acting as the predominent source process.

  12. Biogenic emissions modeling for Southeastern Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, M.; Jacob, D.; Jarvie, J. [Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) modeling staff performed biogenic hydrocarbon emissions modeling in support of gridded photochemical modeling for ozone episodes in 1992 and 1993 for the Coastal Oxidant Assessment for Southeast Texas (COAST) modeling domain. This paper summarizes the results of the biogenic emissions modeling and compares preliminary photochemical modeling results to ambient air monitoring data collected during the 1993 COAST study. Biogenic emissions were estimated using BIOME, a gridded biogenic emissions model that uses region-specific land use and biomass density data, and plant species-specific emission factor data. Ambient air monitoring data were obtained by continuous automated gas chromatography at two sites, one-hour canister samples at 5 sites, and 24-hour canister samples at 13 other sites. The concentrations of Carbon Bond-IV species (as determined from urban airshed modeling) were compared to measured hydrocarbon concentrations. In this paper, we examined diurnal and seasonal variations, as well as spatial variations.

  13. Market impacts of hypothetical fuel treatment thinning programs on federal lands in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Henry Spelter; Kenneth Skog; Andrew Kramp; Dennis P. Dykstra

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the economics of forest fuel thinning programs on federal lands in the U.S. West, and presents a model of regional timber and product market impacts. The issue of economics is vital to the debate about fire management, and this paper presents market implications of two alternative silvicultural strategies, even-aged and uneven-aged...

  14. Role of land state in a high resolution mesoscale model for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This event was associated with the interaction of two synoptic systems, i.e., intensified subtropicalwesterly trough over north India and north-westward moving monsoon depression formed over the Bayof Bengal. The event had occurred over highly variable terrain and land surface characteristics. Althoughglobal models ...

  15. The state, the rebel and the chief: public authority and land disputes in Assam, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandekerckhove, N.

    2011-01-01

    Based upon an ethnographic study of two land disputes in the rural Assamese district of Karbi Anglong (India), this article challenges the idea that the entry of new institutional players, with their multiple sets of rules, inevitably leads to open institutional conflict. Although a wide range of

  16. Nonroad developed land in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the extent of non-road developed land in the Pacific Northwest region of the...

  17. Communication barriers to applying federal research in support of land management in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita Wright

    2007-01-01

    Barriers to effective communication between researchers and managers can ultimately result in barriers to the application of scientific knowledge and technology for land management. Both individual and organizational barriers are important in terms of how they affect the first three stages of the innovation-decision process: 1) knowledge, where an individual is exposed...

  18. Future Land-Use Changes and the Potential for Novelty in Ecosystems of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Martinuzzi; Gregorio I. Gavier-Pizarro; Ariel E. Lugo; Volker C. Radeloff

    2015-01-01

    Rapid global changes due to changing land use, climate, and non-native species are altering environmental conditions, resulting in more novel communities with unprecedented species combinations. Understanding how future anthropogenic changes may affect novelty in ecosystems is important to advance environmental management and ecological research in the Anthropocene....

  19. Autonomous Control Modes and Optimized Path Guidance for Shipboard Landing in High Sea States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-12

    79 2.12 Task 12 Path optimization of VTOL UAV ...recovery of a VTOL UAV . There is a clear need for additional levels of stability and control augmentation and novel control design methods for fully...includes accurate models of the coupled non-linear fuselage and rotor blade dynamics, unsteady rotor aerodynamics and inflow models, non-linear landing

  20. Framing the future in the Southern United States climate, land use, and forest conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; Thomas L. Mote; J. Marshall Shepherd; K.C. Binita; Christopher W. Strother

    2014-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has concluded, with 90% certainty, that human or “anthropogenic” activities (emissions of greenhouse gases, aerosols and pollution, landuse/ land-cover change) have altered global temperature patterns over the past 100-150 years (IPCC 2007a). Such temperature changes have a set of cascading, and sometimes amplifying...

  1. Effects of European land use on contemporary tree-climate relationships in the northeastern United States: Implications for predictive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goring, S. J.; Cogbill, C. V.; Dawson, A.; Hooten, M.; McLachlan, J. S.; Mladenoff, D. J.; Paciorek, C. J.; Ruid, M.; Tipton, J.; Williams, J. W.; Record, S.; Matthes, J. H.; Dietze, M.

    2014-12-01

    Much of our understanding of the climatic controls on tree species distributions is based on contemporary observational datasets. For example, forest inventory analysis (FIA) and other spatial datasets are used to build correlative models of climate suitability for plant taxa for use in environmental niche models. More complex dynamic models rely on species interactions, physiological processes, and competition, among other processes, that are also parameterized against contemporary data. However, as much as a quarter of the forested region in the upper Midwestern United States may be considered novel relative to pre-settlement baselines (Goring et al. submitted). Hence, modern surveys or even long-term datasets may represent only a portion of the ecological or climate space taxa might occupy. Using gridded datasets of pre-settlement vegetation for the northeastern United States from Town Propritor Suveys and the Public Land Survey, we examine the effects of European land-use conversion - logging, agricultural conversion and re-establishment - on climate-vegetation relationships. We show that in regions where land-use change is climatically biased, such as conversion to agriculture along the prairie-forest boundary, impacts on the realized climatic niches for various tree taxa can be significant. Improving predicted distributions of taxa is critical for planning and mitigating the effects of widespread shifts in forest composition resulting from climate change. Using pre-settlement data can improve our understanding of the potential niches occupied by major forest taxa, improving the predictive abilities of environmental niche and mechanistic models.

  2. Genetic evidence of enzootic leishmaniasis in a stray canine and Texas mouse from sites in west and central Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan J Kipp

    Full Text Available We detected Leishmania mexicana in skin biopsies taken from a stray canine (Canis familiaris and Texas mouse (Peromyscus attwateri at two ecologically disparate sites in west and central Texas using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. A single PCR-positive dog was identified from a sample of 96 stray canines and was collected in a peri-urban area in El Paso County, Texas. The PCR-positive P. attwateri was trapped at a wildlife reserve in Mason County, Texas, from a convenience sample of 20 sylvatic mammals of different species. To our knowledge, this represents the first description of L. mexicana in west Texas and extends the known geographic range of the parasite to an area that includes the arid Chihuahuan Desert. Our finding of L. mexicana in P. attwateri represents a new host record and is the first description of the parasite in a wild peromyscid rodent in the United States.

  3. Genetic evidence of enzootic leishmaniasis in a stray canine and Texas mouse from sites in west and central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Evan J; Mariscal, Jacqueline; Armijos, Rodrigo X; Weigel, Margaret; Waldrup, Kenneth

    2016-10-01

    We detected Leishmania mexicana in skin biopsies taken from a stray canine (Canis familiaris) and Texas mouse (Peromyscus attwateri) at two ecologically disparate sites in west and central Texas using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A single PCR-positive dog was identified from a sample of 96 stray canines and was collected in a peri-urban area in El Paso County, Texas. The PCR-positive P. attwateri was trapped at a wildlife reserve in Mason County, Texas, from a convenience sample of 20 sylvatic mammals of different species. To our knowledge, this represents the first description of L. mexicana in west Texas and extends the known geographic range of the parasite to an area that includes the arid Chihuahuan Desert. Our finding of L. mexicana in P. attwateri represents a new host record and is the first description of the parasite in a wild peromyscid rodent in the United States.

  4. Projecting the land cover change and its environmental impacts in the Cedar River Basin in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Sohl, Terry L.; Young, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The physical surface of the Earth is in constant change due to climate forcing and human activities. In the Midwestern United States, urban area, farmland, and dedicated energy crop (e.g., switchgrass) cultivation are predicted to expand in the coming decades, which will lead to changes in hydrological processes. This study is designed to (1) project the land use and land cover (LULC) by mid-century using the FORecasting SCEnarios of future land-use (FORE-SCE) model under the A1B greenhouse gas emission scenario (future condition) and (2) assess its potential impacts on the water cycle and water quality against the 2001 baseline condition in the Cedar River Basin using the physically based soil and water assessment tool (SWAT). We compared the baseline LULC (National Land Cover data 2001) and 2050 projection, indicating substantial expansions of urban area and pastureland (including the cultivation of bioenergy crops) and a decrease in rangeland. We then used the above two LULC maps as the input data to drive the SWAT model, keeping other input data (e.g., climate) unchanged to isolate the LULC change impacts. The modeling results indicate that quick-response surface runoff would increase significantly (about 10.5%) due to the projected urban expansion (i.e., increase in impervious areas), and the baseflow would decrease substantially (about 7.3%) because of the reduced infiltration. Although the net effect may cause an increase in water yield, the increased variability may impede its use for public supply. Additionally, the cultivation of bioenergy crops such as switchgrass in the newly added pasture lands may further reduce the soil water content and lead to an increase in nitrogen loading (about 2.5% increase) due to intensified fertilizer application. These study results will be informative to decision makers for sustainable water resource management when facing LULC change and an increasing demand for biofuel production in this area.

  5. Modeling Regional Climate Responses to 17th-20th Century Land Use Change over the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, J. R.; Hostetler, S. W.; Reker, R. R.; Loveland, T. R.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Thompson, R.; Sundquist, E. T.; Willard, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Regional climate change is the combined response to global and regional radiative forcing, circulation and interactions between the atmosphere and Earth surface. A potentially key component of regional climate change derives from natural and human-caused land use and land-use change (LULC) and related atmosphere-surface feedbacks. In the first step of disentangling and quantifying the effect of LULC over the southeastern United States, we conducted a series of simulations with the RegCM4 regional climate model which includes the Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) surface physics package. Land use and vegetation types determine the specified values of a number of biophysical and physical parameters in BATS such as albedo, roughness length, stomatal resistance, and rooting depth. We ran four simulations in which we specified BATS land use types derived from harmonized reconstructions for 1650, 1850, 1920 and Landsat-based observations for 1992 (Steyaert and Knox, 2008). The simulations were run over a model domain comprising a 20 km × 20 km horizontal grid and 23 atmospheric levels for the period 1990-2000. The boundary conditions for the simulations were derived from the NCAR-NCEP Reanalysis and the NOAA Optimum Interpolated Sea Surface Temperature global data sets. Depending on the time periods considered, the simulations indicate regionally coherent patterns of April-September changes in surface radiation, warming and cooling of up to 2 °C or more, substantial changes in soil moisture and atmospheric humidity associated with conversion of native vegetation to agriculture and agriculture back to forest, draining of wetlands and marshes, and urbanization. Extensive draining of wetlands in the lower Mississippi Valley during the 20th century induced a robust feedback with the atmosphere which suppressed convective summertime precipitation. Our joint analysis of LULC classes and the model simulations suggests a need to be able to disaggregate land use to a

  6. Transforming Developmental Education in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Developmental Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with support from the Texas Legislature, the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board has funded various developmental education initiatives, including research and evaluation efforts, to help Texas public institutions of higher education provide more effective programs and services to underprepared students. Based on evaluation…

  7. Forests of east Texas, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry J.W. Dooley

    2017-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station (SRS) in cooperation with Texas A&M Forest Service. The 254 counties of Texas are consolidated into seven FIA survey units—Southeast (unit 1),...

  8. Land susceptibility to soil erosion in Orashi Catchment, Nnewi South, Anambra State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Odunuga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is one of the most critical environmental hazards that causes land degradation and water quality challenges. Specifically, this phenomenon has been linked, among other problems, to river sedimentation, groundwater pollution and flooding. This paper assesses the susceptibility of Orashi River Basin (ORB to soil erosion for the purpose of erosion control measures. Located in the South Eastern part of Nigeria, the ORB which covers approximately 413.61 km2 is currently experiencing one of the fastest population growth rate in the region. Analysis of the soil erosion susceptibility of the basin was based on four factors including; rainfall, Land use/Land cover change (LULC, slope and soil erodibility factor (k. The rainfall was assumed to be a constant and independent variable, slope and soil types were categorised into ten (10 classes each while the landuse was categorised into five classes. Weight was assigned to the classes based on the degree of susceptibility to erosion. An overlay of the four variables in a GIS environment was used to produce the basin susceptibility to soil erosion. This was based on the weight index of each factors. The LULC analysis revealed that built-up land use increased from 26.49 km2 (6.4 % in year 1980 to 79.24 km2 (19.16 % in 2015 at an average growth rate of 1.51 km2 per annum while the light forest decreased from 336.41 km2 (81.33 % in 1980 to 280.82 km2 (67.89 % in 2015 at an average rate 1.59 km2 per annum. The light forest was adjudged to have the highest land cover soil erosion susceptibility. The steepest slope ranges between 70 and 82° (14.34 % of the total land area and was adjudged to have the highest soil susceptibility to erosion. The total area covered of the loamy soil is 112.37 km2 (27.07 % with erodibility of 0.7. In all, the overlay of all the variables revealed that 106.66 km2 (25.70 % and 164.80 km2 (39.7 % of the basin has a high and very high

  9. Tierras estatales y desigualdad de género en Uruguay=State lands and gender inequality in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Florit O`Neill

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En Uruguay, el Instituto Nacional de Colonización (INC es la institución encargada de la adjudicación de tierra por parte del Estado, orientado a la distribución racional de la tierra y su acceso por parte de la población rural más vulnerable. A partir del año 2005, atravesó una reforma que jerarquizó su rol en las políticas de Estado y gestó un nuevo modelo de adjudicación de tierras: las experiencias asociativas. Ese mismo año, el nuevo gobierno impulsó la transversalización de género en el Estado, impulso que anclara en el INC a partir del 2013. Este artículo analiza desde una perspectiva de género la reforma refundacional y la nueva política de tierras, develando la ceguera de género de la reforma y evidenciando desafíos pendientes para la transversalización de género en el diseño de la principal modalidad de adjudicación de tierras públicas.      Abstract In Uruguay, the National Institute of Colonization is the institution resposible for the adjudication of land by the State, aimed at the rational distribution of land and its access by the most vulnerable rural population. Since 2005, the INC went through a reform that prioritized its role in the policies of the State and created a new model of land adjudication: associative experiences of colonization. In that same year, the new government promoted gender mainstreaming in the State, impulse that took roots in the INC from 2013 onwards. This article analyzes from a gender perspective the refounding reform and the new land policy, unveiling the gender blindness of the reform and highlighting pending challenges for gender mainstreaming in the design of the main public land adjudication modality.

  10. State modelling of the land mobile propagation channel for dual-satellite systems

    OpenAIRE

    Arndt, D.; Ihlow, A.; Heyn, T.; Heuberger, A.; Prieto-Cerdeira, R.; Eberlein, E.

    2012-01-01

    The quality of service of mobile satellite reception can be improved by using multi-satellite diversity (angle diversity). The recently finalised MiLADY project targeted therefore on the evaluation and modelling of the multi-satellite propagation channel for land mobile users with focus on broadcasting applications. The narrowband model combines the parameters from two measurement campaigns: In the U.S. the power levels of the Satellite Digital Audio Radio Services were recorded with a high s...

  11. Land susceptibility to soil erosion in Orashi Catchment, Nnewi South, Anambra State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    S. Odunuga; A. Ajijola; N. Igwetu; O. Adegun

    2018-01-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most critical environmental hazards that causes land degradation and water quality challenges. Specifically, this phenomenon has been linked, among other problems, to river sedimentation, groundwater pollution and flooding. This paper assesses the susceptibility of Orashi River Basin (ORB) to soil erosion for the purpose of erosion control measures. Located in the South Eastern part of Nigeria, the ORB which covers approximately 413.61 km2 is curre...

  12. Estimates of land in agricultural production in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains estimates of land in agricultural production in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture (U.S....

  13. Land-Sparing Opportunities for Solar Energy Development in Agricultural Landscapes: A Case Study of the Great Central Valley, CA, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffacker, Madison K; Allen, Michael F; Hernandez, Rebecca R

    2017-12-19

    Land-cover change from energy development, including solar energy, presents trade-offs for land used for the production of food and the conservation of ecosystems. Solar energy plays a critical role in contributing to the alternative energy mix to mitigate climate change and meet policy milestones; however, the extent that solar energy development on nonconventional surfaces can mitigate land scarcity is understudied. Here, we evaluate the land sparing potential of solar energy development across four nonconventional land-cover types: the built environment, salt-affected land, contaminated land, and water reservoirs (as floatovoltaics), within the Great Central Valley (CV, CA), a globally significant agricultural region where land for food production, urban development, and conservation collide. Furthermore, we calculate the technical potential (TWh year -1 ) of these land sparing sites and test the degree to which projected electricity needs for the state of California can be met therein. In total, the CV encompasses 15% of CA, 8415 km 2 of which was identified as potentially land-sparing for solar energy development. These areas comprise a capacity-based energy potential of at least 17 348 TWh year -1 for photovoltaic (PV) and 2213 TWh year -1 for concentrating solar power (CSP). Accounting for technology efficiencies, this exceeds California's 2025 projected electricity demands up to 13 and 2 times for PV and CSP, respectively. Our study underscores the potential of strategic renewable energy siting to mitigate environmental trade-offs typically coupled with energy sprawl in agricultural landscapes.

  14. Tornado from Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Kathleen

    1996-01-01

    Santa Fe School Superintendent Yvonne Gonzales, the "Texas Tornado," was hired to fix a 40% student-dropout rate and a white/Hispanic gap in achievement test scores. Gonzales is an avid integrationist; relies on humor, appeasement, and persuasion tactics; and has alienated some school employees by increasing central office…

  15. Outdoor Education in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Ray H.

    In Dallas in 1970, high school outdoor education began as a cocurricular woods and waters boys' club sponsored by a community sportsman. Within one year, it grew into a fully accredited, coeducational, academic course with a curriculum devoted to the study of wildlife in Texas, ecology, conservation, hunting, firearm safety, fishing, boating and…

  16. Imbalance of Nature due to Greenhouse Gases from Land-Use Change and Forestry in the State of Sinaloa, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman Galindo, T. D.; Plata Rocha, W. D.; Aguilar-Villegas, J. M.

    2013-05-01

    The imbalance of nature in recent years has been highlighted throughout the world due to the consequences of population and economic growth and changes land use in general. These changes are the result of complex processes between the human and natural environment. This is a very important phenomenon, especially from the point of view of sustainability, as these changes have been considered as one of the most important components of global change (Plata et al., 2009). In the same way the process of deforestation and forest degradation as a result of human activities are a major source of emissions of greenhouse gases in Mexico (Masera et al., 1997). However, forests in Mexico have great potential to become carbon sinks by adopting appropriate support policies, and implementation of sustainable forestry management techniques to improve their production. From this perspective, forest management and reforestation of forests are presented as options for short and medium term climate change mitigation (Sheinbaum and Masera, 2000). Based on the foregoing, the research updates emissions from the Land-Cover and Land-Use Change (LCLUC) for the period 2000 to 2005 for the State of Sinaloa, Mexico, from activity data and national emission factors, reliable and updated to improve certainty and to determine the emissions of greenhouse gases for the sector. This paper examines the updated statewide LCLUC inventory using the gradation level 2 of the IPCC and recommends climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies.t;

  17. Land altitude, slope, and coverage as risk factors for Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS outbreaks in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Gonçalves Arruda

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is, arguably, the most impactful disease on the North American swine industry. The Swine Health Monitoring Project (SHMP is a national volunteer initiative aimed at monitoring incidence and, ultimately, supporting swine disease control, including PRRS. Data collected through the SHMP currently represents approximately 42% of the sow population of the United States. The objective of the study here was to investigate the association between geographical factors (including land elevation, and land coverage and PRRS incidence as recorded in the SHMP. Weekly PRRS status data from sites participating in the SHMP from 2009 to 2016 (n = 706 was assessed. Number of PRRS outbreaks, years of participation in the SHMP, and site location were collected from the SHMP database. Environmental features hypothesized to influence PRRS risk included land coverage (cultivated areas, shrubs and trees, land altitude (in meters above sea level and land slope (in degrees compared to surrounding areas. Other risk factors considered included region, production system to which the site belonged, herd size, and swine density in the area in which the site was located. Land-related variables and pig density were captured in raster format from a number of sources and extracted to points (farm locations. A mixed-effects Poisson regression model was built; and dependence among sites that belonged to a given production system was accounted for using a random effect at the system level. The annual mean and median number of outbreaks per farm was 1.38 (SD: 1.6, and 1 (IQR: 2.0, respectively. The maximum annual number of outbreaks per farm was 9, and approximately 40% of the farms did not report any outbreak. Results from the final multivariable model suggested that increments of swine density and herd size increased the risk for PRRS outbreaks (P < 0.01. Even though altitude (meters above sea level was not significant in the final

  18. 75 FR 56423 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Revisions to the New Source Review (NSR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... Chemical Council (TCC); Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ); Texas Association Business... 116.150(d). Response: See response to Comment 1. Comment 3: BCCA, TIP, TCC, commented that the Texas... CAA Sec. 172(e) and not a basis for disapproval of the proposed SIP revision. TCC stated that it is...

  19. Quality of Shallow Groundwater and Drinking Water in the Mississippi Embayment-Texas Coastal Uplands Aquifer System and the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer, South-Central United States, 1994-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Heather L.; Kingsbury, James A.; Tollett, Roland W.; Seanor, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    The Mississippi embayment-Texas coastal uplands aquifer system is an important source of drinking water, providing about 724 million gallons per day to about 8.9 million people in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Missouri, Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, and Alabama. The Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer ranks third in the Nation for total withdrawals of which more than 98 percent is used for irrigation. From 1994 through 2004, water-quality samples were collected from 169 domestic, monitoring, irrigation, and public-supply wells in the Mississippi embayment-Texas coastal uplands aquifer system and the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in various land-use settings and of varying well capacities as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Groundwater samples were analyzed for physical properties and about 200 water-quality constituents, including total dissolved solids, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radon, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, pesticides, pesticide degradates, and volatile organic compounds. The occurrence of nutrients and pesticides differed among four groups of the 114 shallow wells (less than or equal to 200 feet deep) in the study area. Tritium concentrations in samples from the Holocene alluvium, Pleistocene valley trains, and shallow Tertiary wells indicated a smaller component of recent groundwater than samples from the Pleistocene terrace deposits. Although the amount of agricultural land overlying the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer was considerably greater than areas overlying parts of the shallow Tertiary and Pleistocene terrace deposits wells, nitrate was rarely detected and the number of pesticides detected was lower than other shallow wells. Nearly all samples from the Holocene alluvium and Pleistocene valley trains were anoxic, and the reducing conditions in these aquifers likely result in denitrification of nitrate. In contrast, most samples from the

  20. Land surface and atmospheric conditions associated with heat waves in the South Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eungul; Bieda, Rahama; Shanmugasundaram, Jothiganesh; Richter, Heather

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to extreme heat was reconstructed based on regional land-atmosphere processes from 1979 to 2010 in the South Central U.S. The study region surrounds the Chickasaw Nation (CN), a predominantly Native American population with a highly prevalent burden of climate-sensitive chronic diseases. Land surface and atmospheric conditions for summer heat waves were analyzed during spring (March-April-May, MAM) and summer (June-July-August, JJA) based on the Climate and Ocean: Variability, Predictability, and Change maximum temperature definition for heat wave frequency (HWF). The spatial-temporal pattern of HWF was determined using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis and the corresponding principle component time series of the first EOF of HWF. Statistically significant analyses of observed conditions indicated that sensible heat increased and latent heat fluxes decreased with high HWF in the South Central U.S. The largest positive correlations of sensible heat flux to HWF and the largest negative correlations of latent heat flux to HWF were specifically observed over the CN. This is a significantly different energy transfer regime due to less available soil moisture during the antecedent MAM and JJA. The higher sensible heat from dry soil could cause significant warming from the near surface (> 2.0°C) to the lower troposphere (> 1.5°C), and accumulated boundary layer heat could induce the significant patterns of higher geopotential height and enhance anticyclonic circulations (negative vorticity anomaly) at the midtroposphere. Results suggested a positive land-atmosphere feedback associated with heat waves and called attention to the need for region-specific climate adaptation planning.

  1. Karma eaters: the politics of food and fat in women's land communities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Keridwen N

    2012-01-01

    Why is thinness so important among women who have largely rejected mainstream definitions of femininity? The idea of health has great cultural power and has come to symbolize not simply bodily but also spiritual, social, and moral well-being. These ideas permeate U.S. culture, and in women's land communities, the virtue of hunger and the morality of health take on differently inflected but no less potent meanings. Ironically, in a context where women reject many gender restrictions--restrictions increasingly, as Sandra Bartky notes, focused on the female body-the importance of the thin (and thus properly feminine) body persists through the symbolism of health and virtue.

  2. A Continental United States High Resolution NLCD Land Cover – MODIS Albedo Database to Examine Albedo and Land Cover Change Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface albedo influences climate by affecting the amount of solar radiation that is reflected at the Earth’s surface, and surface albedo is, in turn, affected by land cover. General Circulation Models typically use modeled or prescribed albedo to assess the influence of land co...

  3. The Texas Water Observatory: Utilizing Advanced Observing System Design for Understanding Water Resources Sustainability Across Climatic and Geologic Gradients of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, B.; Moore, G. W.; Miller, G. R.; Quiring, S. M.; Everett, M. E.; Morgan, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Texas Water Observatory (TWO) is a new distributed network of field observatories for better understanding of the hydrologic flow in the critical zone (encompassing groundwater, soil water, surface water, and atmospheric water) at various space and time scales. Core sites in the network will begin in Brazos River corridor and expand from there westward. Using many advanced observational platforms and real-time / near-real time sensors, this observatory will monitor high frequency data of water stores and fluxes, critical for understanding and modeling the in the state of Texas and Southern USA. Once implemented, TWO will be positioned to support high-impact water science that is highly relevant to societal needs and serve as a regional resource for better understanding and/or managing agriculture, water resources, ecosystems, biodiversity, disasters, health, energy, and weather/climate. TWO infrastructure will span land uses (cultivation agriculture, range/pasture, forest), landforms (low-relief erosional uplands to depositional lowlands), and across climatic and geologic gradients of Texas to investigate the sensitivity and resilience of fertile soils and the ecosystems they support. Besides developing a network of field water observatory infrastructure/capacity for accounting water flow and storage, TWO will facilitate developing a new generation interdisciplinary water professionals (from various TAMU Colleges) with better understanding and skills for attending to future water challenges of the region. This holistic growth will have great impact on TAMU research enterprise related to water resources, leading to higher federal and state level competitiveness for funding and establishing a center of excellence in the region

  4. Land use changes after the period commodities rising price in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Celestino Pires Silveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: At the end of the 20th and early 21st century, agricultural systems incorporated definitively a new mission: to generate goods for a world population that continues to grow and whose way of life demand food with low environmental impact. Soybean is the main raw material for the production of biodiesel in Brazil, accountably responsible for 82.4% of the total produced between 2006 and 2013. The Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, which is formed by the Pampa and the Atlantic forest biomes, was responsible for 35.7% of the country's biodiesel production in the referred period. The aim of this paper was to verify the impact of the increased area of soybean cultivation in land use in Rio Grande do Sul State, in the period between 1990 and 2015, considering separately its two biomes (Pampa and Atlantic Forest original areas, using both census dataset and satellite images. We used the period from 1990 to 2000 as before commodity rising price (BCRP and the period from 2000 to 2013 as commodity rising price (CRP. The 505,162 ha from Atlantic Forest biome and 1,192,115ha from Pampa biome were added to soybean production in the CRP period. In the Atlantic Forest, this enlargement occurred in the border of the main production area, while in Pampa biome conversion of natural grassland to crop land was the main reason for the large increment in the cultivated area.

  5. Texas' Child Population: More Kids, More Diversity, More Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deviney, Frances; Phillips, Pace

    2011-01-01

    Every 10 years, the U.S. Census Bureau counts every man, woman, and child to track the growth of our national, state, and local populations. Between 2000 and 2010, Texas' total population grew at twice the national rate to more than 25 million people. A large part of Texas' growth is due our child population, which grew by 16 percent to 6.9…

  6. A 30 meter soil properties map of the contiguous United States for use in remote sensing and land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, N.; Morgan, C.; McBratney, A.; Wood, E. F.; Yimam, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Soil moisture plays a critical role in the terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. For this reason, numerical weather prediction, global circulation models, and hydrologic monitoring systems increasingly emphasize modeling soil moisture and assimilating soil moisture remote sensing products. In both cases, the prescribed soil hydraulic properties play a pivotal role in accurately describing the soil moisture state. However, an accurate characterization of soil hydraulic properties remains a persistent challenge—existing continental soil databases are too coarse and outdated for contemporary applications. To address this challenge, we have developed the Probabilistic Remapping of SSURGO database (POLARIS); a new soil database that covers the contiguous United States (CONUS) at a 30-meter spatial resolution. POLARIS was constructed using available high-resolution geospatial environmental data and a state-of-the-art machine learning algorithm to remap the rich yet incomplete Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database to create spatially complete probabilistic soil series maps over CONUS (Chaney et al., 2016). These maps are then combined with the vertical profile information of each soil series to create the corresponding maps of soil hydraulic properties and their associated uncertainties. The mapped soil hydraulic properties include soil texture, saturated hydraulic conductivity, porosity, field capacity, and wilting point. POLARIS provides a breakthrough in soil information. To illustrate this database's potential, we will both explore the database at multiple spatial scales and discuss recent land surface modeling results that have used POLARIS to simulate soil moisture at a 30-meter spatial resolution over CONUS between 2004 and 2014. We will discuss the added benefit of using POLARIS and the opportunity it presents to improve the characterization of soil hydraulic properties in land surface models and soil moisture remote sensing. References

  7. The role of the State in land reform processes: the case of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Botella Rodríguez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es estudiar el proceso de reforma agrarian en Latinoamérica y caracterizar el caso de Brasil, por esta razón voy a exponer una visión general del proceso y el rol de los gobiernos durante el siglo XX acorde al punto de vista de organizaciones internacionales como el Banco Mundial o el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo. Como punto a añadir al objetivo de mi investigación está el explicar en términos generales y únicamente con un análisis teórico el proceso de reforma agraria y, por esta razón, me gustaría mostrar las mejores normas a fin de poner en práctica esta clase de política de acuerdo a la difícil situación del punto de salida. Finalmente, la presencia de Brasil será tomada para demostrar las importantes implicaciones de los movimientos sociales para llevar a cabo los procesos de reforma agraria.____________________ABSTRACT:The purpose of my article is to study land reform processes in Latin America and characterise the case of Brazil, for this reason I am going to expound a general vision of the process and the role of Governments during the 20th century according to the point of view of International Organizations like The World Bank or The Inter-American Development Bank. In addition the objective of my research is explaining in general terms and only with a theoretical analysis land reform processes and, for this reason, I would like to show the best norms in order to put in practise this kind of policy according to the difficult situation of the starting point. Finally the instance of Brazil will be undertaken to demonstrate the main implications of social movements in order to make land reform processes.

  8. 76 FR 68810 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Farm-to-Market 1626 in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    .... 1251- 1342]; Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF) [16 U.S.C. 4601-4604]. 8. Executive Orders: E.O... Federal Agency Actions on Farm-to-Market 1626 in Texas AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT..., Texas. Those actions grant licenses, permits, and approvals for the project. DATES: By this notice, the...

  9. State of Conservation of the Native Forests in Entre Ríos (Argentina) and Changes in Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabattini, R. A.; Sione, S. M.; Ledesma, S. G.; Sabattini, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    The native forest area of Entre Ríos province (Argentina) is associated with a constant change in land use, with an increase in recent years in agricultural use, especially for soybean crop. In addition, since its inadequate management has triggered degradation processes of the natural forest structure, the implementation of strategies for the restoration and conservation of native forests has become a priority. The aim of this study was to diagnose the conservation state of the native forest in the basin of the Estacas Stream (Entre Ríos, Argentina) after the change in land use, to help design guidelines for the restoration and sustainable management of these ecosystems. The field study was conducted in October 2010, in a representative area of the native forest of 73,000 ha. Using Landsat 5-TM images (INPE), environments were separated by manual vectorization, identifying and classifying native forests and other lands (agricultural, urban). Using a field exploratory survey (58 geo-referenced sampling points), we developed patterns corresponding to the different types of forests, contrasting this information with the digital data of the images. The native forests were classified according to type (high/low forest, open/closed forest, savanna), successional stage (climax, successional or regeneration forest) and degree of disturbance (weed growth, erosion, fire), and their frequency determined. Each classification was assessed by a contingency matrix, and global reliability index and the Kappa index. The information obtained generated a classification map of native forests in the basin scale. We found that the native forest covered an area of 42,726.91 ha, accounting for 58.52% of the total basin area, and that the rest corresponded to other land uses. The most frequent native forests (59.09%) were climax forest, but accounted for only 8.2% of the basin area. Within this group, the most important were the low and open forest, with Prosopis affinis and Prosopis

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Identified Toxic Land Fills: Co-Occurrence Across States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Ming

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that gene by environmental interactions contribute to the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD. We hypothesize that ASD are associated with early and repeated exposures to any of a number of toxicants or mixtures of toxicants. It is the cumulative effects of these repeated exposures acting upon genetically susceptible individuals that lead to the phenotypes of ASD. We report our initial observations of a considerable overlap of identified toxic landfills in the State of New Jersey and the residence of an ASD cohort, and a correlation between the identified toxic Superfund sites on each U.S. state and the total number of diagnosed cases of ASD in those states. The residence of 495 ASD patients in New Jersey by zip code and the toxic landfill sites were plotted on a map of Northern New Jersey. The area of highest ASD cases coincides with the highest density of toxic landfill sites while the area with lowest ASD cases has the lowest density of toxic landfill sites. Furthermore, the number of toxic Superfund sites and autism rate across 49 of the 50 states shows a statistically significant correlation (i.e. the number of identified superfund sites correlates with the rate of autism per 1000 residents in 49 of the states (p = 0.015; excluding the state of Oregon. These significant observations call for further organized studies to elucidate possible role(s of environmental toxicants contributing to the pathogenesis of ASD.

  11. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  12. Simultaneous estimation of land surface scheme states and parameters using the ensemble Kalman filter: identical twin experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF in soil moisture assimilation applications is investigated in the context of simultaneous state-parameter estimation in the presence of uncertainties from model parameters, soil moisture initial condition and atmospheric forcing. A physically based land surface model is used for this purpose. Using a series of identical twin experiments in two kinds of initial parameter distribution (IPD scenarios, the narrow IPD (NIPD scenario and the wide IPD (WIPD scenario, model-generated near surface soil moisture observations are assimilated to estimate soil moisture state and three hydraulic parameters (the saturated hydraulic conductivity, the saturated soil moisture suction and a soil texture empirical parameter in the model. The estimation of single imperfect parameter is successful with the ensemble mean value of all three estimated parameters converging to their true values respectively in both NIPD and WIPD scenarios. Increasing the number of imperfect parameters leads to a decline in the estimation performance. A wide initial distribution of estimated parameters can produce improved simultaneous multi-parameter estimation performances compared to that of the NIPD scenario. However, when the number of estimated parameters increased to three, not all parameters were estimated successfully for both NIPD and WIPD scenarios. By introducing constraints between estimated hydraulic parameters, the performance of the constrained three-parameter estimation was successful, even if temporally sparse observations were available for assimilation. The constrained estimation method can reduce RMSE much more in soil moisture forecasting compared to the non-constrained estimation method and traditional non-parameter-estimation assimilation method. The benefit of this method in estimating all imperfect parameters simultaneously can be fully demonstrated when the corresponding non-constrained estimation method

  13. Creationism in the Grand Canyon, Texas Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folger, Peter

    2004-01-01

    AGU President Bob Dickinson, together with presidents of six other scientific societies, have written to Joseph Alston, Superintendent of Grand Canyon National Park, pointing out that a creationist book, The Grand Canyon: A Different View, is being sold in bookstores within the borders of the park as a scientific explanation about Grand Canyon geologic history. President Dickinson's 16 December letter urges that Alston clearly separate The Grand Canyon: A Different View from books and materials that discuss the legitimate scientific understanding of the origin of the Grand Canyon. The letter warns the Park Service against giving the impression that it approves of the anti-science movement known as young-Earth creationism, or that it endorses the advancement of religious tenets disguised as science. The text of the letter is on AGU's Web site http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/sci_pol.html. Also, this fall, AGU sent an alert to Texas members about efforts by intelligent design creationists aimed at weakening the teaching of biological evolution in textbooks used in Texas schools. The alert pointed scientists to a letter, drafted by AGU, together with the American Institute of Physics, the American Physical Society, the Optical Society of America, and the American Astronomical Society, that urged the Texas State Board of Education to adopt textbooks that presented only accepted, peer-reviewed science and pedagogical expertise. Over 550 scientists in Texas added their names to the letter (http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/texas_textbooks.pdf ), sent to the Board of Education on 1 November prior to their vote to adopt a slate of new science textbooks. The Board voted 11-5 in favor of keeping the textbooks free of changes advocated by groups supporting intelligent design creationism.

  14. The Energy-Water Nexus in Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlynn S. Stillwell

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the nexus between energy and water - water used for energy and energy used for water - has become increasing important in a changing world. As growing populations demand more energy supplies and water resources, research aims to analyze the interconnectedness of these two resources. Our study sought to quantify the energy-water relationship in Texas, specifically the relationship between electricity generation and water resources as it pertains to policy and society. We examined the water requirements for various types of electricity generating facilities, for typical systems both nationwide and in Texas. We also addressed the energy requirements of water supply and wastewater treatment systems, comparing national averages with Texas-specific values. Analysis of available data for Texas reveals that approximately 595,000 megaliters of water annually - enough water for over three million people for a year - are consumed by cooling the state's thermoelectric power plants while generating approximately 400 terawatt-hours of electricity. At the same time, each year Texas uses an estimated 2.1 to 2.7 terawatt-hours of electricity for water systems and 1.8 to 2.0 terawatt-hours for wastewater systems - enough electricity for about 100,000 people for a year. In preparing our analysis, it became clear that substantially more site-specific data are necessary for a full understanding of the nature of the energy-water nexus and the sustainability of economic growth in Texas. We recommend that Texas increase efforts to collect accurate data on the withdrawal and consumption of cooling and process water at power plants, as well as data on electricity consumption for public water supply and wastewater treatment plants and distribution systems. The overarching conclusion of our work is that increased efficiency advances the sustainable use of both energy and water. Improving water efficiency will reduce power demand, and improving energy

  15. State and parameter estimation of two land surface models using the ensemble Kalman filter and the particle filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Land surface models (LSMs use a large cohort of parameters and state variables to simulate the water and energy balance at the soil–atmosphere interface. Many of these model parameters cannot be measured directly in the field, and require calibration against measured fluxes of carbon dioxide, sensible and/or latent heat, and/or observations of the thermal and/or moisture state of the soil. Here, we evaluate the usefulness and applicability of four different data assimilation methods for joint parameter and state estimation of the Variable Infiltration Capacity Model (VIC-3L and the Community Land Model (CLM using a 5-month calibration (assimilation period (March–July 2012 of areal-averaged SPADE soil moisture measurements at 5, 20, and 50 cm depths in the Rollesbroich experimental test site in the Eifel mountain range in western Germany. We used the EnKF with state augmentation or dual estimation, respectively, and the residual resampling PF with a simple, statistically deficient, or more sophisticated, MCMC-based parameter resampling method. The performance of the calibrated LSM models was investigated using SPADE water content measurements of a 5-month evaluation period (August–December 2012. As expected, all DA methods enhance the ability of the VIC and CLM models to describe spatiotemporal patterns of moisture storage within the vadose zone of the Rollesbroich site, particularly if the maximum baseflow velocity (VIC or fractions of sand, clay, and organic matter of each layer (CLM are estimated jointly with the model states of each soil layer. The differences between the soil moisture simulations of VIC-3L and CLM are much larger than the discrepancies among the four data assimilation methods. The EnKF with state augmentation or dual estimation yields the best performance of VIC-3L and CLM during the calibration and evaluation period, yet results are in close agreement with the PF using MCMC resampling. Overall, CLM demonstrated the

  16. State and parameter estimation of two land surface models using the ensemble Kalman filter and the particle filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongjuan; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Han, Xujun; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Vereecken, Harry

    2017-09-01

    Land surface models (LSMs) use a large cohort of parameters and state variables to simulate the water and energy balance at the soil-atmosphere interface. Many of these model parameters cannot be measured directly in the field, and require calibration against measured fluxes of carbon dioxide, sensible and/or latent heat, and/or observations of the thermal and/or moisture state of the soil. Here, we evaluate the usefulness and applicability of four different data assimilation methods for joint parameter and state estimation of the Variable Infiltration Capacity Model (VIC-3L) and the Community Land Model (CLM) using a 5-month calibration (assimilation) period (March-July 2012) of areal-averaged SPADE soil moisture measurements at 5, 20, and 50 cm depths in the Rollesbroich experimental test site in the Eifel mountain range in western Germany. We used the EnKF with state augmentation or dual estimation, respectively, and the residual resampling PF with a simple, statistically deficient, or more sophisticated, MCMC-based parameter resampling method. The performance of the calibrated LSM models was investigated using SPADE water content measurements of a 5-month evaluation period (August-December 2012). As expected, all DA methods enhance the ability of the VIC and CLM models to describe spatiotemporal patterns of moisture storage within the vadose zone of the Rollesbroich site, particularly if the maximum baseflow velocity (VIC) or fractions of sand, clay, and organic matter of each layer (CLM) are estimated jointly with the model states of each soil layer. The differences between the soil moisture simulations of VIC-3L and CLM are much larger than the discrepancies among the four data assimilation methods. The EnKF with state augmentation or dual estimation yields the best performance of VIC-3L and CLM during the calibration and evaluation period, yet results are in close agreement with the PF using MCMC resampling. Overall, CLM demonstrated the best performance for

  17. Mobilizing Resources but Still Mining for Opportunities?: Indigenous Peoples, their Land and the Philippine State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRINCE AIAN G. VILLANUEVA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Kalipunan ng mga Katutubong Mamamayan ng Pilipinas (KAMP or the National Alliance of Indigenous Peoples’ Organization in the Philippines is al- most in their 30 years of existence and yet, like in most cases of indigenous peoples’ issues, there is still no significant number of studies about their role in campaigning for the betterment of the Indigenous Cultural Communities. Anchored on political opportunity structures theory as a guide, the basic motiva- tion of the paper is to illustrate how the KAMP fights and survives through resource mobilization and how the government represented by National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (NCIP and Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR accommodate their interests. Using archival research, secondary data analysis, elite interview and participant observation, the paper asserts that KAMP’s use of their organizational structure, advocacy campaigns and political assaults as their basic resources to fight for the Nueva Vizcaya Mining issue are relatively insufficient to a centralist and relatively closed government, despite the presence of democratic institutions. The ability of the Philippine government to strike the balance between development and indigenous peoples’ rights pro- tection shall remain to be a defining feature if not a challenge to the quality of democracy and governance in our land

  18. COMPARATIVE INVESTIGATION OF REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF TWO EDIBLE ECTOTYPE OF GIANT LAND SNAILS FED BANANA LEAVES IN THE HUMID TROPICAL ZONE OF CROSS RIVER STATE

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. UBUA; Agiang, E.A; Ibom, L.A; Ekpo, T. E; Aaron, H.A

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the reproductive potentials of two edible ectotype of giant land snails (Archachatina marginata ovum and Archachatina marginata Saturalis) fed banana leaves in the humid tropical zone of Cross River State within a 16 week period. The reproductive potentials of the two ectotypes of giant lands snail revealed that Archachatina marginata ovum performed better (P 0.05) was observed between the two ectotypes on their Percent egg hatchability

  19. Fire patterns in piñon and juniper land cover types in the Semiarid Western United States from 1984 through 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    David I. Board; Jeanne C. Chambers; Richard F. Miller; Peter J. Weisberg

    2018-01-01

    Increases in area burned and fire size have been reported across a wide range of forest and shrubland types in the Western United States in recent decades, but little is known about potential changes in fire regimes of piñon and juniper land cover types. We evaluated spatio-temporal patterns of fire in piñon and juniper land cover types from the National Gap Analysis...

  20. A new genus of wolf spiders from Mexico and Southern United States, with description of a new species from Texas (Araneae: Lycosidae Género nuevo de arañas lobo de México y sur de Estados Unidos, y descripción de una especie nueva de Texas (Araneae: Lycosidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D Dondale

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Pardosa parallela Banks, 1898 is made the type species of the new genus Camptocosa. Camptocosa parallela new combination is re-described from fresh material, and a new species C. texana, is described from Texas.Pardosa parallela Banks, 1898 ha sido designada como especie tipo del nuevo género Camptocosa. Camptocosa parallela nueva combinación, es redescrita de material recientemente colectado y una nueva especie, C. texana es descrita para Texas.

  1. Assessing aquifer storage and recovery feasibility in the Gulf Coastal Plains of Texas

    OpenAIRE

    W. Benjamin Smith; Gretchen R. Miller; Zhuping Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Study region: The Gulf Coast and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer systems in the Gulf Coastal Plains of Texas. Study focus: Aquifer storage and recovery is a water storage alternative that is underutilized in Texas, a state with both long periods of drought and high intensity storms. Future water storage plans in Texas almost exclusively rely on surface reservoirs, subject to high evaporative losses. This study seeks to identify sites where aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) may be successful, especial...

  2. The impact of land use on biological activity of agriculture soils. An State-of-the-Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; Cerdà, Artemi; García-Orenes, Fuensanta

    2014-05-01

    Biological activity is a crucial soil property affecting soil sustainability and crop production. The unsuitable land management can lead to a loss in soil fertility and a reduction in the abundance and diversity of soil microorganisms. This can be as a consequence of high erosion rates due to the mismanagement of farmers (Cerdà et al., 2009a). However ecological practices and some organic amendments can promote the activities of soil microbial communities, and increase its biodiversity (García-Orenes et al., 2010; 2013). The impact of land use in microbiological properties of agriculture soil are presented and discussed in this review. Biological activity is quantified by microbial soil communities and soil enzyme activities to interpret the effects of soil management practices (Morugán-Coronado et al., 2013). The aim of biological activity tests is to give a reliable description of the state of agricultural soils under the effect of different land uses. Numerous methods have been used to determine the impact of land uses on microbiological properties. The current used methods for detecting microbial diversity are based on molecular techniques centered on the 16S and 18S rRNA encoding sequences such as CLPP: community-level physiological profiles; T-RFLP: terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism; DGGE: denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis; OFRG: oligonucleotide fingerprinting of rRNA genes, ARISA: Automated Ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis, SSCP: single-strand conformation polymorphism. And techniques based on the cellular composition of the microbes such as PLFA: phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Other methods are based on the activity of microbes, for example, Cmic: microbial biomass carbon; SIR: substrate induced respiration; BSR: Basal soil respiration; qCO2 metabolic quotient; enzymatic activities (Urease, ß-glucosidase and phosphatase) (Deng, 2012). Agricultural land management can contribute to increased rates of erosion due to

  3. A multitree perspective of the tree ring tropical cyclone record from longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.), Big Thicket National Preserve, Texas, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Daniel B.; Finkelstein, David B.; Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.; Mora, Claudia I.; Perfect, Edmund

    2011-06-01

    Tree rings afford the temporal resolution needed to characterize extreme weather events such as tropical cyclones, their frequency and variability. External factors such as soil water isotopic variability, soil heterogeneity, and/or stand disturbance affect the isotopic composition of individual trees in a stand, resulting in inaccuracies in the record. Single-tree isotope chronologies should be tested against multiple-tree chronologies to determine whether individual trees sufficiently characterize tropical cyclone variability. Eight individual trees from two sites in Big Thicket National Preserve were analyzed to evaluate whether they synchronously record tropical cyclone events. The ability of individual isotope models to capture an event was low (≤50%), and individual trees did not always record similar events. A composite chronology from the Turkey Creek Unit identified 5 false positive years and missed five storms. The composite chronology from the Big Sandy Creek Unit identified 5 false positives and missed four storms. All but 3 false positive years were characterized by above average precipitation that followed below average precipitation in the previous year. This mimics the negative isotopic excursion expected from tropical cyclones. Another year (1991) was coincident with a strong El Niño event, resulting in a shift in the dominant moisture source for the Texas Gulf Coast. Drought conditions occurred in years where storms were missed, which dampened the 18O-depleted signal associated with tropical cyclones. These data show that the number of trees is critical for properly characterizing tropical cyclone frequency through time, especially for periods prior to reliable instrumental records.

  4. Brown coal planning in the State of Brandenburg. Braunkohlenplanung im Land Brandenburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenker, P. (Oberbergamt des Landes Brandenburg, Senftenberg (Germany))

    1993-07-01

    In an official declaration attention was drawn to the urgent need for an economic and ecological redevelopment of our state, a question that also includes the new energy policy and a reliable and ecologically compatible supply of energy. Brown coal plays a major role in the supply of energy. As regards the ecological aspect, brown coal mining is undergoing a considerable improvement, and seen in terms of the economy will definitely play an important part for many years to come. This is also evident from the main decisions reached with regard to the energy policy of Brandenburg, according to which the State Government will orient its political decisions to a yearly output of 60 Mt in the Brandenburg region of Lusatia in the year 2000. A further important precondition which will ensure that the brown coal mining industry of Brandenburg retains its significance in connection with the return to private ownership is the fact that licences for general working plans or brown coal mining plans are to be made available for the operation of the brown coal opencast workings. The State Mines Inspectorate of Brandenburg, on the one hand, is co-operating constructively with the brown coal technical committee in drawing up brown coal mining plans for the long-term opencast workings, and, on the other hand, is taking steps to ensure that the licences for the general working plans can be made available early in the second half of 1993 after relevant orders are issued by the Government of the State of Brandenburg. These short licensing procedures for this difficult and complex matter have only been made possible by the application of modern planning techniques in the form of simultaneous planning in the administrative sector. All planning will no longer be carried out consecutively but concurrently in order to ensure that the licences will be avialable by the end of 1993. This is an important precondition for the further operation of the long-term opencast workings in the State.

  5. Land use and trophic state dynamics in a tropical semi-arid reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Neves dos Santos

    Full Text Available Water body eutrophication process has been a serious problem around the world, especially in semiarid and arid region where main approach to storage water is reservoir. The aim of this work was to investigate the spatial and seasonal variability in water quality of a reservoir in a semi-arid tropical region with regards to its trophic state, and to identify the sources of nutrient input to the reservoir. Essa pesquisa foi realizada no reservatório Orós, segundo maior do estado do Ceará-Brasil. This research was developed in the Orós reservoir, the second one most important reservoir in Ceará State, Brazil. Samples were collected bimonthly during the period April 2008 to April 2010, from sex sampling points representing the outlet of tributaries, and one point down of the dam. The study included the following variables: total phosphorus, transparency and chlorophyll-a. Trophic state was evaluated by application of the Carlson modified Trophic State Index (TSI. Maps of the spatial and seasonal dynamics of the water quality in the reservoir were constructed using GIS soft. According to the average values of total phosphorus (> 0.050 mg L-1, the waters can be classified as eutrophic. The highest concentrations of chlorophyll-a were found during the dry season, with values ranging from 3.8 to 26.5 µg L-1, showing high temporal and spatial variations. The waters presented as eutrophic regarding average TSI, at all points sampled. The results indicate a deterioration in water quality and the need for intervention to reduce the release of waste, and thus improve the trophic state of the waters of the Orós reservoir.

  6. Assessment of land use in protected areas of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iori, P.; da Silva, R. B.; Dias Junior, M. S.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    It is of universal knowledge that the soil, a basic natural resource, is renewable only if conserved or used correctly(Primavesi, 2002). It is salient for Araújo et al. (2007) that the establishment of index of soil quality is an important tool in the functions of control, supervision and monitoring of areas for environmental protection. The objective of this study was to compare the quality of the soil by means of a comparative diagram in different soil uses in permanent preservation areas (APP). The study was conducted in areas near the Ribeira de Iguape river in the city of Registro - São Paulo - Brazil, belonging to the Atlantic Forest domain, a Haplic Cambisol. The following uses of the soil had been evaluated: a) banana culture (CBAN) without agricultural traffic of machines; b) degraded pasture (PDEG) with extensive system predominantly Brachiaria decumbens L. c) use silvopastoral (MPIs), consisted in a kills with a traffic free for the animals, and d) native vegetation (MNAT), proposed in this study as a reference area.The following physical indicators were analyzed: bulk density (BD), total soil porosity (TP), macroporosity (Ma), microporosity (Mi), water dispersible clay (ADA), flocculation index (FI), preconsolidation pressure (PP), soil shear strength (SS), soil resistance to penetration (RP). To construct the comparative diagram the values for each attribute of the soil in each land use were related to the values of the native forest. It was feasible to use the comparative model in the qualitative evaluation of soil use, allowing separate environments under different uses. According to the comparative diagram of banana culture is the use that most negatively impacts the physical and mechanical soil due to the smaller size of the lower polygon.

  7. Ground ice at the Phoenix Landing Site: Stability state and origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, Michael T.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Sizemore, Hanna G.; Searls, Mindi L.; Blaney, Diana L.; Cull, Selby; Hecht, Michael H.; Heet, Tabatha L.; Keller, H. Uwe; Lemmon, Mark T.; Markiewicz, Wojciech J.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Pike, W. Thomas; Zent, Aaron P.

    2009-12-01

    A primary objective of the Phoenix mission was to examine the characteristics of high latitude ground ice on Mars. We report observations of ground ice, its depth distribution and stability characteristics, and examine its origins and history. High latitude ground ice was explored through a dozen trench complexes and landing thruster pits, over a range of polygon morphological provinces. Shallow ground ice was found to be abundant under a layer of relatively loose ice-free soil with a mean depth of 4.6 cm, which varied by more than 10x from trench to trench. These variations can be attributed mainly to slope effects and thermal inertia variations in the overburden soil affecting ground temperatures. The presence of ice at this depth is consistent with vapor-diffusive equilibrium with respect to a mean atmospheric water content of 3.4 × 1019 m-3, consistent with the present-day climate. Significant ice heterogeneity was observed, with two major forms: ice-cemented soil and relatively pure light toned ice. Ice-cemented soils, which comprised about 90% of the icy material exposed by trenching, are best explained as vapor deposited pore ice in a matrix supported porous soil. Light toned ice deposits represent a minority of the subsurface and are thought to consist of relatively thin near surface deposits. The origin of these relatively pure ice deposits appears most consistent with the formation of excess ice by soil ice segregation, such as would occur by thin film migration and the formation of ice lenses, needle ice, or similar ice structures.

  8. Solar Hot Water for Motor Inn--Texas City, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Final report describes solar domestic-hot-water heater installation at LaQuinta Motor Inn, Texas City, Texas which furnished 63% of total hot-water load of new 98-unit inn. Report presents a description of system, drawings and photographs of collectors, operations and maintenance instructions, manufacturers' specifications for pumps, and an engineer's report on performance.

  9. Groundwater Monitoring and Tritium-Tracking Plan for the 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DB Barnett

    2000-08-31

    The 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS) is a drainfield which receives treated wastewater, occasionally containing tritium from treatment of Hanford Site liquid wastes at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Since operation of the SALDS began in December 1995, discharges of tritium have totaled {approx}304 Ci, only half of what was originally predicted for tritium quantity through 1999. Total discharge volumes ({approx}2.7E+8 L) have been commensurate with predicted volumes to date. This document reports the results of all tritium analyses in groundwater as determined from the SALDS tritium-tracking network since the first SALDS wells were installed in 1992 through July 1999, and provides interpretation of these results as they relate to SALDS operation and its effect on groundwater. Hydrologic and geochemical information are synthesized to derive a conceptual model, which is in turn used to arrive at an appropriate approach to continued groundwater monitoring at the facility.

  10. Relevance of ERTS-1 to the State of Ohio. [agriculture, forestry, land use, mining, and environmental quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, D. C.; Pincura, P. G.; Wukelic, G. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. During the first year of project effort the ability of ERTS-1 imagery to be used for mapping and inventorying strip-mined areas in south eastern Ohio, the potential of using ERTS-1 imagery in water quality and coastal zone management in the Lake Erie region, and the extent that ERTS-1 imagery could contribute to localized (metropolitan/urban), multicounty, and overall state land use needs were experimentally demonstrated and reported as significant project results. Significant research accomplishments were achieved in the technological development of manual and computerized methods to extract multi-feature information as well as singular feature information from ERTS-1 data as is exemplified by the forestry transparency overlay. Fabrication of an image transfer device to superimpose ERTS-1 data onto existing maps and other data sources was also a significant analytical accomplishment.

  11. Arizona/New Mexico Mountains Ecoregion: Chapter 10 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlman, Jana; Gass, Leila; Middleton, Barry

    2012-01-01

    As the name suggests, the Arizona/New Mexico Mountains Ecoregion includes much of the mountainous regions of these two states, plus a very small part in the Guadalupe Mountains of northwestern Texas. Several isolated areas of higher terrain in Arizona and New Mexico are also included in the ecoregion, which occupies approximately 108,432 km2 (41,866 mi2) (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997). The ecoregion is bounded on the south by the Sonoran Basin and Range, Madrean Archipelago, and Chihuahuan Deserts Ecoregions; to the north, the ecoregion is both bounded and surrounded by the Arizona/New Mexico Plateau Ecoregion (fig. 1). The ecoregion encompasses the largest contiguous ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest in the United States (Strom and Fulé, 2007), which stretches from Williams, Arizona, along the Mogollon Rim, Arizona, into southwestern New Mexico, north and west of Silver City, New Mexico.

  12. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality at a land reclamation site, Neshaminy State Park, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blickwedel, Ray S.; Linn, Jeff H.

    1987-01-01

    At Neshaminy State park, the most important aquifer is the informally named 'Trenton gravel' of Pleistocene age, which consists of poorly sorted sand and gravel. This is underlain by less permeable crystalline rock that limits the downward movement of water. Up to 5 feet of Holocene (or perhaps Pleistocene) alluvium consisting of clay and silt was deposited above the Trenton gravel, but much of the surficial material is dredge spoil, mostly sand and silt from the Delaware River.

  13. State Waste Discharge Permit application for industrial discharge to land: 200 East Area W-252 streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This document constitutes the WAC 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit application for six W-252 liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site. Appendices B through H correspond to Section B through H in the permit application form. Within each appendix, sections correspond directly to the respective questions on the application form. The appendices include: Product or service information; Plant operational characteristics; Water consumption and waterloss; Wastewater information; Stormwater; Other information; and Site assessment.

  14. Long-term evolution of Wink sinkholes in West Texas observed by high-resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. W.; Lu, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Sinkhole is ground depression and/or collapse over the subsurface cavity in the karst terrain underlain by the carbonates, evaporites, and other soluble soils and rocks. The geohazards have been considered as a "hidden threat" to human life, infrastructures, and properties. The Delaware Basin of West Texas in the southwest part of the Permian Basin contains one of the greatest accumulations of evaporites in the United States. Sinkholes in West Texas have been developed by the dissolution of the subsurface evaporite deposits that come in contact with groundwater. Two Wink sinkholes in Wink, Texas, were developed in 1980 and 2002, respectively. However, monitoring the sinkholes in no man's lands has been challenging due to the lack of availability of high-resolution and temporally dense acquisitions. We employ aerial photography and radar satellite imagery to measure the long-term deformation from early 2000 and characterize the inherent hydrogeology that is closely related to sinkhole collapse and subsidence. Furthermore, data on oil/gas production and water injection into the subsurface as well as ground water level are analyzed to study their effects on the concurrent unstable ground surface in Wink sinkholes. Our study will provide invaluable information to understand the mechanism of sinkhole development and mitigate the catastrophic outcomes of the geohazards.

  15. Sensitivity of June near-surface temperatures and precipitation in the eastern United States to historical land cover changes since European settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, J.E.; Pielke, R.A.; Steyaert, L.T.; Knox, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Land cover changes alter the near surface weather and climate. Changes in land surface properties such as albedo, roughness length, stomatal resistance, and leaf area index alter the surface energy balance, leading to differences in near surface temperatures. This study utilized a newly developed land cover data set for the eastern United States to examine the influence of historical land cover change on June temperatures and precipitation. The new data set contains representations of the land cover and associated biophysical parameters for 1650, 1850, 1920, and 1992, capturing the clearing of the forest and the expansion of agriculture over the eastern United States from 1650 to the early twentieth century and the subsequent forest regrowth. The data set also includes the inferred distribution of potentially water-saturated soils at each time slice for use in the sensitivity tests. The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System, equipped with the Land Ecosystem-Atmosphere Feedback (LEAF-2) land surface parameterization, was used to simulate the weather of June 1996 using the 1992, 1920, 1850, and 1650 land cover representations. The results suggest that changes in surface roughness and stomatal resistance have caused present-day maximum and minimum temperatures in the eastern United States to warm by about 0.3??C and 0.4??C, respectively, when compared to values in 1650. In contrast, the maximum temperatures have remained about the same, while the minimums have cooled by about 0.1??C when compared to 1920. Little change in precipitation was found. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Removing non-urban roads from the National Land Cover Database to create improved urban maps for the United States, 1992-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Acevedo, William; Stehman, Stephen V.

    2018-01-01

    Quantifying change in urban land provides important information to create empirical models examining the effects of human land use. Maps of developed land from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of the conterminous United States include rural roads in the developed land class and therefore overestimate the amount of urban land. To better map the urban class and understand how urban lands change over time, we removed rural roads and small patches of rural development from the NLCD developed class and created four wall-to-wall maps (1992, 2001, 2006, and 2011) of urban land. Removing rural roads from the NLCD developed class involved a multi-step filtering process, data fusion using geospatial road and developed land data, and manual editing. Reference data classified as urban or not urban from a stratified random sample was used to assess the accuracy of the 2001 and 2006 urban and NLCD maps. The newly created urban maps had higher overall accuracy (98.7 percent) than the NLCD maps (96.2 percent). More importantly, the urban maps resulted in lower commission error of the urban class (23 percent versus 57 percent for the NLCD in 2006) with the trade-off of slightly inflated omission error (20 percent for the urban map, 16 percent for NLCD in 2006). The removal of approximately 230,000 km2 of rural roads from the NLCD developed class resulted in maps that better characterize the urban footprint. These urban maps are more suited to modeling applications and policy decisions that rely on quantitative and spatially explicit information regarding urban lands.

  17. 1970's Land use data refined with 1990 population data to indicate new residential development for the conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) historical Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) from the 1970's that has been refined with 1990 population density...

  18. Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2015/2016 Regional Land Cover Data - Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and land change information for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP...

  19. 1970's Land use data refined with 2000 population data to indicate new residential development for the conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) historical Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) from the 1970's that has been refined with 2000 population density...

  20. Forests of East Texas, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Brandeis

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas derived from an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Texas A&M Forest Service. These estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are...

  1. In the land of the chiefs : customary law, land conflicts, and the role of the state in Peri-Urban Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubink, Janine Marisca

    2008-01-01

    The central themes of this book are customary law, traditional leadership and local land management. International policy is currently witnessing a renewed interest in customary tenure systems and traditional leadership, through which it aims to enhance the efficiency of local governance, and create

  2. 78 FR 17716 - Notice Seeking Public Interest for Solar Energy Development on Public Lands in the State of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice Seeking Public Interest for Solar Energy Development on Public Lands in... an interest in proposing solar energy development projects on approximately 3,705 acres of public.... DATES: Parties interested in proposing a solar energy development project on the lands described in this...

  3. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Among the Mexican American Population in the Texas-Mexico Border Region, by Age and Length of Residence in United States

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas, Jennifer J.; Abdelbary, Bassent; Rentfro, Anne; Fisher-Hoch, Susan; McCormick, Joseph B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although the relationship between health behaviors and outcomes such as smoking and obesity with longer residence in the United States among Mexican American immigrants is established, the relationship between length of residency in the United States and risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between immigrant status, length of residence in the United States, age, and CVD markers in a sample of ...

  4. Major Land Resource Areas (MLRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of the Land Resource Regions and Major Land Resource Areas of the conterminous United States. Land resource regions are geographic areas...

  5. Biogenic hydrocarbon emission estimates for North Central Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedinmyer, C.; Wade Strange, I.; Allen, D.T. [University of Texas at Austin (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Estes, M. [Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, Austin, TX (United States); Yarwood, G. [ENVIRON International Corporation, Novato, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Biogenic hydrocarbon emissions were estimated for a 37 county region in North Central Texas. The estimates were based on several sources of land use/land cover data that were combined using geographical information systems. Field studies were performed to collect species and tree diameter distribution data. These data were used to estimate biomass densities and species distributions for each of the land use and cover classifications. VOC emissions estimates for the domain were produced using the new land use/land cover data and a biogenic emissions model. These emissions were more spatially resolved and a factor of 2 greater in magnitude than those calculated based on the biogenic emissions landuse database (BELD) commonly used in biogenic emissions models. (author)

  6. Estimating litter carbon stocks on forest land in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domke, Grant M; Perry, Charles H; Walters, Brian F; Woodall, Christopher W; Russell, Matthew B; Smith, James E

    2016-07-01

    Forest ecosystems are the largest terrestrial carbon sink on earth, with more than half of their net primary production moving to the soil via the decomposition of litter biomass. Therefore, changes in the litter carbon (C) pool have important implications for global carbon budgets and carbon emissions reduction targets and negotiations. Litter accounts for an estimated 5% of all forest ecosystem carbon stocks worldwide. Given the cost and time required to measure litter attributes, many of the signatory nations to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change report estimates of litter carbon stocks and stock changes using default values from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change or country-specific models. In the United States, the country-specific model used to predict litter C stocks is sensitive to attributes on each plot in the national forest inventory, but these predictions are not associated with the litter samples collected over the last decade in the national forest inventory. Here we present, for the first time, estimates of litter carbon obtained using more than 5000 field measurements from the national forest inventory of the United States. The field-based estimates mark a 44% reduction (2081±77Tg) in litter carbon stocks nationally when compared to country-specific model predictions reported in previous United Framework Convention on Climate Change submissions. Our work suggests that Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change defaults and country-specific models used to estimate litter carbon in temperate forest ecosystems may grossly overestimate the contribution of this pool in national carbon budgets. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. An Examination of Socio-Demographic Factors and Their Influence on Health Behaviors among International Students in the Texas State University System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msengi, Clementine Mukeshimana

    2012-01-01

    The number of international students attending higher education in the United States continues to grow (McLachlan & Justice, 2009). International students face several challenges while studying in the United States, some of which are health challenges (Zysberg, 2005). The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of various…

  8. Survey of lands held for uranium exploration, development, and production in fourteen western states in the six month period ending June 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The statistics set forth for the period covered by this report are based on data gathered from records available to the public. These data were derived from public county records of mining claim locations, from the public reports of state and Federal land offices, from commercial reporting services, and from annual reports to stockholders of land companies. Accordingly, if any fee land has been acquired in a private transaction which has not been entered into a public record or report, that land will not be accounted for in this report. The figures for the acreage controlled at the beginning of the calendar year are those that were published for that date in the publication entitled Statistical Data of the Uranium Industry GJO-100(78).

  9. Synthesis study of Texas signal control systems : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, several versions of traffic control systems have been established across the United States and within the state of Texas. There is a growing need to identify the various versions of these systems that exist, including the system hard...

  10. "Robin Hood" on Ropes in Texas School Aid Tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Texas has had its Robin Hood school financing system in place since 1993, when the legislature adopted the system in response to a state supreme court order to equalize state spending on public schools. Under the arrangement, any district that has taxable property values exceeding $305,000 per student is not allowed to keep all of its property-tax…

  11. Incidence and risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in Texas Latinos: implications for prevention research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie G Ramirez

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is increasing in the U.S. despite a decline in cancer overall. Latinos have higher rates of HCC than the general population according to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER Program. Not included in SEER, Texas Latinos make up one-fifth of the U.S. Latino population. To determine whether HCC incidence differs among U.S. and Texas Latinos, this descriptive study compares HCC incidence from 1995 through 2006 among three Latino populations: U.S. SEER, Texas overall and a South Texas subset. To identify lines of prevention research, we compare prevalence of known HCC risk factors among these Latino groups.Data were collected from the U.S. SEER Program, Texas Cancer Registry and Texas Department of State Health Services (TDSHS. Annual age-specific and age-adjusted HCC incidence rates, annual percent changes (APCs and 95% confidence intervals were calculated as well as prevalence of obesity, diabetes, heavy alcohol use and cigarette smoking.Of the three Latino groups compared, South Texas Latinos had the highest age-adjusted HCC incidence rates and SEER Latinos had the lowest (10.6/100,000 (10.1-11.1 and 7.5/100,000 (7.2-7.7, respectively. HCC incidence significantly increased over time (APCs>0 among Latinos in all three geographic groups. Between 1995 and 2006, there was an increase in obesity among all three populations, and obesity was highest among South Texas Latinos. Diabetes increased among U.S. Latinos, and Latino women in South Texas had significantly higher diabetes prevalence than U.S. Latino women. Cigarette smoking and heavy alcohol use were similar among groups.The incidence of HCC among Latinos in South Texas is higher than elsewhere in the United States. Higher rates of HCC among Texas and South Texas Latinos may be associated with greater prevalence of obesity and diabetes, risk factors for HCC that are amenable to intervention.

  12. Furrow Dike Water Conservation Practices in the Texas High Plains

    OpenAIRE

    Wistrand, Glen L.

    1984-01-01

    Furrow diking can prevent irrigation and rainfall runoff, conserve energy use, prevent soil loss, amd allow producers to reclaim land otherwise unusable, depending on soil, climate, and crops grown in a given area. Initial investment to use this technique may be recovered within the first season. This study analyzes the effects of diking on water and soil conservation, crop yields, costs, and energy use in farming, using examples of farms in the Texas High Plains area.

  13. Land Use Adaptation to Climate Change: Economic Damages from Land-Falling Hurricanes in the Atlantic and Gulf States of the USA, 1900–2005

    OpenAIRE

    Asim Zia

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change, especially the phenomena of global warming, is expected to increase the intensity of land-falling hurricanes. Societal adaptation is needed to reduce vulnerability from increasingly intense hurricanes. This study quantifies the adaptation effects of potentially policy driven caps on housing densities and agricultural cover in coastal (and adjacent inland) areas vulnerable to hurricane damages in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal regions of the U.S. Time series regressions, ...

  14. Land Competition and Land-Use Change:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vongvisouk, Thoumthone

    for commercial agricultural products in neighboring countries (including China and Vietnam) and to the government policies on agricultural development and poverty reduction. The land-use policy aims to improve rural land and resource tenure security, but in practice, it is actually used as a tool for state......Land competition and land-use changes are taking place in many developing countries as the demand for land increases. These changes are leading to changes in the livelihood conditions of rural people. The Government of Laos (GoL), on the one hand, aims to increase forest protection. On the other...... claims on land and forest resources and for increasing forest conservation. Not only do these land-use changes impact rural people’s livelihoods, but they also impact their access to land and natural forest resources. In general, rural people in the study area perceive that they have improved...

  15. Use of oyster reef and salt marsh habitat by estuarine macrofauna and infauna at Confederate Reef and Galveston Island State Park (Texas) during December 1988 and July 1989.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In December 1988 and July 1989, samples were collected at Confederate Reef and at Galveston Island State Park to assess an oyster reef and adjacent areas as nursery...

  16. Water supply and needs for West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation focused on the water supplies and needs of West Texas, Texas High Plains. Groundwater is the most commonly used water resources on the Texas High Plains, with withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer dominating. The saturation thickness of the Ogallala Aquifer in Texas is such that t...

  17. Specialty education in periodontics in Japan and the United States: comparison of programs at Nippon Dental University Hospital and the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Ginko; Nakaya, Hiroshi; Mealey, Brian L; Kalkwarf, Kenneth; Cochran, David L

    2014-03-01

    Japan has institutions that train qualified postdoctoral students in the field of periodontics; however, Japan does not have comprehensive advanced periodontal programs and national standards for these specialty programs. To help Japanese programs move toward global standards in this area, this study was designed to describe overall differences in periodontics specialty education in Japan and the United States and to compare periodontics faculty members and residents' characteristics and attitudes in two specific programs, one in each country. Periodontal faculty members and residents at Nippon Dental University (NDU) and the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UTHSCSA) Dental School participated in the survey study: four faculty members and nine residents at NDU; seven faculty members and thirteen residents at UTHSCSA. Demographic data were collected as well as respondents' attitudes toward and assessment of their programs. The results showed many differences in curriculum structure and clinical performance. In contrast to the UTHSCSA respondents, for example, the residents and faculty members at NDU reported that they did not have enough subject matter and time to learn clinical science. Although the residents at NDU reported seeing more total patients in one month than those at UTHSCSA, they were taught fewer varieties of periodontal treatments. To provide high-quality and consistent education for periodontal residents, Japan needs to establish a set of standards that will have positive consequences for those in Japan who need periodontal treatment.

  18. Invasive plants found in east Texas forests, 2009 forest inventory and analysis factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja N. Oswalt; Christopher M. Oswalt

    2011-01-01

    This science update provides information on the presence and cover of nonnative invasive plants found in forests of the eastern region of the State of Texas based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program at the Southern Research Station of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service in cooperation with the Texas Forest...

  19. Comparison of methods used within Member States for estimating CO2 emissions and sinks according to UNFCCC and EU Monitoring Mechanism: forest and other wooded land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raes F.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The national reporting for the EU Monitoring Mechanism on greenhouse gas emissions and for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change includes data for greenhouse gas emissions/removals from land-use change and forestry. By comparing the reports of EU15 Member States, we identified a lack of transparency, consistency and completeness concerning chapter 5 on land-use change and forestry. For chapter 5A (Changes in forest and other woody biomass stocks we discuss the differing ways of estimation in detail. In addition to an improved transparency we consider a key requirement, to come to more harmonised approaches and definitions, e.g., with regard to land areas and the factors used to expand from stemwood to total tree biomass. COST E21 may become the forum for supporting the scientific/technical discussion on the issue, provided all Member States of EU15 are participating in the action.

  20. Long-term Surveillance Plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  1. Long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. DOE will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  2. Impacts of Array Configuration on Land-Use Requirements for Large-Scale Photovoltaic Deployment in the United States: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R. M.

    2008-05-01

    Land use is often cited as an important issue for renewable energy technologies. In this paper we examine the relationship between land-use requirements for large-scale photovoltaic (PV) deployment in the U.S. and PV-array configuration. We estimate the per capita land requirements for solar PV and find that array configuration is a stronger driver of energy density than regional variations in solar insolation. When deployed horizontally, the PV land area needed to meet 100% of an average U.S. citizen's electricity demand is about 100 m2. This requirement roughly doubles to about 200 m2 when using 1-axis tracking arrays. By comparing these total land-use requirements with other current per capita land uses, we find that land-use requirements of solar photovoltaics are modest, especially when considering the availability of zero impact 'land' on rooftops. Additional work is need to examine the tradeoffs between array spacing, self-shading losses, and land use, along with possible techniques to mitigate land-use impacts of large-scale PV deployment.

  3. Redotex ingestions reported to Texas poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2010-09-01

    Although the multi-component weight loss supplement Redotex is banned in the United States, the supplement can be obtained in Mexico. The intent of this report was to describe the pattern of Redotex calls received by a statewide poison center system. Cases were all Redotex calls received by Texas poison centers during 2000-2008. The distribution of total calls and those involving ingestion of the supplement were determined for selected demographic and clinical factors. Of 34 total Redotex calls received, 55.9% came from the 14 Texas counties that border Mexico. Of the 22 reported Redotex ingestions, 77.3% of the patients were female and 45.5% 20 years or more. Of the 17 ingestions involving no co-ingestants, 52.9% were already at or en route to a health care facility, 41.2% were managed on site, and 5.9% was referred to a health care facility. The final medical outcome was no effect in 23.5% cases, minor effect in 5.9%, moderate effect in 11.8%, not followed but minimal clinical effects possible in 47.1%, and unable to follow but judged to be potentially toxic in 11.8%. Most Redotex calls to the Texas poison center system originated from counties bordering Mexico.

  4. 36 CFR 212.8 - Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest Service. 212.8 Section 212.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Administration of...

  5. Evaluating the national land cover database tree canopy and impervious cover estimates across the conterminous United States: a comparison with photo-interpreted estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    The 2001 National Land Cover Database (NLCD) provides 30-m resolution estimates of percentage tree canopy and percentage impervious cover for the conterminous United States. Previous estimates that compared NLCD tree canopy and impervious cover estimates with photo-interpreted cover estimates within selected counties and places revealed that NLCD underestimates tree...

  6. Assessing double counting of carbon emissions between forest land cover change and forest wildfires: a case study in the United States, 1992-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daolan Zheng; Linda S. Heath; Mark J. Ducey; Brad. Quayle

    2013-01-01

    The relative contributions of double counting of carbon emissions between forest-to-nonforest cover change (FNCC) and forest wildfires are an unknown in estimating net forest carbon exchanges at large scales. This study employed land-cover change maps and forest fire data in the four representative states (Arkansas, California, Minnesota, and Washington) of the US for...

  7. Longitudinal Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response to Wildfire, Bastrop County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Katie R; Feldt, Bonnie A; Zane, David F; Haywood, Tracy; Jones, Russell W; Horney, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    On September 4, 2011, a wildfire ignited in Bastrop County, Texas, resulting in losses of 34,068 acres of land and 1,645 homes and 2 deaths. At the request of the Texas Department of State Health Services Health Service Region 7 and the Bastrop County Office of Emergency Management, Community Assessments for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) were conducted in the weeks following the wildfire and again 3.5 years later to assess both the immediate and long-term public health and preparedness impacts of the wildfire. The objective of these assessments was to learn more about the trajectory of disaster recovery, including rebuilding, evacuation, household emergency planning, and mental and physical health outcomes among both adults and children. In 2015, households exposed to the 2011 wildfires were significantly more likely to have established a family meeting place and evacuation route, to have confidence in the local government's ability to respond to disaster, and to report symptoms of depression and higher stress. Longitudinal assessments using the CASPER method can provide actionable information for improved planning, preparedness, and recovery to public health and emergency management agencies and community residents.

  8. Texas urban triangle : creating a spatial decision support system for mobility policy and investments that shape the sustainable growth of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    This project developed a GIS-based Spatial Decision Support System to help local, metropolitan, and state : jurisdictions and authorities in Texas understand the implications of transportation planning and : investment decisions, and plan appropriate...

  9. A Study of Multitype Library Cooperatives: Including Developments in the Southwest Michigan Library Network, Michigan, California and Texas, with References to New York State and Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faibisoff, Sylvia G.

    This report reviews the activities, structure, and organization of the Southwest Michigan Library Network (SMLN) and provides a review of multitype networking in several other states, sources of funding, and issues in national networking. The SMLN is a cooperative group of 56 libraries located within the five counties of Allegan, Berrien, Cass,…

  10. Lesotho - Land Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Michigan State University was assigned to design the impact evaluation (IE) of the Land Administration Reform Project (LARP) funded under the Millennium Challenge...

  11. Groundwater Monitoring and Tritium-Tracking Plan for the 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. Brent

    2000-08-31

    The 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS) is a drainfield which receives treated wastewater, occasionally containing high levels of tritium from treatment of Hanford Site liquid wastes. Only the SALDS proximal wells (699-48-77A, 699-48-77C, and 699-48-77D) have been affected by tritium from the facility thus far; the highest activity observed (2.1E+6 pCi/L) occurred in well 699-48-77D in February 1998. Analytical results of groundwater geochemistry since groundwater monitoring began at the SALDS indicate that all constituents with permit enforcement limits have been below those limits with the exception of one measurement of total dissolved solids (TDS) in 1996. The revised groundwater monitoring sampling and analysis plan eliminates chloroform, acetone, tetrahydrofuran, benzene, and ammonia as constituents. Replicate field measurements will replace laboratory measurements of pH for compliance purposes. A deep companion well to well 699-51-75 will be monitored for tritium deeper in the uppermost aquifer.

  12. Groundwater Modeling of the Texas High Plains using Modflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, J. E.; Gowda, P. H.; Misra, D.; Marek, T.; Howell, T. A.

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and calibrate a groundwater model for a 4-county area in the Texas High Plains of the Ogallala Aquifer Region. This study is a major component of a comprehensive regional analysis of groundwater depletion in the Ogallala Aquifer Region with the purpose of understanding short- and long-term effects of existing and alternative land use scenarios on groundwater changes. A comprehensive geographic information system (GIS) database was developed for this purpose that included a recent land cover map. This 2008 land cover map was developed using Landsat satellite imagery with ground-truth points for Dallam, Sherman, Hartley, and Moore Counties in Texas. Other GIS layers included aquifer elevation contours, surficial geology, hydraulic conductivity contours, saturated thickness areas, well locations and piezometric heads, aquifer discharge and recharge areas, topography, hydrographic data, ecological regions, and soil type data. The hydrologic simulations were done using MODFLOW. Anticipated outcomes from this modeling effort include the effect of change in land use/land cover on sustainability of the aquifer life in the study region. Our results will be used to develop strategies to conserve groundwater in the Ogallala Aquifer beneath Central High Plains and improve regional water planning.

  13. Technical Training seminar: Texas Instruments

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Monday 6 November TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR 14:00 to 17:30 - Training Centre Auditorium (bldg. 593) Texas Instruments Technical Seminar Michael Scholtholt, Field Application Engineer / TEXAS INSTRUMENTS (US, D, CH) POWER - A short approach to Texas Instruments power products Voltage mode vs. current mode control Differentiating DC/DC converters by analyzing control and compensation schemes: line / load regulation, transient response, BOM, board space, ease-of-use Introduction to the SWIFT software FPGA + CPLD power solutions WIRELESS / CHIPCON Decision criteria when choosing a RF platform Introduction to Texas Instruments wireless products: standardized platforms proprietary platforms ( 2.4 GHz / sub 1 GHz) development tools Antenna design: example for 2.4 GHz questions, discussion Industrial partners: Robert Medioni, François Caloz / Spoerle Electronic, CH-1440 Montagny (VD), Switzerland Phone: +41 24 447 0137, email: RMedioni@spoerle.com, http://www.spoerle.com Language: English. Free s...

  14. Water Finance Forum-Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Finance Forum: Financing Resilient and Sustainable Water Infrastructure, held in Addison, Texas, September 10-11, 2015.Co-sponsored by EPA's Water Infrastructure and Resiliency Finance Center and the Environmental Finance Center Network.

  15. 2001 Harris County, Texas Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set was received by the NOAA Coastal Services Center from the Texas Natural Resources Information System. The data was collected in October of 2001 by...

  16. Environmental analysis of geopressured-geothermal prospect areas, Brazoria and Kenedy Counties, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, W.A.; McGraw, M.; Gustavson, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary environmental data, including current land use, substrate lithology, soils, natural hazards, water resources, biological assemblages, meteorological data, and regulatory considerations have been collected and analyzed for approximately 150 km/sup 2/ of land: (1) near Chocolate Bayou, Brazoria County, Texas, where a geopressured-geothermal test well was drilled in 1978, and (2) near the rural community of Armstrong, Kenedy County, Texas, where future geopressured-geothermal test well development may occur. The study was designed to establish an environmental data base and to determine, within spatial constraints set by subsurface reservoir conditions, environmentally suitable sites for geopressured-geothermal wells.

  17. Land Treatment Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  18. 78 FR 50086 - Notice of Competitive Auction for Solar Energy Development on Public Lands in the State of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Auction for Solar Energy Development on Public Lands in... applicant to submit a right-of-way (ROW) application and a plan of development for solar energy projects on... solicitations of interest and ROW applications within two designated Solar Energy Zones (SEZ): Los Mogotes East...

  19. Carbon and nitrogen stocks of a Typic Acrudox under different land use systems in Sao Paulo State of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil organic matter affects physical, chemical and biological conditions, and has been used as a soil quality index to differentiate the effects of different land uses and management practices. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil stocks of C and N under different land uses (conventional...

  20. 76 FR 38416 - Notice of Segregation of Public Lands in the States of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... appropriation under the public land and mining laws, but not the mineral leasing or material sales acts, for a.... DATES: Effective Date: This segregation is effective on June 30, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... under the public land laws, including the mining laws, but not the mineral leasing, geothermal leasing...

  1. Spatial patterns of land cover in the United States: a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters

    2011-01-01

    Land cover patterns inventoried from a national land cover map provide information about the landscape context and fragmentation of the Nation’s forests, grasslands, and shrublands. This inventory is required to quantify, map, and evaluate the capacities of landscapes to provide ecological goods and services sustainably. This report documents the procedures to...

  2. Quantifying the role of National Forest system lands in providing surface drinking water supply for the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Caldwell; Corinne Muldoon; Chelcy Ford-Miniat; Erika Cohen; Suzanne Krieger; Ge Sun; Steven McNulty; Paul V. Bolstad

    2014-01-01

    Forests and water are inextricably linked, and people are dependent on forested lands to provide clean, reliable water supplies for drinking and to support local economies. These water supplies are at risk of degradation from a growing population, continued conversion of forests to other land uses, and climate change. Given the variety of threats to surface water, it...

  3. Fault control of subsidence, Houston-Galveston area, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreitler, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    Land subsidence increases the area in the Texas Coastal Zone which will be inundated by marine waters from hurricane flooding. Storm surge from a Carla-sized hurricane in 1976 would flood at least 25 square miles more land than Hurricane Carla did in 1961. Land subsidence in Harris and Galveston Couunties results primarily from ground-water production. The two-county area is interlaced with active surface faults with topographic escarpments and surface faults with no topographic escarpments that control drainage patterns and create subtle photographic linear patterns. Ground-water production activates these faults by differential compaction of the aquifer. The faults appear to be partial hydrologic barriers that compartmentalize land subsidence into several individual basins.

  4. DS-777 Annual Model-Forecasted Land-Use/Land-Cover Rasters from 2009 to 2050 for the B2 Climate Scenario for the High Plains Aquifer in Parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Estimates of area and aerial extent of land use categories are an essential component for computing the water budget of the High Plains aquifer. These raster...

  5. A synthesis of terrestrial mercury in the western United States: Spatial distribution defined by land cover and plant productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, Daniel; Pearson, Christopher; Webster, Jackson; Kane, Tyler J.; Lin, Che-Jen; Aiken, George R.; Alpers, Charles N.

    2016-01-01

    A synthesis of published vegetation mercury (Hg) data across 11 contiguous states in the western United States showed that aboveground biomass concentrations followed the order: leaves (26 μg kg− 1) ~ branches (26 μg kg− 1) > bark (16 μg kg− 1) > bole wood (1 μg kg− 1). No spatial trends of Hg in aboveground biomass distribution were detected, which likely is due to very sparse data coverage and different sampling protocols. Vegetation data are largely lacking for important functional vegetation types such as shrubs, herbaceous species, and grasses.Soil concentrations collected from the published literature were high in the western United States, with 12% of observations exceeding 100 μg kg− 1, reflecting a bias toward investigations in Hg-enriched sites. In contrast, soil Hg concentrations from a randomly distributed data set (1911 sampling points; Smith et al., 2013a) averaged 24 μg kg− 1 (A-horizon) and 22 μg kg− 1 (C-horizon), and only 2.6% of data exceeded 100 μg kg− 1. Soil Hg concentrations significantly differed among land covers, following the order: forested upland > planted/cultivated > herbaceous upland/shrubland > barren soils. Concentrations in forests were on average 2.5 times higher than in barren locations. Principal component analyses showed that soil Hg concentrations were not or weakly related to modeled dry and wet Hg deposition and proximity to mining, geothermal areas, and coal-fired power plants. Soil Hg distribution also was not closely related to other trace metals, but strongly associated with organic carbon, precipitation, canopy greenness, and foliar Hg pools of overlying vegetation. These patterns indicate that soil Hg concentrations are related to atmospheric deposition and reflect an overwhelming influence of plant productivity — driven by water availability — with productive landscapes showing high soil Hg accumulation and unproductive barren soils and shrublands

  6. Commercial Space Port Planning in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, L.; Looke, B.

    2002-01-01

    The Texas Legislature is providing funding to support research and planning activities aimed at creating a commercial spaceport in the state. These monies have been allocated to regional Spaceport Development Corporations that have been established in three countries containing candidate site locations: Willacy County (in South Texas); Brazoria County (East Texas); and Pecos County (West Texas). This program is being sponsored and coordinated by the Texas Aerospace Commission (TAC). The Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture (SICSA) at the University of Houston is providing research, planning and design support to TAC and is a member of each of the three regional development teams. Planning must carefully consider special support requirements and operational characteristics of all prospective launch systems along with geographic, infrastructure and environmental factors at each site. Two of the candidate sites are in coastal areas; a priority for certain launch service providers; whereas the third inland site is more attractive to others. Candidate launch systems include winged horizontal takeoff air-launch vehicles, vertical multi-stage reusable launch vehicles, and expendable sub-orbital surrounding rockets. Important research and planning activities include environmental impact assessments, analyses of overflight hazards, investigations of economic impacts and business plan development. The results of these activities will guide master plan development for each site, including: a physical plan (site layout, infrastructure improvements and facility construction); and a strategic plan (user agreements, licenses, finance sources and participants). Commercial spaceport development demands compliance with stringent FAA regulations established by the Office of Commercial Space Transportation (OCST) which exceed minimum standards allowed for U.S. Government spaceport facilities. Key among these requirements are 15,000 ft. radius on-site clear zones

  7. Kratom exposures reported to Texas poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2013-01-01

    Kratom use is a growing problem in the United States. Kratom exposures reported to Texas poison centers between January 1998 and September 2013 were identified. No kratom exposures were reported from 1998 to 2008 and 14 exposures were reported from 2009 to September 2013. Eleven patients were male, and 11 patients were in their 20s. The kratom was ingested in 12 patients, inhaled in 1, and both ingested and inhaled in 1. Twelve patients were managed at a healthcare facility and the remaining 2 were managed at home.

  8. Effect of land cover on atmospheric processes and air quality over the continental United States – a NASA Unified WRF (NU-WRF model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Tao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The land surface plays a crucial role in regulating water and energy fluxes at the land–atmosphere (L–A interface and controls many processes and feedbacks in the climate system. Land cover and vegetation type remains one key determinant of soil moisture content that impacts air temperature, planetary boundary layer (PBL evolution, and precipitation through soil-moisture–evapotranspiration coupling. In turn, it will affect atmospheric chemistry and air quality. This paper presents the results of a modeling study of the effect of land cover on some key L–A processes with a focus on air quality. The newly developed NASA Unified Weather Research and Forecast (NU-WRF modeling system couples NASA's Land Information System (LIS with the community WRF model and allows users to explore the L–A processes and feedbacks. Three commonly used satellite-derived land cover datasets – i.e., from the US Geological Survey (USGS and University of Maryland (UMD, which are based on the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR, and from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS – bear large differences in agriculture, forest, grassland, and urban spatial distributions in the continental United States, and thus provide an excellent case to investigate how land cover change would impact atmospheric processes and air quality. The weeklong simulations demonstrate the noticeable differences in soil moisture/temperature, latent/sensible heat flux, PBL height, wind, NO2/ozone, and PM2.5 air quality. These discrepancies can be traced to associate with the land cover properties, e.g., stomatal resistance, albedo and emissivity, and roughness characteristics. It also implies that the rapid urban growth may have complex air quality implications with reductions in peak ozone but more frequent high ozone events.

  9. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF STATE DATA RELATED TO ABANDONED CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Seay Nance

    2003-03-01

    This 2003 Spring Semi-Annual Report contains a summary of the Final Technical Report being prepared for the Soil Remediation Requirements at Commercial and Centralized Drilling-Fluid Disposal (CCDD) Sites project funded by the United States Department of Energy under DOE Award No. DE-AC26-99BC15225. The summary describes (1) the objectives of the investigation, (2) a rationale and methodology of the investigation, (3) sources of data, assessment of data quality, and data availability, (4) examples of well documented centralized and commercial drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites and other sites where drilling fluid was disposed of, and (5) examples of abandoned sites and measures undertaken for their assessment and remediation. The report also includes most of the figures, tables, and appendices that will be included in the final report.

  10. LANDSAT-1 data as it has been applied for land use and water quality data by the Virginia State Water Control Board. 1: The state project. 2: Monitoring water quality from LANDSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, P. L.; Barker, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    LANDSAT-1 imagery has been used for water quality and land use monitoring in and around the Swift Creek and Lake Chesdin Reservoirs in Virginia. This has proved useful by (1) helping determine valid reservoir sampling stations, (2) monitoring areas not accessible by land or water, (3) giving the State a viable means of measuring Secchi depth readings in these inaccessible areas, (4) giving an overview of trends in changing sedimentation loadings over a given time period and classifying these waters into various categories, (5) enabling the State to inventory all major lakes and reservoirs and computing their acreage, (6) monitoring land use changes in any specific area, (7) evaluating possible long-term environmental effects of nearby developments, and (8) monitoring and predicting population shifts with possible impact on water quality problems. The main problems in the long-term use of such imagery appear to be cost and lack of consistency due to cloud cover limitations.

  11. Understanding recurrent land use processes and long-term transitions in the dynamic south-central United States, c. 1800 to 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Mark A.; Griffith, Glenn E.; Auch, Roger F.; Stier, Michael P.; Taylor, Janis L.; Hester, David J.; Riegle, Jodi L.; McBeth, Jamie L.

    2017-01-01

    Forests have historically been under significant land use pressures that cause periods of degradation, clearance, and recovery. To understand these changes, studies are needed that place trends in a historical landscape context and also examine recent dynamics. Here, we use historical investigation (c. 1800) and an examination of land use and land cover change between 1973 and 2006 to establish a baseline trajectory of the forested system of the south-central United States (US) plains. The study culminates in a highly detailed accounting of the processes and causes of land change between 2001 and 2006. In the study region, the forest transitioned from early low-intensity use, to clearance for farming and timber, to widespread recovery from degradation beginning in the 1930s. By 1970, the region was transitioning from recovered woodlands to an intensive regime of recurrent timber harvest and replanting. The recurring cycle inherent in intensive silviculture has been the main cause of land change for the past several decades, accounting for more than 95% of the total extent of change between 2001 and 2006. The transition to forest recovery in the south-central US was an important historical occurrence. However, the dynamic post-transition landscape needs to be better understood.

  12. Potential impact of neonicotinoid use on Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) in Texas: A historical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightsmith, Donald J.; Navarro-Alberto, Jorge A.

    2018-01-01

    The widespread use of neonicotinoid insecticides in recent years has led to increasing environmental concern, including impacts to avian populations. In Texas and across their range, Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) habitat frequently overlaps cultivated cropland protected by neonicotinoids. To address the effects of neonicotinoid use on bobwhites in Texas, we conducted a historical analysis from 1978–2012 in Texas’ ecological regions using quail count data collected from North American Breeding Bird Survey and Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, and neonicotinoid use data from the U.S. Geological Survey. We considered bobwhite abundance, neonicotinoid use, climate, and land-use variables in our analysis. Neonicotinoid use was significantly (pneonicotinoid introduction (1994–2003) or after their widespread use (2004–2012). Our analyses suggest that the use of neonicotinoid insecticides may negatively affect bobwhite populations in crop-producing regions of Texas. PMID:29324902

  13. The Myth of the Texas Miracle in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walt Haney

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available I summarize the recent history of education reform and statewide testing in Texas, which led to introduction of the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS in 1990-91. A variety of evidence in the late 1990s led a number of observers to conclude that the state of Texas had made near miraculous progress in reducing dropouts and increasing achievement. The passing scores on TAAS tests were arbitrary and discriminatory. Analyses comparing TAAS reading, writing and math scores with one another and with relevant high school grades raise doubts about the reliability and validity of TAAS scores. I discuss problems of missing students and other mirages in Texas enrollment statistics that profoundly affect both reported dropout statistics and test scores. Only 50% of minority students in Texas have been progressing from grade 9 to high school graduation since the initiation of the TAAS testing program. Since about 1982, the rates at which Black and Hispanic students are required to repeat grade 9 have climbed steadily, such that by the late 1990s, nearly 30% of Black and Hispanic students were "failing" grade 9. Cumulative rates of grade retention in Texas are almost twice as high for Black and Hispanic students as for White students. Some portion of the gains in grade 10 TAAS pass rates are illusory. The numbers of students taking the grade 10 tests who were classified as "in special education" and hence not counted in schools' accountability ratings nearly doubled between 1994 and 1998. A substantial portion of the apparent increases in TAAS pass rates in the 1990s are due to such exclusions. In the opinion of educators in Texas, schools are devoting a huge amount of time and energy preparing students specifically for TAAS, and emphasis on TAAS is hurting more than helping teaching and learning in Texas schools, particularly with at-risk students, and TAAS contributes to retention in grade and dropping out. Five different sources of evidence about

  14. Energy transport corridors: the potential role of Federal lands in states identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, section 368(b).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Kuiper, J.; Kolpa, R.; Moore, R.; May, J.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; McLamore, M.R.; Shamsuddin, S. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( EVS)

    2011-09-01

    106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA). Under Section 368, Congress divided the United States into two groups of states: the 11 contiguous western states and the remaining states. Direction for energy transportation corridor analysis and selection in the 11 western states was addressed in Section 368(a) of EPAct, while direction for energy transportation corridor analysis and selection in all other states was addressed under Section 368(b) of EPAct. It was clearly the priority of Congress to conduct corridor location studies and designation first on federal lands in the western states. Under Section 368(a), the Agencies produced a programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS), Designation of Energy Corridors on Federal Land in the 11 Western States (DOE and DOI 2008), that was used in part as the basis for designating more than 6,000 mi (9,656 km) of energy transportation corridors on federal land in 11 western states. Under Section 368(a) of EPAct, Congress clearly stated the Agencies needed to (1) designate energy transportation corridors on federal land, (2) conduct the necessary environmental review of the designated corridors, and (3) incorporate the designated corridors into the appropriate land use plans. Congressional direction under Section 368(b) of EPAct differs from that provided under Section 368(a). Specifically, Section 368(b) requires the secretaries of the Agencies, in consultation with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), affected utility industries, and other interested persons, to jointly: (1) Identify corridors for oil, gas, and hydrogen pipelines and electricity transmission and distribution facilities on federal land in states other than the 11 western states identified under Section 368(a) of EPAct, and (2) Schedule prompt action to identify, designate, and incorporate the corridors into the applicable land use plans. While Section 368(a) clearly directs designation as a necessary first step for energy

  15. 9 CFR 72.5 - Area quarantined in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of its regulations on its Internet homepage at http://www.tahc.state.tx.us/. Copies may be inspected... described in the regulations of the Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC) contained in §§ 41.14 through 41.../code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. ...

  16. Equity evaluation of vehicle miles traveled fees in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The Texas state gas tax has been 20.0 cents per gallon since 1991, and the federal gas tax has been 18.4 : cents per gallon since 1993. The gas tax is not only stagnant, but depreciating in value due to inflation. : One proposed alternative to the ga...

  17. Charting the Course of Special Education in Texas' Charter Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Mary Bailey

    2003-01-01

    This study of Texas' charter schools examined whether these schools are complying with federal law concerning the education of students with disabilities. Examination of state records and interviews with charter school administrators raised serious questions about whether children and adolescents with special needs have equal access to quality,…

  18. Shelter dogs as sentinels for Trypanosoma cruzi transmission across Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenney, Trevor D; Curtis-Robles, Rachel; Snowden, Karen F; Hamer, Sarah A

    2014-08-01

    Chagas disease, an infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is increasingly diagnosed among humans in the southern United States. We assessed exposure of shelter dogs in Texas to T. cruzi; seroprevalence across diverse ecoregions was 8.8%. Canine serosurveillance is a useful tool for public health risk assessment.

  19. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment for Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report presents existing workforce levels, training programs and career potentials and develops staffing level projections (1976-1982) based on available information for the State of Texas. The study concerns itself with the environmental pollution control areas of air, noise, potable water, pesticides, radiation, solid waste, wastewater, and…

  20. Living on a Cotton Farm: Mexican American Life in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Mary S.

    This packet of six lesson plans highlights Mexican-American life on a Texas cotton farm in the early 20th century. Each lesson provides a lesson overview; states educational objectives; cites materials needed; details the procedure for classroom implementation; offers a closure activity; and suggests an extension activity. The packet is divided…

  1. Texas refinery air pollution emissions are being severely underestimated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2014-06-01

    The Houston-Galveston-Brazoria region of southeastern Texas is home to heavy industrial investment in oil refining and petrochemical production. Pollutants emanating from the factories and refineries have repeatedly caused the region to fail national and state-level tests for air quality and ground-level ozone.

  2. Texas Hydrogen Education Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, David; Bullock, Dan

    2011-06-30

    The Texas Hydrogen Education project builds on past interest in hydrogen and fuel cells to help create better informed leaders and stakeholders and thereby improve decision making and planning for inclusion of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies as energy alternatives in Texas. In past years in Texas, there was considerable interest and activities about hydrogen and fuel cells (2000-­2004). During that time, the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) created a fuel cell consortium and a fuel cell testing lab. Prior to 2008, interest and activities had declined substantially. In 2008, in cooperation with the Texas H2 Coalition and the State Energy Conservation Office, HARC conducted a planning process to create the Texas Hydrogen Roadmap. It was apparent from analysis conducted during the course of this process that while Texas has hydrogen and fuel cell advantages, there was little program and project activity as compared with other key states. Outreach and education through the provision of informational materials and organizing meetings was seen as an effective way of reaching decision makers in Texas. Previous hydrogen projects in Texas had identified the five major urban regions for program and project development. This geographic targeting approach was adopted for this project. The project successfully conducted the five proposed workshops in four of the target metropolitan areas: San Antonio, Houston, Austin, and the Dallas-­Ft. Worth area. In addition, eight outreach events were included to further inform state and local government leaders on the basics of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. The project achieved its primary objectives of developing communication with target audiences and assembling credible and consistent outreach and education materials. The major lessons learned include: (1) DOE’s Clean Cities programs are a key conduit to target transportation audiences, (2) real-­world fuel cell applications (fuel cell buses, fuel cell fork lifts

  3. Local wood demand, land cover change and the state of Albany Thicket on an urban commonage in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, M M; Shackleton, C M

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the rates and causes of land-use change is crucial in identifying solutions, especially in sensitive landscapes and ecosystems, as well as in places undergoing rapid political, socioeconomic or ecological change. Despite considerable concern at the rate of transformation and degradation of the biodiversity-rich Albany Thicket biome in South Africa, most knowledge is gleaned from private commercial lands and state conservation areas. In comparison, there is limited work in communal areas where land uses include biomass extraction, especially for firewood and construction timber. We used aerial photographs to analyze land use and cover change in the high- and low-use zones of an urban commonage and an adjacent protected area over almost six decades, which included a major political transition. Field sampling was undertaken to characterize the current state of the vegetation and soils of the commonage and protected area and to determine the supply and demand for firewood and construction timber. Between the 1950s and 1980s, there was a clear increase in woody vegetation cover, which was reversed after the political transition in the mid-1990s. However, current woody plant standing stocks and sustainable annual production rates are well above current firewood demand, suggesting other probable causes for the decline in woody plant cover. The fragmentation of woody plant cover is paralleled by increases in grassy areas and bare ground, an increase in soil compaction, and decreases in soil moisture, carbon, and nutrients.

  4. Local Wood Demand, Land Cover Change and the State of Albany Thicket on an Urban Commonage in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, M. M.; Shackleton, C. M.

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the rates and causes of land-use change is crucial in identifying solutions, especially in sensitive landscapes and ecosystems, as well as in places undergoing rapid political, socioeconomic or ecological change. Despite considerable concern at the rate of transformation and degradation of the biodiversity-rich Albany Thicket biome in South Africa, most knowledge is gleaned from private commercial lands and state conservation areas. In comparison, there is limited work in communal areas where land uses include biomass extraction, especially for firewood and construction timber. We used aerial photographs to analyze land use and cover change in the high- and low-use zones of an urban commonage and an adjacent protected area over almost six decades, which included a major political transition. Field sampling was undertaken to characterize the current state of the vegetation and soils of the commonage and protected area and to determine the supply and demand for firewood and construction timber. Between the 1950s and 1980s, there was a clear increase in woody vegetation cover, which was reversed after the political transition in the mid-1990s. However, current woody plant standing stocks and sustainable annual production rates are well above current firewood demand, suggesting other probable causes for the decline in woody plant cover. The fragmentation of woody plant cover is paralleled by increases in grassy areas and bare ground, an increase in soil compaction, and decreases in soil moisture, carbon, and nutrients.

  5. LAND GOVERNANCE AND LAND DEALS IN AFRICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    proportion of the smallholders' land for a joint venture with a Chinese company in a wildlife safari ..... governments in Africa which enable these deals to take place; deals .... A great deal of these lands is legally owned by the state and many government authorities see foreign investment as a way to expand the economy.

  6. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 to 2001 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  7. EnviroAtlas - Synthetic N fertilizer application to agricultural lands by 12-digit HUC in the Conterminous United States, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset contains data on the mean synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer application to cultivated crop and hay/pasture lands per 12-digit Hydrologic...

  8. EnviroAtlas - Cultivated biological nitrogen fixation in agricultural lands by 12-digit HUC in the Conterminous United States, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset contains data on the mean cultivated biological nitrogen fixation (C-BNF) in cultivated crop and hay/pasture lands per 12-digit Hydrologic...

  9. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  10. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 to 2016 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  11. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  12. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  13. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 to 2001 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  14. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2010 to 2016 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  15. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  16. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  17. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 to 1985 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  18. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  19. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  20. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 to 1996 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...