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Sample records for texas site selection

  1. Texas site selection and licensing status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avant, R.V. Jr.

    1989-11-01

    Texas has identified a potential site in Hudspeth County in far West Texas near the town of Fort Hancock. Over the past year the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority has been conducting detailed geology, hydrology, meteorology, soils, and flora and fauna evaluations. An authorization by the Board of Directors of the Authority to proceed with a license application, assuming that the detailed evaluation indicates that the site is suitable, is expected by September. A prototype license has been prepared in anticipation of the order to proceed with licensing, and the formal license application is expected to be submitted to the Texas Department of Health-Bureau of Radiation Control in December, meeting the license application milestone. Although site selection processes in all siting areas across the country have experienced organized opposition, El Paso County has funded a particularly well-organized, well-financed program to legally and technically stop consideration of the Fort Hancock site prior to the licensing process. Many procedural, regulatory, and technical issues have been raised which have required responses from the Authority in order to proceed with licensing. This has provided a unique perspective of what to expect from well-organized opposition at the licensing stage. This paper presents an update on the Texas siting activity with detailed information on the site evaluation and license application. Experience of dealing with issues raised by opposition relating to NRC guidelines and rules is also discussed.

  2. Proceedings of second geopressured geothermal energy conference, Austin, Texas, February 23--25, 1976. Volume II. Resource assessment. [Geologic procedures for test- or industrial-site selection along Texas Gulf coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bebout, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    This report describes techniques being used in the assessment of geopressured geothermal resources along the Texas Gulf Coast and defines geologic procedures for test- or industrial-site selection. These approaches have been proven in petroleum exploration and are applicable in geothermal exploration here in the Gulf basin and in other sedimentary basins.

  3. Chemical and bacteriological quality of water at selected sites in the San Antonio area, Texas, August 1968-January 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, R.D.; Blakey, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    Urban development on or adjacent to the recharge zone of the Edwards aquifer is causing concern about the possible pollution of ground water in the aquifer, which is the principal source of water supply for the San Antonio area. Water-quality data for many wells and springs and for selected sites on streams that cross the recharge zone of the aquifer are being collected to provide background information and to detect any current pollution of ground water in the area. Water from the Edwards aquifer is very hard and of the calcium bicarbonate type. The concentrations of dissolved solids in samples from wells and springs ranged from about 200 to 470 mg/1 (milligrams per liter); the chloride and sulfate concentrations ranged from 6.5 to 62 mg/1 and from 0.0 to 65 mg/1, respectively. The nitrate and phosphate contents of the ground water ranged from 0.0 to 15 mg/1 and from 0.00 to 0. 37 mg/1. The concentrations of these and other constituents show that the chemical quality of water in the Edwards aquifer has not been degraded significantly by domestic, industrial, or agricultural effluents. However, variations in the number of coliforms, the concentrations of nitrate and phosphate, and the presence of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci in samples from some wells show that fecal pollution is reaching the aquifer. Most of these wells, which are located in or just downdip from the recharge zone, are poorly sealed or inadequately cased. The areal variation in the locations of these wells indicates that pollution of ground water in the aquifer is very localized. Prllution results principally from runoff from the land surface and from effluent from septic tanks which enters the aquifer through fractures in the recharge zone or which infiltrates through the thin soil into poorly sealed or inadequately cased wells in or adjacent to the recharge zone. Trace amounts of several pesticides have been detected in samples from two wells in the San Antonio area. Field

  4. Environmental assessment: Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a location in Deaf Smith County, Texas, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Deaf Smith County site and the eight other potentially sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. The Deaf Smith County site is in the Permian Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Deaf Smith County site is not disqualified under the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Deaf Smith County site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization. 591 refs., 147 figs., 173 tabs.

  5. Environmental assessment: Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a location in Deaf Smith County, Texas, as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Deaf Smith County site and eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. The Deaf Smith County site is in the Permian Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Deaf Smith County site is not disqualified under the guidelines.

  6. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Falls City, Texas. Remedial action selection report, attachment 2, geology report; attachment 3, groundwater hydrology report; and attachment 4, water resources protection strategy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-09-01

    The uranium processing site near Falls City, Texas, was one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be remediated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA). The UMTRCA requires that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The RAP, which includes this summary remedial action selection report (RAS), serves a two-fold purpose. First, it describes the activities proposed by the DOE to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of the residual radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Falls City, Texas. Second, this document and the remainder of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the State of Texas, and the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement between the DOE and the State of Texas.

  7. Comparison of Temperature, Specific Conductance, pH, and Dissolved Oxygen at Selected Basic Fixed Sites in South-Central Texas, 1996-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    of Texas to include the complete watersheds of the Nueces, San Antonio, and Guadalupe River Basins (fig. 1); but to date (2003), the study has...Ri ver San M arcos RIVER River GUADALUPE MEDINA RIVER A NT ONIO C ibolo C reek RIVER M i ssio n C reek C reek Frio Rive r N U EC ES GU LF O F M EX IC...Cotulla Victoria Corpus Christi Concan Wimberly La Coste Elmendorf 97o 98o 99o100o 30o 28o 29o 4 5 6 3 2 1 Figure 1. South-Central Texas National Water

  8. Soil response to clearcutting and site preparation in East Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Stransky; Lowell K. Halls; K.G. Watterston

    1982-01-01

    On an east Texas forest site, clearcutting and site preparation did not change the soil pH. Chopping and KG blading significantly reduced organic matter i n the surface soil, while burning slightly increased it. Organic matter showed a positive and significant relationship to potassium, calcium and magnesium. Allsite treatments increased phosphorus and potassium, with...

  9. Selecting a repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghovanlou, A.H. (MITRE Corp., McLean, VA); Ettlinger, L.; Cotton, T.; Barnard, W.; Siever, R.

    1982-01-01

    Present knowledge about the regional and local geologic predictions as it relates to waste repository sites and some related knowledge gained from oil and mining explorations are summarized. The types of geologic testing involved in selecting a repository site are described, and a simple analytic scheme for estimating the costs of such a program is discussed. This scheme is based on the sequential accumulation of knowledge throughout the process of siting. It is concluded that several sites should be investigated simultaneously since there is a trade-off to be made between the economic costs of carrying forward all the sites that pass the screening process and the political costs of selecting from a limited number of qualified sites. This would help to insure that a qualified site would be publicly acceptable at some point in the future. (BLM)

  10. Environmental assessment, Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 USC sections 10101-10226) requires the environmental assessment of a proposed site to include a statement of the basis for nominating a site as suitable for characterization. Volume 2 provides a detailed statement evaluating the site suitability of the Deaf Smith County Site under DOE siting guidelines, as well as a comparison of the Deaf Smith County Site to the other sites under consideration. The evaluation of the Deaf Smith County Site is based on the impacts associated with the reference repository design, but the evaluation will not change if based on the Mission Plan repository concept. The second part of this document compares the Deaf Smith County Site to Davis Canyon, Hanford, Richton Dome and Yucca Mountain. This comparison is required under DOE guidelines and is not intended to directly support subsequent recommendation of three sites for characterization as candidate sites. 259 refs., 29 figs., 66 refs. (MHB)

  11. Wildlife Contact Rates at Artificial Feeding Sites in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Tyler A.; Long, David B.; Shriner, Susan A.

    2013-06-01

    Given the popularity of feeding white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) in Texas and the increasing amount of corn that is distributed, more information is needed on the impacts of this activity on non-target wildlife. Our objectives were to report visitation, intra- and interspecific contact, and contact rates of wildlife at artificial feeding sites in Texas. Our study was conducted at three sites in Kleberg and Nueces counties, Texas. We trapped animals from February to April and August to September, 2009 and marked animals with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. At each site and season, we placed one feeder system containing a PIT tag reader within 600 m of trap locations. Readers detected PIT tags from a distance of 25 cm. We determined a contact event to occur when two different PIT tags were detected by feeder systems within 5 s. We recorded 62,719 passes by raccoons ( Procyon lotor), 103,512 passes by collared peccaries ( Pecari tajacu), 2,923 passes by feral swine ( Sus scrofa), 1,336 passes by fox squirrels ( Sciurus niger), and no passes by opossums ( Didelphis virginiana) at feeder systems. For site-season combinations in which contact events occurred, we found intraspecific contact rates (contacts per day) for raccoons, collared peccaries, and feral swine to be 0.81-124.77, 0.69-38.08, and 0.0-0.66, respectively. Throughout our study we distributed ~2,625 kg of whole kernel corn, which resulted in 6,351 contact events between marked wildlife (2.4 contacts per kg of corn). If 136 million kg of corn is distributed in Texas annually, we would expect >5.2 billion unnatural contact events between wildlife would result from this activity each year in Texas. Consequently, we do not believe that it is wise for natural resource managers to maintain artificial feeding sites for white-tailed deer or other wildlife due to pathogen transmission risks.

  12. Genetic evidence of enzootic leishmaniasis in a stray canine and Texas mouse from sites in west and central Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan J Kipp

    Full Text Available We detected Leishmania mexicana in skin biopsies taken from a stray canine (Canis familiaris and Texas mouse (Peromyscus attwateri at two ecologically disparate sites in west and central Texas using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. A single PCR-positive dog was identified from a sample of 96 stray canines and was collected in a peri-urban area in El Paso County, Texas. The PCR-positive P. attwateri was trapped at a wildlife reserve in Mason County, Texas, from a convenience sample of 20 sylvatic mammals of different species. To our knowledge, this represents the first description of L. mexicana in west Texas and extends the known geographic range of the parasite to an area that includes the arid Chihuahuan Desert. Our finding of L. mexicana in P. attwateri represents a new host record and is the first description of the parasite in a wild peromyscid rodent in the United States.

  13. Genetic evidence of enzootic leishmaniasis in a stray canine and Texas mouse from sites in west and central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Evan J; Mariscal, Jacqueline; Armijos, Rodrigo X; Weigel, Margaret; Waldrup, Kenneth

    2016-10-01

    We detected Leishmania mexicana in skin biopsies taken from a stray canine (Canis familiaris) and Texas mouse (Peromyscus attwateri) at two ecologically disparate sites in west and central Texas using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A single PCR-positive dog was identified from a sample of 96 stray canines and was collected in a peri-urban area in El Paso County, Texas. The PCR-positive P. attwateri was trapped at a wildlife reserve in Mason County, Texas, from a convenience sample of 20 sylvatic mammals of different species. To our knowledge, this represents the first description of L. mexicana in west Texas and extends the known geographic range of the parasite to an area that includes the arid Chihuahuan Desert. Our finding of L. mexicana in P. attwateri represents a new host record and is the first description of the parasite in a wild peromyscid rodent in the United States.

  14. DNA contents in Texas bluegrass (Poa arachnifera) selected in Texas and Oklahoma determined by flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas bluegrass (Poa arachnifera Torr.) is a dioecious, perennial, cool-season grass native to southern Kansas, Oklahoma, western Arkansas and most of Texas. Its major use has been for forage on rangelands in Texas and Oklahoma. More recently, interspecific hybrids between Texas bluegrass and Kentuc...

  15. Late Quaternary environments of the Waco Mammoth site, Texas USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordt, Lee; Bongino, John; Forman, Steven; Esker, Don; Benedict, Anita

    2015-11-01

    The Waco Mammoth Site (WMS) in central Texas contains the remains of the largest mammoth herd (Mammuthus columbi) in North America that died in a single catastrophic event. Most mammoths at the site died on a gravel bar of the ancient Bosque River adjacent to a collapsing tributary wall. However, the timing and cause of death of the 26 mammoths documented to date are controversial. The objectives of this research are to: describe and interpret the alluvial stratigraphy and infer the cause of death, employ optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating to determine the timing of death, and analyze stable C isotopes of pedogenic carbonate to infer local plant communities, dietary habits, and summer temperatures. Dating of quartz from seven sediment samples by OSL places the death event to a weighted mean of 66.8 ± 5.0 ka. The site is coeval with Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 4, consistent with our reconstructed mean July temperatures 4°C cooler than today based on a buried soil isotopic transfer function. Our buried soil isotopic interpretation of a dominance of C3 plants is contrary to previous studies of mammoth tooth enamel at the site suggesting a dietary preference for warm season grasses (C4).

  16. Assessing Passeriformes health in South Texas via select venous analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistone, J; Heatley, J J; Campbell, T A; Voelker, G

    2017-08-01

    The handheld point of care analyzer is a quick and feasible option to obtain hematology data from individuals. The iSTAT-1® was used to evaluate select venous blood analytes obtained via jugular venipuncture from 238 passerine birds from South Texas. These data were used to assess the health of birds in the area while taking into consideration life history (migratory or sedentary), locale, seasonality, sex, and age. We attributed increased values of pO2 and hematocrit, in addition to hemoglobin and glucose concentrations of migratory birds compared to sedentary birds as the increased need of oxygen carrying capacity and energy for long duration flights. Increased glucose and lower ionized calcium concentrations were observed in migratory birds likely based on breakdown of fat deposits in the body to fuel the muscular endurance of migration. During the hotter months of the year, birds' responses to handling were exhibited by relative respiratory acidosis. When sedentary birds sampled from South Texas were compared to a previous study from Central Texas, venous blood analytes differed by locale but were within the ranges of healthy populations. These findings lead us to conclude that sedentary avian communities can be used as ecosystem bioindicators. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Site study plan for Transportation, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Preliminary draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-01

    This site study plan describes transportation field studies to be conducted during the characterization of the Deaf Smith County, Texas, site for the US Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project. The studies are needed to identify and assess potential project impacts to transportation infrastructure and systems in the project vicinity and along potential transportation routes to the site across the State of Texas. The studies are also needed to locate and design project transportation facilities, and to evaluate and design impact mitigation. After identifying the transportation information requirements needed to comply with Federal, State, and local regulations and repository program requirements, the site study plan describes the study design and rationale, the field data collection procedures and equipment, the data analysis methods and application of results, the data management strategy, the schedule of field activities, the management of the study, and the study's quality assurance program. The field data collection activities are organized into programs for the characterization of site vicinity rail corridors and highway corridors, characterization of alternative statewide transportation routes, monitoring of site characterization effects on transportation, characterization of aircraft overflight patterns and hazardous material transportation patterns, and assessment of emergency response preparedness along alternative statewide transportation routes. 34 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Wetlands at Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site and Surrounding Areas, Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector polygon coverage of wetlands at and surronding Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site, Texas. Roughly 20% of the park can be classified as...

  19. Self-referencing site index equations for unmanaged loblolly and slash pine plantations in east Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean W. Coble; Young-Jin Lee

    2010-01-01

    The Schnute growth function was used in this study to model site index for unmanaged or low-intensity managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda, L.) and slash pine (Pinus elliottii, Engelm.) plantations in east Texas. The algebraic difference approach was used to derive an anamorphic base-age invariant site function that was fit as a...

  20. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA project site at Falls City, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    During surface remedial action, an estimated 7.0 million tons (6.4 million tonnes) of uranium mill tailings and other contaminated materials were consolidated and stabilized on the Falls City site. The ground water protection strategy at the Falls City disposal site for the UMTRA Surface Project (Subpart A of 40 CFR Part 192 (1994)) was an application for supplemental standards, based on Class III (limited use) ground water in the uppermost aquifer. This water is not a current or potential source of drinking water. Ground water from the uppermost aquifer (ground water from the Deweesville/Conquista Members and the Dilworth Member) contains widespread ambient contamination resulting from naturally occurring conditions and from the effects of human activity not related to uranium milling operations (uranium exploration and mining activities). The ground water cannot be effectively cleaned up for drinking or other beneficial purposes using treatment methods reasonably employed by public water supply systems. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of Texas concurred with the ground water protection strategy for the disposal site in September 1992. Surface remedial action in accord with Subpart A was completed in April 1994. The proposed ground water compliance strategy (Subpart B of 40 CFR Part 192 (1994)) at the Falls City site is to perform no remedial action based on application for supplemental standards because the ground water in the uppermost aquifer is classified as Class III ground water. Class III ground water includes ground water that is not a current or potential source of drinking water because of widespread, ambient contamination that cannot be cleaned up using treatment methods reasonably employed by public water supply systems (40 CFR {section} 192.11 (e) (1994)). Although supplemental standards are being applied, the potential use of ground water in the site vicinity will be protected.

  1. Final report for the geothermal well site restoration and plug and abandonment of wells: DOE Pleasant Bayou test site, Brazoria County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinehart, Ben N.; Seigel, Ben H.

    1994-03-13

    For a variety of reasons, thousands of oil and gas wells have been abandoned in the Gulf Coast Region of the United States. Many of these wells penetrated geopressured zones whose resource potential for power generation was undervalued or ignored. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geopressured-Geothermal Research Program was chartered to improve geothermal technology to the point where electricity could be commercially produced from a substantial number of geopressured resource sites. This research program focused on relatively narrow technical issues that are unique to geopressured resources such as the ability to predict reservoir production capacity based on preliminary flow tests. Three well sites were selected for the research program. These are the Willis Hulin and Gladys McCall sites in Louisiana, and the Pleasant Bayou site in Texas. The final phase of this research project consists of plug and abandonment (P&A) of the wells and site restoration.

  2. Remedial Action Plan for Expanded Bioventing System at Site FC-2 Kelly AFB, Texas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    This remedial action plan presents the scope for an expanded bioventing system for in situ treatment of fuel-contaminated soils at a former fire control training area referred to as Site FC-2 at Kelly Air Force Base (AFB) Texas...

  3. Forest Clearcutting and Site Preparation on a Saline Soil in East Texas: Impacts on Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew McBroom; Mingteh Chang; Alexander K. Sayok

    2002-01-01

    Three 0.02 hectare plot-watersheds were installed on a saline soil in the Davy Crockett National Forest near Apple Springs, Texas. Each plot was installed with an H-flume, FW-1 automatic water level recorder, Coshocton N-1 runoff sampler, and two storage tanks. One watershed was undisturbed forested and served a control, one was clearcut without any site-preparation,...

  4. Digital Geologic Map of Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site and vicinity, Texas (NPS, GRD, GRE, PAAL, PAAL digital map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site and vicinity, Texas is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.2 layer (.LYR)...

  5. Flood inundation extent and depth in selected areas of Louisiana, Texas, and Mississippi in March 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heal, Elizabeth; Breaker, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Heavy rainfall occurred across Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, and Mississippi in March 2016 as a result of a slow-moving southward dip in the jetstream, funneling tropical moisture into parts of the Gulf Coastal States and the Mississippi River Valley. The storm caused major flooding in the northwestern and southeastern parts of Louisiana and in eastern Texas. Flooding also occurred in the Mississippi River Valley in Arkansas and Mississippi. Over 26 inches of rain were reported near Monroe, Louisiana over the duration of the storm event. In March 2016, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel made over 490 streamflow measurements at over 375 locations in Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, and Mississippi. Many of those streamflow measurements were made for verifying the accuracy of stage-streamflow relations at gaging stations operated by the USGS. Peak streamflows were the highest on record at 14 locations, and streamflows at 29 locations ranked in the top five for the period of record at U.S. Geological streamflow-gaging stations analyzed for this report. Following the storm event, USGS personnel documented 451 high-water marks in Louisiana and on the western side of the Sabine River in Texas. Many of these high-water marks were used to create 19 flood-inundation maps for selected areas of Louisiana and Texas that experienced flooding in March 2016.This data release contains the actual flood-depth measurements made in 13 selected river basins of Louisiana, Texas, and Mississippi during March 2016. The file types contained in this data release are shape files, metadata, and images created by mapping software. Measurements were made in these 13 basins to document flood depth and assist in the estimation of flood-inundation area. The flood-inundation maps created from these measurements can be found in Breaker and others (2016).

  6. Characterization of Hydraulically Significant Discontinuities in Mudrocks at the Waste Control Specialists (WCS) Site, West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuszmaul, J. S.; Holt, R. M.; Powers, D. W.; Beauheim, R.; Pickens, J. F.; grisak, G. E.; Hughes, E.; Cook, S.

    2011-12-01

    Triassic mudrocks of the Dockum Group (Cooper Canyon Formation) host four, below-grade landfills at the Waste Control Specialists (WSC) site in Andrews County, Texas, including: a hazardous waste landfill and three radioactive waste landfills. At many radioactive waste disposal facilities, the long-term performance of the facility may be influenced by the transport of radionuclides through interconnected fracture networks. WCS developed an integrated geologic mapping and hydraulic testing program to evaluate the hydraulic significance of discontinuities within Dockum rocks. At the WCS site, the Dockum consists of mudrocks with sparse siltstone/sandstone interbeds that developed in a semi-arid environment from an ephemeral meandering fluvial system. Sedimentary studies reveal that the mudrocks are ancient floodplain vertisols (soils with swelling clays) and siltstone/sandstone interbeds are fluvial channel deposits that were frequently subaerially exposed. Rock discontinuities, including fractures, were mapped during the excavation of the WCS radioactive waste landfills along vertical faces prepared by the construction contractor. Face locations were selected to insure nearly complete vertical coverage for each landfill. Individual discontinuities were mapped and their strike, dip, length, roughness, curvature, staining, and evidence of displacement were described. In the three radioactive waste disposal landfills, over 1750 discontinuities across 35 excavated faces were mapped and described, where each face was nominally 8 to 10 ft tall and 50 to 100 ft long. On average, the orientation of the discontinuities was horizontal, and no other significant trends were observed. Mapping within the landfill excavations shows that most discontinuities within Dockum rocks are horizontal, concave upward, slickensided surfaces that developed in the depositional environment, as repeated wetting and drying cycles led to shrinking and swelling of floodplain vertisols. Fractures

  7. Data Validation Package: April 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Falls City, Texas, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasso, Tashina [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Widdop, Michael [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-09-29

    Nine groundwater samples were collected at the Falls City, Texas, Disposal Site as specified in the March 2008 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the US Department of Energy Falls City Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas (DOE-LM/1602-2008). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for US Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). The wells sampled included the cell performance monitoring wells (0709, 0858, 0880, 0906, and 0921) and the groundwater monitoring wells (0862, 0886, 0891, 0924, and 0963). A duplicate sample was collected from location 0891. Water levels were measured at each sampled well. Historically, cell performance monitoring wells 0908 and 0916 have not produced water and were confirmed as dry during this sampling event. These wells are completed above the saturated interval in the formation. Notable observations for time-concentration graphs in this report include: (1) uranium concentrations in well 0891 continue to increase; (2) the uranium concentration in well 0880 is higher than the 2015 value and lower than the 2014 value, and it remains within the range of historical values; and (3) uranium concentrations in the other sampled wells are below 2 mg/L and consistent with previous results.

  8. Long-term Surveillance Plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  9. Long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. DOE will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  10. Remote Sensing Analysis of the Sierra Blanca (Faskin Ranch) Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site, Hudspeth County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeMone, D. V.; Dodge, R.; Xie, H.; Langford, R. P.; Keller, G. R.

    2002-02-26

    Remote sensing images provide useful physical information, revealing such features as geological structure, vegetation, drainage patterns, and variations in consolidated and unconsolidated lithologies. That technology has been applied to the failed Sierra Blanca (Faskin Ranch) shallow burial low-level radioactive waste disposal site selected by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority. It has been re-examined using data from LANDSAT satellite series. The comparison of the earlier LANDSAT V (5/20/86) (30-m resolution) with the later new, higher resolution ETM imagery (10/23/99) LANDSAT VII data (15-m resolution) clearly shows the superiority of the LANDSAT VII data. The search for surficial indications of evidence of fatal flaws at the Sierra Blanca site utilizing was not successful, as it had been in the case of the earlier remote sensing analysis of the failed Fort Hancock site utilizing LANDSAT V data. The authors conclude that the tectonic activity at the Sierra Blanca site is much less recent and active than in the previously studied Fort Hancock site. The Sierra Blanca site failed primarily on the further needed documentation concerning a subsurface fault underneath the site and environmental justice issues. The presence of this fault was not revealed using the newer LANDSAT VII data. Despite this fact, it must be remembered that remote sensing provides baseline documentation for determining future physical and financial remediation responsibilities. On the basis of the two sites examined by LANDSAT remote sensing imaging, it is concluded that it is an essential, cost-effective tool that should be utilized not only in site examination but also in all nuclear-related facilities.

  11. Strategy for selecting Mars Pathfinder landing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, Ronald; Kuzmin, Ruslin O.

    1994-01-01

    A strategy for Pathfinder site selection must be developed that is fundamentally different from most previous considerations. At least two approaches can be identified. In one approach, the objective is to select a site representing a key geologic unit on Mars, i.e., a unit that is widespread, easily recognized, and used frequently as a datum in various investigations. The second approach is to select a site that potentially affords access to a wide variety of rock types. Because rover range is limited, rocks from a variety of sources must be assembled in a small area for sampling. Regardless of the approach taken in site selection, the Pathfinder site should include eolian deposits and provisions should be made to obtain measurements on soils. A recommended approach for selecting the Mars Pathfinder landing site is to identify a deltaic deposit, composed of sediments derived from sources of various ages and geologic units that shows evidence of eolian activity. The site should be located as close as possible to the part of the outwash where rapid deposition occurred because the likelihood of 'sorting' by size and composition increases with distance, decreasing the probability of heterogeneity. In addition, it is recommended that field operation tests be conducted to gain experience and insight into conducting science with Pathfinder.

  12. Selected streambed sediment compounds and water toxicity results for Westside Creeks, San Antonio, Texas, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Cassi L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Kunz, James L.

    2016-12-01

    IntroductionThe Alazán, Apache, Martínez, and San Pedro Creeks in San Antonio, Texas, are part of a network of urban tributaries to the San Antonio River, known locally as the Westside Creeks. The Westside Creeks flow through some of the oldest neighborhoods in San Antonio. The disruption of streambed sediment is anticipated during a planned restoration to improve and restore the environmental condition of 14 miles of channelized sections of the Westside Creeks in San Antonio. These construction activities can create the potential to reintroduce chemicals found in the sediments into the ecosystem where, depending on hydrologic and environmental conditions, they could become bioavailable and toxic to aquatic life. Elevated concentrations of sediment-associated contaminants often are measured in urban areas such as San Antonio, Tex. Contaminants found in sediment can affect the health of aquatic organisms that ingest sediment. The gradual accumulation of trace elements and organic compounds in aquatic organisms can cause various physiological issues and can ultimately result in death of the aquatic organisms; in addition, subsequent ingestion of aquatic organisms can transfer the accumulated contaminants upward through the food chain (a process called biomagnification).The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio River Authority, collected sediment samples and water samples for toxicity testing from sites on the Westside Creeks as part of an initial characterization of selected contaminants in the study area. Samples were collected in January 2014 during base-flow conditions and again in May 2104 after a period of stormwater runoff (poststorm conditions). Sediment samples were analyzed for selected constituents, including trace elements and organic contaminants such as pesticides, brominated flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In addition, as an indicator of ecological health (and

  13. NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) orthorectified mosaic image tiles for select coastal bays, Texas, 2007 (NODC Accession 0086051)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are a collection of natural color (RGB) and color infrared (IR) ortho images from selected coastal bays of Texas. The actual project boundary located...

  14. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Falls City, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Produced by the US Department of Energy (DOE), this site observational work plan (SOWP) will be used to determine site-specific activities to comply with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards at this Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The purpose of the SOWP is to recommend a site-specific ground water compliance strategy at the Falls City UMTRA Project site. The Falls City SOWP presents a comprehensive summary of site hydrogeological data, delineates a conceptual model of the aquifer system, and discusses the origins of milling-related ground water contamination. It also defines the magnitude of ground water contamination, potential environmental and health risks associated with ground water contamination and data gaps, and targets a proposed compliance strategy.

  15. Long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The need for ground water monitoring at the Falls City disposal site was evaluated in accordance with NRC regulations and guidelines established by the DOE in Guidance for Implementing the Long-term Surveillance Program for UMTRA Project Title 1 Disposal Sites (DOE, 1996). Based on evaluation of site characterization data, it has been determined that a program to monitor ground water for demonstration of disposal cell performance based on a set of concentration limits is not appropriate because ground water in the uppermost aquifer is of limited use, and a narrative supplemental standard has been applied to the site that does not include numerical concentration limits or a point of compliance. The limited use designation is based on the fact that ground water in the uppermost aquifer is not currently or potentially a source of drinking water in the area because it contains widespread ambient contamination that cannot be cleaned up using methods reasonably employed by public water supply systems. Background ground water quality varies by orders of magnitude since the aquifer is in an area of redistribution of uranium mineralization derived from ore bodies. The DOE plans to perform post-closure ground water monitoring in the uppermost aquifer as a best management practice (BMP) as requested by the state of Texas.

  16. Analysis of the utilization of the materials management concept by selected public utilities in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    Materials management is an integrative approach to control the flow of production materials. This dissertation focused on the public utilities industry and its practices in the materials management area. Major emphasis of this research was to 1) define the state-of-the-art of materials management within the gas and electric utilities in Texas, 2) determine its impact on the corporate structure, and 3) identify opportunities for materials management in the future of the Texas utilities industry. The major thrust of this research was to analyze the current status of materials management utilization within the industry. This was accomplished by examining the relationships of selected demographic variables with companies' materials management posture. The materials management concept exists in varying stages of development in the gas and electric utility industry in Texas. Some firms classified as nonpracticing may in fact be utilizing materials management at a very early stage in development within the organization. Findings showed a trend toward the gaining acceptance of the materials management concept.

  17. The Geneva site is selected in 1952

    CERN Multimedia

    1953-01-01

    Geneva was selected as the site for the CERN Laboratory at the Third Council Session in Amsterdam in October 1952. This choice was approved by a referendum in the Canton of Geneva in June 1953, by 16 539 votes to 7332.

  18. On-Site Oxy-Lance Size Reduction of South Texas Project Reactor Vessel Heads - 12324

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posivak, Edward [WMG, inc. (United States); Keeney, Gilbert; Wheeler, Dean [Shaw Group (United States)

    2012-07-01

    On-Site Oxy-Lance size reduction of mildly radioactive large components has been accomplished at other operating plants. On-Site Oxy-Lance size reduction of more radioactive components like Reactor Vessel Heads had previously been limited to decommissioning projects. Building on past decommissioning and site experience, subcontractors for South Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company (STPNOC) developed an innovative integrated system to control smoke, radioactive contamination, worker dose, and worker safety. STP's innovative, easy to use CEDM containment that provided oxy lance access, smoke control, and spatter/contamination control was the key to successful segmentation for cost-effective and ALARA packaging and transport for disposal. Relative to CEDM milling, STP oxy-lance segmentation saved approximately 40 person- REM accrued during 9,000 hours logged into the radiological controlled area (RCA) during more than 3,800 separate entries. Furthermore there were no personnel contamination events or respiratory uptakes of radioactive material during the course of the entire project. (authors)

  19. Replacement Power Facility site selection report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Toole, G.L.; Specht, W.L.

    1992-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has proposed the construction and operation of a Replacement Power Facility (RPF) for supplementing and replacing existing sources of steam and possibly electricity at the Savannah River Site (SRS). DOE is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for this project As part of the impact analysis of the proposed action, the EIS will include a detailed description of the environment where the RPF will be constructed. This description must be specific to the recommended site at SRS, which contains more than 300 square miles of land including streams, lakes, impoundments, wetlands, and upland areas. A formal site-selection process was designed and implemented to identify the preferred RPF site.

  20. Mercury species measured atop the Moody Tower TRAMP site, Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Steven; Luke, Winston; Cohen, Mark; Kelly, Paul; Lefer, Barry; Rappenglück, Bernhard

    2010-10-01

    Atmospheric mercury speciation was monitored within Houston, Texas, USA, August 6-October 14, 2006 as part of the TexAQS Radical and Aerosol Measurement Program (TRAMP). On average, all mercury levels were significantly elevated compared to a rural Gulf of Mexico coastal site. Concentrations varied from very clean to very dirty. Multi-day periods of stagnant or low-wind conditions brought elevated concentrations of all mercury species, whereas multi-day periods of strong winds, particularly southerly winds off the Gulf of Mexico, brought very low values of mercury species. Over the entire mercury measurement period, the daily averages of mercury species showed distinct and consistent relationships with the average planetary boundary layer dynamics, with gaseous elemental and particulate-bound mercury near-surface concentrations enhanced by a shallow nocturnal boundary layer, and reactive gaseous mercury concentration enhanced by midday convective boundary layer air entrainment transporting air aloft to the surface. Mercury concentrations were not significantly correlated with known products of combustion, likely indicating non-combustion mercury sources from the Houston area petrochemical complexes. On the morning of August 31, 2006 an observed emission event at a refinery complex on the Houston Ship Channel resulted in extremely high concentrations of aerosol mass and particulate-bound mercury at the TRAMP measurement site 20 km downwind.

  1. Site Selection for Hvdc Ground Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, P. F.; Pereira, S. Y.

    2014-12-01

    High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission systems are composed of a bipole transmission line with a converter substation at each end. Each substation may be equipped with a HVDC ground electrode, which is a wide area (up to 1 km Ø) and deep (from 3 to 100m) electrical grounding. When in normal operation, the ground electrode will dissipate in the soil the unbalance of the bipole (~1.5% of the rated current). When in monopolar operation with ground return, the HVDC electrode will inject in the soil the nominal pole continuous current, of about 2000 to 3000 Amperes, continuously for a period up to a few hours. HVDC ground electrodes site selection is a work based on extensive geophysical and geological surveys, in order to attend the desired design requirements established for the electrodes, considering both its operational conditions (maximum soil temperature, working life, local soil voltage gradients etc.) and the interference effects on the installations located up to 50 km away. This poster presents the geophysical investigations conducted primarily for the electrodes site selection, and subsequently for the development of the crust resistivity model, which will be used for the interference studies. A preliminary site selection is conducted, based on general geographical and geological criteria. Subsequently, the geology of each chosen area is surveyed in detail, by means of electromagnetic/electrical geophysical techniques, such as magnetotelluric (deep), TDEM (near-surface) and electroresistivity (shallow). Other complementary geologic and geotechnical surveys are conducted, such as wells drilling (for geotechnical characterization, measurement of the water table depth and water flow, and electromagnetic profiling), and soil and water sampling (for measurement of thermal parameters and evaluation of electrosmosis risk). The site evaluation is a dynamic process along the surveys, and some sites will be discarded. For the two or three final sites, the

  2. Characterization of undrained shear strength profiles for soft clays at six sites in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    TxDOT frequently uses Texas Cone Penetrometer (TCP) blow counts to estimate undrained shear strength. : However, the current correlations between TCP resistance and undrained shear strength have been developed primarily for : significantly stronger s...

  3. Analysis of trends in selected streamflow statistics for the Concho River Basin, Texas, 1916-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbie, Dana L.; Wehmeyer, Loren L.; May, Jayne E.

    2012-01-01

    The Concho River Basin is part of the upper Colorado River Basin in west-central Texas. Monotonic trends in streamflow statistics during various time intervals from 1916-2009 were analyzed to determine whether substantial changes in selected streamflow statistics have occurred within the Concho River Basin. Two types of U.S. Geological Survey streamflow data comprise the foundational data for this report: (1) daily mean discharge (daily discharge) and (2) annual instantaneous peak discharge. Trend directions are reported for the following streamflow statistics: (1) annual mean daily discharge, (2) annual 1-day minimum discharge, (3) annual 7-day minimum discharge, (4) annual maximum daily discharge, and (5) annual instantaneous peak discharge.

  4. Hydrogeological characterization of a bank filtration experiment site at the Rio Grande, El Paso, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, R.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Pillai, S.; Abdel-Fattah, A.; Widmer, K.

    2003-04-01

    An experiment site was constructed along an artificial channel of the Rio Grande in El Paso, Texas. The experiment was funded by the EPA and is designed to measure the effectiveness of bank filtration in an arid environment. Regionally, the experiment is important because of the hundreds of thousands of people drinking water from shallow wells drilled in close proximity to septic systems. A pumping well was drilled 17 meters from the stream bank and screened from 3.5 to 8 m depth. A cruciform array of observation wells with several multilevel completions allows detection of downstream and vertical movement of water as well as flow from the stream to the well. All of the wells were continuously cored during drilling. Analysis of the cores reveals that the site consists of two stacked channels filled with sand deposited from the meandering Rio Grande. A grid of ground-penetrating radar lines provided three-dimensional coverage between wells and showed bedding to 6.5 m depth. Constant head hydraulic conductivities show that the aquifer consists of two more permeable units separated by the less permeable upper fill of the lower channel complex, with vertical hydraulic conductivities of (1x10-6 to 2x10-6 m/s?). The intervals above and below this interval have the highest vertical conductivities (up to 3.5x10-5 m/s). A multiple pumping and tracer test was conducted using the cruciform array of the field site that consisted of a pumping well, 16 observation wells, and a stream sampling point. The average hydraulic conductivity of the geological media at the field site was about 2 x 10-3 m/s based on pumping test analysis. However, the type curve responses revealed significant heterogeneity of hydraulic conductivity throughout the field site. For the tracer test, bromide and microspheres were used as tracers. Microspheres were used to mimic the behavior of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. The tracers (bromide and microspheres of different sizes and colors) were injected in one

  5. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 3, Bryan Mound Site, Texas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-09-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 3 focuses on the Bryan Mound SPR site, located in southeastern Texas. Volumes 1, 2, and 4, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  6. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 2, Big Hill Site, Texas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-08-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 2 focuses on the Big Hill SPR site, located in southeastern Texas. Volumes 1, 3, and 4, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  7. Phase II, Title I engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Falls City Site, Falls City, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    An engineering assessment was performed of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Falls City, Texas. Services included taking soil samples, the performance of radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 2.5 million tons of tailings at the Falls City site constitutes the most significant environmental impact. Windblown tailings, external gamma radiation and localized contamination of surface waters are other environmental effects. The two alternative remedial action options presented include on-site and off-site cleanup, fencing, and hydrological monitoring, and in addition, stabilization of pile 2 with 2 ft of cover material. The costs are $1.84 million for Option I and $2.45 million for Option II.

  8. Occurrence and concentrations of selected trace elements and halogenated organic compounds in stream sediments and potential sources of polychlorinated biphenyls, Leon Creek, San Antonio, Texas, 2012–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jennifer T.

    2016-06-23

    The Texas Department of State Health Services issued fish consumption advisories in 2003 and 2010 for Leon Creek in San Antonio, Texas, based on elevated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish tissues. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measured elevated PCB concentrations in stream-sediment samples collected during 2007–9 from Leon Creek at Lackland Air Force Base (now known as Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland; the sampling site at this base is hereinafter referred to as the “Joint Base site”) and sites on Leon Creek downstream from the base. This report describes the occurrence and concentrations of selected trace elements and halogenated organic compounds (pesticides, flame retardants, and PCBs) and potential sources of PCBs in stream-sediment samples collected from four sites on Leon Creek during 2012–14. In downstream order, sediment samples were collected from Leon Creek at northwest Interstate Highway 410 (Loop 410), Rodriguez Park, Morey Road, and Joint Base. The USGS periodically collected streambed-sediment samples during low flow and suspended-sediment samples during high flow.

  9. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Siting Guide, Site selection and evaluation criteria for an early site permit application. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-24

    In August 1991, the Joint Contractors came to agreement with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Department of Energy (DOE) on a workscope for the cost-shared Early Site Permit Demonstration Program. One task within the scope was the development of a guide for site selection criteria and procedures. A generic Siting Guide his been prepared that is a roadmap and tool for applicants to use developing detailed siting plans for their specific region of the country. The guide presents three fundamental principles that, if used, ensure a high degree of success for an ESP applicant. First, the site selection process should take into consideration environmentally diverse site locations within a given region of interest. Second, the process should contain appropriate opportunities for input from the public. Third, the process should be applied so that it is clearly reasonable to an impartial observer, based on appropriately selected criteria, including criteria which demonstrate that the site can host an advanced light water reactor (ALWR). The Siting Guide provides for a systematic, comprehensive site selection process in which three basic types of criteria (exclusionary, avoidance, and suitability) are presented via a four-step procedure. It provides a check list of the criteria for each one of these steps. Criteria are applied qualitatively, as well as presented numerically, within the guide. The applicant should use the generic guide as an exhaustive checklist, customizing the guide to his individual situation.

  10. SMR technology selection for remote sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, D. [Gen4 Energy, Denver, Colorado (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Gen4 Energy (formerly Hyperion Power Generation) is developing a small next generation nuclear power reactor. Sealed at the factory, including fuel for its 10 year operational lifetime, the Gen4 Power Module (G4M) will require no refueling and no on-site access to nuclear fuel (vastly reducing safety and proliferation concerns). The market for Gen4 Energy's product is anywhere that electricity is currently produced by diesel generators. This market includes: Remote and Island Communities that are off-grid and reliant on expensive and regular supply of diesel fuel; Mining and Oil & Gas Production projects that are off-grid, energy-intensive, and increasingly sensitive to the environmental concerns of burning fossil fuels; and, Government Facilities that need reliable, off-grid power for sensitive or strategic missions. Specific technologies that were included in the Gen4 design include liquid metal (lead bismuth) coolant, uranium nitride fuel, and a fast neutron spectrum. This presentation will provide market based rationale for those technology selections.

  11. Site Selection for Mars Exopaleontology in 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jack

    1998-01-01

    The microbial fossil record encompasses a wide range of information, including cellular remains, stromatolites, biofabrics, trace fossils, biominerals and chemofossils. The preservation of fossils is strongly influenced by the physical, chemical and biological factors of the environment which, acting together, ultimately determine the types of information that will be captured and retained in the rock record. The critical factor in assessing the suitability of a site for a microbial fossil record is the paleoenvironment. The reconstruction of ancient sedimentary environments usually requires the integration of a wide variety of geological information, including the shape, geometry and internal structure of sedimentary deposits, their mineralogy, and geochemistry. For Mars, much of our knowledge about past environments is based on orbital imaging of geomorphic features. This evidence provides an important context and starting point for site selection. However, our knowledge of the martian surface is quite limited, and a major goal of the upcoming exploration effort is to reconstruct the history of Martian volatiles, climate, and hydrology as a context for the exploration for past or present life. Mineralogical mapping from orbit will be an important key in this effort. In exploring for evidence of past life, terrestrial experience suggests that the long-term preservation of biological information as fossils occurs under a fairly narrow range of geological conditions that are well known to paleontologists (1). In detrital sedimentary systems, microbial fossilization is favored by rapid burial in fine-grained, clay-rich sediments. In chemical sedimentary systems, preservation is enhanced by rapid entombment in fine-grained chemical precipitates. For long term preservation, host rocks must be composed of stable minerals that resist chemical weathering, and which form an impermeable matrix and closed chemical system that can protect biosignatures from alteration during

  12. Approaches to LLW disposal site selection and current progress of host states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J.J.; Kerr, T.A.

    1990-11-01

    In accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and under the guidance of 10 CFR 61, States have begun entering into compacts to establish and operate regional disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. The progress a state makes in implementing a process to identify a specific location for a disposal site is one indication of the level of a state's commitment to meeting its responsibilities under Federal law and interstate compact agreements. During the past few years, several States have been engaged in site selection processes. The purpose of this report is to summarize the site selection approaches of some of the Host States (California, Michigan, Nebraska, New York, North Carolina, Texas, and Illinois), and their progress to date. An additional purpose of the report is to discern whether the Host States's site selection processes were heavily influenced by any common factors. One factor each state held in common was that political and public processes exerted a powerful influence on the site selection process at virtually every stage. 1 ref.

  13. Public Outreach of the South Texas Health Physic Society and Texas A&M University Nuclear Engineering Department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, R. O.

    2003-02-24

    In a cooperative effort of the members of the South Texas Chapter of the Heath Physics Society (STC-HPS) and the Texas A&M University Nuclear Engineering Department, great efforts have been made to reach out and provide educational opportunities to members of the general public, school age children, and specifically teachers. These efforts have taken the form of Science Teacher Workshops (STW), visits to schools all over the state of Texas, public forums, and many other educational arenas. A major motivational factor for these most recent efforts can be directly tied to the attempt of the State of Texas to site a low-level radioactive waste facility near Sierra Blanca in West Texas. When the State of Texas first proposed to site a low level radioactive waste site after the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 was passed, many years of political struggle ensued. Finally, a site at Sierra Blanca in far West Texas was selected for study and characterization for a disposal site for waste generated in the Texas Compact states of Maine, Vermont and Texas. During this process, the outreach to and education of the local public became a paramount issue.

  14. Streamflow alteration at selected sites in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Eng, Ken

    2017-06-26

    An understanding of streamflow alteration in response to various disturbances is necessary for the effective management of stream habitat for a variety of species in Kansas. Streamflow alteration can have negative ecological effects. Using a modeling approach, streamflow alteration was assessed for 129 selected U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in the State for which requisite streamflow and basin-characteristic information was available. The assessment involved a comparison of the observed condition from 1980 to 2015 with the predicted expected (least-disturbed) condition for 29 streamflow metrics. The metrics represent various characteristics of streamflow including average flow (annual, monthly) and low and high flow (frequency, duration, magnitude).Streamflow alteration in Kansas was indicated locally, regionally, and statewide. Given the absence of a pronounced trend in annual precipitation in Kansas, a precipitation-related explanation for streamflow alteration was not supported. Thus, the likely explanation for streamflow alteration was human activity. Locally, a flashier flow regime (typified by shorter lag times and more frequent and higher peak discharges) was indicated for three streamgages with urbanized basins that had higher percentages of impervious surfaces than other basins in the State. The combination of localized reservoir effects and regional groundwater pumping from the High Plains aquifer likely was responsible, in part, for diminished conditions indicated for multiple streamflow metrics in western and central Kansas. Statewide, the implementation of agricultural land-management practices to reduce runoff may have been responsible, in part, for a diminished duration and magnitude of high flows. In central and eastern Kansas, implemented agricultural land-management practices may have been partly responsible for an inflated magnitude of low flows at several sites.

  15. Archeological Test Excavations at Site 41WM21 in Granger Reservoir, Williamson County, Texas. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    the prehistory. Archeologists working in central Texas in the past have re- lied on the application of the Midwestern Taxonomic system of Kelley (1947...gram of 2; approxi- dried sediment. One frag- mately 1 m. ment of Quercus pollen grain, below natural charcoal present and some level. fungal spores. 92...Analysis: Paleoecology of the Llano Estacado. Museum of New Mexico Press, p. 59-91. Havinga, A. J. 1964 Investigation into the Differential Corrosion

  16. Detecting individual sites subject to episodic diversifying selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Murrell

    Full Text Available The imprint of natural selection on protein coding genes is often difficult to identify because selection is frequently transient or episodic, i.e. it affects only a subset of lineages. Existing computational techniques, which are designed to identify sites subject to pervasive selection, may fail to recognize sites where selection is episodic: a large proportion of positively selected sites. We present a mixed effects model of evolution (MEME that is capable of identifying instances of both episodic and pervasive positive selection at the level of an individual site. Using empirical and simulated data, we demonstrate the superior performance of MEME over older models under a broad range of scenarios. We find that episodic selection is widespread and conclude that the number of sites experiencing positive selection may have been vastly underestimated.

  17. Sequence determinants in human polyadenylation site selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautheret Daniel

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differential polyadenylation is a widespread mechanism in higher eukaryotes producing mRNAs with different 3' ends in different contexts. This involves several alternative polyadenylation sites in the 3' UTR, each with its specific strength. Here, we analyze the vicinity of human polyadenylation signals in search of patterns that would help discriminate strong and weak polyadenylation sites, or true sites from randomly occurring signals. Results We used human genomic sequences to retrieve the region downstream of polyadenylation signals, usually absent from cDNA or mRNA databases. Analyzing 4956 EST-validated polyadenylation sites and their -300/+300 nt flanking regions, we clearly visualized the upstream (USE and downstream (DSE sequence elements, both characterized by U-rich (not GU-rich segments. The presence of a USE and a DSE is the main feature distinguishing true polyadenylation sites from randomly occurring A(A/UUAAA hexamers. While USEs are indifferently associated with strong and weak poly(A sites, DSEs are more conspicuous near strong poly(A sites. We then used the region encompassing the hexamer and DSE as a training set for poly(A site identification by the ERPIN program and achieved a prediction specificity of 69 to 85% for a sensitivity of 56%. Conclusion The availability of complete genomes and large EST sequence databases now permit large-scale observation of polyadenylation sites. Both U-rich sequences flanking both sides of poly(A signals contribute to the definition of "true" sites. However, the downstream U-rich sequences may also play an enhancing role. Based on this information, poly(A site prediction accuracy was moderately but consistently improved compared to the best previously available algorithm.

  18. Mobile measurement of methane and hydrogen sulfide at natural gas production site fence lines in the Texas Barnett Shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapi, Gautam R; Sabnis, Madhu S; Sattler, Melanie L

    2014-08-01

    Production of natural gas from shale formations is bringing drilling and production operations to regions of the United States that have seen little or no similar activity in the past, which has generated considerable interest in potential environmental impacts. This study focused on the Barnett Shale Fort Worth Basin in Texas, which saw the number of gas-producing wells grow from 726 in 2001 to 15,870 in 2011. This study aimed to measure fence line concentrations of methane and hydrogen sulfide at natural gas production sites (wells, liquid storage tanks, and associated equipment) in the four core counties of the Barnett Shale (Denton, Johnson, Tarrant, and Wise). A mobile measurement survey was conducted in the vicinity of 4788 wells near 401 lease sites, representing 35% of gas production volume, 31% of wells, and 38% of condensate production volume in the four-county core area. Methane and hydrogen sulfide concentrations were measured using a Picarro G2204 cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS). Since the research team did not have access to lease site interiors, measurements were made by driving on roads on the exterior of the lease sites. Over 150 hr of data were collected from March to July 2012. During two sets of drive-by measurements, it was found that 66 sites (16.5%) had methane concentrations > 3 parts per million (ppm) just beyond the fence line. Thirty-two lease sites (8.0%) had hydrogen sulfide concentrations > 4.7 parts per billion (ppb) (odor recognition threshold) just beyond the fence line. Measured concentrations generally did not correlate well with site characteristics (natural gas production volume, number of wells, or condensate production). t tests showed that for two counties, methane concentrations for dry sites were higher than those for wet sites. Follow-up study is recommended to provide more information at sites identified with high levels of methane and hydrogen sulfide. Implications: Information regarding air emissions from shale gas

  19. Data on Occurrence of Selected Trace Metals, Organochlorines, and Semivolatile Organic Compounds in Edible Fish Tissues From Lake Worth, Fort Worth, Texas 1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moring, J. B

    2002-01-01

    .... Air Force and in collaboration with the Texas Department of Health, collected samples of edible fish tissues from Lake Worth for analysis of selected trace metals, organochlorines, and semivolatile...

  20. SAR Subsets for Selected Field Sites, 2007-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images for 42 selected sites from various terrestrial ecology and meteorological monitoring networks including...

  1. SAR Subsets for Selected Field Sites, 2007-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images for 42 selected sites from various terrestrial ecology and meteorological monitoring networks...

  2. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Falls City, Texas: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination of the uranium mill tailings site near Falls City, Texas, evaluates potential impact to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former Susquehanna Western, Inc. (SWI), uranium mill processing site. This document fulfills the following objectives: determine if the site presents immediate or potential future health risks, determine the need for interim institutional controls, serve as a key input to project planning and prioritization, and recommend future data collection efforts to more fully characterize risk. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has begun its evaluation of ground water contamination at the Falls City site. This risk assessment is one of the first documents specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. The first step is to evaluate ground water data collected from monitor wells at or near the site. Evaluation of these data show the main contaminants in the Dilworth ground water are cadmium, cobalt, fluoride, iron, nickel, sulfate, and uranium. The data also show high levels of arsenic and manganese occur naturally in some areas.

  3. Assessment of selected contaminants in streambed- and suspended-sediment samples collected in Bexar County, Texas, 2007-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jennifer T.

    2011-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of sediment-associated contaminants are typically associated with urban areas such as San Antonio, Texas, in Bexar County, the seventh most populous city in the United States. This report describes an assessment of selected sediment-associated contaminants in samples collected in Bexar County from sites on the following streams: Medio Creek, Medina River, Elm Creek, Martinez Creek, Chupaderas Creek, Leon Creek, Salado Creek, and San Antonio River. During 2007-09, the U.S. Geological Survey periodically collected surficial streambed-sediment samples during base flow and suspended-sediment (large-volume suspended-sediment) samples from selected streams during stormwater runoff. All sediment samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and for organic compounds including halogenated organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Selected contaminants in streambed and suspended sediments in watersheds of the eight major streams in Bexar County were assessed by using a variety of methods—observations of occurrence and distribution, comparison to sediment-quality guidelines and data from previous studies, statistical analyses, and source indicators. Trace elements concentrations were low compared to the consensus-based sediment-quality guidelines threshold effect concentration (TEC) and probable effect concentration (PEC). Trace element concentrations were greater than the TEC in 28 percent of the samples and greater than the PEC in 1.5 percent of the samples. Chromium concentrations exceeded sediment-quality guidelines more frequently than concentrations of any other constituents analyzed in this study (greater than the TEC in 69 percent of samples and greater than the PEC in 8 percent of samples). Mean trace element concentrations generally are lower in Bexar County samples compared to concentrations in samples collected during previous studies in the Austin and Fort Worth, Texas, areas, but considering the relatively

  4. Selecting Suitable Sites for Mine Waste Dumps Using GIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2017-06-01

    Jun 1, 2017 ... A step- wise model has been developed using ModelBuilder for selecting an economic but effective site for dumping mine waste using suitable constraints and criteria. This has facilitated the production of suitability maps generated from the various datasets being used for mine waste dump site selection.

  5. 20 CFR 638.303 - Site selection and facilities management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Site selection and facilities management. 638... Facilities Management § 638.303 Site selection and facilities management. (a) The Job Corps Director shall... center, facilities engineering and real estate management will be conducted by the Job Corps Director or...

  6. Operational Site Selection for Unmanned Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    14 3.4 Input/output model ...Complex ORCHARDA_F_CODE=EA040 ORCHARDA_F_CODE=EA050 Name TGD Feature Class Attribute Aqueduct AquedctL f_code= BH010 AND (LOC=8 or LOC = 25...for creation of Tier-2 TSO. ERDC/CERL TR-11-16 15 Figure 5. Example Tier-2 Op Site TSO output 3.4 Input/output model 3.4.1 Inputs The Op

  7. Streamflow gains and losses and selected water-quality observations in five subreaches of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte from near Presidio to Langtry, Texas, Big Bend area, United States and Mexico, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, Timothy H.; Turco, Michael J.; Connor, Patrick J.; Bennett, Jeffery B.

    2012-01-01

    Few historical streamflow and water-quality data are available to characterize the segment of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte (hereinafter Rio Grande) extending from near Presidio to near Langtry, Texas. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, collected water-quality and streamflow data from the Rio Grande from near Presidio to near Langtry, Texas, to characterize the streamflow gain and loss and selected constituent concentrations in a 336.3-mile reach of the Rio Grande from near Presidio to near Langtry, Texas. Streamflow was measured at 38 sites and water-quality samples were collected at 20 sites along the Rio Grande in February, March, and June 2006. Streamflow gains and losses over the course of the stream were measured indirectly by computing the differences in measured streamflow between sites along the stream. Water-quality data were collected and analyzed for salinity, dissolved solids, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, and stable isotopes. Selected properties and constituents were compared to available Texas Commission on Environmental Quality general use protection criteria or screening levels. Summary statistics of selected water-quality data were computed for each of the five designated subreaches. Streamflow gain and loss and water-quality constituent concentration were compared for each subreach, rather than the entire segment because of the temporal variation in sample collection caused by controlled releases upstream. Subreach A was determined to be a losing reach, and subreaches B, C, D, and E were determined to be gaining reaches. Compared to concentrations measured in upstream subreaches, downstream subreaches exhibited evidence of dilution of selected constituent concentrations. Subreaches A and B had measured total dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate exceeding the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality general use protection criteria

  8. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Ft. Hood Military Base Outside Killeen, Texas. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, J.; Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative through the Region 6 contract, selected Ft. Hood Army Base in Killeen, Texas, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study is to assess the site for possible photovoltaic (PV) system installations and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  9. Site selection and licensing issues: Southwest Compact low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, J.L.

    1989-11-01

    The low-level radioactive waste disposal site in California is being selected through a three-phase program. Phase 1 is a systematic statewide, regional, and local screening study. This program was conducted during 1986 and 1987, and culminated in the selection of three candidate sites fur further study. The candidate sites are identified as the Panamint, Silurian, and Ward Valley sites. Phase 2 comprises site characterization and environmental and socio-economic impact study activities at the three candidate sites. Based upon the site characterization studies, the candidate sites are ranked according to the desirability and conformance with regulatory requirements. Phase 3 comprises preparation of a license application for the selected candidate site. The license application will include a detailed characterization of the site, detailed design and operations plans for the proposed facility, and assessments of potential impacts of the site upon the environment and the local communities. Five types of siting criteria were developed to govern the site selection process. These types are: technical suitability exclusionary criteria, high-avoidance criteria beyond technical suitability requirements, discretionary criteria, public acceptance, and schedule requirements of the LLWR Policy Act Amendments. This paper discusses the application of the hydrological and geotechnical criteria during the siting and licensing studies in California. These criteria address site location and performance, and the degree to which present and future site behavior can be predicted. Primary regulatory requirements governing the suitability of a site are that the site must be hydrologically and geologically simple enough for the confident prediction of future behavior, and that the site must be stable enough that frequent or intensive maintenance of the closed site will not be required. This paper addresses the methods to measure site suitability at each stage of the process, methods to

  10. Management information system impact on dairy production for selected herds in Texas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomaszewski, M.A.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Otten, A.

    2000-01-01

    Yearly production and performance data were obtained for dairy herd improvement members in Texas to determine whether on-farm use of a management information system (MIS) quantitatively impacted performance. Data from 66 dairy operations for the years 1983–1996 were evaluated. Herds enrolled in an

  11. Warehouse site selection in an international environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastjan ŠKERLIČ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The changed conditions in the automotive industry as the market and the production are moving from west to east, both at global and at European level, require constant adjustment from Slovenian companies. The companies strive to remain close to their customers and suppliers, as only by maintaining a high quality and streamlined supply chain, their existence within the demanding automotive industry is guaranteed in the long term. Choosing the right location for a warehouse in an international environment is therefore one of the most important strategic decisions that takes into account a number of interrelated factors such as transport networks, transport infrastructure, trade flows and the total cost. This paper aims to explore the important aspects of selecting a location for a warehouse and to identify potential international strategic locations, which could have a significant impact on the future operations of Slovenian companies in the global automotive industry.

  12. Site selection and containment evaluation for LLNL nuclear events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, C.W.

    1993-06-01

    During approximately the past decade, the site selection process at LLNL has evolved as the Test Program needs and resources have changed, containment practices have been modified, and the DOE and other regulatory agencies have become more restrictive. Throughout this period the Containment Program and the Field Operations Program at LLNL have managed a cooperative effort to improve site selection. The site selection process actually is three inter-related tasks, namely, selection of a stockpile hole for a specific nuclear test, selection of a drill site for a stockpile hole, and selection of a new drill site for a specific test. Each proposed site is carefully reviewed for known or projected geologic structure and medium properties, nearby holes, containment experience in the region, likelihood of drilling problems, programmatic need for a given depth of hole, and scheduling of Test Program events and resources. By using our data bank, our general knowledge of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) geology, and other information sources, as well as our background in drilling large diameter holes at the NTS, we have been able to optimize our use of NTS real estate and programmatic resources. The containment evaluation of a site is facilitated by considering the location before the hole is drilled. Discuss imposed restraints and our criteria and guidelines for site selection and assignment of events to specific holes, along with the factors that influence selection of a Working Point (WP) depth. Since siting and containment evaluation are strongly related, most major factors related to the containment evaluation process will also be reviewed.

  13. Selection of the Mars Science Laboratory landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M.; Grant, J.; Kipp, D.; Vasavada, A.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Fergason, Robin L.; Bellutta, P.; Calef, F.; Larsen, K.; Katayama, Y.; Huertas, A.; Beyer, R.; Chen, A.; Parker, T.; Pollard, B.; Lee, S.; Hoover, R.; Sladek, H.; Grotzinger, J.; Welch, R.; Dobrea, E. Noe; Michalski, J.; Watkins, M.

    2012-01-01

    The selection of Gale crater as the Mars Science Laboratory landing site took over five years, involved broad participation of the science community via five open workshops, and narrowed an initial >50 sites (25 by 20 km) to four finalists (Eberswalde, Gale, Holden and Mawrth) based on science and safety. Engineering constraints important to the selection included: (1) latitude (±30°) for thermal management of the rover and instruments, (2) elevation (properties information indicates that all are trafficable and “go to” sites can be accessed within the lifetime of the mission. In the final selection, Gale crater was favored over Eberswalde based on its greater diversity and potential habitability.

  14. History of the production complex: The methods of site selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    Experience taught the Atomic Energy Commission how to select the best possible sites for its production facilities. AEC officials learned from the precedents set by the wartime Manhattan Project and from their own mistakes in the immediate postwar years. This volume discusses several site selections. The sites covered are: (1) the Hanford Reservation, (2) the Idaho reactor site, (3) the Savannah River Plant, (4) the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, (5) the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, (6) the Fernald Production Center, (7) the PANTEX and Spoon River Plants, (8) the Rocky Flats Fabrication Facility, and (9) the Miamisburg and Pinellas plants. (JDH)

  15. A scenario optimization model for dynamic reserve site selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie A. Snyder; Robert G. Haight; Charles S. ReVelle

    2004-01-01

    Conservation planners are called upon to make choices and trade-offs about the preservation of natural areas for the protection of species in the face of development pressures. We addressed the problem of selecting sites for protection over time with the objective of maximizing species representation, with uncertainty about future site development, and with periodic...

  16. Location of Historical Buildings (points) at Fort Davis National Historic Site, Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a point shapefile showing where historic buildings were located at Fort Davis National Historic Site. The remnants or foundations of these buildings where...

  17. Patterns of mutation and selection at synonymous sites in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Nadia D; Bauer DuMont, Vanessa L; Hubisz, Melissa J

    2007-01-01

    . melanogaster, our results provide little statistical evidence for recent selection on synonymous sites, and Notch remains an outlier. In contrast, in D. sechellia our findings provide evidence in support of selection predominantly in favor of preferred codons. However, there is a small subset of genes...

  18. Competitor phenology as a social cue in breeding site selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samplonius, Jelmer M.; Both, Christiaan

    Predicting habitat quality is a major challenge for animals selecting a breeding patch, because it affects reproductive success. Breeding site selection may be based on previous experience, or on social information from the density and success of competitors with an earlier phenology. Variation in

  19. The evolution of site-selection strategy during dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmi, Tuomas; Parvinen, Kalle; Selonen, Vesa

    2017-07-21

    We propose a mathematical model that enables the evolutionary analysis of site-selection process of dispersing individuals that encounter sites of high or low quality. Since each site can be inhabited by at most one individual, all dispersers are not able to obtain a high-quality site. We study the evolutionary dynamics of the low-quality-site acceptance as a function of the time during the dispersal season using adaptive dynamics. We show that environmental changes affect the evolutionary dynamics in two ways: directly and indirectly via density-dependent factors. Direct evolutionary effects usually follow intuition, whereas indirect effects are often counter-intuitive and hence difficult to predict without mechanistic modeling. Therefore, the mechanistic derivation of the fitness function, with careful attention on density- and frequency dependence, is essential for predicting the consequences of environmental changes to site selection. For example, increasing fecundity in high-quality sites makes them more tempting for dispersers and hence the direct effect of this ecological change delays the acceptance of low-quality sites. However, increasing fecundity in high-quality sites also increases the population size, which makes the competition for sites more severe and thus, as an indirect effect, forces evolution to favor less picky individuals. Our results indicate that the indirect effects often dominate the intuitive effects, which emphasizes the need for mechanistic models of the immigration process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Site-selective covalent reactions on proteinogenic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Wing Ho; Zhang, Yu; Kang, Wei; Wong, Clarence T T; Sun, Hongyan; Xia, Jiang

    2017-07-05

    To achieve precise control of the signaling events or to achieve unmistakable synthesis of biomolecules, nature has evolved organic reactions involving proteinogenic amino acids with unparalleled site selectivity. For example, dedicated enzymes accurately dictate the site of post-translational modifications in signaling proteins, and ribosomes precisely link the C-terminal carboxylic acid of one unprotected amino acid with the N-terminal amino group of the other amino acid through spatially confined proximity. For many years, chemists have been striving to achieve site selectivity on biomolecules by mimicking nature. Driven by the development of chemoselective protein conjugation reactions, enzymology and protein-protein interactions, the past decade has witnessed a boom in site-selective protein conjugation reactions. (In this review, a site-selective protein conjugation reaction is defined as an organic reaction that targets a single amino acid instead of a kind of amino acids in a protein or a proteome under physiological conditions, for example, a single cysteine residue among all of the cysteines.) In this review, we summarize the recent advancements of bioconjugation reactions that demonstrate this feature of precise site selectivity, focusing on the reactions of the proteinogenic amino acids (excluding those at non-coded or non-proteinogenic amino acids that are introduced to proteins through genetic manipulations). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Strong Purifying Selection at Synonymous Sites in D. melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrie, David S.; Messer, Philipp W.; Hershberg, Ruth; Petrov, Dmitri A.

    2013-01-01

    Synonymous sites are generally assumed to be subject to weak selective constraint. For this reason, they are often neglected as a possible source of important functional variation. We use site frequency spectra from deep population sequencing data to show that, contrary to this expectation, 22% of four-fold synonymous (4D) sites in Drosophila melanogaster evolve under very strong selective constraint while few, if any, appear to be under weak constraint. Linking polymorphism with divergence data, we further find that the fraction of synonymous sites exposed to strong purifying selection is higher for those positions that show slower evolution on the Drosophila phylogeny. The function underlying the inferred strong constraint appears to be separate from splicing enhancers, nucleosome positioning, and the translational optimization generating canonical codon bias. The fraction of synonymous sites under strong constraint within a gene correlates well with gene expression, particularly in the mid-late embryo, pupae, and adult developmental stages. Genes enriched in strongly constrained synonymous sites tend to be particularly functionally important and are often involved in key developmental pathways. Given that the observed widespread constraint acting on synonymous sites is likely not limited to Drosophila, the role of synonymous sites in genetic disease and adaptation should be reevaluated. PMID:23737754

  2. Optimizing landfill site selection by using land classification maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, M; Homaee, M; Mahmoodi, S; Pazira, E; Van Genuchten, M Th

    2015-05-01

    Municipal solid waste disposal is a major environmental concern throughout the world. Proper landfill siting involves many environmental, economic, technical, and sociocultural challenges. In this study, a new quantitative method for landfill siting that reduces the number of evaluation criteria, simplifies siting procedures, and enhances the utility of available land evaluation maps was proposed. The method is demonstrated by selecting a suitable landfill site near the city of Marvdasht in Iran. The approach involves two separate stages. First, necessary criteria for preliminary landfill siting using four constraints and eight factors were obtained from a land classification map initially prepared for irrigation purposes. Thereafter, the criteria were standardized using a rating approach and then weighted to obtain a suitability map for landfill siting, with ratings in a 0-1 domain and divided into five suitability classes. Results were almost identical to those obtained with a more traditional environmental landfill siting approach. Because of far fewer evaluation criteria, the proposed weighting method was much easier to implement while producing a more convincing database for landfill siting. The classification map also considered land productivity. In the second stage, the six best alternative sites were evaluated for final landfill siting using four additional criteria. Sensitivity analyses were furthermore conducted to assess the stability of the obtained ranking. Results indicate that the method provides a precise siting procedure that should convince all pertinent stakeholders.

  3. Sediment quality assessment and Toxicity Identification Evaluation studies in Lavaca Bay, Texas -- An estuarine Superfund site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R.S.; Biedenbach, J. [National Biological Service, Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Texas Gulf Coast Field Station; Hooten, R.; May, L.; Teas, T. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Center for Coastal Studies

    1995-12-31

    A sediment quality assessment survey was conducted in the Lavaca Bay system which has been designated a Superfund site because of elevated concentrations of mercury and other contaminants (e.g., PAHs) in the sediments. Twenty-four stations were sampled in the initial survey. Sediment pore water was extracted pneumatically and the toxicity of the pore water determined using the sea urchin fertilization and embryological development assays. Based on the results of the toxicity tests, aliquots of the toxic sediments were analyzed for metals, PAHs, and pesticides. Based on these results, several of the most toxic sites were resampled and a preliminary Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) was performed with the pore water using the sea urchin fertilization test. Preliminary results indicated that the toxic components were removed by adsorption on a C-18 column but were not affected by EDTA additions and, therefore, the primary toxicants are hydrophobic in nature.

  4. Bioventing bioremediation -- 1500 Area JP-4 jet fuel spill site, Kelly AFB, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownlow, D.T. [Earth Technology Corp., Alexandria, VA (United States); Escude, S.; Johanneson, O.H.

    1994-12-31

    The 1500 Area at Kelly Air Force Base (AFB) was the site of a subsurface release of approximately 1,000 gallons of JP-4 jet fuel. Preliminary studies found evidence of hydrocarbon contamination extending from 10 feet below ground surface (bgs) down to the shallow water table, at 20 to 25 feet bgs. In June of 1993, Kelly AFB authorized the installation and evaluation of a bioventing system at this site to aid in the cleanup of the hydrocarbon contaminated soils. The purpose of the bioventing system is to aerate subsurface soils within and immediately surrounding the release area, in order to stimulate in-situ biological activity and enhance the natural bioremediation capacity of the soil. Augmenting oxygen to the indigenous soil microorganisms promotes the aerobic metabolism of fuel hydrocarbons in the soil. In vadose zone soils exhibiting relatively good permeability, bioventing has proven to be a highly cost effective remediation technology for treating fuel contaminated soils. In November, 1993, a Start-Up Test program consisting of an In-Situ Respiration Test (ISRT) and an Air Permeability Test was performed at the 1500 Area Spill Site.

  5. Unusual sleeping site selection by southern bamboo lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppley, Timothy M; Donati, Giuseppe; Ganzhorn, Jörg U

    2016-04-01

    Selection of sleeping sites has consequences for individual fitness. Non-human primates often bias their selection towards arboreal sites, and the lemurs of Madagascar typically rest/sleep in trees, tree holes, and/or constructed nests. Three non-mutually exclusive hypotheses to explain sleeping site selection include protection from predators, avoidance of parasitic vectors, and improved thermoregulation. Here, we examine these hypotheses for the unusual sleeping site selections by the southern bamboo lemur (Hapalemur meridionalis). Within the Mandena littoral forest of southeast Madagascar, the southern bamboo lemur is known for its ecological flexibility compared to other bamboo lemur species, including a dietary niche expansion to feeding on the ground. Between October 2012 and December 2013, we observed bamboo lemurs from three social groups for 1778.67 h, conducting full-day focal follows on 11 adult individuals (five males, six females). During this period, all three groups were observed to sleep on the ground, with one of these groups also using an abandoned nest of a Madagascar crested ibis (Lophotibis cristata). We collected habitat and temperature data to examine whether selection was influenced by environmental variables. Terrestrial sleeping (N = 17) was observed in all individuals but one adult female, with individuals burrowing under thick vegetation more often during the hot austral summer. While difficult to rigorously test, it is possible that terrestrial sleep sites and/or sleeping in a bird nest may impair visual detection by some aerial and terrestrial predators. Neither of these sites (i.e., terrestrial sleeping or use of a bird nest), however, is likely to minimize exposure to parasites/vectors. Terrestrial sleeping appears to support a thermoregulatory strategy, whereas the use of a bird nest could not be empirically tested. Our observations of unique sleeping site locations used by southern bamboo lemurs further the complexity of their

  6. Groundwater Fate and Transport Modeling for Texarkana Wood Preserving Company Superfund Site, Texarkana, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, Ronald Chester

    1999-08-01

    Fate and transport model results are presented for the Texarkana Wood Preserving Company (TWPC)superfund site. The conceptual model assumes two sources of contamination, specifically, the areas around the old and new process areas. Recent data show the presence of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) in the aquifer that are also sources of dissolved contamination in the aquifer. A flow model was constructed and calibrated against measured hydraulic heads at permanent monitoring wells. Good matches were obtained between model simulated heads and most measured heads. An unexplained exception occurs at monitoring well MW-13 down gradient of the site beyond the measured contaminant plume where the model predicts heads that are more than 2 ft. lower than reported field measurements. Adjusting hydraulic parameters in the model could not account for this anomaly and still preserve the head matches at other wells. There is likely a moderate deficiency in the conceptual model or perhaps a data error. Other information such as substantial amounts of infiltrating surface water in the area or a correction in surveyed elevation would improve the flow model. A particle tracking model calculated a travel time from the new process area to the Day’s Creek discharge location on the order of 40 years. Travel times from the old process area to Day’s Creek were calculated to be on the order of 80 years. While these calculations are subject to some uncertainty, travel times of decades are indicated.

  7. Optimizing Site Selection in Urban Areas in Northern Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenkers, K.; Kraft, T.; Bethmann, F.; Husen, S.; Schnellmann, M.

    2012-04-01

    There is a need to observe weak seismic events (MNetwork in northern Switzerland by additional 20 stations. The new network that will be in operation by the end of 2012, aims at observing seismicity in northern Switzerland with a completeness of M_c=1.0 and a location error network-design and a thoughtful choice for station-sites is, therefore, mandatory. To help with decision making we developed a step-wise approach to find the optimum network configuration. Our approach is based on standard network optimization techniques regarding the localization error. As a new feature, our approach uses an ambient noise model to compute expected signal-to-noise ratios for a given site. The ambient noise model uses information on land use and major infrastructures such as highways and train lines. We ran a series of network optimizations with increasing number of stations until the requirements regarding localization error and magnitude of completeness are reached. The resulting network geometry serves as input for the site selection. Site selection is done by using a newly developed multi-step assessment-scheme that takes into account local noise level, geology, infrastructure, and costs necessary to realize the station. The assessment scheme is weighting the different parameters and the most promising sites are identified. In a first step, all potential sites are classified based on information from topographic maps and site inspection. In a second step, local noise conditions are measured at selected sites. We analyze the test measurement with respect to noise amplitude in different frequency bands, transient noise events and earthquake first arrivals. Finally, the most promising sites are classified taking into account results from the test measurements and updated information on local geology, availability of electricity and data transmission, and installation costs.

  8. Roost site selection by ring-billed and herring gulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel E.; DeStefano, Stephen; MacKenzie, Kenneth G.; Koenen, Kiana K. G.; Whitney, Jillian J.

    2016-01-01

    Gulls (Larus spp.) commonly roost in large numbers on inland and coastal waters, yet there is little information on how or where gulls choose sites for roosting. Roost site selection can lead to water quality degradation or aviation hazards when roosts are formed on water supply reservoirs or are close to airports. Harassment programs are frequently initiated to move or relocate roosting gulls but often have mixed results because gulls are reluctant to leave or keep returning. As such, knowledge of gull roost site selection and roosting ecology has applied and ecological importance. We used satellite telemetry and an information-theoretic approach to model seasonal roost selection of ring-billed (L. delawarensis) and herring gulls (L. argentatus) in Massachusetts, USA. Our results indicated that ring-billed gulls preferred freshwater roosts and will use a variety of rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. Herring gulls regularly roosted on fresh water but used salt water roosts more often than ring-billed gulls and also roosted on a variety of land habitats. Roost modeling showed that herring and ring-billed gulls selected inland fresh water roosts based on size of the water body and proximity to their last daytime location; they selected the largest roost closest to where they ended the day. Management strategies to reduce or eliminate roosting gulls could identify and try to eliminate other habitat variables (e.g., close-by foraging sites) that are attracting gulls before attempting to relocate or redistribute (e.g., through hazing programs) roosting birds.

  9. [On nest-site selection of Otic tarda].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Dongmei; Gao, Wei; Zhao, Jiang; Wang, Haitao; Cheng, Jinrui

    2002-11-01

    During April to July in 2000 and 2001, the nest-site selection of Otis tarda was studied by direct observation and sampling method in the southeast grassland of Keyouqianqi in Inner Mongolia. The results showed that Otis tarda was one kind of big-sized bird built nests on the ground in sparse cluster, and the smallest distance between nests was 9 m. Otis tarda had a significant tendency in nest-site selection. Firstly, this tendency was represented under the scale of landscape. Most nests of Otis tarda were built on the mid-hill of grassland, the elevation range was from 190 m to 230 m, most nests built on the slopes faced to sun, and the biggest gradient was not more than 8 degree. Moreover, the nests were near to roads. Secondly, Otis tarda selected its nest-site according to vegetation structure. It tended to select nest-site with thick hay, high vegetation density and grass height from 15 cm to 35 cm, but would not select the place with over high vegetation density no nest.

  10. Site selection - siting of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-03-15

    SKB has selected Forsmark as the site for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site selection is the end result of an extensive siting process that began in the early 1990s. The strategy and plan for the work was based on experience from investigations and development work over a period of more than ten years prior to then. This document describes the siting work and SKB's choice of site for the final repository. It also presents the information on which the choice was based and the reasons for the decisions made along the way. The document comprises Appendix PV to applications under the Nuclear Activities Act and the Environmental Code for licences to build and operate an encapsulation plant adjacent to the central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel in Oskarshamn, and to build and operate a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark in Oesthammar Municipality

  11. First order leveling: Pleasant Bayou geothermal test site, Brazoria County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    First order leveling to be conducted as part of an environmental monitoring program for a geopressured test well was reported. 39.43 kilometers of first order levels were run to NGS specifications. Twelve Class B type bench marks were set to NGS specifications. The adjusted elevation of bench mark C-1209 was used as a starting elevation and is based on a supplementary adjustment of April 6, 1979 by NGS. The closure for the loop around the well site is -0.65 millimeters. The distance around the loop is 1.29 kilometers, the allowable error of closure was 4.54 millimeters. The initial leveling of this well was performed in 1977. A thorough search for their monumentation was conducted. No monuments were found due to the lack of adequate monument descriptions. Therefore, an elevation comparison summary for this report is only available along the NGS lines outside the well area. The first order level tie to line No. 101 (BMA-1208) was +3.37 millimeters in 17.21 kilometers. The allowable error of closure was 12.44 millimeters.

  12. Perchlorate in fish from a contaminated site in east-central Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorakis, Christopher [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States)]. E-mail: chris.theodorakis@tiehh.ttu.edu; Rinchard, Jacques [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Anderson, Todd [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Liu, Fujun [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Park, June-Woo [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Costa, Filipe [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); McDaniel, Leslie [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Kendall, Ronald [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Waters, Aaron [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States)

    2006-01-15

    Perchlorate, a known thyroid endocrine disruptor, contaminates surface waters near military instillations where solid fuel rocket motors are manufactured or assembled. To assess potential perchlorate exposure to fish and the human population which may feed on them, fish were collected around the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant in McLennan County, TX, and analyzed for the presence of the perchlorate anion. The sampling sites included Lake Waco and Belton Lake, and several streams and rivers within their watersheds. The general tendency was that perchlorate was only found in a few species sampled, and perchlorate was not detected in every individual within these species. When detected in the fish, perchlorate tissue concentrations were greater than that in the water. This may be due to highly variable perchlorate concentrations in the water coupled with individual-level variation in elimination from the body, or to routes of exposure other than water. - In perchlorate-contaminated lakes and streams, perchlorate is detected infrequently in fish heads, fillets, and whole bodies, but may be detected more often depending on species and seasonal trends, and always at concentrations higher in the fish than in the water.

  13. Tunnel-Site Selection by Remote Sensing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study of the role of remote sensing for geologic reconnaissance for tunnel-site selection was commenced. For this study, remote sensing was defined...conventional remote sensing . Future research directions are suggested, and the extension of remote sensing to include airborne passive microwave

  14. Selecting Suitable Sites for Mine Waste Dumps Using GIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research used the ModelBuilder tool and several GIS spatial analyst tools to select suitable sites for mine waste dump. The weighted overlay technique was adopted by first determining the necessary criteria and constraints and subsequently developing attributes for each criterion. The criteria used were grouped into a ...

  15. The influence of nestling predation on nest site selection and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriate nest site selection and the response of parents and nestlings to intruders near the nest, are behaviours that could be adaptive in a species that is prone to nestling predation. This study showed that predation of bateleur nestlings in the Kruger National Park was high, that behaviour of adults and nestlings ...

  16. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) additional geologic site characterization studies, Bryan Mound Salt Dome, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Magorian, T.R.; Ahmad, S. [Acres International Corp., Amherst, NY (United States)

    1994-11-01

    This report revises the original report that was published in 1980. Some of the topics covered in the earlier report were provisional and it is now practicable to reexamine them using new or revised geotechnical data and that obtained from SPR cavern operations, which involves 16 new caverns. Revised structure maps and sections show interpretative differences as compared with the 1980 report and more definition in the dome shape and caprock structural contours, especially a major southeast-northwest trending anomalous zone. The original interpretation was of westward tilt of the dome, this revision shows a tilt to the southeast, consistent with other gravity and seismic data. This interpretation refines the evaluation of additional cavern space, by adding more salt buffer and allowing several more caverns. Additional storage space is constrained on this nearly full dome because of low-lying peripheral wetlands, but 60 MMBBL or more of additional volume could be gained in six or more new caverns. Subsidence values at Bryan Mound are among the lowest in the SPR system, averaging about 11 mm/yr (0.4 in/yr), but measurement and interpretation issues persist, as observed values are about the same as survey measurement accuracy. Periodic flooding is a continuing threat because of the coastal proximity and because peripheral portions of the site are at elevations less than 15 ft. This threat may increase slightly as future subsidence lowers the surface, but the amount is apt to be small. Caprock integrity may be affected by structural features, especially the faulting associated with anomalous zones. Injection wells have not been used extensively at Bryan Mound, but could be a practicable solution to future brine disposal needs. Environmental issues center on the areas of low elevation that are below 15 feet above mean sea level: the coastal proximity and lowland environment combined with the potential for flooding create conditions that require continuing surveillance.

  17. Chemical tailoring of teicoplanin with site-selective reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Tejas P; Miller, Scott J

    2013-06-05

    Semisynthesis of natural product derivatives combines the power of fermentation with orthogonal chemical reactions. Yet, chemical modification of complex structures represents an unmet challenge, as poor selectivity often undermines efficiency. The complex antibiotic teicoplanin eradicates bacterial infections. However, as resistance emerges, the demand for improved analogues grows. We have discovered chemical reactions that achieve site-selective alteration of teicoplanin. Utilizing peptide-based additives that alter reaction selectivities, certain bromo-teicoplanins are accessible. These new compounds are also scaffolds for selective cross-coupling reactions, enabling further molecular diversification. These studies enable two-step access to glycopeptide analogues not available through either biosynthesis or rapid total chemical synthesis alone. The new compounds exhibit a spectrum of activities, revealing that selective chemical alteration of teicoplanin may lead to analogues with attenuated or enhanced antibacterial properties, in particular against vancomycin- and teicoplanin-resistant strains.

  18. Learning natural selection from the site frequency spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Roy; Udpa, Nitin; Halperin, Eran; Bafna, Vineet

    2013-09-01

    Genetic adaptation to external stimuli occurs through the combined action of mutation and selection. A central problem in genetics is to identify loci responsive to specific selective constraints. Many tests have been proposed to identify the genomic signatures of natural selection by quantifying the skew in the site frequency spectrum (SFS) under selection relative to neutrality. We build upon recent work that connects many of these tests under a common framework, by describing how selective sweeps affect the scaled SFS. We show that the specific skew depends on many attributes of the sweep, including the selection coefficient and the time under selection. Using supervised learning on extensive simulated data, we characterize the features of the scaled SFS that best separate different types of selective sweeps from neutrality. We develop a test, SFselect, that consistently outperforms many existing tests over a wide range of selective sweeps. We apply SFselect to polymorphism data from a laboratory evolution experiment of Drosophila melanogaster adapted to hypoxia and identify loci that strengthen the role of the Notch pathway in hypoxia tolerance, but were missed by previous approaches. We further apply our test to human data and identify regions that are in agreement with earlier studies, as well as many novel regions.

  19. Occurrence of and trends in selected sediment-associated contaminants in Caddo Lake, East Texas, 1940-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jennifer T.

    2003-01-01

    Bottom-sediment cores were collected from four sites in Caddo Lake in East Texas during May 2002 for analyses of radionuclides (for age dating), organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and major and trace elements, and to describe the occurrence and trends of these sediment-associated contaminants. The Goose Prairie Creek and Harrison Bayou sites receive drainage from an area that includes parts of the now-closed Longhorn Army Ammunitions Plant. The mid-lake site is relatively close to dense oil and gas operations in the lake. The Carter Lake site receives minimal discharge from developed areas. Sediment age (deposition) dates represented in the cores ranged from 1940 to 2002. The only organochlorine compounds detected in all core samples were the DDT degradation products DDE or DDD, and PCB Aroclors 1242, 1254, and 1260 were detected only at the Goose Prairie Creek site. One or more of the DDE concentrations at all sites exceeded a consensus-based threshold effect concentration (on benthic biota), but none exceeded a consensus-based probable effect concentration. The Goose Prairie Creek site had significant downward trends in concentrations of organochlorine compounds, except for no trend in DDE concentrations. The Ammunitions Plant is a possible historical source of the few organochlorine compounds detected at the Goose Prairie Creek and Harrison Bayou sites. PAH concentrations at all sites were below respective threshold effect concentrations. Highest PAH concentrations at all four sites were of C2- alkylated naphthalenes. Nearly all statistically significant PAH trends in the cores were downward. On the basis of PAH source-indicator ratios, the majority of PAH compounds appear to have originated from uncombusted sources such as leaks or spills from oil and gas operations or vehicles (automobiles, boats, aircraft) in the Caddo Lake area. Concentrations of several of the eight trace elements with

  20. Site-Selective Conjugation of Native Proteins with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trads, Julie B; Tørring, Thomas; Gothelf, Kurt V

    2017-06-20

    Conjugation of DNA to proteins is increasingly used in academia and industry to provide proteins with tags for identification or handles for hybridization to other DNA strands. Assay technologies such as immuno-PCR and proximity ligation and the imaging technology DNA-PAINT require DNA-protein conjugates. In DNA nanotechnology, the DNA handle is exploited to precisely position proteins by self-assembly. For these applications, site-selective conjugation is almost always desired because fully functional proteins are required to maintain the specificity of antibodies and the activity of enzymes. The introduction of a bioorthogonal handle at a specific position of a protein by recombinant techniques provides an excellent approach to site-specific conjugation, but for many laboratories and for applications where several proteins are to be labeled, the expression of recombinant proteins may be cumbersome. In recent years, a number of chemical methods that target conjugation to specific sites at native proteins have become available, and an overview of these methods is provided in this Account. Our laboratory has investigated DNA-templated protein conjugation (DTPC), which offers an alternative approach to site-selective conjugation of DNA to proteins. The method is inspired by the concept of DNA-templated synthesis where functional groups conjugated to DNA strands are preorganized by DNA hybridization to dramatically increase the reaction rate. In DPTC, we target metal binding sites in proteins to template selective covalent conjugation reactions. By chelation of a DNA-metal complex with a metal binding site of the protein, an electrophile on a second DNA strand is aligned for reaction with a lysine side chain on the protein in the proximity of the metal binding site. The method is quite general because approximately one-third of all wild-type proteins contain metal-binding sites, including many IgG antibodies, and it is also applicable to His-tagged proteins. This

  1. Site-Selective Conjugation of Native Proteins with DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trads, Julie Brender; Tørring, Thomas; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2017-01-01

    because approximately one-third of all wild-type proteins contain metal-binding sites, including many IgG antibodies, and it is also applicable to His-tagged proteins. This emerging field provides direct access to site-selective conjugates of DNA to commercially available proteins. In this Account, we......Conjugation of DNA to proteins is increasingly used in academia and industry to provide proteins with tags for identification or handles for hybridization to other DNA strands. Assay technologies such as immuno-PCR and proximity ligation and the imaging technology DNA-PAINT require DNA...

  2. Nucleation of recrystallization at selected sites in deformed fcc metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chaoling

    The objective of this thesis is to explore nucleation of recrystallization at selected sites in selected face-centered-cubic (FCC) metals, namely cold rolled columnar-grained nickel and high purity aluminum further deformed by indenting. Various techniques, including, optical microscopy, electron...... are observed with orientations different from the surrounding matrix. Hardness measurements at TJs in the deformed sample indicate a weak correlation between the difference in hardness among the three grains at the TJs and the potentials of the junctions to form nuclei: the higher the difference, the more...

  3. SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND SELECTION GUIDELINES FOR GEOLOGICAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, S J

    2007-08-31

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is a key technology pathway to substantial reduction of greenhouse gas emissions for the state of California and the western region. Current estimates suggest that the sequestration resource of the state is large, and could safely and effectively accept all of the emissions from large CO2 point sources for many decades and store them indefinitely. This process requires suitable sites to sequester large volumes of CO2 for long periods of time. Site characterization is the first step in this process, and the state will ultimately face regulatory, legal, and technical questions as commercial CCS projects develop and commence operations. The most important aspects of site characterizations are injectivity, capacity, and effectiveness. A site can accept at a high rate a large volume of CO2 and store it for a long time is likely to serve as a good site for geological carbon sequestration. At present, there are many conventional technologies and approaches that can be used to estimate, quantify, calculate, and assess the viability of a sequestration site. Any regulatory framework would need to rely on conventional, easily executed, repeatable methods to inform the site selection and permitting process. The most important targets for long-term storage are deep saline formations and depleted oil and gas fields. The primary CO2 storage mechanisms for these targets are well understood enough to plan operations and simulate injection and long-term fate of CO2. There is also a strong understanding of potential geological and engineering hazards for CCS. These hazards are potential pathway to CO2 leakage, which could conceivably result in negative consequences to health and the environmental. The risks of these effects are difficult to quantify; however, the hazards themselves are sufficiently well understood to identify, delineate, and manage those risks effectively. The primary hazard elements are wells and faults, but may include other

  4. Wind/solar resource in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, V.; Starcher, K.; Gaines, H. [West Texas A& M Univ., Canyon, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Data are being collected at 17 sites to delineate a baseline for the wind and solar resource across Texas. Wind data are being collected at 10, 25, and 40 m (in some cases at 50 m) to determine wind shear and power at hub heights of large turbines. Many of the sites are located in areas of predicted terrain enhancement. The typical day in a month for power and wind turbine output was calculated for selected sites and combination of sites; distributed systems. Major result to date is that there is the possibility of load matching in South Texas during the summer months, even though the average values by month indicate a low wind potential.

  5. Protein pharmacophore selection using hydration-site analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bingjie; Lill, Markus A.

    2012-01-01

    Virtual screening using pharmacophore models is an efficient method to identify potential lead compounds for target proteins. Pharmacophore models based on protein structures are advantageous because a priori knowledge of active ligands is not required and the models are not biased by the chemical space of previously identified actives. However, in order to capture most potential interactions between all potentially binding ligands and the protein, the size of the pharmacophore model, i.e. number of pharmacophore elements, is typically quite large and therefore reduces the efficiency of pharmacophore based screening. We have developed a new method to select important pharmacophore elements using hydration-site information. The basic premise is that ligand functional groups that replace water molecules in the apo protein contribute strongly to the overall binding affinity of the ligand, due to the additional free energy gained from releasing the water molecule into the bulk solvent. We computed the free energy of water released from the binding site for each hydration site using thermodynamic analysis of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Pharmacophores which are co-localized with hydration sites with estimated favorable contributions to the free energy of binding are selected to generate a reduced pharmacophore model. We constructed reduced pharmacophore models for three protein systems and demonstrated good enrichment quality combined with high efficiency. The reduction in pharmacophore model size reduces the required screening time by a factor of 200–500 compared to using all protein pharmacophore elements. We also describe a training process using a small set of known actives to reliably select the optimal set of criteria for pharmacophore selection for each protein system. PMID:22397751

  6. Historical Channel Adjustment and Estimates of Selected Hydraulic Values in the Lower Sabine River and Lower Brazos River Basins, Texas and Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Greene, Lauren E.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, evaluated historical channel adjustment and estimated selected hydraulic values at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in the lower Sabine River Basin in Texas and Louisiana and lower Brazos River Basin in Texas to support geomorphic assessments of the Texas Instream Flow Program. Channel attributes including cross-section geometry, slope, and planform change were evaluated to learn how each river's morphology changed over the years in response to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Historical and contemporary cross-sectional channel geometries at several gaging stations on each river were compared, planform changes were assessed, and hydraulic values were estimated including mean flow velocity, bed shear stress, Froude numbers, and hydraulic depth. The primary sources of historical channel morphology information were U.S. Geological Survey hard-copy discharge-measurement field notes. Additional analyses were done using computations of selected flow hydraulics, comparisons of historical and contemporary aerial photographs, comparisons of historical and contemporary ground photographs, evaluations of how frequently stage-discharge rating curves were updated, reviews of stage-discharge relations for field measurements, and considerations of bridge and reservoir construction activities. Based on historical cross sections at three gaging stations downstream from Toledo Bend Reservoir, the lower Sabine River is relatively stable, but is subject to substantial temporary scour-and-fill processes during floods. Exceptions to this characterization of relative stability include an episode of channel aggradation at the Sabine River near Bon Wier, Texas, during the 1930s, and about 2 to 3 feet of channel incision at the Sabine River near Burkeville, Texas, since the late 1950s. The Brazos River, at gaging stations downstream from Waco, Texas, has adjusted to a combination of

  7. Sleeping site selection and presleep behavior in wild pigtailed macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Aurélie; Savini, Tommaso; Huynen, Marie-Claude

    2011-12-01

    Several factors are likely to control sleeping site selection and presleep behavior in nonhuman primates, including predation risk and location of food resources. We examined the effects of these factors on the sleeping behavior of northern pigtailed macaques (Macaca leonina). While following a troop living in the surroundings of the Visitor Center of Khao Yai National Park (Thailand), we recorded the physical characteristics and location of each sleeping site, tree, the individuals' place in the tree, posture, and behavior. We collected data for 154 nights between April 2009 and November 2010. The monkeys preferred tall sleeping trees (20.9 ± SD 4.9 m) and high sleeping places (15.8 ± SD 4.3 m), which may be an antipredator strategy. The choice of sleeping trees close to the last (146.7 ± SD 167.9 m) or to the first (150.4 ± SD 113.0 m) feeding tree of the day may save energy and decrease predation risk when monkeys are searching for food. Similarly, the choice of sleeping sites close to human settlements eases the access to human food during periods of fruit scarcity. Finally, the temporal pattern of use of sleeping sites, with a preference for four of the sleeping sites but few reuses during consecutive nights, may be a trade-off between the need to have several sleeping sites (decreasing detection by predators and travel costs to feeding sites), and the need to sleep in well-known sites (guaranteeing a faster escape in case of predator attack). © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Resource evaluation and site selection for microalgae production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, E.L.; Folger, A.G.; Hogg, S.E.

    1985-05-01

    Climate, land, and water resource requirements of microalgae production systems (MPS) were examined relative to construction costs, operating costs, and biomass productivity. The objective was the stratification of the southwestern United States into zones of relative suitability for MPS. Maps of climate (insolation, freeze-free period, precipitation, evaporation, thunderstorm days), land (use/cover, ownership, slope), and water (saline groundwater) resource parameters were obtained. These maps were transformed into digital overlays permitting the cell-by-cell compositing of selected resource parameters to form maps representing relative productivity, make-up water, climate suitability, land suitability, water suitability, and overall suitability. The Southwest was selected for this study because of its high levels of insolation, saline water resources, and large areas of relatively low valued land. The stratification maps cannot be used for the selection of specific sites because of their low resolution (12,455-acre cells). They can be used to guide future resource studies and site selection efforts, however, by limiting these efforts to the most suitable regions. Future efforts should concentrate on saline water resources, for which only limited data are currently available. 13 refs., 44 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Automated Sensor Tuning for Seismic Event Detection at a Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage Site, Farnsworth Unit, Ochiltree County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, A.; Balch, R. S.; Knox, H. A.; Van Wijk, J. W.; Draelos, T.; Peterson, M. G.

    2016-12-01

    We present results (e.g. seismic detections and STA/LTA detection parameters) from a continuous downhole seismic array in the Farnsworth Field, an oil field in Northern Texas that hosts an ongoing carbon capture, utilization, and storage project. Specifically, we evaluate data from a passive vertical monitoring array consisting of 16 levels of 3-component 15Hz geophones installed in the field and continuously recording since January 2014. This detection database is directly compared to ancillary data (i.e. wellbore pressure) to determine if there is any relationship between seismic observables and CO2 injection and pressure maintenance in the field. Of particular interest is detection of relatively low-amplitude signals constituting long-period long-duration (LPLD) events that may be associated with slow shear-slip analogous to low frequency tectonic tremor. While this category of seismic event provides great insight into dynamic behavior of the pressurized subsurface, it is inherently difficult to detect. To automatically detect seismic events using effective data processing parameters, an automated sensor tuning (AST) algorithm developed by Sandia National Laboratories is being utilized. AST exploits ideas from neuro-dynamic programming (reinforcement learning) to automatically self-tune and determine optimal detection parameter settings. AST adapts in near real-time to changing conditions and automatically self-tune a signal detector to identify (detect) only signals from events of interest, leading to a reduction in the number of missed legitimate event detections and the number of false event detections. Funding for this project is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) through the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP) under Award No. DE-FC26-05NT42591. Additional support has been provided by site operator Chaparral Energy, L.L.C. and Schlumberger Carbon Services. Sandia National

  10. Site-selective chemical cleavage of peptide bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elashal, Hader E; Raj, Monika

    2016-05-07

    Site-selective cleavage of extremely unreactive peptide bonds is a very important chemical modification that provides invaluable information regarding protein sequence, and it acts as a modulator of protein structure and function for therapeutic applications. For controlled and selective cleavage, a daunting task, chemical reagents must selectively recognize or bind to one or more amino acid residues in the peptide chain and selectively cleave a peptide bond. Building on this principle, we have developed an approach that utilizes a chemical reagent to selectively modify the serine residue in a peptide chain and leads to the cleavage of a peptide backbone at the N-terminus of the serine residue. After cleavage, modified residues can be converted back to the original fragments. This method exhibits broad substrate scope and selectively cleaves various bioactive peptides with post-translational modifications (e.g. N-acetylation and -methylation) and mutations (d- and β-amino acids), which are a known cause of age related diseases.

  11. Astronomical site selection for Turkey using GIS techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksaker, N.; Yerli, S. K.; Erdoğan, M. A.; Erdi, E.; Kaba, K.; Ak, T.; Aslan, Z.; Bakış, V.; Demircan, O.; Evren, S.; Keskin, V.; Küçük, İ.; Özdemir, T.; Özışık, T.; Selam, S. O.

    2015-10-01

    A site selection of potential observatory locations in Turkey have been carried out by using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) coupled with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and satellite imagery which in turn reduced cost and time and increased the accuracy of the final outcome. The layers of cloud cover, digital elevation model, artificial lights, precipitable water vapor, aerosol optical thickness and wind speed were studied in the GIS system. In conclusion of MCDA, the most suitable regions were found to be located in a strip crossing from southwest to northeast including also a diverted region in southeast of Turkey. These regions are thus our prime candidate locations for future on-site testing. In addition to this major outcome, this study has also been applied to locations of major observatories sites. Since no goal is set for the best, the results of this study is limited with a list of positions. Therefore, the list has to be further confirmed with on-site tests. A national funding has been awarded to produce a prototype of an on-site test unit (to measure both astronomical and meteorological parameters) which might be used in this list of locations.

  12. Site selection for MSFC operational tests of solar heating and cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The criteria, methodology, and sequence aspects of the site selection process are presented. This report organized the logical thought process that should be applied to the site selection process, but final decisions are highly selective.

  13. Site Selective Spectroscopy on Erbium Ions in Stoichiometric Lithium Tantalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, K; Toulouse, A; Woodward, N; Capek, P; Dierolf, V, E-mail: vod2@lehigh.ed [Physics Department Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Ferroelectric materials such as lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) and the isostructural lithium tantalate (LiTaO{sub 3}) play an important role in integrated optics since they allow the possibility to combine their favourable electro-optical, acousto-optical, and nonlinear properties with the ability to add additional functional groups by doping. Examples are rare earth ions that act as active centres for laser and optical amplifier applications. We present our sites-selective spectroscopic studies on Er{sup 3+} doped nearly stoichiometric LiTaO{sub 3} that include results about the assignment of excitation and emission peaks to different sites, symmetry properties of these sites, energy transfer among major sites, and up-conversion efficiencies. We compare the results in LiTiO{sub 3} with the corresponding ones in the much better studied LiNbO{sub 3} host and find that the type of centres and their spectral feature are very similar.

  14. Strain selection, biomass to biofuel conversion, and resource colocation have strong impacts on the economic performance of algae cultivation sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik R. Venteris

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Decisions involving strain selection, biomass to biofuel technology, and the location of cultivation facilities can strongly influence the economic viability of an algae-based biofuel enterprise. We summarize our past results in a new analysis to explore the relative economic impact of these design choices. Our growth model is used to predict average biomass production for two saline strains (Nannocloropsis salina, Arthrospira sp., one fresh to brackish strain (Chlorella sp., DOE strain 1412, and one freshwater strain (order Sphaeropleales. Biomass to biofuel conversion is compared between lipid extraction (LE and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL technologies. National-scale models of water, CO2 (as flue gas, land acquisition, site leveling, construction of connecting roads, and transport of HTL oil to existing refineries are used in conjunction with estimates of fuel value (from HTL to prioritize and select from 88,692 unit farms (UF, 405 ha in pond area, a number sufficient to produce 136E+9 L yr-1 of renewable diesel (36 billion gallons yr-1. Strain selection and choice of conversion technology have large economic impacts, with differences between combinations of strains and biomass to biofuel technologies being up to $10 million dollars yr-1 UF-1. Results based on the most productive strain, HTL-based fuel conversion, and resource costs show that the economic potential between geographic locations within the selection can differ by up to $4 million yr-1 UF-1, with 1.8 BGY of production possible from the most cost-effective sites. The local spatial variability in site rank is extreme, with very high and low sites within 10s of km of each other. Colocation with flue gas sources has a strong influence on rank, but the most costly resource component varies from site to site. The highest rank UFs are located predominantly in Florida and Texas, but most states south of 37°N latitude contain promising locations.

  15. Selection of the InSight Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M.; Kipp, D.; Warner, N.; Daubar, I. J.; Fergason, R.; Kirk, R. L.; Beyer, R.; Huertas, A.; Piqueux, S.; Putzig, N. E.; Campbell, B. A.; Morgan, G. A.; Charalambous, C.; Pike, W. T.; Gwinner, K.; Calef, F.; Kass, D.; Mischna, M.; Ashley, J.; Bloom, C.; Wigton, N.; Hare, T.; Schwartz, C.; Gengl, H.; Redmond, L.; Trautman, M.; Sweeney, J.; Grima, C.; Smith, I. B.; Sklyanskiy, E.; Lisano, M.; Benardini, J.; Smrekar, S.; Lognonné, P.; Banerdt, W. B.

    2017-10-01

    The selection of the Discovery Program InSight landing site took over four years from initial identification of possible areas that met engineering constraints, to downselection via targeted data from orbiters (especially Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) and High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images), to selection and certification via sophisticated entry, descent and landing (EDL) simulations. Constraints on elevation ({≤}{-}2.5 km for sufficient atmosphere to slow the lander), latitude (initially 15°S-5°N and later 3°N-5°N for solar power and thermal management of the spacecraft), ellipse size (130 km by 27 km from ballistic entry and descent), and a load bearing surface without thick deposits of dust, severely limited acceptable areas to western Elysium Planitia. Within this area, 16 prospective ellipses were identified, which lie ˜600 km north of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover. Mapping of terrains in rapidly acquired CTX images identified especially benign smooth terrain and led to the downselection to four northern ellipses. Acquisition of nearly continuous HiRISE, additional Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), and High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) images, along with radar data confirmed that ellipse E9 met all landing site constraints: with slopes <15° at 84 m and 2 m length scales for radar tracking and touchdown stability, low rock abundance (<10 %) to avoid impact and spacecraft tip over, instrument deployment constraints, which included identical slope and rock abundance constraints, a radar reflective and load bearing surface, and a fragmented regolith ˜5 m thick for full penetration of the heat flow probe. Unlike other Mars landers, science objectives did not directly influence landing site selection.

  16. Selection of the InSight landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M.; Kipp, D.; Warner, N.; Daubar, Ingrid J.; Fergason, Robin L.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Beyer, R.; Huertas, A.; Piqueux, Sylvain; Putzig, N.E.; Campbell, B.A.; Morgan, G. A.; Charalambous, C.; Pike, W. T.; Gwinner, K.; Calef, F.; Kass, D.; Mischna, M A; Ashley, J.; Bloom, C.; Wigton, N.; Hare, T.; Schwartz, C.; Gengl, H.; Redmond, L.; Trautman, M.; Sweeney, J.; Grima, C.; Smith, I. B.; Sklyanskiy, E.; Lisano, M.; Benardini, J.; Smrekar, S.E.; Lognonne, P.; Banerdt, W. B.

    2017-01-01

    The selection of the Discovery Program InSight landing site took over four years from initial identification of possible areas that met engineering constraints, to downselection via targeted data from orbiters (especially Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) and High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images), to selection and certification via sophisticated entry, descent and landing (EDL) simulations. Constraints on elevation (≤−2.5 km">≤−2.5 km≤−2.5 km for sufficient atmosphere to slow the lander), latitude (initially 15°S–5°N and later 3°N–5°N for solar power and thermal management of the spacecraft), ellipse size (130 km by 27 km from ballistic entry and descent), and a load bearing surface without thick deposits of dust, severely limited acceptable areas to western Elysium Planitia. Within this area, 16 prospective ellipses were identified, which lie ∼600 km north of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover. Mapping of terrains in rapidly acquired CTX images identified especially benign smooth terrain and led to the downselection to four northern ellipses. Acquisition of nearly continuous HiRISE, additional Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), and High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) images, along with radar data confirmed that ellipse E9 met all landing site constraints: with slopes <15° at 84 m and 2 m length scales for radar tracking and touchdown stability, low rock abundance (<10 %) to avoid impact and spacecraft tip over, instrument deployment constraints, which included identical slope and rock abundance constraints, a radar reflective and load bearing surface, and a fragmented regolith ∼5 m thick for full penetration of the heat flow probe. Unlike other Mars landers, science objectives did not directly influence landing site selection.

  17. Investigation of a novel approach for aquaculture site selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Lynne; Telfer, Trevor C; Ross, Lindsay G

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the potential use of two "species distribution models" (SDMs), Mahalanobis Typicality and Maxent, for aquaculture site selection. SDMs are used in ecological studies to predict the spatial distribution of species based on analysis of conditions at locations of known presence or absence. Here the input points are aquaculture sites, rather than species occurrence, thus the models evaluate the parameters at the sites and identify similar areas across the rest of the study area. This is a novel approach that avoids the need for data reclassification and weighting which can be a source of conflict and uncertainty within the commonly used multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) technique. Using pangasius culture in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, as a case study, Mahalanobis Typicality and Maxent SDMs were evaluated against two models developed using the MCE approach. Mahalanobis Typicality and Maxent assess suitability based on similarity to existing farms, while the MCE approach assesses suitability using optimal values for culture. Mahalanobis Typicality considers the variables to have equal importance whereas Maxent analyses the variables to determine those which influence the distribution of the input data. All of the models indicate there are suitable areas for culture along the two main channels of the Mekong River which are currently used to farm pangasius and also inland in the north and east of the study area. The results show the Mahalanobis Typicality model had more high scoring areas and greater overall similarity than Maxent to the MCE outputs, suggesting, for this case study, it was the most appropriate SDM for aquaculture site selection. With suitable input data, a combined SDM and MCE model would overcome limitations of the individual approaches, allowing more robust planning and management decisions for aquaculture, other stakeholders and the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nucleic acid constructs containing orthogonal site selective recombinases (OSSRs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Joshua M.; Anderson, J. Christopher; Dueber, John E.

    2017-08-29

    The present invention provides for a recombinant nucleic acid comprising a nucleotide sequence comprising a plurality of constructs, wherein each construct independently comprises a nucleotide sequence of interest flanked by a pair of recombinase recognition sequences. Each pair of recombinase recognition sequences is recognized by a distinct recombinase. Optionally, each construct can, independently, further comprise one or more genes encoding a recombinase capable of recognizing the pair of recombinase recognition sequences of the construct. The recombinase can be an orthogonal (non-cross reacting), site-selective recombinase (OSSR).

  19. Selective prediction of interaction sites in protein structures with THEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murga Leonel F

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methods are now available for the prediction of interaction sites in protein 3D structures. While many of these methods report high success rates for site prediction, often these predictions are not very selective and have low precision. Precision in site prediction is addressed using Theoretical Microscopic Titration Curves (THEMATICS, a simple computational method for the identification of active sites in enzymes. Recall and precision are measured and compared with other methods for the prediction of catalytic sites. Results Using a test set of 169 enzymes from the original Catalytic Residue Dataset (CatRes it is shown that THEMATICS can deliver precise, localised site predictions. Furthermore, adjustment of the cut-off criteria can improve the recall rates for catalytic residues with only a small sacrifice in precision. Recall rates for CatRes/CSA annotated catalytic residues are 41.1%, 50.4%, and 54.2% for Z score cut-off values of 1.00, 0.99, and 0.98, respectively. The corresponding precision rates are 19.4%, 17.9%, and 16.4%. The success rate for catalytic sites is higher, with correct or partially correct predictions for 77.5%, 85.8%, and 88.2% of the enzymes in the test set, corresponding to the same respective Z score cut-offs, if only the CatRes annotations are used as the reference set. Incorporation of additional literature annotations into the reference set gives total success rates of 89.9%, 92.9%, and 94.1%, again for corresponding cut-off values of 1.00, 0.99, and 0.98. False positive rates for a 75-protein test set are 1.95%, 2.60%, and 3.12% for Z score cut-offs of 1.00, 0.99, and 0.98, respectively. Conclusion With a preferred cut-off value of 0.99, THEMATICS achieves a high success rate of interaction site prediction, about 86% correct or partially correct using CatRes/CSA annotations only and about 93% with an expanded reference set. Success rates for catalytic residue prediction are similar to those of

  20. Sediment-quality and water-toxicity data from 10 sites on the Westside Creeks and San Antonio River, San Antonio, Texas, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Cassi L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Kunz, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Sediment samples and samples for water-toxicity testing were collected during 2014 from several streams in San Antonio, Texas known locally as the Westside creeks (Alazán, Apache, Martínez, and San Pedro Creeks) and from the San Antonio River. Samples were collected once during base-flow and again after periods of storm-water runoff (post-storm conditions) to determine baseline sediment- and water-quality conditions. Streambed-sediment samples were analyzed for selected constituents, including trace elements and organic contaminants such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

  1. Quality of groundwater at and near an aquifer storage and recovery site, Bexar, Atascosa, and Wilson Counties, Texas, June 2004-August 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Cassi L.; Petri, Brian L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, did a study during 2004-08 to characterize the quality of native groundwater from the Edwards aquifer and pre- and post-injection water from the Carrizo aquifer at and near an aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) site in Bexar, Atascosa, and Wilson Counties, Texas. Groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for selected physical properties and constituents to characterize the quality of native groundwater from the Edwards aquifer and pre- and post-injection water from the Carrizo aquifer at and near the ASR site. Geochemical and isotope data indicated no substantial changes in major-ion, trace-element, and isotope chemistry occurred as the water from the Edwards aquifer was transferred through a 38-mile pipeline to the aquifer storage and recovery site. The samples collected from the four ASR recovery wells were similar in major-ion and stable isotope chemistry compared to the samples collected from the Edwards aquifer source wells and the ASR injection well. The similarity could indicate that as Edwards aquifer water was injected, it displaced native Carrizo aquifer water, or, alternatively, if mixing of Edwards and Carrizo aquifer waters was occurring, the major-ion and stable isotope signatures for the Carrizo aquifer water might have been obscured by the signatures of the injected Edwards aquifer water. Differences in the dissolved iron and dissolved manganese concentrations indicate that either minor amounts of mixing occurred between the waters from the two aquifers, or as Edwards aquifer water displaced Carrizo aquifer water it dissolved the iron and manganese directly from the Carrizo Sand. Concentrations of radium-226 in the samples collected at the ASR recovery wells were smaller than the concentrations in samples collected from the Edwards aquifer source wells and from the ASR injection well. The smaller radium-226 concentrations in the samples collected from the ASR

  2. Salt Effect Accelerates Site-Selective Cysteine Bioconjugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Highly efficient and selective chemical reactions are desired. For small molecule chemistry, the reaction rate can be varied by changing the concentration, temperature, and solvent used. In contrast for large biomolecules, the reaction rate is difficult to modify by adjusting these variables because stringent biocompatible reaction conditions are required. Here we show that adding salts can change the rate constant over 4 orders of magnitude for an arylation bioconjugation reaction between a cysteine residue within a four-residue sequence (π-clamp) and a perfluoroaryl electrophile. Biocompatible ammonium sulfate significantly enhances the reaction rate without influencing the site-specificity of π-clamp mediated arylation, enabling the fast synthesis of two site-specific antibody–drug conjugates that selectively kill HER2-positive breast cancer cells. Computational and structure–reactivity studies indicate that salts may tune the reaction rate through modulating the interactions between the π-clamp hydrophobic side chains and the electrophile. On the basis of this understanding, the salt effect is extended to other bioconjugation chemistry, and a new regioselective alkylation reaction at π-clamp cysteine is developed. PMID:27725962

  3. Spatially-Correlated Risk in Nature Reserve Site Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Heidi J; Busby, Gwenlyn M; Hamaide, Bertrand; Ando, Amy W; Polasky, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Establishing nature reserves protects species from land cover conversion and the resulting loss of habitat. Even within a reserve, however, many factors such as fires and defoliating insects still threaten habitat and the survival of species. To address the risk to species survival after reserve establishment, reserve networks can be created that allow some redundancy of species coverage to maximize the expected number of species that survive in the presence of threats. In some regions, however, the threats to species within a reserve may be spatially correlated. As examples, fires, diseases, and pest infestations can spread from a starting point and threaten neighboring parcels' habitats, in addition to damage caused at the initial location. This paper develops a reserve site selection optimization framework that compares the optimal reserve networks in cases where risks do and do not reflect spatial correlation. By exploring the impact of spatially-correlated risk on reserve networks on a stylized landscape and on an Oregon landscape, this analysis demonstrates an appropriate and feasible method for incorporating such post-reserve establishment risks in the reserve site selection literature as an additional tool to be further developed for future conservation planning.

  4. Spatially-Correlated Risk in Nature Reserve Site Selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi J Albers

    Full Text Available Establishing nature reserves protects species from land cover conversion and the resulting loss of habitat. Even within a reserve, however, many factors such as fires and defoliating insects still threaten habitat and the survival of species. To address the risk to species survival after reserve establishment, reserve networks can be created that allow some redundancy of species coverage to maximize the expected number of species that survive in the presence of threats. In some regions, however, the threats to species within a reserve may be spatially correlated. As examples, fires, diseases, and pest infestations can spread from a starting point and threaten neighboring parcels' habitats, in addition to damage caused at the initial location. This paper develops a reserve site selection optimization framework that compares the optimal reserve networks in cases where risks do and do not reflect spatial correlation. By exploring the impact of spatially-correlated risk on reserve networks on a stylized landscape and on an Oregon landscape, this analysis demonstrates an appropriate and feasible method for incorporating such post-reserve establishment risks in the reserve site selection literature as an additional tool to be further developed for future conservation planning.

  5. Bayesian site selection for fast Gaussian process regression

    KAUST Repository

    Pourhabib, Arash

    2014-02-05

    Gaussian Process (GP) regression is a popular method in the field of machine learning and computer experiment designs; however, its ability to handle large data sets is hindered by the computational difficulty in inverting a large covariance matrix. Likelihood approximation methods were developed as a fast GP approximation, thereby reducing the computation cost of GP regression by utilizing a much smaller set of unobserved latent variables called pseudo points. This article reports a further improvement to the likelihood approximation methods by simultaneously deciding both the number and locations of the pseudo points. The proposed approach is a Bayesian site selection method where both the number and locations of the pseudo inputs are parameters in the model, and the Bayesian model is solved using a reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo technique. Through a number of simulated and real data sets, it is demonstrated that with appropriate priors chosen, the Bayesian site selection method can produce a good balance between computation time and prediction accuracy: it is fast enough to handle large data sets that a full GP is unable to handle, and it improves, quite often remarkably, the prediction accuracy, compared with the existing likelihood approximations. © 2014 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  6. Sylvatic trichinellosis in Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pence D.B.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available There are no published reports of domestic or sylvatic trichinellosis in Texas. The aim of the present survey was to determine the presence of Trichinella species in selected representative species of potential wildlife reservoirs in southern Texas. In 1998-99, tongues of 211 wild mammals were collected in southern Texas: 154 coyotes (Canis latrans, three bobcats (Lynx rufus, 32 racoons (Procyon lotor, 1 3 opossum (Didelphis marsupialis, four ocelots (Leopardus pardalis and five wild boars (Sus scrofa. Presence of Trichinella sp. larvae was investigated by artificial digestion and larvae of positive samples were identified at the species level by a multiple-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Nine (5.8 % coyotes had trichinellosis ; in the muscles of seven of these coyotes, the larvae were identified as Trichinella murrelli. This is the first report of sylvatic trichinellosis in Texas.

  7. CENSUS AND STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL AND WATER QUALITY AT ABANDONED AND OTHER CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan R. Dutton; H. Seay Nance

    2003-06-01

    Commercial and centralized drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites receive a portion of spent drilling fluids for disposal from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) operations. Many older and some abandoned sites may have operated under less stringent regulations than are currently enforced. This study provides a census, compilation, and summary of information on active, inactive, and abandoned CCDD sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, intended as a basis for supporting State-funded assessment and remediation of abandoned sites. Closure of abandoned CCDD sites is within the jurisdiction of State regulatory agencies. Sources of data used in this study on abandoned CCDD sites mainly are permit files at State regulatory agencies. Active and inactive sites were included because data on abandoned sites are sparse. Onsite reserve pits at individual wells for disposal of spent drilling fluid are not part of this study. Of 287 CCDD sites in the four States for which we compiled data, 34 had been abandoned whereas 54 were active and 199 were inactive as of January 2002. Most were disposal-pit facilities; five percent were land treatment facilities. A typical disposal-pit facility has fewer than 3 disposal pits or cells, which have a median size of approximately 2 acres each. Data from well-documented sites may be used to predict some conditions at abandoned sites; older abandoned sites might have outlier concentrations for some metal and organic constituents. Groundwater at a significant number of sites had an average chloride concentration that exceeded nonactionable secondary drinking water standard of 250 mg/L, or a total dissolved solids content of >10,000 mg/L, the limiting definition for underground sources of drinking water source, or both. Background data were lacking, however, so we did not determine whether these concentrations in groundwater reflected site operations. Site remediation has not been found necessary to date for most abandoned

  8. Olefin metathesis for site-selective protein modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuya A; Chalker, Justin M; Davis, Benjamin G

    2009-04-17

    For a reaction to be generally useful for protein modification, it must be site-selective and efficient under conditions compatible with proteins: aqueous media, low to ambient temperature, and at or near neutral pH. To engineer a reaction that satisfies these conditions is not a simple task. Olefin metathesis is one of most useful reactions for carbon-carbon bond formation, but does it fit these requirements? This minireview is an account of the development of olefin metathesis for protein modification. Highlighted below are examples of olefin metathesis in peptidic systems and in aqueous media that laid the groundwork for successful metathesis on protein substrates. Also discussed are the opportunities in protein engineering for the genetic introduction of amino acids suitable for metathesis and the related challenges in chemistry and biology.

  9. Site-directed selection of oligonucleotide antagonists by competitive elution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridonneau, P; Chang, Y F; Buvoli, A V; O'Connell, D; Parma, D

    1999-02-01

    Oligonucleotide ligands that bind a protein or a small molecule of interest are readily isolated by in vitro selection and amplification of rare sequences from combinatorial libraries of sequence-randomized oligonucleotides (Gold et al., 1995). Classic systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) protocols are affinity based (Tuerk and Gold, 1990), but because many problems and applications require antagonists, protocols for selecting inhibitors are both desirable and valuable. A widely applicable approach for isolating inhibitors is competitive elution with a molecule that binds the targeted molecule's active or binding site. We have used this approach to isolate antagonists of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) from a library of 2'NH2-pyrimidine, 2'OH-purine oligonucleotides by elution with N N' N"-triacetylchitotriose, (GlcNAc)3. The highest affinity aptamers have equilibrium dissociation constants of 1 nM-20 nM for WGA, a 10(3)-10(4)-fold improvement relative to (GlcNAc)3, and unlike the carbohydrate, are highly specific. In addition to competing for binding with (GlcNAc)3, aptamers inhibit WGA-mediated agglutination of sheep erythrocytes, demonstrating that they are able to compete with natural ligands presented on the surfaces of cells. These results illustrate the feasibility of isolating high-affinity, high-specificity antagonists by competitive elution with low molecular weight, relatively low-affinity, and low-specificity small molecules.

  10. Helium mining on the Moon: Site selection and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Eugene N.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of recovering helium (He) from the Moon as a source of fusion energy on Earth is currently being studied at the University of Wisconsin. Part of this study is selection and evaluation of potential sites for lunar He mining. Selection and evaluation of potential mining sites are based on four salient findings by various investigators of lunar samples: (1) Regoliths from areas underlain by highland materials contain less than 20 wppm He; (2) Certain maria regoliths contain less than 20 wppm He, but other contain 25 to 49 wppm; (3) The He content of a mare regolith is a function of its composition; regoliths rich in Ti are relatively rich in He; and (4) He is concentrated in the less than 100-micron size fractions of regoliths. The first three findings suggest that maria are the most promising mining sites, specifically, those that have high-Ti regoliths. Information on the regional distribution and extent of high-Ti regoliths comes mainly from two sources: direct sampling by various Apollo and Luna missions, and remote sensing by gamma-ray spectroscopy and Earth-based measurements of lunar spectral reflectance. Sampling provides essential control on calibration and interpretation of data from remote sensing. These data indicate that Mare Tranquillitatis is the principal area of high-Ti regolith of the eastern nearside, but large areas of high-Ti regolith are indicated in the Imbrium and Procellarum regions. Recovery of significant amounts of He-3 will require mining billions of tonnes of regolith. Large individual areas suitable for mining must therefore be delineated. The concentration of He in the finer size fractions and considerations of ease of mining mean that mining areas must be as free as possible of sizable craters and blocks of rock. Pending additional lunar missions, information regarding these features must be obtained from lunar photographs, photogeologic maps, and radar surveys. The present study is decidedly preliminary; available

  11. Bayes Empirical Bayes Inference of Amino Acid Sites Under Positive Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Ziheng; Wong, Wendy Shuk Wan; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2005-01-01

    , with > 1 indicating positive selection. Statistical distributions are used to model the variation in among sites, allowing a subset of sites to have > 1 while the rest of the sequence may be under purifying selection with

  12. An Integrated Approach for Site Selection of Snow Measurement Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Saghafian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Snowmelt provides a reliable water resource for meeting domestic, agricultural, industrial and hydropower demands. Consequently, estimating the available snow water equivalent is essential for water resource management of snowy regions. Due to the spatiotemporal variability of the snowfall pattern in mountainous areas and difficult access to high altitudes areas, snow measurement is one of the most challenging hydro-meteorological data collection efforts. Development of an optimum snow measurement network is a complex task that requires integration of meteorological, hydrological, physiographical and economic studies. In this study, site selection of snow measurement stations is carried out through an integrated process using observed snow course data and analysis of historical snow cover images from National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (NOAA-AVHRR at both regional and local scales. Several important meteorological and hydrological factors, such as monthly and annual rainfall distribution, spatial distribution of average frequency of snow observation (FSO for two periods of snow falling and melting season, as well as priority contribution of sub-basins to annual snowmelt runoff are considered for selecting optimum station network. The FSO maps representing accumulation of snowfall during falling months and snowpack persistence during melting months are prepared in the GIS based on NOAA-AVHRR historical snow cover images. Basins are partitioned into 250 m elevation intervals such that within each interval, establishment of new stations or relocation/removing of the existing stations were proposed. The decision is made on the basis of the combination of meteorological, hydrological and satellite information. Economic aspects and road access constraints are also considered in determining the station type. Eventually, for the study area encompassing a number of large basins in southwest of Iran

  13. Strain selection, biomass to biofuel conversion, and resource colocation have strong impacts on the economic performance of algae cultivation sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venteris, Erik R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard

    2014-09-16

    Decisions involving strain selection, biomass to biofuel technology, and the location of cultivation facilities can strongly influence the economic viability of an algae-based biofuel enterprise. In this contribution we summarize our past results in a new analysis to explore the relative economic impact of these design choices. We present strain-specific growth model results from two saline strains (Nannocloropsis salina, Arthrospira sp.), a fresh to brackish strain (Chlorella sp., DOE strain 1412), and a freshwater strain of the order Sphaeropleales. Biomass to biofuel conversion is compared between lipid extraction (LE) and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) technologies. National-scale models of water, CO2 (as flue gas), land acquisition, site leveling, construction of connecting roads, and transport of HTL oil to existing refineries are used in conjunction with estimates of fuel value (from HTL) to prioritize and select from 88,692 unit farms (UF, 405 ha in pond area), a number sufficient to produce 136E+9 L yr-1 of renewable diesel (36 billion gallons yr-1, BGY). Strain selection and choice of conversion technology have large economic impacts, with differences between combinations of strains and biomass to biofuel technologies being up to $10 million dollars yr-1 UF-1. Results based on the most productive species, HTL-based fuel conversion, and resource costs show that the economic potential between geographic locations within the selection can differ by up to $4 million yr-1 UF-1, with 2.0 BGY of production possible from the most cost-effective sites. The local spatial variability in site rank is extreme, with very high and low rank sites within 10s of km of each other. Colocation with flue gas sources has a strong influence on site rank, but the most costly resource component varies from site to site. The highest rank sites are located predominantly in Florida and Texas, but most states south of 37°N latitude contain promising locations. Keywords: algae

  14. Colony site selection and abandonment by least terns Sterna antillarum in New Jersey, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotliar, Natasha B.; Burger, Joanna

    1986-01-01

    To develop habitat and management procedures to protect declining populations of least terns, colony site selection and abandonment by this species was investigated at 26 sites in New Jersey. Multivariate analysis was used to compare (1) colony sites to adjacent unused areas, (2) those located on beaches to dredge spoil sites and (3) abandoned to occupied colony sites.

  15. The nest site lottery: how selectively neutral density dependent growth suppression induces frequency dependent selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argasinski, K; Broom, M

    2013-12-01

    Modern developments in population dynamics emphasize the role of the turnover of individuals. In the new approaches stable population size is a dynamic equilibrium between different mortality and fecundity factors instead of an arbitrary fixed carrying capacity. The latest replicator dynamics models assume that regulation of the population size acts through feedback driven by density dependent juvenile mortality. Here, we consider a simplified model to extract the properties of this approach. We show that at the stable population size, the structure of the frequency dependent evolutionary game emerges. Turnover of individuals induces a lottery mechanism where for each nest site released by a dead adult individual a single newborn is drawn from the pool of newborn candidates. This frequency dependent selection leads towards the strategy maximizing the number of newborns per adult death. However, multiple strategies can maximize this value. Among them, the strategy with the greatest mortality (which implies the greatest instantaneous growth rate) is selected. This result is important for the discussion about universal fitness measures and which parameters are maximized by natural selection. This is related to the fitness measures R0 and r, because the number of newborns per single dead individual equals the lifetime production of newborn R0 in models without aging. We thus have a two-stage procedure, instead of a single fitness measure, which is a combination of R0 and r. According to the nest site lottery mechanism, at stable population size, selection favors strategies with the greatest r, i.e. those with the highest turnover, from those with the greatest R0. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Siting of nuclear facilities. Selections from Nuclear Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.

    1976-07-01

    The report presented siting policy and practice for nuclear power plants as developed in the U.S. and abroad. Twenty-two articles from Nuclear Safety on this general topic are reprinted since they provide a valuable reference source. The appendices also include reprints of some relevant regulatory rules and guides on siting. Advantages and disadvantages of novel siting concepts such as underground containment, offshore siting, and nuclear energy parks are addressed. Other topics include site criteria, risk criteria, and nuclear ship criteria.

  17. Autonomous site selection and instrument positioning for sample acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A.; Barnes, D.; Pugh, S.

    The European Space Agency Aurora Exploration Program aims to establish a European long-term programme for the exploration of Space, culminating in a human mission to space in the 2030 timeframe. Two flagship missions, namely Mars Sample Return and ExoMars, have been proposed as recognised steps along the way. The Exomars Rover is the first of these flagship missions and includes a rover carrying the Pasteur Payload, a mobile exobiology instrumentation package, and the Beagle 2 arm. The primary objective is the search for evidence of past or present life on mars, but the payload will also study the evolution of the planet and the atmosphere, look for evidence of seismological activity and survey the environment in preparation for future missions. The operation of rovers in unknown environments is complicated, and requires large resources not only on the planet but also in ground based operations. Currently, this can be very labour intensive, and costly, if large teams of scientists and engineers are required to assess mission progress, plan mission scenarios, and construct a sequence of events or goals for uplink. Furthermore, the constraints in communication imposed by the time delay involved over such large distances, and line-of-sight required, make autonomy paramount to mission success, affording the ability to operate in the event of communications outages and be opportunistic with respect to scientific discovery. As part of this drive to reduce mission costs and increase autonomy the Space Robotics group at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth is researching methods of autonomous site selection and instrument positioning, directly applicable to the ExoMars mission. The site selection technique used builds on the geometric reasoning algorithms used previously for localisation and navigation [Shaw 03]. It is proposed that a digital elevation model (DEM) of the local surface, generated during traverse and without interaction from ground based operators, can be

  18. Texas Yehaa !!!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellberg, Kurt

    2001-01-01

    Indtryk fra et besøg på SLA, Special Libraries Associations årlige konference, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 9.-13. juni 2001. "An Information Odyssey: Seizing the Competitive Advantage"......Indtryk fra et besøg på SLA, Special Libraries Associations årlige konference, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 9.-13. juni 2001. "An Information Odyssey: Seizing the Competitive Advantage"...

  19. OSU TOMF Program Site Selection and Preliminary Concept Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spadling, Steve [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2012-05-10

    The purpose of this report is to confirm the programmatic requirements for the new facilities, identify the most appropriate project site, and develop preliminary site and building concepts that successfully address the overall project goals and site issues. These new facilities will be designed to accommodate the staff, drivers and maintenance requirements for the future mixed fleet of passenger vehicles, Transit Style Buses and School Buses.

  20. Determination of ecologically vital groundwaters at selected sites in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinikour, W.S.; Yin, S.C.L.

    1989-08-01

    The US Department of Energy is classifying groundwaters at sites in its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Of particular concern is the potential presence of groundwaters that are highly vulnerable to contamination and that are either (1) irreplaceable sources of drinking water or (2) ecologically vital. Conditions at nine FUSRAP sites were evaluated to determine if ecologically vital groundwaters are present. The sites evaluated were Wayne Interim Storage Site, Maywood Interim Storage Site, and Middlesex Sampling Plant in New Jersey; Ashland 2 Site, Seaway Industrial Park, Colonie Interim storage Site, and Niagara Falls Storage Site in New York; and the St. Louis Airport Site and Hazelwood Interim Storage Site in Missouri. The analyses indicated that groundwaters are vulnerable to contamination at all but two of the sites -- the Ashland 2 and Seaway Industrial Park sites in New York. Groundwater discharge points were identified within a 2-mile radius (i.e., the classification review area) of all of the sites. No ecologically vital groundwater areas exist in the vicinities of any of the nine FUSRAP sites evaluated. 35 refs., 17 figs.

  1. Haulout site selection by southern elephant seals at Marion Island ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using data from an ongoing mark–resight programme at Marion Island, we tested empirically whether southern elephant seals prefer certain terrestrial sites to others during the breeding, moulting and winter haulouts, and whether the pattern of site use is the same for different age and sex groups. Southern elephant seals ...

  2. Constraint map for landfill site selection in Akure Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An integration of remote sensing, soil type, geological, geoelectrical, hydrogeological and geotechnical data was carried out in a GIS environment with a view to developing a constraint map for the location of landfill (waste disposal) site(s) in Akure, Metropolis.. Geomorphological features identified from satellite images ...

  3. Selection Methodology Approach to Preferable and Alternative Sites for the First NPP Project in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassim, Moath [Kyunghe Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kessel, David S. [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is to briefly present the methodology and results of the first siting study for the first nuclear power plant (NPP) in Yemen. In this study it has been demonstrated that there are suitable sites for specific unit/units power of 1000 MWt (about 300 MWe) nuclear power plant. To perform the site selection, a systematic selection method was developed. The method uses site-specific data gathered by literature review and expert judgement to identify the most important site selection criteria. A two-step site selection process was used. Candidate sites were chosen that meet a subset of the selection criteria that form the most important system constraints. These candidate sites were then evaluated against the full set of selection criteria using the Analytical Hierarchy Process Method (AHP). Candidate sites underwent a set of more specific siting criteria weighted by expert judgment to select preferable sites and alternatives using AHP method again. Expert Judgment method was used to rank and weight the importance of each criteria, then AHP method used to evaluate and weight the relation between criterion to criterion and between all criteria against the global weight. Then logical decision software was used to rank sites upon their weighting value.

  4. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-2 - Selection of sites within geohydrologic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection of sites within geohydrologic settings. 960.3-2... of sites within geohydrologic settings. Second, the siting provision requiring diversity of geohydrologic settings, as specified in § 960.3-1-1, shall be applied to group all potentially acceptable sites...

  5. The genealogy of sequences containing multiple sites subject to strong selection in a subdivided population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordborg, Magnus; Innan, Hideki

    2003-03-01

    A stochastic model for the genealogy of a sample of recombining sequences containing one or more sites subject to selection in a subdivided population is described. Selection is incorporated by dividing the population into allelic classes and then conditioning on the past sizes of these classes. The past allele frequencies at the selected sites are thus treated as parameters rather than as random variables. The purpose of the model is not to investigate the dynamics of selection, but to investigate effects of linkage to the selected sites on the genealogy of the surrounding chromosomal region. This approach is useful for modeling strong selection, when it is natural to parameterize the past allele frequencies at the selected sites. Several models of strong balancing selection are used as examples, and the effects on the pattern of neutral polymorphism in the chromosomal region are discussed. We focus in particular on the statistical power to detect balancing selection when it is present.

  6. Pacifier use: a systematic review of selected parenting web sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Aubrie N; D'Auria, Jennifer P; Wise, Lori M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and describe content related to pacifier use on parenting Web sites. Sixteen parenting Web sites met the inclusion criteria of the study. Two checklists were used to evaluate and describe different aspects of the Web sites. The first checklist provided a quality assessment of the Web sites. The second checklist was constructed to identify content categories of pacifier use. The majority of sites met quality assessment criteria. Eleven content categories regarding pacifier use were identified. Nine of the 16 sites contained eight or more of the 11 content areas. The most common types of Web pages containing pacifier information included pacifier specific (articles), questions and answer pages, and related content pages. Most of the parenting Web sites met the quality measures for online information. The content categories reflected the current controversies and information regarding pacifier use found in the expert literature. The findings of this study suggest the need to establish pacifier recommendations in the United States to guide parents and health care providers with decision making.

  7. Regulatory requirements for nuclear power plant site selection in Malaysia-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, N A; Hashim, S; Ramli, A T; Bradley, D A; Hamzah, K

    2016-12-01

    Malaysia has initiated a range of pre-project activities in preparation for its planned nuclear power programme. Clearly one of the first steps is the selection of sites that are deemed suitable for the construction and operation of a nuclear power plant. Here we outline the Malaysian regulatory requirements for nuclear power plant site selection, emphasizing details of the selection procedures and site characteristics needed, with a clear focus on radiation safety and radiation protection in respect of the site surroundings. The Malaysia Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) site selection guidelines are in accord with those provided in International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and United Stated Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) documents. To enhance the suitability criteria during selection, as well as to assist in the final decision making process, possible assessments using the site selection characteristics and information are proposed.

  8. Waterbird populations and habitat analysis of selected sites in NPRA

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Objectives of the 1977 field season common to each study site were: 1) to establish population data on waterbirds, 2) to relate activities such as road building,...

  9. Multiple criteria landfill site selection method incorporating the NIMBY factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Abdul Hakim; Ahamad, Mohd Sanusi S.; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2017-10-01

    Waste management and disposal issues one way or another need to be resolved correctly. Today, every developing country is facing the very common question of finding the best suitable site for a landfill. Relying on the technical factors alone would not solve the problem, but the best suitable sites for landfill need to consider the Not-In-My-Backyard (NIMBY) policy in resisting the pressure from unwanted development within the neighborhood or town. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to propose a sustainable approach in finding and determining the best landfill site using GIS. A spatial analytical study is presented by applying various criteria derived from several types of spatial data available in the search for the most suitable landfill site in three (3) districts of Kuala Muda, Kulim and Baling, in Kedah. The results of the analysis have not only satisfied the technical factors but have also put into consideration the public opposition to the NIMBY issues.

  10. Site selection for offshore wind farms along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ManiMurali, R.; Vidya, P.J.; Modi, P.; JayaKumar, S.

    This study deals with locating the potential sites for offshore wind farms and also deals with feasibility of installing offshore wind farms through scientific examination of the requirements along the coast of India Offshore wind energy is almost...

  11. Optimizing Warehouse Logistics Operations Through Site Selection Models: Istanbul, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Ranking Projects Using the Electré Method,” Hamilton, New Zeland . 17. “Multi-Criterion Decision Analysis for Site Selection” (lecture notes), [http...4.1. Restoration and New Logistics Center Building Costs .................................... 42 Table 4.2. Military Transportation Costs from...compromises [Ref. 2, 3]. The first step to consider is asking why one is seeking a new warehouse site. The following are four common reasons [Ref. 2

  12. Positively selected sites in cetacean myoglobins contribute to protein stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasmeh, Pouria; Serohijos, Adrian W R; Kepp, Kasper P

    2013-01-01

    between Mb folding stability and protein abundance, suggesting that a selection pressure for stability acts proportionally to higher expression. We also identify a major divergence event leading to the common ancestor of whales, during which major stabilization occurred. Most of the positively selected...

  13. Hospital site selection using fuzzy AHP and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidnia, Mohammad H; Alesheikh, Ali A; Alimohammadi, Abbas

    2009-07-01

    Environmental managers are commonly faced with sophisticated decisions, such as choosing the location of a new facility subject to multiple conflicting criteria. This paper considers the specific problem of creating a well-distributed network of hospitals that delivers its services to the target population with minimal time, pollution and cost. We develop a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis process that combines Geographical Information System (GIS) analysis with the Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP), and use this process to determine the optimum site for a new hospital in the Tehran urban area. The GIS was used to calculate and classify governing criteria, while FAHP was used to evaluate the decision factors and their impacts on alternative sites. Three methods were used to estimate the total weights and priorities of the candidate sites: fuzzy extent analysis, center-of-area defuzzification, and the alpha-cut method. The three methods yield identical priorities for the five alternatives considered. Fuzzy extent analysis provides less discriminating power, but is simpler to implement and compute than the other two methods. The alpha-cut method is more complicated, but integrates the uncertainty and overall attitude of the decision-maker. The usefulness of the new hospital site is evaluated by computing an accessibility index for each pixel in the GIS, defined as the ratio of population density to travel time. With the addition of a new hospital at the optimum site, this index improved over about 6.5 percent of the geographical area.

  14. The Siting of a New University: The Case of the University of Texas of the Permian Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozier, V. R.

    1988-01-01

    The struggle between two highly competitive towns over the location of a new university is chronicled. The battle has involved power politics, deception, enormous egos, civic pride, and the pleasure of rivalry, and has not abated since the final site decision. Lasting effects on the university are discussed. (Author/MSE)

  15. Regression models to estimate real-time concentrations of selected constituents in two tributaries to Lake Houston near Houston, Texas, 2005-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Timothy D.; Asquith, William H.; Milburn, Matthew S.

    2009-01-01

    In December 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the City of Houston, Texas, began collecting discrete water-quality samples for nutrients, total organic carbon, bacteria (total coliform and Escherichia coli), atrazine, and suspended sediment at two U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations upstream from Lake Houston near Houston (08068500 Spring Creek near Spring, Texas, and 08070200 East Fork San Jacinto River near New Caney, Texas). The data from the discrete water-quality samples collected during 2005-07, in conjunction with monitored real-time data already being collected - physical properties (specific conductance, pH, water temperature, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen), streamflow, and rainfall - were used to develop regression models for predicting water-quality constituent concentrations for inflows to Lake Houston. Rainfall data were obtained from a rain gage monitored by Harris County Homeland Security and Emergency Management and colocated with the Spring Creek station. The leaps and bounds algorithm was used to find the best subsets of possible regression models (minimum residual sum of squares for a given number of variables). The potential explanatory or predictive variables included discharge (streamflow), specific conductance, pH, water temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, rainfall, and time (to account for seasonal variations inherent in some water-quality data). The response variables at each site were nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic carbon, Escherichia coli, atrazine, and suspended sediment. The explanatory variables provide easily measured quantities as a means to estimate concentrations of the various constituents under investigation, with accompanying estimates of measurement uncertainty. Each regression equation can be used to estimate concentrations of a given constituent in real time. In conjunction with estimated concentrations, constituent loads were estimated by multiplying the

  16. Site-directed alkylation of multiple opioid receptors. I. Binding selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, I.F.; Goldstein, A.

    1984-05-01

    A method for measuring and expressing the binding selectivity of ligands for mu, delta, and kappa opioid binding sites is reported. Radioligands are used that are partially selective for these sites in combination with membrane preparations enriched in each site. Enrichment was obtained by treatment of membranes with the alkylating agent beta-chlornaltrexamine in the presence of appropriate protecting ligands. After enrichment for mu receptors, (/sup 3/H) dihydromorphine bound to a single type of site as judged by the slope of competition binding curves. After enrichment for delta or kappa receptors, binding sites for (/sup 3/H) (D-Ala2, D-Leu5)enkephalin and (3H)ethylketocyclazocine, respectively, were still not homogeneous. There were residual mu sites in delta-enriched membranes but no evidence for residual mu or delta sites in kappa-enriched membranes were found. This method was used to identify ligands that are highly selective for each of the three types of sites.

  17. Breeding site selection by colonial waterbirds given various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between 1997 and 2004 a number of different artificial structures were used to attract colonial waterbirds to breed at one of the constructed wetlands. The changes in use of the different artificial structures, and of natural reedbeds, for nesting revealed the site preferences of different waterbird species. Structures that ...

  18. Expert system for modelling stopover site selection by barnacle geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shariati Najafabadi, Mitra; Skidmore, A.K.; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Exo, K-M.; Kölzsch, A.; Griffin, L.; Stahl, J.; Cabot, D.; Toxopeus, A.G.

    2017-01-01

    The study of stopover sites has received a lot of attention in avian ecology, being especially important for many long-distance migrants, some of which have to pause several times during migration. The survival of many migratory birds depends primarily on food availability at these stopovers.

  19. Selecting Suitable Sites for Wind Energy Development in Ghana*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michae O. Mensah

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... In order to explore an alternate energy source, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a study to assess Ghana's wind energy potential. Some areas across the country were found to have enough wind resource for power generation. However, sites for wind farms are not wind speed ...

  20. 15 CFR 921.11 - Site selection and feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... physical, chemical and biological factors contributing to the diversity of fauna, flora and natural... and II); (2) The site's ecological characteristics, including its biological productivity, diversity of flora and fauna, and capacity to attract a broad range of research and educational interests. The...

  1. A heuristic method for measurement site selection in sewer systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonach, Tanja; Tscheikner-Gratl, F.; Rauch, Wolfgang; Kleidorfer, Manfred

    2018-01-01

    Although calibration of a hydrodynamic model depends on the availability of measurement data representing the system behavior, advice for the planning of necessary measurement campaigns for model calibration is scarce. This work tries to address this question of efficient measurement site

  2. 40 CFR 228.6 - Specific criteria for site selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with shipping, fishing, recreation, mineral extraction, desalination, fish and shellfish culture, areas of special scientific importance and other legitimate uses of the ocean; (9) The existing water quality and ecology of the site as determined by available data or by trend assessment or baseline surveys...

  3. NEST-SITE SELECTION IN THE CAPE SUGARBIRD We dedicate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    153 thus reducing the amount offoliage directly above nest-sites. Overhead cover shields incubating birds from the radiation 'heat sink' of the cold night sky. Calder (I 973a & b) considered overhead shielding to be of primary importance in promoting energy savings by nesting hummingbirds. (Trochilidae) in a cold climate.

  4. Patterns of roost site selection and use by Southern Ground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different habitats may be used for the needs of various aspects of an animal's life. Southern Ground-Hornbill Bucorvus leadbeateri groups announce their presence within year-round territories by calling at dawn from their overnight roost sites. Knowledge on ground-hornbill roosting habits is limited. Groups roost in large ...

  5. Nest-site selection in individual loggerhead turtles and consequences for doomed-egg relocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Joseph B; Limpus, Colin J; Bjorndal, Karen A

    2009-02-01

    Relocation of eggs is a common strategy for conservation of declining reptilian populations around the world. If individuals exhibit consistency in their nest-site selection and if nest-site selection is a heritable trait, relocating eggs deposited in vulnerable locations may impose artificial selection that would maintain traits favoring unsuccessful nest-site selection. Conversely, if most individuals scatter their nesting effort and individuals that consistently select unsuccessful nest sites are uncommon, then artificial selection would be less of a concern. During the 2005 nesting season of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) at Mon Repos beach, Queensland, Australia, we measured the perpendicular distance from the original nest site to a stationary dune baseline for in situ (unrelocated) and relocated clutches of eggs. We observed the fate of in situ clutches and predicted what would have been the fate of relocated clutches if they had not been moved by mapping tidal inundation and storm erosion lines. In 2005 turtles deposited an average of 3.84 nests and did not consistently select nest sites at particular distances from the stationary dune baseline. Selection of unsuccessful nest sites was distributed across the nesting population; 80.3% of the turtles selected at least one unsuccessful nest site and when previous breeding seasons were included, 97% selected at least one unsuccessful nest site. Females with nesting experience selected more successful nest sites than females with little or no experience. Relocating eggs vulnerable to tidal inundation and erosion saves the progeny from a large percentage of the population and the progeny from individuals who may in subsequent years nest successfully. Our results suggest that doomed-egg relocation does not substantially distort the gene pool in the eastern Australian loggerhead stock and should not be abandoned as a strategy for the conservation of marine turtle populations.

  6. Assessing European Capacity for Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide. Capacity standards and site selection criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, F.P.; Meer, B. van der; Vangkilde-Pedersen, T.; Vosgerau, H.; Willscher, B.; Bossie-Codreanu, D.; Wojcicki, A.; Le Nindre, Y.M.; Kirk, K.; Dalwigk, I. von; Anthonsen, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    This document is deliverable D26 the work package of WP4 Capacity standards and site selection criteria in the EU GeoCapacity project and provide a summary of the work carried out in WP4.1 Site selection criteria and WP4.2 Storage Capacity Standards. The objective of WP4.1 is to produce a set of

  7. Emitter-site selective photoelectron circular dichroism of trifluoromethyloxirane

    OpenAIRE

    Ilchen, M.; Hartmann, G.; Schmidt, Ph.; Wolf, T. J. A.; Ehresmann, A.; Moeller, S.; Knie, A.; Demekhin, Ph. V.; Rupprecht, P.; Artemyev, A. N.; Coffee, R N; Li, Z; Ohldag, H.; Ogasawara, H.; Osipov, T.

    2017-01-01

    The angle-resolved inner-shell photoionization of R-trifluoromethyloxirane, C3H3F3O, is studied experimentally and theoretically. Thereby, we investigate the photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) for nearly-symmetric O 1s and F 1s electronic orbitals, which are localized on different molecular sites. The respective dichroic $\\beta_{1}$ and angular distribution $\\beta_{2}$ parameters are measured at the photoelectron kinetic energies from 1 to 16 eV by using variably polarized synchrotron ra...

  8. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Fielden, J.M.; Johnson, C.A.

    1982-09-01

    This bibliography contains 693 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. Foreign, as well as domestic, literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are Surplus Facilities Management Program, Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, and Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Chapter sections for chapters 1 and 2 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Land Decontamination and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; and General Studies. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author or by title. Indexes are provided for (1) author; (2) corporate affiliation; (3) title; (4) publication description; (5) geographic location; and (6) keywords. An appendix of 202 bibliographic references without abstracts or indexes has been included in this bibliography. This appendix represents literature identified but not abstracted due to time constraints.

  9. Useful Radar Data for Mars 2001 Landing Site Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Slade, M. A.; Jurgens, R. F.

    1998-01-01

    Radar data, of both Doppler-only and delay-Doppler varieties, played a useful role in the landing site certification process for Mars Pathfinder. Radar provides information on the elevation of the planetary surface, on its radar reflectivity and on the surface roughness. The elevation is important for proper entry, descent and landing, as is the reflectivity if a radar altimeter is to be used on the lander. Both the reflectivity and the surface roughness can measure the rockiness of the surface, important for a safe landing, as well as for rover trafficability. The spatial resolution of this Earth-based remote sensing technique is around 10 km in longitude by some 150 km in latitude. In the case of Pathfinder the regionally averaged properties were confirmed by ground truth at the landing site in Ares Vallis. The landing site assessment for Pathfinder relied principally on data from the 1995 Mars opposition when sub-Earth latitudes on Mars ranged from 16 to 22 degrees north. Data from earlier oppositions (1992-93, 1990, 1988-89) are available and cover latitudes from 25 south to 25 north at various longitudes. The available data will be presented at the symposium. The data are of varying quality, although ranging data is available for about 20 radar tracks per opposition, reflectivity and roughness analyses may not always be possible. Some older data are also available (1982, 1980) with range-only information.

  10. Commercial Space Port Planning in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, L.; Looke, B.

    2002-01-01

    separating launch areas form inhabited facilities, and extremely conservative flight risk restrictions associated with launch trajectories over populated areas. Unless modified, the flight risk criteria currently mandated will prevent virtually all new U.S. commercial spaceport operating license proposals from being approved. Commercial spaceport development also presents significant financing challenges. New launch service companies typically lack substantial economic resources needed for infrastructure construction such as long horizontal runways, launch platforms and vehicle assembly and payload integration facilities. Outside investment sources much be identified, with supplementary revenues potentially derived from space tourism and ancillary public service uses. Texas spaceport planning sponsors, participants and advocates recognize that such a development warrants the necessary investment. It will support the advancement and services of new generations of launch systems vitally needed to reduce the high costs of space access. It will afford new state-wide, regional and local economic development opportunities that promote business investments, create jobs and expand infrastructure resources. It will also support a wide spectrum of educational objectives by including and serving academic programs at all levels. Regardless which site is ultimately selected, all Texas regions and public interests in general will benefit.

  11. Aggregate impact testing of selected granite samples from sites in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Aggregate Impact Testing machine was used to measure the resistance to fa ilure of Rocks from five (5) selected granite quarries to a suddenly applied force using S ingapore standard. The results obtained show that brittleness (S20) value of the rocks were between 2 - 10. These values are less than the stated ...

  12. Analysis of a Multi-Well Tracer Test at a Bank Filtration Site in an Arid Environment of El Paso, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, A. N.; Langford, R.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Sheng, Z.

    2005-12-01

    River bank filtered water is an important component of the drinking water production in many areas of the world. In riverbank filtration, the removal of pathogens is an important task for the production of good quality drinking water. The hydrogeological factors and spatial changes in the water's microbiology during the transport from the river to the aquifer have important implications on the quality of the produced water. The goal of this study was to investigate riverbank infiltration effectiveness in arid environments such as that of El Paso, Texas. The hydrostratigraphic units and hydrogeologic conditions were characterized with lithologic samples obtained from all boreholes collected during the construction of twelve observation wells and one production well in the site, which were constructed near the artificial stream to provide geologic and hydrologic information. The shallow aquifer is composed of three unites: high hydraulic conductivity layers on the top and bottom, and low conductivity layer in the middle. In this study advective transport of microspheres was compared with a conservative tracer such as bromide. Bromide was injected into an observation well at the channel margin. Simultaneously, 1, 6 and 10 micron-diameter fluorescent microspheres equivalent to Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and bacteria sizes were injected into the stream bottom and two observation wells to assess the suitability of microspheres as abiotic analogs in future investigations involving the physical aspects of bacteria and protozoa transport behavior. The 17.8 day-tracer test provided valuable results that are relevant to the transport of pathogens through the subsurface under riverbank filtration conditions. The 1 micron-size microspheres were abundant in the pumping and observation wells and showed multiple peaks similar to the bromide results. Microspheres from the three injection sites had distinctly different transport paths and rates. The 6 and 10 micron-size microspheres

  13. Reliable Refuge: Two Sky Island Scorpion Species Select Larger, Thermally Stable Retreat Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Jamie E.; Brown, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Sky island scorpions shelter under rocks and other surface debris, but, as with other scorpions, it is unclear whether these species select retreat sites randomly. Furthermore, little is known about the thermal preferences of scorpions, and no research has been done to identify whether reproductive condition might influence retreat site selection. The objectives were to (1) identify physical or thermal characteristics for retreat sites occupied by two sky island scorpions (Vaejovis cashi Grah...

  14. Final Environmental Assessment of remedial action at the Falls City uranium mill tailings site, Falls City, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) is prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which requires Federal agencies to assess the impacts that their actions may have on the environment. This EA examines the short- and long-term effects of the DOE`s proposed remedial action for the Falls City tailings site. The no action alternative is also examined. The DOE will use the information and analyses presented here to determine whether the proposed action would have a significant impact on the environment. If the impacts are determined to be significant, an EIS will be prepared. If the impacts are not judged to be significant, the DOE will issue an official ``Finding of No Significant Impact`` and implement the proposed action.

  15. Artificial Cavities and Nest Site Selection by Puerto Rican Parrots: a Multiscale Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. White, Jr.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined nest site selection by Puerto Rican Parrots, a secondary cavity nester, at several spatial scales using the nest entrance as the central focal point relative to 20 habitat and spatial variables. The Puerto Rican Parrot is unique in that, since 2001, all known nesting in the wild has occurred in artificial cavities, which also provided us with an opportunity to evaluate nest site selection without confounding effects of the actual nest cavity characteristics. Because of the data limitations imposed by the small population size of this critically endangered endemic species, we employed a distribution-free statistical simulation approach to assess site selection relative to characteristics of used and unused nesting sites. Nest sites selected by Puerto Rican Parrots were characterized by greater horizontal and vertical visibility from the nest entrance, greater density of mature sierra palms, and a more westerly and leeward orientation of nest entrances than unused sites. Our results suggest that nest site selection in this species is an adaptive response to predation pressure, to which the parrots respond by selecting nest sites offering advantages in predator detection and avoidance at all stages of the nesting cycle. We conclude that identifying and replicating the “nest gestalt” of successful nesting sites may facilitate conservation efforts for this and other endangered avian species.

  16. Supramolecular Recognition Allows Remote, Site-Selective C-H Oxidation of Methylenic Sites in Linear Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivo, Giorgio; Farinelli, Giulio; Barbieri, Alessia; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Di Stefano, Stefano; Costas, Miquel

    2017-12-18

    Site-selective C-H functionalization of aliphatic alkyl chains is a longstanding challenge in oxidation catalysis, given the comparable relative reactivity of the different methylenes. A supramolecular, bioinspired approach is described to address this challenge. A Mn complex able to catalyze C(sp3 )-H hydroxylation with H2 O2 is equipped with 18-benzocrown-6 ether receptors that bind ammonium substrates via hydrogen bonding. Reversible pre-association of protonated primary aliphatic amines with the crown ether selectively exposes remote positions (C8 and C9) to the oxidizing unit, resulting in a site-selective oxidation. Remarkably, such control of selectivity retains its efficiency for a whole series of linear amines, overriding the intrinsic reactivity of C-H bonds, no matter the chain length. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Emitter-site-selective photoelectron circular dichroism of trifluoromethyloxirane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilchen, M.; Hartmann, G.; Rupprecht, P.; Artemyev, A. N.; Coffee, R. N.; Li, Z.; Ohldag, H.; Ogasawara, H.; Osipov, T.; Ray, D.; Schmidt, Ph.; Wolf, T. J. A.; Ehresmann, A.; Moeller, S.; Knie, A.; Demekhin, Ph. V.

    2017-05-01

    The angle-resolved inner-shell photoionization of R-trifluoromethyloxirane, C3H3F3O , is studied experimentally and theoretically. Thereby, we investigate the photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) for nearly symmetric O 1 s and F 1 s electronic orbitals, which are localized on different molecular sites. The respective dichroic β1 and angular distribution β2 parameters are measured at the photoelectron kinetic energies from 1 to 16 eV by using variably polarized synchrotron radiation and velocity map imaging spectroscopy. The present experimental results are in good agreement with the outcome of ab initio electronic structure calculations. We report a sizable chiral asymmetry β1 of up to about 9% for the K -shell photoionization of oxygen atom. For the individual fluorine atoms, the present calculations predict asymmetries of similar size. However, being averaged over all fluorine atoms, it drops down to about 2%, as also observed in the present experiment. Our study demonstrates a strong emitter and site sensitivity of PECD in the one-photon inner-shell ionization of this chiral molecule.

  18. Total Synthesis of Ellagitannins via Sequential Site-Selective Functionalization of Unprotected D-Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hironori; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Furuta, Takumi; Kawabata, Takeo

    2017-01-01

    A short-step total synthesis of the natural glycosides pterocarinin C and tellimagrandin II (eugeniin) has been performed by sequential and site-selective functionalization of free hydroxy groups of unprotected D-glucose. The key reactions are β-selective glycosidation of a gallic acid derivative using unprotected D-glucose as a glycosyl donor and catalyst-controlled site-selective introduction of a galloyl group into the inherently less reactive hydroxy group of the glucoside.

  19. Redmedial Action Plan for the Risk-Based Remediation of Site ST14 (SWMU 68), LPSTID 104819; the Former Base Refueling Area (A0C7); the French Underdrain System (SWMU 64); and the North Oil/Water Separator (SWMU 67), Carswell Air Force Base, Naval Air Station Fort Worth Joint Reserve Base, Texas. Volume 1: Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ...) to prepare a remedial action plan (RAP) in support of a risk-based remediation decision for soil and groundwater contaminated with fuel hydrocarbons at Site ST14 at Carswell Air Force Base (AFB), Texas...

  20. Baseline assessment of physical characteristics, aquatic biota, and selected water-quality properties at the reach and mesohabitat scale for reaches of Big Cypress, Black Cypress, and Little Cypress Bayous, Big Cypress Basin, northeastern Texas, 2010–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Christopher L.; Moring, James B.

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 and 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Northeast Texas Municipal Water District and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, did a baseline assessment of physical characteristics and aquatic biota (fish and mussels) collected at the mesohabitat scale for reaches of Big Cypress, Black Cypress, and Little Cypress Bayous in the Big Cypress Basin in northeastern Texas, and measured selected water-quality properties in isolated pools in Black Cypress and Little Cypress. All of the data were collected in the context of prescribed environmental flows. The information acquired during the course of the study will support the long-term monitoring of biota in relation to environmental flow prescriptions for Big Cypress Bayou, Black Cypress Bayou, and Little Cypress Bayou. Data collection and analysis were done at mesohabitat- and reach-specific scales, where a mesohabitat is defined as a discrete area within a stream that exhibits unique depth, velocity, slope, substrate, and cover.

  1. Evolutionary mirages: selection on binding site composition creates the illusion of conserved grammars in Drosophila enhancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W Lusk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The clustering of transcription factor binding sites in developmental enhancers and the apparent preferential conservation of clustered sites have been widely interpreted as proof that spatially constrained physical interactions between transcription factors are required for regulatory function. However, we show here that selection on the composition of enhancers alone, and not their internal structure, leads to the accumulation of clustered sites with evolutionary dynamics that suggest they are preferentially conserved. We simulated the evolution of idealized enhancers from Drosophila melanogaster constrained to contain only a minimum number of binding sites for one or more factors. Under this constraint, mutations that destroy an existing binding site are tolerated only if a compensating site has emerged elsewhere in the enhancer. Overlapping sites, such as those frequently observed for the activator Bicoid and repressor Krüppel, had significantly longer evolutionary half-lives than isolated sites for the same factors. This leads to a substantially higher density of overlapping sites than expected by chance and the appearance that such sites are preferentially conserved. Because D. melanogaster (like many other species has a bias for deletions over insertions, sites tended to become closer together over time, leading to an overall clustering of sites in the absence of any selection for clustered sites. Since this effect is strongest for the oldest sites, clustered sites also incorrectly appear to be preferentially conserved. Following speciation, sites tend to be closer together in all descendent species than in their common ancestors, violating the common assumption that shared features of species' genomes reflect their ancestral state. Finally, we show that selection on binding site composition alone recapitulates the observed number of overlapping and closely neighboring sites in real D. melanogaster enhancers. Thus, this study calls into

  2. Genomic and chromatin signals underlying transcription start-site selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valen, Eivind; Sandelin, Albin Gustav

    2011-01-01

    . In recent years substantial progress has been made towards this goal, spurred by the possibility of applying genome-wide, sequencing-based analysis. We now have a large collection of high-resolution datasets identifying locations of TSSs, protein-DNA interactions, and chromatin features over whole genomes......; the field is now faced with the daunting challenge of translating these descriptive maps into quantitative and predictive models describing the underlying biology. We review here the genomic and chromatin features that underlie TSS selection and usage, focusing on the differences between the major classes...

  3. Site quality in Appalachian hardwoods: the biological and economic response under selection silviculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orris D. McCauley; George R., Jr. Trimble

    1975-01-01

    The relative or percentage value response after 12 years of selective cutting practices on low- and high-quality sites in Appalachian hardwoods amounted to a 119-percent increase on the low-quality site and 145 percent on the high-quality site. The absolute value or actual dollar response, on the other hand, showed that the low-quality site increased in value only $76/...

  4. Recombination modulates how selection affects linked sites in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne E McGaugh

    Full Text Available One of the most influential observations in molecular evolution has been a strong association between local recombination rate and nucleotide polymorphisms across the genome. This is interpreted as evidence for ubiquitous natural selection. The alternative explanation, that recombination is mutagenic, has been rejected by the absence of a similar association between local recombination rate and nucleotide divergence between species. However, many recent studies show that recombination rates are often very different even in closely related species, questioning whether an association between recombination rate and divergence between species has been tested satisfactorily. To circumvent this problem, we directly surveyed recombination across approximately 43% of the D. pseudoobscura physical genome in two separate recombination maps and 31% of the D. miranda physical genome, and we identified both global and local differences in recombination rate between these two closely related species. Using only regions with conserved recombination rates between and within species and accounting for multiple covariates, our data support the conclusion that recombination is positively related to diversity because recombination modulates Hill-Robertson effects in the genome and not because recombination is predominately mutagenic. Finally, we find evidence for dips in diversity around nonsynonymous substitutions. We infer that at least some of this reduction in diversity resulted from selective sweeps and examine these dips in the context of recombination rate.

  5. Atrazine selects for ichthyotoxic Prymnesium parvum, a possible explanation for golden algae blooms in lakes of Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Brian S; Rogers, William J

    2011-11-01

    Prymnesium parvum Carter is a mixotrophic haptophyte which, under certain environmental conditions, produces potent toxins responsible for fish kills around the world since the 1930s. Many P. parvum blooms have occurred in catchments where crop agriculture is a dominant land use; however, the effects of herbicides on bloom dynamics have not yet been investigated. Aquatic microbial communities containing P. parvum were subjected to two separate experiments involving the addition of either atrazine or glyphosate at varying concentrations. After 14, 21, and 28 days at 10 μg/l atrazine we observed that the relative abundance of P. parvum was significantly higher compared to the control. After 28 days, the relative abundance of P. parvum was approximately 53% higher in 10 μg/l atrazine compared to the control. Glyphosate exhibited no statistically-significant effect on the relative abundance of P. parvum. Inadequate characterization of the microbial community and uncertainty due to ecological and allelopathic effects of P. parvum made it difficult to establish strong relationships between herbicide sensitivity and nutritional mode. Large volumes of mobile and persistent herbicides with high toxicity to phytoplankton are used in cotton defoliation in Texas prior to the typical P. parvum pre-bloom period. These results have important implications for management, such as whether reduction in herbicide runoff could decrease the frequency and duration of P. parvum blooms in the future.

  6. Reliable Refuge: Two Sky Island Scorpion Species Select Larger, Thermally Stable Retreat Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jamie E; Brown, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    Sky island scorpions shelter under rocks and other surface debris, but, as with other scorpions, it is unclear whether these species select retreat sites randomly. Furthermore, little is known about the thermal preferences of scorpions, and no research has been done to identify whether reproductive condition might influence retreat site selection. The objectives were to (1) identify physical or thermal characteristics for retreat sites occupied by two sky island scorpions (Vaejovis cashi Graham 2007 and V. electrum Hughes 2011) and those not occupied; (2) determine whether retreat site selection differs between the two study species; and (3) identify whether thermal selection differs between species and between gravid and non-gravid females of the same species. Within each scorpion's habitat, maximum dimensions of rocks along a transect line were measured and compared to occupied rocks to determine whether retreat site selection occurred randomly. Temperature loggers were placed under a subset of occupied and unoccupied rocks for 48 hours to compare the thermal characteristics of these rocks. Thermal gradient trials were conducted before parturition and after dispersal of young in order to identify whether gravidity influences thermal preference. Vaejovis cashi and V. electrum both selected larger retreat sites that had more stable thermal profiles. Neither species appeared to have thermal preferences influenced by reproductive condition. However, while thermal selection did not differ among non-gravid individuals, gravid V. electrum selected warmer temperatures than its gravid congener. Sky island scorpions appear to select large retreat sites to maintain thermal stability, although biotic factors (e.g., competition) could also be involved in this choice. Future studies should focus on identifying the various biotic or abiotic factors that could influence retreat site selection in scorpions, as well as determining whether reproductive condition affects thermal

  7. Reliable Refuge: Two Sky Island Scorpion Species Select Larger, Thermally Stable Retreat Sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie E Becker

    Full Text Available Sky island scorpions shelter under rocks and other surface debris, but, as with other scorpions, it is unclear whether these species select retreat sites randomly. Furthermore, little is known about the thermal preferences of scorpions, and no research has been done to identify whether reproductive condition might influence retreat site selection. The objectives were to (1 identify physical or thermal characteristics for retreat sites occupied by two sky island scorpions (Vaejovis cashi Graham 2007 and V. electrum Hughes 2011 and those not occupied; (2 determine whether retreat site selection differs between the two study species; and (3 identify whether thermal selection differs between species and between gravid and non-gravid females of the same species. Within each scorpion's habitat, maximum dimensions of rocks along a transect line were measured and compared to occupied rocks to determine whether retreat site selection occurred randomly. Temperature loggers were placed under a subset of occupied and unoccupied rocks for 48 hours to compare the thermal characteristics of these rocks. Thermal gradient trials were conducted before parturition and after dispersal of young in order to identify whether gravidity influences thermal preference. Vaejovis cashi and V. electrum both selected larger retreat sites that had more stable thermal profiles. Neither species appeared to have thermal preferences influenced by reproductive condition. However, while thermal selection did not differ among non-gravid individuals, gravid V. electrum selected warmer temperatures than its gravid congener. Sky island scorpions appear to select large retreat sites to maintain thermal stability, although biotic factors (e.g., competition could also be involved in this choice. Future studies should focus on identifying the various biotic or abiotic factors that could influence retreat site selection in scorpions, as well as determining whether reproductive condition

  8. The site selection process for a spent fuel repository in Finland. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. [EnvirosQuantiSci (United Kingdom); Aeikaes, T. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2000-12-01

    This Summary Report describes the Finnish programme for the selection and characterisation of potential sites for the deep disposal of spent nuclear fuel and explains the process by which Olkiluoto has been selected as the single site proposed for the development of a spent fuel disposal facility. Its aim is to provide an overview of this process, initiated almost twenty years ago, which has entered its final phase. It provides information in three areas: a review of the early site selection criteria, a description of the site selection process, including all the associated site characterisation work, up to the point at which a single site was selected and an outline of the proposed work, in particular that proposed underground, to characterise further the Olkiluoto site. In 1983 the Finnish Government made a policy decision on the management of nuclear waste in which the main goals and milestones for the site selection programme for the deep disposal of spent fuel were presented. According to this decision several site candidates, whose selection was to be based on careful studies of the whole country, should be characterised and the site for the repository selected by the end of the year 2000. This report describes the process by which this policy decision has been achieved. The report begins with a discussion of the definition of the geological and environmental site selection criteria and how they were applied in order to select a small number of sites, five in all, that were to be the subject of the preliminary investigations. The methods used to investigate these sites and the results of these investigations are described, as is the evaluation of the results of these investigations and the process used to discard two of the sites and continue more detailed investigations at the remaining three. The detailed site investigations that commenced in 1993 are described with respect to the overall strategy followed and the investigation techniques applied. The

  9. Redotex ingestions reported to Texas poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2010-09-01

    Although the multi-component weight loss supplement Redotex is banned in the United States, the supplement can be obtained in Mexico. The intent of this report was to describe the pattern of Redotex calls received by a statewide poison center system. Cases were all Redotex calls received by Texas poison centers during 2000-2008. The distribution of total calls and those involving ingestion of the supplement were determined for selected demographic and clinical factors. Of 34 total Redotex calls received, 55.9% came from the 14 Texas counties that border Mexico. Of the 22 reported Redotex ingestions, 77.3% of the patients were female and 45.5% 20 years or more. Of the 17 ingestions involving no co-ingestants, 52.9% were already at or en route to a health care facility, 41.2% were managed on site, and 5.9% was referred to a health care facility. The final medical outcome was no effect in 23.5% cases, minor effect in 5.9%, moderate effect in 11.8%, not followed but minimal clinical effects possible in 47.1%, and unable to follow but judged to be potentially toxic in 11.8%. Most Redotex calls to the Texas poison center system originated from counties bordering Mexico.

  10. Kin, daytime associations, or preferred sleeping sites? Factors influencing sleep site selection in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Louise C; Anderson, James R

    2013-01-01

    Chimpanzee nesting behaviours and the factors that may influence these behaviours are rarely studied in captive settings. In the present study, the daytime associations, sleeping site selections and nesting groups of 11 zoo-housed chimpanzees over a 29-day period were analysed. Neither daytime associations nor presence of kin influenced sleeping site selection in females. Daytime associations did influence sleeping arrangements in males. Nighttime spatial arrangements and individual preferences for specific sleeping areas were broadly comparable to nesting patterns reported in free-living chimpanzee communities. In the interests of captive ape welfare, we conclude that exhibits should incorporate multilevel nesting areas and a choice of several potential sleeping sites. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Short communication: Calving site selection of multiparous, group-housed dairy cows is influenced by site of a previous calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Nielsen, B.L.; Herskin, Mette S.

    2017-01-01

    A calving cow and her newborn calf appear to have an attracting effect on periparturient cows, which may potentially influence the functionality of future motivation-based calving pen designs. In this pilot study we examined whether calving site selection of group-housed Holstein dairy cows...... was affected by the site of a previous calving. Ten multiparous cows moved to 1 of 2 group pens 11 (range = 4–27) d before calving were included. Each pen consisted of an open area (9 × 9 m) connected to 6 secluded areas (4.5 × 3 m each), where cows could move freely between all areas. Time of calving......, location of the breaking of the amniotic sac, as well as the place of birth were recorded. In all but 1 case cows calved within a distance of 1 cow length from where the previous calving took place, suggesting that the cows did not select calving site at random. These preliminary observations indicate...

  12. Ecotoxicity literature review of selected Hanford Site contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driver, C.J.

    1994-03-01

    Available information on the toxicity, food chain transport, and bioconcentration of several Hanford Site contaminants were reviewed. The contaminants included cesium-137, cobalt-60, europium, nitrate, plutonium, strontium-90, technetium, tritium, uranium, and chromium (III and VI). Toxicity and mobility in both aquatic and terrestrial systems were considered. For aquatic systems, considerable information was available on the chemical and/or radiological toxicity of most of the contaminants in invertebrate animals and fish. Little information was available on aquatic macrophyte response to the contaminants. Terrestrial animals such as waterfowl and amphibians that have high exposure potential in aquatic systems were also largely unrepresented in the toxicity literature. The preponderance of toxicity data for terrestrial biota was for laboratory mammals. Bioconcentration factors and transfer coefficients were obtained for primary producers and consumers in representative aquatic and terrestrial systems; however, little data were available for upper trophic level transfer, particularly for terrestrial predators. Food chain transport and toxicity information for the contaminants were generally lacking for desert or sage brush-steppe organisms, particularly plants and reptiles

  13. Restaurant Food Allergy Practices - Six Selected Sites, United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Taylor J; Brown, Laura G; Faw, Brenda; Hedeen, Nicole; Matis, Bailey; Perez, Priscela; Viveiros, Brendalee; Ripley, Danny

    2017-04-21

    Food allergies affect an estimated 15 million persons in the United States (1), and are responsible for approximately 30,000 emergency department visits and 150-200 deaths each year (2). Nearly half of reported fatal food allergy reactions over a 13-year period were caused by food from a restaurant or other food service establishment (3). To ascertain the prevalence of food allergy training, training topics, and practices related to food allergies, CDC's Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net), a collaborative forum of federal agencies and state and local health departments with six sites, interviewed personnel at 278 restaurants. Fewer than half of the 277 restaurant managers (44.4%), 211 food workers (40.8%), and 156 servers (33.3%) interviewed reported receiving food allergy training. Among those who reported receiving training, topics commonly included the major food allergens and what to do if a customer has a food allergy. Although most restaurants had ingredient lists for at least some menu items, few had separate equipment or areas designated for the preparation of allergen-free food. Restaurants can reduce the risk for allergic reactions among patrons by providing food allergy training for personnel and ingredient lists for all menu items and by dedicating equipment and areas specifically for preparing allergen-free food.

  14. Site selectivity of specific reaction steps important for catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kenneth

    This thesis presents the results of two dierent projects, both focused on catalysis. The main part is about the investigation of the structure sensitivity of the CO dissociation reaction with STM on a Ru(0 1 54) single crystal and the second part concerns the STM structure study of the Bi/Pt(111......) overlayer system. In the STM study of the structure sensitivity of the CO dissociation reaction on the Ru(0 1 54) sample, it was determined that after cooling the sample from 700K to 400K in 10-8Torr of CO or in the CO that was left after a TPD, the sample displayed periodic decorations on every other...... with simulated STM images and DFT based reaction energy level calculation, it was furthermore determined that it is the B-step conguration that is active for the CO dissociation and that a conguration with the oxygen atom occupying the hcp 3-fold hollow site on top of the step, right next to the dissociation...

  15. Application of Delphi method in site selection of desalination plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sepehr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the reduced freshwater supplies across the world, seawater desalination is one of the appropriate methods available for producing freshwater. Selecting an optimal location is crucial in the installation of these plants owing to the environmental problems they cause. The present study was conducted to identify optimal locations for installing desalination Plants in the coastal areas of southern Iran (Hormozgan Province with application of Delphi method. To implement this technique and identify, screen and prioritize effective criteria and sub-criteria, ten experts were surveyed through questionnaires and eight criteria and 18 sub-criteria were identified. All these sub-criteria were evaluated and classified in ArcGIS into five classes as input layers. The maps were then integrated based on the modulation importance coefficient and the identified priorities using a linear Delphi model and the final map was reclassified into five categories. Environmentally sensitive areas and seawater quality were respectively the criterion and sub-criterion that received the highest importance. After combining the layers and obtaining the final map, 63 locations were identified for installing desalination plants in the coastal areas on the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea in Hormozgan Province.  At the end, 27 locations were high important and had optimal environmental conditions for establishing desalination plants. Of the 27 locations, six were located in the coastal area of the Oman Sea, one in the coastal area of the Strait of Hormuz and 20 others in the coastal area of the Persian Gulf.

  16. Resource Prospector: Mission Goals, Relevance and Site Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaprete, A.; Elphic, R. C.; Andrews, D.; Sanders, G.; McGovern, A.; Vaughan, R.; Heldmann, J.; Trimble, J.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades a wealth of new observations of the moon have demonstrated a lunar water system dramatically more complex and rich than was deduced following the Apollo era. Observation from the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer (LPNS) revealed enhancements of hydrogen near the lunar poles. This observation has since been confirmed by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) instrument. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission targeted a permanently shadowed, enhanced hydrogen location within the crater Cabeus. The LCROSS impact showed that at least some of the hydrogen enhancement is in the form of water ice and molecular hydrogen (H2). Other volatiles were also observed in the LCROSS impact cloud, including CO2, CO, an H2S. These volatiles, and in particular water, have the potential to be a valuable or enabling resource for future exploration. In large part due to these new findings, the NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) have selected a lunar volatiles prospecting mission for a concept study and potential flight in CY2020. The mission includes a rover-borne payload that (1) can locate surface and near-subsurface volatiles, (2) excavate and analyze samples of the volatile-bearing regolith (up to 1 meter), and (3) demonstrate the form, extractability and usefulness of the materials.

  17. The Texas concurrent characterization, licensing, and development process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avant, R.V. Jr. [Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority, Austin, TX (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The 72nd Texas Legislature specifically delineated a 400-square-mile area in southeast Hudspeth County where siting activities would be limited. The Authority was given unprecedented powers of property access and eminent domain and expanded budget authority to conduct site selection, characterization, and licensing. In the summer of 1991, the Authority identified five general siting areas in the prescribed region, and in the fall of 1991, the Authority narrowed the siting area to one large ranch composed of about 16,000 acres--called the Faskin Ranch. Site characterization began in 1991 and will be complete by September 1993. In September 1991, Authority staff began preparing the license application and included all available information on the Faskin Ranch. At its February meeting, the Authority`s board directed staff to submit the license application to the Texas Water Commission (the new Texas radiation control agency). The license application was submitted on March 2, 1992, and on April 15, 1992, the Commission determined that the application was sufficiently complete to begin review. Discrete technical packages such as groundwater hydrology, surface water hydrology, design, etc., will be submitted to the agency for review on the completion of each package. A schedule has been developed to allow the regulators the maximum time possible to review critical technical areas while minimizing the total review period.

  18. Using maximum entropy modeling for optimal selection of sampling sites for monitoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Kumar, Sunil; Barnett, David T.; Evangelista, Paul H.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental monitoring programs must efficiently describe state shifts. We propose using maximum entropy modeling to select dissimilar sampling sites to capture environmental variability at low cost, and demonstrate a specific application: sample site selection for the Central Plains domain (453,490 km2) of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON). We relied on four environmental factors: mean annual temperature and precipitation, elevation, and vegetation type. A “sample site” was defined as a 20 km × 20 km area (equal to NEON’s airborne observation platform [AOP] footprint), within which each 1 km2 cell was evaluated for each environmental factor. After each model run, the most environmentally dissimilar site was selected from all potential sample sites. The iterative selection of eight sites captured approximately 80% of the environmental envelope of the domain, an improvement over stratified random sampling and simple random designs for sample site selection. This approach can be widely used for cost-efficient selection of survey and monitoring sites.

  19. Using Maximum Entropy Modeling for Optimal Selection of Sampling Sites for Monitoring Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Evangelista

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental monitoring programs must efficiently describe state shifts. We propose using maximum entropy modeling to select dissimilar sampling sites to capture environmental variability at low cost, and demonstrate a specific application: sample site selection for the Central Plains domain (453,490 km2 of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON. We relied on four environmental factors: mean annual temperature and precipitation, elevation, and vegetation type. A “sample site” was defined as a 20 km × 20 km area (equal to NEON’s airborne observation platform [AOP] footprint, within which each 1 km2 cell was evaluated for each environmental factor. After each model run, the most environmentally dissimilar site was selected from all potential sample sites. The iterative selection of eight sites captured approximately 80% of the environmental envelope of the domain, an improvement over stratified random sampling and simple random designs for sample site selection. This approach can be widely used for cost-efficient selection of survey and monitoring sites.

  20. Site-selective scission of human genome using PNA-based artificial restriction DNA cutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kenichiro; Komiyama, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Site-selective scission of genomes is quite important for future biotechnology. However, naturally occurring restriction enzymes cut these huge DNAs at too many sites and cannot be used for this purpose. Recently, we have developed a completely chemistry-based artificial restriction DNA cutter (ARCUT) by combining a pair of pseudo-complementary PNA (pcPNA) strands (sequence recognition moiety) and Ce(IV)/EDTA complex (molecular scissors). The scission site of ARCUT and its scission specificity can be freely modulated in terms of the sequences and lengths of the pcPNA strands so that even huge genomes can be selectively cut at only one predetermined site. In this chapter, the method of site-selective scission of human genomic DNA using ARCUT is described in detail.

  1. On-Site Additive Manufacturing by Selective Laser Melting of Composite Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fateri, M.; Khosravi, M.

    2012-06-01

    This paper proposes a method for cost reduction of future space missions by manufacturing parts on foreign planets. The suitability of Selective Laser Melting process for on-site production of metallic, ceramic and glass products on mars is examined.

  2. DRAFT LANDSAT DATA MOSAIC: MONTGOMERY COUNTY, TEXAS; HARRIS COUNTY, TEXAS; FORT BEND COUNTY, TEXAS; BRAZORIA COUNTY, TEXAS; GALVESTON COUNTY, TEXAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a draft Landsat Data Mosaic, which contains remote sensing information for Montgomery County, Texas Harris County, Texas Fort Bend County, Texas Brazoria County, Texas Galveston County, and Texas Imagery dates on the following dates: October 6, 1999 and September 29, 200...

  3. Siting a municipal solid waste disposal facility, Part One: An evaluation of different scenarios for a site selection procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korucu, M Kemal; Arslan, Ozan; Karademir, Aykan

    2013-08-01

    This study includes an application of the first two phases of a new three-phased decision-making structure that was developed to overcome the problems related to ecological safety and social justice in site selection applications. It was conducted on a current site selection problem related to the municipal solid waste disposal facilities in Kocaeli, the most industrialized region of Turkey. In order to assess the deficiencies of the legal site selection procedures related to ecological safety, two different decision tree modes were applied separately. The first mode ("Legislation") concerns the current buffer zone applications given in the regulations, while the second one ("Proposed") includes the applications of the new decision-making structure proposed in this study. Since it was assumed that the subjective tendencies of the decision makers on the weightings would have a significant effect on the final decision, these two modes were assessed by employing two different weighting models. The results were obtained from all of the scenarios related to selection of suitable sites with three different area requirements (15, 250, and 500 acres) for the solid wastes generated in the Kocaeli region. The results showed that the possible changes in the decision structure could cause significant differences in the final decision related to selection of the most suitable sites. The most highest and lowest differences were at the "Legislation" mode for 15 acres and 500 acres, respectively. Furthermore, the results obtained in the study showed that the possible differentiations in the criteria weightings could also cause significant differences in the suitability ranking. Therefore, to get a reliable final decision, a statistical assessment of these differentiations should be made. The results showed that the possible changes in the decision structure could cause significant differences in the final decision related to selection of the most suitable sites. Furthermore, the

  4. URBAN RAIN GAUGE SITING SELECTION BASED ON GIS-MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasingly rapid growth of urbanization and climate change, urban rainfall monitoring as well as urban waterlogging has widely been paid attention. In the light of conventional siting selection methods do not take into consideration of geographic surroundings and spatial-temporal scale for the urban rain gauge site selection, this paper primarily aims at finding the appropriate siting selection rules and methods for rain gauge in urban area. Additionally, for optimization gauge location, a spatial decision support system (DSS aided by geographical information system (GIS has been developed. In terms of a series of criteria, the rain gauge optimal site-search problem can be addressed by a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA. A series of spatial analytical techniques are required for MCDA to identify the prospective sites. With the platform of GIS, using spatial kernel density analysis can reflect the population density; GIS buffer analysis is used to optimize the location with the rain gauge signal transmission character. Experiment results show that the rules and the proposed method are proper for the rain gauge site selection in urban areas, which is significant for the siting selection of urban hydrological facilities and infrastructure, such as water gauge.

  5. Urban Rain Gauge Siting Selection Based on Gis-Multicriteria Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yanli; Jing, Changfeng; Du, Mingyi

    2016-06-01

    With the increasingly rapid growth of urbanization and climate change, urban rainfall monitoring as well as urban waterlogging has widely been paid attention. In the light of conventional siting selection methods do not take into consideration of geographic surroundings and spatial-temporal scale for the urban rain gauge site selection, this paper primarily aims at finding the appropriate siting selection rules and methods for rain gauge in urban area. Additionally, for optimization gauge location, a spatial decision support system (DSS) aided by geographical information system (GIS) has been developed. In terms of a series of criteria, the rain gauge optimal site-search problem can be addressed by a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA). A series of spatial analytical techniques are required for MCDA to identify the prospective sites. With the platform of GIS, using spatial kernel density analysis can reflect the population density; GIS buffer analysis is used to optimize the location with the rain gauge signal transmission character. Experiment results show that the rules and the proposed method are proper for the rain gauge site selection in urban areas, which is significant for the siting selection of urban hydrological facilities and infrastructure, such as water gauge.

  6. Optimal Site Selection of Tidal Power Plants Using a Novel Method: A Case in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunna Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The site selection plays an important role in the entire life cycle of a tidal power plant (TPP project. However, some problems decrease the evaluation quality of TPP site selection: (a suitable and effective methods are scarce since the TPP site selection involves multiple forms of data; (b there is no comprehensive evaluation index system due to the unilateralism of existing criteria. In this paper, we firstly propose a novel method based on interval number with probability distribution weighted operation and stochastic dominance degree. It takes all stakeholders’ preferences into consideration and can simultaneously deal with different forms of data in the TPP site selection; then, a comprehensive evaluation index system for TPP site selection is constructed on the basis of academic literature, feasibility research reports and expert opinions in different fields. It takes the factors of construction conditions, existing policies, social impacts as well as ecological and environmental impacts which reflects the inherent characteristics of TPP site selection fully into account. Finally, a Chinese case study is given to illustrate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Oriented scanning is the leading mechanism underlying 5' splice site selection in mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borensztajn, Keren; Sobrier, Marie-Laure; Duquesnoy, Philippe; Fischer, Anne-Marie; Tapon-Bretaudière, Jacqueline; Amselem, Serge

    2006-01-01

    Splice site selection is a key element of pre-mRNA splicing. Although it is known to involve specific recognition of short consensus sequences by the splicing machinery, the mechanisms by which 5' splice sites are accurately identified remain controversial and incompletely resolved. The human F7

  8. A multi-site study on medical school selection, performance, motivation and engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, A.; Croiset, G.; Schripsema, N. R.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.; Spaai, G. W. G.; Hulsman, R. L.; Kusurkar, R. A.

    Medical schools seek ways to improve their admissions strategies, since the available methods prove to be suboptimal for selecting the best and most motivated students. In this multi-site cross-sectional questionnaire study, we examined the value of (different) selection procedures compared to a

  9. A Multi-Site Study on Medical School Selection, Performance, Motivation and Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, A.; Croiset, G.; Schripsema, N. R.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.; Spaai, G. W.; Hulsman, R. L.; Kusurkar, R. A.

    2017-01-01

    Medical schools seek ways to improve their admissions strategies, since the available methods prove to be suboptimal for selecting the best and most motivated students. In this multi-site cross-sectional questionnaire study, we examined the value of (different) selection procedures compared to a weighted lottery procedure, which includes direct…

  10. Selection of bed-sites by roe deer Capreolus capreolus fawns in a boreal landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnell, J.D.C.; Nijhuis, P.G.T.; Teurlings, I.J.M.; Andersen, R.

    1999-01-01

    Bed-site selection by 19 radio-collared roe deer Capreolus capreolus fawns from seven family groups was studied during June-July 1998 in southeastern Norway. The habitat consisted of small agricultural fields surrounded by industrially exploited boreal forest. Within the forest, fawns selected

  11. Stratigraphic Profiles for Selected Hanford Site Seismometer Stations and Other Locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Stratigraphic profiles were constructed for eight selected Hanford Site seismometer stations, five Hanford Site facility reference locations, and seven regional three-component broadband seismometer stations. These profiles provide interpretations of the subsurface layers to support estimation of ground motions from past earthquakes, and the prediction of ground motions from future earthquakes. In most cases these profiles terminated at the top of the Wanapum Basalt, but at selected sites profiles were extended down to the top of the crystalline basement. The composite one-dimensional stratigraphic profiles were based primarily on previous interpretations from nearby boreholes, and in many cases the nearest deep borehole is located kilometers away.

  12. Quantitative assessment of different phenolic compounds in Texas olive oils versus foreign oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Olive Ranch is the first one to produce olive oil and has the sole product in the Texas market place; several growers are now starting to cultivate olive at various sites in Texas. The quality of olive oil produced and pressed in Texas has never been explored. This study was conducted to inv...

  13. DECISION SUPPORT CONCEPT TO MANAGEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS - PROBLEM OF CONSTRUCTION SITE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikša Jajac

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present Decision Support Concept (DSC for management of construction projects. Focus of our research is in application of multicritera methods (MCM to decision making in planning phase of construction projects (related to the problem of construction sites selection. The problem is identified as a significant one from many different aspects such as economic aspect, civil engineering aspect, etc. what indicates the necessity for evaluation of multiple sites by several different criteria. Therefore, DSC for construction site selection based on PROMETHEE method is designed. In order to define the appropriate criteria, their weights and preference functions for the concept, three groups of stakeholders are involved (investors, construction experts and experts for real estate market in its design. AHP method has been used for determination of criteria weights. The model has been tested on the problem of site selection for construction of residential-commercial building in four largest cities in Croatia.

  14. Innovative Developmental Education Programs: A Texas Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Eric A.; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.; Chaudhuri, Nandita; Dyer, James; Marchbanks, Miner P., III

    2014-01-01

    This article provides insights from a 2-year, cross-site evaluation of state funded developmental education sites and serves as a focus article for response by those sites. Receiving grants from the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB), nine sites (5 community colleges and 4 universities) implemented innovative developmental education…

  15. Changes in foods selected and consumed after implementation of the new National School Lunch Program meal patterns in southeast Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen W. Cullen

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The findings that students had similar consumption rates for fruit, whole grains, and most vegetables in this study are encouraging. Regular monitoring of student food selection and consumption at school is needed to assess whether the new meal patterns improve intake at school.

  16. Site-selective {sup 13}C labeling of proteins using erythrose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weininger, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.weininger@physik.uni-halle.de [Lund University, Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Center for Molecular Protein Science (Sweden)

    2017-03-15

    NMR-spectroscopy enables unique experimental studies on protein dynamics at atomic resolution. In order to obtain a full atom view on protein dynamics, and to study specific local processes like ring-flips, proton-transfer, or tautomerization, one has to perform studies on amino-acid side chains. A key requirement for these studies is site-selective labeling with {sup 13}C and/or {sup 1}H, which is achieved in the most general way by using site-selectively {sup 13}C-enriched glucose (1- and 2-{sup 13}C) as the carbon source in bacterial expression systems. Using this strategy, multiple sites in side chains, including aromatics, become site-selectively labeled and suitable for relaxation studies. Here we systematically investigate the use of site-selectively {sup 13}C-enriched erythrose (1-, 2-, 3- and 4-{sup 13}C) as a suitable precursor for {sup 13}C labeled aromatic side chains. We quantify {sup 13}C incorporation in nearly all sites in all 20 amino acids and compare the results to glucose based labeling. In general the erythrose approach results in more selective labeling. While there is only a minor gain for phenylalanine and tyrosine side-chains, the {sup 13}C incorporation level for tryptophan is at least doubled. Additionally, the Phe ζ and Trp η2 positions become labeled. In the aliphatic side chains, labeling using erythrose yields isolated {sup 13}C labels for certain positions, like Ile β and His β, making these sites suitable for dynamics studies. Using erythrose instead of glucose as a source for site-selective {sup 13}C labeling enables unique or superior labeling for certain positions and is thereby expanding the toolbox for customized isotope labeling of amino-acid side-chains.

  17. Communities ready for takeoffIntegrating social assets for biofuel site-selection modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkhoff, Sanne A M; Hoard, Season A; Gaffney, Michael J; Smith, Paul M

    2017-01-01

    Although much of the social science literature supports the importance of community assets for success in many policy areas, these assets are often overlooked when selecting communities for new infrastructure facilities. Extensive collaboration is crucial for the success of environmental and economic projects, yet it often is not adequately addressed when making siting decisions for new projects. This article develops a social asset framework that includes social, creative, and human capital to inform site-selection decisions. This framework is applied to the Northwest Advanced Renewables Alliance project to assess community suitability for biofuel-related developments. This framework is the first to take all necessary community assets into account, providing insight into successful site selection beyond current models. The framework not only serves as a model for future biorefinery projects but also guides tasks that depend on informed location selection for success.

  18. Study on site selection of cold chain logistics in northwest territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yubin; Ren, Zongwei

    2017-08-01

    In this research, we mainly studied the Site selection problem of cold chain logistics in northwest of China. In the first place, we counted the demands of cold chain products in northwest territories, and then classified it into the Site selection problem in five provinces in northwest territories(Xinjiang, Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, Shanxi); Next, we used the Center of gravity Method to select initial location; Finally, we established the location of distribution by using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Comparing with the traditional method, this method not only considered the cost of transportation and distance, but also deliberated the physical condition, social environment and economics condition which associated with Site selection problem.

  19. Feeding-Danger Trade-Offs Underlie Stopover Site Selection by Migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C. Pomeroy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available To migrate successfully, birds need to store adequate fat reserves to fuel each leg of the journey. Migrants acquire their fuel reserves at stopover sites; this often entails exposure to predators. Therefore, the safety attributes of sites may be as important as the feeding opportunities. Furthermore, site choice might depend on fuel load, with lean birds more willing to accept danger to obtain good feeding. Here, we evaluate the factors underlying stopover-site usage by migrant Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri on a landscape scale. We measured the food and danger attributes of 17 potential stopover sites in the Strait of Georgia and Puget Sound region. We used logistic regression models to test whether food, safety, or both were best able to predict usage of these sites by Western Sandpipers. Eight of the 17 sites were used by sandpipers on migration. Generally, sites that were high in food and safety were used, whereas sites that were low in food and safety were not. However, dangerous sites were used if there was ample food abundance, and sites with low food abundance were used if they were safe. The model including both food and safety best-predicted site usage by sandpipers. Furthermore, lean sandpipers used the most dangerous sites, whereas heavier birds (which do not need to risk feeding in dangerous locations used safer sites. This study demonstrates that both food and danger attributes are considered by migrant birds when selecting stopover sites, thus both these attributes should be considered to prioritize and manage stopover sites for conservation.

  20. HOW DO STUDENTS SELECT SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES? AN ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Meng Tang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social networking sites are popular among university students, and students today are indeed spoiled for choice. New emerging social networking sites sprout up amid popular sites, while some existing ones die out. Given the choice of so many social networking sites, how do students decide which one they will sign up for and stay on as an active user? The answer to this question is of interest to social networking site designers and marketers. The market of social networking sites is highly competitive. To maintain the current user base and continue to attract new users, how should social networking sites design their sites? Marketers spend a fairly large percent of their marketing budget on social media marketing. To formulate an effective social media strategy, how much do marketers understand the users of social networking sites? Learning from website evaluation studies, this study intends to provide some answers to these questions by examining how university students decide between two popular social networking sites, Facebook and Twitter. We first developed an analytic hierarchy process (AHP model of four main selection criteria and 12 sub-criteria, and then administered a questionnaire to a group of university students attending a course at a Malaysian university. AHP analyses of the responses from 12 respondents provided an insight into the decision-making process involved in students’ selection of social networking sites. It seemed that of the four main criteria, privacy was the top concern, followed by functionality, usability, and content. The sub-criteria that were of key concern to the students were apps, revenue-generating opportunities, ease of use, and information security. Between Facebook and Twitter, the students thought that Facebook was the better choice. This information is useful for social networking site designers to design sites that are more relevant to their users’ needs, and for marketers to craft more effective

  1. Data on Occurrence of Selected Trace Metals, Organochlorines, and Semivolatile Organic Compounds in Edible Fish Tissues From Lake Worth, Fort Worth, Texas 1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moring, J. B

    2002-01-01

    A public-health assessment conducted for the Texas Department of Health and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry concluded that exposure to contaminants through the aquatic food chain...

  2. Selection of inhibitor-resistant viral potassium channels identifies a selectivity filter site that affects barium and amantadine block.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck C Chatelain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the interactions between ion channels and blockers remains an important goal that has implications for delineating the basic mechanisms of ion channel function and for the discovery and development of ion channel directed drugs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used genetic selection methods to probe the interaction of two ion channel blockers, barium and amantadine, with the miniature viral potassium channel Kcv. Selection for Kcv mutants that were resistant to either blocker identified a mutant bearing multiple changes that was resistant to both. Implementation of a PCR shuffling and backcrossing procedure uncovered that the blocker resistance could be attributed to a single change, T63S, at a position that is likely to form the binding site for the inner ion in the selectivity filter (site 4. A combination of electrophysiological and biochemical assays revealed a distinct difference in the ability of the mutant channel to interact with the blockers. Studies of the analogous mutation in the mammalian inward rectifier Kir2.1 show that the T-->S mutation affects barium block as well as the stability of the conductive state. Comparison of the effects of similar barium resistant mutations in Kcv and Kir2.1 shows that neighboring amino acids in the Kcv selectivity filter affect blocker binding. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data support the idea that permeant ions have an integral role in stabilizing potassium channel structure, suggest that both barium and amantadine act at a similar site, and demonstrate how genetic selections can be used to map blocker binding sites and reveal mechanistic features.

  3. Selection of Inhibitor-Resistant Viral Potassium Channels Identifies a Selectivity Filter Site that Affects Barium and Amantadine Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yuichiro; Arrigoni, Cristina; Domigan, Courtney; Ferrara, Giuseppina; Pantoja, Carlos; Thiel, Gerhard; Moroni, Anna; Minor, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Understanding the interactions between ion channels and blockers remains an important goal that has implications for delineating the basic mechanisms of ion channel function and for the discovery and development of ion channel directed drugs. Methodology/Principal Findings We used genetic selection methods to probe the interaction of two ion channel blockers, barium and amantadine, with the miniature viral potassium channel Kcv. Selection for Kcv mutants that were resistant to either blocker identified a mutant bearing multiple changes that was resistant to both. Implementation of a PCR shuffling and backcrossing procedure uncovered that the blocker resistance could be attributed to a single change, T63S, at a position that is likely to form the binding site for the inner ion in the selectivity filter (site 4). A combination of electrophysiological and biochemical assays revealed a distinct difference in the ability of the mutant channel to interact with the blockers. Studies of the analogous mutation in the mammalian inward rectifier Kir2.1 show that the T→S mutation affects barium block as well as the stability of the conductive state. Comparison of the effects of similar barium resistant mutations in Kcv and Kir2.1 shows that neighboring amino acids in the Kcv selectivity filter affect blocker binding. Conclusions/Significance The data support the idea that permeant ions have an integral role in stabilizing potassium channel structure, suggest that both barium and amantadine act at a similar site, and demonstrate how genetic selections can be used to map blocker binding sites and reveal mechanistic features. PMID:19834614

  4. Selective pressures to maintain attachment site specificity of integrative and conjugative elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla L Menard

    Full Text Available Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs are widespread mobile genetic elements that are usually found integrated in bacterial chromosomes. They are important agents of evolution and contribute to the acquisition of new traits, including antibiotic resistances. ICEs can excise from the chromosome and transfer to recipients by conjugation. Many ICEs are site-specific in that they integrate preferentially into a primary attachment site in the bacterial genome. Site-specific ICEs can also integrate into secondary locations, particularly if the primary site is absent. However, little is known about the consequences of integration of ICEs into alternative attachment sites or what drives the apparent maintenance and prevalence of the many ICEs that use a single attachment site. Using ICEBs1, a site-specific ICE from Bacillus subtilis that integrates into a tRNA gene, we found that integration into secondary sites was detrimental to both ICEBs1 and the host cell. Excision of ICEBs1 from secondary sites was impaired either partially or completely, limiting the spread of ICEBs1. Furthermore, induction of ICEBs1 gene expression caused a substantial drop in proliferation and cell viability within three hours. This drop was dependent on rolling circle replication of ICEBs1 that was unable to excise from the chromosome. Together, these detrimental effects provide selective pressure against the survival and dissemination of ICEs that have integrated into alternative sites and may explain the maintenance of site-specific integration for many ICEs.

  5. Selection of nest-site habitat by interior least terns in relation to sandbar construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfy, Mark H.; Stucker, Jennifer H.; Buhl, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Federally endangered interior least terns (Sternula antillarum) nest on bare or sparsely vegetated sandbars on midcontinent river systems. Loss of nesting habitat has been implicated as a cause of population declines, and managing these habitats is a major initiative in population recovery. One such initiative involves construction of mid-channel sandbars on the Missouri River, where natural sandbar habitat has declined in quantity and quality since the late 1990s. We evaluated nest-site habitat selection by least terns on constructed and natural sandbars by comparing vegetation, substrate, and debris variables at nest sites (n = 798) and random points (n = 1,113) in bare or sparsely vegetated habitats. Our logistic regression models revealed that a broader suite of habitat features was important in nest-site selection on constructed than on natural sandbars. Odds ratios for habitat variables indicated that avoidance of habitat features was the dominant nest-site selection process on both sandbar types, with nesting terns being attracted to nest-site habitat features (gravel and debris) and avoiding vegetation only on constructed sandbars, and avoiding silt and leaf litter on both sandbar types. Despite the seemingly uniform nature of these habitats, our results suggest that a complex suite of habitat features influences nest-site choice by least terns. However, nest-site selection in this social, colonially nesting species may be influenced by other factors, including spatial arrangement of bare sand habitat, proximity to other least terns, and prior habitat occupancy by piping plovers (Charadrius melodus). We found that nest-site selection was sensitive to subtle variation in habitat features, suggesting that rigor in maintaining habitat condition will be necessary in managing sandbars for the benefit of least terns. Further, management strategies that reduce habitat features that are avoided by least terns may be the most beneficial to nesting least terns.

  6. A framework for landfill site selection using geographic information systems and multi criteria decision making technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat, Nur Azriati; Benjamin, Aida Mauziah; Abdul-Rahman, Syariza; Wibowo, Antoni

    2016-10-01

    The solid waste disposal is one of the facilities which can cause harm to human health and also contribute to severe environmental pollution if it is not properly managed. Therefore, an effective decision on a landfill site selection in order to identify the most suitable area as a new landfill is very important. Since 25 years ago, the integration of geographic information systems (GIS) and multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) has drawn significant interest among researchers. This integrated technique is commonly used for land use planning and selecting a new landfill site is one of the plan. This paper proposes a framework of landfill site selection with a consideration of resource requirement. This framework is developed by using the integration of GIS and MCDA to identify an appropriate location for landfill siting. A list of selection criteria obtained from the literature considered in selecting the best landfill site is also presented. The results of this study could later be used to help the waste management team in developing an efficient solid waste management system.

  7. Multi-criteria analysis of site selection for groundwater recharge with treated municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Mahdavirad, Hadi; Bakhtiari, Bahram

    2017-08-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing techniques are used as a decision support system to identify potential soil aquifer treatment (SAT) sites for groundwater recharge of Kerman aquifer, which is located in the southeast of Iran. These sites are identified using a single-objective multi-criteria analysis. To ensure technical feasibility, environmental sustainability, social acceptability and economical viability a number of criteria are considered for the site selection. The criteria selected for the different variables and acceptable ranges are based on standards published in national and international guidelines and technical documents. Multi-criteria evaluation was performed combining all produced thematic maps by means of the weighted index overlay method in order to select sites meeting all the criteria. The resulting map of this analysis shows potential sites are located in the north, southwest and southeast of the study area. Considering field observations, a potential site, which is located in the southwest of the study area, is proposed as the most suitable site for SAT. The result indicates that the study area has sufficient required suitable space for groundwater recharge with treated wastewater.

  8. Optimal site selection for a high-resolution ice core record in East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Tessa R.; Roberts, Jason L.; Moy, Andrew D.; Curran, Mark A. J.; Tozer, Carly R.; Gallant, Ailie J. E.; Abram, Nerilie J.; van Ommen, Tas D.; Young, Duncan A.; Grima, Cyril; Blankenship, Don D.; Siegert, Martin J.

    2016-03-01

    Ice cores provide some of the best-dated and most comprehensive proxy records, as they yield a vast and growing array of proxy indicators. Selecting a site for ice core drilling is nonetheless challenging, as the assessment of potential new sites needs to consider a variety of factors. Here, we demonstrate a systematic approach to site selection for a new East Antarctic high-resolution ice core record. Specifically, seven criteria are considered: (1) 2000-year-old ice at 300 m depth; (2) above 1000 m elevation; (3) a minimum accumulation rate of 250 mm years-1 IE (ice equivalent); (4) minimal surface reworking to preserve the deposited climate signal; (5) a site with minimal displacement or elevation change in ice at 300 m depth; (6) a strong teleconnection to midlatitude climate; and (7) an appropriately complementary relationship to the existing Law Dome record (a high-resolution record in East Antarctica). Once assessment of these physical characteristics identified promising regions, logistical considerations (for site access and ice core retrieval) were briefly considered. We use Antarctic surface mass balance syntheses, along with ground-truthing of satellite data by airborne radar surveys to produce all-of-Antarctica maps of surface roughness, age at specified depth, elevation and displacement change, and surface air temperature correlations to pinpoint promising locations. We also use the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast ERA 20th Century reanalysis (ERA-20C) to ensure that a site complementary to the Law Dome record is selected. We find three promising sites in the Indian Ocean sector of East Antarctica in the coastal zone from Enderby Land to the Ingrid Christensen Coast (50-100° E). Although we focus on East Antarctica for a new ice core site, the methodology is more generally applicable, and we include key parameters for all of Antarctica which may be useful for ice core site selection elsewhere and/or for other purposes.

  9. Optimal site selection for a high resolution ice core record in East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, T.; Roberts, J.; Moy, A.; Curran, M.; Tozer, C.; Gallant, A.; Abram, N.; van Ommen, T.; Young, D.; Grima, C.; Blankenship, D.; Siegert, M.

    2015-11-01

    Ice cores provide some of the best dated and most comprehensive proxy records, as they yield a vast and growing array of proxy indicators. Selecting a site for ice core drilling is nonetheless challenging, as the assessment of potential new sites needs to consider a variety of factors. Here, we demonstrate a systematic approach to site selection for a new East Antarctic high resolution ice core record. Specifically, seven criteria are considered: (1) 2000 year old ice at 300 m depth, (2) above 1000 m elevation, (3) a minimum accumulation rate of 250 mm yr-1 IE, (4) minimal surface re-working to preserve the deposited climate signal, (5) a site with minimal displacement or elevation change of ice at 300 m depth, (6) a strong teleconnection to mid-latitude climate and (7) an appropriately complementary relationship to the existing Law Dome record (a high resolution record in East Antarctica). Once assessment of these physical characteristics identified promising regions, logistical considerations (for site access and ice core retrieval) were briefly considered. We use Antarctic surface mass balance syntheses, along with ground-truthing of satellite data by airborne radar surveys to produce all-of-Antarctica maps of surface roughness, age at specified depth, elevation and displacement change and surface air temperature correlations to pinpoint promising locations. We also use the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast ERA 20th Century reanalysis (ERA-20C) to ensure a site complementary to the Law Dome record is selected. We find three promising sites in the Indian Ocean sector of East Antarctica in the coastal zone from Enderby Land to the Ingrid Christensen Coast (50-100° E). Although we focus on East Antarctica for a new ice core site, the methodology is more generally applicable and we include key parameters for all of Antarctica which may be useful for ice core site selection elsewhere and/or for other purposes.

  10. Selection of a tool to decision making for site selection for high level waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiller Madeira Jonni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to create a panel comparing some of the key decision-making support tools used in situations with the characteristics of the problem of selecting suitable areas for constructing a final deep geologic repository. The tools addressed in this work are also well known and with easy implementation. The decision-making process in matters of this kind is, in general, complex due to its multicriteria nature and the conflicting opinions of various stakeholders. Thus, a comprehensive study was performed with the literature in this subject, specifically in documents of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, regarding the importance of the criteria involved in the decision-making process. Therefore, we highlighted six judgment attributes for selecting a decision support tool, suitable for the problem. For this study, we have selected the following multicriteria tools: AHP, Delphi, Brainstorm, Nominal Group Technique and AHP-Delphi. Finally, the AHP-Delphi method has demonstrated to be more appropriate for managing the inherent multiple attributes to the problem proposed.

  11. Positive selection neighboring functionally essential sites and disease-implicated regions of mammalian reproductive proteins.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, Claire C

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Reproductive proteins are central to the continuation of all mammalian species. The evolution of these proteins has been greatly influenced by environmental pressures induced by pathogens, rival sperm, sexual selection and sexual conflict. Positive selection has been demonstrated in many of these proteins with particular focus on primate lineages. However, the mammalia are a diverse group in terms of mating habits, population sizes and germ line generation times. We have examined the selective pressures at work on a number of novel reproductive proteins across a wide variety of mammalia. RESULTS: We show that selective pressures on reproductive proteins are highly varied. Of the 10 genes analyzed in detail, all contain signatures of positive selection either across specific sites or in specific lineages or a combination of both. Our analysis of SP56 and Col1a1 are entirely novel and the results show positively selected sites present in each gene. Our findings for the Col1a1 gene are suggestive of a link between positive selection and severe disease type. We find evidence in our dataset to suggest that interacting proteins are evolving in symphony: most likely to maintain interacting functionality. CONCLUSION: Our in silico analyses show positively selected sites are occurring near catalytically important regions suggesting selective pressure to maximize efficient fertilization. In those cases where a mechanism of protein function is not fully understood, the sites presented here represent ideal candidates for mutational study. This work has highlighted the widespread rate heterogeneity in mutational rates across the mammalia and specifically has shown that the evolution of reproductive proteins is highly varied depending on the species and interacting partners. We have shown that positive selection and disease are closely linked in the Col1a1 gene.

  12. Territory and nest site selection patterns by Grasshopper Sparrows in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Janet M.; Skagen, Susan K.

    2017-01-01

    Grassland bird populations are showing some of the greatest rates of decline of any North American birds, prompting measures to protect and improve important habitat. We assessed how vegetation structure and composition, habitat features often targeted for management, affected territory and nest site selection by Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum ammolegus) in southeastern Arizona. To identify features important to males establishing territories, we compared vegetation characteristics of known territories and random samples on 2 sites over 5 years. We examined habitat selection patterns of females by comparing characteristics of nest sites with territories over 3 years. Males selected territories in areas of sparser vegetation structure and more tall shrubs (>2 m) than random plots on the site with low shrub densities. Males did not select territories based on the proportion of exotic grasses. Females generally located nest sites in areas with lower small shrub (1–2 m tall) densities than territories overall when possible and preferentially selected native grasses for nest construction. Whether habitat selection was apparent depended upon the range of vegetation structure that was available. We identified an upper threshold above which grass structure seemed to be too high and dense for Grasshopper Sparrows. Our results suggest that some management that reduces vegetative structure may benefit this species in desert grasslands at the nest and territory scale. However, we did not assess initial male habitat selection at a broader landscape scale where their selection patterns may be different and could be influenced by vegetation density and structure outside the range of values sampled in this study.

  13. Excitation pathways and efficiency of Eu ions in GaN by site-selective spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Z.; Munasinghe, C.; Steckl, A. J.; Wakahara, A.; Zavada, J.; Dierolf, V.

    2009-11-01

    Using combined excitation emission spectroscopy, we performed a comparative study of europium ions in GaN in samples that have been in situ doped during interrupted growth epitaxy (IGE) or conventional molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) as well as samples that were grown using organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) and subsequently ion implanted with Eu ions. Through site-selective resonant excitation, we are able to unambiguously assign all major observed transitions to a combination of different incorporation sites and electron-phonon coupled transitions. We identified at least nine different incorporation sites of Eu ions in GaN and studied how these sites behave under different excitation conditions and how their relative number is modified by different growth and doping conditions. The coupling to phonons has also been studied for a series of Al x Ga1- x N samples with x=0…1. We find that a main site most resembling an unperturbed Eu ion on Ga site is always dominant, while the minority sites are changing substantially in relative numbers and can occur in some samples fairly close in emission intensity to the main site. In terms of the excitation pathway after the creation of electron-hole pairs, we found three types of centers: (1) sites that are dominantly excited through shallow defect traps; (2) sites that are excited through a deep defect trap; (3) sites that cannot be excited at all including the majority of the main sites. We interpret this finding to indicate that the ion in this environment is not very efficient in trapping excitation and that the indirect excitation involving other traps depends on the ion/trap distance. Many of the main sites are far away from these traps and cannot be excited through this channel at all. The efficiency of excitation is highest for the deep traps, indicating that it would be desirable to enrich the respective site, as has been done with some success in the IGE grown samples.

  14. Extensive purifying selection acting on synonymous sites in HIV-1 Group M sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Darren

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive selection pressure acting on protein-coding sequences is usually inferred when the rate of nonsynonymous substitution is greater than the synonymous rate. However, purifying selection acting directly on the nucleotide sequence can lower the synonymous substitution rate. This could result in false inference of positive selection because when synonymous changes at some sites are under purifying selection, the average synonymous rate is an underestimate of the neutral rate of evolution. Even though HIV-1 coding sequences contain a number of regions that function at the nucleotide level, and are thus likely to be affected by purifying selection, studies of positive selection assume that synonymous substitutions can be used to estimate the neutral rate of evolution. Results We modelled site-to-site variation in the synonymous substitution rate across coding regions of the HIV-1 genome. Synonymous substitution rates were found to vary significantly within and between genes. Surprisingly, regions of the genome that encode proteins in more than one frame had significantly higher synonymous substitution rates than regions coding in a single frame. We found evidence of strong purifying selection pressure affecting synonymous mutations in fourteen regions with known functions. These included an exonic splicing enhancer, the rev-responsive element, the poly-purine tract and a transcription factor binding site. A further five highly conserved regions were located within known functional domains. We also found four conserved regions located in env and vpu which have not been characterized previously. Conclusion We provide the coordinates of genomic regions with markedly lower synonymous substitution rates, which are putatively under the influence of strong purifying selection pressure at the nucleotide level as well as regions encoding proteins in more than one frame. These regions should be excluded from studies of positive

  15. Sleeping site selection by proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) in West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feilen, Katie L; Marshall, Andrew J

    2014-12-01

    Primates spend at least half their lives sleeping; hence, sleeping site selection can have important effects on behavior and fitness. As proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) often sleep along rivers and form bands (aggregations of one male groups) at their sleeping sites, understanding sleeping site selection may shed light on two unusual aspects of this species' socioecology: their close association with rivers and their multilevel social organization. We studied sleeping site selection by proboscis monkeys for twelve months at Sungai Tolak, West Kalimantan, Indonesia to test two main hypotheses regarding the drivers of sleeping site selection: reduction of molestation by mosquitoes and anti-predator behavior. We identified to genus and collected data on the physical structure (diameter at breast height, relative height, branch structure, and leaf coverage) of sleeping trees and available trees in three forest types. We used resource selection function models to test specific predictions derived from our two hypotheses. The monkeys preferred to sleep in large trees with few canopy connections located along rivers. The selection of large emergent trees was consistent with both of our main hypotheses: decreased molestation by mosquitoes and reduced potential entry routes for terrestrial predators. Although we are only beginning to understand how sleeping sites might influence behavior, grouping, and potential survival of this species, our study has shown that proboscis monkeys (at Sungai Tolak) have a very strong preference for large trees located near the river. As these trees are often the first to be logged by local villagers, this may exacerbate the problems of forest loss for these endangered monkeys. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Seeing the Forest through the Trees: Considering Roost-Site Selection at Multiple Spatial Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachowski, David S; Rota, Christopher T; Dobony, Christopher A; Ford, W Mark; Edwards, John W

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of bat species is one of the most daunting wildlife conservation challenges in North America, requiring detailed knowledge about their ecology to guide conservation efforts. Outside of the hibernating season, bats in temperate forest environments spend their diurnal time in day-roosts. In addition to simple shelter, summer roost availability is as critical as maternity sites and maintaining social group contact. To date, a major focus of bat conservation has concentrated on conserving individual roost sites, with comparatively less focus on the role that broader habitat conditions contribute towards roost-site selection. We evaluated roost-site selection by a northern population of federally-endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) at Fort Drum Military Installation in New York, USA at three different spatial scales: landscape, forest stand, and individual tree level. During 2007-2011, we radiotracked 33 Indiana bats (10 males, 23 females) and located 348 roosting events in 116 unique roost trees. At the landscape scale, bat roost-site selection was positively associated with northern mixed forest, increased slope, and greater distance from human development. At the stand scale, we observed subtle differences in roost site selection based on sex and season, but roost selection was generally positively associated with larger stands with a higher basal area, larger tree diameter, and a greater sugar maple (Acer saccharum) component. We observed no distinct trends of roosts being near high-quality foraging areas of water and forest edges. At the tree scale, roosts were typically in American elm (Ulmus americana) or sugar maple of large diameter (>30 cm) of moderate decay with loose bark. Collectively, our results highlight the importance of considering day roost needs simultaneously across multiple spatial scales. Size and decay class of individual roosts are key ecological attributes for the Indiana bat, however, larger-scale stand structural components

  17. Seeing the forest through the trees: Considering roost-site selection at multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachowski, David S.; Rota, Christopher T.; Dobony, Christopher A.; Ford, W. Mark; Edwards, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of bat species is one of the most daunting wildlife conservation challenges in North America, requiring detailed knowledge about their ecology to guide conservation efforts. Outside of the hibernating season, bats in temperate forest environments spend their diurnal time in day-roosts. In addition to simple shelter, summer roost availability is as critical as maternity sites and maintaining social group contact. To date, a major focus of bat conservation has concentrated on conserving individual roost sites, with comparatively less focus on the role that broader habitat conditions contribute towards roost-site selection. We evaluated roost-site selection by a northern population of federally-endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) at Fort Drum Military Installation in New York, USA at three different spatial scales: landscape, forest stand, and individual tree level. During 2007–2011, we radiotracked 33 Indiana bats (10 males, 23 females) and located 348 roosting events in 116 unique roost trees. At the landscape scale, bat roost-site selection was positively associated with northern mixed forest, increased slope, and greater distance from human development. At the stand scale, we observed subtle differences in roost site selection based on sex and season, but roost selection was generally positively associated with larger stands with a higher basal area, larger tree diameter, and a greater sugar maple (Acer saccharum) component. We observed no distinct trends of roosts being near high-quality foraging areas of water and forest edges. At the tree scale, roosts were typically in American elm (Ulmus americana) or sugar maple of large diameter (>30 cm) of moderate decay with loose bark. Collectively, our results highlight the importance of considering day roost needs simultaneously across multiple spatial scales. Size and decay class of individual roosts are key ecological attributes for the Indiana bat, however, larger-scale stand structural

  18. A Decision support system for shelter site selection with GIS intergration : case for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kılcı, Fırat

    2012-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Industrial Engineeringand the Graduate School of Engineering and Science of Bilkent University, 2012. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2012. Includes bibliographical refences. In this study, a methodology for locating shelter sites after a disaster is developed. Currently, in Turkey, Turkish Red Crescent is responsible for selecting the location of shelter areas. First, they identify the candidate shelter site locations. Then, they rank tho...

  19. The role of grass volatiles on oviposition site selection by Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles coluzzii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Yelfwagash; Hill, Sharon R; Hopkins, Richard J; Tekie, Habte; Ignell, Rickard

    2017-02-07

    The reproductive success and population dynamics, of Anopheles malaria mosquitoes is strongly influenced by the oviposition site selection of gravid females. Mosquitoes select oviposition sites at different spatial scales, starting with selecting a habitat in which to search. This study utilizes the association of larval abundance in the field with natural breeding habitats, dominated by various types of wild grasses, as a proxy for oviposition site selection by gravid mosquitoes. Moreover, the role of olfactory cues emanating from these habitats in the attraction and oviposition stimulation of females was analysed. The density of Anopheles larvae in breeding sites associated with Echinochloa pyramidalis, Echinochloa stagnina, Typha latifolia and Cyperus papyrus, was sampled and the larvae identified to species level. Headspace volatile extracts of the grasses were collected and used to assess behavioural attraction and oviposition stimulation of gravid Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles coluzzii mosquitoes in wind tunnel and two-choice oviposition assays, respectively. The ability of the mosquitoes to differentiate among the grass volatile extracts was tested in multi-choice tent assays. Anopheles arabiensis larvae were the most abundant species found in the various grass-associated habitats. The larval densities described a hierarchical distribution, with Poaceae (Echinochloa pyramidalis and Echinochloa stagnina)-associated habitat sites demonstrating higher densities than that of Typha-associated sites, and where larvae were absent from Cyperus-associated sites. This hierarchy was maintained by gravid An. arabiensis and An. coluzzii mosquitoes in attraction, oviposition and multi-choice assays to grass volatile extracts. The demonstrated hierarchical preference of gravid An. coluzzii and An. arabiensis for grass volatiles indicates that vegetation cues associated with larval habitats are instrumental in the oviposition site choice of the malaria mosquitoes

  20. A Study on Site Selecting for National Project including High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kilyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Many national projects are stopped since sites for the projects are not determined. The sites selections are hold by NIMBY for unpleasant facilities or by PYMFY for preferable facilities among local governments. The followings are the typical ones; NIMBY projects: high level radioactive waste disposal, THAAD, Nuclear power plant(NPP), etc. PIMFY projects: South-east new airport, KTX station, Research center for NPP decommission, etc. The site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal is more difficult problem, and thus government did not decide and postpone to a dead end street. Since it seems that there is no solution for site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal due to NIMBY among local governments, a solution method is proposed in this paper. To decide a high level radioactive waste disposal, the first step is to invite a bid by suggesting a package deal including PIMFY projects such as Research Center for NPP decommission. Maybe potential host local governments are asked to submit sealed bids indicating the minimum compensation sum that they would accept the high level radioactive waste disposal site. If there are more than one local government put in a bid, then decide an adequate site by considering both the accumulated PESS point and technical evaluation results. By considering how fairly preferable national projects and unpleasant national projects are distributed among local government, sites selection for NIMBY or PIMFY facilities is suggested. For NIMBY national projects, risk, cost benefit analysis is useful and required since it generates cost value to be used in the PESS. For many cases, the suggested method may be not adequate. However, similar one should be prepared, and be basis to decide sites for NIMBY or PIMFY national projects.

  1. Equilibrium Strategy Based Recycling Facility Site Selection towards Mitigating Coal Gangue Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuping Xu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution caused by coal gangue has been a significant challenge for sustainable development; thus, many coal gangue reduction approaches have been proposed in recent years. In particular, coal gangue facility (CGF construction has been considered as an efficient method for the control and recycling of coal gangue. Meanwhile, the identification and selection of suitable CGF sites is a fundamental task for the government. Therefore, based on the equilibrium strategy, a site selection approach under a fuzzy environment is developed to mitigate coal gangue contamination, which integrates a geographical information system (GIS technique and a bi-level model to identify candidate CGF sites and to select the most suitable one. In this situation, the GIS technique used to identify potential feasible sites is able to integrate a great deal of geographical data tofitwithpracticalcircumstances;thebi-levelmodelusedtoscreentheappropriatesitecanreasonably dealwiththeconflictsbetweenthelocalauthorityandthecolliery. Moreover,aKarush–Kuhn–Tucker (KKT condition-based approach is used to find an optimal solution, and a case study is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results across different scenarios show that appropriate site selection can achieve coal gangue reduction targets and that a suitable excess stack level can realize an environmental-economic equilibrium. Finally, some propositions and management recommendations are given.

  2. Towards the next generation of biomedicines by site-selective conjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qi-Ying; Berti, Francesco; Adamo, Roberto

    2016-03-21

    Bioconjugates represent an emerging class of medicines, which offer therapeutic opportunities overtaking those of the individual components. Many novel bioconjugates have been explored in order to address various emerging medical needs. The last decade has witnessed the exponential growth of new site-selective bioconjugation techniques, however very few methods have made the way into human clinical trials. Here we discuss various applications of site-selective conjugation in biomedicines, including half-life extension, antibody-drug conjugates, conjugate vaccines, bispecific antibodies and cell therapy. The review is intended to highlight both the progress and challenges, and identify a potential roadmap to address the gap.

  3. Site-selective and stereoselective functionalization of non-activated tertiary C–H bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kuangbiao; Pickel, Thomas C.; Boyarskikh, Vyacheslav; Bacsa, John; Musaev, Djamaladdin G.; Davies, Huw M. L.

    2017-11-01

    The synthesis of complex organic compounds usually relies on controlling the reactions of the functional groups. In recent years, it has become possible to carry out reactions directly on the C–H bonds, previously considered to be unreactive. One of the major challenges is to control the site-selectivity because most organic compounds have many similar C–H bonds. The most well developed procedures so far rely on the use of substrate control, in which the substrate has one inherently more reactive C–H bond or contains a directing group or the reaction is conducted intramolecularly so that a specific C–H bond is favoured. A more versatile but more challenging approach is to use catalysts to control which site in the substrate is functionalized. p450 enzymes exhibit C–H oxidation site-selectivity, in which the enzyme scaffold causes a specific C–H bond to be functionalized by placing it close to the iron–oxo haem complex. Several studies have aimed to emulate this enzymatic site-selectivity with designed transition-metal catalysts but it is difficult to achieve exceptionally high levels of site-selectivity. Recently, we reported a dirhodium catalyst for the site-selective functionalization of the most accessible non-activated (that is, not next to a functional group) secondary C–H bonds by means of rhodium-carbene-induced C–H insertion. Here we describe another dirhodium catalyst that has a very different reactivity profile. Instead of the secondary C–H bond, the new catalyst is capable of precise site-selectivity at the most accessible tertiary C–H bonds. Using this catalyst, we modify several natural products, including steroids and a vitamin E derivative, indicating the applicability of this method of synthesis to the late-stage functionalization of complex molecules. These studies show it is possible to achieve site-selectivity at different positions within a substrate simply by selecting the appropriate catalyst. We hope that this work will

  4. Series: Pragmatic trials and real world evidence: Paper 2. Setting, sites, and investigator selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Sally D; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Irving, Elaine; Lejeune, Stephane; Mol, Koen; Collier, Sue; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Enters-Weijnen, Catherine; Egger, Matthias; Rhodes, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    This second article in the series on pragmatic trials describes the challenges in selection of sites for pragmatic clinical trials and the impact on validity, precision, and generalizability of the results. The selection of sites is an important factor for the successful execution of a pragmatic trial and impacts the extent to which the results are applicable to future patients in clinical practice. The first step is to define usual care and understand the heterogeneity of sites, patient demographics, disease prevalence and country choice. Next, specific site characteristics are important to consider such as interest in the objectives of the trial, the level of research experience, availability of resources, and the expected number of eligible patients. It can be advisable to support the sites with implementing the trial-related activities and minimize the additional burden that the research imposes on routine clinical practice. Health care providers should be involved in an early phase of protocol development to generate engagement and ensure an appropriate selection of sites with patients who are representative of the future drug users. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. DNA abasic site-selective enhancement of sanguinarine fluorescence with a large emission shift.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wu

    Full Text Available Small molecules that can specifically bind to a DNA abasic site (AP site have received much attention due to their importance in DNA lesion identification, drug discovery, and sensor design. Herein, the AP site binding behavior of sanguinarine (SG, a natural alkaloid, was investigated. In aqueous solution, SG has a short-wavelength alkanolamine emission band and a long-wavelength iminium emission band. At pH 8.3, SG experiences a fluorescence quenching for both bands upon binding to fully matched DNAs without the AP site, while the presence of the AP site induces a strong SG binding and the observed fluorescence enhancement for the iminium band are highly dependent on the nucleobases flanking the AP site, while the alkanolamine band is always quenched. The bases opposite the AP site also exert some modifications on the SG's emission behavior. It was found that the observed quenching for DNAs with Gs and Cs flanking the AP site is most likely caused by electron transfer between the AP site-bound excited-state SG and the nearby Gs. However, the flanking As and Ts that are not easily oxidized favor the enhanced emission. This AP site-selective enhancement of SG fluorescence accompanies a band conversion in the dominate emission from the alkanolamine to iminium band thus with a large emission shift of about 170 nm. Absorption spectra, steady-state and transient-state fluorescence, DNA melting, and electrolyte experiments confirm that the AP site binding of SG occurs and the stacking interaction with the nearby base pairs is likely to prevent the converted SG iminium form from contacting with water that is thus emissive when the AP site neighbors are bases other than guanines. We expect that this fluorophore would be developed as a promising AP site binder having a large emission shift.

  6. Baseline assessment of physical characteristics, aquatic biota, and selected water-quality properties at the reach and mesohabitat scale for three stream reaches in the Big Cypress Basin, northeastern Texas, 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Christopher L.; Moring, James B.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Northeast Texas Municipal Water District and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, did a baseline assessment in 2010-11 of physical characteristics and selected aquatic biota (fish and mussels) collected at the mesohabitat scale for three stream reaches in the Big Cypress Basin in northeastern Texas for which environmental flows have been prescribed. Mesohabitats are visually distinct units of habitat within the stream with unique depth, velocity, slope, substrate, and cover. Mesohabitats in reaches of Big Cypress, Black Cypress, and Little Cypress Bayous were evaluated to gain an understanding of how fish communities and mussel populations varied by habitat. Selected water-quality properties were also measured in isolated pools in Black Cypress and Little Cypress. All of the data were collected in the context of the prescribed environmental flows. The information acquired during the study will support the long-term monitoring of biota in relation to the prescribed environmental flows.

  7. Urban Climate Station Site Selection Through Combined Digital Surface Model and Sun Angle Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Chris; Chapman, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Meteorological measurements within urban areas are becoming increasingly important due to the accentuating effects of climate change upon the Urban Heat Island (UHI). However, ensuring that such measurements are representative of the local area is often difficult due to the diversity of the urban environment. The evaluation of sites is important for both new sites and for the relocation of established sites to ensure that long term changes in the meteorological and climatological conditions continue to be faithfully recorded. Site selection is traditionally carried out in the field using both local knowledge and visual inspection. This paper exploits and assesses the use of lidar-derived digital surface models (DSMs) to quantitatively aid the site selection process. This is acheived by combining the DSM with a solar model, first to generate spatial maps of sky view factors and sun-hour potential and second, to generate site-specific views of the horizon. The results show that such a technique is a useful first-step approach to identify key sites that may be further evaluated for the location of meteorological stations within urban areas.

  8. Physiological and ecological consequences of sleeping-site selection by the Galapagos land iguana (Conolophus pallidus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, K.A.; Tracy, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    Field observations and biophysical models were combined to analyze sleeping-site selection by Galapagos land iguanas (Conolophus pallidus). Iguanas slept in different kinds of sleeping sites during different seasons. In the coolest season (garua), adult land iguanas were found in sleeping sites that were warmer than the coolest sites available. This may be because the garua season (cool, overcast, and foggy) is a time when environmental conditions mitigate against rapid warm-up in the mornings, so lizards may regulate nighttime body temperatures so that it is easier to warm up to preferred daytime body temperatures. In the warmest season, adult iguanas were found in the coolest sleeping sites available. This observation is consistent with hypotheses of voluntary hypothermia, which can be advantageous in energy conservation and in avoiding detrimental effects associated with maintenance of constant body temperatures throughout the day and night. Juvenile iguanas were found sleeping in rock crevices regardless of the ambient thermal environments. Such sites are likely to be important as refugia for this life stage, which, unlike the adult stage, is vulnerable to predation. It was concluded that selection of sleeping sites is a process that may help in avoidance of predation, optimization of body temperature at the end of the sleeping period, and reduction of metabolic costs during sleeping. The importance of some of these factors may change with the thermal milieu (e.g., season).

  9. Large-scale control site selection for population monitoring: an example assessing Sage-grouse trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedy, Bradley C.; O'Donnell, Michael; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2015-01-01

    Human impacts on wildlife populations are widespread and prolific and understanding wildlife responses to human impacts is a fundamental component of wildlife management. The first step to understanding wildlife responses is the documentation of changes in wildlife population parameters, such as population size. Meaningful assessment of population changes in potentially impacted sites requires the establishment of monitoring at similar, nonimpacted, control sites. However, it is often difficult to identify appropriate control sites in wildlife populations. We demonstrated use of Geographic Information System (GIS) data across large spatial scales to select biologically relevant control sites for population monitoring. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hearafter, sage-grouse) are negatively affected by energy development, and monitoring of sage-grouse population within energy development areas is necessary to detect population-level responses. Weused population data (1995–2012) from an energy development area in Wyoming, USA, the Atlantic Rim Project Area (ARPA), and GIS data to identify control sites that were not impacted by energy development for population monitoring. Control sites were surrounded by similar habitat and were within similar climate areas to the ARPA. We developed nonlinear trend models for both the ARPA and control sites and compared long-term trends from the 2 areas. We found little difference between the ARPA and control sites trends over time. This research demonstrated an approach for control site selection across large landscapes and can be used as a template for similar impact-monitoring studies. It is important to note that identification of changes in population parameters between control and treatment sites is only the first step in understanding the mechanisms that underlie those changes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. High resolution x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy - a new technique for site- and spin-selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Science

    1996-12-01

    X-ray spectroscopy has long been used to elucidate electronic and structural information of molecules. One of the weaknesses of x-ray absorption is its sensitivity to all of the atoms of a particular element in a sample. Through out this thesis, a new technique for enhancing the site- and spin-selectivity of the x-ray absorption has been developed. By high resolution fluorescence detection, the chemical sensitivity of K emission spectra can be used to identify oxidation and spin states; it can also be used to facilitate site-selective X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and site-selective Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS). The spin polarization in K fluorescence could be used to generate spin selective XANES or spin-polarized EXAFS, which provides a new measure of the spin density, or the nature of magnetic neighboring atoms. Finally, dramatic line-sharpening effects by the combination of absorption and emission processes allow observation of structure that is normally unobservable. All these unique characters can enormously simplify a complex x-ray spectrum. Applications of this novel technique have generated information from various transition-metal model compounds to metalloproteins. The absorption and emission spectra by high resolution fluorescence detection are interdependent. The ligand field multiplet model has been used for the analysis of K{alpha} and K{beta} emission spectra. First demonstration on different chemical states of Fe compounds has shown the applicability of site selectivity and spin polarization. Different interatomic distances of the same element in different chemical forms have been detected using site-selective EXAFS.

  11. Site-selective azide incorporation into endogenous RNase A via a "chemistry" approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Henschke, Lars; Wu, Qianzhen; Muthoosamy, Kasturi; Neumann, Boris; Weil, Tanja

    2013-01-14

    Site-selective labeling of endogenous proteins represents a major challenge in chemical biology, mainly due to the absence of unique reactive groups that can be addressed selectively. Recently, we have shown that surface-exposed lysine residues of two endogenous proteins and a peptide exhibit subtle changes in their individual reactivities. This feature allows the modification of a single residue in a highly site-selective fashion if kinetically controlled labeling conditions are applied. In order to broaden the scope of the "kinetically-controlled protein labeling" (KPL) approach and highlight additional applications, the water-soluble bioorthogonal reagent, biotin-TEO-azido-NHS (11), is developed which enables the site-selective introduction of an azido group onto endogenous proteins/peptides. This bioconjugation reagent features a biotin tag for affinity purification, an azido group for bioorthogonal labeling, a TEO (tetraethylene oxide) linker acting as a spacer and to impart water solubility and an N-hydroxysuccinimidyl (NHS) ester group for reacting with the exposed lysine residue. As a proof of concept, the native protein ribonuclease A (RNase A) bearing ten available lysine residues at the surface is furnished with a single azido group at Lys 1 in a highly site-selective fashion yielding azido-(K1)RNase A. The K1 site-selectivity is demonstrated by the combined application and interpretation of high resolution MALDI-ToF mass spectroscopy, tandem mass spectroscopy and extracted ion chromatography (XIC). Finally, the water soluble azide-reactive phosphine probe, rho-TEO-phosphine (21) (rho: rhodamine), has been designed and applied to attach a chromophore to azido-(K1)RNase A via Staudinger ligation at physiological pH indicating that the introduced azido group is accessible and could be addressed by other established azide-reactive bioorthogonal reaction schemes.

  12. Near surface swimming of Salmonella Typhimurium explains target-site selection and cooperative invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Misselwitz

    Full Text Available Targeting of permissive entry sites is crucial for bacterial infection. The targeting mechanisms are incompletely understood. We have analyzed target-site selection by S. Typhimurium. This enteropathogenic bacterium employs adhesins (e.g. fim and the type III secretion system 1 (TTSS-1 for host cell binding, the triggering of ruffles and invasion. Typically, S. Typhimurium invasion is focused on a subset of cells and multiple bacteria invade via the same ruffle. It has remained unclear how this is achieved. We have studied target-site selection in tissue culture by time lapse microscopy, movement pattern analysis and modeling. Flagellar motility (but not chemotaxis was required for reaching the host cell surface in vitro. Subsequently, physical forces trapped the pathogen for ∼1.5-3 s in "near surface swimming". This increased the local pathogen density and facilitated "scanning" of the host surface topology. We observed transient TTSS-1 and fim-independent "stopping" and irreversible TTSS-1-mediated docking, in particular at sites of prominent topology, i.e. the base of rounded-up cells and membrane ruffles. Our data indicate that target site selection and the cooperative infection of membrane ruffles are attributable to near surface swimming. This mechanism might be of general importance for understanding infection by flagellated bacteria.

  13. Red-shouldered hawk nesting habitat preference in south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Bradley N.; Boal, Clint W.

    2010-01-01

    We examined nesting habitat preference by red-shouldered hawks Buteo lineatus using conditional logistic regression on characteristics measured at 27 occupied nest sites and 68 unused sites in 2005–2009 in south Texas. We measured vegetation characteristics of individual trees (nest trees and unused trees) and corresponding 0.04-ha plots. We evaluated the importance of tree and plot characteristics to nesting habitat selection by comparing a priori tree-specific and plot-specific models using Akaike's information criterion. Models with only plot variables carried 14% more weight than models with only center tree variables. The model-averaged odds ratios indicated red-shouldered hawks selected to nest in taller trees and in areas with higher average diameter at breast height than randomly available within the forest stand. Relative to randomly selected areas, each 1-m increase in nest tree height and 1-cm increase in the plot average diameter at breast height increased the probability of selection by 85% and 10%, respectively. Our results indicate that red-shouldered hawks select nesting habitat based on vegetation characteristics of individual trees as well as the 0.04-ha area surrounding the tree. Our results indicate forest management practices resulting in tall forest stands with large average diameter at breast height would benefit red-shouldered hawks in south Texas.

  14. The influence of nestling predation on nest site sele,ction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-08-25

    Aug 25, 1987 ... Appropriate nest site selection and the response of parents and nestlings to intruders near the nest, are behaviours that could be adaptive in a species that is prone to nestling predation. This study showed that predation of bateleur nestlings in the Kruger National Park was high, that behaviour of adults and ...

  15. On-site energy consumption and selected emissions at softwood sawmills in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Todd A. Morgan; Colin B. Sorenson

    2016-01-01

    Presently there is a lack of information describing US southwestern energy consumption and emissions generated from the sawmilling industry. This article uses a mail survey of softwood sawmills in the states of Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico to develop a profile of on-site energy consumption and selected emissions for the industry. Energy consumption is...

  16. Nest site selection in a hot desert : Trade-off between microclimate and predation risk?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, B. Irene; van Noordwijk, Hendrika J.; Williams, Joseph B.

    Nest placement affects the risk of predation on both eggs and incubating parents and determines the microclimate for incubation, two functions that may be in conflict, especially in hot deserts. We studied the roles of microclimate and nest predation on nest site selection by Hoopoe Larks (Alaemon

  17. Site-selective three-component reaction for dual-functionalization of peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Henrik Kofoed; Rasmussen, Jakob Ewald; Popa, Gina

    2013-01-01

    A site-selective dual-functionalization of peptides is presented, involving readily available maleimides as well as N-hydroxylamines. The modification proceeds through a three component 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, forming a stable product. This was exemplified by the one-pot attachment of two...

  18. Readily Accessible Bulky Iron Catalysts exhibiting Site Selectivity in the Oxidation of Steroidal Substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Font, David; Canta, Mercè; Milan, Michela; Cussó, Olaf; Ribas, Xavi; Klein Gebbink, Robertus J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/166032646; Costas, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    Bulky iron complexes are described that catalyze the site-selective oxidation of alkyl C-H bonds with hydrogen peroxide under mild conditions. Steric bulk at the iron center is introduced by appending trialkylsilyl groups at the meta-position of the pyridines in tetradentate aminopyridine ligands,

  19. Investigator and site selection and performing GCP clinical studies in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggon, Krishan

    2004-08-01

    The optimum site and investigator selection process remains a closely guarded confidential matter and an essential part of development expertise of big pharmaceutical companies and CROs. The right and careful selection and evaluation of investigators and site is critical for successful completion of the trial within budget, timelines and generation of high quality data. The criteria for site and investigator selection in India for Good Clinical Practices (GCP) clinical trials are described for a start up company/CRO and can be applied to any country in Asia and Africa. Foreign sponsors doing clinical studies in India should pay close attention to site and investigator selection. The first GCP study in India was done only in 1995. At the dawn of 21st century, India is at the take off stage in clinical trials now. GCP studies can be done in India, as the quality of data is good, costs are lower and patient enrolment is much faster resulting in early completion of studies.

  20. Diversity at the Mla powdery mildew resistance locus from cultivated barley reveals sites of positive selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeholzer, Sabine; Tsuchimatsu, Takashi; Jordan, Tina; Bieri, Stéphane; Pajonk, Simone; Yang, Wenxiang; Jahoor, Ahmed; Shimizu, Kentaro K; Keller, Beat; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2010-04-01

    The Mla locus in barley (Hordeum vulgare) conditions isolate-specific immunity to the powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei) and encodes intracellular coiled-coil (CC) domain, nucleotide-binding (NB) site, and leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing receptor proteins. Over the last decades, genetic studies in breeding material have identified a large number of functional resistance genes at the Mla locus. To study the structural and functional diversity of this locus at the molecular level, we isolated 23 candidate MLA cDNAs from barley accessions that were previously shown by genetic studies to harbor different Mla resistance specificities. Resistance activity was detected for 13 candidate MLA cDNAs in a transient gene-expression assay. Sequence alignment of the deduced MLA proteins improved secondary structure predictions, revealing four additional, previously overlooked LRR. Analysis of nucleotide diversity of the candidate and validated MLA cDNAs revealed 34 sites of positive selection. Recombination or gene conversion events were frequent in the first half of the gene but positive selection was also found when this region was excluded. The positively selected sites are all, except two, located in the LRR domain and cluster in predicted solvent-exposed residues of the repeats 7 to 15 and adjacent turns on the concave side of the predicted solenoid protein structure. This domain-restricted pattern of positively selected sites, together with the length conservation of individual LRR, suggests direct binding of effectors to MLA receptors.

  1. Glancing up or down: Mood management and selective social comparisons on social networking sites.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, B.K.; Knobloch-Westerwick, S.

    2014-01-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) provide opportunities for mood management through selective exposure. This study tested the prediction that negative mood fosters self-enhancing social comparisons to SNS profiles. Participants were induced into positive or negative moods and then browsed manipulated

  2. Targeting hunter distribution based on host resource selection and kill sites to manage disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugal, Cherie; van Beest, Floris; Vander Wal, Eric

    2013-01-01

    , in southwestern Manitoba, Canada. Distance to protected area was the most important covariate influencing resource selection and hunter-kill sites of elk (AICw = 1.00). Collared adult males (which are most likely to be infected with bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) and chronic wasting disease) rarely...

  3. Nest site selection in native and exotic trees by Black-chinned Hummingbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Jeffrey Kelly

    2002-01-01

    We studied nest site selection and nesting success in Black-chinned Hummingbirds (Archilochus alexandri) along the middle Rio Grande, New Mexico. The study was conducted in association with an exotic woody plant removal program to determine whether the removal of exotic plants would affect wildlife populations and nesting success, either positively or negatively. Point...

  4. Meta-analyses of habitat selection by fishers at resting sites in the Pacific coastal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith B. Aubry; Catherine M. Raley; Steven W. Buskirk; William J. Zielinski; Michael K. Schwartz; Richard T. Golightly; Kathryn L. Purcell; Richard D. Weir; J. Scott. Yaeger

    2013-01-01

    The fisher (Pekania pennanti) is a species of conservation concern throughout the Pacific coastal region in North America. A number of radiotelemetry studies of habitat selection by fishers at resting sites have been conducted in this region, but the applicability of observed patterns beyond the boundaries of each study area is unknown. Broadly...

  5. Effects of habitat quality and ambient hyporheic flows on salmon spawning site selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohan Benjankar; Daniele Tonina; Alessandra Marzadri; Jim McKean; Daniel J. Isaak

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the role of stream hydrologic and morphologic variables on the selection of spawning sites by salmonid fishes at high resolution across broad scales is needed for effective habitat restoration and protection. Here we used remotely sensed meter-scale channel bathymetry for a 13.5 km reach of Chinook salmon spawning stream in central Idaho to...

  6. Selection of sites for the in situ conservation of four traditional leafy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selection of sites for the in situ conservation of four traditional leafy vegetables consumed in Benin. ... International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... Acmella uliginosa, Ceratotheca sesamoides, Justicia tenella and Sesamum radiatum are four traditional leafy vegetables which are widely consumed in Benin.

  7. Nest site selection and breeding success in three Turdus thrush species coexisting in an urban environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikula, P.; Hromada, M.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Tryjanowski, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2014), s. 83-92 ISSN 0001-6454 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : breeding success * coexistence * nest-habitat partitioning * nest site selection * predation * synurbization * urban habitat * thrushes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2014

  8. Catalyst-controlled site-selective asymmetric epoxidation of nerylamine and geranylamine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobuta, Tomoya; Kawabata, Takeo

    2017-08-17

    Novel catalysts for site- and enantioselective epoxidation of nerylamine and geranylamine derivatives have been developed. Although mCPBA oxidation took place selectively at the more electron-rich double bond to give the 6,7-epoxides, these catalysts provide the 2,3-epoxides in moderate to high enantioselectivity via the oxidation of the relatively electron-deficient double bond.

  9. Assessment System for Junior High Schools in Taiwan to Select Environmental Education Facilities and Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shyue-Yung; Chen, Wen-Te; Hsu, Wei-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Environmental education is essential for people to pursue sustainable development. In Taiwan, environmental education is taught to students until they graduate from junior high school. This study was conducted to establish an assessment system for junior high schools to select appropriate environmental education facilities and sites. A mix of…

  10. Inclusive assessment in a site-selection process. Approach, experience, reflections and some lessons beyond boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flueeler, Thomas [Directorate of Public Works, Nuclear Technology Unit, Zurich (Switzerland). Energy Dept.; ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. for Environmental Decisions

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear waste disposal indisputably is a controversial socio-technical issue in most societies widely using nuclear technology. All the more it is pivotal to proceed in a comprehensive, transparent and participative manner. The contribution suggests fundamental rules to follow and confronts them with the currently ongoing site-selection process in Switzerland. Finally it draws some lessons for the audience.

  11. GSMT Education: Teaching about Adaptive Optics and Site Selection Using Extremely Large Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R. T.; Pompea, S. M.

    2010-08-01

    Giant Segmented Mirror Telescopes (GSMT) represents the next generation of extremely large telescopes (ELT). Currently there are three active ELT projects, all established as international partnerships to build telescopes of greater than 20 meters aperture. Two of these have major participation by U.S. institutions: the Giant Magellan Telescope and the Thirty Meter Telescope. The ESO-ELT is under development by the European Southern Observatory and other European institutions. We have developed educational activities to accompany the design phase of these projects. The current activities focus on challenges faced in the design and site selection of a large telescope. The first module is on site selection. This online module is based on the successful Astronomy Village program model. Students evaluate several potential sites to decide where to build the GSMT. They must consider factors such as weather, light pollution, seeing, logistics, and geography. The second project has developed adaptive optics teaching units suitable for high school.

  12. Analyzing site selectivity in Rh2(esp)2-catalyzed intermolecular C-H amination reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Elizabeth N; DeLuca, Ryan J; Tindall, Daniel J; Oderinde, Martins S; Roizen, Jennifer L; Du Bois, J; Sigman, Matthew S

    2014-04-16

    Predicting site selectivity in C-H bond oxidation reactions involving heteroatom transfer is challenged by the small energetic differences between disparate bond types and the subtle interplay of steric and electronic effects that influence reactivity. Herein, the factors governing selective Rh2(esp)2-catalyzed C-H amination of isoamylbenzene derivatives are investigated, where modification to both the nitrogen source, a sulfamate ester, and substrate are shown to impact isomeric product ratios. Linear regression mathematical modeling is used to define a relationship that equates both IR stretching parameters and Hammett σ(+) values to the differential free energy of benzylic versus tertiary C-H amination. This model has informed the development of a novel sulfamate ester, which affords the highest benzylic-to-tertiary site selectivity (9.5:1) observed for this system.

  13. Decarboxylative alkylation for site-selective bioconjugation of native proteins via oxidation potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Steven; Liu, Chun; Kölmel, Dominik K.; Qiao, Jennifer X.; Zhang, Yong; Poss, Michael A.; Ewing, William R.; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2018-02-01

    The advent of antibody-drug conjugates as pharmaceuticals has fuelled a need for reliable methods of site-selective protein modification that furnish homogeneous adducts. Although bioorthogonal methods that use engineered amino acids often provide an elegant solution to the question of selective functionalization, achieving homogeneity using native amino acids remains a challenge. Here, we explore visible-light-mediated single-electron transfer as a mechanism towards enabling site- and chemoselective bioconjugation. Specifically, we demonstrate the use of photoredox catalysis as a platform to selectivity wherein the discrepancy in oxidation potentials between internal versus C-terminal carboxylates can be exploited towards obtaining C-terminal functionalization exclusively. This oxidation potential-gated technology is amenable to endogenous peptides and has been successfully demonstrated on the protein insulin. As a fundamentally new approach to bioconjugation this methodology provides a blueprint toward the development of photoredox catalysis as a generic platform to target other redox-active side chains for native conjugation.

  14. Occurrence and concentrations of selected trace elements, halogenated organic compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in streambed sediments and results of water-toxicity testing in Westside Creeks and the San Antonio River, San Antonio, Texas, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Cassi L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Kunz, James L.

    2016-12-01

    Sediment samples and samples for water-toxicity testing were collected during 2014 from several streams in San Antonio, Texas, known locally as the Westside Creeks (Alazán, Apache, Martínez, and San Pedro Creeks) and from the San Antonio River. Samples were collected during base flow and after periods of stormwater runoff (poststorm conditions) to determine baseline sediment- and water-quality conditions. Streambed-sediment samples were analyzed for selected constituents, including trace elements and organic contaminants such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Potential risks of contaminants in sediment were evaluated by comparing concentrations of contaminants in sediment to two effects-based sediment-quality guidelines: (1) a lower level, called the threshold effect concentration, below which, harmful effects to benthic biota are not expected, and (2) a higher level, the probable effect concentration (PEC), above which harmful effects are expected to occur frequently. Samples for water-toxicity testing were collected from each stream to provide information about fish toxicity in the study area. The trace metal lead was detected at potentially toxic concentrations greater than the PEC in both the base-flow and poststorm samples collected at two sites sampled on San Pedro Creek. The PECs for the pesticides dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and chlordane were exceeded in some of the samples at the same two sites on San Pedro Creek. Brominated flame retardants and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) 85, 153, and 154 were found in all streambed-sediment samples. Federal Environmental Quality Guidelines established by Environment Canada for PBDE 99 and PBDE 100 were exceeded in all samples in which PBDE 99 was detected and in a majority of the samples in which PBDE 100 was detected; the greatest concentrations

  15. Decision support for the selection of reference sites using 137Cs as a soil erosion tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Bürge, Alexandra; Zehringer, Markus; Ketterer, Michael E.; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2017-08-01

    The classical approach of using 137Cs as a soil erosion tracer is based on the comparison between stable reference sites and sites affected by soil redistribution processes; it enables the derivation of soil erosion and deposition rates. The method is associated with potentially large sources of uncertainty with major parts of this uncertainty being associated with the selection of the reference sites. We propose a decision support tool to Check the Suitability of reference Sites (CheSS). Commonly, the variation among 137Cs inventories of spatial replicate reference samples is taken as the sole criterion to decide on the suitability of a reference inventory. Here we propose an extension of this procedure using a repeated sampling approach, in which the reference sites are resampled after a certain time period. Suitable reference sites are expected to present no significant temporal variation in their decay-corrected 137Cs depth profiles. Possible causes of variation are assessed by a decision tree. More specifically, the decision tree tests for (i) uncertainty connected to small-scale variability in 137Cs due to its heterogeneous initial fallout (such as in areas affected by the Chernobyl fallout), (ii) signs of erosion or deposition processes and (iii) artefacts due to the collection, preparation and measurement of the samples; (iv) finally, if none of the above can be assigned, this variation might be attributed to turbation processes (e.g. bioturbation, cryoturbation and mechanical turbation, such as avalanches or rockfalls). CheSS was exemplarily applied in one Swiss alpine valley where the apparent temporal variability called into question the suitability of the selected reference sites. In general we suggest the application of CheSS as a first step towards a comprehensible approach to test for the suitability of reference sites.

  16. DNA abasic site-directed formation of fluorescent silver nanoclusters for selective nucleobase recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kun; Cui, Qinghua; Liu, Guiying; Wu, Fei; Xu, Shujuan; Shao, Yong

    2011-07-29

    DNA single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection has attracted much attention due to mutation related diseases. Various methods for SNP detection have been proposed and many are already in use. Here, we find that the abasic site (AP site) in the DNA duplex can be developed as a capping scaffold for the generation of fluorescent silver nanoclusters (Ag NCs). As a proof of concept, the DNA sequences from fragments near codon 177 of cancer supression gene p53 were used as a model for SNP detection by in situ formed Ag NCs. The formation of fluorescent Ag NCs in the AP site-containing DNA duplex is highly selective for cytosine facing the AP site and guanines flanking the site and can be employed in situ as readout for SNP detection. The fluorescent signal-on sensing for SNP based on this inorganic fluorophore is substantially advantageous over the previously reported signal-off responses using low-molecular-weight organic ligands. The strong dependence of fluorescent Ag NC formation on the sequences surrounding the AP site was successfully used to identify mutations in codon 177 of cancer supression gene p53. We anticipate that this approach will be employed to develop a practical SNP detection method by locating an AP site toward the midway cytosine in a target strand containing more than three consecutive cytosines.

  17. DNA abasic site-directed formation of fluorescent silver nanoclusters for selective nucleobase recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kun; Cui, Qinghua; Liu, Guiying; Wu, Fei; Xu, Shujuan; Shao, Yong

    2011-07-01

    DNA single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection has attracted much attention due to mutation related diseases. Various methods for SNP detection have been proposed and many are already in use. Here, we find that the abasic site (AP site) in the DNA duplex can be developed as a capping scaffold for the generation of fluorescent silver nanoclusters (Ag NCs). As a proof of concept, the DNA sequences from fragments near codon 177 of cancer supression gene p53 were used as a model for SNP detection by in situ formed Ag NCs. The formation of fluorescent Ag NCs in the AP site-containing DNA duplex is highly selective for cytosine facing the AP site and guanines flanking the site and can be employed in situ as readout for SNP detection. The fluorescent signal-on sensing for SNP based on this inorganic fluorophore is substantially advantageous over the previously reported signal-off responses using low-molecular-weight organic ligands. The strong dependence of fluorescent Ag NC formation on the sequences surrounding the AP site was successfully used to identify mutations in codon 177 of cancer supression gene p53. We anticipate that this approach will be employed to develop a practical SNP detection method by locating an AP site toward the midway cytosine in a target strand containing more than three consecutive cytosines.

  18. Site selection of a dual purpose nuclear power plant in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, F.M.; Obeid, M.A.; El-Malahy, K.S.

    1987-12-01

    Selecting a nuclear power plant site for power production and water desalination is a very complex problem, especially in countries with moderate technology. Many interrelated factors affect the process, and professional judgments by various experts are involved. Four sites, all located on the West Coast of Saudi Arabia along the Red Sea, were chosen as potential sites for building such a plant. (All sites were in either the northern or southern section of the coast; the central part was excluded for pilgrims' safety.) The East Coast was completely eliminated in the initial screening process due to its strategic location, the existence of oil fields and refineries, and its proximity to other Arabian (Persian) Gulf countries (to minimize radioactive releases to these countries in case of an accident). A computer code based on Saaty's eigenvalue technique and developed in a previous study was used in this analysis. Twenty-one main criteria were considered, and the sites were ranked to determine which was most desirable. Site 4 was found to be most suitable, followed by site 3.

  19. Chromosome segregation impacts on cell growth and division site selection in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catriona Donovan

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal regulation of bacterial cell division is imperative for the production of viable offspring. In many rod-shaped bacteria, regulatory systems such as the Min system and nucleoid occlusion ensure the high fidelity of midcell divisome positioning. However, regulation of division site selection in bacteria lacking recognizable Min and nucleoid occlusion remains less well understood. Here, we describe one such rod-shaped organism, Corynebacterium glutamicum, which does not always place the division septum precisely at midcell. Here we now show at single cell level that cell growth and division site selection are spatially and temporally regulated by chromosome segregation. Mutants defective in chromosome segregation have more variable cell growth and aberrant placement of the division site. In these mutants, division septa constrict over and often guillotine the nucleoid, leading to nonviable, DNA-free cells. Our results suggest that chromosome segregation or some nucleoid associated factor influences growth and division site selection in C. glutamicum. Understanding growth and regulation of C. glutamicum cells will also be of importance to develop strains for industrial production of biomolecules, such as amino acids.

  20. Use and Selection of Sleeping Sites by Proboscis Monkeys, Nasalislarvatus, along the Kinabatangan River, Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, Valentine; Stark, Danica J; Goossens, Benoît; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Vercauteren Drubbel, Régine; Vercauteren, Martine

    2016-01-01

    The choice of a sleeping site is crucial for primates and may influence their survival. In this study, we investigated several tree characteristics influencing the sleeping site selection by proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) along Kinabatangan River, in Sabah, Malaysia. We identified 81 sleeping trees used by one-male and all-male social groups from November 2011 to January 2012. We recorded 15 variables for each tree. Within sleeping sites, sleeping trees were taller, had a larger trunk, with larger and higher first branches than surrounding trees. The crown contained more mature leaves, ripe and unripe fruits but had vines less often than surrounding trees. In addition, in this study, we also focused on a larger scale, considering sleeping and non-sleeping sites. Multivariate analyses highlighted a combination of 6 variables that revealed the significance of sleeping trees as well as surrounding trees in the selection process. During our boat surveys, we observed that adult females and young individuals stayed higher in the canopy than adult males. This pattern may be driven by their increased vulnerability to predation. Finally, we suggest that the selection of particular sleeping tree features (i.e. tall, high first branch) by proboscis monkeys is mostly influenced by antipredation strategies. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Treasured Texas Theaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Dallas artist Jon Flaming's deep love of Texas is evident in his paintings and sculpture. Although he has created one sculptural Texas theater, his work primarily showcases old Texas barbershops, vacant homes, and gas stations. In this article, the author describes how her students, inspired by Flaming's works, created three-dimensional historical…

  2. Retroviral DNA integration: viral and cellular determinants of target-site selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary K Lewinski

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses differ in their preferences for sites for viral DNA integration in the chromosomes of infected cells. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV integrates preferentially within active transcription units, whereas murine leukemia virus (MLV integrates preferentially near transcription start sites and CpG islands. We investigated the viral determinants of integration-site selection using HIV chimeras with MLV genes substituted for their HIV counterparts. We found that transferring the MLV integrase (IN coding region into HIV (to make HIVmIN caused the hybrid to integrate with a specificity close to that of MLV. Addition of MLV gag (to make HIVmGagmIN further increased the similarity of target-site selection to that of MLV. A chimeric virus with MLV Gag only (HIVmGag displayed targeting preferences different from that of both HIV and MLV, further implicating Gag proteins in targeting as well as IN. We also report a genome-wide analysis indicating that MLV, but not HIV, favors integration near DNase I-hypersensitive sites (i.e., +/- 1 kb, and that HIVmIN and HIVmGagmIN also favored integration near these features. These findings reveal that IN is the principal viral determinant of integration specificity; they also reveal a new role for Gag-derived proteins, and strengthen models for integration targeting based on tethering of viral IN proteins to host proteins.

  3. Decision Making on Regional Landfill Site Selection in Hormozgan Province Using Smce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majedi, A. S.; Kamali, B. M.; Maghsoudi, R.

    2015-12-01

    Landfill site selection and suitable conditions to bury hazardous wastes are among the most critical issues in modern societies. Taking several factors and limitations into account along with true decision making requires application of different decision techniques. To this end, current paper aims to make decisions about regional landfill site selection in Hormozgan province and utilizes SMCE technique combined with qualitative and quantitative criteria to select the final alternatives. To this respect, we first will describe the existing environmental situation in our study area and set the goals of our study in the framework of SMCE and will analyze the effective factors in regional landfill site selection. Then, methodological procedure of research was conducted using Delphi approach and questionnaires (in order to determine research validity, Chronbach Alpha (0.94) method was used). Spatial multi-criteria analysis model was designed in the form of criteria tree in SMCE using IL WIS software. Prioritization of respective spatial alternatives included: Bandar Abbas city with total 4 spatial alternatives (one zone with 1st priority, one zone with 3rd priority and two zones with 4thpriority) was considered the first priority, Bastak city with total 3 spatial alternatives (one zone with 2nd priority, one zone with 3rdpriorit and one zone with 4th priority) was the second priority and Bandar Abbas, Minab, Jask and Haji Abad cities were considered as the third priority.

  4. Automating an integrated spatial data-mining model for landfill site selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abujayyab, Sohaib K. M.; Ahamad, Mohd Sanusi S.; Yahya, Ahmad Shukri; Ahmad, Siti Zubaidah; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2017-10-01

    An integrated programming environment represents a robust approach to building a valid model for landfill site selection. One of the main challenges in the integrated model is the complicated processing and modelling due to the programming stages and several limitations. An automation process helps avoid the limitations and improve the interoperability between integrated programming environments. This work targets the automation of a spatial data-mining model for landfill site selection by integrating between spatial programming environment (Python-ArcGIS) and non-spatial environment (MATLAB). The model was constructed using neural networks and is divided into nine stages distributed between Matlab and Python-ArcGIS. A case study was taken from the north part of Peninsular Malaysia. 22 criteria were selected to utilise as input data and to build the training and testing datasets. The outcomes show a high-performance accuracy percentage of 98.2% in the testing dataset using 10-fold cross validation. The automated spatial data mining model provides a solid platform for decision makers to performing landfill site selection and planning operations on a regional scale.

  5. The Application of Computer-Aided Discovery to Spacecraft Site Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratius, V.; Blair, D. M.; Gowanlock, M.; Herring, T.

    2015-12-01

    The selection of landing and exploration sites for interplanetary robotic or human missions is a complex task. Historically it has been labor-intensive, with large groups of scientists manually interpreting a planetary surface across a variety of datasets to identify potential sites based on science and engineering constraints. This search process can be lengthy, and excellent sites may get overlooked when the aggregate value of site selection criteria is non-obvious or non-intuitive. As planetary data collection leads to Big Data repositories and a growing set of selection criteria, scientists will face a combinatorial search space explosion that requires scalable, automated assistance. We are currently exploring more general computer-aided discovery techniques in the context of planetary surface deformation phenomena that can lend themselves to application in the landing site search problem. In particular, we are developing a general software framework that addresses key difficulties: characterizing a given phenomenon or site based on data gathered from multiple instruments (e.g. radar interferometry, gravity, thermal maps, or GPS time series), and examining a variety of possible workflows whose individual configurations are optimized to isolate different features. The framework allows algorithmic pipelines and hypothesized models to be perturbed or permuted automatically within well-defined bounds established by the scientist. For example, even simple choices for outlier and noise handling or data interpolation can drastically affect the detectability of certain features. These techniques aim to automate repetitive tasks that scientists routinely perform in exploratory analysis, and make them more efficient and scalable by executing them in parallel in the cloud. We also explore ways in which machine learning can be combined with human feedback to prune the search space and converge to desirable results. Acknowledgements: We acknowledge support from NASA AIST

  6. A comprehensive study on landfill site selection for Kolkata City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Koushik; Dutta, Amit; Krishna, A P

    2014-07-01

    Kolkata is one of the four major metropolitan cities in India and the capital city of the state of West Bengal. With an area of 187.33 km2 and a population of about 10 million (including a floating population of about 6 million), the city generates about 3500 Metric Ton (MT) of solid waste per day. Currently, Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) disposes its waste at Dhapa (21.47 ha), where the disposal rate exceeds 3000 MT/day, and at Garden Reach (3.52 ha), where the disposal rate is 100 MT/day. Considering the exhaustion of Dhapa land space, city planners are urgently searching for an alternate disposal ground. National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), under the sponsorship of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), has brought out literature developing the site selection criteria for municipal solid waste disposal ground to suit Indian conditions. The developed criteria encompass environmental conditions, accessibility, geological and hydrogeological conditions, and ecological and societal effects. This paper attempts to locate the most suitable site for disposal of KMC area solid waste using the multicriterion decision analysis as stipulated in CPCB 2003 guidelines and the overlay analysis of geographic information system (GIS). Implications: The paper is based on landfill site selection for dumping of solid waste generated within Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) area. The methodology uses GIS/remote sensing, Site Sensitivity Index (an offshoot of pairwise comparison technique developed in CPCB 2003 guidelines, Government of India), and the Delphi technique. Dhapa landfill site, where solid waste of KMC area is currently being disposed, is exhausted; the authors of this article thus found it relevant to carry out a research on the selection of an alternative landfill site. The study undertaken was comprehensive, yet presented in a lucid way so that policymakers will find easy to comprehend.

  7. The role of wood hardness in limiting nest site selection in avian cavity excavators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Teresa J; Vierling, Kerri T; Johnson, Timothy R; Fischer, Philip C

    2015-06-01

    Woodpeckers and other primary cavity excavators (PCEs) are important worldwide for excavating cavities in trees, and a large number of studies have examined their nesting preferences. However, quantitative measures of wood hardness have been omitted from most studies, and ecologists have focused on the effects of external tree- and habitat-level features on nesting. Moreover, information is lacking on the role of wood hardness in limiting nesting opportunities for this important guild. Here, we used an information theoretic approach to examine the role of wood hardness in multi-scale nest site selection and in limiting nesting opportunities for six species of North American PCEs. We found that interior wood hardness at nests (n = 259) differed from that at random sites, and all six species of PCE had nests with significantly softer interior wood than random trees (F1,517 = 106.15, P trees within territories and in the selection of nest locations on trees. Moreover, regardless of hypothesized excavation abilities, all the species in our study appeared constrained by interior wood hardness, and only 4-14% of random sites were actually suitable for nesting. Our findings suggest that past studies that did not measure wood hardness counted many sites as available to PCEs when they were actually unsuitable, potentially biasing results. Moreover, by not accounting for nest site limitations in PCEs, managers may overestimate the amount of suitable habitat. We therefore urge ecologists to incorporate quantitative measures of wood hardness into PCE nest site selection studies, and to consider the limitations faced by avian cavity excavators in forest management decisions.

  8. An ArcGIS decision support tool for artificial reefs site selection (ArcGIS ARSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianou, Stavros; Zodiatis, George

    2017-04-01

    Although the use and benefits of artificial reefs, both socio-economic and environmental, have been recognized with research and national development programmes worldwide their development is rarely subjected to a rigorous site selection process and the majority of the projects use the traditional (non-GIS) approach, based on trial and error mode. Recent studies have shown that the use of Geographic Information Systems, unlike to traditional methods, for the identification of suitable areas for artificial reefs siting seems to offer a number of distinct advantages minimizing possible errors, time and cost. A decision support tool (DSS) has been developed based on the existing knowledge, the multi-criteria decision analysis techniques and the GIS approach used in previous studies in order to help the stakeholders to identify the optimal locations for artificial reefs deployment on the basis of the physical, biological, oceanographic and socio-economic features of the sites. The tool provides to the users the ability to produce a final report with the results and suitability maps. The ArcGIS ARSS support tool runs within the existing ArcMap 10.2.x environment and for the development the VB .NET high level programming language has been used along with ArcObjects 10.2.x. Two local-scale case studies were conducted in order to test the application of the tool focusing on artificial reef siting. The results obtained from the case studies have shown that the tool can be successfully integrated within the site selection process in order to select objectively the optimal site for artificial reefs deployment.

  9. The importance of site selection for setting up a wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunandan, A.; Gowda, G.; Pandian, A. [MS RAMAIAH Institute of Technology, Bangalore (India); Ramanan, G. [RV College of Engineering, Bangalore (India)

    2012-07-01

    A wind energy system transforms the kinetic energy of the wind into mechanical or electrical energy that can be harnessed for practical use. Building a wind turbine is far more than simply a matter of finding a field or mountaintop where the wind is blowing and plopping one down. A great deal of attention should be given to finding the proper site for a wind turbine. The main factor one should consider is the average speed of the wind over an extended time. Estimation of the wind power potential for a site is the most important requirement for selecting a site for the installation of a wind turbine. Also wind turbines should be sited well above trees, buildings, and other obstacles else, the result will be poor energy production and increased wear and tear on the turbine. One way to get rid of this is to place the wind turbine on a tall tower. When selecting a place for setting up a wind turbine, engineers consider factors such as wind hazards, characteristics of the land that affect wind speed, and the effects of one turbine on nearby turbines in wind farms. The other factors that are important for selecting a site for installation of wind turbines are Hill effect, Roughness, or the amount of friction that Earth's surface exerts on wind, Tunnel effect, Turbulence, Variations in wind speed, Wind obstacles and Wind shear. This paper will emphasis on the necessary inspections which are to be done on the site before installing a Wind Turbine. (Author)

  10. Preliminary geologic site selection factors for the National Waste Terminal Storage Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The geologic considerations and the associated factors that have to be addressed in the selection of repository sites in deep geologic formations are listed and described. In addition a description is given of the information necessary to assess the geologic factors. The methods of obtaining this information are described. An illustration is given of a general approach of how the geologic factors could be applied and integrated to assess the acceptability of candidate sites. No consideration is given to a detailed description of the application of integration of the geologic factors. The criteria associated with each factor that will be used are not defined. (JSR)

  11. Catalyst recognition of cis-1,2-diols enables site-selective functionalization of complex molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xixi; Lee, Hyelee; Lee, Sunggi; Tan, Kian L.

    2013-09-01

    Carbohydrates and natural products serve essential roles in nature, and also provide core scaffolds for pharmaceutical agents and vaccines. However, the inherent complexity of these molecules imposes significant synthetic hurdles for their selective functionalization and derivatization. Nature has, in part, addressed these issues by employing enzymes that are able to orient and activate substrates within a chiral pocket, which increases dramatically both the rate and selectivity of organic transformations. In this article we show that similar proximity effects can be utilized in the context of synthetic catalysts to achieve general and predictable site-selective functionalization of complex molecules. Unlike enzymes, our catalysts apply a single reversible covalent bond to recognize and bind to specific functional group displays within substrates. By combining this unique binding selectivity and asymmetric catalysis, we are able to modify the less reactive axial positions within monosaccharides and natural products.

  12. Spawning Site Selection and Contingent Behavior in Common Snook, Centropomus undecimalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowerre-Barbieri, Susan; Villegas-Ríos, David; Walters, Sarah; Bickford, Joel; Cooper, Wade; Muller, Robert; Trotter, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive behavior affects spatial population structure and our ability to manage for sustainability in marine and diadromous fishes. In this study, we used fishery independent capture-based sampling to evaluate where Common Snook occurred in Tampa Bay and if it changed with spawning season, and passive acoustic telemetry to assess fine scale behavior at an inlet spawning site (2007–2009). Snook concentrated in three areas during the spawning season only one of which fell within the expected spawning habitat. Although in lower numbers, they remained in these areas throughout the winter months. Acoustically-tagged snook (n = 31) showed two seasonal patterns at the spawning site: Most fish occurred during the spawning season but several fish displayed more extended residency, supporting the capture-based findings that Common Snook exhibit facultative catadromy. Spawning site selection for iteroparous, multiple-batch spawning fishes occurs at the lifetime, annual, or intra-annual temporal scales. In this study we show colonization of a new spawning site, indicating that lifetime spawning site fidelity of Common Snook is not fixed at this fine spatial scale. However, individuals did exhibit annual and intra-seasonal spawning site fidelity to this new site over the three years studied. The number of fish at the spawning site increased in June and July (peak spawning months) and on new and full lunar phases indicating within population variability in spawning and movement patterns. Intra-seasonal patterns of detection also differed significantly with sex. Common Snook exhibited divergent migration tactics and habitat use at the annual and estuarine scales, with contingents using different overwintering habitat. Migration tactics also varied at the spawning site at the intra-seasonal scale and with sex. These results have important implications for understanding how reproductive behavior affects spatio-temporal patterns of fish abundance and their resilience to

  13. Spawning site selection and contingent behavior in Common Snook, Centropomus undecimalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Lowerre-Barbieri

    Full Text Available Reproductive behavior affects spatial population structure and our ability to manage for sustainability in marine and diadromous fishes. In this study, we used fishery independent capture-based sampling to evaluate where Common Snook occurred in Tampa Bay and if it changed with spawning season, and passive acoustic telemetry to assess fine scale behavior at an inlet spawning site (2007-2009. Snook concentrated in three areas during the spawning season only one of which fell within the expected spawning habitat. Although in lower numbers, they remained in these areas throughout the winter months. Acoustically-tagged snook (n = 31 showed two seasonal patterns at the spawning site: Most fish occurred during the spawning season but several fish displayed more extended residency, supporting the capture-based findings that Common Snook exhibit facultative catadromy. Spawning site selection for iteroparous, multiple-batch spawning fishes occurs at the lifetime, annual, or intra-annual temporal scales. In this study we show colonization of a new spawning site, indicating that lifetime spawning site fidelity of Common Snook is not fixed at this fine spatial scale. However, individuals did exhibit annual and intra-seasonal spawning site fidelity to this new site over the three years studied. The number of fish at the spawning site increased in June and July (peak spawning months and on new and full lunar phases indicating within population variability in spawning and movement patterns. Intra-seasonal patterns of detection also differed significantly with sex. Common Snook exhibited divergent migration tactics and habitat use at the annual and estuarine scales, with contingents using different overwintering habitat. Migration tactics also varied at the spawning site at the intra-seasonal scale and with sex. These results have important implications for understanding how reproductive behavior affects spatio-temporal patterns of fish abundance and their

  14. Site versus centralized raters in a clinical depression trial: impact on patient selection and placebo response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobak, Kenneth A; Leuchter, Andrew; DeBrota, David; Engelhardt, Nina; Williams, Janet B W; Cook, Ian A; Leon, Andrew C; Alpert, Jonathan

    2010-04-01

    The use of centralized raters who are remotely linked to sites and interview patients via videoconferencing or teleconferencing has been suggested as a way to improve interrater reliability and interview quality. This study compared the effect of site-based and centralized ratings on patient selection and placebo response in subjects with major depressive disorder. Subjects in a 2-center placebo and active comparator controlled depression trial were interviewed twice at each of 3 time points: baseline, 1-week postbaseline, and end point--once by the site rater and once remotely via videoconference by a centralized rater. Raters were blind to each others' scores. A site-based score of greater than 17 on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) was required for study entry. When examining all subjects entering the study, site-based raters' HDRS-17 scores were significantly higher than centralized raters' at baseline and postbaseline but not at end point. At baseline, 35% of subjects given an HDRS-17 total score of greater than 17 by a site rater were given an HDRS total score of lower than 17 by a centralized rater and would have been ineligible to enter the study if the centralized rater's score was used to determine study entry. The mean placebo change for site raters (7.52) was significantly greater than the mean placebo change for centralized raters (3.18, P 50% reduction in HDRS) based on site ratings versus 14% for central ratings (P site and centralized raters agreed were eligible for the study, there was no significant difference in the HDRS-17 scores. Findings suggest that the use of centralized raters could significantly change the study sample in a major depressive disorder trial and lead to significantly less change in mood ratings among those randomized to placebo.

  15. Selection of remedial alternatives for mine sites: a multicriteria decision analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betrie, Getnet D; Sadiq, Rehan; Morin, Kevin A; Tesfamariam, Solomon

    2013-04-15

    The selection of remedial alternatives for mine sites is a complex task because it involves multiple criteria and often with conflicting objectives. However, an existing framework used to select remedial alternatives lacks multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) aids and does not consider uncertainty in the selection of alternatives. The objective of this paper is to improve the existing framework by introducing deterministic and probabilistic MCDA methods. The Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE) methods have been implemented in this study. The MCDA analysis involves processing inputs to the PROMETHEE methods that are identifying the alternatives, defining the criteria, defining the criteria weights using analytical hierarchical process (AHP), defining the probability distribution of criteria weights, and conducting Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS); running the PROMETHEE methods using these inputs; and conducting a sensitivity analysis. A case study was presented to demonstrate the improved framework at a mine site. The results showed that the improved framework provides a reliable way of selecting remedial alternatives as well as quantifying the impact of different criteria on selecting alternatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Simulation Experiment on Landing Site Selection Using a Simple Geometric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Tong, X.; Xie, H.; Jin, Y.; Liu, S.; Wu, D.; Liu, X.; Guo, L.; Zhou, Q.

    2017-07-01

    Safe landing is an important part of the planetary exploration mission. Even fine scale terrain hazards (such as rocks, small craters, steep slopes, which would not be accurately detected from orbital reconnaissance) could also pose a serious risk on planetary lander or rover and scientific instruments on-board it. In this paper, a simple geometric approach on planetary landing hazard detection and safe landing site selection is proposed. In order to achieve full implementation of this algorithm, two easy-to-compute metrics are presented for extracting the terrain slope and roughness information. Unlike conventional methods which must do the robust plane fitting and elevation interpolation for DEM generation, in this work, hazards is identified through the processing directly on LiDAR point cloud. For safe landing site selection, a Generalized Voronoi Diagram is constructed. Based on the idea of maximum empty circle, the safest landing site can be determined. In this algorithm, hazards are treated as general polygons, without special simplification (e.g. regarding hazards as discrete circles or ellipses). So using the aforementioned method to process hazards is more conforming to the real planetary exploration scenario. For validating the approach mentioned above, a simulated planetary terrain model was constructed using volcanic ash with rocks in indoor environment. A commercial laser scanner mounted on a rail was used to scan the terrain surface at different hanging positions. The results demonstrate that fairly hazard detection capability and reasonable site selection was obtained compared with conventional method, yet less computational time and less memory usage was consumed. Hence, it is a feasible candidate approach for future precision landing selection on planetary surface.

  17. Ambient Noise Analysis from Selected CTBTO (Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization) Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-11

    3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 Jan 2011 -30 Sept 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ambient Noise Analysis from Selected CTBTO Hydroacoustic Sites 5a...of Great Britain & Northern Ireland and the United States. The data is a continuous stream of ambient noise, from each sensor—the interest is in long...term ambient noise recordings; study of specific source functions and their temporal behavior. The frequency range of the system is limited to

  18. Selective Self-Presentation and Social Comparison Through Photographs on Social Networking Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jesse; Vendemia, Megan A

    2016-10-01

    Through social media and camera phones, users enact selective self-presentation as they choose, edit, and post photographs of themselves (such as selfies) to social networking sites for an imagined audience. Photos typically focus on users' physical appearance, which may compound existing sociocultural pressures about body image. We identified users of social networking sites among a nationally representative U.S. sample (N = 1,686) and examined women's and men's photo-related behavior, including posting photos, editing photos, and feelings after engaging in upward and downward social comparison with others' photos on social networking sites. We identified some sex differences: women edited photos more frequently and felt worse after upward social comparison than men. Body image and body comparison tendency mediated these effects.

  19. Toward coordinated colloids: site-selective growth of titania on patchy silica particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Changdeuck; Kim, Hyunchul; Montero Moreno, Josep M; Yi, Gi-Ra; Shin, Hyunjung

    2015-03-23

    Rational synthesis of coordinated spherical colloids is reported by site-selective growth of secondary hemispherical patches on primary spherical particles with quasi-defined coordination numbers and positions. We clarify the importance of mass transport phenomena on the site-specific secondary nucleation/growth in nanoparticulate colloidal systems. By comparing ultrasonic and conventional agitation during patch growth, we found that enhanced mass transfer is the key to controlled, homogeneous transport of the molecular precursors in a solvent onto the nanoparticles. With chemically defined nucleation sites, the surfaces of spherical silica particles were modified for use as a new kind of colloid with patches at desired coordination positions. Our observations represent a significant breakthrough in colloidal chemistry and self-assembly.

  20. Siting-selection study for the Soyland Power Cooperative, Inc. , compressed-air energy-storage system (CAES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A method used for siting a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system using geotechnical and environmental criteria is explained using the siting of a proposed 220 MW water-compensated CAES plant in Illinois as an example. Information is included on the identification and comparative ranking of 28 geotechnically and environmental sites in Illinois, the examination of fatal flaws, e.g., mitigation, intensive studies, costly studies, permit denials, at 7 sites; and the selection of 3 sites for further geological surveying. (LCL)

  1. Model of the best-of-N nest-site selection process in honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Andreagiovanni; Marshall, James A. R.; Trianni, Vito; Bose, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    The ability of a honeybee swarm to select the best nest site plays a fundamental role in determining the future colony's fitness. To date, the nest-site selection process has mostly been modeled and theoretically analyzed for the case of binary decisions. However, when the number of alternative nests is larger than two, the decision-process dynamics qualitatively change. In this work, we extend previous analyses of a value-sensitive decision-making mechanism to a decision process among N nests. First, we present the decision-making dynamics in the symmetric case of N equal-quality nests. Then, we generalize our findings to a best-of-N decision scenario with one superior nest and N -1 inferior nests, previously studied empirically in bees and ants. Whereas previous binary models highlighted the crucial role of inhibitory stop-signaling, the key parameter in our new analysis is the relative time invested by swarm members in individual discovery and in signaling behaviors. Our new analysis reveals conflicting pressures on this ratio in symmetric and best-of-N decisions, which could be solved through a time-dependent signaling strategy. Additionally, our analysis suggests how ecological factors determining the density of suitable nest sites may have led to selective pressures for an optimal stable signaling ratio.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis and positive-selection site detecting of vascular endothelial growth factor family in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenwu; Tang, Yanyan; Qi, Bin; Lu, Chuansen; Qin, Chao; Wei, Yunfei; Yi, Jiachao; Chen, Mingwu

    2014-02-10

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), known to play an important role in vascular homeostasis, vascular integrity and angiogenesis, is little known about the evolutionary relationship of its five members especially the role of gene duplication and natural selection in the evolution of the VEGF family. In this study, seventy-five full-length cDNA sequences from 33 vertebrate species were extracted from the NCBI's GenBank, UniProt protein database and the Ensembl database. By phylogenetic analyses, we investigated the origin, conservation, and evolution of the VEGFs. Five VEGF family members in vertebrates might be formed by gene duplication. The inferred evolutionary transitions that separate members which belong to different gene clusters correlated with changes in functional properties. Selection analysis and protein structure analysis were combined to explain the relationship of the site-specific evolution in the vertebrate VEGF family. Eleven positive selection sites, one transmembrane region and the active sites were detected in this process. © 2013.

  3. Transplantation assessment of degraded Posidonia oceanica habitats: site selection and long-term monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. PIRROTTA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A model developed for Zostera marina was adapted and used to select suitable areas for Posidonia oceanica transplantation in the Gulf of Palermo, where recent rehabilitation programmes have reduced human pressure. This model consists of three steps: (1 habitat selection, by calculation of the Preliminary Transplant Suitability Index (PTSI; (2 field assessments and test-transplanting, to evaluate the site suitability and to estimate the effects of tearing on transplant units (about 50%; (3 identification of suitable restoration sites, by calculation of the Transplant Suitability Index (TSI. A new parameter was added to the literature model: the number of grids detached, which is linked to factors (hydrodynamic regime, anchoring, fishing that have a potentially great effect on the final outcome of the transplant. Only one site (TSI = 16 in the Gulf of Palermo was indicated as potentially suitable for restoration with P. oceanica. In this site, a transplant of 40 m2 was implemented. From 2008 to 2014, transplant effectiveness was evaluated in terms of establishment, detachment and mortality of cuttings and shoot density. The long-term monitoring (6 years allowed us to detect changes in the structural conditions of the transplanted meadow and to identify the possible turning point in P. oceanica recovery (2 years after transplanting. Moreover, 6 years after transplantation the P. oceanica meadow has exceeded the transplant shoot density of about 16%, with a mean and a maximum value of 11.6 and 17 shoots per cutting, respectively.

  4. Selection of river crossing location and sleeping site by proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) in Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ikki; Tuuga, Augustine; Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Higashi, Seigo

    2008-11-01

    From May 2005-2006, selections of river crossing locations and sleeping sites used by a one-male group (BE-Group) of proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) were investigated along the Menanggul River, tributary of the Kinabatangan River, Sabah, Malaysia. The frequency of river crossings for focal monkeys in the BE-Group was significantly higher at locations with narrow branch-to-bank distances. Branch-to-bank distances were defined as the distances between the longest tree branches extending over the river and the bank of river on each side. This was measured in areas crossed by the monkeys. The focal monkeys used locations with a higher probability of successful river crossings that did not require jumping into the water and swimming across than those that did. The frequency of sleeping site usage by the BE-Group was positively correlated with the frequency of using river crossing locations by the focal monkeys. Previous reports on predation of proboscis monkeys indicate that clouded leopards (Neofelis diardi) and crocodilians (Tomistoma schlegeli and Crocodylus porosus) may be the major terrestrial and aquatic predators of these monkeys. The selection of river crossing locations by proboscis monkeys may be influenced both by the threat of these predators and the location of suitable and protected sleeping sites. Finally, sleeping sites locations that offer arboreal escape routes may protect proboscis monkeys from leopard attack. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Multi-Modal Active Perception for Autonomously Selecting Landing Sites on Icy Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, A.; Furlong, P. M.; Wong, U.; Fong, T.; Sukkarieh, S.

    2017-01-01

    Selecting suitable landing sites is fundamental to achieving many mission objectives in planetary robotic lander missions. However, due to sensing limitations, landing sites which are both safe and scientifically valuable often cannot be determined reliably from orbit, particularly, in icy moon missions where orbital sensing data is noisy and incomplete. This paper presents an active perception approach to Entry Descent and Landing (EDL) which enables the lander to autonomously plan informative descent trajectories, acquire high quality sensing data during descent and exploit this additional information to select higher utility landing sites. Our approach consists of two components: probabilistic modeling of landing site features and approximate trajectory planning using a sampling based planner. The proposed framework allows the lander to plan long horizons paths and remain robust to noisy data. Results in simulated environments show large performance improvements over alternative approaches and show promise that our approach has strong potential to improve science return of not only icy moon missions but EDL systems in general.

  6. Enhanced Fuzzy-OWA model for municipal solid waste landfill site selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Siti Zubaidah; Ahamad, Mohd Sanusi S.; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Abujayyab, Sohaib K. M.

    2017-10-01

    In Malaysia, the municipal solid waste landfill site is an essential facility that needs to be evaluated as its demand is infrequently getting higher. The increment of waste generation forces the government to cater the appropriate site for waste disposal. However, the selection process for new landfill sites is a difficult task with regard to land scarcity and time consumption. In addition, the complication will proliferate when there are various criteria to be considered. Therefore, this paper intends to show the significance of the fuzzy logic-ordered weighted average (Fuzzy-OWA) model for the landfill site suitability analysis. The model was developed to generalize the multi-criteria combination that was extended to the GIS applications as part of the decision support module. OWA has the capability to implement different combination operators through the selection of appropriate order weight that is possible in changing the form of aggregation such as minimum, intermediate and maximum types of combination. OWA give six forms of aggregation results that have their specific significance that indirectly evaluates the environmental, physical and socio-economic (EPSE) criteria respectively. Nevertheless, one of the aggregated results has shown similarity with the weighted linear combination (WLC) method.

  7. A review of the Texas, USA San Jacinto Superfund site and the deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the San Jacinto River and Houston Ship Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Rupa; Aggarwal, Juhi; Iken, Brian

    2016-12-01

    The San Jacinto River (SJR) waste pits that lie just under the 1-10 overpass in eastern Harris County east of Houston, Texas, USA, were created in the 1960s as dumping grounds for paper mill waste. The deposition of this waste led to accumulation of highly toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCCDDs/PCDFs) over the course of several decades. After abandonment, the waste material eventually became submerged under the waters of the SJR, resulting in widespread environmental contamination that currently constitutes a significant health concern for eastern Harris County communities. The original waste pits were rediscovered in 2005, and the San Jacinto waste site is now a designated EPA superfund site. The objective of this review then is to discuss the history and current state of containment around the San Jacinto waste pits and analyze spatial and temporal trends in the PCDD/PCDF deposition through the SJR system from the data available. We will discuss the current exposure and health risks represented by the Superfund site and the SJR system itself, as well as the discovery of liver, kidney, brain (glioma), and retinoblastoma cancer clusters in eastern Harris County across multiple census tracts that border the Superfund site. We will also cover the two primary management options, containment versus removal of the waste from the Superfund and provide recommendations for increased monitoring of existing concentrations of polychlorinated waste in the SJR and its nearby associated communities.

  8. Sampling methodology and site selection in the National Eye Health Survey: an Australian population-based prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Joshua; Keel, Stuart; Dunn, Ross; van Wijngaarden, Peter; Taylor, Hugh R; Dirani, Mohamed

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the sampling methodology of the National Eye Health Survey that aimed to determine the prevalence of vision impairment and blindness in Australia. The National Eye Health Survey is a cross-sectional population-based survey. Indigenous Australians aged 40 years and older and non-Indigenous Australians aged 50 years and older residing in all levels of geographic remoteness in Australia. Using multistage, random-cluster sampling, 30 geographic areas were selected to provide samples of 3000 non-Indigenous Australians and 1400 Indigenous Australians. Sampling involved (i) selecting Statistical Area- Level 2 sites, stratified by remoteness; (ii) selecting Statistical Area- Level 1 sites within Statistical Area- Level 2 sites to provide targeted samples; and (iii) grouping of contiguous Statistical Area- Level 1 sites or replacing Statistical Area- Level 1 sites to provide sufficient samples. The main outcome measures involved Sites sites selected and participants sampled in the survey. Thirty sites were generated, including 12 Major City sites, 6 Inner Regional sites, 6 Outer Regional sites, 4 Remote sites and 2 Very Remote sites. Three thousand ninety-eight non-Indigenous participants and 1738 Indigenous participants were recruited. Selection of Statistical Area- Level 1 site overestimated the number of eligible residents in all sites. About 20% (6/30) of Statistical Area- Level 1 sites were situated in non-residential bushland, and 26.67% (8/30) of Statistical Area- Level 1 populations had low eligibility or accessibility, requiring replacement. Representative samples of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians were selected, recruited and tested, providing the first national data on the prevalence of vision impairment and blindness in Australia. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  9. A multi-site study on medical school selection, performance, motivation and engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, A; Croiset, G; Schripsema, N R; Cohen-Schotanus, J; Spaai, G W G; Hulsman, R L; Kusurkar, R A

    2017-05-01

    Medical schools seek ways to improve their admissions strategies, since the available methods prove to be suboptimal for selecting the best and most motivated students. In this multi-site cross-sectional questionnaire study, we examined the value of (different) selection procedures compared to a weighted lottery procedure, which includes direct admission based on top pre-university grade point averages (≥8 out of 10; top-pu-GPA). We also considered whether students had participated in selection, prior to being admitted through weighted lottery. Year-1 (pre-clinical) and Year-4 (clinical) students completed standard validated questionnaires measuring quality of motivation (Academic Self-regulation Questionnaire), strength of motivation (Strength of Motivation for Medical School-Revised) and engagement (Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-Student). Performance data comprised GPA and course credits in Year-1 and clerkship performance in Year-4. Regression analyses were performed. The response rate was 35% (387 Year-1 and 273 Year-4 students). Top-pu-GPA students outperformed selected students. Selected Year-1 students reported higher strength of motivation than top-pu-GPA students. Selected students did not outperform or show better quality of motivation and engagement than lottery-admitted students. Participation in selection was associated with higher engagement and better clerkship performance in Year-4. GPA, course credits and strength of motivation in Year-1 differed between students admitted through different selection procedures. Top-pu-GPA students perform best in the medical study. The few and small differences found raise questions about the added value of an extensive selection procedure compared to a weighted lottery procedure. Findings have to be interpreted with caution because of a low response rate and small group sizes.

  10. Communication: Site-selective bond excision of adenine upon electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, T; Mendes, M; Ferreira da Silva, F; Eden, S; García, G; Limão-Vieira, P

    2018-01-14

    This work demonstrates that selective excision of hydrogen atoms at a particular site of the DNA base adenine can be achieved in collisions with electronegative atoms by controlling the impact energy. The result is based on analysing the time-of-flight mass spectra yields of potassium collisions with a series of labeled adenine derivatives. The production of dehydrogenated parent anions is consistent with neutral H loss either from selective breaking of C-H or N-H bonds. These unprecedented results open up a new methodology in charge transfer collisions that can initiate selective reactivity as a key process in chemical reactions that are dominant in different areas of science and technology.

  11. Communication: Site-selective bond excision of adenine upon electron transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, T.; Mendes, M.; Ferreira da Silva, F.; Eden, S.; García, G.; Limão-Vieira, P.

    2018-01-01

    This work demonstrates that selective excision of hydrogen atoms at a particular site of the DNA base adenine can be achieved in collisions with electronegative atoms by controlling the impact energy. The result is based on analysing the time-of-flight mass spectra yields of potassium collisions with a series of labeled adenine derivatives. The production of dehydrogenated parent anions is consistent with neutral H loss either from selective breaking of C-H or N-H bonds. These unprecedented results open up a new methodology in charge transfer collisions that can initiate selective reactivity as a key process in chemical reactions that are dominant in different areas of science and technology.

  12. HIV-1 protease cleavage site prediction based on two-stage feature selection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Bing; Yuan, Xiao-Cheng; Roeper, Preston; Su, Qiang; Peng, Chun-Rong; Yin, Jing-Yuan; Ding, Juan; Li, HaiPeng; Lu, Wen-Cong

    2013-03-01

    Knowledge of the mechanism of HIV protease cleavage specificity is critical to the design of specific and effective HIV inhibitors. Searching for an accurate, robust, and rapid method to correctly predict the cleavage sites in proteins is crucial when searching for possible HIV inhibitors. In this article, HIV-1 protease specificity was studied using the correlation-based feature subset (CfsSubset) selection method combined with Genetic Algorithms method. Thirty important biochemical features were found based on a jackknife test from the original data set containing 4,248 features. By using the AdaBoost method with the thirty selected features the prediction model yields an accuracy of 96.7% for the jackknife test and 92.1% for an independent set test, with increased accuracy over the original dataset by 6.7% and 77.4%, respectively. Our feature selection scheme could be a useful technique for finding effective competitive inhibitors of HIV protease.

  13. Site Selection and Geological Research Connected with High Level Waste Disposal Programme in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas, J.

    2003-02-25

    Attempts to solve the problem of high-level waste disposal including the spent fuel from nuclear power plants have been made in the Czech Republic for over the 10 years. Already in 1991 the Ministry of Environment entitled The Czech Geological Survey to deal with the siting of the locality for HLW disposal and the project No. 3308 ''The geological research of the safe disposal of high level waste'' had started. Within this project a sub-project ''A selection of perspective HLW disposal sites in the Bohemian Massif'' has been elaborated and 27 prospective areas were identified in the Czech Republic. This selection has been later narrowed to 8 areas which are recently studied in more detail. As a parallel research activity with siting a granitic body Melechov Massif in Central Moldanubian Pluton has been chosen as a test site and the 1st stage of research i.e. evaluation and study of its geological, hydrogeological, geophysical, tectonic and structural properties has been already completed. The Melechov Massif was selected as a test site after the recommendation of WATRP (Waste Management Assessment and Technical Review Programme) mission of IAEA (1993) because it represents an area analogous with the host geological environment for the future HLW and spent fuel disposal in the Czech Republic, i.e. variscan granitoids. It is necessary to say that this site would not be in a locality where the deep repository will be built, although it is a site suitable for oriented research for the sampling and collection of descriptive data using up to date and advanced scientific methods. The Czech Republic HLW and spent fuel disposal programme is now based on The Concept of Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel Management (''Concept'' hereinafter) which has been prepared in compliance with energy policy approved by Government Decree No. 50 of 12th January 2000 and approved by the Government in May 2002. Preparation of

  14. Geological criteria for site selection of an LILW radioactive waste repository in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurelio, Mario; Taguibao, Kristine Joy [National Institute of Geological Sciences, University of the Philippines, Quezon City (Philippines); Vargas, Edmundo; Palattao, Maria Visitacion; Reyes, Rolando; Nohay, Carl; Singayan, Alfonso [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Department of Science and Technology, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2013-07-01

    In the selection of sites for disposal facilities involving low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommendations require that 'the region in which the site is located shall be such that significant tectonic and surface processes are not expected to occur with an intensity that would compromise the required isolation capability of the repository'. Evaluating the appropriateness of a site therefore requires a deep understanding of the geological and tectonic setting of the area. The Philippines sits in a tectonically active region frequented by earthquakes and volcanic activity. Its highly variable morphology coupled with its location along the typhoon corridor in the west Pacific region subjects the country to surface processes often manifested in the form of landslides. The Philippine LILW near surface repository project site is located on the north eastern sector of the Island of Luzon in northern Philippines. This island is surrounded by active subduction trenches; to the east by the East Luzon Trough and to the west by the Manila Trench. The island is also traversed by several branches of the Philippine Fault System. The Philippine LILW repository project is located more than 100 km away from any of these major active fault systems. In the near field, the project site is located less than 10 km from a minor fault (Dummon River Fault) and more than 40 km away from a volcanic edifice (Mt. Caguas). This paper presents an analysis of the potential hazards that these active tectonic features may pose to the project site. The assessment of such geologic hazards is imperative in the characterization of the site and a crucial input in the design and safety assessment of the repository. (authors)

  15. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  16. Heading for the hills: risk avoidance drives den site selection in African wild dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig R Jackson

    Full Text Available Compared to their main competitors, African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus have inferior competitive abilities and interspecific competition is a serious fitness-limiting factor. Lions (Panthera leo are the dominant large carnivore in African savannah ecosystems and wild dogs avoid them both spatially and temporally. Wild dog young are particularly vulnerable and suffer high rates of mortality from lions. Since lions do not utilize all parts of the landscape with an equal intensity, spatial variation in lion densities can be exploited by wild dogs both during their general ranging behaviour, but more specifically when they are confined to a den with vulnerable young. Since patches of rugged terrain are associated with lower lion densities, we hypothesized that these comparatively safe habitats should be selected by wild dogs for denning. We investigated the relationship between the distribution of 100 wild dog den sites and the occurrence of rugged terrain in four wild dog populations located in Tanzania, Zimbabwe and South Africa. A terrain ruggedness index was derived from a 90 m digital elevation model and used to map terrain ruggedness at each site. We compared characteristics of actual and potential (random den sites to determine how wild dogs select den sites. The distributions of wild dog dens were strongly associated with rugged terrain and wild dogs actively selected terrain that was more rugged than that available on average. The likelihood of encountering lions is reduced in these habitats, minimizing the risk to both adults and pups. Our findings have important implications for the conservation management of the species, especially when assessing habitat suitability for potential reintroductions. The simple technique used to assess terrain ruggedness may be useful to investigate habitat suitability, and even predict highly suitable denning areas, across large landscapes.

  17. Heading for the hills: risk avoidance drives den site selection in African wild dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Craig R; Power, R John; Groom, Rosemary J; Masenga, Emmanuel H; Mjingo, Ernest E; Fyumagwa, Robert D; Røskaft, Eivin; Davies-Mostert, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    Compared to their main competitors, African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) have inferior competitive abilities and interspecific competition is a serious fitness-limiting factor. Lions (Panthera leo) are the dominant large carnivore in African savannah ecosystems and wild dogs avoid them both spatially and temporally. Wild dog young are particularly vulnerable and suffer high rates of mortality from lions. Since lions do not utilize all parts of the landscape with an equal intensity, spatial variation in lion densities can be exploited by wild dogs both during their general ranging behaviour, but more specifically when they are confined to a den with vulnerable young. Since patches of rugged terrain are associated with lower lion densities, we hypothesized that these comparatively safe habitats should be selected by wild dogs for denning. We investigated the relationship between the distribution of 100 wild dog den sites and the occurrence of rugged terrain in four wild dog populations located in Tanzania, Zimbabwe and South Africa. A terrain ruggedness index was derived from a 90 m digital elevation model and used to map terrain ruggedness at each site. We compared characteristics of actual and potential (random) den sites to determine how wild dogs select den sites. The distributions of wild dog dens were strongly associated with rugged terrain and wild dogs actively selected terrain that was more rugged than that available on average. The likelihood of encountering lions is reduced in these habitats, minimizing the risk to both adults and pups. Our findings have important implications for the conservation management of the species, especially when assessing habitat suitability for potential reintroductions. The simple technique used to assess terrain ruggedness may be useful to investigate habitat suitability, and even predict highly suitable denning areas, across large landscapes.

  18. A spatial model of waterfowl nest site selection in grassland nesting cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Duane Bruce

    Ducks Unlimited's (DU) mission statement is focused on providing for the annual lifecycle needs of migratory waterfowl. The largest impacts to the success and numbers of continental populations are determined by their activities on the breeding grounds. To model and therefore manage habitats and landscapes for ducks (Anas and Aythya spp.) it is necessary to understand several characteristics of their behavior. This research builds a model of nest site selection from nest probability based on remotely sensed data, presence data and minimum threshold theory. The methods used are applicable to other sensor platforms as well as other target species or phenomenon. Using data compression techniques, logistic regression, and spatial statistical functions (Ripley's k-function, a global k-function, and Multiple Response Permutation Procedure) we tested the observed point patterns and developed a point process model to predict nesting patterns. The application of this type of fine resolution database, validated by empirical data, will be more powerful than either classified remote sensing data or field level nest demographic data alone. In the largest of the five study sites, which was also the site with the greatest number of observations, the pattern of nests were significantly different from Poisson. The model developed to fit these data was tested using the other sites and the observed data on the other four sites were not shown to be significantly different from the model. The tests for spatial association showed some evidence negative association between Blue-winged Teal and Gadwall as well as between successful and unsuccessful nest. There is some evidence that a process of natural selection may exist and the future studies should be designed with this in mind. These data will be used as a baseline for future habitat manipulation and controlled experiments on the DU Goebel Ranch complex. The results of this and future studies will be used as the basis for DU strategic

  19. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Vol. 18. Part 2. Indexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This bibliography contains 3638 citations with abstracts of documents relevant to environmental restoration, nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. This report is the eighteenth in a series of bibliographies prepared annually for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - have been included in Part 1 of the report. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, financial, and regulatory information that pertains to DOE environmental restoration programs. The citations are separated by topic into 16 sections, including (1) DOE Environmental Restoration Program; (2) DOE D&D Program; (3) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (4) DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs; (5) NORM-Contaminated Site Restoration; (6) DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) DOE Site-Wide Remedial Actions; (9) DOE Onsite Remedial Action Projects; (10) Contaminated Site Remedial Actions; (11) DOE Underground Storage Tank Remediation; (12) DOE Technology Development, Demonstration, and Evaluations; (13) Soil Remediation; (14) Groundwater Remediation; (15) Environmental Measurements, Analysis, and Decision-Making; and (16) Environmental Management Issues. Within the 16 sections, the citations are sorted by geographic location. If a geographic location is not specified, the citations are sorted according to the document title. In Part 2 of the report, indexes are provided for author, author affiliation, selected title phrase, selected title word, publication description, geographic location, and keyword.

  20. Role of site selection for left ventriculoplasty to treat idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suma, Hisayoshi; Isomura, Tadashi; Horii, Taiko; Buckberg, Gerald

    2004-10-01

    Ventriculoplasty was introduced to treat patients with chronic progressive heart failure from end-stage non ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, which was presumed to be a homogeneous disease. However ventriculoplasty is not commonly used today, because variable results follow using only lateral ventriculoplasty as the treatment tool. This report traces our evolution in surgical management, defines that the homogeneous disease concept is not correct, and centers upon the importance of site selection, appropriate timing, and methods of patient selection. Left ventriculoplasty by either partial left ventriculoplasty (PLV) or septal anterior ventricular exclusion (SAVE or Pacopexy) was performed in 96 high risk (44% NYHA Class III, and 56% Class IV) patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy over the past 8 years. Overall hospital mortality was 8% in elective operations and 57% in emergency operations. Hemodynamic and functional improvement was evident from ejection fraction rising from 20% to 31%, and improved NYHA Class 3.6 to 1.8. The global series showed 1, 5 and 7 year survival rate was 66.4, 44.7 and 41.3%, respectively. However surgical results improved as experience allowed development of a strategy for timing, and defining proper exclusion site selection. Non homogeneous ventricular disease was identified, and 69% 4 year survival resulted from our intraoperative definition of the most diseased segment (septum or lateral wall), and then exclusion of this site. This evolving experience indicates that left ventriculoplasty is effective treatment for patients with end-stage cardiomyopathy, provided proper patient selection, appropriate timing of the operation, and choice of procedure are used as keys to a successful outcome.

  1. U.S. Department of Energy's site screening, site selection, and initial characterization for storage of CO2 in deep geological formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodosta, T.D.; Litynski, J.T.; Plasynski, S.I.; Hickman, S.; Frailey, S.; Myer, L.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the lead Federal agency for the development and deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. As part of its mission to facilitate technology transfer and develop guidelines from lessons learned, DOE is developing a series of best practice manuals (BPMs) for carbon capture and storage (CCS). The "Site Screening, Site Selection, and Initial Characterization for Storage of CO2 in Deep Geological Formations" BPM is a compilation of best practices and includes flowchart diagrams illustrating the general decision making process for Site Screening, Site Selection, and Initial Characterization. The BPM integrates the knowledge gained from various programmatic efforts, with particular emphasis on the Characterization Phase through pilot-scale CO2 injection testing of the Validation Phase of the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) Initiative. Key geologic and surface elements that suitable candidate storage sites should possess are identified, along with example Site Screening, Site Selection, and Initial Characterization protocols for large-scale geologic storage projects located across diverse geologic and regional settings. This manual has been written as a working document, establishing a framework and methodology for proper site selection for CO2 geologic storage. This will be useful for future CO2 emitters, transporters, and storage providers. It will also be of use in informing local, regional, state, and national governmental agencies of best practices in proper sequestration site selection. Furthermore, it will educate the inquisitive general public on options and processes for geologic CO2 storage. In addition to providing best practices, the manual presents a geologic storage resource and capacity classification system. The system provides a "standard" to communicate storage and capacity estimates, uncertainty and project development risk, data guidelines and analyses for adequate site characterization, and

  2. Site selection process for a HLW geological repository in France. A convergence approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solente, N.; Ouzounian, G.; Miguez, R.; Tison, J-L. [ANDRA Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2011-07-01

    On December 1991, the French National Assembly passed the French Waste Management Research Act, authorizing and initiating a 15 year research program along three options for HLW long term solution: separation and/or transmutation, long-term storage, and geologic disposal. On June 2006, the 'Planning Act on the sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste' sets a new framework and new aims to the above mentioned options. This paper deals only with the geologic disposal research program. In a step by step approach, this program has been broken down into three phases, each having intermediate objectives: site selection for an Underground research Laboratory (URL), disposal feasibility demonstration, reversible disposal design. The first step of the research program aimed at URL site selection. From 1994 to 1996, Andra carried out geological characterization surveys in four French districts, leading to the Request for Licensing and Operation of laboratory facilities on three sites. During this phase, boreholes, 2D seismic campaigns and outcrops geologic studies were the main sources of data. The result was the selection of Bure area, the most suitable site for the implementation of an underground laboratory. Main results on Bure URL will be presented in the paper. In the second phase the research program targeted the safety and technical feasibility of a reversible disposal site, located in Meuse or Haute Marne districts, as selected by the government in 1998. Andra conducted geologic survey during the URL shaft sinking and experiments in drifts at depths of 445 and 490 m. This program allowed consolidating the knowledge already acquired: geological environment, stability of the rock and the regional geology, and containment properties. The 2005 Progress Report presents the results of this phase. The main conclusion is that a potential disposal facility may be safely constructed over a zone with geological characteristics similar to those

  3. Characterization of powellite-based solid solutions by site-selective time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Moritz; Heck, Stephanie; Bosbach, Dirk; Ganschow, Steffen; Walther, Clemens; Stumpf, Thorsten

    2013-06-21

    We present a comprehensive study of the solid solution system Ca2(MoO4)2-NaGd(MoO4)2 on the molecular scale, by means of site-selective time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). Eu(3+) is used as a trace fluorescent probe, homogeneously substituting for Gd(3+) in the solid solution crystal structure. Site-selective TRLFS of a series of polycrystalline samples covering the whole composition range of the solid solution series from 10% substitution of Ca(2+) to the NaGd end-member reveals it to be homogeneous throughout the whole range. The trivalent ions are incorporated into the powellite structure in only one coordination environment, which exhibits a very strong ligand-metal interaction. Polarization-dependent measurements of a single crystal of NaGd(Eu)(MoO4)2 identify the coordination geometry to be of C2v point symmetry. The S4 symmetry of the Ca site within the powellite lattice can be transformed into C2v assuming minor motion in the first coordination sphere.

  4. Coastal flooding as a parameter in multi-criteria analysis for industrial site selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina, C.; Memos, C.; Diakoulaki, D.

    2014-12-01

    Natural hazards can trigger major industrial accidents, which apart from affecting industrial installations may cause a series of accidents with serious impacts on human health and the environment far beyond the site boundary. Such accidents, also called Na-Tech (natural - technical) accidents, deserve particular attention since they can cause release of hazardous substances possibly resulting in severe environmental pollution, explosions and/or fires. There are different kinds of natural events or, in general terms, of natural causes of industrial accidents, such as landslides, hurricanes, high winds, tsunamis, lightning, cold/hot temperature, floods, heavy rains etc that have caused accidents. The scope of this paper is to examine the coastal flooding as a parameter in causing an industrial accident, such as the nuclear disaster in Fukushima, Japan, and the critical role of this parameter in industrial site selection. Land use planning is a complex procedure that requires multi-criteria decision analysis involving economic, environmental and social parameters. In this context the parameter of a natural hazard occurrence, such as coastal flooding, for industrial site selection should be set by the decision makers. In this paper it is evaluated the influence that has in the outcome of a multi-criteria decision analysis for industrial spatial planning the parameter of an accident risk triggered by coastal flooding. The latter is analyzed in the context of both sea-and-inland induced flooding.

  5. Breeding site selection by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in relation to large wood additions and factors that influence reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steven M.; Dunham, Jason B.; McEnroe, Jeffery R.; Lightcap, Scott W.

    2014-01-01

    The fitness of female Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) with respect to breeding behavior can be partitioned into at least four fitness components: survival to reproduction, competition for breeding sites, success of egg incubation, and suitability of the local environment near breeding sites for early rearing of juveniles. We evaluated the relative influences of habitat features linked to these fitness components with respect to selection of breeding sites by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). We also evaluated associations between breeding site selection and additions of large wood, as the latter were introduced into the study system as a means of restoring habitat conditions to benefit coho salmon. We used a model selection approach to organize specific habitat features into groupings reflecting fitness components and influences of large wood. Results of this work suggest that female coho salmon likely select breeding sites based on a wide range of habitat features linked to all four hypothesized fitness components. More specifically, model parameter estimates indicated that breeding site selection was most strongly influenced by proximity to pool-tail crests and deeper water (mean and maximum depths). Linkages between large wood and breeding site selection were less clear. Overall, our findings suggest that breeding site selection by coho salmon is influenced by a suite of fitness components in addition to the egg incubation environment, which has been the emphasis of much work in the past.

  6. NASA Parts Selection List (NPSL) WWW Site http://nepp.nasa.gov/npsl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusse, Jay

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Parts Selection List (NPSL) is an on-line resource for electronic parts selection tailored for use by spaceflight projects. The NPSL provides a list of commonly used electronic parts that have a history of satisfactory use in spaceflight applications. The objective of this www site is to provide NASA projects, contractors, university experimenters, et al with an easy to use resource that provides a baseline of electronic parts from which designers are encouraged to select. The NPSL is an ongoing resource produced by Code 562 in support of the NASA HQ funded NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. The NPSL is produced as an electronic format deliverable made available via the referenced www site administered by Code 562. The NPSL does not provide information pertaining to patented or proprietary information. All of the information contained in the NPSL is available through various other public domain resources such as US Military procurement specifications for electronic parts, NASA GSFC's Preferred Parts List (PPL-21), and NASA's Standard Parts List (MIL-STD975).

  7. OPEN SPATIAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM: CASE FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Perković

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the scientific and professional circles frequently discussed about radioactive waste and site selection for radioactive waste disposal. This issue will be further updated with accession of Republic of Croatia to the European Union and the only issue is politicized view of the fact that nuclear power plant Krško Croatia shares with neighbouring Republic of Slovenia. All the necessary studies have been made and these are attended by experts from different areas. Also, all Croatian residents should be familiar with this subject matter in a manner accessible to the general public through all available media. There are some questions: What are the institutions have taken on the issue of informing the public and can it be enough? When selecting a suitable site, with many parameters, the basic element is suitable geological formation, although the landfill must be socially acceptable. Well established methods used in the selection of eligible areas are multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA, geographic information system (GIS and combined GIS-MCDA method. The application of these methods is of great help in making decisions about the location of disposal of radioactive waste. Presentation of results, designed in the form of an open spatial decision support system, could help in education and informing the general public (the paper is published in Croatian.

  8. Despotism and risk of infanticide influence grizzly bear den-site selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan S Libal

    Full Text Available Given documented social dominance and intraspecific predation in bear populations, the ideal despotic distribution model and sex hypothesis of sexual segregation predict adult female grizzly bears (Ursus arctos will avoid areas occupied by adult males to reduce risk of infanticide. Under ideal despotic distribution, juveniles should similarly avoid adult males to reduce predation risk. Den-site selection and use is an important component of grizzly bear ecology and may be influenced by multiple factors, including risk from conspecifics. To test the role of predation risk and the sex hypothesis of sexual segregation, we compared adult female (n = 142, adult male (n = 36, and juvenile (n = 35 den locations in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska, USA. We measured elevation, aspect, slope, and dominant land cover for each den site, and used maximum entropy modeling to determine which variables best predicted den sites. We identified the global model as the best-fitting model for adult female (area under curve (AUC = 0.926 and elevation as the best predictive variable for adult male (AUC = 0.880 den sites. The model containing land cover and elevation best-predicted juvenile (AUC = 0.841 den sites. Adult females spatially segregated from adult males, with dens characterized by higher elevations (mean= 1,412 m, SE = 52 and steeper slopes (mean = 21.9°, SE = 1.1 than adult male (elevation: mean = 1,209 m, SE = 76; slope: mean = 15.6°, SE = 1.9 den sites. Juveniles used a broad range of landscape attributes but did not avoid adult male denning areas. Observed spatial segregation by adult females supports the sex hypothesis of sexual segregation and we suggest is a mechanism to reduce risk of infanticide. Den site selection of adult males is likely related to distribution of food resources during spring.

  9. Despotism and risk of infanticide influence grizzly bear den-site selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libal, Nathan S; Belant, Jerrold L; Leopold, Bruce D; Wang, Guiming; Owen, Patricia A

    2011-01-01

    Given documented social dominance and intraspecific predation in bear populations, the ideal despotic distribution model and sex hypothesis of sexual segregation predict adult female grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) will avoid areas occupied by adult males to reduce risk of infanticide. Under ideal despotic distribution, juveniles should similarly avoid adult males to reduce predation risk. Den-site selection and use is an important component of grizzly bear ecology and may be influenced by multiple factors, including risk from conspecifics. To test the role of predation risk and the sex hypothesis of sexual segregation, we compared adult female (n = 142), adult male (n = 36), and juvenile (n = 35) den locations in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska, USA. We measured elevation, aspect, slope, and dominant land cover for each den site, and used maximum entropy modeling to determine which variables best predicted den sites. We identified the global model as the best-fitting model for adult female (area under curve (AUC) = 0.926) and elevation as the best predictive variable for adult male (AUC = 0.880) den sites. The model containing land cover and elevation best-predicted juvenile (AUC = 0.841) den sites. Adult females spatially segregated from adult males, with dens characterized by higher elevations (mean= 1,412 m, SE = 52) and steeper slopes (mean = 21.9°, SE = 1.1) than adult male (elevation: mean = 1,209 m, SE = 76; slope: mean = 15.6°, SE = 1.9) den sites. Juveniles used a broad range of landscape attributes but did not avoid adult male denning areas. Observed spatial segregation by adult females supports the sex hypothesis of sexual segregation and we suggest is a mechanism to reduce risk of infanticide. Den site selection of adult males is likely related to distribution of food resources during spring.

  10. Anion-Regulated Selective Generation of Cobalt Sites in Carbon: Toward Superior Bifunctional Electrocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Gang [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Ding-xi Road Shanghai 200050 P. R. China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 P. R. China; Yang, Ce [Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 Cass Avenue Lemont IL 60439 USA; Zhao, Wanpeng [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Ding-xi Road Shanghai 200050 P. R. China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 P. R. China; Li, Qianru [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Ding-xi Road Shanghai 200050 P. R. China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 P. R. China; Wang, Ning [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Ding-xi Road Shanghai 200050 P. R. China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 P. R. China; Li, Tao [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 Cass Avenue Lemont IL 60439 USA; Zhou, Hua [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 Cass Avenue Lemont IL 60439 USA; Chen, Hangrong [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Ding-xi Road Shanghai 200050 P. R. China; Shi, Jianlin [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Ding-xi Road Shanghai 200050 P. R. China

    2017-11-06

    The introduction of active transition metal sites (TMSs) in carbon enables the synthesis of noble-metal-free electrocatalysts for clean energy conversion applications, however, there are often multiple existing forms of TMSs, which are of different natures and catalytic models. Regulating the evolution of distinctive TMSs is highly desirable but remains challenging to date. Anions, as essential elements involved in the synthesis, have been totally neglected previously in the construction of TMSs. Herein, the effects of anions on the creation of different types of TMSs is investigated for the first time. It is found that the active cobalt-nitrogen sites tend to be selectively constructed on the surface of N-doped carbon by using chloride, while metallic cobalt nanoparticles encased in protective graphite layers are the dominant forms of cobalt species with nitrate ions. The obtained catalysts demonstrate cobalt-sites-dependent activity for ORR and HER in acidic media. And the remarkably enhanced catalytic activities approaching that of benchmark Pt/C in acidic medium has been obtained on the catalyst dominated with cobalt-nitrogen sites, confirmed by the advanced spectroscopic . Our finding demonstrates a general paradigm of anion-regulated evolution of distinctive TMSs, providing a new pathway for enhancing performances of various targeted reactions related with TMSs.

  11. An Integrated Approach to Mitigation Wetland Site Selection: A Case Study in Gwacheon, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junga Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated approach to mitigation wetland site selection using functional landscape connectivity and landscape structure. This approach enables landscape designers to evaluate the relative priorities of mitigation wetland areas based on functional landscape connectivity and wildlife mobility, as well as landscape structure, composition, and configuration. The least-cost path method is used to evaluate candidate sites for mitigation wetlands with regard to wildlife movement. A set of assessments for landscape indices using FRAGSTATS was applied to identify suitable mitigation wetland areas on the basis of landscape connectivity, composition, and configuration. The study was conducted in Gwacheon, Korea, where there are plans for regional development that will change the landscape. In the first step, a group of 14 candidate sites is identified via analysis of functional landscape connectivity using the least-cost path method. In the second step, candidate mitigation wetland areas are ranked according to landscape connectivity and composition. The five mitigation wetland areas that were found to be suitable were analyzed based on landscape configuration at the class level. This study demonstrates that functional landscape connectivity and landscape structure are important aspects to consider when identifying suitable sites for mitigation wetland planning and restoration.

  12. Wetland survey of selected areas in the K-24 Site Area of responsibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel, B.A.; Awl, D.J. [JAYCOR, Environmental Division, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-07-01

    In accordance with DOE Regulations for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements, wetland surveys were conducted in selected areas within the K-25 Area of Responsibility during the summer of 1994. These areas are Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, the K-770 OU, Duct Island Peninsula, the Powerhouse area, and the K-25 South Corner. Previously surveyed areas included in this report are the main plant area of the K-25 Site, the K-901 OU, the AVLIS site, and the K-25 South Site. Wetland determinations were based on the USACE methodology. Forty-four separate wetland areas, ranging in size from 0.13 to 4.23 ha, were identified. Wetlands were identified in all of the areas surveyed with the exception of the interior of the Duct Island Peninsula and the main plant area of the K-25 Site. Wetlands perform functions such as floodflow alteration, sediment stabilization, sediment and toxicant retention, nutrient transformation, production export, and support of aquatic species and wildlife diversity and abundance. The forested, scrub-shrub, and emergent wetlands identified in the K-25 area perform some or all of these functions to varying degrees.

  13. Solar domestic hot water system installed at Texas City, Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    The Solar Energy System located at LaQuinta Motor Inn, Texas City, Texas was designed to supply 63% of the total hot water load. The Solar Energy System consists of a 2100 square foot Raypack Liquid Flat Plate Collector Subsystem and a 2500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 3.67 x 10/sup 8/ Btu/y. Abstracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  14. Gis-Based Site Selection for Underground Natural Resources Using Fuzzy Ahp-Owa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzevari, A. R.; Delavar, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    Fuel consumption has significantly increased due to the growth of the population. A solution to address this problem is the underground storage of natural gas. The first step to reach this goal is to select suitable places for the storage. In this study, site selection for the underground natural gas reservoirs has been performed using a multi-criteria decision-making in a GIS environment. The "Ordered Weighted Average" (OWA) operator is one of the multi-criteria decision-making methods for ranking the criteria and consideration of uncertainty in the interaction among the criteria. In this paper, Fuzzy AHP_OWA (FAHP_OWA) is used to determine optimal sites for the underground natural gas reservoirs. Fuzzy AHP_OWA considers the decision maker's risk taking and risk aversion during the decision-making process. Gas consumption rate, temperature, distance from main transportation network, distance from gas production centers, population density and distance from gas distribution networks are the criteria used in this research. Results show that the northeast and west of Iran and the areas around Tehran (Tehran and Alborz Provinces) have a higher attraction for constructing a natural gas reservoir. The performance of the used method was also evaluated. This evaluation was performed using the location of the existing natural gas reservoirs in the country and the site selection maps for each of the quantifiers. It is verified that the method used in this study is capable of modeling different decision-making strategies used by the decision maker with about 88 percent of agreement between the modeling and test data.

  15. Evaluation of an Improved Branch-Site Likelihood Method for Detecting Positive Selection at the Molecular Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jianzhi; Nielsen, Rasmus; Yang, Ziheng

    2005-01-01

    Detecting positive Darwinian selection at the DNA sequence level has been a subject of considerable interest. However, positive selection is difficult to detect because it often operates episodically on a few amino acid sites, and the signal may be masked by negative selection. Several methods have...... of interest, while test 2 had acceptable false-positive rates and appeared robust against violations of model assumptions. As test 2 is a direct test of positive selection on the lineages of interest, it is referred to as the branch-site test of positive selection and is recommended for use in real data...

  16. Selected bibliography for the extraction of uranium from seawater: evaluation of uranium resources and plant siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, A.C.T.; Gordon, L.I.; Rodman, M.R.; Binney, S.E.

    1979-02-06

    This bibliography contains 471 references pertaining to the evaluation of U.S. territorial ocean waters as a potential uranium resource and to the selection of a site for a plant designed for the large scale extraction of uranium from seawater. This bibliography was prepared using machine literature retrieval, bibliographic, and work processing systems at Oregon State University. The literature cited is listed by author with indices to the author's countries, geographic areas of study, and to a set of keywords to the subject matter.

  17. Sleeping site selection by agile gibbons: the influence of tree stability, fruit availability and predation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Susan M; Höing, Andrea; Rinear, John; Sheeran, Lori K

    2012-01-01

    Primates spend a significant proportion of their lives at sleeping sites: the selection of a secure and stable sleeping tree can be crucial for individual survival and fitness. We measured key characteristics of all tree species in which agile gibbons slept, including exposure of the tree crown, root system, height, species and presence of food. Gibbons most frequently slept in Dipterocarpaceae and Fabaceae trees and preferentially chose trees taller than average, slept above the mean canopy height and showed a preference for liana-free trees. These choices could reflect avoidance of competition with other frugivores, but we argue these choices reflect gibbons prioritizing avoidance of predation. The results highlight that gibbons are actively selecting and rejecting sleeping trees based on several characteristics. The importance of the presence of large trees for food is noted and provides insight into gibbon antipredatory behaviour. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Microhabitat Conditions in Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Areas: Effects on Nest Site Selection and Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkins, Jonathan B; Smith, Kurt T; Beck, Jeffrey L; Kirol, Christopher P; Pratt, Aaron C; Conover, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify microhabitat characteristics of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) nest site selection and survival to determine the quality of sage-grouse habitat in 5 regions of central and southwest Wyoming associated with Wyoming's Core Area Policy. Wyoming's Core Area Policy was enacted in 2008 to reduce human disturbance near the greatest densities of sage-grouse. Our analyses aimed to assess sage-grouse nest selection and success at multiple micro-spatial scales. We obtained microhabitat data from 928 sage-grouse nest locations and 819 random microhabitat locations from 2008-2014. Nest success was estimated from 924 nests with survival data. Sage-grouse selected nests with greater sagebrush cover and height, visual obstruction, and number of small gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥0.5 m and sage-grouse were selecting different nest sites in Core Areas relative to areas outside of Core. The Kaplan-Meier nest success estimate for a 27-day incubation period was 42.0% (95% CI: 38.4-45.9%). Risk of nest failure was negatively associated with greater rock and more medium-sized gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥2.0 m and <3.0 m). Within our study areas, Wyoming's Core Areas did not have differing microhabitat quality compared to outside of Core Areas. The close proximity of our locations within and outside of Core Areas likely explained our lack of finding differences in microhabitat quality among locations within these landscapes. However, the Core Area Policy is most likely to conserve high quality habitat at larger spatial scales, which over decades may have cascading effects on microhabitat quality available between areas within and outside of Core Areas.

  19. Feature Selection Combined with Neural Network Structure Optimization for HIV-1 Protease Cleavage Site Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is crucial to understand the specificity of HIV-1 protease for designing HIV-1 protease inhibitors. In this paper, a new feature selection method combined with neural network structure optimization is proposed to analyze the specificity of HIV-1 protease and find the important positions in an octapeptide that determined its cleavability. Two kinds of newly proposed features based on Amino Acid Index database plus traditional orthogonal encoding features are used in this paper, taking both physiochemical and sequence information into consideration. Results of feature selection prove that p2, p1, p1′, and p2′ are the most important positions. Two feature fusion methods are used in this paper: combination fusion and decision fusion aiming to get comprehensive feature representation and improve prediction performance. Decision fusion of subsets that getting after feature selection obtains excellent prediction performance, which proves feature selection combined with decision fusion is an effective and useful method for the task of HIV-1 protease cleavage site prediction. The results and analysis in this paper can provide useful instruction and help designing HIV-1 protease inhibitor in the future.

  20. Feature Selection Combined with Neural Network Structure Optimization for HIV-1 Protease Cleavage Site Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Shi, Xiaomiao; Guo, Dongmei; Zhao, Zuowei; Yimin

    2015-01-01

    It is crucial to understand the specificity of HIV-1 protease for designing HIV-1 protease inhibitors. In this paper, a new feature selection method combined with neural network structure optimization is proposed to analyze the specificity of HIV-1 protease and find the important positions in an octapeptide that determined its cleavability. Two kinds of newly proposed features based on Amino Acid Index database plus traditional orthogonal encoding features are used in this paper, taking both physiochemical and sequence information into consideration. Results of feature selection prove that p2, p1, p1', and p2' are the most important positions. Two feature fusion methods are used in this paper: combination fusion and decision fusion aiming to get comprehensive feature representation and improve prediction performance. Decision fusion of subsets that getting after feature selection obtains excellent prediction performance, which proves feature selection combined with decision fusion is an effective and useful method for the task of HIV-1 protease cleavage site prediction. The results and analysis in this paper can provide useful instruction and help designing HIV-1 protease inhibitor in the future.

  1. Highly selective Lewis acid sites in desilicated MFI zeolites for dihydroxyacetone isomerization to lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapsens, Pierre Y; Mondelli, Cecilia; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2013-05-01

    Desilication of commercial MFI-type (ZSM-5) zeolites in solutions of alkali metal hydroxides is demonstrated to generate highly selective heterogeneous catalysts for the aqueous-phase isomerization of biobased dihydroxyacetone (DHA) to lactic acid (LA). The best hierarchical ZSM-5 sample attains a LA selectivity exceeding 90 %, which is comparable to that of the state-of-the-art catalyst (i.e., the Sn-beta zeolite); this optimized hierarchical catalyst is recyclable over three runs. The Lewis acid sites, which are created through desilication along with the introduction of mesoporosity, are shown to play a crucial role in the formation of the desired product; these cannot be achieved by using other post-synthetic methods, such as steaming or impregnation of aluminum species. Desilication of other metallosilicates, such as Ga-MFI, also leads to high LA selectivity. In the presence of a soluble aluminum source, such as aluminum nitrate, alkaline-assisted alumination can introduce these unique Lewis acid centers in all-silica MFI zeolites. These findings highlight the potential of zeolites in the field of biomass-to-chemical conversion, and expand the applicability of desilication for the generation of selective catalytic centers. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Oviposition site selection by the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and its implications for dengue control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacklyn Wong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Because no dengue vaccine or antiviral therapy is commercially available, controlling the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, is currently the only means to prevent dengue outbreaks. Traditional models of Ae. aegypti assume that population dynamics are regulated by density-dependent larval competition for food and little affected by oviposition behavior. Due to direct impacts on offspring survival and development, however, mosquito choice in oviposition site can have important consequences for population regulation that should be taken into account when designing vector control programs.We examined oviposition patterns by Ae. aegypti among 591 naturally occurring containers and a set of experimental containers in Iquitos, Peru. Using larval starvation bioassays as an indirect measure of container food content, we assessed whether females select containers with the most food for their offspring. Our data indicate that choice of egg-laying site is influenced by conspecific larvae and pupae, container fill method, container size, lid, and sun exposure. Although larval food positively influenced oviposition, our results did not support the hypothesis that females act primarily to maximize food for larvae. Females were most strongly attracted to sites containing immature conspecifics, even when potential competitors for their progeny were present in abundance.Due to strong conspecific attraction, egg-laying behavior may contribute more to regulating Ae. aegypti populations than previously thought. If highly infested containers are targeted for removal or larvicide application, females that would have preferentially oviposited in those sites may instead distribute their eggs among other suitable, previously unoccupied containers. Strategies that kill mosquitoes late in their development (i.e., insect growth regulators that kill pupae rather than larvae will enhance vector control by creating "egg sinks," treated sites that exploit conspecific

  3. KOREAN LUNAR LANDER – CONCEPT STUDY FOR LANDING-SITE SELECTION FOR LUNAR RESOURCE EXPLORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the national space promotion plan and presidential national agendas South Korea’s institutes and agencies under the auspices of the Ministry of Science, Information and Communication Technology and Future Planning (MSIP are currently developing a lunar mission package expected to reach Moon in 2020. While the officially approved Korean Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO is aimed at demonstrating technologies and monitoring the lunar environment from orbit, a lander – currently in pre-phase A – is being designed to explore the local geology with a particular focus on the detection and characterization of mineral resources. In addition to scientific and potential resource potentials, the selection of the landing-site will be partly constrained by engineering constraints imposed by payload and spacecraft layout. Given today’s accumulated volume and quality of available data returned from the Moon’s surface and from orbital observations, an identification of landing sites of potential interest and assessment of potential hazards can be more readily accomplished by generating synoptic snapshots through data integration. In order to achieve such a view on potential landing sites, higher level processing and derivation of data are required, which integrates their spatial context, with detailed topographic and geologic characterizations. We are currently assessing the possibility of using fuzzy c-means clustering algorithms as a way to perform (semi- automated terrain characterizations of interest. This paper provides information and background on the national lunar lander program, reviews existing approaches – including methods and tools – for landing site analysis and hazard assessment, and discusses concepts to detect and investigate elemental abundances from orbit and the surface. This is achieved by making use of manual, semi-automated as well as fully-automated remote-sensing methods to demonstrate the applicability of

  4. Site selection for CO{sub 2} capture and geological storage (CCGS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachu, S. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Alberta Geological Survey, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a technologically feasible means of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions to the atmosphere if proper site selection methods are applied that combine geoscience, engineering, economics and societal criteria. This presentation outlined some of the geological, engineering, safety and economic considerations in matching CO{sub 2} sources with potential sites for storage. Relevant CO{sub 2} properties and means of geological sequestration were examined. A phase diagram for CO{sub 2} was presented, and issues concerning CO{sub 2} density and the pressure conditions characteristic of sedimentary basins were discussed. The relationship between storage security, time and trapping mechanisms for CO{sub 2} injected in deep saline aquifers was explored. Geological media suitable for the storage of CO{sub 2} must have adequate space to take the necessary volumes of CO{sub 2}, as well as sufficient injectivity to accept CO{sub 2} at reasonably fast delivery rates. Storage sites must also have sufficient confining ability to prevent CO{sub 2} leakage. The screening of sites for CO{sub 2} geological sequestration is also based on hydrodynamic and geothermal regimes, as well as basin resources and maturity. A cross-sectional representation of various types of sedimentary basins was presented. It was concluded that ideal storage sites will have minimal faults and fractures, harmonious sedimentary sequences, and no significant diagenesis. Safety and economic considerations also play an important role, as CO{sub 2} has the potential to contaminate energy, mineral and groundwater resources. Stored CO{sub 2} has can be used in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, and may help operators to meet emission requirements and avoid expensive penalties. refs., tabs., figs.

  5. Optimal selection of on-site generation with combined heat andpower applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Bailey, Owen; HamachiLaCommare, Kristina

    2004-11-30

    While demand for electricity continues to grow, expansion of the traditional electricity supply system, or macrogrid, is constrained and is unlikely to keep pace with the growing thirst western economies have for electricity. Furthermore, no compelling case has been made that perpetual improvement in the overall power quality and reliability (PQR)delivered is technically possible or economically desirable. An alternative path to providing high PQR for sensitive loads would generate close to them in microgrids, such as the Consortium for Electricity Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Microgrid. Distributed generation would alleviate the pressure for endless improvement in macrogrid PQR and might allow the establishment of a sounder economically based level of universal grid service. Energy conversion from available fuels to electricity close to loads can also provide combined heat and power (CHP) opportunities that can significantly improve the economics of small-scale on-site power generation, especially in hot climates when the waste heat serves absorption cycle cooling equipment that displaces expensive on-peak electricity. An optimization model, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), developed at Berkeley Lab identifies the energy bill minimizing combination of on-site generation and heat recovery equipment for sites, given their electricity and heat requirements, the tariffs they face, and a menu of available equipment. DER-CAM is used to conduct a systemic energy analysis of a southern California naval base building and demonstrates atypical current economic on-site power opportunity. Results achieve cost reductions of about 15 percent with DER, depending on the tariff.Furthermore, almost all of the energy is provided on-site, indicating that modest cost savings can be achieved when the microgrid is free to select distributed generation and heat recovery equipment in order to minimize its over all costs.

  6. Sea-level rise and coastal groundwater inundation and shoaling at select sites in California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Daniel J.; Odigie, Kingsley; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Barnard, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Study regionThe study region spans coastal California, USA, and focuses on three primary sites: Arcata, Stinson Beach, and Malibu Lagoon.Study focus1 m and 2 m sea-level rise (SLR) projections were used to assess vulnerability to SLR-driven groundwater emergence and shoaling at select low-lying, coastal sites in California. Separate and combined inundation scenarios for SLR and groundwater emergence were developed using digital elevation models of study site topography and groundwater surfaces constructed from well data or published groundwater level contours.New hydrological insights for the regionSLR impacts are a serious concern in coastal California which has a long (∼1800 km) and populous coastline. Information on the possible importance of SLR-driven groundwater inundation in California is limited. In this study, the potential for SLR-driven groundwater inundation at three sites (Arcata, Stinson Beach, and Malibu Lagoon) was investigated under 1 m and 2 m SLR scenarios. These sites provide insight into the vulnerability of Northern California coastal plains, coastal developments built on beach sand or sand spits, and developed areas around coastal lagoons associated with seasonal streams and berms. Northern California coastal plains with abundant shallow groundwater likely will see significant and widespread groundwater emergence, while impacts along the much drier central and southern California coast may be less severe due to the absence of shallow groundwater in many areas. Vulnerability analysis is hampered by the lack of data on shallow coastal aquifers, which commonly are not studied because they are not suitable for domestic or agricultural use. Shallow saline aquifers may be present in many areas along coastal California, which would dramatically increase vulnerability to SLR-driven groundwater emergence and shoaling. Improved understanding of the extent and response of California coastal aquifers to SLR will help in preparing for mitigation

  7. Cultural resources survey and assessment of the proposed Department of Energy Freeport to Texas City pipeline, Brazoria and Galveston Counties, Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castille, G.J.; Whelan, J.P. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An intensive survey and testing program of selected segments of a proposed Department of Energy pipeline were conducted by Coastal Environments, Inc., Baton Rouge, Louisiana, during December 1985 and January 1986. The proposed pipeline runs from Texas City, Galveston County to Bryan Mound, Brazoria County. The pedestrian survey was preceded by historical records survey to locate possible historic sites within the DOE righ-of-way. Four prehistoric sites within the ROW (41BO159, 160, 161, 162) and one outside the ROW (41BO163) were located. All are Rangia cuneata middens. The survey results are discussed with particular reference to the environmental settings of the sites and the effectiveness of the survey procedure. Two of the sites located within the ROW were subjected to additional testing. The results of the backhoe testing program are included in the site descriptions, and the scientific value of the sites are presented. 52 refs., 20 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. No phenotypic plasticity in nest-site selection in response to extreme flooding events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Liam D; Ens, Bruno J; Both, Christiaan; Heg, Dik; Oosterbeek, Kees; van de Pol, Martijn

    2017-06-19

    Phenotypic plasticity is a crucial mechanism for responding to changes in climatic means, yet we know little about its role in responding to extreme climatic events (ECEs). ECEs may lack the reliable cues necessary for phenotypic plasticity to evolve; however, this has not been empirically tested. We investigated whether behavioural plasticity in nest-site selection allows a long-lived shorebird (Haematopus ostralegus) to respond to flooding. We collected longitudinal nest elevation data on individuals over two decades, during which time flooding events have become increasingly frequent. We found no evidence that individuals learn from flooding experiences, showing nest elevation change consistent with random nest-site selection. There was also no evidence of phenotypic plasticity in response to potential environmental cues (lunar nodal cycle and water height). A small number of individuals, those nesting near an artificial sea wall, did show an increase in nest elevation over time; however, there is no conclusive evidence this occurred in response to ECEs. Our study population showed no behavioural plasticity in response to changing ECE patterns. More research is needed to determine whether this pattern is consistent across species and types of ECEs. If so, ECEs may pose a major challenge to the resilience of wild populations.This article is part of the themed issue 'Behavioural, ecological and evolutionary responses to extreme climatic events'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Structural characterization of nonactive site, TrkA-selective kinase inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Hua-Poo; Rickert, Keith; Burlein, Christine; Narayan, Kartik; Bukhtiyarova, Marina; Hurzy, Danielle M.; Stump, Craig A.; Zhang, Xufang; Reid, John; Krasowska-Zoladek, Alicja; Tummala, Srivanya; Shipman, Jennifer M.; Kornienko, Maria; Lemaire, Peter A.; Krosky, Daniel; Heller, Amanda; Achab, Abdelghani; Chamberlin, Chad; Saradjian, Peter; Sauvagnat, Berengere; Yang, Xianshu; Ziebell, Michael R.; Nickbarg, Elliott; Sanders, John M.; Bilodeau, Mark T.; Carroll, Steven S.; Lumb, Kevin J.; Soisson, Stephen M.; Henze, Darrell A.; Cooke, Andrew J. (Merck)

    2016-12-30

    Current therapies for chronic pain can have insufficient efficacy and lead to side effects, necessitating research of novel targets against pain. Although originally identified as an oncogene, Tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) is linked to pain and elevated levels of NGF (the ligand for TrkA) are associated with chronic pain. Antibodies that block TrkA interaction with its ligand, NGF, are in clinical trials for pain relief. Here, we describe the identification of TrkA-specific inhibitors and the structural basis for their selectivity over other Trk family kinases. The X-ray structures reveal a binding site outside the kinase active site that uses residues from the kinase domain and the juxtamembrane region. Three modes of binding with the juxtamembrane region are characterized through a series of ligand-bound complexes. The structures indicate a critical pharmacophore on the compounds that leads to the distinct binding modes. The mode of interaction can allow TrkA selectivity over TrkB and TrkC or promiscuous, pan-Trk inhibition. This finding highlights the difficulty in characterizing the structure-activity relationship of a chemical series in the absence of structural information because of substantial differences in the interacting residues. These structures illustrate the flexibility of binding to sequences outside of—but adjacent to—the kinase domain of TrkA. This knowledge allows development of compounds with specificity for TrkA or the family of Trk proteins.

  10. A model of the best-of-N nest-site selection process in honeybees

    CERN Document Server

    Reina, Andreagiovanni; Trianni, Vito; Bose, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The ability of a honeybee swarm to select the best nest site plays a fundamental role in determining the future colony's fitness. To date, the nest-site selection process has mostly been modelled and theoretically analysed for the case of binary decisions. However, when the number of alternative nests is larger than two, the decision process dynamics qualitatively change. In this work, we extend previous analyses of a value-sensitive decision-making mechanism to a decision process among N nests. First, we present the decision-making dynamics in the symmetric case of N equal-quality nests. Then, we generalise our findings to a best-of-N decision scenario with one superior nest and N-1 inferior nests, previously studied empirically in bees and ants. Whereas previous binary models highlighted the crucial role of inhibitory stop-signalling, the key parameter in our new analysis is the relative time invested by swarm members in individual discovery and in signalling behaviours. Our new analysis reveals conflicting...

  11. Physical compatibility of cisatracurium with selected drugs during simulated Y-site administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foushee, Jaime A; Fox, Laura M; Gormley, Lyndsay R; Lineberger, Megan S

    2015-03-15

    The physical compatibility of cisatracurium with selected drugs during simulated Y-site administration was studied. Study drugs were selected based on the lack of physical compatibility data with cisatracurium and their use in intensive care units. Test admixtures were prepared by mixing 2.5-mL samples of varying concentrations of calcium gluconate, diltiazem, esomeprazole, regular insulin, nicardipine, pantoprazole, and vasopressin with either 2.5 mL of normal saline 0.9% (control) or 2.5 mL of cisatracurium (experimental) to simulate a 1:1 Y-site ratio. Drug infusions were prepared at the maximum concentrations used clinically. Physical compatibility of the admixtures was determined by visual and turbidimetric assessments performed in triplicate immediately after mixing and at 15, 30, and 60 minutes. Visual incompatibility was defined as a change in color, the formation of haze or precipitate, the presence of particles, or the formation of gas in the experimental groups compared with the controls. Disturbances invisible to the naked eye were determined by assessing changes in turbidity of experimental admixtures compared with the controls. None of the admixtures exhibited visual changes when mixed with cisatracurium. Six of the seven admixtures exhibited turbidimetric compatibility with cisatracurium. Pantoprazole admixtures demonstrated a significant difference in turbidimetric assessment between the control and experimental groups when mixed with cisatracurium (p control and experimental samples. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF STATE DATA RELATED TO ABANDONED CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Seay Nance

    2003-03-01

    This 2003 Spring Semi-Annual Report contains a summary of the Final Technical Report being prepared for the Soil Remediation Requirements at Commercial and Centralized Drilling-Fluid Disposal (CCDD) Sites project funded by the United States Department of Energy under DOE Award No. DE-AC26-99BC15225. The summary describes (1) the objectives of the investigation, (2) a rationale and methodology of the investigation, (3) sources of data, assessment of data quality, and data availability, (4) examples of well documented centralized and commercial drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites and other sites where drilling fluid was disposed of, and (5) examples of abandoned sites and measures undertaken for their assessment and remediation. The report also includes most of the figures, tables, and appendices that will be included in the final report.

  13. A distant cis acting intronic element induces site-selective RNA editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, Chammiran; Venø, Morten Trillingsgaard; Ekdahl, Ylva

    2012-01-01

    Transcripts have been found to be site selectively edited from adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) in the mammalian brain, mostly in genes involved in neurotransmission. While A-to-I editing occurs at double-stranded structures, other structural requirements are largely unknown. We have investigated...... shown to be important for A-to-I editing. We demonstrate that the element also can induce editing in related but normally not edited RNA sequences. In human, thousands of genes are edited in duplexes formed by inverted repeats in non-coding regions. It is likely that numerous such duplexes can induce...... the requirements for editing at the I/M site in the Gabra-3 transcript of the GABA(A) receptor. We identify an evolutionarily conserved intronic duplex, 150 nt downstream of the exonic hairpin where the I/M site resides, which is required for its editing. This is the first time a distant RNA structure has been...

  14. Concept Mapping as a Support for Mars Landing-Site Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Briggs, Geoffrey A.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Ames' Center for Mars Exploration (CMEX) serves to coordinate Mars programmatic research at ARC in the sciences, in information technology and in aero-assist and other technologies. Most recently, CMEX has been working with the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition at the University of West Florida to develop a new kind of web browser based on the application of concept maps. These Cmaps, which are demonstrably effective in science teaching, can be used to provide a new kind of information navigation tool that can make web or CD based information more meaningful and more easily navigable. CMEX expects that its 1999 CD-ROM will have this new user interface. CMEX is also engaged with the Mars Surveyor Project Office at JPL in developing an Internet-based source of materials to support the process of selecting landing sites for the next series of Mars landers. This activity -- identifying the most promising sites from which to return samples relevant to the search for evidence of life -- is one that is expected to engage the general public as well as the science community. To make the landing site data easily accessible and meaningful to the public, CMEX is planning to use the IHMC Cmap browser as its user interface.

  15. Site-Selective Artificial Ribonucleases: Oligonucleotide Conjugates Containing Multiple Imidazole Residues in the Catalytic Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia G. Beloglazova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of site-selective artificial ribonucleases (aRNases is one of the most challenging tasks in RNA targeting. Here, we designed and studied oligonucleotide-based aRNases containing multiple imidazole residues in the catalytic part and systematically varied structure of cleaving constructs. We demonstrated that the ribonuclease activity of the conjugates is strongly affected by the number of imidazole residues in the catalytic part, the length of a linker between the catalytic imidazole groups of the construct and the oligonucleotide, and the type of anchor group, connecting linker structure and the oligonucleotide. Molecular modeling of the most active aRNases showed that preferable orientation(s of cleaving constructs strongly depend on the structure of the anchor group and length of the linker. The inclusion of deoxyribothymidine anchor group significantly reduced the probability of cleaving groups to locate near the cleavage site, presumably due to a stacking interaction with the neighbouring nucleotide residue. Altogether the obtained results show that dynamics factors play an important role in site-specific RNA cleavage. Remarkably high cleavage activity was displayed by the conjugates with the most flexible and extended cleaving construct, which presumably provides a better opportunity for imidazole residues to be correctly positioned in the vicinity of scissile phosphodiester bond.

  16. GIS Based Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis For Cement Plant Site Selection For Cuddalore District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, A.

    2015-12-01

    India's cement industry is a vital part of its economy, providing employment to more than a million people. On the back of growing demands, due to increased construction and infrastructural activities cement market in India is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 8.96 percent during the period 2014-2019. In this study, GIS-based spatial Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) is used to determine the optimum and alternative sites to setup a cement plant. This technique contains a set of evaluation criteria which are quantifiable indicators of the extent to which decision objectives are realized. In intersection with available GIS (Geographical Information System) and local ancillary data, the outputs of image analysis serves as input for the multi-criteria decision making system. Moreover, the following steps were performed so as to represent the criteria in GIS layers, which underwent the GIS analysis in order to get several potential sites. Satellite imagery from LANDSAT 8 and ASTER DEM were used for the analysis. Cuddalore District in Tamil Nadu was selected as the study site as limestone mining is already being carried out in that region which meets the criteria of raw material for cement production. Several other criteria considered were land use land cover (LULC) classification (built-up area, river, forest cover, wet land, barren land, harvest land and agriculture land), slope, proximity to road, railway and drainage networks.

  17. Tradeoffs between homing and habitat quality for spawning site selection by hatchery-origin Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, Jeremy M.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Klett, Ryan S.; Pess, George R.; May, Darran; Pearsons, Todd N.; Dittman, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    Spawning site selection by female salmon is based on complex and poorly understood tradeoffs between the homing instinct and the availability of appropriate habitat for successful reproduction. Previous studies have shown that hatchery-origin Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) released from different acclimation sites return with varying degrees of fidelity to these areas. To investigate the possibility that homing fidelity is associated with aquatic habitat conditions, we quantified physical habitat throughout 165 km in the upper Yakima River basin (Washington, USA) and mapped redd and carcass locations from 2004 to 2008. Principal components analysis identified differences in substrate, cover, stream width, and gradient among reaches surrounding acclimation sites, and canonical correspondence analysis revealed that these differences in habitat characteristics were associated with spatial patterns of spawning (p < 0.01). These analyses indicated that female salmon may forego spawning near their acclimation area if the surrounding habitat is unsuitable. Evaluating the spatial context of acclimation areas in relation to surrounding habitat may provide essential information for effectively managing supplementation programs and prioritizing restoration actions.

  18. Nest site selection by Hypsiboas faber(Anura, Hylidae in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. Luza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Male gladiator frogs of Hypsiboas Wagler, 1830 build nests on available substrate surrounding ponds and streams where female spawn eggs during the breeding period. Although gladiator frogs seem to show plasticity in the way they construct their nests, there is no study reporting if these species present preferences about microhabitat conditions for nest-building (mainly under subtropical climate. Predation pressure and environmental conditions have been considered major processes shaping the great diversity of reproductive strategies performed by amphibians, but microhabitat conditions should explain where to build a nest as well as how nest looks. This study aimed to test nest site selection for nest-building by Hypsiboas faber(Wied-Neuwied, 1821, determining which factors are related to nest site selection and nest features. The survey was conducted at margins of two permanent ponds in Southern Brazil. Habitat factors were evaluated in 18 plots with nest and 18 plots in the surrounding without nest (control, describing vegetation structure and heterogeneity, and substrate characteristics. Water temperature was measured inside the nest and in its adjacency. Nest features assessed were area, depth and temperature. Habitat characteristics differed between plots with and without nest. Microhabitat selected for nest-building was characterized by great vegetation cover and height, as well as shallower water and lower cover of organic matter in suspension than in plots without nest. Differences between temperature inside nest and in its adjacency were not observed. No relationship between nest features and habitat descriptors was evidenced. Results revealed that Hypsiboas faber does not build nests anywhere. Males seem to prefer more protected habitats, probably avoiding predation, invasion of conspecific males and inclement weather. Lack of differences between temperature inside- and outside-nest suggest that nest do not improve this

  19. Single cobalt sites in mesoporous N-doped carbon matrix for selective catalytic hydrogenation of nitroarenes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiaohui

    2017-11-20

    A supported cobalt catalyst with atomically dispersed Co-Nx sites (3.5 wt% Co) in a mesoporous N-doped carbon matrix (named Co@mesoNC) is synthesized by hydrolysis of tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) in a Zn/Co bimetallic zeolitic imidazolate framework (BIMZIF(Co,Zn)), followed by high-temperature pyrolysis and SiO2 leaching. A combination of TEM, XRD XPS and X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies confirm the absence of cobalt nanoparticles and indicate that these highly dispersed cobalt species are present in the form of Co-Nx. The exclusive formation of Co-Nx sites in the carbon matrix is attributed to the presence of a large amount of Zn and N in the BIMZIF precursor together with the presence of SiO2 in the pore space of this framework, extending the initial spatial distance between cobalt atoms and thereby impeding their agglomeration. The presence of SiO2 during high-temperature pyrolysis is proven crucial to create mesoporosity and a high BET area and pore volume in the N-doped carbon support (1780 m2 g−1, 1.54 cm3 g−1). This heterogeneous Co@mesoNC catalyst displays high activity and selectivity (>99%) for the selective hydrogenation of nitrobenzene to aniline at mild conditions (0.5–3 MPa, 343–383 K). When more challenging substrates (functionalized nitroarenes) are hydrogenated, the catalyst Co@mesoNC displays an excellent chemoselectivity to the corresponding substituted anilines.The presence of mesoporosity improves mass transport of reactants and/or products and the accessibility of the active Co-Nx sites, and greatly reduces deactivation due to fouling.

  20. The Need to Assess Public Values in a Site Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Grant; Fortier, Michael [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Faculty of Environmental Studies; Collins, Alison [York Centre for Applied Sustainability, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Siting a nuclear fuel waste disposal facility is highly problematic for both technical and nontechnical reasons. The majority of countries using nuclear energy and many in the scientific community favour burying the spent fuel deep in a stable geological formation. It is our contention that site selection of a disposal facility must consider social, political, spatial and scientific perspectives in a comprehensive and integrated fashion in order to achieve a successful process. Moreover, we submit that people's values must be explicitly recognized and be taken into account through a formalized process during deliberations on the disposal concept, the process of evaluation of the concept, and the site selection process. The purpose of this paper is: (1) to identify the importance of recognizing people's values in the process of determining 'public acceptability', (2) to outline a possible framework by which public acceptability can be gauged through a formalized process of value elicitation, and (3) to introduce a novel method by which a web-based geographic information systems (GIS) application can be used as a tool for value elicitation. In order to assess effectively the public acceptability of Canada's nuclear waste disposal concept, we submit that such a process must examine the underlying values that are held by the public. Moreover, the evaluation process of Canada's concept demonstrates that an acceptable process is a pre-condition for an acceptable result, although such a process does not necessarily guarantee an acceptable result. However, the consequences of a flawed process can be very significant, as shown by Canada's experience. This paper also provides a brief overview of a value elicitation process that, in our opinion, could be used to assess the public acceptability of the Concept. We also describe how a web-based GIS application could be used to infer some of the underlying values held by the public.

  1. Labor Productivity Standards in Texas School Foodservice Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrin, A. Rachelle; Bednar, Carolyn; Kwon, Junehee

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose of this research was to investigate utilization of labor productivity standards and variables that affect productivity in Texas school foodservice operations. Methods: A questionnaire was developed, validated, and pilot tested, then mailed to 200 randomly selected Texas school foodservice directors. Descriptive statistics for…

  2. α-SNAP regulates dynamic, on-site assembly and calcium selectivity of Orai1 channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiyao; Miao, Yong; Dani, Adish; Vig, Monika

    2016-08-15

    Orai1 forms a highly calcium-selective pore of the calcium release activated channel, and α-SNAP is necessary for its function. Here we show that α-SNAP regulates on-site assembly of Orai1 dimers into calcium-selective multimers. We find that Orai1 is a dimer in resting primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts but displays variable stoichiometry in the plasma membrane of store-depleted cells. Remarkably, α-SNAP depletion induces formation of higher-order Orai1 oligomers, which permeate significant levels of sodium via Orai1 channels. Sodium permeation in α-SNAP-deficient cells cannot be corrected by tethering multiple Stim1 domains to Orai1 C-terminal tail, demonstrating that α-SNAP regulates functional assembly and calcium selectivity of Orai1 multimers independently of Stim1 levels. Fluorescence nanoscopy reveals sustained coassociation of α-SNAP with Stim1 and Orai1, and α-SNAP-depleted cells show faster and less constrained mobility of Orai1 within ER-PM junctions, suggesting Orai1 and Stim1 coentrapment without stable contacts. Furthermore, α-SNAP depletion significantly reduces fluorescence resonance energy transfer between Stim1 and Orai1 N-terminus but not C-terminus. Taken together, these data reveal a unique role of α-SNAP in the on-site functional assembly of Orai1 subunits and suggest that this process may, in part, involve enabling crucial low-affinity interactions between Orai1 N-terminus and Stim1. © 2016 Li, Miao, et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  3. Evidence of adaptive divergence in plasticity: density- and site-dependent selection on shade-avoidance responses in Impatiens capensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, K; Messiqua, D; Pyle, E H; Heschel, M S; Schmitt, J

    2000-12-01

    We investigated the conditions under which plastic responses to density are adaptive in natural populations of Impatiens capensis and determined whether plasticity has evolved differently in different selective environments. Previous studies showed that a population that evolved in a sunny site exhibited greater plasticity in response to density than did a population that evolved in a woodland site. Using replicate inbred lines in a reciprocal transplant that included a density manipulation, we asked whether such population differentiation was consistent with the hypothesis of adaptive divergence. We hypothesized that plasticity would be more strongly favored in the sunny site than in the woodland site; consequently, we predicted that selection would be more strongly density dependent in the sunny site, favoring the phenotype that was expressed at each density. Selection on internode length and flowering date was consistent with the hypothesis of adaptive divergence in plasticity. Few costs or benefits of plasticity were detected independently from the expressed phenotype, so plasticity was selected primarily through selection on the phenotype. Correlations between phenotypes and their plasticity varied with the environment and would cause indirect selection on plasticity to be environment dependent. We showed that an appropriate plastic response even to a rare environment can greatly increase genotypic fitness when that environment is favorable. Selection on the measured characters contributed to local adaptation and fully accounted for fitness differences between populations in all treatments except the woodland site at natural density.

  4. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, volume 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Michelson, D.C.; Turmer, G.S.

    1988-09-01

    The 604 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the ninth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--has been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's remedial action programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Subsections for sections 1, 2, 5, and 6 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies. RAPIC staff and resources are available to meet a variety of information needs. Contact the center at (615) 576-0568 or FTS 626-0568.

  5. Hurricane Rita Aerial Photography: High-Resolution Imagery of the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast after Hurricane Rita made landfall. The regions photographed range from San Luis Pass, Texas...

  6. Selection of Sampling Pumps Used for Groundwater Monitoring at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, Ronald; Webber, William D.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2001-11-05

    The variable frequency drive centrifugal submersible pump, Redi-Flo2a made by Grundfosa, was selected for universal application for Hanford Site groundwater monitoring. Specifications for the selected pump and five other pumps were evaluated against current and future Hanford groundwater monitoring performance requirements, and the Redi-Flo2 was selected as the most versatile and applicable for the range of monitoring conditions. The Redi-Flo2 pump distinguished itself from the other pumps considered because of its wide range in output flow rate and its comparatively moderate maintenance and low capital costs. The Redi-Flo2 pump is able to purge a well at a high flow rate and then supply water for sampling at a low flow rate. Groundwater sampling using a low-volume-purging technique (e.g., low flow, minimal purge, no purge, or micropurgea) is planned in the future, eliminating the need for the pump to supply a high-output flow rate. Under those conditions, the Well Wizard bladder pump, manufactured by QED Environmental Systems, Inc., may be the preferred pump because of the lower capital cost.

  7. Perceptions of Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassadors on Career Development, Higher Education, and Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanolini, William F.; Rayfield, John; Ripley, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Selected 4-H youth participated in the Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassador program. Forty-five youth participated in the 3-day program delivered by university professors and staff, Texas AgriLife Extension faculty and industry representatives. An instrument was developed and administered to the Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassadors at the end of their first…

  8. Selection of egg attachment sites by the Indian Golden Gecko Calodactylodes aureus (Beddome, 1870 (Reptilia: Gekkonidae in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sreekar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Some geckos lay eggs at communal egg deposition sites with as many as 300 eggs per site. Selection of egg deposition sites is important to avoid egg damage and predation. We investigated survival rates of communal egg clutches of the Indian Golden Gecko Calodactylodes aureus (Reptilia: Gekkonidae. Our results show that communal clutches have a higher survival rate in sites with water bodies and without anthropogenic activities, in comparison to sites having the opposite combination. These findings are discussed in the context of the status of this gecko.

  9. Selection through predation, snowfall and microclimate on nest‐site preferences in the Water Pipit Anthus spinoletta

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rauter, Claudia M; Reyer, Heinz‐Ulrich; Bollmann, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    ...‐site characteristics in the Water Pipit Anthus spinoletta . Pooled over all nests, the relative importance as agents of natural selection decreased from mammalian/avian predation (15% of all nests...

  10. Design, Modeling, and CFD Analysis of a Micro Hydro Pelton Turbine Runner: For the Case of Selected Site in Ethiopia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tilahun Nigussie; Abraham Engeda; Edessa Dribssa

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the design, modeling, and performance analysis of a Pelton turbine using CFD for one of the selected micro hydro potential sites in Ethiopia to meet the requirements of the energy demands...

  11. Interdisciplinary Workshop on the Physical-Chemical-Biological Processes Affecting Archeological Sites Held in College Station, Texas on May 27-29, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    chemicals, and labor , it is not economically feasible to treat every artifact from a site. The decision as to what to treat or not to treat must be...pp. 135-138. CULTURAL Archaeology, field methodology COREMANS, P., 1968b, Clima ! qnd microciimate. In Conservation of Cultural Property with Special

  12. Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, J.I. [ed.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Bogen, K.T.; Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.W.; Straume, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Andricevic, R.; Jacobson, R.L. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Water Resources Center; Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.; Morris, S.C.; Hamilton, L.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is located in southwestern Nevada, about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of the city of Las Vegas. A series of tests was conducted in the late 1950s and early 1960s at or near the NTS to study issues involving plutonium-bearing devices. These tests resulted in the dispersal of about 5 TBq of {sup 239,24O}Pu on the surficial soils at the test locations. Additionally, underground tests of nuclear weapons devices have been conducted at the NTS since late 1962; ground water beneath the NTS has been contaminated with radionuclides produced by these tests. These two important problems have been selected for assessment. Regarding the plutonium contamination, because the residual {sup 239}Pu decays slowly (half-life of 24,110 y), these sites could represent a long-term hazard if they are not remediated and if institutional controls are lost. To investigate the magnitude of the potential health risks for this no-remediation case, three basic exposure scenarios were defined that could bring individuals in contact with {sup 239,24O}Pu at the sites: (1) a resident living in a subdivision, (2) a resident farmer, and (3) a worker at a commercial facility -- all located at a test site. The predicted cancer risks for the resident farmer were more than a factor of three times higher than the suburban resident at the median risk level, and about a factor of ten greater than the reference worker at a commercial facility. At 100 y from the present, the 5, 50, and 95th percentile risks for the resident farmer at the most contaminated site were 4 x 10{sup {minus}6}, 6 x 10{sup {minus}5}, and 5 x 10{sup {minus}4}, respectively. For the assessment of Pu in surface soil, the principal sources of uncertainty in the estimated risks were population mobility, the relationship between indoor and outdoor contaminant levels, and the dose and risk factors for bone, liver, and lung.

  13. Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, J.I. (ed.)

    1993-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is located in southwestern Nevada, about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of the city of Las Vegas. A series of tests was conducted in the late 1950s and early 1960s at or near the NTS to study issues involving plutonium-bearing devices. These tests resulted in the dispersal of about 5 TBq of [sup 239,24O]Pu on the surficial soils at the test locations. Additionally, underground tests of nuclear weapons devices have been conducted at the NTS since late 1962; ground water beneath the NTS has been contaminated with radionuclides produced by these tests. These two important problems have been selected for assessment. Regarding the plutonium contamination, because the residual [sup 239]Pu decays slowly (half-life of 24,110 y), these sites could represent a long-term hazard if they are not remediated and if institutional controls are lost. To investigate the magnitude of the potential health risks for this no-remediation case, three basic exposure scenarios were defined that could bring individuals in contact with [sup 239,24O]Pu at the sites: (1) a resident living in a subdivision, (2) a resident farmer, and (3) a worker at a commercial facility -- all located at a test site. The predicted cancer risks for the resident farmer were more than a factor of three times higher than the suburban resident at the median risk level, and about a factor of ten greater than the reference worker at a commercial facility. At 100 y from the present, the 5, 50, and 95th percentile risks for the resident farmer at the most contaminated site were 4 x 10[sup [minus]6], 6 x 10[sup [minus]5], and 5 x 10[sup [minus]4], respectively. For the assessment of Pu in surface soil, the principal sources of uncertainty in the estimated risks were population mobility, the relationship between indoor and outdoor contaminant levels, and the dose and risk factors for bone, liver, and lung.

  14. Spectroscopic study of site selective DNA damage induced by intense soft X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, K

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of DNA damage induced by direct photon impact, we observed the near edge X-ray absorption fine structures (NEXAFS) of DNA nucleobases using monochromatic synchrotron soft X-rays around nitrogen and oxygen K-shell excitation regions. Each spectrum obtained has unique structure corresponding to pi* excitation of oxygen or nitrogen 1s electron. These aspects open a way of nucleobase-selective photo-excitation in a DNA molecule using high resolution monochromatized soft X-rays. From the analysis of polarization-dependent intensities of the pi* resonance peak, it is clarified that adenine, guanine an uracil form orientated surface structure. Furthermore from the direct measurement of positive ions desorbed from photon irradiated DNA components, it is revealed that the sugar moiety is a fragile site in a DNA molecule. (author)

  15. Texas motorcycle crash countermeasure workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) contracted with the Texas A&M : Transportation Institute (TTI) to develop a 5-year strategic plan for improving motorcycle safety : in the State of Texas. The Texas Strategic Action Plan for Motorcycl...

  16. Bed site selection by a subordinate predator: an example with the cougar (Puma concolor) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusler, Anna; Elbroch, L Mark; Quigley, Howard; Grigione, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    As technology has improved, our ability to study cryptic animal behavior has increased. Bed site selection is one such example. Among prey species, bed site selection provides thermoregulatory benefits and mitigates predation risk, and may directly influence survival. We conducted research to test whether a subordinate carnivore also selected beds with similar characteristics in an ecosystem supporting a multi-species guild of competing predators. We employed a model comparison approach in which we tested whether cougar (Puma concolor) bed site attributes supported the thermoregulatory versus the predator avoidance hypotheses, or exhibited characteristics supporting both hypotheses. Between 2012-2016, we investigated 599 cougar bed sites in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and examined attributes at two scales: the landscape (second-order, n = 599) and the microsite (fourth order, n = 140). At the landscape scale, cougars selected bed sites in winter that supported both the thermoregulatory and predator avoidance hypotheses: bed sites were on steeper slopes but at lower elevations, closer to the forest edge, away from sagebrush and meadow habitat types, and on southern, eastern, and western-facing slopes. In the summer, bed attributes supported the predator avoidance hypothesis over the thermoregulation hypothesis: beds were closer to forest edges, away from sagebrush and meadow habitat classes, and on steeper slopes. At the microsite scale, cougar bed attributes in both the winter and summer supported both the predator avoidance and thermoregulatory hypotheses: they selected bed sites with high canopy cover, high vegetative concealment, and in a rugged habitat class characterized by cliff bands and talus fields. We found that just like prey species, a subordinate predator selected bed sites that facilitated both thermoregulatory and anti-predator functions. In conclusion, we believe that measuring bed site attributes may provide a novel means of measuring the

  17. Bed site selection by a subordinate predator: an example with the cougar (Puma concolor in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kusler

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As technology has improved, our ability to study cryptic animal behavior has increased. Bed site selection is one such example. Among prey species, bed site selection provides thermoregulatory benefits and mitigates predation risk, and may directly influence survival. We conducted research to test whether a subordinate carnivore also selected beds with similar characteristics in an ecosystem supporting a multi-species guild of competing predators. We employed a model comparison approach in which we tested whether cougar (Puma concolor bed site attributes supported the thermoregulatory versus the predator avoidance hypotheses, or exhibited characteristics supporting both hypotheses. Between 2012–2016, we investigated 599 cougar bed sites in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and examined attributes at two scales: the landscape (second-order, n = 599 and the microsite (fourth order, n = 140. At the landscape scale, cougars selected bed sites in winter that supported both the thermoregulatory and predator avoidance hypotheses: bed sites were on steeper slopes but at lower elevations, closer to the forest edge, away from sagebrush and meadow habitat types, and on southern, eastern, and western-facing slopes. In the summer, bed attributes supported the predator avoidance hypothesis over the thermoregulation hypothesis: beds were closer to forest edges, away from sagebrush and meadow habitat classes, and on steeper slopes. At the microsite scale, cougar bed attributes in both the winter and summer supported both the predator avoidance and thermoregulatory hypotheses: they selected bed sites with high canopy cover, high vegetative concealment, and in a rugged habitat class characterized by cliff bands and talus fields. We found that just like prey species, a subordinate predator selected bed sites that facilitated both thermoregulatory and anti-predator functions. In conclusion, we believe that measuring bed site attributes may provide a novel

  18. GIS based site and structure selection model for groundwater recharge: a hydrogeomorphic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Sohony, R A

    2009-10-01

    The groundwater in India is facing a critical situation due to over exploitation, reduction in recharge potential by change in land use and land cover and improper planning and management. A groundwater development plan needs a large volume of multidisciplinary data from various sources. A geographic information system (GIS) based hydrogeomorphic approach can provide the appropriate platform for spatial analysis of diverse data sets for decision making in groundwater recharge. The paper presents development of GIS based model to provide more accuracy in identification and suitability analysis for finding out zones and locating suitable sites with suggested structures for artificial recharge. Satellite images were used to prepare the geomorphological and land use maps. For site selection, the items such as slope, surface infiltration, and order of drainage were generated and integrated in GIS using Weighted Index Overlay Analysis and Boolean logics. Similarly for identification of suitable structures, complex matrix was programmed based on local climatic, topographic, hydrogeologic and landuse conditions as per artificial recharge manual of Central Ground Water Board, India. The GIS based algorithm is implemented in a user-friendly way using arc macro language on Arc/Info platform.

  19. Solid Waste Landfill Site Selection in the Sense of Environment Sensitive Sustainable Urbanization: Izmir, Turkey Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    TÜdeş, Şule; Kumlu, Kadriye Burcu Yavuz

    2017-10-01

    Each stage of the planning process should be based on the natural resource protection, in the sense of environmental sensitive and sustainable urban planning. Values, which are vital for the continuity of the life in the Earth, as soil, water, forest etc. should be protected from the undesired effects of the pollution and the other effects caused by the high urbanization levels. In this context, GIS-MCDM based solid waste landfill site selection is applied for Izmir, Turkey, where is a significant attraction place for tourism. As Multi criteria Decision Making (MCDM) technique, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used. In this study, geological, tectonically and hydrological data, as well as agricultural land use, slope, distance to the settlement areas and the highways are used as inputs for AHP analysis. In the analysis stage, those inputs are rated and weighted. The weighted criteria are evaluated via GIS, by using weighted overlay tool. Therefore, an upper-scale analysis is conducted and a map, which shows the alternative places for the solid waste landfill sites, considering the environmental protection and evaluated in the context of environmental and urban criteria, are obtained.

  20. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions. Volume 1. A selected bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, R.A.; Fore, C.S.; Knox, N.P.

    1980-09-01

    This bibliography of 633 references represents the first in a series to be produced by the Remedial Actions Program Information Center (RAPIC) containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information concerning the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Major chapters selected for this bibliography are Facility Decommissioning, Uranium Mill Tailings Cleanup, Contaminated Site Restoration, and Criteria and Standards. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. When the author is not given, the corporate affiliation appears first. If these two levels of authorship are not given, the title of the document is used as the identifying level. Indexes are provided for (1) author(s), (2) keywords, (3) title, (4) technology development, and (5) publication description. An appendix of 123 entries lists recently acquired references relevant to decommissioning of nuclear facilities. These references are also arranged according to one of the four subject categories and followed by author, title, and publication description indexes. The bibliography was compiled from a specialized data base established and maintained by RAPIC to provide information support for the Department of Energy's Remedial Actions Program, under the cosponsorship of its three major components: Surplus Facilities Management Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Actions Program, and Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Actions Program. RAPIC is part of the Ecological Sciences Information Center within the Information Center Complex at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  1. Asymmetric catalysis at a distance: catalytic, site-selective phosphorylation of teicoplanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sunkyu; Miller, Scott J

    2013-08-21

    We report three distinct, peptide-based catalysts that enable site-selective phosphorylation of three distinct hydroxyl groups within the complex glycopeptide antibiotic teicoplanin A2-2. Two of the catalysts are based on a design that capitalizes on a catalyst-substrate interaction that mimics the biological mechanism of action for teicoplanin. These catalysts are based on a DXaa-DXaa peptide motif that is known to target the teicoplanin structure in a specific manner. The third was identified through evaluation of a set of catalysts that had been developed for historically distinct projects. Each catalyst contains additional functionality designed to dispose a catalytic moiety (a nucleophilic alkylimidazole) at a different region of the glycopeptide structure. A combination of mass spectrometry and 2D-NMR spectroscopy allowed structural assignment of the distinct phosphorylated teicoplanin derivatives. Mechanistic studies are also reported that support the hypotheses that led to the discovery of the catalysts. In this manner, small molecule catalysts have been achieved that allow rational, catalytic control over reactions at sites that are separated by 11.6, 16.5, and nearly 17.7 Å, based on the X-ray crystal structure of teicoplanin A2-2. Finally, we report the biological activity of the new phosphorylated teicoplanin analogs and compare the results to the natural product itself.

  2. Affinity chromatographic selection of carbonylated proteins followed by identification of oxidation sites using tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Hamid; Regnier, Fred

    2005-04-15

    It has been shown that oxidatively modified forms of proteins accumulate during oxidative stress, aging, and in some age-related diseases. One of the unique features of a wide variety of routes by which proteins are oxidized is the generation of carbonyl groups. This paper reports a method for the isolation of oxidized proteins, which involves (1) biotinylation of oxidized proteins with biotin hydrazide and (2) affinity enrichment using monomeric avidin affinity chromatography columns. The selectivity of the method was validated by adding in vitro oxidized biotinylated BSA to a yeast lysate and showing that the predominant protein recovered was BSA. This method was applied to the question of whether large doses of 2-nitropropane produce oxidized proteins. A study of rat liver homogenates showed that animals dosed with 2-nitropropane produced 17 times more oxidized protein than controls in 6 h. Tryptic digestion of these oxidized proteins followed by reversed-phase chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry led to the identification of 14 peptides and their parent proteins. Nine of the 14 identified peptides were found to carry 1 or 2 oxidation sites and 5 of the 9 peptides were biotinylated. The significance of this affinity method is that it allows the isolation of oxidized proteins from the rest of the proteome and facilitates their identification. In some cases, it is even possible to identify the site of oxidation.

  3. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P. T.; Webb, J. R.; Knox, N. P.; Goins, L. F.; Harrell, R. E.; Mallory, P. K.; Cravens, C. D.

    1991-09-01

    The 664 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the twelfth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects, analyzes, and disseminates information on environmental restoration and remedial actions. RAPIC staff and resources are available to meet a variety of information needs. Contact the center at FTS 624-7764 or (615) 574-7764.

  4. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 12. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The 664 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the twelfth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects, analyzes, and disseminates information on environmental restoration and remedial actions. RAPIC staff and resources are available to meet a variety of information needs. Contact the center at FTS 624-7764 or (615) 574-7764.

  5. Site selection for DOE/JIP gas hydrates drilling in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.R.; Ruppel, C. [United States Geological Survey, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Shelander, D.; Dai, J. [Schlumberger, Houston, TX (United States); McConnell, D. [AOA Geophysics Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Shedd, W. [Minerals Management Service, New Orleans, LA (United States); Frye, M. [Minerals Management Service, Herndon, VA (United States); Boswell, R.; Rose, K. [United States Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States). National Energy Technology Lab; Jones, E.; Latham, T. [Chevron Energy Technology Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Collett, T. [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Dugan, B. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Earth Science; Wood, W. [United States Naval Research Lab, Stennis Space Center, MS (United States)

    2008-07-01

    As drilling operations in the Gulf of Mexico shift from shallow water to deeper water targets, operators are encountering sediments with pressure-temperature regimes for gas hydrate stability. The Chevron-led Joint Industry Project (JIP) on methane hydrates was formed in 2001 to study the hazards associated with drilling these types of hydrate-bearing sediments and to assess the capacity of geological and geophysical tools to predict gas hydrate distributions and concentrations. Selected reservoirs units with high concentrations of gas hydrate were sampled to obtain physical data on hydrate bearing sediments. The JIP work validates methods devised to estimate gas hydrate distribution and concentrations in order to analyze the resource potential of these hydrate-bearing sediments. This paper described the geologic and geophysical setting of 3 sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico that contain hydrate-bearing reservoir sands. The three sites that will undergo exploratory drilling and a logging campaign in late spring 2008 include the Alaminos Canyon (AC) lease block 818, Green Canyon (GC) 955, and Walker Ridge (WR) 313. At the AC818 site, gas hydrate is interpreted to occur within the Oligocene Frio volcaniclastic sand at the crest of a fold that is shallow enough to be in the hydrate stability zone. Drilling at GC955 will sample a faulted, buried Pleistocene channel-levee system characterized with seafloor fluid expulsion features, structural closure associated with uplifted salt, and seismic evidence for upward migration of fluids and gas into the sand-rich parts of the sedimentary section. Drilling at WR313 targets sheet sands and associated channel deposits within a small basin. The potential for gas hydrate occurrence at WR313 is supported by shingled phase reversals consistent with the transition from gas-charged sand to overlying gas-hydrate saturated sand. 39 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  6. Wind Energy Potential and Power Law Indexes Assessment for Selected Near-Coastal Sites in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliashim Albani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the wind energy potential by analysing a certain amount of gathered 10-min measured data at four stations located at coastal sites in Malaysia, i.e., Kudat, Mersing, Kijal, and Langkawi. The wind data are collected from a total of four new wind measurement masts with sensors mounted at various heights on the tower. The measured data have enabled the establishment of wind resource maps and the power law indexes (PLIs analysis. In addition, the dependence of PLI upon surface temperature and terrain types is studied, as they are associated to the form of exponential fits. Moreover, the accuracy of exponential fits is assessed by comparing the results with the 1/7 law via the capacity factor (CF discrepancies. In order to do so, the wind turbine with a hub-height similar to the maximum height of the measured data at each site is selected to simulate energy production. Accordingly, the discrepancy of CF based on the extrapolated data by employing 1/7 laws and exponential fits, in spite of being computed using measured data, is determined as well. Furthermore, the large discrepancy of the wind data and the CF, which has been determined with the application of 1/7, is compared to the exponential fits. This is because; discrepancy in estimation of vertical wind speed could lead to inaccurate CF computation. Meanwhile, from the energy potential analysis based on the computed CF, only Kudat and Mersing display a promising potential to develop a medium capacity of wind turbine power, while the other sites may be suitable for wind turbines at a small scale.

  7. A Study of Vocational Education as a Factor in Selecting a Community for a Manufacturing Plant Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Ernest H.

    The purpose of the study was to determine the factors considered by industrialists as they select communities in which to locate their new manufacturing plants, and to place the relative importance upon vocational-technical education as a factor in the plant site selection process. The three populations consisted of 113 companies of varying sizes…

  8. Extractive fixed-site polymer sorbent for selective boron removal from natural water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Neha; Kumar, Sanjukta A; Shinde, Rakesh N; Pandey, Ashok K; Kumar, Sangita D; Reddy, A V R

    2013-09-15

    Water contamination by boron is a widespread environmental problem. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends maximum boron concentration of 2.4 mg L(-1) for drinking water. The paper presents a simple method for preparation of functionalized sheet sorbent for selective extraction of boron from natural water. The pores of commercially available poly(propylene) membrane were functionalized by room temperature in situ crosslinking of poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) with a cyclic diamine piperazine. The precursor membranes were chemically modified with N-methyl D-glucamine which is selective for boron. Characterization of membrane was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) techniques. The functionalized membrane has been characterized in terms of parameters that influence the sorption of boron from aqueous streams like pH, uptake capacity, contact time, effects of competing ions and reusability. The maximum boron sorption capacity determined experimentally was 28 mg g(-1). The studies showed that trace concentrations of boron were quantitatively removed from water at neutral pH. The developed fixed site polymer sorbent exhibited high sorption capacity and fast kinetics as compared to various sorbents reported in literature. It was successfully applied for the removal of boron from ground water and seawater samples in presence of high concentration of interfering ions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Selection of sentinel sites for death surveillance, using cluster or unequal probability sampling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Heng-li; Xu, Yong-yong; Guo, Ling-xia; Tan, Zhi-jun; Liu, Dan-hong; Rao, Ke-qin

    2010-04-01

    To compare the sampling errors from cluster or unequal probability sampling designs and to adopt the unequal probability sampling method to be used for death surveillance. Taking 107 areas from the county level in Shaanxi province as the sampling frame, a set of samples are drawn by equal probability cluster sampling and unequal probability designs methodologies. Sampling error and effect of each design are estimated according to their complex sample plans. Both the sampling errors depend on the sampling plan and the errors of equal probability in stratified cluster sampling appears to be less than simple cluster sampling. The design effects of unequal probability stratified cluster sampling, such as piPS design, are slightly lower than those of equal probability stratified cluster sampling, but the unequal probability stratified cluster sampling can cover a wider scope of monitoring population. Results from the analysis of sampling data can not be conducted without consideration of the sampling plan when the sampling frame is finite and a given sampling plan and parameters, such as sampling proportion and population weights, are assigned in advance. Unequal probability cluster sampling designs seems to be more appropriate in selecting the national death surveillance sites since more available monitoring data can be obtained and having more weight in estimating the mortality for the whole province or the municipality to be selected.

  10. Influence of olfactory and visual cover on nest site selection and nest success for grassland-nesting birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Dillon T; Elmore, R Dwayne; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D; Loss, Scott R

    2017-08-01

    Habitat selection by animals is influenced by and mitigates the effects of predation and environmental extremes. For birds, nest site selection is crucial to offspring production because nests are exposed to extreme weather and predation pressure. Predators that forage using olfaction often dominate nest predator communities; therefore, factors that influence olfactory detection (e.g., airflow and weather variables, including turbulence and moisture) should influence nest site selection and survival. However, few studies have assessed the importance of olfactory cover for habitat selection and survival. We assessed whether ground-nesting birds select nest sites based on visual and/or olfactory cover. Additionally, we assessed the importance of visual cover and airflow and weather variables associated with olfactory cover in influencing nest survival. In managed grasslands in Oklahoma, USA, we monitored nests of Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna), and Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) during 2015 and 2016. To assess nest site selection, we compared cover variables between nests and random points. To assess factors influencing nest survival, we used visual cover and olfactory-related measurements (i.e., airflow and weather variables) to model daily nest survival. For nest site selection, nest sites had greater overhead visual cover than random points, but no other significant differences were found. Weather variables hypothesized to influence olfactory detection, specifically precipitation and relative humidity, were the best predictors of and were positively related to daily nest survival. Selection for overhead cover likely contributed to mitigation of thermal extremes and possibly reduced detectability of nests. For daily nest survival, we hypothesize that major nest predators focused on prey other than the monitored species' nests during high moisture conditions, thus increasing nest survival on these days. Our

  11. Red-cockaded woodpecker nest-cavity selection: relationships with cavity age and resin production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; William G. Ross; David L. Kulhavy

    1998-01-01

    The authors evaluated selection of nest sites by male red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in Texas relative to the age of the cavity when only cavities excavated by the woodpeckers were available and when both naturally excavated cavities and artificial cavities were available. They also evaluated nest-cavity selection relative to the ability of naturally...

  12. Geochemical effects of CO2 injection on produced water chemistry at an enhanced oil recovery site in the Permian Basin of northwest Texas, USA: Preliminary geochemical and Li isotope results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, S.; Gardiner, J.; Phan, T. T.; Macpherson, G. L.; Diehl, J. R.; Lopano, C. L.; Stewart, B. W.; Capo, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Injection of supercritical CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) presents an opportunity to evaluate the effects of CO2 on reservoir properties and formation waters during geologic carbon sequestration. Produced water from oil wells tapping a carbonate-hosted reservoir at an active EOR site in the Permian Basin of Texas both before and after injection were sampled to evaluate geochemical and isotopic changes associated with water-rock-CO2 interaction. Produced waters from the carbonate reservoir rock are Na-Cl brines with TDS levels of 16.5-34 g/L and detectable H2S. These brines are potentially diluted with shallow groundwater from earlier EOR water flooding. Initial lithium isotope data (δ7Li) from pre-injection produced water in the EOR field fall within the range of Gulf of Mexico Coastal sedimentary basin and Appalachian basin values (Macpherson et al., 2014, Geofluids, doi: 10.1111/gfl.12084). Pre-injection produced water 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70788-0.70795) are consistent with mid-late Permian seawater/carbonate. CO2 injection took place in October 2013, and four of the wells sampled in May 2014 showed CO2 breakthrough. Preliminary comparison of pre- and post-injection produced waters indicates no significant changes in the major inorganic constituents following breakthrough, other than a possible drop in K concentration. Trace element and isotope data from pre- and post-breakthrough wells are currently being evaluated and will be presented.

  13. Site-specific chromatin immunoprecipitation: a selective method to individually analyze neighboring transcription factor binding sites in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuch Ronaldo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription factors (TFs and their binding sites (TFBSs play a central role in the regulation of gene expression. It is therefore vital to know how the allocation pattern of TFBSs affects the functioning of any particular gene in vivo. A widely used method to analyze TFBSs in vivo is the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP. However, this method in its present state does not enable the individual investigation of densely arranged TFBSs due to the underlying unspecific DNA fragmentation technique. This study describes a site-specific ChIP which aggregates the benefits of both EMSA and in vivo footprinting in only one assay, thereby allowing the individual detection and analysis of single binding motifs. Findings The standard ChIP protocol was modified by replacing the conventional DNA fragmentation, i. e. via sonication or undirected enzymatic digestion (by MNase, through a sequence specific enzymatic digestion step. This alteration enables the specific immunoprecipitation and individual examination of occupied sites, even in a complex system of adjacent binding motifs in vivo. Immunoprecipitated chromatin was analyzed by PCR using two primer sets - one for the specific detection of precipitated TFBSs and one for the validation of completeness of the enzyme digestion step. The method was established exemplary for Sp1 TFBSs within the egfr promoter region. Using this site-specific ChIP, we were able to confirm four previously described Sp1 binding sites within egfr promoter region to be occupied by Sp1 in vivo. Despite the dense arrangement of the Sp1 TFBSs the improved ChIP method was able to individually examine the allocation of all adjacent Sp1 TFBS at once. The broad applicability of this site-specific ChIP could be demonstrated by analyzing these SP1 motifs in both osteosarcoma cells and kidney carcinoma tissue. Conclusions The ChIP technology is a powerful tool for investigating transcription factors in vivo, especially

  14. Using Improved Entropy-Cloud Model to Select High-Speed Railway Express Freight Train Service Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wencheng Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-speed railway (HSR express freight train service sites selection is critical to the development of China’s Third Party Logistics market. In this paper, we formulate an improved entropy-cloud model based approach to solve the HSR express sites selection problem for the first time. The basic data of the indicators, for example, existing railway network conditions, traffic environment, express freight market demand, and policy, will be used as the inputs. We apply improved entropy method to obtain each subindicator’s weight. The cloud model will be used to select and classify each station under evaluation.

  15. HOW DO STUDENTS SELECT SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES? AN ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP) MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Chun Meng Tang; Miang Hong Ngerng

    2015-01-01

    Social networking sites are popular among university students, and students today are indeed spoiled for choice. New emerging social networking sites sprout up amid popular sites, while some existing ones die out. Given the choice of so many social networking sites, how do students decide which one they will sign up for and stay on as an active user? The answer to this question is of interest to social networking site designers and marketers. The market of social networking sites is highly co...

  16. Selecting optimal monitoring site locations for peak ambient particulate material concentrations using the MM5-CAMx4 numerical modelling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Andrew; Titov, Mikhail; Zawar-Reza, Peyman

    2011-01-15

    Installation of temporary or long term monitoring sites is expensive, so it is important to rationally identify potential locations that will achieve the requirements of regional air quality management strategies. A simple, but effective, numerical approach to selecting ambient particulate matter (PM) monitoring site locations has therefore been developed using the MM5-CAMx4 air pollution dispersion modelling system. A new method, 'site efficiency,' was developed to assess the ability of any monitoring site to provide peak ambient air pollution concentrations that are representative of the urban area. 'Site efficiency' varies from 0 to 100%, with the latter representing the most representative site location for monitoring peak PM concentrations. Four heavy pollution episodes in Christchurch (New Zealand) during winter 2005, representing 4 different aerosol dispersion patterns, were used to develop and test this site assessment technique. Evaluation of the efficiency of monitoring sites was undertaken for night and morning aerosol peaks for 4 different particulate material (PM) spatial patterns. The results demonstrate that the existing long term monitoring site at Coles Place is quite well located, with a site efficiency value of 57.8%. A temporary ambient PM monitoring site (operating during winter 2006) showed a lower ability to capture night and morning peak aerosol concentrations. Evaluation of multiple site locations used during an extensive field campaign in Christchurch (New Zealand) in 2000 indicated that the maximum efficiency achieved by any site in the city would be 60-65%, while the efficiency of a virtual background site is calculated to be about 7%. This method of assessing the appropriateness of any potential monitoring site can be used to optimize monitoring site locations for any air pollution measurement programme. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Texas MODIS Experiment 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Terra eXperiment 2001 was conducted from Kelly AFB San Antonio, Texas from March 14 to April 4 to improve calibration of the MODerate resolution Imaging...

  18. Public concerns about and perceptions of solid waste dump sites and selection of sanitary landfill sites in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Abu Hammad, Ahmad; Sharkas, Othman A; Sato, Chikashi

    2015-04-01

    Palestinian inhabitants have disposed of their solid wastes at open dumpsites over the past 40 years without an adequate solid waste management (SWM) plans. Recently, the Palestinian Authority initiated SWM planning to establish controlled sanitary landfills, based on a participatory approach. The purpose of this study was to assess public concerns about existing solid waste dumpsites and public perceptions of sanitary landfill site selection. The study will also take into consideration the effect of diverse social, economic, and environmental related factors of the inhabitants on sitting suitable landfill sites in three Palestinian districts in the West Bank, namely, "Nablus," "Salfit," and "Ramallah and Al-Bireh." The results of this study showed that 64.9% of the sample population are aware of the problems and potential impacts associated with random dumpsites, and 41.6% think that they are suffering from the dumps. Among the environmental, socioeconomic, and political factors, the environmental factors, air pollution in particular, are thought be the most important consideration in selecting a landfill site. The "fairness in selecting a landfill site" was chosen to be one of the most important socioeconomic factors, possibly as a reaction to the Israeli occupation and subsequent land use restrictions in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

  19. Typhus in Texas

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-07-06

    Dr. Kristy Murray, an associate professor in pediatrics and assistant dean of the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children’s Hospital, discusses increased cases of typhus in southern Texas.  Created: 7/6/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/6/2017.

  20. Measurements of environmental radiation exposure dose rates at selected sites in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, W C; Penna-Franca, E; Ribeiro, C C; Nogueira, A R; Londres, H; Oliveira, A E

    1981-12-01

    Two types of portable instruments were developed by the former Health and Safety Laboratory of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to characterize external gamma radiation fields and to estimate individual exposure dose rates from major natural or fission radionuclides distributed in the soil: a pressurized ionization chamber and a NaI(T1) gamma-ray spectrometer. The two instruments were used to measure environmental radiation exposure rates at three distinct geological areas of Brazil: - in the towns of Guarapari and Meaípe located on the monazite sand belt, ES. - on the vicinities of the uranium mine of Poços de Caldas, MG. - around the site of the Brazilian first nuclear power plant, in Angra dos Reis, RJ. The radiometric survey demonstrated once more the usefulness and versatility of the two instruments used. The measurements around the nuclear installations of Poços de Caldas and Angra dos Reis, allowed a rapid assessment of the local radiation background and its variability, as well as the selection of stations for the routine monitoring program. Radioactive anomalies were detected and characterized previously to the start of plant operations. The survey in Guarapari and Meaípe confirmed the results obtained by Roser and Cullen in 1958 and 1962, except on sites where considerable changes took place since then. The spectrometric measurements gave estimations of the relative proportion of 40K, 238U and 232Th series in the ground and also indications on the homogeneity of their distribution in the soil.

  1. Factors influencing clinical trial site selection in Europe: the Survey of Attitudes towards Trial sites in Europe (the SAT-EU Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Marta; Taylor, Rod S; Mellody, Marie; Casteels, Brigitte; Piazzi, Angela; Gensini, Gianfranco; Ambrosio, Giuseppe

    2013-11-15

    Applications to run clinical trials in Europe fell 25% between 2007 and 2011. Costs, speed of approvals and shortcomings of European Clinical Trial Directive are commonly invoked to explain this unsatisfactory performance. However, no hard evidence is available on the actual weight of these factors or has it been previously investigated whether other criteria may also impact clinical trial site selection. The Survey of Attitudes towards Trial sites in Europe (SAT-EU Study) was an anonymous, cross-sectional web-based survey that systematically assessed factors impacting European clinical trial site selection. It explored 19 factors across investigator-driven, hospital-driven and environment-driven criteria, and costs. It also surveyed perceptions of the European trial environment. Clinical research organisations (CROs), academic clinical trial units (CTUs) and industry invited to respond. weight assigned to each factor hypothesised to impact trial site selection and trial incidence. Secondary outcome: desirability of European countries to run clinical trials. Responses were obtained from 485 professionals in 34 countries: 49% from BioPharma, 40% from CTUs or CROs. Investigator-dependent, environment-dependent and hospital-dependent factors were rated highly important, costs being less important (p<0.0001). Within environment-driven criteria, pool of eligible patients, speed of approvals and presence of disease-management networks were significantly more important than costs or government financial incentives (p<0.0001). The pattern of response was consistent across respondent groupings (CTU vs CRO vs industry). Considerable variability was demonstrated in the perceived receptivity of countries to undertake clinical trials, with Germany, the UK and the Netherlands rated the best trial markets (p<0.0001). Investigator-dependent factors and ease of approval dominate trial site selection, while costs appear less important. Fostering competitiveness of European clinical

  2. CRISM Hyperspectral Data Filtering with Application to MSL Landing Site Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelos, F. P.; Parente, M.; Clark, T.; Morgan, F.; Barnouin-Jha, O. S.; McGovern, A.; Murchie, S. L.; Taylor, H.

    2009-12-01

    the next augmentation of the CRISM IR calibration (version 3). The filtering algorithm will be applied to the I/F data (IF) delivered to the Planetary Data System (PDS), but the radiance on sensor data (RA) will remain unfiltered. The development of CRISM hyperspectral analysis products in support of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landing site selection process has motivated the advance of CRISM-specific data processing techniques. The quantitative results of the CRISM IR filtering procedure as applied to CRISM observations acquired in support of MSL landing site selection will be presented.

  3. Ascorbic acid contents in selected vegetables in relation to variety, growing site, year and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Matějková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work give results from analyses of variety, growing site, year and storage influence on the ascorbic acid content by selected vegetables: carrot (Daucus carota L., parsley (Petroselinum crispum Nyman ex A. W. Hill, onion (Allium cepa L., garlic (Allium sativum L. and leek (Allium porrum L.. The evaluation carried on during the years 2004 to 2006.The variety influence on ascorbic acid was statistically significant by carrot, parsley root and also parsley leaves and by garlic. In carrots had late varieties Olympia and Tinga significant higher vitamin C content (more than over 60 % compared to early to half-late varieties Delicia, Kráska, Stupická and Nerac F1. The growing site influence was significant only by parsley leaves and onion. The influence of the growing year was one of the most important factors, which influenced vitamin C contents in selected vegetables – except of carrot was this factor statistically significant by all sorts. Changes in vitamin C content in growing years were induced above all by different climatic conditions (temperatures and rainfall courses. Higher ascorbic acid content was by garlic in the year 2005, when lower tem­pe­ra­tu­res during July were noted compared to year 2004. In parsley root and leaves, onion and leek was noted higher ascorbic acid content in year 2005, when average temperatures in August were as far as 2°C lower than in year 2004. In the case of leek could the increase of ascorbic acid in year 2005 result also from minimal rainfall during October in comparison with October 2004. By all storaged vegetables was noted statistically significant decrease of vitamin C after 30-days storage. The losses of vitamin C were highest in carrot (45 %, followed by parsley (25 %, garlic (24 % and onion (22 %.Vitamin C content was the highest by parsley leaves (1692 mg . kg−1, parsley contained high vitamin C amounts also in root (515 mg . kg−1. Leek varieties contained 281 to

  4. Landfill Site Selection by AHP Based Multi-criteria Decision Making Tool: A Case Study in Kolkata, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Ankush; Hazra, Tumpa; Dutta, Amit

    2017-09-01

    This work presents a Multi-criteria Decision Making (MCDM) tool to select a landfill site from three candidate sites proposed for Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) area that complies with accessibility, receptor, environment, public acceptability, geological and economic criteria. Analytical Hierarchy Process has been used to solve the MCDM problem. Suitability of the three sites (viz. Natagachi, Gangajoara and Kharamba) as landfills as proposed by KMC has been checked by Landfill Site Sensitivity Index (LSSI) as well as Economic Viability Index (EVI). Land area availability for disposing huge quantity of Municipal Solid Waste for the design period has been checked. Analysis of the studied sites show that they are moderately suitable for landfill facility construction as both LSSI and EVI scores lay between 300 and 750. The proposed approach represents an effective MCDM tool for siting sanitary landfill in growing metropolitan cities of developing countries like India.

  5. Landfill Site Selection by AHP Based Multi-criteria Decision Making Tool: A Case Study in Kolkata, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Ankush; Hazra, Tumpa; Dutta, Amit

    2017-07-01

    This work presents a Multi-criteria Decision Making (MCDM) tool to select a landfill site from three candidate sites proposed for Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) area that complies with accessibility, receptor, environment, public acceptability, geological and economic criteria. Analytical Hierarchy Process has been used to solve the MCDM problem. Suitability of the three sites (viz. Natagachi, Gangajoara and Kharamba) as landfills as proposed by KMC has been checked by Landfill Site Sensitivity Index (LSSI) as well as Economic Viability Index (EVI). Land area availability for disposing huge quantity of Municipal Solid Waste for the design period has been checked. Analysis of the studied sites show that they are moderately suitable for landfill facility construction as both LSSI and EVI scores lay between 300 and 750. The proposed approach represents an effective MCDM tool for siting sanitary landfill in growing metropolitan cities of developing countries like India.

  6. Selection of Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring Sites based on Geographic Parameters Extraction of GIS and Fuzzy Matter-Element Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfa Wu

    Full Text Available To effectively monitor the atmospheric quality of small-scale areas, it is necessary to optimize the locations of the monitoring sites. This study combined geographic parameters extraction by GIS with fuzzy matter-element analysis. Geographic coordinates were extracted by GIS and transformed into rectangular coordinates. These coordinates were input into the Gaussian plume model to calculate the pollutant concentration at each site. Fuzzy matter-element analysis, which is used to solve incompatible problems, was used to select the locations of sites. The matter element matrices were established according to the concentration parameters. The comprehensive correlation functions KA (xj and KB (xj, which reflect the degree of correlation among monitoring indices, were solved for each site, and a scatter diagram of the sites was drawn to determine the final positions of the sites based on the functions. The sites could be classified and ultimately selected by the scatter diagram. An actual case was tested, and the results showed that 5 positions can be used for monitoring, and the locations conformed to the technical standard. In the results of this paper, the hierarchical clustering method was used to improve the methods. The sites were classified into 5 types, and 7 locations were selected. Five of the 7 locations were completely identical to the sites determined by fuzzy matter-element analysis. The selections according to these two methods are similar, and these methods can be used in combination. In contrast to traditional methods, this study monitors the isolated point pollutant source within a small range, which can reduce the cost of monitoring.

  7. Inclusion of social indicators in decision support tools for the selection of sustainable site remediation options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuyns, Valérie

    2016-12-15

    Sustainable remediation requires a balanced decision-making process in which environmental, economic and social aspects of different remediation options are all considered together and the optimum remediation solution is selected. More attention has been paid to the evaluation of environmental and economic aspects, in particular to reduce the human and environmental risks and the remediation costs, to the exclusion of social aspects of remediation. This paper investigates how social aspects are currently considered in sustainability assessments of remediation projects. A selection of decision support tools (DSTs), used for the sustainability assessment of a remediation project, is analyzed to define how social aspects are considered in those tools. The social indicator categories of the Sustainable Remediation Forum - United Kingdom (SuRF-UK), are used as a basis for this evaluation. The consideration of social aspects in the investigated decision support tools is limited, but a clear increase is noticed in more recently developed tools. Among the five social indicator categories defined by SuRF-UK to facilitate a holistic consideration of social aspects of a remediation project only "Human health and safety" is systematically taken into account. "Neighbourhood and locality" is also often addressed, mostly emphasizing the potential disturbance caused by the remediation activities. However, the evaluation of 'Ethics and Equality', Communities and community involvement', and 'Uncertainty and evidence' is often neglected. Nevertheless, concrete examples can be found in some of the investigated tools. Specific legislation, standard procedures, and guidelines that have to be followed in a region or country are mainly been set up in the context of protecting human and ecosystem health, safety and prevention of nuisance. However, they sometimes already include some of the aspects addressed by the social indicators. In this perspective the use of DST to evaluate the

  8. Adaptive evolution of the spike gene of SARS coronavirus: changes in positively selected sites in different epidemic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Shao-Heng

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is believed that animal-to-human transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS coronavirus (CoV is the cause of the SARS outbreak worldwide. The spike (S protein is one of the best characterized proteins of SARS-CoV, which plays a key role in SARS-CoV overcoming species barrier and accomplishing interspecies transmission from animals to humans, suggesting that it may be the major target of selective pressure. However, the process of adaptive evolution of S protein and the exact positively selected sites associated with this process remain unknown. Results By investigating the adaptive evolution of S protein, we identified twelve amino acid sites (75, 239, 244, 311, 479, 609, 613, 743, 765, 778, 1148, and 1163 in the S protein under positive selective pressure. Based on phylogenetic tree and epidemiological investigation, SARS outbreak was divided into three epidemic groups: 02–04 interspecies, 03-early-mid, and 03-late epidemic groups in the present study. Positive selection was detected in the first two groups, which represent the course of SARS-CoV interspecies transmission and of viral adaptation to human host, respectively. In contrast, purifying selection was detected in 03-late group. These indicate that S protein experiences variable positive selective pressures before reaching stabilization. A total of 25 sites in 02–04 interspecies epidemic group and 16 sites in 03-early-mid epidemic group were identified under positive selection. The identified sites were different between these two groups except for site 239, which suggests that positively selected sites are changeable between groups. Moreover, it was showed that a larger proportion (24% of positively selected sites was located in receptor-binding domain (RBD than in heptad repeat (HR1-HR2 region in 02–04 interspecies epidemic group (p = 0.0208, and a greater percentage (25% of these sites occurred in HR1–HR2 region than in RBD in 03-early

  9. Resource Utilization and Site Selection for a Self-Sufficient Martian Outpost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Donald; Chamitoff, Gregory; James, George

    1998-04-01

    As a planet with striking similarities to Earth, Mars is an important focus for scientific research aimed at understanding the processes of planetary evolution and the formation of our solar system. Fortunately, Mars is also a planet with abundant natural resources, including assessible materials that can be used to support human life and to sustain a self-sufficient martian outpost. Resources required include water, breathable air, food, shelter, energy, and fuel. Through a mission design based on in situ resource development, we can establish a permanent outpost on Mars beginning with the first manned mission. This paper examines the potential for supporting the first manned mission with the objective of achieving self-sufficiency through well-understood resource development and a program of rigorous scientific research aimed at extending that capability. We examine the potential for initially extracting critical resources from the martian environment, and discuss the scientific investigations required to identify additional resources in the atmosphere, on the surface, and within the subsurface. We also discuss our current state of knowledge of Mars, technical considerations of resource utilization, and using unmanned missions' data for selecting an optimal site. The primary goal of achieving self-sufficiency on Mars would accelerate the development of human colonization beyond Earth, while providing a robust and permanent martian base from which humans can explore and conduct long-term research on planetary evolution, the solar system, and life itself.

  10. Correlation and Fishers’ Perception in Selected Sites in Laguna de Bay, Luzon Island, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur J. Lagbas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available White goby (Glossogobius giuris Hamilton 1822 is an omnivorous, native fish species which can be found in Laguna de Bay and its tributaries, and in other bodies of water in the Philippines. Deteriorating water quality, unsustainable fishing practices, aquaculture and predation by introduced invasive species are threatening the population of white goby and other native fish species in Laguna de Bay. This study was conducted to correlate select physico-chemical parameters of lake water and zooplankton abundance, and to assess white goby population based on fishers’ perception. Water samples were collected in three sites in June, September and December 2014. Twenty one zooplankton species belonging to 12 families were identified. The most abundant and frequently encountered zooplankton species is Eurytemora affinis Poppe 1880. Zooplanktons were most abundant in June and lowest in September. Key informant interviews with local fishers revealed that white goby population was abundant in April to August while catch report showed that fish catch is abundant in June and least during December. The fish abundance in April to June could be attributed to high productivity especially in summer season. The fishers perceived that the population of white goby was declining mainly due to water pollution, aquaculture, and predation by invasive alien species. A multi-stakeholder sustainable watershed management should be adapted to improve the water quality and extinction of native fish species in Laguna de Bay.

  11. Resource Utilization and Site Selection for a Self-Sufficient Martian Outpost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Donald; Chamitoff, Gregory; James, George

    1998-01-01

    As a planet with striking similarities to Earth, Mars is an important focus for scientific research aimed at understanding the processes of planetary evolution and the formation of our solar system. Fortunately, Mars is also a planet with abundant natural resources, including assessible materials that can be used to support human life and to sustain a self-sufficient martian outpost. Resources required include water, breathable air, food, shelter, energy, and fuel. Through a mission design based on in situ resource development, we can establish a permanent outpost on Mars beginning with the first manned mission. This paper examines the potential for supporting the first manned mission with the objective of achieving self-sufficiency through well-understood resource development and a program of rigorous scientific research aimed at extending that capability. We examine the potential for initially extracting critical resources from the martian environment, and discuss the scientific investigations required to identify additional resources in the atmosphere, on the surface, and within the subsurface. We also discuss our current state of knowledge of Mars, technical considerations of resource utilization, and using unmanned missions' data for selecting an optimal site. The primary goal of achieving self-sufficiency on Mars would accelerate the development of human colonization beyond Earth, while providing a robust and permanent martian base from which humans can explore and conduct long-term research on planetary evolution, the solar system, and life itself.

  12. Predicting and mapping potential Whooping Crane stopover habitat to guide site selection for wind energy projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaire, J Amy; Kreakie, Betty J; Keitt, Timothy; Minor, Emily

    2014-04-01

    Migratory stopover habitats are often not part of planning for conservation or new development projects. We identified potential stopover habitats within an avian migratory flyway and demonstrated how this information can guide the site-selection process for new development. We used the random forests modeling approach to map the distribution of predicted stopover habitat for the Whooping Crane (Grus americana), an endangered species whose migratory flyway overlaps with an area where wind energy development is expected to become increasingly important. We then used this information to identify areas for potential wind power development in a U.S. state within the flyway (Nebraska) that minimize conflicts between Whooping Crane stopover habitat and the development of clean, renewable energy sources. Up to 54% of our study area was predicted to be unsuitable as Whooping Crane stopover habitat and could be considered relatively low risk for conflicts between Whooping Cranes and wind energy development. We suggest that this type of analysis be incorporated into the habitat conservation planning process in areas where incidental take permits are being considered for Whooping Cranes or other species of concern. Field surveys should always be conducted prior to construction to verify model predictions and understand baseline conditions. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. SEM-induced shrinkage and site-selective modification of single-crystal silicon nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Wang, Yifan; Deng, Tao; Liu, Zewen

    2017-07-01

    Solid-state nanopores with feature sizes around 5 nm play a critical role in bio-sensing fields, especially in single molecule detection and sequencing of DNA, RNA and proteins. In this paper we present a systematic study on shrinkage and site-selective modification of single-crystal silicon nanopores with a conventional scanning electron microscope (SEM). Square nanopores with measurable sizes as small as 8 nm × 8 nm and rectangle nanopores with feature sizes (the smaller one between length and width) down to 5 nm have been obtained, using the SEM-induced shrinkage technique. The analysis of energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and the recovery of the pore size and morphology reveal that the grown material along with the edge of the nanopore is the result of deposition of hydrocarbon compounds, without structural damage during the shrinking process. A simplified model for pore shrinkage has been developed based on observation of the cross-sectional morphology of the shrunk nanopore. The main factors impacting on the task of controllably shrinking the nanopores, such as the accelerating voltage, spot size, scanned area of e-beam, and the initial pore size have been discussed. It is found that single-crystal silicon nanopores shrink linearly with time under localized irradiation by SEM e-beam in all cases, and the pore shrinkage rate is inversely proportional to the initial equivalent diameter of the pore under the same e-beam conditions.

  14. Oviposition Site Selection Structures Niche Partitioning Among Coccinellid Species in a Tropical Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicsú, P R; Macedo, R H; Sujii, E R

    2015-10-01

    The competitive exclusion hypothesis suggests that coexisting related species using similar resources in nature should partition their realized niches. This hypothesis has direct implications for conservation strategies using biological control, taking into consideration the shifts caused by the introduction of natural enemies in a local community. Such introductions typically lead to disruptions in species interactions and interfere with community structure. In this study, we asked whether community structure of aphidophagous lady beetles is determined by the distribution of specific plants and aphids. To answer this question, we describe the distribution patterns of lady beetles (adults, larvae, and egg clusters) relative to plants and aphids in eight crop ecosystems in a central region of Brazil. We used canonical correspondence analysis to evaluate lady beetle distribution relative to selected habitat variables. Cycloneda sanguinea L., Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, and Eriopis connexa Germar (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) differed in their use of plants and aphids. The association of egg clusters with specific plants/aphids was stronger than that of larvae or adults. In conclusion, lady beetle species occupied different niches, indicating different patterns of habitat use that may facilitate their coexistence in crop ecosystems. Furthermore, immature individuals had more specific environmental associations than adults, likely because female choice of oviposition sites influences their distribution and thus lady beetle community structure.

  15. Biogenic emissions modeling for Southeastern Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, M.; Jacob, D.; Jarvie, J. [Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) modeling staff performed biogenic hydrocarbon emissions modeling in support of gridded photochemical modeling for ozone episodes in 1992 and 1993 for the Coastal Oxidant Assessment for Southeast Texas (COAST) modeling domain. This paper summarizes the results of the biogenic emissions modeling and compares preliminary photochemical modeling results to ambient air monitoring data collected during the 1993 COAST study. Biogenic emissions were estimated using BIOME, a gridded biogenic emissions model that uses region-specific land use and biomass density data, and plant species-specific emission factor data. Ambient air monitoring data were obtained by continuous automated gas chromatography at two sites, one-hour canister samples at 5 sites, and 24-hour canister samples at 13 other sites. The concentrations of Carbon Bond-IV species (as determined from urban airshed modeling) were compared to measured hydrocarbon concentrations. In this paper, we examined diurnal and seasonal variations, as well as spatial variations.

  16. Integrated account of method, site selection and programme prior to the site investigation phase[Planning for a Swedish repository for spent nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    applications and have these applications reviewed by the appropriate authorities. An analysis of conceivable alternatives for managing and disposing of spent nuclear fuel has confirmed that deep geological disposal according to the KBS-3 method has the best prospects of meeting all requirements. The alternative of putting off a decision until some future time (the zero alternative) does not appear tenable. The assessment of long-term safety shows that the prospects of building a safe deep repository in the Swedish bedrock are good. Independent Swedish and international review of the safety assessment confirm that the body of data in this respect is adequate for the siting process to proceed to the site investigation phase. A fuller summary is given below of the account given in this report of method as well as site selection and programme for the site investigation phase. The point of departure for the account is the review comments made by the regulatory authorities and the Government's decision regarding RD and D-Programme 98. In its decision, the Government stipulated conditions for SKB's continued research and development programme. The analysis of alternative system designs was to be supplemented, mainly with regard to the zero alternative and very deep boreholes. Furthermore, the Government decided that SKB shall submit an integrated evaluation of completed feasibility studies and other background material for selection of sites for site investigations and present a clear programme for site investigations.

  17. Does infrared visualization improve selection of venipuncture sites for indwelling needle at the forearm in second-year nursing students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuroku, Keiko; Narita, Yugo; Taneda, Yukari; Kobayashi, Shinji; Gayle, Alberto A

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a vein visualization display system using near-infrared light ("Vein Display") for the safe and proper selection of venipuncture sites for indwelling needle placement in the forearm. Ten second year nursing students were recruited to apply an indwelling needle line with and without Vein Display. Another ten participants were recruited from various faculty to serve as patients. The quality of the venipuncture procedure at various selected sites was evaluated according to a scale developed by the authors. Time, scores and patterns of puncture-site selection were compared with respect to three different methods: [1] attempt 1 (tourniquet only), [2] attempt 2 (Vein Display only) and [3] attempt 3 (both). To validate the effectiveness of Vein Display, 52 trials were conducted in total. We found that venipuncture site selection time was significantly improved with the Vein Display, particularly in the case of difficult to administer venipuncture sites. Overall, we found no significant difference with respect to venipuncture quality, as determined by our scale. These results suggest that equipment such as the Vein Display can contribute immensely to the improvement of practical skills, such as venipuncture, especially in the context of elderly patients. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Polyadenylation site selection: linking transcription and RNA processing via a conserved carboxy-terminal domain (CTD)-interacting protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larochelle, Marc; Hunyadkürti, Judit; Bachand, François

    2017-05-01

    Despite the fact that the process of mRNA polyadenylation has been known for more than 40 years, a detailed understating of the mechanism underlying polyadenylation site selection is still far from complete. As 3' end processing is intimately associated with RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription, factors that can successively interact with the transcription machinery and recognize cis-acting sequences on the nascent pre-mRNA would be well suited to contribute to poly(A) site selection. Studies using the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe have recently identified Seb1, a protein that shares homology with Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nrd1 and human SCAF4/8, and that is critical for poly(A) site selection. Seb1 binds to the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNAPII via a conserved CTD-interaction domain and recognizes specific sequence motifs clustered downstream of the polyadenylation site on the uncleaved pre-mRNA. In this short review, we summarize insights into Seb1-dependent poly(A) site selection and discuss some unanswered questions regarding its molecular mechanism and conservation.

  19. SITE SELECTION TO HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILL OF GILANEGHARB TOWNSHIP IN KERMANSHAH PROVINCE, WESTERN IRAN BY USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOSLEM HADIDI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Each of them has different effects on site selection of hazardous waste landfill. Some factors cause limits to site selection such as; climatic, topographic, land use, edaphic, quakeable, regions under conservation of environment organization and so on. these factors may be cause unsustainable and move hazardous waste to surface and under ground water and also air pollution according to wind aspect, consequently different contaminations. This study was conducted in Gilanegharb town in Kermanshah province west of Iran in 2012 to find best area of landfill of hazardous wastes. Each of the factors valued and weighted based on experts opinions and then evaluated each of the preperated layers in RS and GIS softwares. In the first evaluation of 19 sites, 6 sites were investigated. The results show that asphalt factory site is the best region and then Shahrdary, Tan Kooshk sites are better to landfill of hazardous waste respectively. The reasons for selecting of this regions were far form surface and ground water resources and as a result avoiding to be defiled of ground water. On the other hand, there is no air pollution and malodorous of Ghilangharb town because of wind blow aspect in the region.

  20. Selection and spatial Arrangement of rest sites within Northern tamandua (Tamandua mexicana) home ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, D.D.; Montgomery, R.A.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Jansen, P.A.; Garzon-Lopez, C.X.; Kays, R.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of suitable rest sites is considered to be a key determinant of spatial patterns in animal activity. However, it is not immediately evident which landscape features satisfy rest site requirements or how these sites are configured within the home range. We used Global Positioning

  1. Selection and spatial arrangement of rest sites within northern tamandua home ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, D. D.; Montgomery, R. A.; Millspaugh, J. J.; Jansen, P. A.; Garzon-Lopez, C. X.; Kays, R.

    The distribution of suitable rest sites is considered to be a key determinant of spatial patterns in animal activity. However, it is not immediately evident which landscape features satisfy rest site requirements or how these sites are configured within the home range. We used Global Positioning

  2. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah. Site selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The siting requirements are described for a NEC. The methodology used, primary and secondary screening criteria and the results and conclusions are also presented. Appended to the report are detailed discussions of two siting factors, and evaluation of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) demographic siting criteria and a fatal flaw analyses for terrestrial and aquatic ecology.

  3. Combined-sewer overflow data and methods of sample collection for selected sites, Detroit, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat, M.J.; Wolf, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    for inorganic pollutants, and between 14 and 22 times for organic pollutants, depending on the site. These samples represented between 8 and 17 storms during which one or more of the four selected CSOs discharged. The monitored pollutants included fecal coliform, fecal streptococci, and Escherichia coli; antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, total chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, silver, thallium and zinc; and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, volatile organic compounds, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Metal and non-metal inorganic pollutants were detected at all sites. Many organic pollutants were not detected at all.

  4. Nest sites selection by sympatric cavity-nesting birds in miombo woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent R. Nyirenda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation and habitat fragmentation have long been known as drivers of wildlife depletion but information on their specific impacts on cavity-nesting birds in the miombo woodlands has been lacking. A comparative study of disturbed and undisturbed sites was conducted in miombo woodlands of Zambia to assess impacts of environmental stressors on birds. Foot patrols were employed to locate, identify and count host trees and cavities for cavity-nesting birds on twenty 200 m × 200 m sample plots. Undisturbed forests had three times more cavities (the nesting sites for birds, while there were 24.6% fewer abandoned cavities in undisturbed forests than in disturbed forests. The rate of cavity abandonment was about twice as high in human-dominated forests compared to undisturbed forests (61.3% c.f. 31.9%. Cavity-nesting birds preferred larger (> 36.0 cm diameter at breast height and taller (> 5.0 m trees for nest placement, especially in human-dominated forests. A number of cavity-nesting birds preferred Brachystegia spiciformis (zebrawood, Julbernadia paniculata (munsa, Parinari curatellifolia (mobola-plum and Uapaca kirkiana (mahobohobo as host trees to 14 other miombo tree species. Arnot’s Chat (Myrmecocichla arnoti had a wider selection of host trees for cavity-nesting than the other 40 cavity-nesting birds in the study areas. Anthropogenic activities such as uncontrolled firewood collection, wild fires, logging, and land clearing for agriculture negatively influenced wood abundance and diversity, with potential implications for persistence of cavity-nesting birds. The negative impacts of anthropogenic activities could be counteracted by conservation strategies such as implementation of sound forest policies, integrative land use practices, sustainable livelihood security and stakeholders’ awareness of the need to safeguard forest-dependent avifauna.Conservation implications: This comparative study unravels specific anthropogenic impacts on

  5. Cornell University remote sensing program. [application to waste disposal site selection, study of drainage patterns, and water quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, T.; Mcnair, A. J.; Philipson, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Aircraft and satellite remote sensing technology were applied in the following areas: (1) evaluation of proposed fly ash disposal sites; (2) development of priorities for drainage improvements; (3) state park analysis for rehabilitation and development; (4) watershed study for water quality planning; and (5) assistance project-landfill site selection. Results are briefly summarized. Other projects conducted include: (1) assessment of vineyard-related problems; (2) LANDSAT analysis for pheasant range management; (3) photo-historic evaluation of Revolutionary War sites; and (4) thermal analysis of building insulation. The objectives, expected benefits and actions, and status of these projects are described.

  6. LLRW disposal site selection process. Southeast Compact -- State of North Carolina: A combined technical and public information approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snider, F.G.; Amick, D.C.; Khoury, S.G. [Ebasco Services Incorporated, Greensboro, NC (United States); Stowe, C.H.; Guichard, P. [NC Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Authority, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1989-11-01

    The State of North Carolina has been designated to host the second commercial low level radioactive waste disposal facility for the Southeast Compact. The North Carolina facility is to be operational on January 1, 1993, concurrent with the closing of the present facility in Barnwell, South Carolina. The NC Low Level Radioactive Waste Management Authority and its contractor, Ebasco Services Incorporated, initiated the site selection process in July of 1988. The present schedule calls for the identification of two or more sites for detailed characterization in the latter half of 1989. The site selection process is following two concurrent and parallel paths. The first is the technical site screening process, which is focusing the search for a suitable site by the systematic application of state and federal laws and regulations regarding exclusion and suitability factors. In a parallel effort, the NCLL Radioactive Waste Management Authority has embarked on an extensive public information program. In addition to newsletters, fact sheets, brochures, video tapes, and news releases, a total of six regional meetings and 26 public forums have been held across the state. A total of 4,764 people attended the forums, 1,241 questions were asked, and 243 public statements were made. The combination of a systematic, defensible technical siting process and the concurrent release of information and numerous statewide public meetings and forums is proving to be an effective strategy for the eventual identification of sites that are both technically suitable and publicly acceptable.

  7. Cross validation of geotechnical and geophysical site characterization methods: near surface data from selected accelerometric stations in Crete (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupasakis, C.; Tsangaratos, P.; Rozos, D.; Rondoyianni, Th.; Vafidis, A.; Kritikakis, G.; Steiakakis, M.; Agioutantis, Z.; Savvaidis, A.; Soupios, P.; Papadopoulos, I.; Papadopoulos, N.; Sarris, A.; Mangriotis, M.-D.; Dikmen, U.

    2015-06-01

    The specification of the near surface ground conditions is highly important for the design of civil constructions. These conditions determine primarily the ability of the foundation formations to bear loads, the stress - strain relations and the corresponding settlements, as well as the soil amplification and corresponding peak ground motion in case of dynamic loading. The static and dynamic geotechnical parameters as well as the ground-type/soil-category can be determined by combining geotechnical and geophysical methods, such as engineering geological surface mapping, geotechnical drilling, in situ and laboratory testing and geophysical investigations. The above mentioned methods were combined, through the Thalis ″Geo-Characterization″ project, for the site characterization in selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island. The combination of the geotechnical and geophysical methods in thirteen (13) sites provided sufficient information about their limitations, setting up the minimum tests requirements in relation to the type of the geological formations. The reduced accuracy of the surface mapping in urban sites, the uncertainties introduced by the geophysical survey in sites with complex geology and the 1D data provided by the geotechnical drills are some of the causes affecting the right order and the quantity of the necessary investigation methods. Through this study the gradual improvement on the accuracy of site characterization data is going to be presented by providing characteristic examples from a total number of thirteen sites. Selected examples present sufficiently the ability, the limitations and the right order of the investigation methods.

  8. Pathogenic and Saprophytic Leptospira Species in Water and Soils from Selected Urban Sites in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacer, Douadi; Woh, Pei Yee; Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena; Amran, Fairuz; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2013-01-01

    Leptospira species were studied in water and soils from selected urban sites in Malaysia. A total of 151 water (n=121) and soil (n=30) samples were collected from 12 recreational lakes and wet markets. All samples were filtered and inoculated into semi-solid Ellinghausen and McCullough modified by Johnson and Harris (EMJH) media supplemented with additional 5-fluorouracil. The cultures were then incubated at 30°C and observed under a dark field microscope with intervals of 10 days. A PCR assay targeting the rrs gene was used to confirm the genus Leptospira among the isolates. Subsequently, the pathogenic status of the isolates was determined using primer sets G1/G2 and Sapro1/Sapro2, which target the secY and rrs genes, respectively. The isolates were identified at serogroup level using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) while their genetic diversity was assessed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Based on dark field microscopy, 23.1% (28/121) water and 23.3% (7/30) soil cultures were positive for Leptospira spp. Of the 35 positive cultures, only 8 were pure and confirmed as Leptospira genus by PCR assay. Two out of 8 isolates were confirmed as pathogenic, 5 were saprophytic and one was intermediate. These 8 isolates were negative for the 25 reference hyperimmune rabbit sera tested in the MAT. PFGE showed that all 8 of these environmental Leptospira spp. were genetically diverse. In conclusion, the presence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in the urban Malaysian environment may indicate and highlight the importance of water screening, especially in recreational lakes, in order to minimize any chance of Leptospira infection. PMID:23363618

  9. Future trends of the Alpine and ephemeral snowpack at selected sites across Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmucki, Edgar; Marty, Christoph; Fierz, Charles; Lehning, Michael; Weingartner, Rolf

    2014-05-01

    Snow is a key feature of mountainous environments because of its high implications for hydrology, vegetation and economics, such as winter tourism or hydropower. In particular, snow depth, the stored snow water equivalent, the duration of the snow on the ground or the snow load on a roof are all important parameters for services like road maintenance, avalanche warning, water management, hydro power, flood prevention or building code regulations. The measurement of these snow parameters is either not always possible or too expensive. To overcome this problem, snow models with input from meteorological stations are a worthwhile alternative. In this study we apply the one-dimensional, physically based snow model SNOWPACK. We first demonstrate the performance of SNOWPACK in modelling the seasonal evolution of snow characteristics such as snow depth or duration of snow cover for single years. The required input data for SNOWPACK includes air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, incoming short- and long-wave radiation, and precipitation intensity. As most stations do not measure incoming long-wave radiation, it needs to be parameterized. Moreover, due to wind-induced errors, it is necessary to correct the precipitation measurements. In a second step we show future trends of the Swiss snowpack at selected sites located at different elevations across Switzerland. Therefore we concentrate on the ability of SNOWPACK to model climatological mean values of seasonal snow depth, maximum snow depth and the length of snow season for example. For the assessment of future trends, scenario data from the recently released CH2011 report will be used in order to perturb the observed time series of temperature and precipitation.

  10. Offal dumping sites influence the relative abundance and roosting site selection of Black Kites (Milvus migrans govinda) in urban landscape: a study from Kolkata metropolis, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Subhendu; Ghose, Dipankar; Saha, Goutam Kumar

    2017-12-14

    Although Black Kites (Milvus migrans govinda) serve as major scavenging raptor in most of the urban areas, scientific studies on this important ecosystem service provider are almost non-existent in Indian context. The present study was carried out in a metropolis in eastern India to find out the factors influencing relative abundance and roosting site selection of Black Kites. Separate generalized linear models (GLMs) were performed considering encounter rate and roosting Black Kite abundance as response variables. The study conclusively indicated that encounter rates of Black Kites were significantly influenced by the presence of garbage dumps in its vicinity. Numbers of Black Kites were also higher in the roosting sites situated closer to garbage dumps and open spaces. In addition, expected counts of Black Kites significantly increased in roosting sites situated away from buildings and water bodies. However, built-up area and tree cover around the roosting sites had no influence on the abundance of Black Kites therein. With rapid urbanization and changing offal disposal patterns, our findings would be useful to ensure continued availability of food and roosting sites of Black Kites in urban areas.

  11. Macroinvertebrate-based assessment of biological condition at selected sites in the Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 2000-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.; Healy, Brian D.; Williams, Cory A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, Colorado Springs Utilities, Denver Water, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (FS), compiled macroinvertebrate (73 sites, 124 samples) data previously collected in the Eagle River watershed from selected USGS and FS studies, 2000-07. These data were analyzed to assess the biological condition (that is, biologically ?degraded? or ?good?) at selected sites in the Eagle River watershed and determine if site class (for example, urban or undeveloped) described biological condition. An independently developed predictive model was applied to calculate a site-specific measure of taxonomic completeness for macroinvertebrate communities, where taxonomic completeness was expressed as the ratio of observed (O) taxa to those expected (E) to occur at each site. Macroinvertebrate communities were considered degraded at sites were O/E values were less than 0.80, indicating that at least 20 percent of expected taxa were not observed. Sites were classified into one of four classes (undeveloped, adjacent road or highway or both, mixed, urban) using a combination of riparian land-cover characteristics, examination of topographic maps and aerial imagery, screening for exceedances in water-quality standards, and best professional judgment. Analysis of variance was used to determine if site class accounted for variability in mean macroinvertebrate O/E values. Finally, macroinvertebrate taxa observed more or less frequently than expected at urban sites were indentified. This study represents the first standardized assessment of biological condition of selected sites distributed across the Eagle River watershed. Of the 73 sites evaluated, just over

  12. Isolation of Cu Atoms in Pd Lattice: Forming Highly Selective Sites for Photocatalytic Conversion of CO2 to CH4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ran; Li, Yu; Liu, Yan; Chen, Shuangming; Zheng, Xusheng; Gao, Chao; He, Chaohua; Chen, Nanshan; Qi, Zeming; Song, Li; Jiang, Jun; Zhu, Junfa; Xiong, Yujie

    2017-03-29

    Photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to CH4, a carbon-neutral fuel, represents an appealing approach to remedy the current energy and environmental crisis; however, it suffers from the large production of CO and H2 by side reactions. The design of catalytic sites for CO2 adsorption and activation holds the key to address this grand challenge. In this Article, we develop highly selective sites for photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to CH4 by isolating Cu atoms in Pd lattice. According to our synchrotron-radiation characterizations and theoretical simulations, the isolation of Cu atoms in Pd lattice can play dual roles in the enhancement of CO2-to-CH4 conversion: (1) providing the paired Cu-Pd sites for the enhanced CO2 adsorption and the suppressed H2 evolution; and (2) elevating the d-band center of Cu sites for the improved CO2 activation. As a result, the Pd7Cu1-TiO2 photocatalyst achieves the high selectivity of 96% for CH4 production with a rate of 19.6 μmol gcat-1 h-1. This work provides fresh insights into the catalytic site design for selective photocatalytic CO2 conversion, and highlights the importance of catalyst lattice engineering at atomic precision to catalytic performance.

  13. Field sampling and selecting on-site analytical methods for explosives in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, A.B.; Craig, H.D.; Jenkins, T.F.; Sisk, W.E.

    1996-12-01

    A large number of defense-related sites are contaminated with elevated levels of secondary explosives. Levels of contamination range from barely detectable to levels above 10% that need special handling because of the detonation potential. Characterization of explosives-contaminated sites is particularly difficult because of the very heterogeneous distribution of contamination in the environment and within samples. To improve site characterization, several options exist including collecting more samples, providing on-site analytical data to help direct the investigation, compositing samples, improving homogenization of the samples, and extracting larger samples. This publication is intended to provide guidance to Remedial Project Managers regarding field sampling and on-site analytical methods for detecting and quantifying secondary explosive compounds in soils, and is not intended to include discussions of the safety issues associated with sites contaminated with explosive residues.

  14. Single site porphyrine-like structures advantages over metals for selective electrochemical CO2 reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Alexander; Ju, Wen; Varela, Ana Sofia

    2017-01-01

    Currently, no catalysts are completely selective for the electrochemical CO2 Reduction Reaction (CO2RR). Based on trends in density functional theory calculations of reaction intermediates we find that the single metal site in a porphyrine-like structure has a simple advantage of limiting the com...

  15. Site Selection in School District Research: A Measure of Effectiveness Using Hierarchical Longitudinal Growth Models of Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Alex J.

    2015-01-01

    School districts in the USA are an active area of study in education research as findings have shown that some districts find success in certain contexts while others struggle. However, the research domain has had few actionable methods for site selection for in-depth qualitative studies. This study analyses all districts in the state of Ohio (n =…

  16. Oviposition site selection by Gasterophilus pecorum (Diptera: Gasterophilidae) in its habitat in Kalamaili Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan-Hui; Hu, De-Fu; Li, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Oviposition site selection is an important aspect of the behavioural ecology of insects. A comparison of the habitats used by a species enhances our understanding of their adaptation to altered environments. We collected data on the oviposition behaviours of Gasterophilus pecorum (Diptera: Gasterophilidae) in its habitat in Kalamaili Nature Reserve (KNR), Xinjiang, China between March and October 2014. We found 91 quadrats were used by G. pecorum for oviposition. Examining 13 ecological factors using the t-test, chi-square test, and principal component analysis showed that G. pecorum's oviposition habitat was preferentially on slopes with inclinations of 10-30° that were semi-sunny, semi-cloudy slopes, in positions high or low on the slopes, with preferences for total plants lower than 10% and Stipa capillata coverage lower than 10% on the low slopes, but Ceratoides latens coverage on the high and intermediate slopes, when the numbers of plant species and families were lower than five. G. pecorum often selected sites at a distance < 2000 m from a water source and average altitude 900-1000 m. The oviposition site selection by G. pecorum may be correlated with the behaviour of Przewalski's horses (Equus ferus przewalskii), and water and food resources may strongly influence oviposition site selection, as Przewalski's horses rest and forage in these areas. © S.-H. Liu et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  17. Teaming for success "TxDOT is here to help" : site selection and access for large distribution centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    These slides are intended to be used as a free-standing brief presentation or within larger presentations to describe and promote the advantages of involving TxDOT early in the distribution center site selection process. The purpose is to involve TxD...

  18. Site-selective Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of heteroaryl halides - understanding the trends for pharmaceutically important classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond-Thynne, Joshua; Blakemore, David C; Pryde, David C; Spivey, Alan C

    2017-01-01

    Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions of heteroaryl polyhalides with aryl boronates are surveyed. Drawing on data from literature sources as well as bespoke searches of Pfizer's global chemistry RKB and CAS Scifinder® databases, the factors that determine the site-selectivity of these reactions are discussed with a view to rationalising the trends found.

  19. Site selection and resource depletion in black-tailed godwits Limosa l. limosa eating rice during northward migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourenco, Pedro M.; Mandema, Freek S.; Hooijmeijer, Jos C.E.W.; Granadeiro, Jose P.; Piersma, Theunis; Bearhop, Stuart

    P>1. During migratory stopovers, animals are under strong time stress and need to maximize intake rates. We examine how foragers react to resource depletion by studying the foraging ecology and foraging site selection of black-tailed godwits Limosa l. limosa staging in rice fields during their

  20. Streambed scour evaluations and conditions at selected bridge sites in Alaska, 2013–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebee, Robin A.; Dworsky, Karenth L.; Knopp, Schyler J.

    2017-12-27

    Streambed scour potential was evaluated at 52 river- and stream-spanning bridges in Alaska that lack a quantitative scour analysis or have unknown foundation details. All sites were evaluated for stream stability and long-term scour potential. Contraction scour and abutment scour were calculated for 52 bridges, and pier scour was calculated for 11 bridges that had piers. Vertical contraction (pressure flow) scour was calculated for sites where the modeled water surface was higher than the superstructure of the bridge. In most cases, hydraulic models of the 1- and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability floods (also known as the 100- and 500-year floods, respectively) were used to derive hydraulic variables for the scour calculations. Alternate flood values were used in scour calculations for sites where smaller floods overtopped a bridge or where standard flood-frequency estimation techniques did not apply. Scour also was calculated for large recorded floods at 13 sites.Channel instability at 11 sites was related to human activities (in-channel mining, dredging, and channel relocation). Eight of the dredged sites are located on active unstable alluvial fans and were graded to protect infrastructure. The trend toward aggradation during major floods at these sites reduces confidence in scour estimates.Vertical contraction and pressure flow occurred during the 0.2-percent or smaller annual exceedance probability floods at eight sites. Contraction scour exceeded 5 feet (ft) at four sites, and total scour at piers (pier scour plus contraction scour) exceeded 5 ft at four sites. Debris accumulation increased calculated pier scour at six sites by an average of 2.4 ft. Total scour at abutments exceeded 5 ft at 10 sites. Scour estimates seemed excessive at two piers where equations did not account for channel armoring, and at four abutments where failure of the embankment and attendant channel widening would reduce scour.

  1. The siting record: An account of the programs of federal agencies and events that have led to the selection of a potential site for a geologic respository for high-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomenick, T.F.

    1996-03-01

    This record of siting a geologic repository for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) and spent fuel describes the many investigations that culminated on December 22, 1987 in the designation of Yucca Mountain (YM), as the site to undergo detailed geologic characterization. It recounts the important issues and events that have been instrumental in shaping the course of siting over the last three and one half decades. In this long task, which was initiated in 1954, more than 60 regions, areas, or sites involving nine different rock types have been investigated. This effort became sharply focused in 1983 with the identification of nine potentially suitable sites for the first repository. From these nine sites, five were subsequently nominated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as suitable for characterization and then, in 1986, as required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), three of these five were recommended to the President as candidates for site characterization. President Reagan approved the recommendation on May 28, 1986. DOE was preparing site characterization plans for the three candidate sites, namely Deaf Smith County, Texas; Hanford Site, Washington; and YM. As a consequence of the 1987 Amendment to the NWPA, only the latter was authorized to undergo detailed characterization. A final Site Characterization Plan for Yucca Mountain was published in 1988. Prior to 1954, there was no program for the siting of disposal facilities for high-level waste (HLW). In the 1940s and 1950s, the volume of waste, which was small and which resulted entirely from military weapons and research programs, was stored as a liquid in large steel tanks buried at geographically remote government installations principally in Washington and Tennessee.

  2. Transforming Developmental Education in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Developmental Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with support from the Texas Legislature, the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board has funded various developmental education initiatives, including research and evaluation efforts, to help Texas public institutions of higher education provide more effective programs and services to underprepared students. Based on evaluation…

  3. Forests of east Texas, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry J.W. Dooley

    2017-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station (SRS) in cooperation with Texas A&M Forest Service. The 254 counties of Texas are consolidated into seven FIA survey units—Southeast (unit 1),...

  4. Drinking Water Quality Criterion - Based site Selection of Aquifer Storage and Recovery Scheme in Chou-Shui River Alluvial Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. E.; Liang, C. P.; Jang, C. S.; Chen, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Land subsidence due to groundwater exploitation is an urgent environmental problem in Choushui river alluvial fan in Taiwan. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR), where excess surface water is injected into subsurface aquifers for later recovery, is one promising strategy for managing surplus water and may overcome water shortages. The performance of an ASR scheme is generally evaluated in terms of recovery efficiency, which is defined as percentage of water injected in to a system in an ASR site that fulfills the targeted water quality criterion. Site selection of an ASR scheme typically faces great challenges, due to the spatial variability of groundwater quality and hydrogeological condition. This study proposes a novel method for the ASR site selection based on drinking quality criterion. Simplified groundwater flow and contaminant transport model spatial distributions of the recovery efficiency with the help of the groundwater quality, hydrological condition, ASR operation. The results of this study may provide government administrator for establishing reliable ASR scheme.

  5. Prediction of protein modification sites of pyrrolidone carboxylic acid using mRMR feature selection and analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Lu Zheng

    Full Text Available Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid (PCA is formed during a common post-translational modification (PTM of extracellular and multi-pass membrane proteins. In this study, we developed a new predictor to predict the modification sites of PCA based on maximum relevance minimum redundancy (mRMR and incremental feature selection (IFS. We incorporated 727 features that belonged to 7 kinds of protein properties to predict the modification sites, including sequence conservation, residual disorder, amino acid factor, secondary structure and solvent accessibility, gain/loss of amino acid during evolution, propensity of amino acid to be conserved at protein-protein interface and protein surface, and deviation of side chain carbon atom number. Among these 727 features, 244 features were selected by mRMR and IFS as the optimized features for the prediction, with which the prediction model achieved a maximum of MCC of 0.7812. Feature analysis showed that all feature types contributed to the modification process. Further site-specific feature analysis showed that the features derived from PCA's surrounding sites contributed more to the determination of PCA sites than other sites. The detailed feature analysis in this paper might provide important clues for understanding the mechanism of the PCA formation and guide relevant experimental validations.

  6. Cost of oviposition site selection in a water strider Aquarius paludum insularis: egg mortality increases with oviposition depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Hiroyuki; Kasuya, Eiiti

    2010-06-01

    Females generally avoid selecting sites for oviposition which have a high predation risk to increase offspring survival. Previous studies have focused on costs to ovipositing females. However, although offspring may also incur costs by being oviposited at low predation risk sites, no studies have focused on costs to offspring. Such costs to offspring were examined by using Aquarius paludum insularis, females of which avoid eggs parasitism by ovipositing at deep sites. Deep sites are safe from egg parasitism but may be unsuitable for hatching due to environmental factors. We examined the costs to offspring at deep sites by comparing the hatching rate, the duration to hatching and the proportion of drowned larvae between eggs that were set at three levels of water depth (0 cm, 25 cm and 50 cm depth). While the hatching rate at 50 cm was lower than that at 0 cm, the rate at 25 cm did not differ from that at 0 cm. Duration to hatching and the proportion of drowned larvae did not differ between the three depths. It is suggested that the declining survival rate of A. paludum eggs was due to increased water pressure at greater depth. Such a cost may exist in other species and such an observation may aid in understanding oviposition site selection. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Earthtech, Dig-Texas and Upward Bound: Outreach to At-Risk Students with Interdisciplinary STEM Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgin, J. G.; Güereque, M.; Pennington, D. D.; Everett, A.; Dixon, J. G.; Reyes, A.; Houser, P. I. Q.; Baker, J. A.; Stocks, E.; Ellins, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Geological Sciences department at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) hosted the EarthTech outreach program - a one-week intensive summer camp for low-income, at-risk high school students. The EarthTech program engaged students in STEM activities from geological and environmental sciences. Developed and led by university student-mentors with guidance from a supervising faculty member, the course engaged Upward Bound students with lectures, interactive projects, and excursions to local ecological preserves and geological sites around El Paso, Texas. Topics covered plant and animal distribution and diversity, water and soil dynamics, evolution and paleontology, geohazards, and planetary science. Field trips were combined with hands-on activities, including activities from DIG Texas teaching modules. The NSF-funded DIG Texas Instructional Blueprints project is organizing vetted, high quality online educational resources and learning activities into teaching modules. The modules follow a storyline and demonstrate congruency with the Next Generation Science Standards. Selected DIG Texas resources were included in the daily curriculum to complement the field trip and other hands-on activities. EarthTech students created ESRI Online GIS story maps in which they showed the locations of the field trips, incorporated photographs they had taken, and provided written reflections about their camp experiences. The DIG Texas project evaluation collected survey and interview data from the university student mentors throughout the week to ascertain the efficacy of the program. This poster presentation will include an overview of the program, including examples of work and evaluation results.

  8. K2P2.1 (TREK-1)-activator complexes reveal a cryptic selectivity filter binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolicato, Marco; Arrigoni, Cristina; Mori, Takahiro; Sekioka, Yoko; Bryant, Clifford; Clark, Kimberly A; Minor, Daniel L

    2017-07-20

    Polymodal thermo- and mechanosensitive two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channels of the TREK subfamily generate 'leak' currents that regulate neuronal excitability, respond to lipids, temperature and mechanical stretch, and influence pain, temperature perception and anaesthetic responses. These dimeric voltage-gated ion channel (VGIC) superfamily members have a unique topology comprising two pore-forming regions per subunit. In contrast to other potassium channels, K2P channels use a selectivity filter 'C-type' gate as the principal gating site. Despite recent advances, poor pharmacological profiles of K2P channels limit mechanistic and biological studies. Here we describe a class of small-molecule TREK activators that directly stimulate the C-type gate by acting as molecular wedges that restrict interdomain interface movement behind the selectivity filter. Structures of K2P2.1 (also known as TREK-1) alone and with two selective K2P2.1 (TREK-1) and K2P10.1 (TREK-2) activators-an N-aryl-sulfonamide, ML335, and a thiophene-carboxamide, ML402-define a cryptic binding pocket unlike other ion channel small-molecule binding sites and, together with functional studies, identify a cation-π interaction that controls selectivity. Together, our data reveal a druggable K2P site that stabilizes the C-type gate 'leak mode' and provide direct evidence for K2P selectivity filter gating.

  9. K2P2.1(TREK-1):activator complexes reveal a cryptic selectivity filter binding site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolicato, Marco; Arrigoni, Cristina; Mori, Takahiro; Sekioka, Yoko; Bryant, Clifford; Clark, Kimberly A.; Minor, Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    Polymodal K2P (KCNK) thermo- and mechanosensitive TREK1 potassium channels, generate ‘leak’ currents that regulate neuronal excitability, respond to lipids, temperature, and mechanical stretch, and influence pain, temperature perception, and anesthetic responses1–3. These dimeric voltage-gated ion channel (VGIC) superfamily members have a unique topology comprising two pore forming regions per subunit4–6. Contrasting other potassium channels, K2Ps use a selectivity filter ‘C-type’ gate7–10 as the principal gating site. Despite recent advances3,11,12, K2Ps suffer from a poor pharmacologic profile limiting mechanistic and biological studies. Here, we describe a new small molecule TREK activator class that directly stimulates the C-type gate by acting as molecular wedges that restrict interdomain interface movement behind the selectivity filter. Structures of K2P2.1(TREK-1) alone with two selective K2P2.1(TREK-1) and K2P10.1(TREK-2) activators, an N-aryl-sulfonamide, ML335, and a thiophene-carboxamide, ML402, define a cryptic binding pocket unlike other ion channel small molecule binding sites and, together with functional studies, identify a cation-π interaction that controls selectivity. Together, our data unveil a previously unknown, druggable K2P site that stabilizes the C-type gate ‘leak mode’ and provide direct evidence for K2P selectivity filter gating. PMID:28693035

  10. Study for the selection of optimal site in northeastern, Mexico for wind power generation using genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, T.; Ruvalcaba, A.; Oliver, L.

    2016-12-01

    The electricity generation from renewable resources has acquired a leading role. Mexico particularrly it has great interest in renewable natural resources for power generation, especially wind energy. Therefore, the country is rapidly entering in the development of wind power generators sites. The development of a wind places as an energy project, does not have a standardized methodology. Techniques vary according to the developer to select the best place to install a wind turbine system. Generally to install the system the developers consider three key factors: 1) the characteristics of the wind, 2) the potential distribution of electricity and 3) transport access to the site. This paper presents a study with a different methodology which is carried out in two stages: the first at regional scale uses "space" and "natural" criteria in order to select a region based on its cartographic features such as politics and physiographic division, location of conservation natural areas, water bodies, urban criteria; and natural criteria such as the amount and direction of the wind, the type and land use, vegetation, topography and biodiversity of the site. The result of the application of these criteria, gives a first optimal selection area. The second part of the methodology includes criteria and variables on detail scale. The analysis of all data information collected will provide new parameters (decision variables) for the site. The overall analysis of the information, based in these criteria, indicates that the best location that the best location of the field would be the southern Coahuila and the central part of Nuevo Leon. The wind power site will contribute to the economy grow of important cities including Monterrey. Finally, computational model of genetic algorithm will be used as a tool to determine the best site selection depending on the parameters considered.

  11. Hydrogen Oxidation-Selective Electrocatalysis by Fine Tuning of Pt Ensemble Sites to Enhance the Durability of Automotive Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Su-Won; Park, Shin-Ae; Kim, Tae-June; Kim, Jun-Hyuk; Pak, Gi-Woong; Kim, Yong-Tae

    2017-02-08

    A simple, inexpensive approach is proposed for enhancing the durability of automotive proton exchange membrane fuel cells by selective promotion of the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) and suppression of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the anode in startup/shutdown events. Dodecanethiol forms a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on the surface of Pt particles, thus decreasing the number of Pt ensemble sites. Interestingly, by controlling the dodecanethiol concentration during SAM formation, the number of ensemble sites can be precisely optimized such that it is sufficient for the HOR but insufficient for the ORR. Thus, a Pt surface with an SAM of dodecanethiol clearly effects HOR-selective electrocatalysis. Clear HOR selectivity is demonstrated in unit cell tests with the actual membrane electrode assembly, as well as in an electrochemical three-electrode setup with a thin-film rotating disk electrode configuration. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Societal and Political Issues of Site Selection Process Development for the LILW Repository in Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polic, Marko; KoS, Drago [Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Zeleznik, Nadja [ARAO, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-09-15

    are easier and have less tension. In principle especially members of the local communities were satisfied with the process of their involvement and contacts with ARAO representatives. SI organization is dependant on the regulation of the whole site selection process. Due to the fact that LILW repository should be located in the territory of one local community, and that it is the right of that local community to decide about the issue, SI could not work without the territorial notion. National identifications regarding the nuclear issues are not as strong as local ones. Nevertheless it has certain influences connected to the reactions to the attitudes and behaviour of some neighbouring states (e.g. Austria, Croatia). While Austrian opposition to the Slovenian nuclear program has the opposite influence in Slovenia, Croatian rejection of 'their' waste (they own half of the NPP Krsko) undermines the search for a site for a repository somewhere in Slovenia. The siting process in Slovenia is going on more or less successfully, learning from its successes and pitfalls and is addressing these requirements.

  13. Survey of ecological resources at selected US Department of Energy sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAllister, C.; Beckert, H.; Abrams, C. [and others

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns and manages a wide range of ecological resources. During the next 30 years, DOE Headquarters and Field Offices will make land-use planning decisions and conduct environmental remediation and restoration activities in response to federal and state statutes. This document fulfills, in part, DOE`s need to know what types of ecological resources it currently owns and manages by synthesizing information on the types and locations of ecological resources at 10 DOE sites: Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Plant, Los Alamos National Laboratory, savannah River Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Fernald Environmental Management Project. This report summarizes information on ecosystems, habitats, and federally listed threatened, endangered, and candidate species that could be stressed by contaminants or physical activity during the restoration process, or by the natural or anthropogenic transport of contaminants from presently contaminated areas into presently uncontaminated areas. This report also provides summary information on the ecosystems, habitats, and threatened and endangered species that exist on each of the 10 sites. Each site chapter contains a general description of the site, including information on size, location, history, geology, hydrology, and climate. Descriptions of the major vegetation and animal communities and of aquatic resources are also provided, with discussions of the treatened or endangered plant or animal species present. Site-specific ecological issues are also discussed in each site chapter. 106 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  14. The extent of on-site leakage in selected suburbs of Johannesburg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated on-site leakage on 182 properties with relatively new municipal water meters in well-established suburbs of Johannesburg. A methodology was developed to estimate the on-site leakage rate from readings taken from these municipal water meters, which was then adjusted to account for metering ...

  15. Visitor Expectations, Satisfactions, and Views Toward Financial Support for Selected New Hampshire Historic Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Glass; Nancy Gustke; Nancy Gustke

    1987-01-01

    Although the number of visitors to New Hampshire stateowned historic sites has declined during the last 20 years, the results of a survey indicate that most respondents are satisfied with the level of services provided. The majority of visitors indicated that historic sites need not be "self-supporting"; they were willing to pay an entry fee and did not...

  16. Preliminary evaluation of selected in situ remediation technologies for Volatile Organic Compound contamination at Arid sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenhard, R.J.; Gerber, M.A.; Amonette, J.E.

    1992-10-01

    To support the Volatile Organic Compounds-Arid Site (VOC-Arid) Integrated Demonstration (ID) in its technical, logistical, institutional, and economical testing of emerging environmental management and restoration technologies. Pacific Northwest Laboratory(a) is evaluating several in situ remediation technologies for possible inclusion in the demonstration. The evaluations are made with respect to the initial focus of the VOC-Arid ID: the carbon tetrachloride contamination at the Hanford Site, where it was disposed to the vadose zone along with other volatile and nonvolatile organic wastes. heavy metals, acids. and radionuclides. The purposes of this report are (1) to identify candidate in situ technologies for inclusion in the program, (2) to evaluate the candidate technologies based on their potential applicability to VOC contamination at arid sites and geologic conditions representative of the ID host site (i.e., Hanford Site), and (3) to prioritize those technologies for future US Department of Energy (DOE) support.

  17. High electrochemical selectivity of edge versus terrace sites in two-dimensional layered MoS2 materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haotian; Zhang, Qianfan; Yao, Hongbin; Liang, Zheng; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Hsu, Po-Chun; Zheng, Guangyuan; Cui, Yi

    2014-12-10

    Exploring the chemical reactivity of different atomic sites on crystal surface and controlling their exposures are important for catalysis and renewable energy storage. Here, we use two-dimensional layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) to demonstrate the electrochemical selectivity of edge versus terrace sites for Li-S batteries and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Lithium sulfide (Li2S) nanoparticles decorates along the edges of the MoS2 nanosheet versus terrace, confirming the strong binding energies between Li2S and the edge sites and guiding the improved electrode design for Li-S batteries. We also provided clear comparison of HER activity between edge and terrace sites of MoS2 beyond the previous theoretical prediction and experimental proof.

  18. An evaluation of remote sensing technologies for the detection of fugitive contamination at selected Superfund hazardous waste sites in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.

    2014-01-01

    This evaluation was conducted to assess the potential for using both traditional remote sensing, such as aerial imagery, and emerging remote sensing technology, such as hyperspectral imaging, as tools for postclosure monitoring of selected hazardous waste sites. Sixteen deleted Superfund (SF) National Priorities List (NPL) sites in Pennsylvania were imaged with a Civil Air Patrol (CAP) Airborne Real-Time Cueing Hyperspectral Enhanced Reconnaissance (ARCHER) sensor between 2009 and 2012. Deleted sites are those sites that have been remediated and removed from the NPL. The imagery was processed to radiance and atmospherically corrected to relative reflectance with standard software routines using the Environment for Visualizing Imagery (ENVI, ITT–VIS, Boulder, Colorado) software. Standard routines for anomaly detection, endmember collection, vegetation stress, and spectral analysis were applied.

  19. A GIS-assisted approach to wide-area wind resource assessment and site selection for the state of Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, M.C. [Brower & Company, Andover, MA (United States); Hurley, P. [RLA Consulting, Bothell, WA (United States); Simon, R. [Consulting Meteorologist, Mill Valley, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the methodology and results of a wide-area wind resource assessment and site selection in Colorado. This was the first phase in a three-part assessment and monitoring program conducted for the State of Colorado Office of Energy Conservation and several collaborating utilities. The objective of this phase was to identify up to 20 candidate sites for evaluation and possible long-term monitoring. This was accomplished using a geographic information system (GIS), which takes into account such factors as topography, existing wind resource data, locations of transmission lines, land cover, and land use. The resulting list of sites recommended for evaluation in Phase 2 of the study includes locations throughout Colorado, but most are in the eastern plains. The GIS wind siting model may be modified and updated in the future as additional information becomes available. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Modulation of 5' splice site selection using tailed oligonucleotides carrying splicing signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elela Sherif

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously described the use of tailed oligonucleotides as a means of reprogramming alternative pre-mRNA splicing in vitro and in vivo. The tailed oligonucleotides that were used interfere with splicing because they contain a portion complementary to sequences immediately upstream of the target 5' splice site combined with a non-hybridizing 5' tail carrying binding sites for the hnRNP A1/A2 proteins. In the present study, we have tested the inhibitory activity of RNA oligonucleotides carrying different tail structures. Results We show that an oligonucleotide with a 5' tail containing the human β-globin branch site sequence inhibits the use of the 5' splice site of Bcl-xL, albeit less efficiently than a tail containing binding sites for the hnRNP A1/A2 proteins. A branch site-containing tail positioned at the 3' end of the oligonucleotide also elicited splicing inhibition but not as efficiently as a 5' tail. The interfering activity of a 3' tail was improved by adding a 5' splice site sequence next to the branch site sequence. A 3' tail carrying a Y-shaped branch structure promoted similar splicing interference. The inclusion of branch site or 5' splice site sequences in the Y-shaped 3' tail further improved splicing inhibition. Conclusion Our in vitro results indicate that a variety of tail architectures can be used to elicit splicing interference at low nanomolar concentrations, thereby broadening the scope and the potential impact of this antisense technology.

  1. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Remedial action selection report, Attachment 2, Geology report: Preliminary final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Included in the RAP is this Remedial Action Selection Report (RAS), which serves two purposes. First, it describes the activities that are proposed by the DOE to accomplish remediation and long-term stabilization and control of the radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Second, this document and the rest of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the state of Colorado, and the NRC, become Appendix B of the cooperative agreement between the DOE and the State of Colorado.

  2. Further development of public participation in the site-selection and approval process of a final repository in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Regine; Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate [OeEo-Institute e.V., Inst. for Applied Ecology, Darmstadt (Germany); Arens, Georg [Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), Salzgitter (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    This paper reflects the first findings of a current research project funded by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection and conducted by an interdisciplinary working group of the OEko-Institute. One focus of this project is the systematic analysis of past and existing participatory processes in different nuclear and non-nuclear projects. On the basis of this analysis and a literature review a specific concept for public participation in the site-selection and approval process of a repository for high radioactive waste (HAW repository) in Germany will be derived. The concept shall foster transparency and acceptance. The working group of the OEko-Institute combines long standing research experience and an intimate knowledge of radioactive waste management including political, technical, management and social problems of final disposal on the one hand. On the other hand members play an active role in stakeholder processes of different non-nuclear projects as well as experience with a wide range of participative measures and their impact. This allows an approach which integrates the specific features of radioactive waste disposal with a wider perspective on the demands and opportunities of stakeholder processes. The procedure of site selection for a HAW repository in Germany still has to be specified. The procedure introduced by the 'Committee on a Site Selection Procedure for Repository Sites' (Arbeitskreis Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte - AkEnd) has not been adopted. The Committee had suggested installing a negotiation group to discuss the AkEnd proposals in the so called 'Phase II'. This suggestion could not be followed because not all relevant stakeholders were willing to participate. An internal draft for a federal law implementing main elements of the AkEnd findings was developed by the Ministry for Environment in 2005, but has never been brought to the cabinet. Due to the change of Government in Germany, the next steps still are

  3. Structural features of single-stranded integron cassette attC sites and their role in strand selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Bouvier

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We recently showed that cassette integration and deletion in integron platforms were occurring through unconventional site-specific recombination reactions involving only the bottom strand of attC sites. The lack of sequence conservation among attC sites led us to hypothesize that sequence-independent structural recognition determinants must exist within attC sites. The structural data obtained from a synaptic complex of the Vibrio cholerae integrase with the bottom strand of an attC site has shown the importance of extra helical bases (EHB inside the stem-loop structure formed from the bottom strand. Here, we systematically determined the contribution of three structural elements common to all known single-stranded attC site recombination substrates (the EHBs, the unpaired central spacer (UCS, and the variable terminal structure (VTS to strand choice and recombination. Their roles have been evaluated in vivo in the attIxattC reaction context using the suicide conjugation assay we previously developed, but also in an attCxattC reaction using a deletion assay. Conjugation was used to deliver the attC sites in single-stranded form. Our results show that strand choice is primarily directed by the first EHB, but the presence of the two other EHBs also serves to increase this strand selection. We found that the structure of the central spacer is essential to achieve high level recombination of the bottom strand, suggesting a dual role for this structure in active site exclusion and for hindering the reverse reaction after the first strand exchange. Moreover, we have shown that the VTS has apparently no role in strand selectivity.

  4. College and University Planning -- 1969. Selected Papers from Society for College and University Planning Annual Conference. (4th, Houston, Texas, August 17-20, 1969.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Frederick W., Ed.; Schmult, Carl V., Jr., Ed.

    Six major conference papers cover selected planning activities for eight institutions of higher education. Discussed are academic planning for the University of Houston; circulation, parking, and landscape planning for the University of California at Irvine; planning office organization and staffing at Harvard and Ohio State Universities; building…

  5. Combining stakeholder analysis and spatial multicriteria evaluation to select and rank inert landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneletti, Davide

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents a method based on the combination of stakeholder analysis and spatial multicriteria evaluation (SMCE) to first design possible sites for an inert landfill, and then rank them according to their suitability. The method was tested for the siting of an inert landfill in the Sarca's Plain, located in south-western Trentino, an alpine region in northern Italy. Firstly, stakeholder analysis was conducted to identify a set of criteria to be satisfied by new inert landfill sites. SMCE techniques were then applied to combine the criteria, and obtain a suitability map of the study region. Subsequently, the most suitable sites were extracted by taking into account also thresholds based on size and shape. These sites were then compared and ranked according to their visibility, accessibility and dust pollution. All these criteria were assessed through GIS modelling. Sensitivity analyses were performed on the results to assess the stability of the ranking with respect to variations in the input (criterion scores and weights). The study concluded that the three top-ranking sites are located close to each other, in the northernmost sector of the study area. A more general finding was that the use of different criteria in the different stages of the analysis allowed to better differentiate the suitability of the potential landfill sites.

  6. Alternate trans splicing in Trypanosoma equiperdum: implications for splice site selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layden, R E; Eisen, H

    1988-03-01

    We examined the structures of the 5' ends of mRNAs encoding variant surface glycoprotein 78 (VSG-78) and VSG-1(78) in Trypanosoma equiperdum. Several mRNA species were found for each gene, and all contained the 35-base miniexon (or spliced leader) sequence attached at different positions on their 5' ends. Thus, the generation of multiple messages for each VSG occurred by attachment of the miniexon at one of several 3' splice acceptor sites. The frequency with which individual splice sites were used varied from less than 1 to 95% of the RNA produced from a particular gene. We propose that the miniexon RNA and RNA from the VSG genes may interact via base pairing and that this in part specifies the use of particular acceptor sites. Sequences complementary to the miniexon primary transcript, termed the "med-comp site," were found in both genes and in several published sequences. Splice sites were most often used if they were the first site 3' of the med-comp site and contained a high pyrimidine content in the bases preceding the AG acceptor signal.

  7. A molten salt tower model used for site selection in South Africa using SAURAN meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Ian Vincent; Dinter, Frank

    2017-06-01

    South Africa has become a hotspot for concentrating solar power (CSP) development in recent years. With an abundance of solar resource and an existing governmental framework for renewable energy development, the country has captured the attention of CSP developers worldwide. The primary limitations for CSP plants in South Africa are electrical transmission and water availability. While taking into account such infrastructure limitations, six sites were proposed. A purpose-built simulation model for a proposed 100 MWe (gross) tower plant with 12 hours of storage was developed. Using site South African Universities Radiometric Network (SAURAN) meteorological data with a resolution of up to 1 minute, each of the sites was evaluated in terms of electrical yield using the model. The investigation found that the site situated in Springbok will generate 450.8 GWhe per annum, and is the most advantageous site for the modeled plant. The most promising alternative site is situated in near Laingsburg in the Western Province. This site offered 413.7 GWhe per annum, and it is close to available transmission and surface water.

  8. Evaluation of Suitability of Selected Set of Coal Plant Sites for Repowering with Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy [ORNL; Copinger, Donald A [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

    2013-03-01

    This report summarizes the approach that ORNL developed for screening a sample set of small coal stations for possible repowering with SMRs; the methodology employed, including spatial modeling; and initial results for these sample plants. The objective in conducting this type of siting evaluation is to demonstrate the capability to characterize specific sample coal plant sites to identify any particular issues associated with repowering existing coal stations with SMRs using OR-SAGE; it is not intended to be a definitive assessment per se as to the absolute suitability of any particular site.

  9. Tornado from Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Kathleen

    1996-01-01

    Santa Fe School Superintendent Yvonne Gonzales, the "Texas Tornado," was hired to fix a 40% student-dropout rate and a white/Hispanic gap in achievement test scores. Gonzales is an avid integrationist; relies on humor, appeasement, and persuasion tactics; and has alienated some school employees by increasing central office…

  10. Outdoor Education in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Ray H.

    In Dallas in 1970, high school outdoor education began as a cocurricular woods and waters boys' club sponsored by a community sportsman. Within one year, it grew into a fully accredited, coeducational, academic course with a curriculum devoted to the study of wildlife in Texas, ecology, conservation, hunting, firearm safety, fishing, boating and…

  11. Post-duplication charge evolution of phosphoglucose isomerases in teleost fishes through weak selection on many amino acid sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yukuto; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2007-10-29

    The partitioning of ancestral functions among duplicated genes by neutral evolution, or subfunctionalization, has been considered the primary process for the evolution of novel proteins (neofunctionalization). Nonetheless, how a subfunctionalized protein can evolve into a more adaptive protein is poorly understood, mainly due to the limitations of current analytical methods, which can detect only strong selection for amino acid substitutions involved in adaptive molecular evolution. In this study, we employed a comparative evolutionary approach to this question, focusing on differences in the structural properties of a protein, specifically the electric charge, encoded by fish-specific duplicated phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) genes. Full-length cDNA cloning, RT-PCR based gene expression analyses, and comparative sequence analyses showed that after subfunctionalization with respect to the expression organ of duplicate Pgi genes, the net electric charge of the PGI-1 protein expressed mainly in internal tissues became more negative, and that of PGI-2 expressed mainly in muscular tissues became more positive. The difference in net protein charge was attributable not to specific amino acid sites but to the sum of various amino acid sites located on the surface of the PGI molecule. This finding suggests that the surface charge evolution of PGI proteins was not driven by strong selection on individual amino acid sites leading to permanent fixation of a particular residue, but rather was driven by weak selection on a large number of amino acid sites and consequently by steady directional and/or purifying selection on the overall structural properties of the protein, which is derived from many modifiable sites. The mode of molecular evolution presented here may be relevant to various cases of adaptive modification in proteins, such as hydrophobic properties, molecular size, and electric charge.

  12. Post-duplication charge evolution of phosphoglucose isomerases in teleost fishes through weak selection on many amino acid sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Yukuto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The partitioning of ancestral functions among duplicated genes by neutral evolution, or subfunctionalization, has been considered the primary process for the evolution of novel proteins (neofunctionalization. Nonetheless, how a subfunctionalized protein can evolve into a more adaptive protein is poorly understood, mainly due to the limitations of current analytical methods, which can detect only strong selection for amino acid substitutions involved in adaptive molecular evolution. In this study, we employed a comparative evolutionary approach to this question, focusing on differences in the structural properties of a protein, specifically the electric charge, encoded by fish-specific duplicated phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi genes. Results Full-length cDNA cloning, RT-PCR based gene expression analyses, and comparative sequence analyses showed that after subfunctionalization with respect to the expression organ of duplicate Pgi genes, the net electric charge of the PGI-1 protein expressed mainly in internal tissues became more negative, and that of PGI-2 expressed mainly in muscular tissues became more positive. The difference in net protein charge was attributable not to specific amino acid sites but to the sum of various amino acid sites located on the surface of the PGI molecule. Conclusion This finding suggests that the surface charge evolution of PGI proteins was not driven by strong selection on individual amino acid sites leading to permanent fixation of a particular residue, but rather was driven by weak selection on a large number of amino acid sites and consequently by steady directional and/or purifying selection on the overall structural properties of the protein, which is derived from many modifiable sites. The mode of molecular evolution presented here may be relevant to various cases of adaptive modification in proteins, such as hydrophobic properties, molecular size, and electric charge.

  13. Integrating knowledge-based multi-criteria evaluation techniques with GIS for landfill site selection: A case study using AHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagbohun, B. J.; Aladejana, O. O.

    2016-09-01

    A major challenge in most growing urban areas of developing countries, without a pre-existing land use plan is the sustainable and efficient management of solid wastes. Siting a landfill is a complicated task because of several environmental regulations. This challenge gives birth to the need to develop efficient strategies for the selection of proper waste disposal sites in accordance with all existing environmental regulations. This paper presents a knowledge-based multi-criteria decision analysis using GIS for the selection of suitable landfill site in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. In order to identify suitable sites for landfill, seven factors - land use/cover, geology, river, soil, slope, lineament and roads - were taken into consideration. Each factor was classified and ranked based on prior knowledge about the area and existing guidelines. Weights for each factor were determined through pair-wise comparison using Saaty's 9 point scale and AHP. The integration of factors according to their weights using weighted index overlay analysis revealed that 39.23 km2 within the area was suitable to site a landfill. The resulting suitable area was classified as high suitability covering 6.47 km2 (16.49%), moderate suitability 25.48 km2 (64.95%) and low suitability 7.28 km2 (18.56%) based on their overall weights.

  14. Integrating knowledge-based multi-criteria evaluation techniques with GIS for landfill site selection: A case study using AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagbohun B.J.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in most growing urban areas of developing countries, without a pre-existing land use plan is the sustainable and efficient management of solid wastes. Siting a landfill is a complicated task because of several environmental regulations. This challenge gives birth to the need to develop efficient strategies for the selection of proper waste disposal sites in accordance with all existing environmental regulations. This paper presents a knowledge-based multi-criteria decision analysis using GIS for the selection of suitable landfill site in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. In order to identify suitable sites for landfill, seven factors - land use/cover, geology, river, soil, slope, lineament and roads - were taken into consideration. Each factor was classified and ranked based on prior knowledge about the area and existing guidelines. Weights for each factor were determined through pair-wise comparison using Saaty’s 9 point scale and AHP. The integration of factors according to their weights using weighted index overlay analysis revealed that 39.23 km2 within the area was suitable to site a landfill. The resulting suitable area was classified as high suitability covering 6.47 km2 (16.49%, moderate suitability 25.48 km2 (64.95% and low suitability 7.28 km2 (18.56% based on their overall weights.

  15. GIS-BASED WIND FARM SITE SELECTION MODEL OFFSHORE ABU DHABI EMIRATE, UAE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    N. Saleous; S. Issa; J. Al Mazrouei

    2016-01-01

    .... This study aimed at assessing the viability of establishing wind farms offshore the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, UAE and to identify favourable sites for such farms using Geographic Information Systems (GIS...

  16. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 13: Part 2, Indexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goins, L.F.; Webb, J.R.; Cravens, C.D.; Mallory, P.K.

    1992-09-01

    This is part 2 of a bibliography on nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial action. This report contains indexes on the following: authors, corporate affiliation, title words, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word.

  17. Topographic change detection at select archeological sites in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Corbett, Skye C.; Fairley, Helen C.; Minasian, Diane L.; Kayen, Robert; Dealy, Timothy P.; Bedford, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Human occupation in Grand Canyon, Arizona, dates from at least 11,000 years before present to the modern era. For most of this period, the only evidence of human occupation in this iconic landscape is provided by archeological sites. Because of the dynamic nature of this environment, many archeological sites are subject to relatively rapid topographic change. Quantifying the extent, magnitude, and cause of such change is important for monitoring and managing these archeological sites. Such quantification is necessary to help inform the continuing debate on whether and how controlled releases from Glen Canyon Dam, located immediately upstream of Grand Canyon National Park, are affecting site erosion rates, artifact transport, and archeological resource preservation along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. Although long-term topographic change resulting from a variety of natural processes is inherent in the Grand Canyon region, continued erosion of archeological sites threatens both the archeological resources and our future ability to study evidence of past cultural habitation. Thus, this subject is of considerable interest to National Park Service managers and other stakeholders in the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program. Understanding the causes and effects of archeological site erosion requires a knowledge of several factors, including the location, timing, and magnitude of the changes occurring in relation to archeological resources, the rates of change, and the relative contribution of potential causes. These potential causes include sediment depletion associated with managed flows from Glen Canyon Dam, site-specific weather and overland flow patterns, visitor impacts, and long-term regional climate change. To obtain this information, highly accurate, spatially specific data are needed from sites undergoing change. Using terrestrial lidar techniques, and building upon three previous surveys of archeological sites performed in 2006 and 2007, we

  18. Nest-site selection in the Cape Sugarbird | Burger | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . These bushes were characterized by relatively large leaves and dense foliage. Nests were usually placed in the central parts of bushes Nest-sites were shielded from the cold night sky, and were associated with relatively favourable air ...

  19. Natural selection affects multiple aspects of genetic variation at putatively neutral sites across the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmueller, Kirk E; Albrechtsen, Anders; Li, Yingrui; Kim, Su Yeon; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Vinckenbosch, Nicolas; Tian, Geng; Huerta-Sanchez, Emilia; Feder, Alison F; Grarup, Niels; Jørgensen, Torben; Jiang, Tao; Witte, Daniel R; Sandbæk, Annelli; Hellmann, Ines; Lauritzen, Torsten; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Wang, Jun; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2011-10-01

    A major question in evolutionary biology is how natural selection has shaped patterns of genetic variation across the human genome. Previous work has documented a reduction in genetic diversity in regions of the genome with low recombination rates. However, it is unclear whether other summaries of genetic variation, like allele frequencies, are also correlated with recombination rate and whether these correlations can be explained solely by negative selection against deleterious mutations or whether positive selection acting on favorable alleles is also required. Here we attempt to address these questions by analyzing three different genome-wide resequencing datasets from European individuals. We document several significant correlations between different genomic features. In particular, we find that average minor allele frequency and diversity are reduced in regions of low recombination and that human diversity, human-chimp divergence, and average minor allele frequency are reduced near genes. Population genetic simulations show that either positive natural selection acting on favorable mutations or negative natural selection acting against deleterious mutations can explain these correlations. However, models with strong positive selection on nonsynonymous mutations and little negative selection predict a stronger negative correlation between neutral diversity and nonsynonymous divergence than observed in the actual data, supporting the importance of negative, rather than positive, selection throughout the genome. Further, we show that the widespread presence of weakly deleterious alleles, rather than a small number of strongly positively selected mutations, is responsible for the correlation between neutral genetic diversity and recombination rate. This work suggests that natural selection has affected multiple aspects of linked neutral variation throughout the human genome and that positive selection is not required to explain these observations.

  20. Catalogue of Texas spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, David Allen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This catalogue lists 1,084 species of spiders (three identified to genus only) in 311 genera from 53 families currently recorded from Texas and is based on the “Bibliography of Texas Spiders” published by Bea Vogel in 1970. The online list of species can be found at http://pecanspiders.tamu.edu/spidersoftexas.htm. Many taxonomic revisions have since been published, particularly in the families Araneidae, Gnaphosidae and Leptonetidae. Many genera in other families have been revised. The Anyphaenidae, Ctenidae, Hahniidae, Nesticidae, Sicariidae and Tetragnathidae were also revised. Several families have been added and others split up. Several genera of Corinnidae were transferred to Phrurolithidae and Trachelidae. Two genera from Miturgidae were transferred to Eutichuridae. Zoridae was synonymized under Miturgidae. A single species formerly in Amaurobiidae is now in the Family Amphinectidae. Some trapdoor spiders in the family Ctenizidae have been transferred to Euctenizidae. Gertsch and Mulaik started a list of Texas spiders in 1940. In a letter from Willis J. Gertsch dated October 20, 1982, he stated “Years ago a first listing of the Texas fauna was published by me based largely on Stanley Mulaik material, but it had to be abandoned because of other tasks.” This paper is a compendium of the spiders of Texas with distribution, habitat, collecting method and other data available from revisions and collections. This includes many records and unpublished data (including data from three unpublished studies). One of these studies included 16,000 adult spiders belonging to 177 species in 29 families. All specimens in that study were measured and results are in the appendix. Hidalgo County has 340 species recorded with Brazos County at 323 and Travis County at 314 species. These reflect the amount of collecting in the area. PMID:27103878

  1. Site-selective substitutional doping with atomic precision on stepped Al (111) surface by single-atom manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang; Zhang, Jinhu; Dong, Guofeng; Shao, Hezhu; Ning, Bo-Yuan; Zhao, Li; Ning, Xi-Jing; Zhuang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    In fabrication of nano- and quantum devices, it is sometimes critical to position individual dopants at certain sites precisely to obtain the specific or enhanced functionalities. With first-principles simulations, we propose a method for substitutional doping of individual atom at a certain position on a stepped metal surface by single-atom manipulation. A selected atom at the step of Al (111) surface could be extracted vertically with an Al trimer-apex tip, and then the dopant atom will be positioned to this site. The details of the entire process including potential energy curves are given, which suggests the reliability of the proposed single-atom doping method.

  2. New Synthesis and Tritium Labeling of a Selective Ligand for Studying High-affinity γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) Binding Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogensen, Stine B.; Marek, Aleš; Bay, Tina; Wellendorph, Petrine; Kehler, Jan; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Frølund, Bente; Pedersen, Martin H.F.; Clausen, Rasmus P.

    2013-01-01

    3-Hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid (HOCPCA, 1) is a potent ligand for the high-affinity GHB binding sites in the CNS. An improved synthesis of 1 together with a very efficient synthesis of [3H]-1 is described. The radiosynthesis employs in situ generated lithium trimethoxyborotritide. Screening of 1 against different CNS targets establishes a high selectivity and we demonstrate in vivo brain penetration. In vitro characterization of [3H]-1 binding shows high specificity to the high-affinity GHB binding sites. PMID:24053696

  3. The site selection law and the anti-atom movement; Das Standortauswahlgesetz und die Anti-Atom-Bewegung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haefner, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The anti atom movement has reached many of their political claims with the German nuclear power phaseout. At the same time the government has regained the interpretive dominance with the in radioactive waste management with the new search for possible final repository sites. He anti-atom movement refuses most parts of the actual law but cannot abdicate from the responsibility of the process of site selection. The contribution shows using three actual research approaches that such a convergence is probable to occur in the future. A cooperation of anti-atom movement and the government is of high probability in the long term, but is not necessarily identical to a political acceptance.

  4. Aziridine-2-carboxylic acid-containing peptides: application to solution- and solid-phase convergent site-selective peptide modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galonić, Danica P; Ide, Nathan D; van der Donk, Wilfred A; Gin, David Y

    2005-05-25

    The development of a method for site- and stereoselective peptide modification using aziridine-2-carboxylic acid-containing peptides is described. A solid-phase peptide synthesis methodology that allows for the rapid generation of peptides incorporating the aziridine residue has been developed. The unique electrophilic nature of this nonproteinogenic amino acid allows for site-selective conjugation with various thiol nucleophiles, such as anomeric carbohydrate thiols, farnesyl thiol, and biochemical tags, both in solution and on solid support. This strategy, combined with native chemical ligation, provides convergent and rapid access to complex thioglycoconjugates.

  5. Assessing aquifer storage and recovery feasibility in the Gulf Coastal Plains of Texas

    OpenAIRE

    W. Benjamin Smith; Gretchen R. Miller; Zhuping Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Study region: The Gulf Coast and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer systems in the Gulf Coastal Plains of Texas. Study focus: Aquifer storage and recovery is a water storage alternative that is underutilized in Texas, a state with both long periods of drought and high intensity storms. Future water storage plans in Texas almost exclusively rely on surface reservoirs, subject to high evaporative losses. This study seeks to identify sites where aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) may be successful, especial...

  6. Natural selection affects multiple aspects of genetic variation at putatively peutral sites across the human genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohmueller, Kirk E; Albrechtsen, Anders; Li, Yingrui

    2011-01-01

    A major question in evolutionary biology is how natural selection has shaped patterns of genetic variation across the human genome. Previous work has documented a reduction in genetic diversity in regions of the genome with low recombination rates. However, it is unclear whether other summaries...... and that human diversity, human-chimp divergence, and average minor allele frequency are reduced near genes. Population genetic simulations show that either positive natural selection acting on favorable mutations or negative natural selection acting against deleterious mutations can explain these correlations...... throughout the genome. Further, we show that the widespread presence of weakly deleterious alleles, rather than a small number of strongly positively selected mutations, is responsible for the correlation between neutral genetic diversity and recombination rate. This work suggests that natural selection has...

  7. Site-selective oxidation, amination and epimerization reactions of complex polyols enabled by transfer hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Christopher K.; Hartwig, John F.

    2017-12-01

    Polyoxygenated hydrocarbons that bear one or more hydroxyl groups comprise a large set of natural and synthetic compounds, often with potent biological activity. In synthetic chemistry, alcohols are important precursors to carbonyl groups, which then can be converted into a wide range of oxygen- or nitrogen-based functionality. Therefore, the selective conversion of a single hydroxyl group in natural products into a ketone would enable the selective introduction of unnatural functionality. However, the methods known to convert a simple alcohol, or even an alcohol in a molecule that contains multiple protected functional groups, are not suitable for selective reactions of complex polyol structures. We present a new ruthenium catalyst with a unique efficacy for the selective oxidation of a single hydroxyl group among many in unprotected polyol natural products. This oxidation enables the introduction of nitrogen-based functional groups into such structures that lack nitrogen atoms and enables a selective alcohol epimerization by stepwise or reversible oxidation and reduction.

  8. Long-term dependencies on selected GPS-SLR co-located sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusz, Janusz; Figurski, Mariusz; Klos, Anna; Schillak, Stanislaw; Szafranek, Karolina

    2014-05-01

    We have used XYZ coordinates in ITRF2008 obtained by GPS data processing in Bernese 5.0 and SLR in GEODYN-II from 20 globally distributed co-located sites. 10 of them are placed in Europe (10 GPS and 12 SLR at the same time), 2 in Australia (2 GPS and 3 SLR), 3 in Asia (3 GPS and 3 SLR), 1 in Africa (1 GPS and 1 SLR), 1 in South America (1 GPS and 1 SLR), and 3 in United States (3 GPS and 3 SLR). The threshold of 5 years of continuous observations was implemented. The longest time series are even 18 years long. At the pre-processing stage for removing outliers median absolute deviation (MAD) was applied as well as the sequential t-test algorithm for analysing regime shifts (STARS). Afterwards we have examined the annual signals in North-East-Up components by least squares estimation (LSE) and compared the obtained amplitudes and phase shifts (number of months between maximum of best-fitted annual sinusoid and the beginning of the year) for both types of observations. The amplitudes change from 1 to even 21 mm, while phase shifts are unevenly distributed over the seasons. No consistency (by means of region-dependencies as well as observation-dependencies) in the obtained results was obtained. It is very well recognised that annual signal in GPS-driven time series could be an artefact of several factors (e.g. draconitic year or mismodelling in short-periods). From the other side if correlated noise is present in the data, artificial oscillations can be generated in the low frequency band and can be taken by a mistake as true signals probably in both types of observations. Therefore we have applied wavelet decomposition (WD), which can be used to determine and model time series components with the modulated amplitude, but constant in phase signals. The frequency-determined components of time series at various decomposition levels enable selection of those that we are interested in, and we can remove them from further analysis. Each time series S(t) is divided into low

  9. Occurrence and distribution of microplastics at selected coastal sites along the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xubiao; Ladewig, Samantha; Bao, Shaowu; Toline, Catherine A; Whitmire, Stefanie; Chow, Alex T

    2017-09-13

    To investigate the occurrence and distribution of microplastics in the southeastern coastal region of the United States, we quantified the amount of microplastics in sand samples from multiple coastal sites and developed a predictive model to understand the drift of plastics via ocean currents. Sand samples from eighteen National Park Service (NPS) beaches in th