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Sample records for tev spectral characterization

  1. ATR neutron spectral characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.W.; Anderl, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at INEL provides intense neutron fields for irradiation-effects testing of reactor material samples, for production of radionuclides used in industrial and medical applications, and for scientific research. Characterization of the neutron environments in the irradiation locations of the ATR has been done by means of neutronics calculations and by means of neutron dosimetry based on the use of neutron activation monitors that are placed in the various irradiation locations. The primary purpose of this report is to present the results of an extensive characterization of several ATR irradiation locations based on neutron dosimetry measurements and on least-squares-adjustment analyses that utilize both neutron dosimetry measurements and neutronics calculations. This report builds upon the previous publications, especially the reference 4 paper. Section 2 provides a brief description of the ATR and it tabulates neutron spectral information for typical irradiation locations, as derived from the more historical neutron dosimetry measurements. Relevant details that pertain to the multigroup neutron spectral characterization are covered in section 3. This discussion includes a presentation on the dosimeter irradiation and analyses and a development of the least-squares adjustment methodology, along with a summary of the results of these analyses. Spectrum-averaged cross sections for neutron monitoring and for displacement-damage prediction in Fe, Cr, and Ni are given in section 4. In addition, section4 includes estimates of damage generation rates for these materials in selected ATR irradiation locations. In section 5, the authors present a brief discussion of the most significant conclusions of this work and comment on its relevance to the present ATR core configuration. Finally, detailed numerical and graphical results for the spectrum-characterization analyses in each irradiation location are provided in the Appendix.

  2. Spectral characterization of natural backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Max

    2017-10-01

    As the distribution and use of hyperspectral sensors is constantly increasing, the exploitation of spectral features is a threat for camouflaged objects. To improve camouflage materials at first the spectral behavior of backgrounds has to be known to adjust and optimize the spectral reflectance of camouflage materials. In an international effort, the NATO CSO working group SCI-295 "Development of Methods for Measurements and Evaluation of Natural Background EO Signatures" is developing a method how this characterization of backgrounds has to be done. It is obvious that the spectral characterization of a background will be quite an effort. To compare and exchange data internationally the measurements will have to be done in a similar way. To test and further improve this method an international field trial has been performed in Storkow, Germany. In the following we present first impressions and lessons learned from this field campaign and describe the data that has been measured.

  3. SYNTHESIS, SPECTRAL CHARACTERIZATIONS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    A series of 4-chloro-2-[(arylmethylidene)amino]phenols (1–11) including methoxy group ... The structures of the Schiff bases were characterized by FT-IR, .... The characteristic ν(C-H) modes of ring residues are observed at near 3050 cm–1.

  4. Characterization of the titanium Kβ spectral profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantler, C T; Smale, L F; Kinnane, M N; Illig, A J; Kimpton, J A; Crosby, D N

    2013-01-01

    Transition metals have Kα and Kβ characteristic radiation possessing complex asymmetric spectral profiles. Instrumental broadening normally encountered in x-ray experiments shifts features of profiles used for calibration, such as peak energy, by many times the quoted accuracies. We measure and characterize the titanium Kβ spectral profile. The peak energy of the titanium Kβ spectral profile is found to be 4931.966 ± 0.022 eV prior to instrumental broadening. This 4.5 ppm result decreases the uncertainty over the past literature by a factor of 2.6 and is 2.4 standard deviations from the previous standard. The spectrum is analysed and the resolution-free lineshape is extracted and listed for use in other experiments. We also incorporate improvement in analysis applied to earlier results for V Kβ. (paper)

  5. Spectrally selective paint coatings. Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crnjak Orel, Z.C.; Klanjsek Gunde, M. [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2001-06-01

    Preparation and characterization of spectrally selective paint coating for photothermal solar energy conversion are discussed. The applied methods for preparation of paints with described measurements and calculations of black-pigmented coatings were reviewed. The article represents not only possible future applications but also past and current applications of spectrally selective paint coating which are used all over the world since the 1980s. Spectrally selective paint coatings based on combinations of two types of resins, various types of pigments and three types of silica, were prepared. The influence of pigment type and pigment volume concentration (PVC) was studied by applying the Kubelka-Munk (K-M) theory. The relation between the degrees of dispersion and distribution of pigment particles across the paint layer is discussed in terms of K-M coefficients.

  6. Spectral characterization of superficial coal groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Khan, M.A.; Ishaq, M.; Shakirullah; Bahadur, A.

    2004-01-01

    Spectral characterization of superficial coal groups was performed in KBr pellets. KBr Pellets were prepared for virgin and variously pretreated coal samples. Spectra of satisfactory resolution were obtained in wave number range-4000-400 cm /sup -1/. Presence of broad absorption bands corresponds to hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl and phenolic functionalities in the spectra clearly define their presence in all samples understudy. Forced oxidation proved effective for oxidation of both aliphatic and aromatic configurations, which can be revealed from the respective spectra. (author)

  7. The spectral imaging facility: Setup characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angelis, Simone, E-mail: simone.deangelis@iaps.inaf.it; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Manzari, Paola Olga [Institute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology, INAF-IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere, 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Ammannito, Eleonora [Institute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology, INAF-IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere, 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095-1567 (United States); Di Iorio, Tatiana [ENEA, UTMEA-TER, Rome (Italy); Liberati, Fabrizio [Opto Service SrL, Campagnano di Roma (RM) (Italy); Tarchi, Fabio; Dami, Michele; Olivieri, Monica; Pompei, Carlo [Selex ES, Campi Bisenzio (Italy); Mugnuolo, Raffaele [Italian Space Agency, ASI, Spatial Geodesy Center, Matera (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    The SPectral IMager (SPIM) facility is a laboratory visible infrared spectrometer developed to support space borne observations of rocky bodies of the solar system. Currently, this laboratory setup is used to support the DAWN mission, which is in its journey towards the asteroid 1-Ceres, and to support the 2018 Exo-Mars mission in the spectral investigation of the Martian subsurface. The main part of this setup is an imaging spectrometer that is a spare of the DAWN visible infrared spectrometer. The spectrometer has been assembled and calibrated at Selex ES and then installed in the facility developed at the INAF-IAPS laboratory in Rome. The goal of SPIM is to collect data to build spectral libraries for the interpretation of the space borne and in situ hyperspectral measurements of planetary materials. Given its very high spatial resolution combined with the imaging capability, this instrument can also help in the detailed study of minerals and rocks. In this paper, the instrument setup is first described, and then a series of test measurements, aimed to the characterization of the main subsystems, are reported. In particular, laboratory tests have been performed concerning (i) the radiation sources, (ii) the reference targets, and (iii) linearity of detector response; the instrumental imaging artifacts have also been investigated.

  8. Characterizing CDOM Spectral Variability Across Diverse Regions and Spectral Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Brice K.; Mouw, Colleen B.; Ciochetto, Audrey B.

    2018-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) has focused on CDOM absorption (aCDOM) at a reference wavelength, as its magnitude provides insight into the underwater light field and large-scale biogeochemical processes. CDOM spectral slope, SCDOM, has been treated as a constant or semiconstant parameter in satellite retrievals of aCDOM despite significant regional and temporal variabilities. SCDOM and other optical metrics provide insights into CDOM composition, processing, food web dynamics, and carbon cycling. To date, much of this work relies on fluorescence techniques or aCDOM in spectral ranges unavailable to current and planned satellite sensors (e.g., global variability in SCDOM and fit deviations in the aCDOM spectra using the recently proposed Gaussian decomposition method. From this, we investigate if global variability in retrieved SCDOM and Gaussian components is significant and regionally distinct. We iteratively decreased the spectral range considered and analyzed the number, location, and magnitude of fitted Gaussian components to understand if a reduced spectral range impacts information obtained within a common spectral window. We compared the fitted slope from the Gaussian decomposition method to absorption-based indices that indicate CDOM composition to determine the ability of satellite-derived slope to inform the analysis and modeling of large-scale biogeochemical processes. Finally, we present implications of the observed variability for remote sensing of CDOM characteristics via SCDOM.

  9. Spectral estimation for characterization of acoustic aberration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varslot, Trond; Angelsen, Bjørn; Waag, Robert C

    2004-07-01

    Spectral estimation based on acoustic backscatter from a motionless stochastic medium is described for characterization of aberration in ultrasonic imaging. The underlying assumptions for the estimation are: The correlation length of the medium is short compared to the length of the transmitted acoustic pulse, an isoplanatic region of sufficient size exists around the focal point, and the backscatter can be modeled as an ergodic stochastic process. The motivation for this work is ultrasonic imaging with aberration correction. Measurements were performed using a two-dimensional array system with 80 x 80 transducer elements and an element pitch of 0.6 mm. The f number for the measurements was 1.2 and the center frequency was 3.0 MHz with a 53% bandwidth. Relative phase of aberration was extracted from estimated cross spectra using a robust least-mean-square-error method based on an orthogonal expansion of the phase differences of neighboring wave forms as a function of frequency. Estimates of cross-spectrum phase from measurements of random scattering through a tissue-mimicking aberrator have confidence bands approximately +/- 5 degrees wide. Both phase and magnitude are in good agreement with a reference characterization obtained from a point scatterer.

  10. Characterization of Passive Spectral Regrowth in Radio Frequency Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    as using RF absorber and Faraday cages around sensi- tive spots. To ensure maximum radiated isolation, each cable or component should be shielded...nonlinear effects of spectral-regrowth-generating phenomena on an RF signal. Detection of low-level passive spectral regrowth close in frequency to a...experimentally and analytically characterize the nonlinear effects of spectral- regrowth-generating phenomena on an RF signal. Detection of low-level passive

  11. Particulate characterization by PIXE multivariate spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antolak, Arlyn J.; Morse, Daniel H.; Grant, Patrick G.; Kotula, Paul G.; Doyle, Barney L.; Richardson, Charles B.

    2007-01-01

    Obtaining particulate compositional maps from scanned PIXE (proton-induced X-ray emission) measurements is extremely difficult due to the complexity of analyzing spectroscopic data collected with low signal-to-noise at each scan point (pixel). Multivariate spectral analysis has the potential to analyze such data sets by reducing the PIXE data to a limited number of physically realizable and easily interpretable components (that include both spectral and image information). We have adapted the AXSIA (automated expert spectral image analysis) program, originally developed by Sandia National Laboratories to quantify electron-excited X-ray spectroscopy data, for this purpose. Samples consisting of particulates with known compositions and sizes were loaded onto Mylar and paper filter substrates and analyzed by scanned micro-PIXE. The data sets were processed by AXSIA and the associated principal component spectral data were quantified by converting the weighting images into concentration maps. The results indicate automated, nonbiased, multivariate statistical analysis is useful for converting very large amounts of data into a smaller, more manageable number of compositional components needed for locating individual particles-of-interest on large area collection media

  12. A SEARCH FOR SPECTRAL HYSTERESIS AND ENERGY-DEPENDENT TIME LAGS FROM X-RAY AND TeV GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF Mrk 421

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Flinders, A.; Archambault, S.; Feng, Q.; Archer, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M.; Bird, R.; Buchovecky, M.; Cardenzana, J. V; Eisch, J. D.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Finley, J. P.; Falcone, A.; Fleischhack, H.

    2017-01-01

    Blazars are variable emitters across all wavelengths over a wide range of timescales, from months down to minutes. It is therefore essential to observe blazars simultaneously at different wavelengths, especially in the X-ray and gamma-ray bands, where the broadband spectral energy distributions usually peak. In this work, we report on three “target-of-opportunity” observations of Mrk 421, one of the brightest TeV blazars, triggered by a strong flaring event at TeV energies in 2014. These observations feature long, continuous, and simultaneous exposures with XMM-Newton (covering the X-ray and optical/ultraviolet bands) and VERITAS (covering the TeV gamma-ray band), along with contemporaneous observations from other gamma-ray facilities (MAGIC and Fermi -Large Area Telescope) and a number of radio and optical facilities. Although neither rapid flares nor significant X-ray/TeV correlation are detected, these observations reveal subtle changes in the X-ray spectrum of the source over the course of a few days. We search the simultaneous X-ray and TeV data for spectral hysteresis patterns and time delays, which could provide insight into the emission mechanisms and the source properties (e.g., the radius of the emitting region, the strength of the magnetic field, and related timescales). The observed broadband spectra are consistent with a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model. We find that the power spectral density distribution at ≳4 × 10 −4 Hz from the X-ray data can be described by a power-law model with an index value between 1.2 and 1.8, and do not find evidence for a steepening of the power spectral index (often associated with a characteristic length scale) compared to the previously reported values at lower frequencies.

  13. A SEARCH FOR SPECTRAL HYSTERESIS AND ENERGY-DEPENDENT TIME LAGS FROM X-RAY AND TeV GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF Mrk 421

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Flinders, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Archambault, S.; Feng, Q. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Archer, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Bird, R.; Buchovecky, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Cardenzana, J. V; Eisch, J. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Chen, X. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Cui, W.; Finley, J. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Falcone, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Fleischhack, H. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Collaboration: VERITAS Collaboration; MAGIC Collaboration; and others

    2017-01-01

    Blazars are variable emitters across all wavelengths over a wide range of timescales, from months down to minutes. It is therefore essential to observe blazars simultaneously at different wavelengths, especially in the X-ray and gamma-ray bands, where the broadband spectral energy distributions usually peak. In this work, we report on three “target-of-opportunity” observations of Mrk 421, one of the brightest TeV blazars, triggered by a strong flaring event at TeV energies in 2014. These observations feature long, continuous, and simultaneous exposures with XMM-Newton (covering the X-ray and optical/ultraviolet bands) and VERITAS (covering the TeV gamma-ray band), along with contemporaneous observations from other gamma-ray facilities (MAGIC and Fermi -Large Area Telescope) and a number of radio and optical facilities. Although neither rapid flares nor significant X-ray/TeV correlation are detected, these observations reveal subtle changes in the X-ray spectrum of the source over the course of a few days. We search the simultaneous X-ray and TeV data for spectral hysteresis patterns and time delays, which could provide insight into the emission mechanisms and the source properties (e.g., the radius of the emitting region, the strength of the magnetic field, and related timescales). The observed broadband spectra are consistent with a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model. We find that the power spectral density distribution at ≳4 × 10{sup −4} Hz from the X-ray data can be described by a power-law model with an index value between 1.2 and 1.8, and do not find evidence for a steepening of the power spectral index (often associated with a characteristic length scale) compared to the previously reported values at lower frequencies.

  14. Spectral Band Characterization for Hyperspectral Monitoring of Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermillion, Stephanie C.; Raqueno, Rolando; Simmons, Rulon

    2001-01-01

    A method for selecting the set of spectral characteristics that provides the smallest increase in prediction error is of interest to those using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) to monitor water quality. The spectral characteristics of interest to these applications are spectral bandwidth and location. Three water quality constituents of interest that are detectable via remote sensing are chlorophyll (CHL), total suspended solids (TSS), and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Hyperspectral data provides a rich source of information regarding the content and composition of these materials, but often provides more data than an analyst can manage. This study addresses the spectral characteristics need for water quality monitoring for two reasons. First, determination of the greatest contribution of these spectral characteristics would greatly improve computational ease and efficiency. Second, understanding the spectral capabilities of different spectral resolutions and specific regions is an essential part of future system development and characterization. As new systems are developed and tested, water quality managers will be asked to determine sensor specifications that provide the most accurate and efficient water quality measurements. We address these issues using data from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and a set of models to predict constituent concentrations.

  15. Lesion characterization in spectral photon-counting tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederström, Björn; Fredenberg, Erik; Berggren, Karl; Erhard, Klaus; Danielsson, Mats; Wallis, Matthew

    2017-03-01

    It has previously been shown that 2D spectral mammography can be used to discriminate between (likely benign) cystic and (potentially malignant) solid lesions in order to reduce unnecessary recalls in mammography. One limitation of the technique is, however, that the composition of overlapping tissue needs to be interpolated from a region surrounding the lesion. The purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate that lesion characterization can be done with spectral tomosynthesis, and to investigate whether the 3D information available in tomosynthesis can reduce the uncertainty from the interpolation of surrounding tissue. A phantom experiment was designed to simulate a cyst and a tumor, where the tumor was overlaid with a structure that made it mimic a cyst. In 2D, the two targets appeared similar in composition, whereas spectral tomosynthesis revealed the exact compositional difference. However, the loss of discrimination signal due to spread from the plane of interest was of the same strength as the reduction of anatomical noise. Results from a preliminary investigation on clinical tomosynthesis images of solid lesions yielded results that were consistent with the phantom experiments, but were still to some extent inconclusive. We conclude that lesion characterization is feasible in spectral tomosynthesis, but more data, as well as refinement of the calibration and discrimination algorithms, are needed to draw final conclusions about the benefit compared to 2D.

  16. Posterior Lattice Degeneration Characterized by Spectral Domain Optical Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Manjunath, Varsha; Taha, Mohammed; Fujimoto, James G.; Duker, Jay S.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To utilize high-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in the characterization of retinal and vitreal morphological changes overlying posterior lattice degeneration. METHODS: A cross-sectional, retrospective analysis was performed on 13 eyes of 13 nonconsecutive subjects with posterior lattice degeneration seen at the New England Eye Center, Tufts Medical Center between October 2009 and January 2010. SD-OCT images taken through the region of latti...

  17. Characterization and Spectral Monitoring of Coffee Lands in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, H. M. R.; Volpato, M. M. L.; Vieira, T. G. C.; Maciel, D. A.; Gonçalves, T. G.; Dantas, M. F.

    2016-06-01

    In Brazil, coffee production has great economic and social importance. Despite this fact, there is still a shortage of information regarding its spatial distribution, crop management and environment. The aim of this study was to carry out spectral monitoring of coffee lands and to characterize their environments using geotechnologies. Coffee fields with contiguous areas over 0.01 km2 within a 488.5 km2 region in the south of Minas Gerais state were selected for the study. Spectral data from the sensors OLI/Landsat 8 and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission from 2014 to 2015 were obtained, as well as information on production areas, surface temperature, vegetation indexes, altitude and slope, were gathered and analyzed. The results indicate that there is great variation in the NDVI and NDWI values, with means ranging from 0.21 to 0.91 (NDVI) and 0.108 to 0.543 (NDWI). The altitude ranged from 803 to 1150 m, and the surface temperature from 20.9°C to 27.6°C. The altitude and the surface temperature distribution patterns were correlated with the vegetation indexes. The slope classes were very homogeneous, predominantly with declivities between 8 to 20 %, characterized as wavy relief. This study made possible the characterization and monitoring of coffee lands and its results may be instrumental in decision-making processes related to coffee management.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION AND SPECTRAL MONITORING OF COFFEE LANDS IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. R. Alves

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, coffee production has great economic and social importance. Despite this fact, there is still a shortage of information regarding its spatial distribution, crop management and environment. The aim of this study was to carry out spectral monitoring of coffee lands and to characterize their environments using geotechnologies. Coffee fields with contiguous areas over 0.01 km2 within a 488.5 km2 region in the south of Minas Gerais state were selected for the study. Spectral data from the sensors OLI/Landsat 8 and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission from 2014 to 2015 were obtained, as well as information on production areas, surface temperature, vegetation indexes, altitude and slope, were gathered and analyzed. The results indicate that there is great variation in the NDVI and NDWI values, with means ranging from 0.21 to 0.91 (NDVI and 0.108 to 0.543 (NDWI. The altitude ranged from 803 to 1150 m, and the surface temperature from 20.9°C to 27.6°C. The altitude and the surface temperature distribution patterns were correlated with the vegetation indexes. The slope classes were very homogeneous, predominantly with declivities between 8 to 20 %, characterized as wavy relief. This study made possible the characterization and monitoring of coffee lands and its results may be instrumental in decision-making processes related to coffee management.

  19. A multimodal spectral approach to characterize rhythm in natural speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrou, Anna Maria; Saarinen, Timo; Kujala, Jan; Salmelin, Riitta

    2016-01-01

    Human utterances demonstrate temporal patterning, also referred to as rhythm. While simple oromotor behaviors (e.g., chewing) feature a salient periodical structure, conversational speech displays a time-varying quasi-rhythmic pattern. Quantification of periodicity in speech is challenging. Unimodal spectral approaches have highlighted rhythmic aspects of speech. However, speech is a complex multimodal phenomenon that arises from the interplay of articulatory, respiratory, and vocal systems. The present study addressed the question of whether a multimodal spectral approach, in the form of coherence analysis between electromyographic (EMG) and acoustic signals, would allow one to characterize rhythm in natural speech more efficiently than a unimodal analysis. The main experimental task consisted of speech production at three speaking rates; a simple oromotor task served as control. The EMG-acoustic coherence emerged as a sensitive means of tracking speech rhythm, whereas spectral analysis of either EMG or acoustic amplitude envelope alone was less informative. Coherence metrics seem to distinguish and highlight rhythmic structure in natural speech.

  20. Posterior lattice degeneration characterized by spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunath, Varsha; Taha, Mohammed; Fujimoto, James G; Duker, Jay S

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to use high-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography in the characterization of retinal and vitreal morphological changes overlying posterior lattice degeneration. A cross-sectional retrospective analysis was performed on 13 eyes of 13 nonconsecutive subjects with posterior lattice degeneration seen at the New England Eye Center, Tufts Medical Center between October 2009 and January 2010. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography images taken through the region of lattice degeneration were qualitatively analyzed. Four characteristic changes of the retina and vitreous were seen in the 13 eyes with lattice degeneration: 1) anterior/posterior U-shaped vitreous traction; 2) retinal breaks; 3) focal retinal thinning; and 4) vitreous membrane formation. The morphologic appearance of vitreous traction and retinal breaks were found to be consistent with previous histologic reports. It is possible to image posterior lattice degeneration in many eyes using spectral domain optical coherence tomography and to visualize the spectrum of retinal and vitreous changes throughout the area of lattice degeneration.

  1. Spectral L2/L1 norm: A new perspective for spectral kurtosis for characterizing non-stationary signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong

    2018-05-01

    Thanks to the great efforts made by Antoni (2006), spectral kurtosis has been recognized as a milestone for characterizing non-stationary signals, especially bearing fault signals. The main idea of spectral kurtosis is to use the fourth standardized moment, namely kurtosis, as a function of spectral frequency so as to indicate how repetitive transients caused by a bearing defect vary with frequency. Moreover, spectral kurtosis is defined based on an analytic bearing fault signal constructed from either a complex filter or Hilbert transform. On the other hand, another attractive work was reported by Borghesani et al. (2014) to mathematically reveal the relationship between the kurtosis of an analytical bearing fault signal and the square of the squared envelope spectrum of the analytical bearing fault signal for explaining spectral correlation for quantification of bearing fault signals. More interestingly, it was discovered that the sum of peaks at cyclic frequencies in the square of the squared envelope spectrum corresponds to the raw 4th order moment. Inspired by the aforementioned works, in this paper, we mathematically show that: (1) spectral kurtosis can be decomposed into squared envelope and squared L2/L1 norm so that spectral kurtosis can be explained as spectral squared L2/L1 norm; (2) spectral L2/L1 norm is formally defined for characterizing bearing fault signals and its two geometrical explanations are made; (3) spectral L2/L1 norm is proportional to the square root of the sum of peaks at cyclic frequencies in the square of the squared envelope spectrum; (4) some extensions of spectral L2/L1 norm for characterizing bearing fault signals are pointed out.

  2. Characterization of spectral compression of OFDM symbols using optical time lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Guan, Pengyu; Kjøller, Niels-Kristian

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed investigation of a double-time-lens subsystem for spectral compression of OFDM symbols. We derive optimized parameter settings by simulations and experimental characterization. The required chirp for OFDM spectral compression is very large.......We present a detailed investigation of a double-time-lens subsystem for spectral compression of OFDM symbols. We derive optimized parameter settings by simulations and experimental characterization. The required chirp for OFDM spectral compression is very large....

  3. Genetic Algorithms: A New Method for Neutron Beam Spectral Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David W. Freeman

    2000-01-01

    A revolutionary new concept for solving the neutron spectrum unfolding problem using genetic algorithms (GAs) has recently been introduced. GAs are part of a new field of evolutionary solution techniques that mimic living systems with computer-simulated chromosome solutions that mate, mutate, and evolve to create improved solutions. The original motivation for the research was to improve spectral characterization of neutron beams associated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The GA unfolding technique has been successfully applied to problems with moderate energy resolution (up to 47 energy groups). Initial research indicates that the GA unfolding technique may well be superior to popular unfolding methods in common use. Research now under way at Kansas State University is focused on optimizing the unfolding algorithm and expanding its energy resolution to unfold detailed beam spectra based on multiple foil measurements. Indications are that the final code will significantly outperform current, state-of-the-art codes in use by the scientific community

  4. Spectral characterization of surface emissivities in the thermal infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niclòs, Raquel; Mira, Maria; Valor, Enric; Caselles, Diego; García-Santos, Vicente; Caselles, Vicente; Sánchez, Juan M.

    2015-04-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing trends to hyperspectral sensors on board satellites in the last decades, e.g., the current EOS-MODIS and EOS-ASTER and future missions like HyspIRI, ECOSTRESS, THIRSTY and MISTIGRI. This study aims to characterize spectrally the emissive properties of several surfaces, mostly soils. A spectrometer ranging from 2 to 16 μm, D&P Model 102, has been used to measure samples with singular spectral features, e.g. a sandy soil rich in gypsum sampled in White Sands (New Mexico, USA), salt samples, powdered quartz, and powdered calcite. These samples were chosen for their role in the assessment of thermal emissivity of soils, e.g., the calcite and quartz contents are key variables for modeling TIR emissivities of bare soils, along with soil moisture and organic matter. Additionally, the existence of large areas in the world with abundance of these materials, some of them used for calibration/validation activities of satellite sensors and products, makes the chosen samples interesting. White Sands is the world's largest gypsum dune field encompassing 400 km^2; the salt samples characterize the Salar of Uyuni (Bolivia), the largest salt flat in the world (up to 10,000 km^2), as well as the Jordanian and Israeli salt evaporation ponds at the south end of the Dead Sea, or the evaporation lagoons in Aigües-Mortes (France); and quartz is omnipresent in most of the arid regions of the world such as the Algodones Dunes or Kelso Dunes (California, USA), with areas around 700 km2 and 120 km^2, respectively. Measurements of target leaving radiance, hemispherical radiance reflected by a diffuse reflectance panel, and the radiance from a black body at different temperatures were taken to obtain thermal spectra with the D&P spectrometer. The good consistency observed between our measurements and laboratory spectra of similar samples (ASTER and MODIS spectral libraries) indicated the validity of the measurement protocol. Further, our study showed the

  5. Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormier, Eric; Walmsley, Ian A.; Wyatt, Adam S.; Corner, Laura; Kosik, Ellen M.; DiMauro, Louis F.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a method for the complete characterization of attosecond duration electromagnetic pulses produced by high harmonic generation in an atomic gas. Our method is based on self-referencing spectral interferometry of two spectrally sheared extreme ultraviolet pulses, which is achieved by pumping the harmonic source with two sheared optical driving pulses. The resulting interferogram contains sufficient information to completely reconstruct the temporal behavior of the electric field. We demonstrate that such a method is feasible, and outline two possible experimental configurations

  6. Spectral characterization and DNA binding properties of lanthanide(III)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spectral data of complexes suggest that the ligand binds metal ion through pyridine- nitrogen, azomethine-nitrogen and amido-oxygen donor atoms. Electrochemical behaviour of metal complexes was investigated by using cyclic voltammetry. The complexes undergo quasi-reversible one electron reduction. The binding ...

  7. A global spectral library to characterize the world's soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Viscarra Rossel, Raphael; Behrens, T.; Ben Dor, E.

    2016-01-01

    to sustainably manage and preserve it for future generations. To this end, we developed and analyzed a global soil visible–near infrared (vis–NIR) spectral library. It is currently the largest and most diverse database of its kind. We show that the information encoded in the spectra can describe soil composition...... help to deal with the shortage of data on soil to better understand it and to meet the growing demand for information to assess andmonitor soil at scales ranging fromregional to global.New contributions to the library are encouraged so that this work and our collaboration might progress to develop......Soil provides ecosystemservices, supports human health and habitation, stores carbon and regulatesemissions of greenhouse gases. Unprecedented pressures on soil from degradation and urbanization are threatening agroecological balances and food security. It is important that we learn more about soil...

  8. Study the Characterization of Spectral Absorbance on Irradiated Milk Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohely, F.; Suardi, N.

    2018-04-01

    The milk has been adopted as a structural nature food for a long era since it is containing most of the growth factors, protective agents, and enzymes needed for the body. a few attempts have been conducted to treat the dairy products especially raw milk by the means of ionizing radiation. as its production has been an expanding industry for many years due to the high demands from the consumers worldwide, there is still some doubt about preserving these products by irradiation. In this work, a preliminary effort to describe the influences of ionizing radiation on raw milk’s protein will be devoted to measuring the spectral absorbance of the total protein (after subjected to varied radiation doses) by UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy analysis. The absorbance spectrum then analyzed based on absorbance spectra of organic compounds. A comparison is made between the effects of different radiation doses to estimate the influence in milk’s structure.

  9. A spectral differential characterization of low-mass companions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubchik Y.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach with which the dynamical mass of low-mass companions around cool stars can be found. In order to discover companions to late-type stars the stellar spectrum is removed. For this we substract two spectra obtained at different orbital phases from each other in order to discover the companion spectrum in the difference spectrum in which the companion lines appear twice (positive and negative signal. The resulting radial velocity difference of these two signals provides the true mass of the companion. For our test case GJ1046, an M2V dwarf with a low-mass companion that most likely is a brown dwarf we select the CO line region in the K-band. We show that the dynamical mass of a faint companion to an M dwarf can be determined using our spectral differential technique. Only if the companion rotates rapidly and has a small radial velocity amplitude due to a high mass, does blending occur for all lines so that our approach fails. In addition to determining the companion mass, we restore the single companion spectrum from the difference spectrum using singular value decomposition.

  10. Spectral characterization as a tool for parchment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radis, Michela; Iacomussi, Paola; Rossi, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    The paper presents an investigation on the correlation between spectral characteristics and conservation conditions of parchment to define a NON invasive methodology able to detect and monitor deterioration process in historical parchment without the need of taking small samples. To verify the feasibility and define the most appropriate measurement method, several samples of contemporary parchments, produced following ancient recipes and coming from different animal species, with different degrees of artificially induced damage, were analyzed. The SRF and STF of each sample were measured in the same point, before and after each step of the artificial ageing treatment. Having at disposal a parchment coming from a whole lamb leather, allowed also the study of the correlations between the variations of SRF - STF and the intrinsic factors of a parchment like the variability of animal skin anatomy and of manufacturing. Analyzing different samples allowed also the definition of the measuring method sensitivity and of reference spectrum for the different animal species parchments with accuracy limits. The definition of a reference spectrum of not damaged parchment with acceptability limits is a necessary step for understanding, through SRF - STF measurements, historical parchments conservation conditions: indeed it is necessary to know if deviations from the reference spectrum are ascribable to damage or only to parchment anatomic/production variability. As a case study, the method has been applied to two historical parchment scrolls stored at the Archivio di Stato di Torino (Italy). The SRF - STF of both scrolls was acquired in several points of the scroll, the average spectrum of each scroll was compared with the reference spectra with the relative tolerance limits, recognizing the animal species and damage alterations and demonstrating the feasibility of the method.

  11. Spectral Characterization of Analog Samples in Anticipation of OSIRIS-REx's Arrival at Bennu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Schrader, D. L.; Bowles, N. E.; Clark, B. E.; Cloutis, E. A.; Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Hamilton, V. E.; Keller, L. P.; Lauretta, D. S.; Lim, L. F.; hide

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission successfully launched on September 8th, 2016. During its rendezvous with near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu beginning in 2018, OSIRIS-REx will characterize the asteroid's physical, mineralogical, and chemical properties in an effort to globally map the properties of Bennu, a primitive carbonaceous asteroid, and choose a sampling location]. In preparation for these observations, analog samples were spectrally characterized across visible, near- and thermal-infrared wavelengths and were used in initial tests on mineral-phase-detection and abundance-determination software algorithms.

  12. Performance characterization of a pressure-tuned wide-angle Michelson interferometric spectral filter for high spectral resolution lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Shane T.; Cook, Anthony L.; Scola, Salvatore J.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Miller, Ian; Welch, Wayne

    2015-09-01

    High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) is typically realized using an absorption filter to separate molecular returns from particulate returns. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has designed and built a Pressure-Tuned Wide-Angle Michelson Interferometer (PTWAMI) as an alternate means to separate the two types of atmospheric returns. While absorption filters only work at certain wavelengths and suffer from low photon efficiency due to light absorption, an interferometric spectral filter can be designed for any wavelength and transmits nearly all incident photons. The interferometers developed at LaRC employ an air spacer in one arm, and a solid glass spacer in the other. Field widening is achieved by specific design and selection of the lengths and refractive indices of these two arms. The principal challenge in using such an interferometer as a spectral filter for HSRL aboard aircraft is that variations in glass temperature and air pressure cause changes in the interferometer's optical path difference. Therefore, a tuning mechanism is needed to actively accommodate for these changes. The pressure-tuning mechanism employed here relies on changing the pressure in an enclosed, air-filled arm of the interferometer to change the arm's optical path length. However, tuning using pressure will not adjust for tilt, mirror warpage, or thermally induced wavefront error, so the structural, thermal, and optical behavior of the device must be well understood and optimized in the design and manufacturing process. The PTWAMI has been characterized for particulate transmission ratio, wavefront error, and tilt, and shows acceptable performance for use in an HSRL instrument.

  13. Recent Characterization of the Night-Sky Irradiance in the Visible/Near-Infrared Spectral Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Carolynn; Wood, Michael; Bender, Edward; Hart, Steve

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD has made numerous characterizations of the night sky over the past 45 years. Up until the last four years, the measurement devices were highly detector-limited, which led to low spectral resolution, marginal sensitivity in no-moon conditions, and the need for inferential analysis of the resulting data. In 2014, however, the PhotoResearch Model PR-745 spectro-radiometer established a new state of the art for measurement of the integrated night-sky irradiance over the Visible-to-Near-Infrared (VNIR) spectral band (400-1050nm). This has enabled characterization of no-moon night-sky irradiance with a spectral bandwidth less than 15 nanometers, even when this irradiance is attenuated by heavy clouds or forest canopy. Since 2014, we have conducted a series of night-sky data collections at remote sites across the United States. The resulting data has provided new insights into natural radiance variations, cultural lighting impacts, and the spectrally-varying attenuation caused by cloud cover and forest canopy. Several new metrics have also been developed to provide insight into these newly-found components and temporal variations. The observations, findings and conclusions of the above efforts will be presented, including planned near-term efforts to further characterize the night-sky irradiance in the Visible/Near-Infrared spectral band.

  14. Precision Stellar Characterization of FGKM Stars using an Empirical Spectral Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Samuel W.; Petigura, Erik A. [California Institute of Technology (United States); Von Braun, Kaspar, E-mail: syee@caltech.edu [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2017-02-10

    Classification of stars, by comparing their optical spectra to a few dozen spectral standards, has been a workhorse of observational astronomy for more than a century. Here, we extend this technique by compiling a library of optical spectra of 404 touchstone stars observed with Keck/HIRES by the California Planet Search. The spectra have high resolution ( R ≈ 60,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ≈ 150/pixel), and are registered onto a common wavelength scale. The library stars have properties derived from interferometry, asteroseismology, LTE spectral synthesis, and spectrophotometry. To address a lack of well-characterized late-K dwarfs in the literature, we measure stellar radii and temperatures for 23 nearby K dwarfs, using modeling of the spectral energy distribution and Gaia parallaxes. This library represents a uniform data set spanning the spectral types ∼M5–F1 ( T {sub eff} ≈ 3000–7000 K, R {sub ⋆} ≈ 0.1–16 R {sub ⊙}). We also present “Empirical SpecMatch” (SpecMatch-Emp), a tool for parameterizing unknown spectra by comparing them against our spectral library. For FGKM stars, SpecMatch-Emp achieves accuracies of 100 K in effective temperature ( T {sub eff}), 15% in stellar radius ( R {sub ⋆}), and 0.09 dex in metallicity ([Fe/H]). Because the code relies on empirical spectra it performs particularly well for stars ∼K4 and later, which are challenging to model with existing spectral synthesizers, reaching accuracies of 70 K in T {sub eff}, 10% in R {sub ⋆}, and 0.12 dex in [Fe/H]. We also validate the performance of SpecMatch-Emp, finding it to be robust at lower spectral resolution and S/N, enabling the characterization of faint late-type stars. Both the library and stellar characterization code are publicly available.

  15. Precision Stellar Characterization of FGKM Stars using an Empirical Spectral Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Samuel W.; Petigura, Erik A.; von Braun, Kaspar

    2017-02-01

    Classification of stars, by comparing their optical spectra to a few dozen spectral standards, has been a workhorse of observational astronomy for more than a century. Here, we extend this technique by compiling a library of optical spectra of 404 touchstone stars observed with Keck/HIRES by the California Planet Search. The spectra have high resolution (R ≈ 60,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ≈ 150/pixel), and are registered onto a common wavelength scale. The library stars have properties derived from interferometry, asteroseismology, LTE spectral synthesis, and spectrophotometry. To address a lack of well-characterized late-K dwarfs in the literature, we measure stellar radii and temperatures for 23 nearby K dwarfs, using modeling of the spectral energy distribution and Gaia parallaxes. This library represents a uniform data set spanning the spectral types ˜M5-F1 (T eff ≈ 3000-7000 K, R ⋆ ≈ 0.1-16 R ⊙). We also present “Empirical SpecMatch” (SpecMatch-Emp), a tool for parameterizing unknown spectra by comparing them against our spectral library. For FGKM stars, SpecMatch-Emp achieves accuracies of 100 K in effective temperature (T eff), 15% in stellar radius (R ⋆), and 0.09 dex in metallicity ([Fe/H]). Because the code relies on empirical spectra it performs particularly well for stars ˜K4 and later, which are challenging to model with existing spectral synthesizers, reaching accuracies of 70 K in T eff, 10% in R ⋆, and 0.12 dex in [Fe/H]. We also validate the performance of SpecMatch-Emp, finding it to be robust at lower spectral resolution and S/N, enabling the characterization of faint late-type stars. Both the library and stellar characterization code are publicly available.

  16. Synthesis and spectral characterization of hydrazone derivative of furfural using experimental and DFT methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, N Ramesh; Subashchandrabose, S; Ali Padusha, M Syed; Saleem, H; Erdoğdu, Y

    2014-01-01

    The Spectral Characterization of (E)-1-(Furan-2-yl) methylene)-2-(1-phenylvinyl) hydrazine (FMPVH) were carried out by using FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Vis., Spectrometry. The B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of optimization has been performed on the title compound. The conformational analysis was performed for this molecule, in which the cis and trans conformers were studied for spectral characterization. The recorded spectral results were compared with calculated results. The optimized bond parameters of FMPVH molecule was compared with X-ray diffraction data of related molecule. To study the intra-molecular charge transfers within the molecule the Lewis (bonding) and Non-Lewis (anti-bonding) structural calculation was performed. The Non-linear optical behavior of the title compound was measured using first order hyperpolarizability calculation. The atomic charges were calculated and analyzed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of protein and carbohydrate mid-IR spectral features in crop residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hangshu; Zhang, Yonggen; Wang, Mingjun; Li, Zhongyu; Wang, Zhibo; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-08-01

    To the best of our knowledge, a few studies have been conducted on inherent structure spectral traits related to biopolymers of crop residues. The objective of this study was to characterize protein and carbohydrate structure spectral features of three field crop residues (rice straw, wheat straw and millet straw) in comparison with two crop vines (peanut vine and pea vine) by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) technique with attenuated total reflectance (ATR). Also, multivariate analyses were performed on spectral data sets within the regions mainly related to protein and carbohydrate in this study. The results showed that spectral differences existed in mid-IR peak intensities that are mainly related to protein and carbohydrate among these crop residue samples. With regard to protein spectral profile, peanut vine showed the greatest mid-IR band intensities that are related to protein amide and protein secondary structures, followed by pea vine and the rest three field crop straws. The crop vines had 48-134% higher spectral band intensity than the grain straws in spectral features associated with protein. Similar trends were also found in the bands that are mainly related to structural carbohydrates (such as cellulosic compounds). However, the field crop residues had higher peak intensity in total carbohydrates region than the crop vines. Furthermore, spectral ratios varied among the residue samples, indicating that these five crop residues had different internal structural conformation. However, multivariate spectral analyses showed that structural similarities still exhibited among crop residues in the regions associated with protein biopolymers and carbohydrate. Further study is needed to find out whether there is any relationship between spectroscopic information and nutrition supply in various kinds of crop residue when fed to animals.

  18. Spectrally resolved, broadband frequency response characterization of photodetectors using continuous-wave supercontinuum sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Vishal; Prakash, Roopa; Nagarjun, K. P.; Supradeepa, V. R.

    2018-02-01

    A simple and powerful method using continuous wave supercontinuum lasers is demonstrated to perform spectrally resolved, broadband frequency response characterization of photodetectors in the NIR Band. In contrast to existing techniques, this method allows for a simple system to achieve the goal, requiring just a standard continuous wave(CW) high-power fiber laser source and an RF spectrum analyzer. From our recent work, we summarize methods to easily convert any high-power fiber laser into a CW supercontinuum. These sources in the time domain exhibit interesting properties all the way down to the femtosecond time scale. This enables measurement of broadband frequency response of photodetectors while the wide optical spectrum of the supercontinuum can be spectrally filtered to obtain this information in a spectrally resolved fashion. The method involves looking at the RF spectrum of the output of a photodetector under test when incident with the supercontinuum. By using prior knowledge of the RF spectrum of the source, the frequency response can be calculated. We utilize two techniques for calibration of the source spectrum, one using a prior measurement and the other relying on a fitted model. Here, we characterize multiple photodetectors from 150MHz bandwidth to >20GHz bandwidth at multiple bands in the NIR region. We utilize a supercontinuum source spanning over 700nm bandwidth from 1300nm to 2000nm. For spectrally resolved measurement, we utilize multiple wavelength bands such as around 1400nm and 1600nm. Interesting behavior was observed in the frequency response of the photodetectors when comparing broadband spectral excitation versus narrower band excitation.

  19. Radiative modeling and characterization of aerosol plumes hyper-spectral imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakian, A.

    2008-03-01

    This thesis aims at characterizing aerosols from plumes (biomass burning, industrial discharges, etc.) with hyper-spectral imagery. We want to estimate the optical properties of emitted particles and also their micro-physical properties such as number, size distribution and composition. To reach our goal, we have built a forward semi-analytical model, named APOM (Aerosol Plume Optical Model), which allows to simulate the radiative effects of aerosol plumes in the spectral range [0,4-2,5 μm] for nadir viewing sensors. Mathematical formulation and model coefficients are obtained from simulations performed with the radiative transfer code COMANCHE. APOM is assessed on simulated data and proves to be accurate with modeling errors between 1% and 3%. Three retrieval methods using APOM have been developed: L-APOM, M-APOM and A-APOM. These methods take advantage of spectral and spatial dimensions in hyper-spectral images. L-APOM and M-APOM assume a priori knowledge on particles but can estimate their optical and micro-physical properties. Their performances on simulated data are quite promising. A-APOM method does not require any a priori knowledge on particles but only estimates their optical properties. However, it still needs improvements before being usable. On real images, inversion provides satisfactory results for plumes above water but meets some difficulties for plumes above vegetation, which underlines some possibilities of improvement for the retrieval algorithm. (author)

  20. Site Characterization in the Urban Area of Tijuana, B. C., Mexico by Means of: H/V Spectral Ratios, Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves, and Random Decrement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Herrera, R.; Huerta-Lopez, C. I.; Martinez-Cruzado, J. A.

    2009-05-01

    Results of site characterization for an experimental site in the metropolitan area of Tijuana, B. C., Mexico are presented as part of the on-going research in which time series of earthquakes, ambient noise, and induced vibrations were processed with three different methods: H/V spectral ratios, Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW), and the Random Decrement Method, (RDM). Forward modeling using the wave propagation stiffness matrix method (Roësset and Kausel, 1981) was used to compute the theoretical SH/P, SV/P spectral ratios, and the experimental H/V spectral ratios were computed following the conventional concepts of Fourier analysis. The modeling/comparison between the theoretical and experimental H/V spectral ratios was carried out. For the SASW method the theoretical dispersion curves were also computed and compared with the experimental one, and finally the theoretical free vibration decay curve was compared with the experimental one obtained with the RDM. All three methods were tested with ambient noise, induced vibrations, and earthquake signals. Both experimental spectral ratios obtained with ambient noise as well as earthquake signals agree quite well with the theoretical spectral ratios, particularly at the fundamental vibration frequency of the recording site. Differences between the fundamental vibration frequencies are evident for sites located at alluvial fill (~0.6 Hz) and at sites located at conglomerate/sandstones fill (0.75 Hz). Shear wave velocities for the soft soil layers of the 4-layer discrete soil model ranges as low as 100 m/s and up to 280 m/s. The results with the SASW provided information that allows to identify low velocity layers, not seen before with the traditional seismic methods. The damping estimations obtained with the RDM are within the expected values, and the dominant frequency of the system also obtained with the RDM correlates within the range of plus-minus 20 % with the one obtained by means of the H/V spectral

  1. Synthesis, spectral characterization and in vitro antimicrobial activity of some new azopyridine derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuo-Melha, Hanaa; Fadda, A. A.

    2012-04-01

    A series of arylpicolino and/or isonicotinohydrazonyl cyanide 2a-d and 4a-f were prepared by coupling the approprite aryl diazonium salt with 2-cyanomethyl and/or 4-cyanomethyl-pyridine, respectively. These compounds were characterized by analytical and spectral analyses and screened for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and antifungal activity. Among the synthesized compounds, N'-(4-phenyldiazenyl)phenylisonicotinohydrazonyl cyanide 4f showed a significant activity toward both Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and exhibit the most potent in vitro antifungal with MIC's (625 μg/mL) against Aspergillus nieger.

  2. Fluvial particle characterization using artificial neural network and spectral image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bim Prasad; Gautam, Bijaya; Nagata, Masateru

    2008-03-01

    Sand, chemical waste, microbes and other solid materials flowing with the water bodies are of great significance to us as they cause substantial impact to different sectors including drinking water management, hydropower generation, irrigation, aquatic life preservation and various other socio-ecological factors. Such particles can't completely be avoided due to the high cost of construction and maintenance of the waste-treatment methods. A detailed understanding of solid particles in surface water system can have benefit in effective, economic, environmental and social management of water resources. This paper describes an automated system of fluvial particle characterization based on spectral image processing that lead to the development of devices for monitoring flowing particles in river. Previous research in coherent field has shown that it is possible to automatically classify shapes and sizes of solid particles ranging from 300-400 μm using artificial neural networks (ANN) and image processing. Computer facilitated with hyper spectral and multi spectral images using ANN can further classify fluvial materials into organic, inorganic, biodegradable, bio non degradable and microbes. This makes the method attractive for real time monitoring of particles, sand and microorganism in water bodies at strategic locations. Continuous monitoring can be used to determine the effect of socio-economic activities in upstream rivers, or to monitor solid waste disposal from treatment plants and industries or to monitor erosive characteristic of sand and its contribution to degradation of efficiency of hydropower plant or to identify microorganism, calculate their population and study the impact of their presence. Such system can also be used to characterize fluvial particles for planning effective utilization of water resources in micro-mega hydropower plant, irrigation, aquatic life preservation etc.

  3. Spectral characterization of volcanic rocks in the VIS-NIR for martian exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Simone; Carli, Cristian; Manzari, Paola; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Capaccioni, Fabrizio

    2016-10-01

    Igneous effusive rocks cover much of the surface of Mars [1,2,3]. Initially only two types of lithologies were thought to constitute the Martian crust, i.e. a basaltic one and a more andesitic one [1,2], while more evolved lithologies were ruled out.Nevertheless a more complex situation is appearing in the last years. Recently several observations have highlighted the presence of evolved, acidic rocks. High-silica dacite units were identified in Syrtis Major caldera by thermal IR data [4]. Outcrops in Noachis Terra were interpreted as constituted of felsic (i.e. feldspar-rich) rocks essentially by the observation of a 1.3-µm spectral feature in CRISM data, attributed to Fe2+ in feldspars [5]. However different interpretations exist, invoking plagioclase-enriched basalts [6] rather than felsic products.The increasing of high-resolution and in-situ rover-based observations datasets and the changing of the initial paradigm justify a new systematic spectral study of igneous effusive rocks. In this work we focus on the spectral characterization of volcanic effusive rocks in the 0.35-2.5-µm range. We are carrying out measurements and spectral analyses on a wide ensemble of effusive samples, from mafic to sialic, with variable alkali contents, following the classification in the Total-Alkali-Silica diagram, and discussing the influence on spectral characteristics of different mineral assemblages and/or texture ([7], [8]). [1] Bandfield J.L., et al., Science, 287, 1626, 2000; [2] Christensen P.R., et al., J. Geophys. Res., 105, N.E4, 9609-9621, 2000; [3] Ehlmann B.L. & Edwards C.S., Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 42, 291-315, 2014; [4] Christensen P.R., et al., Nature, 436, 504-509, 2005; [5] Wray J.J., et al., 44th LPSC, abs. n.3065, 2013; [6] Rogers A.D. & Nekvasil H., Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 2619-2626, 2015; [7] Carli C. and Sgavetti M.,Icarus, 211, 1034-1048, 2011; [7] Carli C. et al., SGL, doi 10.1144/SP401.19, 2015.

  4. Spectral characterization of plastic scintillation detector response as a function of magnetic field strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simiele, E.; Kapsch, R.-P.; Ankerhold, U.; Culberson, W.; DeWerd, L.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize intensity and spectral response changes in a plastic scintillation detector (PSD) as a function of magnetic field strength. Spectra measurements as a function of magnetic field strength were performed using an optical spectrometer. The response of both a PSD and PMMA fiber were investigated to isolate the changes in response from the scintillator and the noise signal as a function of magnetic field strength. All irradiations were performed in water at a photon beam energy of 6 MV. Magnetic field strengths of (0, ±0.35, ±0.70, ±1.05, and  ±1.40) T were investigated. Four noise subtraction techniques were investigated to evaluate the impact on the resulting noise-subtracted scintillator response with magnetic field strength. The noise subtraction methods included direct spectral subtraction, the spectral method, and variants thereof. The PMMA fiber exhibited changes in response of up to 50% with magnetic field strength due to the directional light emission from \\breve{C} erenkov radiation. The PSD showed increases in response of up to 10% when not corrected for the noise signal, which agrees with previous investigations of scintillator response in magnetic fields. Decreases in the \\breve{C} erenkov light ratio with negative field strength were observed with a maximum change at  ‑1.40 T of 3.2% compared to 0 T. The change in the noise-subtracted PSD response as a function of magnetic field strength varied with the noise subtraction technique used. Even after noise subtraction, the PSD exhibited changes in response of up to 5.5% over the four noise subtraction methods investigated.

  5. Spectral BRDF-based determination of proper measurement geometries to characterize color shift of special effect coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Alejandro; Rabal, Ana; Campos, Joaquín; Martínez-Verdú, Francisco; Chorro, Elísabet; Perales, Esther; Pons, Alicia; Hernanz, María Luisa

    2013-02-01

    A reduced set of measurement geometries allows the spectral reflectance of special effect coatings to be predicted for any other geometry. A physical model based on flake-related parameters has been used to determine nonredundant measurement geometries for the complete description of the spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The analysis of experimental spectral BRDF was carried out by means of principal component analysis. From this analysis, a set of nine measurement geometries was proposed to characterize special effect coatings. It was shown that, for two different special effect coatings, these geometries provide a good prediction of their complete color shift.

  6. Spectral response characterization of CdTe sensors of different pixel size with the IBEX ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, P.; Radicci, V.; Trueb, P.; Disch, C.; Rissi, M.; Sakhelashvili, T.; Schneebeli, M.; Broennimann, C.

    2018-06-01

    We characterized the spectral response of CdTe sensors with different pixel sizes - namely 75, 150 and 300 μm - bonded to the latest generation IBEX single photon counting ASIC developed at DECTRIS, to detect monochromatic X-ray energy in the range 10-60 keV. We present a comparison of pulse height spectra recorded for several energies, showing the dependence on the pixel size of the non-trivial atomic fluorescence and charge sharing effects that affect the detector response. The extracted energy resolution, in terms of full width at half maximum or FWHM, ranges from 1.5 to 4 keV according to the pixel size and chip configuration. We devoted a careful analysis to the Quantum Efficiency and to the Spectral Efficiency - a newly-introduced measure that quantifies the impact of fluorescence and escape phenomena on the spectrum integrity in high- Z material based detectors. We then investigated the influence of the photon flux on the aforementioned quantities up to 180 ṡ 106 cts/s/mm2 and 50 ṡ 106 cts/s/mm2 for the 150 μm and 300 μm pixel case, respectively. Finally, we complemented the experimental data with analytical and with Monte Carlo simulations - taking into account the stochastic nature of atomic fluorescence - with an excellent agreement.

  7. Genetic, morphological, and spectral characterization of relictual Niobrara River hybrid aspens (Populus × smithii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Nicholas John; Grossman, Jake Joseph; Schweiger, Anna Katharina; Armour, Isabella; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine

    2017-12-01

    Aspen groves along the Niobrara River in Nebraska have long been a biogeographic curiosity due to morphological differences from nearby remnant Populus tremuloides populations. Pleistocene hybridization between P. tremuloides and P. grandidentata has been proposed, but the nearest P. grandidentata populations are currently several hundred kilometers east. We tested the hybrid-origin hypothesis using genetic data and characterized putative hybrids phenotypically. We compared nuclear microsatellite loci and chloroplast sequences of Niobrara River aspens to their putative parental species. Parental species and putative hybrids were also grown in a common garden for phenotypic comparison. On the common garden plants, we measured leaf morphological traits and leaf-level spectral reflectance profiles, from which chemical traits were derived. The genetic composition of the three unique Niobrara aspen genotypes is consistent with the hybridization hypothesis and with maternal chloroplast inheritance from P. grandidentata . Leaf margin dentition and abaxial pubescence differentiated taxa, with the hybrids showing intermediate values. Spectral profiles allowed statistical separation of taxa in short-wave infrared wavelengths, with hybrids showing intermediate values, indicating that traits associated with internal structure of leaves and water absorption may vary among taxa. However, reflectance values in the visible region did not differentiate taxa, indicating that traits related to pigments are not differentiated. Both genetic and phenotypic results support the hypothesis of a hybrid origin for these genetically unique aspens. However, low genetic diversity and ongoing ecological and climatic threats to the hybrid taxon present a challenge for conservation of these relictual boreal communities. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  8. Synthesis, spectral characterizations and antimicrobial activity of some Schiff bases of 4-chloro-2-aminophenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Seher Birteksöz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of 4-chloro-2-[(arylmethylideneamino]phenols (1–11 including methoxy group were synthesized using appropriate synthetic route. The structures of the Schiff bases were characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis, ESI-MS, 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopic techniques and analytical methods. A relation is observed between melting points and existence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding. IR spectra of the compounds including and not including hydrogen bonding were compared. The compounds 2 and 4 show the characteristic UV bands attributed to the NH-forms. According to the 1H-NMR spectral data the compound 2 has the strongest intramolecular hydrogen bonding and the compound 6 shows two isomeric structure. On the other hand, antibacterial and antifungal activities of the compounds were investigated. Most of the compounds show selective activity toward S. epidermidis and C. albicans.

  9. Characterization of some Pr(III) complexes in terms of electronic spectral parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhati, P.R.; Soni, K.P.; Joshi, G.K.; Swami, S.N.

    1992-01-01

    Pr(III) complexes from the ligands derived from methyl acetoacetate, ethyl acetoacetate, veratraldehyde, ethyl vanillin and 2,5 dimethoxy benzaldehyde forming Schiff-bases with ortho, meta and para phenylene diamines have been synthesized. The complexes have been characterized in terms of various Slater-Condon Lande and Judd-Ofelt parameters. The various trends in the parametric values have also been described. The involvement of 4f-orbital in the Pr(III) complexes including deviation in the symmetry have been discussed on the basis of electronic spectral parameters. The validity of the theories used has been established while comparing observed and calculated energies and intensities of the various bands in the present complexes on the basis of r.m.s deviation. The trends of the curves observed in the solution spectra have also been discussed. (author). 21 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

  10. Spectral Characterization of a Prototype SFA Camera for Joint Visible and NIR Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multispectral acquisition improves machine vision since it permits capturing more information on object surface properties than color imaging. The concept of spectral filter arrays has been developed recently and allows multispectral single shot acquisition with a compact camera design. Due to filter manufacturing difficulties, there was, up to recently, no system available for a large span of spectrum, i.e., visible and Near Infra-Red acquisition. This article presents the achievement of a prototype of camera that captures seven visible and one near infra-red bands on the same sensor chip. A calibration is proposed to characterize the sensor, and images are captured. Data are provided as supplementary material for further analysis and simulations. This opens a new range of applications in security, robotics, automotive and medical fields.

  11. Partial Discharge Spectral Characterization in HF, VHF and UHF Bands Using Particle Swarm Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Guillermo; Fresno, José Manuel; Martínez-Tarifa, Juan Manuel; Ardila-Rey, Jorge Alfredo; Parrado-Hernández, Emilio

    2018-03-01

    The measurement of partial discharge (PD) signals in the radio frequency (RF) range has gained popularity among utilities and specialized monitoring companies in recent years. Unfortunately, in most of the occasions the data are hidden by noise and coupled interferences that hinder their interpretation and renders them useless especially in acquisition systems in the ultra high frequency (UHF) band where the signals of interest are weak. This paper is focused on a method that uses a selective spectral signal characterization to feature each signal, type of partial discharge or interferences/noise, with the power contained in the most representative frequency bands. The technique can be considered as a dimensionality reduction problem where all the energy information contained in the frequency components is condensed in a reduced number of UHF or high frequency (HF) and very high frequency (VHF) bands. In general, dimensionality reduction methods make the interpretation of results a difficult task because the inherent physical nature of the signal is lost in the process. The proposed selective spectral characterization is a preprocessing tool that facilitates further main processing. The starting point is a clustering of signals that could form the core of a PD monitoring system. Therefore, the dimensionality reduction technique should discover the best frequency bands to enhance the affinity between signals in the same cluster and the differences between signals in different clusters. This is done maximizing the minimum Mahalanobis distance between clusters using particle swarm optimization (PSO). The tool is tested with three sets of experimental signals to demonstrate its capabilities in separating noise and PDs with low signal-to-noise ratio and separating different types of partial discharges measured in the UHF and HF/VHF bands.

  12. Characterizing riverbed sediment using high-frequency acoustics 1: spectral properties of scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscombe, Daniel D.; Grams, Paul E.; Kaplinski, Matt A.

    2014-01-01

    Bed-sediment classification using high-frequency hydro-acoustic instruments is challenging when sediments are spatially heterogeneous, which is often the case in rivers. The use of acoustic backscatter to classify sediments is an attractive alternative to analysis of topography because it is potentially sensitive to grain-scale roughness. Here, a new method is presented which uses high-frequency acoustic backscatter from multibeam sonar to classify heterogeneous riverbed sediments by type (sand, gravel,rock) continuously in space and at small spatial resolution. In this, the first of a pair of papers that examine the scattering signatures from a heterogeneous riverbed, methods are presented to construct spatially explicit maps of spectral properties from geo-referenced point clouds of geometrically and radiometrically corrected echoes. Backscatter power spectra are computed to produce scale and amplitude metrics that collectively characterize the length scales of stochastic measures of riverbed scattering, termed ‘stochastic geometries’. Backscatter aggregated over small spatial scales have spectra that obey a power-law. This apparently self-affine behavior could instead arise from morphological- and grain-scale roughnesses over multiple overlapping scales, or riverbed scattering being transitional between Rayleigh and geometric regimes. Relationships exist between stochastic geometries of backscatter and areas of rough and smooth sediments. However, no one parameter can uniquely characterize a particular substrate, nor definitively separate the relative contributions of roughness and acoustic impedance (hardness). Combinations of spectral quantities do, however, have the potential to delineate riverbed sediment patchiness, in a data-driven approach comparing backscatter with bed-sediment observations (which is the subject of part two of this manuscript).

  13. Spectral and polarimetric characterization of gazeous and telluric planets with SEE COAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaletti, A.; Baudoz, P.; Mawet, D.; Schneider, J.; Tinetti, G.; Galicher, R.; Stam, D.; Cavarroc, C.; Hough, J.; Doel, P.; Pinfield, D.; Keller, C.-U.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Udry, S.; Ferrari, A.; Martin, E.; Ménard, F.; Sein, E.

    2011-07-01

    SEE COAST stands for Super Earth Explorer - Coronagraphic Off-Axis Space Telescope. The concept was initially proposed to ESA for Cosmic Vision. None of the direct detection exoplanet proposals were selected in 2007 and we are now pursuing our efforts to consolidate the astrophysical program and the technical developments for the next call for proposal. The prime objective of SEE COAST is to contribute to the understanding of the formation and evolution of planetary systems. Exploring the diversity of these objects is therefore the main driver to define the instrumentation. In the next decade the improvement of radial velocity instruments and obviously temporal coverage will provide us with a large numbers of long period giants as well as telluric planets, namely Super Earths. Obtaining the spectral and polarimetric signatures of these objects in the visible range to measure atmospheric parameters (molecular composition, clouds, soils, …) will be unique and with important scientific returns. A space mission complementary to near IR instruments like SPHERE, GPI, JWST and later ELTs for the full characterization of giants and Super Earths is a first secure step towards the longer term goal that is the characterization of telluric planets with mass and atmosphere comparable to that of the Earth. An overview of the astrophysical motivation and the trade-off that lead to a simple integrated concept of a space-based high contrast imaging instrument are given here.

  14. 3-D spectral IP imaging: Non-invasive characterization of contaminant plumes. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesmes, D.; Morgan, F.D.; Rodi, W.

    1998-01-01

    'The overall objective of this project is to develop the scientific basis for characterizing contaminant plumes in the earth''s subsurface using field measurements of induced polarization (IP) effects. Three specific objectives towards this end are: (1) understanding IP at the laboratory level through measurements of complex resistivity as a function of frequency in rock and soil samples with varying pore geometries, pore fluid conductivities and saturations, and contaminant chemistries and concentrations; (2) developing effective data acquisition techniques for measuring the critical IP responses (time domain or frequency domain) in the field; (3) developing modeling and inversion algorithms that permit the interpretation of field IP data in terms of subsurface geology and contaminant plume properties. The authors laboratory experiments to date are described in Appendices A and B, which consist of two papers submitted to the annual SAGEEP conference (Frye et al., 1998; Sturrock et al., 1998). The experiments involved measurements of complex resistivity vs. frequency on a suite of brine saturated sandstone samples. In one set of experiments, the fluid chemistry (pH, ionic strength, and cation type) was varied. In a second set of experiments, the microgeometry of the rock matrix was varied. The experiments showed that spectral IP responses are sensitive to subtle variations in both the solution chemistry and rock microgeometry. The results demonstrate that spectral IP responses have the potential of being sensitive indicators of in-situ chemistry and microgeometry, the latter of which may be related to the hydraulic properties. Data Acquisition The authors have been looking in some detail at the effects of electromagnetic coupling and how to practically deal with it. In this area, the results to date are summarized in Vandiver (1998). The progress in the development of modeling and inversion algorithms for IP is described in Appendix C, a paper submitted to the

  15. Characterization of stochastic spatially and spectrally partially coherent electromagnetic pulsed beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Chaoliang; Lue Baida; Pan Liuzhan

    2009-01-01

    The unified theory of coherence and polarization proposed by Wolf is extended from stochastic stationary electromagnetic beams to stochastic spatially and spectrally partially coherent electromagnetic pulsed beams. Taking the stochastic electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model pulsed (GSMP) beam as a typical example of stochastic spatially and spectrally partially coherent electromagnetic pulsed beams, the expressions for the spectral density, spectral degree of polarization and spectral degree of coherence of stochastic electromagnetic GSMP beams propagating in free space are derived. Some special cases are analyzed. The illustrative examples are given and the results are interpreted physically.

  16. Characterization of Spectral Magnification based on Four-Wave Mixing in Nonlinear Fibre for Advanced Modulation Formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillieholm, Mads; Corcoran, B.; Galili, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We characterize the performance of 4× spectral magnification based on four-wave mixing in optimized nonlinear fibres, for 4/8/16-QAM formats, and report >19-nm operational bandwidth. Predominantly OSNR penalties of ~1 dB per bit/QAM-symbol from aberrations non-intrinsic to time lenses are observed....

  17. A Stochastic Imaging Technique for Spatio-Spectral Characterization of Special Nuclear Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Michael C.

    Radiation imaging is advantageous for detecting, locating and characterizing special nuclear material (SNM) in complex environments. A dual-particle imager (DPI) has been designed that is capable of detecting gamma-ray and neutron signatures from shielded SNM. The system combines liquid organic and NaI(Tl) scintillators to form a combined Compton and neutron scatter camera. Effective image reconstruction of detected particles is a crucial component for maximizing the performance of the system; however, a key deficiency exists in the widely used list-mode maximum-likelihood estimation-maximization (MLEM) image reconstruction technique. The steady-state solution produced by this iterative method will have poor quality compared to solutions produced with fewer iterations. A stopping condition is required to achieve a better solution but these conditions fail to achieve maximum image quality. Stochastic origin ensembles (SOE) imaging is a good candidate to address this problem as it uses Markov chain Monte Carlo to reach a stochastic steady-state solution that has image quality comparable to the best MLEM solution. The application of SOE to the DPI is presented in this work. SOE was originally applied in medical imaging applications with no mechanism to isolate spectral information based on location. This capability is critical for non-proliferation applications as complex radiation environments with multiple sources are often encountered. This dissertation extends the SOE algorithm to produce spatially dependent spectra and presents experimental result showing that the technique was effective for isolating a 4.1-kg mass of weapons grade plutonium (WGPu) when other neutron and gamma-ray sources were present. This work also demonstrates the DPI as an effective tool for localizing and characterizing highly enriched uranium (HEU). A series of experiments were performed with the DPI using a deuterium-deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium (DT) neutron generator, as well as

  18. Plasma density characterization at SPARC-LAB through Stark broadening of Hydrogen spectral lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippi, F.; Anania, M.P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Pompili, R.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.; Villa, F.; Zigler, A.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma-based acceleration techniques are of great interest for future, compact accelerators due to their high accelerating gradient. Both particle-driven and laser-driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration experiments are foreseen at the SPARC-LAB Test Facility (INFN National Laboratories of Frascati, Italy), with the aim to accelerate high-brightness electron beams. In order to optimize the efficiency of the acceleration in the plasma and preserve the quality of the accelerated beam, the knowledge of the plasma electron density is mandatory. The Stark broadening of the Hydrogen spectral lines is one of the candidates used to characterize plasma density. The implementation of this diagnostic for plasma-based experiments at SPARC-LAB is presented. - Highlights: • Stark broadening of Hydrogen lines has been measured to determine plasma density. • Plasma density diagnostic tool for plasma-based experiments at SPARC-LAB is presented. • Plasma density in tapered laser triggered ablative capillary discharge was measured. • Results of plasma density measurements in ablative capillaries are shown.

  19. Synthesis, Spectral Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Tin(II-Morin Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahabuddin Memon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the interaction between morin and Tin(II and the resulting complex was characterized through various analytical techniques by comparing it with morin. The complexation was confirmed at first by UV-Vis study, which shows that addition of Tin(II to morin may produce bathochromic shifts indicative of complex formation. IR spectral studies indicated that carbonyl has involved in coordination with Tin(II. Moreover, 1H-NMR studies validated that in conjunction with carbonyl, 3-OH of morin is more appropriate to be involved in complexation by replacement of its proton. Scavenging activities of morin and its Tin(II complex on DPPH• radical showed the inhibitory rates of 65% and 49%, respectively. In addition, the reducing capacity of morin was outstanding at 0.5 and 2.0 mg/ml concentrations relative to Tin(II complex. Overall, the study potentially shows the strong impact in order to design the anticancer drugs jointly from its cytotoxic potential and antioxidant activities, thereby selectively targeting the cancerous cells in result increasing their therapeutic index as well as extra advantages over other anticancer drugs.

  20. Novel methylene bridged ethylenediamine-type ligands: Synthesis and spectral characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović-Lalić Ljiljana E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we report the synthesis of two new organic compounds, diisobutyl- and diisopentyl N,N′-methylene-(S,S-ethylenediamine-N,N′-di-2-(3-cyclohexylpropanoate. A one-pot procedure was carried out by adding the reducing agent and carbonyl compound into the methanol solution of the parent compounds (iso-butyl and iso-pentyl esters of (S,S-ethylenediamine-N,N′-di-2-(3-cyclohexylpropanoic acid in appropriate stoichiometric ratios. The compounds were fully characterized by infrared, ESI-MS, 1D (1H, 13C and 2D (COSY, HSQC, HMBC NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The spectral data confirm the presence of -CH2- group introduced between nitrogen atoms of the ethylenediamine moiety revealing neutral form of potential bidentate ligand. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172035. The authors also acknowledge the support of the FP7 RegPot project FCUB ERA GA No. 256716. The EC does not share responsibility for the content of the article

  1. Plasma density characterization at SPARC-LAB through Stark broadening of Hydrogen spectral lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippi, F., E-mail: francesco.filippi@roma1.infn.it [Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l' Ingegneria (SBAI), ‘Sapienza’ Università di Roma, Via A. Scarpa 14-16, 00161 Roma (Italy); INFN-Roma1, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2 00161 Roma (Italy); Anania, M.P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Via E. Fermi, Frascati (Italy); Cianchi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Via E. Fermi, Frascati (Italy); Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l' Ingegneria (SBAI), ‘Sapienza’ Università di Roma, Via A. Scarpa 14-16, 00161 Roma (Italy); INFN-Roma1, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2 00161 Roma (Italy); Pompili, R.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.; Villa, F. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Via E. Fermi, Frascati (Italy); Zigler, A. [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2016-09-01

    Plasma-based acceleration techniques are of great interest for future, compact accelerators due to their high accelerating gradient. Both particle-driven and laser-driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration experiments are foreseen at the SPARC-LAB Test Facility (INFN National Laboratories of Frascati, Italy), with the aim to accelerate high-brightness electron beams. In order to optimize the efficiency of the acceleration in the plasma and preserve the quality of the accelerated beam, the knowledge of the plasma electron density is mandatory. The Stark broadening of the Hydrogen spectral lines is one of the candidates used to characterize plasma density. The implementation of this diagnostic for plasma-based experiments at SPARC-LAB is presented. - Highlights: • Stark broadening of Hydrogen lines has been measured to determine plasma density. • Plasma density diagnostic tool for plasma-based experiments at SPARC-LAB is presented. • Plasma density in tapered laser triggered ablative capillary discharge was measured. • Results of plasma density measurements in ablative capillaries are shown.

  2. Synthesis and Spectral Characterization of Antifungal Sensitive Schiff Base Transition Metal Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivel, A.; Rajasekaran, K.

    2007-01-01

    New N2O2 donor type Schiff base has been designed and synthesized by condensing acetoacetanilido-4-aminoantipyrine with 2-aminobenzoic acid in ethanol. Solid metal complexes of the Schiff base with Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Mn(II), Zn(II), VO(IV), Hg(II) and Cd(II) metal ions were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility, molar conduction, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass, IR, UV-Vis, and 1H NMR spectral studies. The data show that the complexes have the composition of ML type. The UV-Vis. and magnetic susceptibility data of the complexes suggest a square-planar geometry around the central metal ion except VO(IV) complex which has square-pyramidal geometry. The in vitro antifungal activities of the compounds were tested against fungi such as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus stolonifer, Candida albicans, Rhizoctonia bataicola and Trichoderma harizanum. All the metal complexes showed stronger antifungal activities than the free ligand. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the metal complexes were found in the range of 10~31 µg/ml. PMID:24015086

  3. A novel approach for characterizing broad-band radio spectral energy distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, V. M.; Franzen, T.; Morgan, J.; Seymour, N.

    2018-05-01

    We present a new broad-band radio frequency catalogue across 0.12 GHz ≤ ν ≤ 20 GHz created by combining data from the Murchison Widefield Array Commissioning Survey, the Australia Telescope 20 GHz survey, and the literature. Our catalogue consists of 1285 sources limited by S20 GHz > 40 mJy at 5σ, and contains flux density measurements (or estimates) and uncertainties at 0.074, 0.080, 0.119, 0.150, 0.180, 0.408, 0.843, 1.4, 4.8, 8.6, and 20 GHz. We fit a second-order polynomial in log-log space to the spectral energy distributions of all these sources in order to characterize their broad-band emission. For the 994 sources that are well described by a linear or quadratic model we present a new diagnostic plot arranging sources by the linear and curvature terms. We demonstrate the advantages of such a plot over the traditional radio colour-colour diagram. We also present astrophysical descriptions of the sources found in each segment of this new parameter space and discuss the utility of these plots in the upcoming era of large area, deep, broad-band radio surveys.

  4. Fluvial reservoir characterization using topological descriptors based on spectral analysis of graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viseur, Sophie; Chiaberge, Christophe; Rhomer, Jérémy; Audigane, Pascal

    2015-04-01

    Fluvial systems generate highly heterogeneous reservoir. These heterogeneities have major impact on fluid flow behaviors. However, the modelling of such reservoirs is mainly performed in under-constrained contexts as they include complex features, though only sparse and indirect data are available. Stochastic modeling is the common strategy to solve such problems. Multiple 3D models are generated from the available subsurface dataset. The generated models represent a sampling of plausible subsurface structure representations. From this model sampling, statistical analysis on targeted parameters (e.g.: reserve estimations, flow behaviors, etc.) and a posteriori uncertainties are performed to assess risks. However, on one hand, uncertainties may be huge, which requires many models to be generated for scanning the space of possibilities. On the other hand, some computations performed on the generated models are time consuming and cannot, in practice, be applied on all of them. This issue is particularly critical in: 1) geological modeling from outcrop data only, as these data types are generally sparse and mainly distributed in 2D at large scale but they may locally include high-resolution descriptions (e.g.: facies, strata local variability, etc.); 2) CO2 storage studies as many scales of investigations are required, from meter to regional ones, to estimate storage capacities and associated risks. Recent approaches propose to define distances between models to allow sophisticated multivariate statistics to be applied on the space of uncertainties so that only sub-samples, representative of initial set, are investigated for dynamic time-consuming studies. This work focuses on defining distances between models that characterize the topology of the reservoir rock network, i.e. its compactness or connectivity degree. The proposed strategy relies on the study of the reservoir rock skeleton. The skeleton of an object corresponds to its median feature. A skeleton is

  5. Seismoelectric Effects based on Spectral-Element Method for Subsurface Fluid Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morency, C.

    2017-12-01

    Present approaches for subsurface imaging rely predominantly on seismic techniques, which alone do not capture fluid properties and related mechanisms. On the other hand, electromagnetic (EM) measurements add constraints on the fluid phase through electrical conductivity and permeability, but EM signals alone do not offer information of the solid structural properties. In the recent years, there have been many efforts to combine both seismic and EM data for exploration geophysics. The most popular approach is based on joint inversion of seismic and EM data, as decoupled phenomena, missing out the coupled nature of seismic and EM phenomena such as seismoeletric effects. Seismoelectric effects are related to pore fluid movements with respect to the solid grains. By analyzing coupled poroelastic seismic and EM signals, one can capture a pore scale behavior and access both structural and fluid properties.Here, we model the seismoelectric response by solving the governing equations derived by Pride and Garambois (1994), which correspond to Biot's poroelastic wave equations and Maxwell's electromagnetic wave equations coupled electrokinetically. We will show that these coupled wave equations can be numerically implemented by taking advantage of viscoelastic-electromagnetic mathematical equivalences. These equations will be solved using a spectral-element method (SEM). The SEM, in contrast to finite-element methods (FEM) uses high degree Lagrange polynomials. Not only does this allow the technique to handle complex geometries similarly to FEM, but it also retains exponential convergence and accuracy due to the use of high degree polynomials. Finally, we will discuss how this is a first step toward full coupled seismic-EM inversion to improve subsurface fluid characterization. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Thermal Properties and Phonon Spectral Characterization of Synthetic Boron Phosphide for High Thermal Conductivity Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joon Sang; Wu, Huan; Hu, Yongjie

    2017-12-13

    Heat dissipation is an increasingly critical technological challenge in modern electronics and photonics as devices continue to shrink to the nanoscale. To address this challenge, high thermal conductivity materials that can efficiently dissipate heat from hot spots and improve device performance are urgently needed. Boron phosphide is a unique high thermal conductivity and refractory material with exceptional chemical inertness, hardness, and high thermal stability, which holds high promises for many practical applications. So far, however, challenges with boron phosphide synthesis and characterization have hampered the understanding of its fundamental properties and potential applications. Here, we describe a systematic thermal transport study based on a synergistic synthesis-experimental-modeling approach: we have chemically synthesized high-quality boron phosphide single crystals and measured their thermal conductivity as a record-high 460 W/mK at room temperature. Through nanoscale ballistic transport, we have, for the first time, mapped the phonon spectra of boron phosphide and experimentally measured its phonon mean free-path spectra with consideration of both natural and isotope-pure abundances. We have also measured the temperature- and size-dependent thermal conductivity and performed corresponding calculations by solving the three-dimensional and spectral-dependent phonon Boltzmann transport equation using the variance-reduced Monte Carlo method. The experimental results are in good agreement with that predicted by multiscale simulations and density functional theory, which together quantify the heat conduction through the phonon mode dependent scattering process. Our finding underscores the promise of boron phosphide as a high thermal conductivity material for a wide range of applications, including thermal management and energy regulation, and provides a detailed, microscopic-level understanding of the phonon spectra and thermal transport mechanisms of

  7. Spectral bandwidth of interictal fast epileptic activity characterizes the seizure onset zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Heers

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The foremost aim of presurgical epilepsy evaluation is the delineation of the seizure onset zone (SOZ. There is increasing evidence that fast epileptic activity (FEA, 14–250 Hz occurring interictally, i.e. between seizures, is predominantly localized within the SOZ. Currently it is unknown, which frequency band of FEA performs best in identifying the SOZ, although prior studies suggest highest concordance of spectral changes with the SOZ for high frequency changes. We suspected that FEA reflects dampened oscillations in local cortical excitatory-inhibitory neural networks, and that interictal FEA in the SOZ is a consequence of reduced oscillatory damping. We therefore predict a narrowing of the spectral bandwidth alongside increased amplitudes of spectral peaks during interictal FEA events. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated spectral changes during interictal FEA in invasive EEG (iEEG recordings of 13 patients with focal epilepsy. In relative spectra of beta and gamma band changes (14–250 Hz during FEA, we found that spectral peaks within the SOZ indeed were significantly more narrow-banded and their power changes were significantly higher than outside the SOZ. In contrast, the peak frequency did not differ within and outside the SOZ. Our results show that bandwidth and power changes of spectral modulations during FEA both help localizing the SOZ. We propose the spectral bandwidth as new source of information for the evaluation of EEG data.

  8. Spectral Characterization of the Wave Energy Resource for Puerto Rico (PR) and the United States Virgin Islands (USVI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C. G.; Canals, M.; Irizarry, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    Nowadays a significant amount of wave energy assessments have taken place due to the development of the ocean energy markets worldwide. Energy contained in surface gravity waves is scattered along frequency components that can be described using wave spectra. Correspondingly, characterization and quantification of harvestable wave energy is inherently dictated by the nature of the two-dimensional wave spectrum. The present study uses spectral wave data from the operational SWAN-based CariCOOS Nearshore Wave Model to evaluate the capture efficiency of multiple wave energy converters (WEC). This study revolves around accurately estimating available wave energy as a function of varying spectral distributions, effectively providing a detailed insight concerning local wave conditions for PR and USVI and the resulting available-energy to generated-power ratio. Results in particular, provide a comprehensive characterization of three years' worth of SWAN-based datasets by outlining where higher concentrations of wave energy are localized in the spectrum. Subsequently, the aforementioned datasets were processed to quantify the amount of energy incident on two proposed sites located in PR and USVI. Results were largely influenced by local trade wind activity, which drive predominant sea states, and the amount of North-Atlantic swells that propagate towards the region. Each wave event was numerically analyzed in the frequency domain to evaluate the capacity of a WEC to perform under different spectral distribution scenarios, allowing for a correlation between electrical power output and spectral energy distribution to be established.

  9. Quantitative analysis of the dual-energy CT virtual spectral curve for focal liver lesions characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qi, E-mail: wq20@hotmail.com; Shi, Gaofeng, E-mail: gaofengs62@sina.com; Qi, Xiaohui, E-mail: qixiaohui1984@163.com; Fan, Xueli, E-mail: 407849960@qq.com; Wang, Lijia, E-mail: 893197597@qq.com

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We establish a feasible method using the virtual spectral curves (VSC) to differentiate focal liver lesions using DECT. • Our study shows the slope of the VSC can be used to differentiate between hemangioma, HCC, metastasis and cyst. • Importantly, the diagnostic specificities associated with using the slope to diagnose both hemangioma and cysts were 100%. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the usefulness of the spectral curve slope of dual-energy CT (DECT) for differentiating between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), hepatic metastasis, hemangioma (HH) and cysts. Methods: In total, 121 patients were imaged in the portal venous phase using dual-energy mode. Of these patients, 23 patients had HH, 28 patients had HCC, 40 patients had metastases and 30 patients had simple cysts. The spectral curves of the hepatic lesions were derived from the 40–190 keV levels of virtual monochromatic spectral imaging. The spectral curve slopes were calculated from 40 to 110 keV. The slopes were compared using the Kruskal–Wallis test. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) were used to determine the optimal cut-off value of the slope of the spectral curve to differentiate between the lesions. Results: The spectral curves of the four lesion types had different baseline levels. The HH baseline level was the highest followed by HCC, metastases and cysts. The slopes of the spectral curves of HH, HCC, metastases and cysts were 3.81 ± 1.19, 1.49 ± 0.57, 1.06 ± 0.76 and 0.13 ± 0.17, respectively. These values were significantly different (P < 0.008). Based on ROC analysis, the respective diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 87% and 100% for hemangioma (cut-off value ≥ 2.988), 82.1% and 65.9% for HCC (cut-off value 1.167–2.998), 65.9% and 59% for metastasis (cut-off value 0.133–1.167) and 44.4% and 100% for cysts (cut-off value ≤ 0.133). Conclusion: Quantitative analysis of the DECT spectral curve in the portal venous phase can be used to

  10. Topographic gradient based site characterization in India complemented by strong ground-motion spectral attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Nath, Sankar Kumar; Thingbaijam, Kiran Kumar; Adhikari, M. D.; Nayak, Avinash; Devaraj, N.; Ghosh, Soumalya K.; Mahajan, Arun K.

    2013-01-01

    We appraise topographic-gradient approach for site classification that employs correlations between 30. m column averaged shear-wave velocity and topographic gradients. Assessments based on site classifications reported from cities across India indicate that the approach is reasonably viable at regional level. Additionally, we experiment three techniques for site classification based on strong ground-motion recordings, namely Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR), Response Spectra Shape (RSS), and Horizontal-to-Vertical Response Spectral Ratio (HVRSR) at the strong motion stations located across the Himalayas and northeast India. Statistical tests on the results indicate that these three techniques broadly differentiate soil and rock sites while RSS and HVRSR yield better signatures. The results also support the implemented site classification in the light of strong ground-motion spectral attributes observed in different parts of the globe. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Topographic gradient based site characterization in India complemented by strong ground-motion spectral attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Nath, Sankar Kumar

    2013-12-01

    We appraise topographic-gradient approach for site classification that employs correlations between 30. m column averaged shear-wave velocity and topographic gradients. Assessments based on site classifications reported from cities across India indicate that the approach is reasonably viable at regional level. Additionally, we experiment three techniques for site classification based on strong ground-motion recordings, namely Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR), Response Spectra Shape (RSS), and Horizontal-to-Vertical Response Spectral Ratio (HVRSR) at the strong motion stations located across the Himalayas and northeast India. Statistical tests on the results indicate that these three techniques broadly differentiate soil and rock sites while RSS and HVRSR yield better signatures. The results also support the implemented site classification in the light of strong ground-motion spectral attributes observed in different parts of the globe. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Evaluation of discrimination measures to characterize spectrally similar leaves of African Savannah trees

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudeni, N

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available tree species. SDA builds a step-by-step model which evaluates the contribution of each spectral band with respect to the discriminatory power of the model. The discriminatory power of the model is measured by the Wilk’s lambda. A spectral band... therefore enters the model if it, according to the Wilk’s lambda criterion, contributes more to the discrimination of the tree species, while it is removed if it contributes least to the discriminatory power of the model. A discriminant model can generally...

  13. Universal dispersion model for characterization of optical thin films over wide spectral range: Application to magnesium fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franta, Daniel; Nečas, David; Giglia, Angelo; Franta, Pavel; Ohlídal, Ivan

    2017-11-01

    Optical characterization of magnesium fluoride thin films is performed in a wide spectral range from far infrared to extreme ultraviolet (0.01-45 eV) utilizing the universal dispersion model. Two film defects, i.e. random roughness of the upper boundaries and defect transition layer at lower boundary are taken into account. An extension of universal dispersion model consisting in expressing the excitonic contributions as linear combinations of Gaussian and truncated Lorentzian terms is introduced. The spectral dependencies of the optical constants are presented in a graphical form and by the complete set of dispersion parameters that allows generating tabulated optical constants with required range and step using a simple utility in the newAD2 software package.

  14. Spectral feature characterization methods for blood stain detection in crime scene backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Mathew, Jobin J.; Dube, Roger R.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-05-01

    Blood stains are one of the most important types of evidence for forensic investigation. They contain valuable DNA information, and the pattern of the stains can suggest specifics about the nature of the violence that transpired at the scene. Blood spectral signatures containing unique reflectance or absorption features are important both for forensic on-site investigation and laboratory testing. They can be used for target detection and identification applied to crime scene hyperspectral imagery, and also be utilized to analyze the spectral variation of blood on various backgrounds. Non-blood stains often mislead the detection and can generate false alarms at a real crime scene, especially for dark and red backgrounds. This paper measured the reflectance of liquid blood and 9 kinds of non-blood samples in the range of 350 nm - 2500 nm in various crime scene backgrounds, such as pure samples contained in petri dish with various thicknesses, mixed samples with different colors and materials of fabrics, and mixed samples with wood, all of which are examined to provide sub-visual evidence for detecting and recognizing blood from non-blood samples in a realistic crime scene. The spectral difference between blood and non-blood samples are examined and spectral features such as "peaks" and "depths" of reflectance are selected. Two blood stain detection methods are proposed in this paper. The first method uses index to denote the ratio of "depth" minus "peak" over"depth" add"peak" within a wavelength range of the reflectance spectrum. The second method uses relative band depth of the selected wavelength ranges of the reflectance spectrum. Results show that the index method is able to discriminate blood from non-blood samples in most tested crime scene backgrounds, but is not able to detect it from black felt. Whereas the relative band depth method is able to discriminate blood from non-blood samples on all of the tested background material types and colors.

  15. Spectral characterization in deep UV of an improved imaging KDP acousto-optic tunable filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Neelam; Voloshinov, Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we developed a number of high quality noncollinear acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) cells in different birefringent materials with UV imaging capability. Cells based on a single crystal of KDP (potassium dihydrophosphate) had the best transmission efficiency and the optical throughput needed to acquire high quality spectral images at wavelengths above 220 nm. One of the main limitations of these imaging filters was their small angular aperture in air, limited to about 1.0°. In this paper, we describe an improved imaging KDP AOTF operating from the deep UV to the visible region of the spectrum. The linear and angular apertures of the new filter are 10 × 10 mm 2 and 1.8°, respectively. The spectral tuning range is 205–430 nm with a 60 cm −1 spectral resolution. We describe the filter and present experimental results on imaging using both a broadband source and a number of light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the UV, and include the measured spectra of these LEDs obtained with a collinear SiO 2 filter-based spectrometer operating above 255 nm. (paper)

  16. Objective image characterization of a spectral CT scanner with dual-layer detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozguner, Orhan; Dhanantwari, Amar; Halliburton, Sandra; Wen, Gezheng; Utrup, Steven; Jordan, David

    2018-01-01

    This work evaluated the performance of a detector-based spectral CT system by obtaining objective reference data, evaluating attenuation response of iodine and accuracy of iodine quantification, and comparing conventional CT and virtual monoenergetic images in three common phantoms. Scanning was performed using the hospital’s clinical adult body protocol. Modulation transfer function (MTF) was calculated for a tungsten wire and visual line pair targets were evaluated. Image noise power spectrum (NPS) and pixel standard deviation were calculated. MTF for monoenergetic images agreed with conventional images within 0.05 lp cm-1. NPS curves indicated that noise texture of 70 keV monoenergetic images is similar to conventional images. Standard deviation measurements showed monoenergetic images have lower noise except at 40 keV. Mean CT number and CNR agreed with conventional images at 75 keV. Measured iodine concentration agreed with true concentration within 6% for inserts at the center of the phantom. Performance of monoenergetic images at detector based spectral CT is the same as, or better than, that of conventional images. Spectral acquisition and reconstruction with a detector based platform represents the physical behaviour of iodine as expected and accurately quantifies the material concentration.

  17. Application of intrinsic germanium spectral gamma-ray logging for characterization of high-level nuclear waste tank leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodeur, J.R.; Kiesler, J.P.; Kos, S.E.; Koizumi, C.J.; Nicaise, W.F.; Price, R.K.

    1993-11-01

    Spectral gamma-ray logging with a high-resolution, intrinsic germanium logging system was completed in boreholes surrounding two high-level nuclear waste tanks at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The purpose was to characterize the concentrations of man-made radionuclides in the unsaturated zone sediments and identify any new leaks from the tanks. An intrinsic germanium detection system was used for this work because it was important to positively identify the specific radionuclides and to precisely assay those radionuclides. The spectral gamma log data were processed and displayed as log plots for each individual borehole and as three-dimensional plots of 137 Cs radionuclide concentrations. These data were reviewed to identify the sources of the contamination. The investigation did not uncover a new or active leak from either of the tanks. Most of the contamination found could be related to known pipeline leaks, to surface contamination from aboveground liquid spills, or to leaks from other tanks. The current spectral gamma ray data now provide a new baseline from which to compare future log data and identify any changes in the radioelement concentration

  18. Processing Pipeline of Sugarcane Spectral Response to Characterize the Fallen Plants Phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano, Agustín; Hadad, Alejandro; Kemerer, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, in agronomic systems it is possible to make a variable management of inputs to improve the efficiency of agronomic industry and optimize the logistics of the harvesting process. In this way, it was proposed for sugarcane culture the use of remote sensing tools and computational methods to identify useful areas in the cultivated lands. The objective was to use these areas to make variable management of the crop. When at the moment of harvesting the sugarcane there are fallen stalks, together with them some strange material (vegetal or mineral) is collected. This strange material is not millable and when it enters onto the sugar mill it causes important looses of efficiency in the sugar extraction processes and affects its quality. Considering this issue, the spectral response of sugarcane plants in aerial multispectral images was studied. The spectral response was analyzed in different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. Then, the aerial images were segmented to obtain homogeneous regions useful for producers to make decisions related to the use of inputs and resources according to the variability of the system (existence of fallen cane and standing cane). The obtained segmentation results were satisfactory. It was possible to identify regions with fallen cane and regions with standing cane with high precision rates. (paper)

  19. Spectral mineral mapping for characterization of subtle geothermal prospects using ASTER data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abubakar, A J; Hashim, M; Pour, A B

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the performance of ASTER data is evaluated for mapping subtle geothermal prospects in an unexplored tropical region having a number of thermal springs. The study employed a simple Decorrelation stretch with specific absorptions to highlight possible alteration zones of interest related to Geothermal (GT) systems. Hydrothermal alteration minerals are subsequently mapped using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Linear Spectral Unmixing (LSU) algorithms to target representative minerals such as clays, carbonates and AL-OH minerals as indicators of GT activity. The results were validated through field GPS survey, rock sampling and laboratory analysis using latest smart lab X-Ray Diffractometer technology. The study indicates that ASTER broadband satellite data could be used to map subtle GT prospects with the aid of an in-situ verification. However, it also shows that ASTER could not discriminate within specie minerals especially for clays using SWIR bands. Subsequent studies are aimed at looking at both ASTER and Hyperion hyperspectral data in the same area as this could have significant implications for GT resource detection in unmapped aseismic and inaccessible tropical regions using available spaceborne data. (paper)

  20. Flaw location and characterization in anisotropic materials by ultrasonic spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, L.; Cook, K.V.; Simpson, W.A.; Lewis, D.K.

    1978-01-01

    A method of quantitatively determining size and location of flaws in anisotropic materials such as stainless steel welds is described. In previous work, it was shown that spectral analysis of a broad band ultrasonic pulse scattered from a defect can be used to determine size and orientation in isotropic materials if the velocity of sound in the material is known. In an anisotropic structural material (stainless steel weld, centrifugal cast pipe), the velocity (both shear and longitudinal) is direction-dependent. When anisotropy is not taken into account, defect location and defect size estimation is misjudged. It will be shown that the effect of this structural variation in materials must be considered to obtain the correct size and location of defects by frequency analysis. A theoretical calculation, including anisotropy, of the scattered field from defects will also be presented

  1. Characterizing inner-shell with spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashiko, Hiroki; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko; Oguri, Katsuya; Suda, Akira; Gotoh, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    In many atomic, molecular and solid systems, Lorentzian and Fano profiles are commonly observed in a broad research fields throughout a variety of spectroscopies. As the profile structure is related to the phase of the time-dependent dipole moment, it plays an important role in the study of quantum properties. Here we determine the dipole phase in the inner-shell transition using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER) with isolated attosecond pulses (IAPs). In addition, we propose a scheme for pulse generation and compression by manipulating the inner-shell transition. The electromagnetic radiation generated by the transition is temporally compressed to a few femtoseconds in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) region. The proposed pulse-compression scheme may provide an alternative route to producing attosecond pulses of light. PMID:25510971

  2. Facile synthesis of RuII Schiff base complexes: spectral characterization and antimicrobial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, S.; Padma Priya, N.; Shahul Meeran, H.

    2014-01-01

    Diamagnetic ruthenium (II) complexes of the type (RuCl (CO) (pyridine) (L)) (where L = monobasic tridentate Schiff base ligands) were synthesized by the reactions of Schiff bases derived from the reactions of o-aminobenzoic acid and Knovenegal condensate of β - ketoesters and appropriate ruthenium metal precursor (RuHCl (CO) (PPh 3 ) 2 (py)). Elemental analyses and spectral (FT-IR, UV-Vi s and 1 H, 31 P NMR) studies of all the new synthesized complexes suggest the presence of an octahedral environment around the Ru II ion. Cyclic voltammograms of all the complexes display oxidation and reduction potentials. Superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) of these complexes has also been examined. These complexes were also subjected to study their biocidal activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Botrytis cinerea and Aspergillus niger. (author)

  3. Absolute spectral characterization of silicon barrier diode: Application to soft X-ray fusion diagnostics at Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vezinet, D.; Mazon, D.; Malard, P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental protocol for absolute calibration of photo-detectors. Spectral characterization is achieved by a methodology that unlike the usual line emissions-based method, hinges on the Bremsstrahlung radiation of a Soft X-Ray (SXR) tube only. Although the proposed methodology can be applied virtually to any detector, the application presented in this paper is based on Tore Supra's SXR diagnostics, which uses Silicon Surface Barrier Diodes. The spectral response of these n-p junctions had previously been estimated on a purely empirical basis. This time, a series of second-order effects, like the spatial distribution of the source radiated power or multi-channel analyser non linearity, are taken into account to achieve accurate measurements. Consequently, a parameterised physical model is fitted to experimental results and the existence of an unexpected dead layer (at least 5 μm thick) is evidenced. This contribution also echoes a more general on-going effort in favour of long-term quality of passive radiation measurements on Tokamaks

  4. X-ray studies, spectral characterization and thermal behaviour of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP04)3]. H20, I, was synthesized by reacting Zn2+ ions with tris-(2-aminoethyl) amine phosphate [C6H21N4][P04].5H20. The compound was characterized by powder x-ray diffraction analysis, energy dispersive analysis by x-ray and infrared ...

  5. Spectral and holographic characterization of new photochromic compounds based on substituted spiropyrans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciapurin, Igor V.; Robu, Stephan V.; Vlad, Lyudmila A.; Lessard, Roger A.; Tork, Amir; Lafond, Christophe; Bolte, Michel

    2001-06-01

    We report a new photochromic composite polymer consisting of poly-N-epoxypropylcarbazole (PEPC) polymeric matrix with a nitro-brome-substituted spiropyran (BNSP) photochromic dye. The PEPC + BNSP films can be considered as negative photochromic recording media. They are colored in the initial state and bleached upon irradiation within the visible spectra. When we placed the bleached samples to the darkness, they slowly revert to the colored form. This process has strong temperature dependence, so one can either 'freeze'' or accelerate changing of the current coloration state in the PEPC + BNSP. The experimental measurements are evaluated in conjunction with its potential applications for optical holographic recording in the visible spectral range. The real-time holographic recording procedure in PEPC + BNSP films was studied. The diffraction efficiency values reached the maximum of 23 percent at spatial frequency of 1600 line pairs per mm, during direct hologram recording with the 532 nm Coherent VERDI laser irradiation. Light exposures were ranged from 70 to 280 mJ/cm2. The investigated compounds have good perspectives for use in holography, two-photon optical data storage, electro-optics, and optical-limiting applications due to coupling of some unique properties such as high optical non-linearity, well charge transport, short response times, no-limiting resolution ability, etc.

  6. Chemical and Spectral Characterization of The Ozonation Products of κ-Carrageenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasetyaningrum Aji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Kappa (κ- carrageenan oligomers are known to have several biological activities. Recent progress in the development of modified κ-carrageenan has resulted low molecular of κ-carrageenan. Ozone is a powerful oxidant and considered for depolymerization of κ-carrageenan. However, few studies have investigated the changes in κ-carrageenan properties associated with ozone treatment. This study would investigate on the changes in chemical structure after ozonation process. The experiments were carried out in a glass reactor equipped with an ozone bubble diffuser. Ozone with concentration of 80 ± 2 was bubbled into the solution. The ozone treatment was conducted at different times, i.e., 0 (control, 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes. The experiments were conducted at pH 7 and constant stirring speed (200 rpm. Ozone-treated κ-carrageenan was dried at 60 ºC for 24 h in a forced air oven. The chemical and spectral analyses of κ-carrageenan after ozonation process were carried out using UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy. These changes are seen in the UV spectra as a high intensity of absorbance peak at 290 nm. It is shows that ozonation of κ-carrageenan leads to some chemical changes such as the formation of carbonyl, carboxyl or double bonds.The FT-IR spectra reveals that the chemical structure of degraded κ-carrageenan, in term of sulfate content, is only slightly affected by the ozone treatment.

  7. Quantum chemical spectral characterization of CH2NH2+ for remote sensing of Titan's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackston, Russell; Fortenberry, Ryan C.

    2018-01-01

    Cassini has shown that CH2NH2+ is likely present in relatively high abundance in Titan's upper atmosphere. Relatively little is known about this molecule even though it contains the same number of electrons as ethylene, a molecule of significance to Titan's chemistry. Any studies on CH2NH2+ with application to Titan or its atmospheric chemistry will have to be done remotely at this point with the end of the fruitful Cassini mission. Consequently, trusted quantum chemical techniques are utilized here to produce the rotational, vibrational, and rovibrational spectroscopic constants for CH2NH2+ for the first time. The methodology produces a tightly fit potential energy surface here that is well-behaved indicating a strong credence in the accuracy for the produced values. Most notably, the 884.1 cm-1 NH2 out-of-plane bend is the brightest of the vibrational frequencies reported here for CH2NH2+ , and an observed and unattributed feature in this spectral region has been documented but never assigned to a molecular carrier. Follow-up IR or radio observations making use of the 540 GHz to 660 GHz range with the 0.45 D molecular dipole moment will have to be undertaken in order to confirm this or any attribution, but the data provided in this work will greatly assist in any such studies related to CH2NH2+.

  8. Optical characterization of agricultural pest insects: a methodological study in the spectral and time domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. Y.; Zhang, H.; Duan, Z.; Lian, M.; Zhao, G. Y.; Sun, X. H.; Hu, J. D.; Gao, L. N.; Feng, H. Q.; Svanberg, S.

    2016-08-01

    Identification of agricultural pest insects is an important aspect in insect research and agricultural monitoring. We have performed a methodological study of how spectroscopic techniques and wing-beat frequency analysis might provide relevant information. An optical system based on the combination of close-range remote sensing and reflectance spectroscopy was developed to study the optical characteristics of different flying insects, collected in Southern China. The results demonstrate that the combination of wing-beat frequency assessment and reflectance spectral analysis has the potential to successfully differentiate between insect species. Further, studies of spectroscopic characteristics of fixed specimen of insects, also from Central China, showed the possibility of refined agricultural pest identification. Here, in addition to reflectance recordings also laser-induced fluorescence spectra were investigated for all the species of insects under study and found to provide complementary information to optically distinguish insects. In order to prove the practicality of the techniques explored, clearly fieldwork aiming at elucidating the variability of parameters, even within species, must be performed.

  9. Optical spectral characterization of leaves for endemic species from La Primavera forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán, R. C.; Strojnik, Marija; Rodríguez-Rivas, Antonio; Garcia-Torales, G.; González, Francisco Javier

    2017-09-01

    La Primavera forest is the main climate regulator in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara, the second most populated megalopolis in Mexico with approximately 4.4 million people. This forest area has been a focus of fires in the last decade and it is deteriorating the quality of life of the inhabitants. Leaves from the endemic forest provide information about their biochemical composition and physiology. This information is enclosed in the spectral range of the visible band to the middle infrared (400 nm at 2500 nm). In this paper we examine the reflectance of six endemic species leaves of La Primavera forest, considering the measurement in fresh and dry samples. Measurements will be obtained with a Vis-NIR spectrometer that uses a calibrated light source. A formal collection of the optical properties of tree leaves in La Primavera forest does not exist, but it is important to classify about the type of vegetation in the area. In addition, it will provide information to generate vegetation inventories, provide data to the forest fire prevention systems, pest control and erosion in the area.

  10. Synthesis, Characterization and Spectral Properties of Substituted Tetraphenylporphyrin Iron Chloride Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Li

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of substituted tetraphenylporphyrin iron chloride complexes [RTPPFe(IIICl, R=o/p-NO2, o/p-Cl, H, o/p-CH3, o/p-OCH3] were synthesized by a novel universal mixed-solvent method and the spectral properties of free base porphyrins and iron porphyrin compounds were compared with each other. The experimental results showed that the one-pot mixed solvent method was superior to the two-step method in the yields, reaction time and workup of reaction mixtures for the synthesis of iron porphyrin compounds. The highest yields (28.7%-40.4% of RTPPFe(IIICl were obtained in the mixed solvents propionic acid, glacial acetic acid and m-nitrotoluene under reflux for 2 h. A detailed analysis of ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis, infrared (IR and far-infrared (FIR spectra suggested the transformation from free base porphyrins to iron porphyrins. The red shift of the Soret band in ultraviolet-visible spectra due to the presence of p-nitrophenyl substituents and the blue shift of Fe-Cl bond of TPPFeCl in far-infrared spectra were further explained by the electron transfer and molecular planarity in the porphyrin ring.

  11. Spectral characterization and crystal structure of 2-amino-N′-[(1Z-1-(4-chlorophenylethylidene]-benzohydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Arfan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of 2-amino-N′-[(1Z-1-(4-chlorophenylethylidene]benzohydrazide (I is determined by X-ray diffraction at room temperature. The structure of I also was characterized by elemental analysis, mass, FT-IR and NMR spectroscopic techniques. The compound crystallizes in triclinic system, and space group is P1¯. Unit-cell dimensions are the following: a = 7.05380(10 Å, b = 7.65490(10 Å, c = 13.7094(4 Å, V = 694.01(2 Å3, Z = 2. The title compound is nearly planar and has intermolecular N–H⋯O hydrogen bonding. According to the spectral data, I exhibits an amide-iminol tautomerism.

  12. Spectral imaging based in vivo model system for characterization of tumor microvessel response to vascular targeting agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankhede, Mamta

    Functional vasculature is vital for tumor growth, proliferation, and metastasis. Many tumor-specific vascular targeting agents (VTAs) aim to destroy this essential tumor vasculature to induce indirect tumor cell death via oxygen and nutrition deprivation. The tumor angiogenesis-inhibiting anti-angiogenics (AIs) and the established tumor vessel targeting vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) are the two major players in the vascular targeting field. Combination of VTAs with conventional therapies or with each other, have been shown to have additive or supra-additive effects on tumor control and treatment. Pathophysiological changes post-VTA treatment in terms of structural and vessel function changes are important parameters to characterize the treatment efficacy. Despite the abundance of information regarding these parameters acquired using various techniques, there remains a need for a quantitative, real-time, and direct observation of these phenomenon in live animals. Through this research we aspired to develop a spectral imaging based mouse tumor system for real-time in vivo microvessel structure and functional measurements for VTA characterization. A model tumor system for window chamber studies was identified, and then combinatorial effects of VDA and AI were characterized in model tumor system. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University of Florida Libraries web site. Please check http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/etd.html)

  13. Optimized Spectrometers Characterization Procedure for Near Ground Support of ESA FLEX Observations: Part 1 Spectral Calibration and Characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mihai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents two procedures for the wavelength calibration, in the oxygen telluric absorption spectral bands (O2-A, λc = 687 nm and O2-B, λc = 760.6 nm, of field fixed-point spectrometers used for reflectance and Sun-induced fluorescence measurements. In the first case, Ne and Ar pen-type spectral lamps were employed, while the second approach is based on a double monochromator setup. The double monochromator system was characterized for the estimation of errors associated with different operating configurations. The proposed methods were applied to three Piccolo Doppio-type systems built around two QE Pros and one USB2 + H16355 Ocean Optics spectrometers. The wavelength calibration errors for all the calibrations performed on the three spectrometers are reported and potential methodological improvements discussed. The suggested calibration methods were validated, as the wavelength corrections obtained by both techniques for the QE Pro designed for fluorescence investigations were similar. However, it is recommended that a neon emission line source, as well as an argon or mercury-argon source be used to have a reference wavelength closer to the O2-B feature. The wavelength calibration can then be optimised as close to the O2-B and O2-A features as possible. The monochromator approach could also be used, but that instrument would need to be fully characterized prior to use, and although it may offer a more accurate calibration, as it could be tuned to emit light at the same wavelengths as the absorption features, it would be more time consuming as it is a scanning approach.

  14. [Preparation and spectral characterization of CdS(y)Te(1-y) thin films].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Feng, Liang-Huan; Wu, Li-Li; Zhang, Jing-Quan; Li, Bing; Lei, Zhi; Cai, Ya-Ping; Zheng, Jia-Gui; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Dong-Min

    2008-03-01

    CdS(y)Te(1-y) (0 co-evaporation of powders of CdTe and CdS. For the characterization of the structure and composition of the CdS(y)Te(1-y) thin films the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used. The results indicate that the values of sulfur content y detected and controlled by the quartz wafer detector show good agreement with the EDS results. The films were found to be cubic for x or = 0.3. The 20-50 nm of grain sizes for CdS(y)Te(1-y) thin films were calculated using a method of XRD analysis. Finally, the optical properties of CdS(y)Te(1-y) thin films were characterized by UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy alone. According to a method from Swanepoel, together with the first-order Sellmeier model, the thickness, of d-535 nm, energy gap of E(g)-1.41 eV, absorption coefficient, alpha(lambda) and refractive index, n(lambda) of CdS(0.22) Te(0.78) thin films were determined from the transmittance at normal incidence of light in the wavelength range 300-2 500 nm. The results also indicate that the CdS(y)Te(1-y) thin films with any composition (0 co-evaporation, and the method to characterize the optical properties of CdS(y)Te(1-y) thin films can be implemented for other semiconductor thin films.

  15. Exposure to Non-Extreme Solar UV Daylight: Spectral Characterization, Effects on Skin and Photoprotection

    OpenAIRE

    Marionnet, Claire; Tricaud, Caroline; Bernerd, Fran?oise

    2014-01-01

    The link between chronic sun exposure of human skin and harmful clinical consequences such as photo-aging and skin cancers is now indisputable. These effects are mostly due to ultraviolet (UV) rays (UVA, 320–400 nm and UVB, 280–320 nm). The UVA/UVB ratio can vary with latitude, season, hour, meteorology and ozone layer, leading to different exposure conditions. Zenithal sun exposure (for example on a beach around noon under a clear sky) can rapidly induce visible and well-characterized clinic...

  16. Effect of spectral characterization of gaseous fuel reactors on transmutation and burning of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, C.; Anghaie, S. [Florida Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Gaseous Core Reactors (GCR) are fueled with stable uranium compounds in a reflected cavity. The spectral characteristics of neutrons in GCR systems could shift from one end of the spectrum to the other end by changing design parameters such as reflector material and thickness, uranium enrichment, and the average operational temperature and pressure. The rate of actinide generation, transmutation, and burnup is highly influenced by the average neutron energy in reactor core. In particular, the production rate and isotopic mix of plutonium are highly dependent on the neutron spectrum in the reactor. Other actinides of primary interest to this work are neptunium-237 and americium-241 due to their pivotal impact on high-level nuclear waste disposal. In all cavity reactors including GCR's, the reflector material and thickness are the most important design parameters in determining the core spectrum. The increase in the gaseous fuel pressure and enrichment results in relative shift of neutron population toward energies greater than 2 eV. Reflector materials considered in this study are beryllium oxide, lithium hydride, lithium deuteride, zirconium carbide, graphite, lead, and tungsten. Results of the study suggest that the beryllium oxide and tungsten reflected GCR systems set the lower (softest) and upper (hardest) limits of neutron spectra, respectively. The inventory of actinides with half-lives greater than 1000 years can be minimized by increasing neutron flux level in the reactor core. The higher the neutron flux, the lower the inventory of these actinides. The majority of the GCR designs maintained a flux level on the order of 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}*s{sup -1} while the PWR flux is one order of magnitude lower. The inventory of the feeder isotopes to Np{sup 237} including U{sup 237}, Pu{sup 241}, and Am{sup 241} decreases with relative shift of neutron spectrum toward higher energies. This is due to increased resonance absorption in these isotopes due to higher

  17. Exposure to Non-Extreme Solar UV Daylight: Spectral Characterization, Effects on Skin and Photoprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Marionnet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The link between chronic sun exposure of human skin and harmful clinical consequences such as photo-aging and skin cancers is now indisputable. These effects are mostly due to ultraviolet (UV rays (UVA, 320–400 nm and UVB, 280–320 nm. The UVA/UVB ratio can vary with latitude, season, hour, meteorology and ozone layer, leading to different exposure conditions. Zenithal sun exposure (for example on a beach around noon under a clear sky can rapidly induce visible and well-characterized clinical consequences such as sunburn, predominantly induced by UVB. However, a limited part of the global population is exposed daily to such intense irradiance and until recently little attention has been paid to solar exposure that does not induce any short term clinical impact. This paper will review different studies on non-extreme daily UV exposures with: (1 the characterization and the definition of the standard UV daylight and its simulation in the laboratory; (2 description of the biological and clinical effects of such UV exposure in an in vitro reconstructed human skin model and in human skin in vivo, emphasizing the contribution of UVA rays and (3 analysis of photoprotection approaches dedicated to prevent the harmful impact of such UV exposure.

  18. Exposure to non-extreme solar UV daylight: spectral characterization, effects on skin and photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marionnet, Claire; Tricaud, Caroline; Bernerd, Françoise

    2014-12-23

    The link between chronic sun exposure of human skin and harmful clinical consequences such as photo-aging and skin cancers is now indisputable. These effects are mostly due to ultraviolet (UV) rays (UVA, 320-400 nm and UVB, 280-320 nm). The UVA/UVB ratio can vary with latitude, season, hour, meteorology and ozone layer, leading to different exposure conditions. Zenithal sun exposure (for example on a beach around noon under a clear sky) can rapidly induce visible and well-characterized clinical consequences such as sunburn, predominantly induced by UVB. However, a limited part of the global population is exposed daily to such intense irradiance and until recently little attention has been paid to solar exposure that does not induce any short term clinical impact. This paper will review different studies on non-extreme daily UV exposures with: (1) the characterization and the definition of the standard UV daylight and its simulation in the laboratory; (2) description of the biological and clinical effects of such UV exposure in an in vitro reconstructed human skin model and in human skin in vivo, emphasizing the contribution of UVA rays and (3) analysis of photoprotection approaches dedicated to prevent the harmful impact of such UV exposure.

  19. Opuntia ficus indica peel derived pectin mediated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Synthesis, spectral characterization, biological and antimicrobial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D.; Kanimozhi, K.; Kavitha, L.

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we have adapted a facile and efficient green route for the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles using pectin as a template which was extracted from the peel of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruits. The concentration of pectin plays a major role in the behavior of crystallinity, purity, morphology as well as biological property of the as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles. The extracted pectin and the as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques. The in vitro apatite formation on the surface of the as-synthesized nanoparticles in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various days showed an enhanced bioactivity. Also, the antimicrobial activity was investigated using various microorganisms. All the results revealed the formation of pure, low crystalline and discrete granular like HAP nanoparticles of size around 25 nm with enhanced biological and antimicrobial activities. Hence the as-synthesized nanoparticles can act as a better bone regenerating material in the field of biomedicine.

  20. Characterizing the Purple Earth: Modeling the globally integrated spectral variability of the Archean Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanromá, E.; Pallé, E.; López, R.; Montañés-Rodríguez, P.; Parenteau, M. N.; Kiang, N. Y.; Gutiérrez-Navarro, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing searches for exoplanetary systems have revealed a wealth of planets with diverse physical properties. Planets even smaller than the Earth have already been detected and the efforts of future missions are aimed at the discovery, and perhaps characterization, of small rocky exoplanets within the habitable zone of their stars. Clearly, what we know about our planet will be our guideline for the characterization of such planets. However, the Earth has been inhabited for at least 3.8 Gyr and its appearance has changed with time. Here, we have studied the Earth during the Archean eon, 3.0 Gyr ago. At that time, one of the more widespread life forms on the planet was purple bacteria. These bacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms and can inhabit both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Here, we use a radiative transfer model to simulate the visible and near-infrared radiation reflected by our planet, taking into account several scenarios regarding the possible distribution of purple bacteria over continents and oceans. We find that purple bacteria have a reflectance spectrum that has a strong reflectivity increase, similar to the red edge of leafy plants, although shifted redward. This feature produces a detectable signal in the disk-averaged spectra of our planet, depending on cloud amount and purple bacteria concentration/distribution. We conclude that by using multi-color photometric observations, it is possible to distinguish between an Archean Earth in which purple bacteria inhabit vast extensions of the planet and a present-day Earth with continents covered by deserts, vegetation, or microbial mats.

  1. Application of Microtremor Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (MHVSR) Analysis for Site Characterization: State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, S.; Cassidy, J. F.; Castellaro, S.; Cornou, C.; Crow, H.; Hunter, J. A.; Matsushima, S.; Sánchez-Sesma, F. J.; Yong, A.

    2018-03-01

    Nakamura (Q Rep Railway Tech Res Inst 30:25-33, 1989) popularized the application of the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) analysis of microtremor (seismic noise or ambient vibration) recordings to estimate the predominant frequency and amplification factor of earthquake shaking. During the following quarter century, popularity in the microtremor HVSR (MHVSR) method grew; studies have verified the stability of a site's MHVSR response over time and validated the MHVSR response with that of earthquake HVSR response. Today, MHVSR analysis is a popular reconnaissance tool used worldwide for seismic microzonation and earthquake site characterization in numerous regions, specifically, in the mapping of site period or fundamental frequency and inverted for shear-wave velocity depth profiles, respectively. However, the ubiquity of MHVSR analysis is predominantly a consequence of its ease in application rather than our full understanding of its theory. We present the state of the art in MHVSR analyses in terms of the development of its theoretical basis, current state of practice, and we comment on its future for applications in earthquake site characterization.

  2. Application of microtremor horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (MHVSR) analysis for site characterization: State of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, S.; Cassidy, J. F.; Castellaro, S.; Cornou, C.; Crow, H.; Hunter, J. A.; Matsushima, S.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Yong, Alan

    2018-01-01

    Nakamura (Q Rep Railway Tech Res Inst 30:25–33, 1989) popularized the application of the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) analysis of microtremor (seismic noise or ambient vibration) recordings to estimate the predominant frequency and amplification factor of earthquake shaking. During the following quarter century, popularity in the microtremor HVSR (MHVSR) method grew; studies have verified the stability of a site’s MHVSR response over time and validated the MHVSR response with that of earthquake HVSR response. Today, MHVSR analysis is a popular reconnaissance tool used worldwide for seismic microzonation and earthquake site characterization in numerous regions, specifically, in the mapping of site period or fundamental frequency and inverted for shear-wave velocity depth profiles, respectively. However, the ubiquity of MHVSR analysis is predominantly a consequence of its ease in application rather than our full understanding of its theory. We present the state of the art in MHVSR analyses in terms of the development of its theoretical basis, current state of practice, and we comment on its future for applications in earthquake site characterization.

  3. Spectral and atmospheric characterization of 51 Eridani b using VLT/SPHERE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samland, M.; Mollière, P.; Bonnefoy, M.; Maire, A.-L.; Cantalloube, F.; Cheetham, A. C.; Mesa, D.; Gratton, R.; Biller, B. A.; Wahhaj, Z.; Bouwman, J.; Brandner, W.; Melnick, D.; Carson, J.; Janson, M.; Henning, T.; Homeier, D.; Mordasini, C.; Langlois, M.; Quanz, S. P.; van Boekel, R.; Zurlo, A.; Schlieder, J. E.; Avenhaus, H.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Boccaletti, A.; Bonavita, M.; Chauvin, G.; Claudi, R.; Cudel, M.; Desidera, S.; Feldt, M.; Fusco, T.; Galicher, R.; Kopytova, T. G.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Le Coroller, H.; Martinez, P.; Moeller-Nilsson, O.; Mouillet, D.; Mugnier, L. M.; Perrot, C.; Sevin, A.; Sissa, E.; Vigan, A.; Weber, L.

    2017-07-01

    Context. 51 Eridani b is an exoplanet around a young (20 Myr) nearby (29.4 pc) F0-type star, which was recently discovered by direct imaging. It is one of the closest direct imaging planets in angular and physical separation ( 0.5'', 13 au) and is well suited for spectroscopic analysis using integral field spectrographs. Aims: We aim to refine the atmospheric properties of the known giant planet and to constrain the architecture of the system further by searching for additional companions. Methods: We used the extreme adaptive optics instrument SPHERE at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) to obtain simultaneous dual-band imaging with IRDIS and integral field spectra with IFS, extending the spectral coverage of the planet to the complete Y- to H-band range and providing additional photometry in the K12-bands (2.11, 2.25 μm). The object is compared to other known cool and peculiar dwarfs. The posterior probability distributions for parameters of cloudy and clear atmospheric models are explored using MCMC. We verified our methods by determining atmospheric parameters for the two benchmark brown dwarfs Gl 570D and HD 3651B. We used archival VLT-NACO (L') Sparse Aperture Masking data to probe the innermost region for additional companions. Results: We present the first spectrophotometric measurements in the Y and K bands for the planet and revise its J-band flux to values 40% fainter than previous measurements. Cloudy models with uniform cloud coverage provide a good match to the data. We derive the temperature, radius, surface gravity, metallicity, and cloud sedimentation parameter fsed. We find that the atmosphere is highly super-solar ([Fe/H] = 1.0 ± 0.1 dex), and the low fsed = 1.26+0.36-0.29 value is indicative of a vertically extended, optically thick cloud cover with small sized particles. The model radius and surface gravity estimates suggest higher planetary masses of Mgravity = 9.1+4.9-3.3 MJ. The evolutionary model only provides a lower mass limit of > 2 MJ

  4. Molecular modeling, FTIR spectral characterization and mechanical properties of carbonated-hydroxyapatite prepared by mechanochemical synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youness, Rasha A.; Taha, Mohammed A.; Elhaes, Hanan; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2017-01-01

    Nanocrystalline B-type carbonate substituted hydroxyapatite (B-CHA) powder has been successively synthesized by mechanochemical method. The effect of milling times on the formation of B-CHA was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction technique and scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, physical as well as mechanical properties were examined as a function of milling time. Furthermore, theoretical model was presented for hydroxyapatite (HA). Semiempirical calculations at PM6 level were used to calculate thermal parameters including entropy; enthalpy; heat capacity; free energy and heat of formation in the temperature range from 200 up to 500 k. The results revealed that single phase B-CHA was successfully formed after 8 h of milling when Ball to Powder Ratio (BPR) equals to 10:1. Results revealed that entropy; enthalpy and heat capacity gradually increased as a function of temperature while, free energy and heat of formation decreased with the increasing of temperature. Comparison with higher level of theory was conducted at HF and DFT using the models HF/3-21g**; B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and B3LYP/LANL2DZ, respectively and indicated that PM6 could be utilized with appropriate accuracy and time to study physical and thermochemical parameters for HA. - Highlights: • Preparation of Nanocrystalline B-type carbonate substituted hydroxyapatite (B-CHA) powder by mechanochemical method. • Characterization of CHA. • Semiemperical and DFT models for CHA.

  5. Magnetic resonance spectral characterization of the heme active site of Coprinus cinereus peroxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukat, G.S.; Rodgers, K.R.; Jabro, M.N.; Goff, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    Examination of the peroxidase isolated from the inkcap Basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus shows that the 42,000-dalton enzyme contains a protoheme IX prosthetic group. Reactivity assays and the electronic absorption spectra of native Coprinus peroxidase and several of its ligand complexes indicate that this enzyme has characteristics similar to those reported for horseradish peroxidase. In this paper, the authors characterize the H 2 O 2 -oxidized forms of Coprinus peroxidase compounds I, II, and III by electronic absorption and magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of this Coprinus peroxidase indicate the presence of high-spin Fe(III) in the native protein and a number of differences between the heme site of Coprinus peroxidase and horseradish peroxidase. Carbon-13 (of the ferrous CO adduct) and nitrogen-15 (of the cyanide complex) NMR studies together with proton NMR studies of the native and cyanide-complexed Caprinus peroxidase are consistent with coordination of a proximal histidine ligand. The EPR spectrum of the ferrous NO complex is also reported. Protein reconstitution with deuterated hemin has facilitated the assignment of the heme methyl resonances in the proton NMR spectrum

  6. Synthesis, characterization and spectral temperature-dependence of thioglycerol-CdSe nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Brahim, Nassim, E-mail: nassim.benbrahim.fsm@gmail.com [Laboratoire des Interfaces et Matériaux Avancés, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Boulevard de l’Environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Poggi, Mélanie [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Université Paris-Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Haj Mohamed, Naim Bel; Ben Chaâbane, Rafik; Haouari, Mohamed [Laboratoire des Interfaces et Matériaux Avancés, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Boulevard de l’Environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Negrerie, Michel, E-mail: michel.negrerie@polytechnique.fr [Laboratoire d' Optique et Biosciences, INSERM, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Université Paris-Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Ben Ouada, Hafedh [Laboratoire des Interfaces et Matériaux Avancés, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Boulevard de l’Environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia)

    2016-09-15

    Water-soluble CdSe quantum dots (QDs) have been synthesized with thioglycerol as a stabilizer through a novel hydrothermal route. The obtained thioglycerol capped CdSe (TG-CdSe) nanocrystals were characterized regarding their morphology and structural, thermal and optical properties. The resulting nanocrystals were synthesized in the cubic structure with a near spherical shape, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Combining transmission electron microscopy imaging and calculations using UV–visible absorption spectrum and X-ray diffraction pattern, the diameter of the synthesized nanocrystals was estimated to 2.26 nm. As confirmed by its Fourier transform IR spectrum, thioglycerol was successfully liganded on the surface of the resulting nanocrystals. Band structure parameters of the TG-CdSe nanoparticles were determined and quantum confinement effect was evidenced by optical absorption, fluorescence and Raman measurements. The thermal properties of the TG-CdSe were explored by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The temperature dependence of both the absorption and fluorescence spectra in the physiological range makes the TG-CdSe nanocrystals sensitive temperature markers, a property that must be taken into account when developing any probing applications, especially for cellular imaging.

  7. Opuntia ficus indica peel derived pectin mediated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: synthesis, spectral characterization, biological and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D; Kanimozhi, K; Kavitha, L

    2015-04-15

    In the present study, we have adapted a facile and efficient green route for the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles using pectin as a template which was extracted from the peel of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruits. The concentration of pectin plays a major role in the behavior of crystallinity, purity, morphology as well as biological property of the as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles. The extracted pectin and the as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques. The in vitro apatite formation on the surface of the as-synthesized nanoparticles in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various days showed an enhanced bioactivity. Also, the antimicrobial activity was investigated using various microorganisms. All the results revealed the formation of pure, low crystalline and discrete granular like HAP nanoparticles of size around 25 nm with enhanced biological and antimicrobial activities. Hence the as-synthesized nanoparticles can act as a better bone regenerating material in the field of biomedicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular modeling, FTIR spectral characterization and mechanical properties of carbonated-hydroxyapatite prepared by mechanochemical synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youness, Rasha A. [Spectroscopy Department, National Research Centre, El-Bohouth Str., 12622, Dokki, Giza (Egypt); Taha, Mohammed A. [Solid-State Physics Department, National Research Centre, El-Bohouth Str., 12622, Dokki, Giza (Egypt); Elhaes, Hanan [Physics Department, Faculty of Women for Arts, Science, and Education, Ain Shams University, 11757 Cairo (Egypt); Ibrahim, Medhat, E-mail: medahmed6@yahoo.com [Spectroscopy Department, National Research Centre, El-Bohouth Str., 12622, Dokki, Giza (Egypt)

    2017-04-01

    Nanocrystalline B-type carbonate substituted hydroxyapatite (B-CHA) powder has been successively synthesized by mechanochemical method. The effect of milling times on the formation of B-CHA was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction technique and scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, physical as well as mechanical properties were examined as a function of milling time. Furthermore, theoretical model was presented for hydroxyapatite (HA). Semiempirical calculations at PM6 level were used to calculate thermal parameters including entropy; enthalpy; heat capacity; free energy and heat of formation in the temperature range from 200 up to 500 k. The results revealed that single phase B-CHA was successfully formed after 8 h of milling when Ball to Powder Ratio (BPR) equals to 10:1. Results revealed that entropy; enthalpy and heat capacity gradually increased as a function of temperature while, free energy and heat of formation decreased with the increasing of temperature. Comparison with higher level of theory was conducted at HF and DFT using the models HF/3-21g**; B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and B3LYP/LANL2DZ, respectively and indicated that PM6 could be utilized with appropriate accuracy and time to study physical and thermochemical parameters for HA. - Highlights: • Preparation of Nanocrystalline B-type carbonate substituted hydroxyapatite (B-CHA) powder by mechanochemical method. • Characterization of CHA. • Semiemperical and DFT models for CHA.

  9. Structure investigation, spectral, thermal, X-ray and mass characterization of piroxicam and its metal complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, M. A.; Nour El-Dien, F. A.; Mohamed, Gehad G.; El-Gamel, Nadia E. A.

    2004-10-01

    [M(H 2L) 2](A) 2. yH 2O (where H 2L: neutral piroxicam (Pir), A: Cl - in case of Ni(II) or acetate anion in case of Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions and y=0-2.5) and [M(H 2L) 3](A) z. yH 2O (A: SO 42- in case of Fe(II) ion ( z=1) or Cl - in case of Fe(III) ( z=3) and Co(II) ions ( z=2) and y=1-4) chelates are prepared and characterized using elemental analyses, IR, magnetic and electronic reflectance measurements, mass spectra and thermal analyses. IR spectra reveal that Pir behaves a neutral bidentate ligand coordinated to the metal ions through the pyridyl-N and carbonyl-O of the amide moiety. The reflectance and magnetic moment measurements reveal that these chelates have tetrahedral, square planar and octahedral geometrical structures. Mass spectra and thermal analyses are also used to confirm the proposed formulae and the possible fragments resulted from fragmentation of Pir and its chelates. The thermal behaviour of the chelates (TGA and DTA) are discussed in detail and the thermal stability of the anhydrous chelates follow the order Ni(II)≅Cu(II)

  10. Hyperthyroidism is characterized by both increased sympathetic and decreased vagal modulation of heart rate: evidence from spectral analysis of heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Long; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Tseng, Yin-Jiun; Chu, Woei-Chyn

    2006-06-01

    The clinical manifestations of hyperthyroidism resemble those of the hyperadrenergic state. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of hyperthyroidism on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and to investigate the relationship between serum thyroid hormone concentrations and parameters of spectral heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in hyperthyroidism. Thirty-two hyperthyroid Graves' disease patients (mean age 31 years) and 32 sex-, age-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched normal control subjects were recruited to receive one-channel electrocardiogram (ECG) recording. The cardiac autonomic nervous function was evaluated by the spectral analysis of HRV, which indicates the autonomic modulation of the sinus node. The correlation coefficients between serum thyroid hormone concentrations and parameters of the spectral HRV analysis were also computed. The hyperthyroid patients revealed significant differences (P hyperthyroidism in 28 patients, all of the above parameters were restored to levels comparable to those of the controls. In addition, serum thyroid hormone concentrations showed significant correlations with spectral HRV parameters. Hyperthyroidism is in a sympathovagal imbalanced state, characterized by both increased sympathetic and decreased vagal modulation of the heart rate. These autonomic dysfunctions can be detected simultaneously by spectral analysis of HRV, and the spectral HRV parameters could reflect the disease severity in hyperthyroid patients.

  11. In situ sensing of subsurface contamination--part I: near-infrared spectral characterization of alkanes, aromatics, and chlorinated hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavarioti, Maria; Kostarelos, Konstantinos; Pourjabbar, Anahita; Ghandehari, Masoud

    2014-05-01

    There is an imperative need for a chemical sensor capable of remote, in situ, long-term monitoring of chemical species at sites containing toxic chemical spills, specifically at chemical waste dumps, landfills, and locations with underground storage tanks. In the current research, a series of experiments were conducted measuring the near-infrared optical absorption of alkanes, aromatics, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. A spectral library was then developed to characterize the optical spectra of liquid hydrocarbons. Near-infrared analysis was chosen due to compatibility with optical fibers. The goal was to differentiate between classes of hydrocarbons and to also discriminate between compounds within a class of similar molecular structures. It was observed that unique absorption spectra can be obtained for each hydrocarbon, and this uniqueness can be used to discriminate between hydrocarbons from different families. Statistical analyses, namely, principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation coefficient (Spearman and Pearson methods), were attempted to match absorption spectra from an unknown hydrocarbon with the database with limited success. An algorithm was subsequently written to identify the characteristic peaks of each hydrocarbon that could be used to match data from an unknown chemical species with the database.

  12. Development and testing of a fast Fourier transform high dynamic-range spectral diagnostics for millimeter wave characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoen, D. J.; Bongers, W. A.; Westerhof, E.; Baar, M. R. de; Berg, M. A. van den; Beveren, V. van; Goede, A. P. H.; Graswinckel, M. F.; Schueller, F. C.; Oosterbeek, J. W.; Buerger, A.; Hennen, B. A.

    2009-01-01

    A fast Fourier transform (FFT) based wide range millimeter wave diagnostics for spectral characterization of scattered millimeter waves in plasmas has been successfully brought into operation. The scattered millimeter waves are heterodyne downconverted and directly digitized using a fast analog-digital converter and a compact peripheral component interconnect computer. Frequency spectra are obtained by FFT in the time domain of the intermediate frequency signal. The scattered millimeter waves are generated during high power electron cyclotron resonance heating experiments on the TEXTOR tokamak and demonstrate the performance of the diagnostics and, in particular, the usability of direct digitizing and Fourier transformation of millimeter wave signals. The diagnostics is able to acquire 4 GHz wide spectra of signals in the range of 136-140 GHz. The rate of spectra is tunable and has been tested between 200 000 spectra/s with a frequency resolution of 100 MHz and 120 spectra/s with a frequency resolution of 25 kHz. The respective dynamic ranges are 52 and 88 dB. Major benefits of the new diagnostics are a tunable time and frequency resolution due to postdetection, near-real time processing of the acquired data. This diagnostics has a wider application in astrophysics, earth observation, plasma physics, and molecular spectroscopy for the detection and analysis of millimeter wave radiation, providing high-resolution spectra at high temporal resolution and large dynamic range.

  13. Characterization of the vitreous body of the human eye using a cyanine dye as a spectral and fluorescent probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panova, Ina G.; Tatikolov, Alexander S.

    2009-02-01

    We used one of cyanine dyes as a spectral and fluorescent probe in the study of the composition of the extracellular matrix of the human eye (its vitreous body). Owing to the unique ability of the dye to bind to collagens and human serum albumin, we revealed the simultaneous presence of both types of biomacromolecules in the vitreous body. The formation of the dye complex with human serum albumin leads to appearance of a long-wavelength absorption band (~612 nm) and a steep rise of fluorescence, whereas in the presence of collagens the dye forms J-aggregates with a longer-wavelength absorption band (640-660 nm) and moderate fluorescence. In this work we studied the composition of the human fetus vitreous body and its dynamics from 9 to 31 gestation weeks. On the basis of the data obtained by this method, we may assume that albumin, being a carrier protein, probably provides the vitreous body and surrounding tissues with necessary growth factors, hormones, lipids, vitamins, and some other biomolecules. The data show that the dye is promising not only for study of albumin functions in eye development, but also for characterization of some eye diseases and for analysis of other extracellular media.

  14. Mononuclear Pd(II) complex as a new therapeutic agent: Synthesis, characterization, biological activity, spectral and DNA binding approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidifar, Maryam; Mirzaei, Hamidreza; Ahmadi Nasab, Navid; Mansouri-Torshizi, Hassan

    2017-11-01

    The binding ability between a new water-soluble palladium(II) complex [Pd(bpy)(bez-dtc)]Cl (where bpy is 2,2‧-bipyridine and bez-dtc is benzyl dithiocarbamate), as an antitumor agent, and calf thymus DNA was evaluated using various physicochemical methods, such as UV-Vis absorption, Competitive fluorescence studies, viscosity measurement, zeta potential and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The Pd(II) complex was synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis, molar conductivity measurements, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and electronic spectra studies. The anticancer activity against HeLa cell lines demonstrated lower cytotoxicity than cisplatin. The binding constants and the thermodynamic parameters were determined at different temperatures (300 K, 310 K and 320 K) and shown that the complex can bind to DNA via electrostatic forces. Furthermore, this result was confirmed by the viscosity and zeta potential measurements. The CD spectral results demonstrated that the binding of Pd(II) complex to DNA induced conformational changes in DNA. We hope that these results will provide a basis for further studies and practical clinical use of anticancer drugs.

  15. Synthesis, Characterization and Spectral Studies of Noble Heterobinuclear Complexes of Transition Metal Ions and their Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netra Pal Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some noble heterobinuclear complexes of transition metal ions with bis(salicylaldehydemalonyl-dihydrazone in the presence of 5-nitroindazole Cu(II / Ni(II- chloride of the type [ML1M‘L2Cl2] or [ML1FeL2Cl2]Cl, where M = Ni(II, Cu(II and M' = Mn(II, Co(II, have been prepared. All the complexes have been characterized by IR, UV vis and EPR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, magnetic moment and molar conductance measurement. Spectral studies and magnetic moment measurement in DMF suggest the covalent nature of the complexes, except the [ML1FeL2Cl2]Cl complex which is 1:1 electrolyte. An octahedral geometry is proposed for M‘ and square planer for M for the heterobinuclear complexes. The low value of magnetic moment and overlapping EPR signals are due to spin crossover since both of the metals have unpaired electrons with same molecular symmetry. The lowering of the magnetic moment has been discussed. The biological activity (antifungal and antibacterial of the represented compounds has been studied.

  16. Quantitative characterization of conformational-specific protein-DNA binding using a dual-spectral interferometric imaging biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xirui; Daaboul, George G.; Spuhler, Philipp S.; Dröge, Peter; Ünlü, M. Selim

    2016-03-01

    DNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in the maintenance and functions of the genome and yet, their specific binding mechanisms are not fully understood. Recently, it was discovered that DNA-binding proteins recognize specific binding sites to carry out their functions through an indirect readout mechanism by recognizing and capturing DNA conformational flexibility and deformation. High-throughput DNA microarray-based methods that provide large-scale protein-DNA binding information have shown effective and comprehensive analysis of protein-DNA binding affinities, but do not provide information of DNA conformational changes in specific protein-DNA complexes. Building on the high-throughput capability of DNA microarrays, we demonstrate a quantitative approach that simultaneously measures the amount of protein binding to DNA and nanometer-scale DNA conformational change induced by protein binding in a microarray format. Both measurements rely on spectral interferometry on a layered substrate using a single optical instrument in two distinct modalities. In the first modality, we quantitate the amount of binding of protein to surface-immobilized DNA in each DNA spot using a label-free spectral reflectivity technique that accurately measures the surface densities of protein and DNA accumulated on the substrate. In the second modality, for each DNA spot, we simultaneously measure DNA conformational change using a fluorescence vertical sectioning technique that determines average axial height of fluorophores tagged to specific nucleotides of the surface-immobilized DNA. The approach presented in this paper, when combined with current high-throughput DNA microarray-based technologies, has the potential to serve as a rapid and simple method for quantitative and large-scale characterization of conformational specific protein-DNA interactions.DNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in the maintenance and functions of the genome and yet, their specific binding mechanisms are

  17. Spectral characterization of mangrove leaves in the Brazilian Amazonian Coast: Turiaçu Bay, Maranhão State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Rebelo-Mochel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove communities are tropical systems which have fewer species than tropical forests, especially in Latin America and display a single architecture, usually lacking the various strata commonly found in other forest ecosystems. The identification of mangrove communities by orbital data is not a difficult task but the most interesting challenge is to identify themselves by the dominant species. The first step toward that floristic identification is the spectral characterization of detached leaves. Leaves from four species of mangrove trees were spectrally characterized considering the Directional Hemispherical Reflectance Factor (DHRF determined through radiometric measurements using an integrating sphere LICOR 1800 attached to a spectroradiometer SPECTRON SE-590. In the visible bands (0.45-0.69 µm the button-shaped mangrove Conocarpus erectus was brighter and the red mangrove Rhizophora mangle was darker than the other two species which shows very close DHRF values. Otherwise the black mangrove Avicennia germinans and the white mangrove Laguncularia racemosa can be distinguished from one another in the Near Infra Red (NIR region (0.76-0.90 µm and in this region of the spectrum the DHRF of C. erectus and R. mangle become very close.Comunidades de manguezais são sistemas tropicais que apresentam poucas espécies constituintes em relação às florestas tropicais úmidas, especialmente na América Latina e apresentam arquitetura simples, freqüentemente com a falta de vários estratos encontrados em outros ecossistemas florestais. A identificação de manguezais mediante a observação de dados orbitais não é uma tarefa muito complicada, porém um desafio interessante seria sua diferenciação mediante a identificação de espécies dominantes. O primeiro passo para essa identificação florística é a caracterização espectral de folhas isoladas. Folhas de quatro espécies arbóreas de manguezais foram caracterizadas espectralmente

  18. Novel banana peel pectin mediated green route for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and their spectral characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D; Kanimozhi, K; Bhuvaneshwari, N; Indira, J; Kavitha, L

    2014-01-24

    Hydroxyapatite [HAP, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] is the main inorganic component of natural bone and is widely used in various biomedical applications. In this paper, we have reported the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles by banana peel pectin mediated green template method. The pectin extracted from the peels of banana and its various concentrations were exploited in our study to achieve a controlled crystallinity, particle size as well as uniform morphology of HAP. The extracted pectin was characterized by spectral techniques like Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for the functional group analysis, proton-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((13)C NMR) for the identification of H and C atoms in the extracted pectin, respectively. The HAP nanoparticles were synthesized using different concentrations of the as-extracted pectin. The purity, crystallinity and morphology of the as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles were evaluated by FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. Moreover the antibacterial activity of HAP nanoparticles was evaluated against the gram positive and negative bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli), respectively. The experimental results revealed that the HAP nanoparticles synthesized in the presence of an optimized concentration of pectin are pure, low crystalline, spherical and discrete particles with reduced size. Also, the HAP sample derived in the presence of pectin showed an enhanced antibacterial activity than that of the HAP synthesized in the absence of pectin. Hence, the HAP nanoparticles synthesized using pectin as a green template can act as a good biomaterial for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hadronic origin of the TeV flare of M87 in April 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Sarira [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Circuito Exterior, C.U., A., Postal 70-543, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Palacios, Eddie [Universidad Veracruzana, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2015-02-01

    M87 is a giant radio galaxy with FR-I morphology. It underwent three episodes of TeV flaring in recent years with the strongest one in April 2010 which was jointly monitored by MAGIC, VERITAS and H.E.S.S. We explain its spectral energy distribution in the energy range 0.3-5 TeV by assuming that the flaring occurs in the innermost region of the jet. In this region the low energy SSC photons serve as the target for the Fermi-accelerated high energy protons of energy ≤30 TeV to form a delta resonance. The TeV photons are produced from the subsequent decay of the delta resonance to neutral pions. In this scenario the observed TeV flux of April 2010 flare is fitted very well. (orig.)

  20. Hadronic origin of the TeV flare of M87 in April 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, Sarira; Palacios, Eddie

    2015-01-01

    M87 is a giant radio galaxy with FR-I morphology. It underwent three episodes of TeV flaring in recent years with the strongest one in April 2010 which was jointly monitored by MAGIC, VERITAS and H.E.S.S. We explain its spectral energy distribution in the energy range 0.3-5 TeV by assuming that the flaring occurs in the innermost region of the jet. In this region the low energy SSC photons serve as the target for the Fermi-accelerated high energy protons of energy ≤30 TeV to form a delta resonance. The TeV photons are produced from the subsequent decay of the delta resonance to neutral pions. In this scenario the observed TeV flux of April 2010 flare is fitted very well. (orig.)

  1. Seismic spectral decomposition and analysis based on Wigner–Ville distribution for sandstone reservoir characterization in West Sichuan depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaoyang; Liu, Tianyou

    2010-01-01

    Reflections from a hydrocarbon-saturated zone are generally expected to have a tendency to be low frequency. Previous work has shown the application of seismic spectral decomposition for low-frequency shadow detection. In this paper, we further analyse the characteristics of spectral amplitude in fractured sandstone reservoirs with different fluid saturations using the Wigner–Ville distribution (WVD)-based method. We give a description of the geometric structure of cross-terms due to the bilinear nature of WVD and eliminate cross-terms using smoothed pseudo-WVD (SPWVD) with time- and frequency-independent Gaussian kernels as smoothing windows. SPWVD is finally applied to seismic data from West Sichuan depression. We focus our study on the comparison of SPWVD spectral amplitudes resulting from different fluid contents. It shows that prolific gas reservoirs feature higher peak spectral amplitude at higher peak frequency, which attenuate faster than low-quality gas reservoirs and dry or wet reservoirs. This can be regarded as a spectral attenuation signature for future exploration in the study area

  2. Radiative modeling and characterization of aerosol plumes hyper-spectral imagery; Modelisation radiative et caracterisation des panaches d'aerosols en imagerie hyperspectrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakian, A

    2008-03-15

    This thesis aims at characterizing aerosols from plumes (biomass burning, industrial discharges, etc.) with hyper-spectral imagery. We want to estimate the optical properties of emitted particles and also their micro-physical properties such as number, size distribution and composition. To reach our goal, we have built a forward semi-analytical model, named APOM (Aerosol Plume Optical Model), which allows to simulate the radiative effects of aerosol plumes in the spectral range [0,4-2,5 {mu}m] for nadir viewing sensors. Mathematical formulation and model coefficients are obtained from simulations performed with the radiative transfer code COMANCHE. APOM is assessed on simulated data and proves to be accurate with modeling errors between 1% and 3%. Three retrieval methods using APOM have been developed: L-APOM, M-APOM and A-APOM. These methods take advantage of spectral and spatial dimensions in hyper-spectral images. L-APOM and M-APOM assume a priori knowledge on particles but can estimate their optical and micro-physical properties. Their performances on simulated data are quite promising. A-APOM method does not require any a priori knowledge on particles but only estimates their optical properties. However, it still needs improvements before being usable. On real images, inversion provides satisfactory results for plumes above water but meets some difficulties for plumes above vegetation, which underlines some possibilities of improvement for the retrieval algorithm. (author)

  3. UTILIZATION OF FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE, SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY, AND ENHANCED DEPTH IMAGING IN THE CHARACTERIZATION OF BIETTI CRYSTALLINE DYSTROPHY IN DIFFERENT STAGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Li, Yang; Zhang, Xiaohui; Xu, Zhangxing; Zhu, Xiaoqing; Ma, Kai; She, Haicheng; Peng, Xiaoyan

    2015-10-01

    To characterize Bietti crystalline dystrophy (BCD) in different stages using multiple imaging modalities. Sixteen participants clinically diagnosed as BCD were included in the retrospective study and were categorized into 3 stages according to fundus photography. Eleven patients were genetically confirmed. Fundus autofluorescence, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and enhanced depth imaging features of BCD were analyzed. On fundus autofluorescence, the abnormal autofluorescence was shown to enlarge in area and decrease in intensity with stages. Using spectral domain optical coherence tomography, the abnormalities in Stage 1 were observed to localize in outer retinal layers, whereas in Stage 2 and Stage 3, more extensive retinal atrophy was seen. In enhanced depth imaging, the subfoveal choroidal layers were delineated clearly in Stage 1; in Stage 2, destructions were primarily found in the choriocapillaris with associated alterations in the outer vessels; Stage 3 BCD displayed severe choroidal thinning. Choroidal neovascularization and macular edema were exhibited with high incidence. IVS6-8del17bp/inGC of the CYP4V2 gene was the most common mutant allele. Noninvasive fundus autofluorescence, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and enhanced depth imaging may help to characterize the chorioretinal pathology of BCD at different degrees, and therefore, we propose staging of BCD depending on those methods. Physicians should be cautious of the vision-threatening complications of the disease.

  4. Unsymmetrical Mesoporphyrinic Complexes of Copper (II and Zinc (II. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis, Spectral Characterization and Cytotoxicity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rica Boscencu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available New unsymmetrical mesoporphyrinic complexes, namely 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl-10,15,20–tris-(4-carboxymethylphenyl–21,23-Zn(II-porphine and 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl-10,15,20–tris-(4-carboxymethylphenyl–21,23-Cu(II-porphine, were synthesized using a microwave irradiation method. The structures of the porphyrinic complexes were confirmed using FT-IR, UV–Vis, EPR and NMR spectral data. The spectral absorption and emission properties of the porphyrinic complexes were studied in organic solvents of different polarities and the influence of solvent polarity on the wavelengths of the absorbance and fluorescence band maxima is described. The cytotoxicity evaluation of the porphyrinic complexes was performed on human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT29 for different doses and incubation times. The obtained result indicates a lack of or low toxicity for both compounds, thus recommending them for further testing in light activation protocols.

  5. 3-D spectral Induced Polarization (IP) imaging: Non-invasive characterization of contaminant plumes. Annual progress report, September 15, 1996 - September 14, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frye, K.M.; Lesmes, D.P.; Morgan, F.D.; Rodi, W.; Shi, W.; Sturrock, J.

    1997-01-01

    'The objective of this project is to develop the scientific basis for characterizing contaminant plumes in the earth''s subsurface using field measurements of induced polarization (IP) effects. The first-year accomplishments are (1) laboratory experiments on fluid-saturated sandstones quantifying the dependence of spectral IP responses on solution chemistry and rock micro-geometry; (2) library research on the current understanding of electromagnetic coupling effects on IP data acquired in the field: and (3) development of prototype forward modeling and inversion algorithms for interpreting IP data in terms of 3-D models of complex resistivity.'

  6. TeV AND MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF Mrk 421 IN 2006-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Finley, J. P.; Duke, C.; Falcone, A.; Finnegan, G.

    2011-01-01

    We report on TeV γ-ray observations of the blazar Mrk 421 (redshift of 0.031) with the VERITAS observatory and the Whipple 10 m Cherenkov telescope. The excellent sensitivity of VERITAS allowed us to sample the TeV γ-ray fluxes and energy spectra with unprecedented accuracy where Mrk 421 was detected in each of the pointings. A total of 47.3 hr of VERITAS and 96 hr of Whipple 10 m data were acquired between 2006 January and 2008 June. We present the results of a study of the TeV γ-ray energy spectra as a function of time and for different flux levels. On 2008 May 2 and 3, bright TeV γ-ray flares were detected with fluxes reaching the level of 10 Crab. The TeV γ-ray data were complemented with radio, optical, and X-ray observations, with flux variability found in all bands except for the radio wave band. The combination of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer and Swift X-ray data reveal spectral hardening with increasing flux levels, often correlated with an increase of the source activity in TeV γ-rays. Contemporaneous spectral energy distributions were generated for 18 nights, each of which are reasonably described by a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model.

  7. MO-F-CAMPUS-I-04: Characterization of Fan Beam Coded Aperture Coherent Scatter Spectral Imaging Methods for Differentiation of Normal and Neoplastic Breast Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, R; Albanese, K; Lakshmanan, M; Greenberg, J; Kapadia, A [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, Carl E Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This study intends to characterize the spectral and spatial resolution limits of various fan beam geometries for differentiation of normal and neoplastic breast structures via coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging techniques. In previous studies, pencil beam raster scanning methods using coherent scatter computed tomography and selected volume tomography have yielded excellent results for tumor discrimination. However, these methods don’t readily conform to clinical constraints; primarily prolonged scan times and excessive dose to the patient. Here, we refine a fan beam coded aperture coherent scatter imaging system to characterize the tradeoffs between dose, scan time and image quality for breast tumor discrimination. Methods: An X-ray tube (125kVp, 400mAs) illuminated the sample with collimated fan beams of varying widths (3mm to 25mm). Scatter data was collected via two linear-array energy-sensitive detectors oriented parallel and perpendicular to the beam plane. An iterative reconstruction algorithm yields images of the sample’s spatial distribution and respective spectral data for each location. To model in-vivo tumor analysis, surgically resected breast tumor samples were used in conjunction with lard, which has a form factor comparable to adipose (fat). Results: Quantitative analysis with current setup geometry indicated optimal performance for beams up to 10mm wide, with wider beams producing poorer spatial resolution. Scan time for a fixed volume was reduced by a factor of 6 when scanned with a 10mm fan beam compared to a 1.5mm pencil beam. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the utility of fan beam coherent scatter spectral imaging for differentiation of normal and neoplastic breast tissues has successfully reduced dose and scan times whilst sufficiently preserving spectral and spatial resolution. Future work to alter the coded aperture and detector geometries could potentially allow the use of even wider fans, thereby making coded

  8. Heavy Flavour distributions from CMS with 2017 data at 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    We report plots on heavy flavor from the data collected in 2017 by CMS at LHC at 13 TeV. B meson performance plots in two different periods, characterized by different instantaneous luminosity are included.

  9. THE HYDROGEN EPOCH OF REIONIZATION ARRAY DISH. II. CHARACTERIZATION OF SPECTRAL STRUCTURE WITH ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATIONS AND ITS SCIENCE IMPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Hewitt, Jacqueline; Neben, Abraham R. [MIT Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States); Bradley, Richard; Dickenson, Roger; Doolittle, Phillip; Egan, Dennis; Hedrick, Mike; Klima, Patricia [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Deboer, David; Parsons, Aaron; Ali, Zaki S.; Cheng, Carina; Patra, Nipanjana; Dillon, Joshua S. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Aguirre, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bowman, Judd; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan [Arizona State University, School of Earth and Space Exploration, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Venter, Mariet [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, SA (South Africa); Acedo, Eloy de Lera [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-11-10

    We use time-domain electromagnetic simulations to determine the spectral characteristics of the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Arrays (HERA) antenna. These simulations are part of a multi-faceted campaign to determine the effectiveness of the dish’s design for obtaining a detection of redshifted 21 cm emission from the epoch of reionization. Our simulations show the existence of reflections between HERA’s suspended feed and its parabolic dish reflector that fall below -40 dB at 150 ns and, for reasonable impedance matches, have a negligible impact on HERA’s ability to constrain EoR parameters. It follows that despite the reflections they introduce, dishes are effective for increasing the sensitivity of EoR experiments at a relatively low cost. We find that electromagnetic resonances in the HERA feed’s cylindrical skirt, which is intended to reduce cross coupling and beam ellipticity, introduces significant power at large delays (-40 dB at 200 ns), which can lead to some loss of measurable Fourier modes and a modest reduction in sensitivity. Even in the presence of this structure, we find that the spectral response of the antenna is sufficiently smooth for delay filtering to contain foreground emission at line-of-sight wave numbers below k {sub ∥} ≲ 0.2 h Mpc{sup -1}, in the region where the current PAPER experiment operates. Incorporating these results into a Fisher Matrix analysis, we find that the spectral structure observed in our simulations has only a small effect on the tight constraints HERA can achieve on parameters associated with the astrophysics of reionization.

  10. THE HYDROGEN EPOCH OF REIONIZATION ARRAY DISH. II. CHARACTERIZATION OF SPECTRAL STRUCTURE WITH ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATIONS AND ITS SCIENCE IMPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Hewitt, Jacqueline; Neben, Abraham R.; Bradley, Richard; Dickenson, Roger; Doolittle, Phillip; Egan, Dennis; Hedrick, Mike; Klima, Patricia; Deboer, David; Parsons, Aaron; Ali, Zaki S.; Cheng, Carina; Patra, Nipanjana; Dillon, Joshua S.; Aguirre, James; Bowman, Judd; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Venter, Mariet; Acedo, Eloy de Lera

    2016-01-01

    We use time-domain electromagnetic simulations to determine the spectral characteristics of the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Arrays (HERA) antenna. These simulations are part of a multi-faceted campaign to determine the effectiveness of the dish’s design for obtaining a detection of redshifted 21 cm emission from the epoch of reionization. Our simulations show the existence of reflections between HERA’s suspended feed and its parabolic dish reflector that fall below -40 dB at 150 ns and, for reasonable impedance matches, have a negligible impact on HERA’s ability to constrain EoR parameters. It follows that despite the reflections they introduce, dishes are effective for increasing the sensitivity of EoR experiments at a relatively low cost. We find that electromagnetic resonances in the HERA feed’s cylindrical skirt, which is intended to reduce cross coupling and beam ellipticity, introduces significant power at large delays (-40 dB at 200 ns), which can lead to some loss of measurable Fourier modes and a modest reduction in sensitivity. Even in the presence of this structure, we find that the spectral response of the antenna is sufficiently smooth for delay filtering to contain foreground emission at line-of-sight wave numbers below k ∥ ≲ 0.2 h Mpc -1 , in the region where the current PAPER experiment operates. Incorporating these results into a Fisher Matrix analysis, we find that the spectral structure observed in our simulations has only a small effect on the tight constraints HERA can achieve on parameters associated with the astrophysics of reionization.

  11. Characterization of some electronic spectral parameters for doped Nd (III) ion in saturated aqueous solution of some pharmaceutical compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naulakha, Neelam; Soni, K.P.; Bhati, P.R.

    2000-01-01

    The stereo-environment of doped Nd(III) ion in various saturated solutions of some medicinal compounds has been studied for various electronic spectral parameters. The various electronic parameters, viz., Slater Condon (F k ), Lande (ζ 4f ) intensity of hypersensitive band ( 4 G 5/2 ), bonding parameter (b 1/2 ), Judd-Ofelt parameter (Tλ) and Racah parameter (E k ) for Nd(III) ion doped in saturated solution of diphenylhydramine, tripelennamine, chlorophenaramine, promethazine, terfinadine, naproxen, fenoprofen, flurbiprofen, oxaprozine, ketoprofen and ibuprofen have been studied. (author)

  12. Characterization of vanadate-based transition-state-analogue complexes of phosphoglucomutase by spectral and NMR techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, W.J. Jr; Burgner, J.W. II; Post, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    Near ultraviolet spectral studies were conducted on two inhibitor complexes obtained by treating the dephospho form of the phosphoglucomutase·Mg 2+ complex with inorganic vanadate in the presence of either glucose 1-phosphate or glucose 6-phosphate. Part of the spectral differences between the two inhibitor complexes arises because the glucose phosphate moiety in the complex derived from glucose 1-phosphate binds to the enzyme in a different way from the glucose phosphate moiety in the complex derived from glucose 6-phosphate and because these alternative binding modes produce different environmental effects on the aromatic chromophores of the dephospho enzyme. These spectra differences are strikingly similar to those induced by the binding of glucose 1-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate to the phospho enzyme. 31 P NMR studies of the phosphate group in these complexes also provide support for this binding pattern. Difference spectroscopy was used to resolve the spectrum of both inhibitor complexes to obtain the absorbance of their oxyvanadium chromophores. A spectrum more nearly like that of a normal vanadate ester is observed for the oxyvanadium chromophore in the corresponding complex involving glucose 1-phosphate and Li + instead of Mg 2+

  13. Characterization of standard reference material 2944, Bi-ion-doped glass, spectral correction standard for red fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeRose, Paul C.; Smith, Melody V.; Anderson, Jeffrey R.; Kramer, Gary W.

    2013-01-01

    Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2944 is a cuvette-shaped, Bi-ion-doped glass, recommended for optimal use for relative spectral correction of emission from 590 nm to 805 nm and day-to-day performance verification of steady-state fluorescence spectrometers. Properties of this standard that influence its effective use or contribute to the uncertainty in its certified emission spectrum were explored here. These properties include its photostability, absorbance, dissolution rate in water, anisotropy and temperature coefficient of fluorescence intensity. The expanded uncertainties (k=2) in the certified spectrum are about 4% around the nominal peak maximum at 704 nm and increase to about 6% at the wings, using an excitation wavelength of 515 nm. -- Highlights: ► The fluorescence emission spectrum of SRM 2944 was determined for spectral correction. ► This Bi-ion-doped glass has been certified in the fluorescence region from 530 nm to 830 nm. ► Fluorescence properties of the glass were determined, e.g., anisotropy, lifetime. ► SRM 2944 is photostable under common visible lamp excitation, when UV light is not present

  14. Spectrally edited 2D 13Csbnd 13C NMR spectra without diagonal ridge for characterizing 13C-enriched low-temperature carbon materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert L.; Anderson, Jason M.; Shanks, Brent H.; Fang, Xiaowen; Hong, Mei; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-09-01

    Two robust combinations of spectral editing techniques with 2D 13Csbnd 13C NMR have been developed for characterizing the aromatic components of 13C-enriched low-temperature carbon materials. One method (exchange with protonated and nonprotonated spectral editing, EXPANSE) selects cross peaks of protonated and nearby nonprotonated carbons, while the other technique, dipolar-dephased double-quantum/single-quantum (DQ/SQ) NMR, selects signals of bonded nonprotonated carbons. Both spectra are free of a diagonal ridge, which has many advantages: Cross peaks on the diagonal or of small intensity can be detected, and residual spinning sidebands or truncation artifacts associated with the diagonal ridge are avoided. In the DQ/SQ experiment, dipolar dephasing of the double-quantum coherence removes protonated-carbon signals; this approach also eliminates the need for high-power proton decoupling. The initial magnetization is generated with minimal fluctuation by combining direct polarization, cross polarization, and equilibration by 13C spin diffusion. The dipolar dephased DQ/SQ spectrum shows signals from all linkages between aromatic rings, including a distinctive peak from polycondensed aromatics. In EXPANSE NMR, signals of protonated carbons are selected in the first spectral dimension by short cross polarization combined with dipolar dephasing difference. This removes ambiguities of peak assignment to overlapping signals of nonprotonated and protonated aromatic carbons, e.g. near 125 ppm. Spin diffusion is enhanced by dipolar-assisted rotational resonance. Before detection, Csbnd H dipolar dephasing by gated decoupling is applied, which selects signals of nonprotonated carbons. Thus, only cross peaks due to magnetization originating from protonated C and ending on nearby nonprotonated C are retained. Combined with the chemical shifts deduced from the cross-peak position, this double spectral editing defines the bonding environment of aromatic, COO, and Cdbnd O carbons

  15. TeV Gamma Rays From Galactic Center Pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Dan [Fermilab; Cholis, Ilias [Johns Hopkins U.; Linden, Tim [Ohio State U., CCAPP

    2017-05-25

    Measurements of the nearby pulsars Geminga and B0656+14 by the HAWC and Milagro telescopes have revealed the presence of bright TeV-emitting halos surrounding these objects. If young and middle-aged pulsars near the Galactic Center transfer a similar fraction of their energy into TeV photons, then these sources could dominate the emission that is observed by HESS and other ground-based telescopes from the innermost ~10^2 parsecs of the Milky Way. In particular, both the spectral shape and the angular extent of this emission is consistent with TeV halos produced by a population of pulsars. The overall flux of this emission requires a birth rate of ~100-1000 neutron stars per Myr near the Galactic Center, in good agreement with recent estimates.

  16. WE-FG-207B-11: Objective Image Characterization of Spectral CT with a Dual-Layer Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozguner, O; Halliburton, S; Dhanantwari, A; Utrup, S; Wen, G; Jordan, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain objective reference data for the spectral performance on a dual-layer detector CT platform (IQon, Philips) and compare virtual monoenergetic to conventional CT images. Methods: Scanning was performed using the hospital’s clinical adult body protocol: helical acquisition at 120kVp, with CTDIvol=15mGy. Multiple modules (591, 515, 528) of a CATPHAN 600 phantom and a 20 cm diameter cylindrical water phantom were scanned. No modifications to the standard protocol were necessary to enable spectral imaging. Both conventional and virtual monoenergetic images were generated from acquired data. Noise characteristics were assessed through Noise Power Spectra (NPS) and pixel standard deviation from water phantom images. Spatial resolution was evaluated using Modulation Transfer Functions (MTF) of a tungsten wire as well as resolution bars. Low-contrast detectability was studied using contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of a low contrast object. Results: MTF curves of monoenergetic and conventional images were almost identical. MTF 50%, 10%, and 5% levels for monoenergetic images agreed with conventional images within 0.05lp/cm. These observations were verified by the resolution bars, which were clearly resolved at 7lp/cm but started blurring at 8lp/cm for this protocol in both conventional and 70 keV images. NPS curves indicated that, compared to conventional images, the noise power distribution of 70 keV monoenergetic images is similar (i.e. noise texture is similar) but exhibit a low frequency peak at keVs higher and lower than 70 keV. Standard deviation measurements show monoenergetic images have lower noise except at 40 keV where it is slightly higher. CNR of monoenergetic images is mostly flat across keV values and is superior to that of conventional images. Conclusion: Values for standard image quality metrics are the same or better for monoenergetic images compared to conventional images. Results indicate virtual monoenergetic images can be used without

  17. WE-FG-207B-11: Objective Image Characterization of Spectral CT with a Dual-Layer Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozguner, O [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Halliburton, S; Dhanantwari, A; Utrup, S [Philips Healthcare, Highland Heights, OH (United States); Wen, G [The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Jordan, D [University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To obtain objective reference data for the spectral performance on a dual-layer detector CT platform (IQon, Philips) and compare virtual monoenergetic to conventional CT images. Methods: Scanning was performed using the hospital’s clinical adult body protocol: helical acquisition at 120kVp, with CTDIvol=15mGy. Multiple modules (591, 515, 528) of a CATPHAN 600 phantom and a 20 cm diameter cylindrical water phantom were scanned. No modifications to the standard protocol were necessary to enable spectral imaging. Both conventional and virtual monoenergetic images were generated from acquired data. Noise characteristics were assessed through Noise Power Spectra (NPS) and pixel standard deviation from water phantom images. Spatial resolution was evaluated using Modulation Transfer Functions (MTF) of a tungsten wire as well as resolution bars. Low-contrast detectability was studied using contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of a low contrast object. Results: MTF curves of monoenergetic and conventional images were almost identical. MTF 50%, 10%, and 5% levels for monoenergetic images agreed with conventional images within 0.05lp/cm. These observations were verified by the resolution bars, which were clearly resolved at 7lp/cm but started blurring at 8lp/cm for this protocol in both conventional and 70 keV images. NPS curves indicated that, compared to conventional images, the noise power distribution of 70 keV monoenergetic images is similar (i.e. noise texture is similar) but exhibit a low frequency peak at keVs higher and lower than 70 keV. Standard deviation measurements show monoenergetic images have lower noise except at 40 keV where it is slightly higher. CNR of monoenergetic images is mostly flat across keV values and is superior to that of conventional images. Conclusion: Values for standard image quality metrics are the same or better for monoenergetic images compared to conventional images. Results indicate virtual monoenergetic images can be used without

  18. Synthesis, growth, spectral, electrical, mechanical and thermal characterization of a potential optical material: γ-glycine single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, N.; Jayavel, R.; Anbalagan, G.; Yadav, R. R.

    2018-06-01

    Gamma glycine, an organic material was grown by slow solvent evaporation method. Conventional polythermal method was employed in the temperature range, 30-50 °C to obtain the solubility and the metastable zonewidth. The crystal and molecular structures were analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction, FT-IR and FT-Raman spectral studies. Optical refractive index was determined by prism coupling technique and was found to be 1.4488. Electrical properties such as ac conductivity and activation energy were studied for different temperatures in the frequency range from 40 Hz to 6 MHz. The dc electrical conductivity was estimated from the Cole-Cole plot and the values were found to be 2.19 × 10-6 Sm-1 at 353K and 1.46 × 10-6 Sm-1 at 373K respectively. Mechanical studies on the grown crystal revealed that the material belongs to soft materials category. Thermal conductivity and specific heat capacities were estimated by Hot Disk Thermal Constants Analyzer.

  19. [Study on spectral gain characterization of FWM processes with multi-frequency pumps in photonic crystal fiber].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Zhan-Qiang

    2011-10-01

    Spectral gain induced by four-wave-mixing with multi-frequency pump was investigated by exploiting the data signal and continue lights co-propagation in dispersion flattened high nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The effects of wavelength drift of pump lights, polarization state of orthogonal or parallel of pump lights, polarization mismatch of signal light versus orthogonal pump lights, total power of signal and probe light on the spectrum gain were analyzed. The results show that good FWM gain effects with multi-frequency pump can be obtained in 36.4 nm wavelength range when power ratio of pump to probe light is appropriate and with identical polarization. Furthermore, the gain of FWM with multi-frequency pump is very sensitive to polarization fluctuation and the different idle waves obtain different gain with the variation in signal polarization state. Moreover, the impact of pump numbers was investigated. The obtained results would be helpful for further research on ultrahigh-speed all optical signal processing devices exploiting the FWM with multi-frequency pump in PCF for future photonics network.

  20. Synthesis and spectral characterization of 2,2-diphenylethyl glucosinolate and HPLC-based reaction progress curve data for the enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates by Sinapis alba myrosinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chase A. Klingaman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article, “HPLC-based enzyme kinetics assay for glucosinolate hydrolysis facilitate analysis of systems with both multiple reaction products and thermal enzyme denaturation” (C.K. Klingaman, M.J. Wagner, J.R. Brown, J.B. Klecker, E.H. Pauley, C.J. Noldner, J.R. Mays, [1]. This data article describes (1 the synthesis and spectral characterization data of a non-natural glucosinolate analogue, 2,2-diphenylethyl glucosinolate, (2 HPLC standardization data for glucosinolate, isothiocyanate, nitrile, and amine analytes, (3 reaction progress curve data for enzymatic hydrolysis reactions with variable substrate concentration, enzyme concentration, buffer pH, and temperature, and (4 normalized initial velocities of hydrolysis/formation for analytes. These data provide a comprehensive description of the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of 2,2-diphenylethyl glucosinolate (5 and glucotropaeolin (6 under widely varied conditions.

  1. Synthesis, spectral characterization and anti-microbial activity of 6- Substituted [(2-aminoethylamino]-6λ 5-dibenzo [d, h] [1, 3,6,2]oxathiaza- phosphonin-6-ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinta Raveendra Reddy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of a series of a new class of phosphorus macrocycles was accomplished in two steps by condensation of (Z-2-((2-mercaptophenylimino methyl phenol (1 with phosphorus oxychloride (2 in dry THF in the presence of triethylamine at 0-5 °C. In the second step ethylene diols/ amino alcohols/ diamine/ aminothiols/ phenols were reacted at room temperature in THF to afford the title compounds (5a-l. The chemical structures of the title products were characterized by IR, 1H, 13C, 31P-NMR, mass spectral studies and elemental analysis. All the title compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity to determine their efficacy and they were found role effective in suppressing the growth of bacteria and fungi.

  2. Design, Synthesis and Spectral Characterization of Novel 2-morpholino-N-(4,6-diarylpyrimidin-2-yl)acetamides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanagarajan, Vijayakumar; Thanusu, Jayaraman; Gopalakrishnan, Mannathusamy [Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-02-15

    A new series of novel 2-morpholino-N-(4,6-diarylpyrimidin-2-yl)acetamides 34-42 is synthesized by the condensation of 2-chloro-N-(4,6-diarylpyrimidin-2-yl)acetamides 25-33 with morpholine in the presence of anhydrous potassium carbonate. The synthesized compounds have been characterized by melting point, elemental analysis, MS, FT-IR, one-dimensional NMR ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) spectroscopic data.

  3. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    It has been traditional in phonetic research to characterize monophthongs using a set of static formant frequencies, i.e., formant frequencies taken from a single time-point in the vowel or averaged over the time-course of the vowel. However, over the last twenty years a growing body of research has demonstrated that, at least for a number of dialects of North American English, vowels which are traditionally described as monophthongs often have substantial spectral change. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change has been observed in speakers’ productions, and has also been found to have a substantial effect on listeners’ perception. In terms of acoustics, the traditional categorical distinction between monophthongs and diphthongs can be replaced by a gradient description of dynamic spectral patterns. This book includes chapters addressing various aspects of vowel inherent spectral change (VISC), including theoretical and experimental studies of the perceptually relevant aspects of VISC, the relationship between ar...

  4. Characterization of Articular Cartilage Recovery and Its Correlation with Optical Response in the Near-Infrared Spectral Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afara, Isaac Oluwaseun; Singh, Sanjleena; Moody, Hayley; Zhang, Lihai; Oloyede, Adekunle

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we examine the capacity of a new parameter, based on the recovery response of articular cartilage, to distinguish between healthy and damaged tissues. We also investigate whether or not this new parameter correlates with the near-infrared (NIR) optical response of articular cartilage. Normal and artificially degenerated (proteoglycan-depleted) bovine cartilage samples were nondestructively probed using NIR spectroscopy. Subsequently they were subjected to a load and unloading protocol, and the recovery response was logged during unloading. The recovery parameter, elastic rebound ( E R ), is based on the strain energy released as the samples underwent instantaneous elastic recovery. Our results reveal positive relationship between the rebound parameter and cartilage proteoglycan content (normal samples: 2.20 ± 0.10 N mm; proteoglycan-depleted samples: 0.50 ± 0.04 N mm for 1 hour of enzymatic treatment and 0.13 ± 0.02 N mm for 4 hours of enzymatic treatment). In addition, multivariate analysis using partial least squares regression was employed to investigate the relationship between E R and NIR spectral data. The results reveal significantly high correlation ( R 2 cal = 98.35% and R 2 val = 79.87%; P cartilage in the combined NIR regions 5,450 to 6,100 cm -1 and 7,500 to 12,500 cm -1 . We conclude that E R can indicate the mechanical condition and state of health of articular cartilage. The correlation of E R with cartilage optical response in the NIR range could facilitate real-time evaluation of the tissue's integrity during arthroscopic surgery and could also provide an important tool for cartilage assessment in tissue engineering and regeneration research.

  5. Spectral stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Harold R.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to stratigraphic analysis is described which uses photogeologic and spectral interpretation of multispectral remote sensing data combined with topographic information to determine the attitude, thickness, and lithology of strata exposed at the surface. The new stratigraphic procedure is illustrated by examples in the literature. The published results demonstrate the potential of spectral stratigraphy for mapping strata, determining dip and strike, measuring and correlating stratigraphic sequences, defining lithofacies, mapping biofacies, and interpreting geological structures.

  6. Selective separation, detection of zotepine and mass spectral characterization of degradants by LC–MS/MS/QTOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V.N. Kumar Talluri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple, precise, accurate stability-indicating gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP–HPLC method was developed for the quantitative determination of zotepine (ZTP in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms in the presence of its degradation products (DPs. The method was developed using Phenomenex C18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm with a mobile phase containing a gradient mixture of solvents, A (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA, pH=3.0 and B (acetonitrile. The eluted compounds were monitored at 254 nm; the run time was within 20.0 min, in which ZTP and its DPs were well separated, with a resolution of >1.5. The stress testing of ZTP was carried out under acidic, alkaline, neutral hydrolysis, oxidative, photolytic and thermal stress conditions. ZTP was found to degrade significantly in acidic, photolytic, thermal and oxidative stress conditions and remain stable in basic and neutral conditions. The developed method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision and robustness as per ICH guidelines. This method was also suitable for the assay determination of ZTP in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The DPs were characterized by LC–MS/MS and their fragmentation pathways were proposed. Keywords: Zotepine, Stability-indicating RP–HPLC method, Characterization, ESI-Q-TOF-MS, Bulk drugs and formulations

  7. Synthesis, spectral characterization and structural studies of a novel O, N, O donor semicarbazone and its binuclear copper complex with hydrogen bond stabilized lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layana, S. R.; Saritha, S. R.; Anitha, L.; Sithambaresan, M.; Sudarsanakumar, M. R.; Suma, S.

    2018-04-01

    A novel O,N,O donor salicylaldehyde-N4-phenylsemicarbazone, (H2L) has been synthesized and physicochemically characterized. Detailed structural studies of H2L using single crystal X-ray diffraction technique reveals the existence of intra and inter molecular hydrogen bonding interactions, which provide extra stability to the molecule. We have successfully synthesized a binuclear copper(II) complex, [Cu2(HL)2(NO3)(H2O)2]NO3 with phenoxy bridging between the two copper centers. The complex was characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements, FT-IR, UV-Visible, mass and EPR spectral methods. The grown crystals of the copper complex were employed for the single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The complex possesses geometrically different metal centers, in which the ligand coordinates through ketoamide oxygen, azomethine nitrogen and deprotonated phenoxy oxygen. The extensive intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions of the coordinated and the lattice nitrate groups interconnect the complex units to form a 2D supramolecular assembly. The ESI mass spectrum substantiates the existence of 1:1 complex. The g values obtained from the EPR spectrum in frozen DMF suggest dx2 -y2 ground state for the unpaired electron.

  8. Effects of spatial and spectral frequencies on wide-field functional imaging (wifi) characterization of preclinical breast cancer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Austin; Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Eva Y. H. P.; Choi, Bernard

    2010-02-01

    A common strategy to study breast cancer is the use of the preclinical model. These models provide a physiologically relevant and controlled environment in which to study both response to novel treatments and the biology of the cancer. Preclinical models, including the spontaneous tumor model and mammary window chamber model, are very amenable to optical imaging and to this end, we have developed a wide-field functional imaging (WiFI) instrument that is perfectly suited to studying tumor metabolism in preclinical models. WiFI combines two optical imaging modalities, spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) and laser speckle imaging (LSI). Our current WiFI imaging protocol consists of multispectral imaging in the near infrared (650-980 nm) spectrum, over a wide (7 cm x 5 cm) field of view. Using SFDI, the spatially-resolved reflectance of sinusoidal patterns projected onto the tissue is assessed, and optical properties of the tissue are determined, which are then used to extract tissue chromophore concentrations in the form of oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentrations, and percentage of lipid and water. In the current study, we employ Monte Carlo simulations of SFDI light propagation in order to characterize the penetration depth of light in both the spontaneous tumor model and mammary window chamber model. Preliminary results suggest that different spatial frequency and wavelength combinations have different penetration depths, suggesting the potential depth sectioning capability of the SFDI component of WiFI.

  9. APPLICATION OF A DAMPED LOCALLY OPTIMIZED COMBINATION OF IMAGES METHOD TO THE SPECTRAL CHARACTERIZATION OF FAINT COMPANIONS USING AN INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROGRAPH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pueyo, Laurent; Crepp, Justin R.; Hinkley, Sasha; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Dekany, Richard; Bouchez, Antonin; Roberts, Jenny; Vasisht, Gautam; Roberts, Lewis C.; Shao, Mike; Burruss, Rick; Brenner, Douglas; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Zimmerman, Neil; Parry, Ian; Beichman, Charles; Soummer, Rémi

    2012-01-01

    High-contrast imaging instruments are now being equipped with integral field spectrographs (IFSs) to facilitate the detection and characterization of faint substellar companions. Algorithms currently envisioned to handle IFS data, such as the Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI) algorithm, rely on aggressive point-spread function (PSF) subtraction, which is ideal for initially identifying companions but results in significantly biased photometry and spectroscopy owing to unwanted mixing with residual starlight. This spectrophotometric issue is further complicated by the fact that algorithmic color response is a function of the companion's spectrum, making it difficult to calibrate the effects of the reduction without using iterations involving a series of injected synthetic companions. In this paper, we introduce a new PSF calibration method, which we call 'damped LOCI', that seeks to alleviate these concerns. By modifying the cost function that determines the weighting coefficients used to construct PSF reference images, and also forcing those coefficients to be positive, it is possible to extract companion spectra with a precision that is set by calibration of the instrument response and transmission of the atmosphere, and not by post-processing. We demonstrate the utility of this approach using on-sky data obtained with the Project 1640 IFS at Palomar. Damped LOCI does not require any iterations on the underlying spectral type of the companion, nor does it rely on priors involving the chromatic and statistical properties of speckles. It is a general technique that can readily be applied to other current and planned instruments that employ IFSs.

  10. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  11. Photovoltaic spectral responsivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, K.; Dunlavy, D.; Field, H.; Moriarty, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses the various elemental random and nonrandom error sources in typical spectral responsivity measurement systems. The authors focus specifically on the filter and grating monochrometer-based spectral responsivity measurement systems used by the Photovoltaic (PV) performance characterization team at NREL. A variety of subtle measurement errors can occur that arise from a finite photo-current response time, bandwidth of the monochromatic light, waveform of the monochromatic light, and spatial uniformity of the monochromatic and bias lights; the errors depend on the light source, PV technology, and measurement system. The quantum efficiency can be a function of he voltage bias, light bias level, and, for some structures, the spectral content of the bias light or location on the PV device. This paper compares the advantages and problems associated with semiconductor-detector-based calibrations and pyroelectric-detector-based calibrations. Different current-to-voltage conversion and ac photo-current detection strategies employed at NREL are compared and contrasted.

  12. Spectral characterization of the fluorescent components present in humic substances, fulvic acid and humic acid mixed with pure benzo(a)pyrene solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Fallah, Rawa; Rouillon, Régis; Vouvé, Florence

    2018-06-01

    The fate of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a ubiquitous contaminant reported to be persistent in the environment, is largely controlled by its interactions with the soil organic matter. In the present study, the spectral characteristics of fluorophores present in the physical fractions of the soil organic matter were investigated in the presence of pure BaP solution. After extraction of humic substances (HSs), and their fractionation into fluvic acid (FA) and humic acid (HA), two fluorescent compounds (C1 and C2) were identified and characterized in each physical soil fraction, by means of fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (FEEMs) and Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC). Then, to each type of fraction having similar DOC content, was added an increasing volume of pure BaP solution in attempt to assess the behavior of BaP with the fluorophores present in each one. The application of FEEMs-PARAFAC method validated a three-component model that consisted of the two resulted fluorophores from HSs, FA and HA (C1 and C2) and a BaP-like fluorophore (C3). Spectral modifications were noted for components C2HSs (C2 in humic substances fraction) (λex/λem: 420/490-520 nm), C2FA (C2 in fulvic acid fraction) (λex/λem: 400/487(517) nm) and C1HA (C1 in humic acid fraction) (λex/λem: 350/452(520) nm). We explored the impact of increasing the volume of the added pure BaP solution on the scores of the fluorophores present in the soil fractions. It was found that the scores of C2HSs, C2FA, and C1HA increased when the volume of the added pure BaP solution increased. Superposition of the excitation spectra of these fluorophores with the emission spectrum of BaP showed significant overlaps that might explain the observed interactions between BaP and the fluorescent compounds present in SOM physical fractions.

  13. Perspective on the Cosmic-ray Electron Spectrum above TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Kun; Wang, Bing-Bing; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Lin, Su-Jie; Yin, Peng-Fei [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-02-20

    The AMS-02 has measured the cosmic-ray electron (plus positron) spectrum up to ∼TeV with unprecedented precision. The spectrum can be well described by a power law without any obvious features above 10 GeV. The satellite instrument Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE), which was launched a year ago, will measure the electron spectrum up to 10 TeV with high-energy resolution. The cosmic electrons beyond TeV may be attributed to few local cosmic-ray sources, such as supernova remnants. Therefore, spectral features, such as cut-off and bumps, can be expected at high energies. In this work, we provide a careful study on the perspective of the electron spectrum beyond TeV. We first examine our astrophysical source models on the latest leptonic data of AMS-02 to give a self-consistent picture. Then we focus on the discussion about the candidate sources, which could be electron contributors above TeV. Depending on the properties of the local sources (especially on the nature of Vela), DAMPE may detect interesting features in the electron spectrum above TeV in the future.

  14. X-ray Studies of Unidentified Galactic TeV Gamma-ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pühlhofer, Gerd

    2009-05-01

    Many of the recently discovered Galactic TeV sources remain unidentified to date. A large fraction of the sources is possibly associated with relic pulsar wind nebula (PWN) systems. One key question here is the maximum energy (beyond TeV) attained in the compact PWNe. Hard X-ray emission can trace those particles, but current non-focussing X-ray instruments above 10 keV have difficulties to deconvolve the hard pulsar spectrum from its surrounding nebula. Some of the new TeV sources are also expected to originate from middle-aged and possibly even from old supernova remnants (SNR). But no compelling case for such an identification has been found yet. In established young TeV-emitting SNRs, X-ray imaging above 10 keV could help to disentangle the leptonic from the hadronic emission component in the TeV shells, if secondary electrons produced in hadronic collisions can be effectively detected. As SNRs get older, the high energy electron component is expected to fade away. This may allow to verify the picture through X-ray spectral evolution of the source population. Starting from the lessons we have learned so far from X-ray follow-up observations of unidentified TeV sources, prospects for Simbol-X to resolve open questions in this field will be discussed.

  15. X-ray Studies of Unidentified Galactic TeV Gamma-ray Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puehlhofer, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    Many of the recently discovered Galactic TeV sources remain unidentified to date. A large fraction of the sources is possibly associated with relic pulsar wind nebula (PWN) systems. One key question here is the maximum energy (beyond TeV) attained in the compact PWNe. Hard X-ray emission can trace those particles, but current non-focussing X-ray instruments above 10 keV have difficulties to deconvolve the hard pulsar spectrum from its surrounding nebula.Some of the new TeV sources are also expected to originate from middle-aged and possibly even from old supernova remnants (SNR). But no compelling case for such an identification has been found yet. In established young TeV-emitting SNRs, X-ray imaging above 10 keV could help to disentangle the leptonic from the hadronic emission component in the TeV shells, if secondary electrons produced in hadronic collisions can be effectively detected. As SNRs get older, the high energy electron component is expected to fade away. This may allow to verify the picture through X-ray spectral evolution of the source population.Starting from the lessons we have learned so far from X-ray follow-up observations of unidentified TeV sources, prospects for Simbol-X to resolve open questions in this field will be discussed.

  16. An Experiment to Locate the Site of TeV Flaring in M87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, D.E.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Massaro, F.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Cheung, C.C.; /Natl. Acad. Sci. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Horns, D.; Raue, M.; /Hamburg U.; Stawarz, L.; /JAXA, Sagamihara /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Wagner, S.; /Heidelberg Observ.; Colin, P.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Mazin, D.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Wagner, R.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Beilicke, M.; /McDonnell Ctr. Space Sci.; LeBohec, S.; Hui, M.; /Utah U.; Mukherjee, R.; /Barnard Coll.

    2012-05-18

    We describe a Chandra X-ray target-of-opportunity project designed to isolate the site of TeV flaring in the radio galaxy M87. To date, we have triggered the Chandra observations only once (2010 April) and by the time of the first of our nine observations, the TeV flare had ended. However, we found that the X-ray intensity of the unresolved nucleus was at an elevated level for our first observation. Of the more than 60 Chandra observations we have made of the M87 jet covering nine years, the nucleus was measured at a comparably high level only three times. Two of these occasions can be associated with TeV flaring, and at the time of the third event, there were no TeV monitoring activities. From the rapidity of the intensity drop of the nucleus, we infer that the size of the emitting region is of order a few light days x the unknown beaming factor; comparable to the same sort of estimate for the TeV emitting region. We also find evidence of spectral evolution in the X-ray band which seems consistent with radiative losses affecting the non-thermal population of the emitting electrons within the unresolved nucleus.

  17. Simultaneous retrieval of CO2 and aerosols in a plume from hyper spectral imagery: application to the characterization of forest fire smoke using AVIRIS data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschamps, Adrien; Marion, Rodolphe; Briottet, Xavier; Foucher, Pierre-Yves

    2013-01-01

    Hyper spectral imagery is a widely used technique to study atmospheric composition. For several years, many methods have been developed to estimate the abundance of gases. However, existing methods do not simultaneously retrieve the properties of aerosols and often use standard aerosol models to describe the radiative impact of particles. This approach is not suited to the characterization of plumes, because plume particles may have a very different composition and size distribution from aerosols described by the standard models given by radiative transfer codes. This article presents a new method to simultaneously retrieve carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and aerosols inside a plume, combining an aerosol retrieval algorithm using visible and near-infrared (VNIR) wavelengths and a CO 2 estimation algorithm using shortwave infrared (SWIR) wavelengths. The micro-physical properties of the plume particles, obtained after aerosol retrieval, are used to calculate their optical properties in the SWIR. Then, a database of atmospheric terms is generated with the radiative transfer code, Moderate Resolution Atmospheric Transmission (MODTRAN). Finally, pixel radiances around the 2.0 μm absorption feature are used to retrieve the CO 2 abundances. After conducting a signal sensitivity analysis, the method was applied to two airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) images acquired over areas of biomass burning. For the first image, in situ measurements were available. The results show that including the aerosol retrieval step before the CO 2 estimation: (1) induces a better agreement between in situ measurements and retrieved CO 2 abundances (the CO 2 overestimation of about 15%, induced by neglecting aerosols has been corrected, especially for pixels where the plume is not very thick); (2) reduces the standard deviation of estimated CO 2 abundance by a factor of four; and (3) causes the spatial distribution of retrieved concentrations to be coherent. (authors)

  18. Adding the s-Process Element Cerium to the APOGEE Survey: Identification and Characterization of Ce II Lines in the H-band Spectral Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.; Hasselquist, Sten; Souto, Diogo; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Frinchaboy, Peter; García-Hernández, D. Anibal; Holtzman, Jon; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Jőnsson, Henrik; Majewski, Steven R.; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Nidever, David; Pinsonneault, Mark; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Sobeck, Jennifer; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Zamora, Olga; Zasowski, Gail; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.

    2017-08-01

    Nine Ce II lines have been identified and characterized within the spectral window observed by the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey (between λ1.51 and 1.69 μm). At solar metallicities, cerium is an element that is produced predominantly as a result of the slow capture of neutrons (the s-process) during asymptotic giant branch stellar evolution. The Ce II lines were identified using a combination of a high-resolution (R=λ /δ λ ={{100,000}}) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) spectrum of α Boo and an APOGEE spectrum (R = 22,400) of a metal-poor, but s-process enriched, red giant (2M16011638-1201525). Laboratory oscillator strengths are not available for these lines. Astrophysical gf-values were derived using α Boo as a standard star, with the absolute cerium abundance in α Boo set by using optical Ce II lines that have precise published laboratory gf-values. The near-infrared Ce II lines identified here are also analyzed, as consistency checks, in a small number of bright red giants using archival FTS spectra, as well as a small sample of APOGEE red giants, including two members of the open cluster NGC 6819, two field stars, and seven metal-poor N- and Al-rich stars. The conclusion is that this set of Ce II lines can be detected and analyzed in a large fraction of the APOGEE red giant sample and will be useful for probing chemical evolution of the s-process products in various populations of the Milky Way.

  19. Pulsar TeV Halos Explain the Diffuse TeV Excess Observed by Milagro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Tim; Buckman, Benjamin J

    2018-03-23

    Milagro observations have found bright, diffuse TeV emission concentrated along the galactic plane of the Milky Way. The intensity and spectrum of this emission is difficult to explain with current models of hadronic γ-ray production, and has been named the "TeV excess." We show that TeV emission from pulsars naturally explains this excess. Recent observations have detected "TeV halos" surrounding pulsars that are either nearby or particularly luminous. Extrapolating this emission to the full population of Milky Way pulsars indicates that the ensemble of "subthreshold" sources necessarily produces bright TeV emission diffusively along the Milky Way plane. Models indicate that the TeV halo γ-ray flux exceeds that from hadronic γ rays above an energy of ∼500  GeV. Moreover, the spectrum and intensity of TeV halo emission naturally matches the TeV excess. Finally, we show that upcoming HAWC observations will resolve a significant fraction of the TeV excess into individual TeV halos, conclusively confirming, or ruling out, this model.

  20. Characterizing the performance of ecosystem models across time scales: A spectral analysis of the North American Carbon Program site-level synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Dietze; Rodrigo Vargas; Andrew D. Richardson; Paul C. Stoy; Alan G. Barr; Ryan S. Anderson; M. Altaf Arain; Ian T. Baker; T. Andrew Black; Jing M. Chen; Philippe Ciais; Lawrence B. Flanagan; Christopher M. Gough; Robert F. Grant; David Hollinger; R. Cesar Izaurralde; Christopher J. Kucharik; Peter Lafleur; Shugang Liu; Erandathie Lokupitiya; Yiqi Luo; J. William Munger; Changhui Peng; Benjamin Poulter; David T. Price; Daniel M. Ricciuto; William J. Riley; Alok Kumar Sahoo; Kevin Schaefer; Andrew E. Suyker; Hanqin Tian; Christina Tonitto; Hans Verbeeck; Shashi B. Verma; Weifeng Wang; Ensheng Weng

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem models are important tools for diagnosing the carbon cycle and projecting its behavior across space and time. Despite the fact that ecosystems respond to drivers at multiple time scales, most assessments of model performance do not discriminate different time scales. Spectral methods, such as wavelet analyses, present an alternative approach that enables the...

  1. TeV Gamma-Ray Observations of Geminga with HAWC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; HAWC Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Geminga is a radio-quiet pulsar that was first detected at GeV energies. Its pulsations were first discovered in X-rays. It is one of the closest middle-aged pulsars at approximately 250 parsecs from Earth. The Geminga pulsar is one of the brightest sources in the GeV sky but there is no unambiguous evidence for the existence of a pulsar wind nebula at GeV energies. Milagro reported an extended TeV source spatially consistent with Geminga, but IACT observations using standard analysis techniques have only provided upper limits. Geminga has been interpreted as a nearby cosmic-ray accelerator, which would possibly explain the observed multi-GeV positron excess. TeV observations of Geminga are crucial to test this interpretation. The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory, located at 4100 m above see level in central Mexico, is sensitive to gamma rays between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. Thanks to its large field of view of 2 steradians, HAWC has a good sensitivity to extended sources. We will present the preliminary results for TeV gamma-ray emission from Geminga from HAWC data. Spectral and morphological analyses are on-going with a growing data set.

  2. Top-quark couplings to TeV resonances at future lepton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, T.; Kim, Y.J.; Likhoded, A.; Valencia, G.

    2001-01-01

    We study the processes W L W L →tt-bar and W L Z L →tb-bar (t-barb) at future lepton colliders as probes of the couplings of the top quark to resonances at the TeV scale. We consider the cases in which the dominant low energy feature of a strongly interacting electroweak symmetry breaking sector is either a scalar or a vector resonance with mass near 1 TeV. We find that future lepton colliders with high energy and high luminosity have great potential to sensitively probe these physics scenarios. In particular, at a 1.5 TeV linear collider with an integrated luminosity of 200 fb -1 , we expect about 120 events for either a scalar or a vector to decay to tt-bar, tb. Their leading partial decay widths, which characterize the coupling strengths, can be statistically determined to about 10% level

  3. Linear accelerators for TeV colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.B.

    1985-05-01

    This paper summarizes four tutorial lectures on linear electron accelerators: Electron Linacs for TeV Colliders, Emittance and Damping Rings, Wake Fields: Basic Concepts, and Wake Field Effects in Linacs

  4. Synthesis, spectral characterization and in vitro antifungal activity of Lanthanum(III) and Praseodymium(III) complexes with Schiff bases derived from 5-substituted-4-amino-5-hydrazino-1,2,4-triazoles and isatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shweta; Tripathi, Priti; Pandey, Om P.; Sengupta, Soumitra K.

    2013-01-01

    The new lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes of the general formula (LnCl(L)(H 2 O) 2 ) (Ln = La III or Pr III ; H 2 L = Schiff bases derived from 3-substituted-4-amino-5-hydrazino-1,2,4-triazoles and isatin) have been prepared. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, molecular weight by FAB-mass, thermogravimetry, electrical conductance, magnetic moment and spectral (electronic, infrared, far-infrared, 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR) data. The ligands and all prepared complexes were assayed for antifungal (Aspergillus niger and Helminthosporium oryzae) activities. The activities have been correlated with the structures of the complexes. (author)

  5. Spectral Imaging by Upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Pedersen, Christian; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to obtain spectrally resolved images using upconversion. By this method an image is spectrally shifted from one spectral region to another wavelength. Since the process is spectrally sensitive it allows for a tailored spectral response. We believe this will allow standard...... silicon based cameras designed for visible/near infrared radiation to be used for spectral images in the mid infrared. This can lead to much lower costs for such imaging devices, and a better performance....

  6. Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA) is an unsupervised feature extraction technique similar to PCA that was developed to better distinguish spectral features in...

  7. DETECTION OF VERY HARD γ -RAY SPECTRUM FROM THE TEV BLAZAR MRK 501

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, A.; Chitnis, V. R.; Acharya, B. S. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Mannheim, K.; Dorner, D. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Universität Würzburg, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Roy, J. [UM-DAE Center for Excellence in Basic Sciences, Mumbai 400098 (India); Hughes, G.; Biland, A. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics, Otto-Stern-Weg 5, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-12-01

    The occasional hardening of the GeV-to-TeV spectrum observed from the blazar Mrk 501 has reopened the debate on the physical origin of radiation and particle acceleration processes in TeV blazars. We have used the ∼7 years of Fermi -LAT data to search for the time intervals with unusually hard spectra from the nearby TeV blazar Mrk 501. We detected hard spectral components above 10 GeV with photon index <1.5 at a significance level of more than 5 sigma on 17 occasions, each with 30 day integration time. The photon index of the hardest component reached a value of 0.89 ± 0.29. We interpret these hard spectra as signatures of intermittent injection of sharply peaked and localized particle distributions from the base of the jet.

  8. DISCOVERY OF TeV GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM CTA 1 BY VERITAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Archambault, S. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Arlen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Aune, T.; Bouvier, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Collins-Hughes, E. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Cui, W. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Duke, C. [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112-1690 (United States); Dumm, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dwarkadas, V. V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Falcone, A., E-mail: muk@astro.columbia.edu, E-mail: smcarthur@ulysses.uchicago.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); and others

    2013-02-10

    We report the discovery of TeV gamma-ray emission coincident with the shell-type radio supernova remnant (SNR) CTA 1 using the VERITAS gamma-ray observatory. The source, VER J0006+729, was detected as a 6.5 standard deviation excess over background and shows an extended morphology, approximated by a two-dimensional Gaussian of semimajor (semiminor) axis 0. Degree-Sign 30 (0. Degree-Sign 24) and a centroid 5' from the Fermi gamma-ray pulsar PSR J0007+7303 and its X-ray pulsar wind nebula (PWN). The photon spectrum is well described by a power-law dN/dE = N {sub 0}(E/3 TeV){sup -{Gamma}}, with a differential spectral index of {Gamma} = 2.2 {+-} 0.2{sub stat} {+-} 0.3{sub sys}, and normalization N {sub 0} = (9.1 {+-} 1.3{sub stat} {+-} 1.7{sub sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} TeV{sup -1}. The integral flux, F {sub {gamma}} = 4.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} above 1 TeV, corresponds to 0.2% of the pulsar spin-down power at 1.4 kpc. The energetics, colocation with the SNR, and the relatively small extent of the TeV emission strongly argue for the PWN origin of the TeV photons. We consider the origin of the TeV emission in CTA 1.

  9. Theoretical Characterization of the Spectral Density of the Water-Soluble Chlorophyll-Binding Protein from Combined Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosnik, Andreana M; Curutchet, Carles

    2015-12-08

    Over the past decade, both experimentalists and theorists have worked to develop methods to describe pigment-protein coupling in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes in order to understand the molecular basis of quantum coherence effects observed in photosynthesis. Here we present an improved strategy based on the combination of quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and excited-state calculations to predict the spectral density of electronic-vibrational coupling. We study the water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein (WSCP) reconstituted with Chl a or Chl b pigments as the system of interest and compare our work with data obtained by Pieper and co-workers from differential fluorescence line-narrowing spectra (Pieper et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2011, 115 (14), 4042-4052). Our results demonstrate that the use of QM/MM MD simulations where the nuclear positions are still propagated at the classical level leads to a striking improvement of the predicted spectral densities in the middle- and high-frequency regions, where they nearly reach quantitative accuracy. This demonstrates that the so-called "geometry mismatch" problem related to the use of low-quality structures in QM calculations, not the quantum features of pigments high-frequency motions, causes the failure of previous studies relying on similar protocols. Thus, this work paves the way toward quantitative predictions of pigment-protein coupling and the comprehension of quantum coherence effects in photosynthesis.

  10. UV spectral fingerprinting and analysis of variance-principal component analysis: a useful tool for characterizing sources of variance in plant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthria, Devanand L; Mukhopadhyay, Sudarsan; Robbins, Rebecca J; Finley, John W; Banuelos, Gary S; Harnly, James M

    2008-07-23

    UV spectral fingerprints, in combination with analysis of variance-principal components analysis (ANOVA-PCA), can differentiate between cultivars and growing conditions (or treatments) and can be used to identify sources of variance. Broccoli samples, composed of two cultivars, were grown under seven different conditions or treatments (four levels of Se-enriched irrigation waters, organic farming, and conventional farming with 100 and 80% irrigation based on crop evaporation and transpiration rate). Freeze-dried powdered samples were extracted with methanol-water (60:40, v/v) and analyzed with no prior separation. Spectral fingerprints were acquired for the UV region (220-380 nm) using a 50-fold dilution of the extract. ANOVA-PCA was used to construct subset matrices that permitted easy verification of the hypothesis that cultivar and treatment contributed to a difference in the chemical expression of the broccoli. The sums of the squares of the same matrices were used to show that cultivar, treatment, and analytical repeatability contributed 30.5, 68.3, and 1.2% of the variance, respectively.

  11. Berlin Reflectance Spectral Library (BRSL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckel, D.; Arnold, G.; Kappel, D.; Moroz, L. V.; Markus, K.

    2017-09-01

    The Berlin Reflectance Spectral Library (BRSL) provides a collection of reflectance spectra between 0.3 and 17 µm. It was originally dedicated to support space missions to small solar system bodies. Meanwhile the library includes selections of biconical reflectance spectra for spectral data analysis of other planetary bodies as well. The library provides reference spectra of well-characterized terrestrial analogue materials and meteorites for interpretation of remote sensing reflectance spectra of planetary surfaces. We introduce the BRSL, summarize the data available, and access to use them for further relevant applications.

  12. HESS J1640–465 AND HESS J1641–463: TWO INTRIGUING TeV SOURCES IN LIGHT OF NEW FERMI-LAT OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Grondin, M.-H.; Laffon, H.; Reposeur, T. [Centre d' Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, IN2P3/CNRS, Université Bordeaux 1, BP120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Acero, F.; Ballet, J., E-mail: lemoine@cenbg.in2p3.fr, E-mail: grondin@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2014-10-10

    We report on γ-ray analysis of the region containing the bright TeV source HESS J1640–465 and the close-by TeV source HESS J1641–463 using 64 months of observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Previously only one GeV source was reported in this region and was associated with HESS J1640–465. With an increased data set and the improved sensitivity afforded by the reprocessed data (P7REP) of the LAT, we now report the detection, morphological study, and spectral analysis of two distinct sources above 100 MeV. The softest emission in this region comes from the TeV source HESS J1641–463 which is well fitted with a power law of index Γ = 2.47 ± 0.05 ± 0.06 and presents no significant γ-ray signal above 10 GeV, which contrasts with its hard spectrum at TeV energies. The Fermi-LAT spectrum of the second TeV source, HESS J1640–465 is well described by a power-law shape of index Γ = 1.99 ± 0.04 ± 0.07 that links up naturally with the spectral data points obtained by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). These new results provide new constraints concerning the identification of these two puzzling γ-ray sources.

  13. HESS J1640–465 AND HESS J1641–463: TWO INTRIGUING TeV SOURCES IN LIGHT OF NEW FERMI-LAT OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Grondin, M.-H.; Laffon, H.; Reposeur, T.; Acero, F.; Ballet, J.

    2014-01-01

    We report on γ-ray analysis of the region containing the bright TeV source HESS J1640–465 and the close-by TeV source HESS J1641–463 using 64 months of observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Previously only one GeV source was reported in this region and was associated with HESS J1640–465. With an increased data set and the improved sensitivity afforded by the reprocessed data (P7REP) of the LAT, we now report the detection, morphological study, and spectral analysis of two distinct sources above 100 MeV. The softest emission in this region comes from the TeV source HESS J1641–463 which is well fitted with a power law of index Γ = 2.47 ± 0.05 ± 0.06 and presents no significant γ-ray signal above 10 GeV, which contrasts with its hard spectrum at TeV energies. The Fermi-LAT spectrum of the second TeV source, HESS J1640–465 is well described by a power-law shape of index Γ = 1.99 ± 0.04 ± 0.07 that links up naturally with the spectral data points obtained by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). These new results provide new constraints concerning the identification of these two puzzling γ-ray sources

  14. Multi-wavelength studies of TeV γ-ray emitting BL Lac objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, Sarah Sabine

    2012-12-21

    The discovery of TeV γ-ray emission of BL Lac objects gave new insights in the particle acceleration and the emission processes of the highly relativistic jets. To shed light on the conditions in the high energetic jets of the TeV γ-ray emitting BL Lac objects, I have studied in great detail the spectral energy distribution (SED) of sources with different characteristics. BL Lac objects with exceptional very high energy spectra (soft and hard spectra) and with large differences in the emission peak frequencies, to cover the different classes of BL Lac objects, have been chosen. The basic aim of this thesis was, to study with new, simultaneous multi- avelength (MWL) observations, if the emission processes of these extreme cases of TeV BL Lac objects can be explained by the synchrotron Self-Compton (SSC) model which is well established for the class of BL Lac objects at lower energies. We proposed MWL observations in the optical, UV and X-ray regime, to be conducted simultaneous to very high energy observations with the H.E.S.S. experiment, to study the emission processes. Simultaneous observations are crucial, since BL Lac objects are variable at all wavebands. I have analysed the MWL observations and conducted detailed variability and spectral studies in each wavelength range. The different kind of absorption at each wavelength as well as the influence of the host galaxy of the AGN has been considered to obtain the intrinsic jet spectrum. I have then applied the commonly used theoretical jet model, the SSC model, to the SED. I conducted a MWL campaign on a BL Lac object with the softest TeV spectrum, PKS 2005-489, during which it was observed in a very bright X-ray state. The good spectral coverage of the emission peaks allowed a detailed study of the SSC model. The extreme BL Lac object 1ES 0229+200 exhibits a hard intrinsic TeV spectrum. With my MWL campaign I found a clear cut-off in the optical range and therefore a high minimum Lorentz factor is needed to

  15. Multi-wavelength studies of TeV γ-ray emitting BL Lac objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, Sarah Sabine

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of TeV γ-ray emission of BL Lac objects gave new insights in the particle acceleration and the emission processes of the highly relativistic jets. To shed light on the conditions in the high energetic jets of the TeV γ-ray emitting BL Lac objects, I have studied in great detail the spectral energy distribution (SED) of sources with different characteristics. BL Lac objects with exceptional very high energy spectra (soft and hard spectra) and with large differences in the emission peak frequencies, to cover the different classes of BL Lac objects, have been chosen. The basic aim of this thesis was, to study with new, simultaneous multi- avelength (MWL) observations, if the emission processes of these extreme cases of TeV BL Lac objects can be explained by the synchrotron Self-Compton (SSC) model which is well established for the class of BL Lac objects at lower energies. We proposed MWL observations in the optical, UV and X-ray regime, to be conducted simultaneous to very high energy observations with the H.E.S.S. experiment, to study the emission processes. Simultaneous observations are crucial, since BL Lac objects are variable at all wavebands. I have analysed the MWL observations and conducted detailed variability and spectral studies in each wavelength range. The different kind of absorption at each wavelength as well as the influence of the host galaxy of the AGN has been considered to obtain the intrinsic jet spectrum. I have then applied the commonly used theoretical jet model, the SSC model, to the SED. I conducted a MWL campaign on a BL Lac object with the softest TeV spectrum, PKS 2005-489, during which it was observed in a very bright X-ray state. The good spectral coverage of the emission peaks allowed a detailed study of the SSC model. The extreme BL Lac object 1ES 0229+200 exhibits a hard intrinsic TeV spectrum. With my MWL campaign I found a clear cut-off in the optical range and therefore a high minimum Lorentz factor is needed to

  16. The structural defects and UV-VIS spectral characterization of TiO2 particles doped in the lattice with Cr3+ cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.L.; Cui, Z.L.; Zhang, Z.K.

    2005-01-01

    Titania nanoparticles doped with Cr 3+ (2% relative to molar quantity of titania) were prepared and examined by EDS, HRTEM, XRD, and UV-VIS analysis. HRTEM images showed the detailed atomic arrays and vacancy defects of the doped Titania nanocrystals and revealed that the implanted Cr element existed in titania mainly as Cr 3+ ions which located at the lattice positions of Ti 4+ ions. Compared with pure titania, the UV-VIS spectra of the Cr 3+ doped titania show significantly increased absorbance in visible light region. This indicated that the presence of the Cr 3+ ions affected the lattice structure of titania nanocrystals and plays an reformative role in spectral feature of titania

  17. Characterization of weakly absorbing thin films by multiple linear regression analysis of absolute unwrapped phase in angle-resolved spectral reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jingtao; Lu, Rongsheng

    2018-04-30

    The simultaneous determination of t, n(λ), and κ(λ) of thin films can be a tough task for the high correlation of fit parameters. The strong assumptions about the type of dispersion relation are commonly used as a consequence to alleviate correlation concerns by reducing the free parameters before the nonlinear regression analysis. Here we present an angle-resolved spectral reflectometry for the simultaneous determination of weakly absorbing thin film parameters, where a reflectance interferogram is recorded in both angular and spectral domains in a single-shot measurement for the point of the sample being illuminated. The variations of the phase recovered from the interferogram as functions of t, n, and κ reveals that the unwrapped phase is monotonically related to t, n, and κ, thereby allowing the problem of correlation to be alleviated by multiple linear regression. After removing the 2π ambiguity of the unwrapped phase, the merit function based on the absolute unwrapped phase performs a 3D data cube with variables of t, n and κ at each wavelength. The unique solution of t, n, and κ can then be directly determined from the extremum of the 3D data cube at each wavelength with no need of dispersion relation. A sample of GaN thin film grown on a polished sapphire substrate is tested. The experimental data of t and [n(λ), κ(λ)] are confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy and the comparison with the results of other related works, respectively. The consistency of the results shows the proposed method provides a useful tool for the determination of the thickness and optical constants of weakly absorbing thin films.

  18. Growth, spectral and optical characterization of a novel nonlinear optical organic material: D-Alanine DL-Mandelic acid single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, P.; Mohamed, M. Peer; Caroline, M. Lydia

    2017-04-01

    An organic nonlinear optical single crystal, D-alanine DL-mandelic acid was synthesized and successfully grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at ambient temperature using solvent of aqueous solution. The unit cell parameters were assessed from single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The presence of diverse functional groups and vibrational modes were identified using Fourier Transform Infra Red and Fourier Transform Raman spectral analyses. The chemical structure of grown crystal has been identified by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopic study. Ultraviolet-visible spectral analysis reveal that the crystal has lower cut-off wavelength down to 259 nm, is a key factor to exhibit second harmonic generation signal. The electronic optical band gap and Urbach energy is calculated as 5.31 eV and 0.2425 eV respectively from the UV absorption profile. The diverse optical properties such as, extinction coefficient, reflectance, linear refractive index, optical conductivity was calculated using UV-visible data. The relative second harmonic efficiency of the compound is found to be 0.81 times greater than that of KH2PO4 (KDP). The thermal stability of the grown crystal was studied by thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis techniques. The luminescence spectrum exhibited two peaks (520 nm, 564 nm) due to the donation of protons from carboxylic acid to amino group. The Vickers microhardness test was carried out employing one of the as-grown hard crystal and there by hardness number (Hv), Meyer's index (n), yield strength (σy), elastic stiffness constant (C11) and Knoop hardness number (HK) were assessed. The dielectric behaviour of the as-grown crystal was analyzed for different temperatures (313 K, 333 K, 353 K, and 373 K) at different frequencies.

  19. TeV gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Wei

    2009-01-01

    The field of ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has enjoyed rapid growth in recent years. As an increasing number of sources are detected at TeV energies, the field has matured and become a viable branch of modern astronomy. Lying at the uppermost end of the electromagnetic rainbow, TeV photons are always preciously few in number but carry essential information about the particle acceleration and radiative processes involved in extreme astronomical settings. Together with observations at longer wavelengths, TeV gamma-ray observations have drastically improved our view of the universe. In this review, we briefly describe recent progress in the field. We will conclude by providing a personal perspective on the future of the field, in particular, on the significant roles that China could play in advancing this young but exciting field. (invited reviews)

  20. TeV. The dream energy scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2006-01-01

    In this talk, I'd like to explain why the TeV, 1,000,000,000,00 electron volt, is a particularly interesting energy scale in physics. I being recapitulating what particle physics is all about, citing two big questions: what the Universe is made of, and Einstein's dream of unification. TeV energy appears to be relevant to both questions, suggesting rich and complex physics at this energy. I outline how two facilities, LHC and ILC, will work together with reveal what is going on at this exciting energy scale. (author)

  1. Ruthenium(II) bipyridine complexes bearing quinoline-azoimine (NN'N″) tridentate ligands: synthesis, spectral characterization, electrochemical properties and single-crystal X-ray structure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Noaimi, Mousa; Abdel-Rahman, Obadah S; Fasfous, Ismail I; El-khateeb, Mohammad; Awwadi, Firas F; Warad, Ismail

    2014-05-05

    Four octahedral ruthenium(II) azoimine-quinoline complexes having the general molecular formula [Ru(II)(L-Y)(bpy)Cl](PF6) {L-Y=YC6H4N=NC(COCH3)=NC9H6N, Y=H (1), CH3 (2), Br (3), NO2 (4) and bpy=2,2'-bipyrdine} were synthesized. The azoimine-quinoline based ligands behave as NN'N″ tridentate donors and coordinated to ruthenium via azo-N', imine-N' and quinolone-N″ nitrogen atoms. The composition of the complexes has been established by elemental analysis, spectral methods (FT-IR, electronic, (1)H NMR, UV/Vis and electrochemical (cyclic voltammetry) techniques. The crystal structure of complex 1 is reported. The Ru(II) oxidation state is greatly stabilized by the novel tridentate ligands, showing Ru(III/II) couples ranging from 0.93-1.27 V vs. Cp2Fe/Cp2Fe(+). The absorption spectrum of 1 in dichloromethane was modeled by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Aerosol Characterization at PSA from Spectral and Broadband Measurements of Solar Radiation; Caracterizacion de los Aerosoles en la PSA a partir de Medidas Espectrales y de Banda Ancha de Radiacion Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, P.; Polo, J.; Campos, A.; Espinar, B.

    2006-07-01

    When passing through the atmosphere, the solar radiation suffers extinction processes with and intensity that depends on the atmosphere state. Some of the attenuation mechanisms, in particular those oflicht scattering, are spectrally selective, and thus, the solar spectrum at the earth's surface can change drastically from one place to another. This fact can be used on the determination of some of the Earth atmosphere components. The case of aerosol turbidity has a particular interest due to its high variability. In mis work different methodologies for aerosol characterization are presented, Aerosol optical depth, turbidity and Angstrom exponent are determined by them. Moreover, a comparison among the different methods is established and two heat haze events occurring during summer in PSA (Tabernas) are analyzed. (Author) 18 refs.

  3. Spectral characterization of crude oil using fluorescence (synchronous and time-resolved) and NIR (Near Infrared Spectroscopy); Caracterizacao espectral do petroleo utilizando fluorescencia (sincronizada e resolvida no tempo) e NIR (Near Infrared Spectroscopy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falla Sotelo, F.; Araujo Pantoja, P.; Lopez-Gejo, J.; Le Roux, G.A.C.; Nascimento, C.A.O. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Lab. de Simulacao e Controle de Processos; Quina, F.H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Centro de Capacitacao e Pesquisa em Meio Ambiente (CEPEMA)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of the present work is to evaluate the performance of two spectroscopic techniques employed in the crude oil characterization: NIR spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy (Synchronous fluorescence - SF and Time Resolved Fluorescence - TRF) for the development of correlation models between spectral profiles of crude oil samples and both physical properties (viscosity and API density) and physico-chemical properties (SARA analysis: Saturated, Aromatic, Resins and Asphaltenes). The better results for viscosity and density were obtained using NIR whose prediction capacity was good (1.5 cP and 0.5 deg API, respectively). For SARA analysis, fluorescence spectroscopy revealed its potential in the model calibration showing good results (R2 coefficients greater than 0.85). TRF spectroscopy had better performance than SF spectroscopy. (author)

  4. Spectral gamuts and spectral gamut mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Mitchell R.; Derhak, Maxim W.

    2006-01-01

    All imaging devices have two gamuts: the stimulus gamut and the response gamut. The response gamut of a print engine is typically described in CIE colorimetry units, a system derived to quantify human color response. More fundamental than colorimetric gamuts are spectral gamuts, based on radiance, reflectance or transmittance units. Spectral gamuts depend on the physics of light or on how materials interact with light and do not involve the human's photoreceptor integration or brain processing. Methods for visualizing a spectral gamut raise challenges as do considerations of how to utilize such a data-set for producing superior color reproductions. Recent work has described a transformation of spectra reduced to 6-dimensions called LabPQR. LabPQR was designed as a hybrid space with three explicit colorimetric axes and three additional spectral reconstruction axes. In this paper spectral gamuts are discussed making use of LabPQR. Also, spectral gamut mapping is considered in light of the colorimetric-spectral duality of the LabPQR space.

  5. Spectral time-domain induced polarization and magnetic surveying – an efficient tool for characterization of solid waste deposits in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wemegah, David Dotse; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben

    Time-domain induced polarization (IP) and magnetic data were acquired to map and characterize the decommissioned, un-engineered, municipal solid waste deposit site of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), located in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana. Thirteen induced...... polarization profiles 500-800 m long and twenty-six magnetic profiles 600-800 m long were acquired, and two drillings were carried out in order to help in the interpretation of the geophysical data. The study was carried out with the aim of determining the risk posed by the waste deposit to the quality...... for interpreting the polarization data. The chargeability, resistivity, and the normalized chargeability distributions, together with the magnetic results, aided in a full characterization of the site geology, the waste and the associated pollution plume. In particular, clear contrasts in resistivity...

  6. A cut-off in the TeV gamma-ray spectrum of the SNR Cassiopeia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Arcaro, C.; Babić, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Berti, A.; Bhattacharyya, W.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Carosi, R.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Colak, M.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Cumani, P.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Di Pierro, F.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Engelkemeier, M.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Godinović, N.; Gora, D.; Guberman, D.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, A.; Hassan, T.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Inada, T.; Ishio, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; Kuveždić, D.; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Maggio, C.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Minev, M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Moreno, V.; Moretti, E.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Ninci, D.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nogués, L.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Pedaletti, G.; Peresano, M.; Perri, L.; Persic, M.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Garcia, J. R.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Righi, C.; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Schroeder, S.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sitarek, J.; Šnidarić, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Strzys, M.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres-Albà, N.; Treves, A.; Vanzo, G.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J. E.; Will, M.; Zarić, D.

    2017-12-01

    It is widely believed that the bulk of the Galactic cosmic rays is accelerated in supernova remnants (SNRs). However, no observational evidence of the presence of particles of PeV energies in SNRs has yet been found. The young historical SNR Cassiopeia A (Cas A) appears as one of the best candidates to study acceleration processes. Between 2014 December and 2016 October, we observed Cas A with the MAGIC telescopes, accumulating 158 h of good quality data. We derived the spectrum of the source from 100 GeV to 10 TeV. We also analysed ∼8 yr of Fermi-LAT to obtain the spectral shape between 60 MeV and 500 GeV. The spectra measured by the LAT and MAGIC telescopes are compatible within the errors and show a clear turn-off (4.6σ) at the highest energies, which can be described with an exponential cut-off at E_c = 3.5(^{+1.6}_{-1.0})_{stat} (^{+0.8}_{-0.9})_{sys} TeV. The gamma-ray emission from 60 MeV to 10 TeV can be attributed to a population of high-energy protons with a spectral index of ∼2.2 and an energy cut-off at ∼10 TeV. This result indicates that Cas A is not contributing to the high energy (∼PeV) cosmic ray sea in a significant manner at the present moment. A one-zone leptonic model fails to reproduce by itself the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution. Besides, if a non-negligible fraction of the flux seen by MAGIC is produced by leptons, the radiation should be emitted in a region with a low magnetic field (B⪅180 μG) like in the reverse shock.

  7. Synthesis, spectral characterization and biological studies of some organotin(IV) complexes of L-proline, trans-hydroxy- L-proline and L-glutamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Mala; Jairath, Ruchi; Eng, George; Song, Xueqing; Kumar, Ashok

    2005-12-01

    New organotin(IV) complexes of the general formula R 3Sn(L) (where R = Me, n-Bu and HL = L-proline; R = Me, Ph and HL = trans-hydroxy- L-proline and L-glutamine) and R 2Sn(L) 2 (where R = n-Bu, Ph and HL = L-proline; R = Ph, HL = trans-hydroxy- L-proline) have been synthesized by the reaction of R nSnCl 4- n (where n = 2 or 3) with sodium salt of the amino acid (HL). n-Bu 2Sn(Pro) 2 was synthesized by the reaction of n-Bu 2SnO with L-proline under azeotropic removal of water. The bonding and coordination behavior in these complexes have been discussed on the basis of IR and 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopic studies in the solid-state. Their coordination behavior in solution has been discussed with the help of multinuclear ( 1H, 13C and 119Sn) NMR spectral studies. The 119Sn Mössbauer and IR studies indicate that L-proline and trans-hydroxy- L-proline show similar coordination behavior towards organotin(IV) compounds. Pentacoordinate trigonal-bipyramidal and hexacoordinate octahedral structures, respectively, have been proposed for the tri- and diorganotin(IV) complexes of L-proline and trans-hydroxy- L-proline, in which the carboxylate group acts as bidentate group. L-Glutamine shows different coordination behavior towards organotin(IV) compounds, it acts as monoanionic bidentate ligand coordinating through carboxylate and amino group. The triorganotin(IV) complexes of L-glutamine have been proposed to have trigonal-bipyramidal environment around tin. The newly synthesized complexes have been tested for their antiinflammatory and cardiovascular activities. Their LD 50 values are >1000 mg kg -1.

  8. Spectral photoluminescence for the characterization of excitation states in semiconductors and fluorescence solar collectors with manipulation of the in and out coupling of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knabe, Sebastian

    2011-05-20

    In this thesis results of different experiments are presented (e.g. angular dependent photoluminescence) to characterize the propagation of electro-magnetic radiation inside and out of absorbers using the examples of crystalline silicon and fluorescence collectors with and without manipulation of the in- and out-coupling of the radiation by photonic structures (opal and edge filters). Experimental results were compared with results from simulations of the propagation of radiation, which are based on the fundamental equations for the properties of electro-magnetic radiation like reflection, transmission, absorption or phase accumulation.

  9. Novel mixed ligand complexes of bioactive Schiff base (E)-4-(phenyl (phenylimino) methyl) benzene-1,3-diol and 2-aminophenol/2-aminobenzoic acid: Synthesis, spectral characterization, antimicrobial and nuclease studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraj, P.; Ramu, A.; Raman, N.; Dharmaraja, J.

    2014-01-01

    A novel bidentate Schiff base ligand has been synthesized using 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone and aniline. Its mixed ligand complexes of MAB type [M = Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II); HA = Schiff base and B = 2-aminophenol/2-aminobenzoic acid] have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of spectral data UV-Vis, IR, 1H NMR, FAB-Mass, EPR, SEM and magnetic studies. All the complexes were soluble in DMF and DMSO. Elemental analysis and molar conductance values indicate that the complexes are non-electrolytes. HA binds with M(II) ions through azomethine and deprotonated phenolic group and B binds through the primary amine group and deprotonated phenolic/carboxylic groups. Using FAB-Mass the cleavage pattern of the ligand (HA) has been established. All the complexes adopt octahedral geometry around the metal ions. It has been confirmed with the help of UV-Vis, IR, 1H NMR and FAB-Mass spectral data. DNA binding activities of the complexes 1d and 2d are studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy and cleavage studies of Schiff base ligand and its complexes 1d and 2d have been by agarose gel electrophoresis method. In vitro biological activities of the free ligand (HA) and their metal complexes (1a-1e and 2a-2e) were screened against few bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus saphyphiticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungi Aspergillus niger, Enterobacter species, Candida albicans by well diffusion technique.

  10. DNA-binding, catalytic oxidation, C—C coupling reactions and antibacterial activities of binuclear Ru(II thiosemicarbazone complexes: Synthesis and spectral characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Manimaran

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available New hexa-coordinated binuclear Ru(II thiosemicarbazone complexes of the type {[(B(EPh3(COClRu]2L} (where, E = P or As; B = PPh3 or AsPh3 or pyridine; L = mononucleating NS donor of N-substituted thiosemicarbazones have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV–vis and 31P{1H} NMR cyclic voltammetric studies. The DNA-binding studies of Ru(II complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA were investigated by UV–vis, viscosity measurements, gel-electrophoresis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The new complexes have been used as catalysts in C—C coupling reaction and in the oxidation of alcohols to their corresponding carbonyl compounds by using NMO as co-oxidant and molecular oxygen (O2 atmosphere at ambient temperature. Further, the new binucleating thiosemicarbazone ligands and their Ru(II complexes were also screened for their antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella sp., Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. From this study, it was found out that the activity of the complexes almost reaches the effectiveness of the conventional bacteriocide.

  11. Synthesis, structure, spectral characterization and thermal analysis of the tetraaquabis (isothiocyanato-κN) cobalt (II)-bis(caffeine)-tetrahydrate complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    EL Hamdani, H.; EL Amane, M.; Duhayon, C.

    2018-04-01

    The complex 2(C8H10N4O2).[Co(H2O)4(NCS)2].4H2O was prepared in the water-ethanol solution at room temperature and characterized by the single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, 1H, 13C NMR, TGA/DTA and IR spectroscopy. This complex was crystallized in the monoclinic system (P 21/c). The unit cell parameters are a = 10.65854 (19) A°, b = 8.16642 (14) A°, c = 18.0595 (3) A° with β = 96.4701° (15). The cobalt (II) cation is coordinated by four oxygen atoms of the water molecules and two nitrogen in isothiocyanato a trans octahedral geometry, stabilized by hydrogen bonds with caffeine molecule and free water molecule, The intermolecular hydrogen bonds: Osbnd H⋯N, Osbnd H⋯O, Csbnd H⋯S, π···π interactions are together playing a vital role in the stabilization of the crystal packing.

  12. Models of Emission-Line Profiles and Spectral Energy Distributions to Characterize the Multi-Frequency Properties of Active Galactic Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni La Mura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs are often characterized by a wealth of emission lines with different profiles and intensity ratios that lead to a complicated classification. Their electromagnetic radiation spans more than 10 orders of magnitude in frequency. In spite of the differences between various classes, the origin of their activity is attributed to a combination of emitting components, surrounding an accreting supermassive black hole (SMBH, in the unified model. Currently, the execution of sky surveys, with instruments operating at various frequencies, provides the possibility to detect and to investigate the properties of AGNs on very large statistical samples. As a result of the spectroscopic surveys that allow the investigation of many objects, we have the opportunity to place new constraints on the nature and evolution of AGNs. In this contribution, we present the results obtained by working on multi-frequency data, and we discuss their relations with the available optical spectra. We compare our findings with the AGN unified model predictions, and we present a revised technique to select AGNs of different types from other line-emitting objects. We discuss the multi-frequency properties in terms of the innermost structures of the sources.

  13. Characterization and control of the electro-optic phase dispersion in lithium niobate modulators for wide spectral band interferometry applications in the mid-infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidmann, S; Ulliac, G; Courjal, N; Martin, G

    2017-05-10

    Mid-infrared wideband modulation (3.2-3.7 μm) is achieved in an electro-optic Y-junction using lithium niobate waveguides in TE polarized light. Comparison between external (scanning mirror) and internal (electro-optical) modulation allows studying the chromatic polynomial dependence of the relative phase. Internal modulation consists on a V AC ramp up to 370 V at 0.25 Hz, applied over 14 mm long electrodes with 14 μm separation. The overall V π L π obtained is 17.5 V·cm, meaning that using a 300 V generator we can actively scan and track the whole L-band (3.4-4.1 μm) wideband fringes. We observe a dramatic reduction of the coherence length under electro-optic modulation, which is attributed to a strong nonlinear dependence of the electro-optic effect on the wavelength upon application of such high voltages. We study the effect of applying a V DC offset, from -50  V to 200 V (50 V step). We characterize this dispersion and propose an improved dispersion model that is used to show active dispersion compensation in wideband fringe modulation in the mid-infrared. This can be useful for long baseline interferometry or pulse compression applications when light propagates along fibers, in order to compensate for chromatic effects that induce differential dispersion or pulse spreading, respectively.

  14. Adaptive Spectral Doppler Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-01-01

    . The methods can also provide better quality of the estimated power spectral density (PSD) of the blood signal. Adaptive spectral estimation techniques are known to pro- vide good spectral resolution and contrast even when the ob- servation window is very short. The 2 adaptive techniques are tested......In this paper, 2 adaptive spectral estimation techniques are analyzed for spectral Doppler ultrasound. The purpose is to minimize the observation window needed to estimate the spectrogram to provide a better temporal resolution and gain more flexibility when designing the data acquisition sequence...... and compared with the averaged periodogram (Welch’s method). The blood power spectral capon (BPC) method is based on a standard minimum variance technique adapted to account for both averaging over slow-time and depth. The blood amplitude and phase estimation technique (BAPES) is based on finding a set...

  15. TeV gravity in four dimensions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, Xavier; Hsu, Stephen D.H.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a model in which the fundamental scale M * of the theory which unifies gravity and quantum mechanics is in the TeV range, but without requiring additional spacetime dimensions. The weakness of gravity at low energies is due to a large vacuum expectation of a dilaton like field. The model requires a small dimensionless parameter (the self-coupling of the dilaton) but no fine-tuning. We discuss in detail the dynamical assumptions about non-perturbative quantum gravity required within the model. We observe that M * could be quite small, less than a TeV, and that the model could lead to copious strong coupling effects at the LHC. However, semiclassical black holes will not be produced

  16. TeV gamma rays from 3C 279 - A possible probe of origin and intergalactic infrared radiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.; De Jager, O. C.; Salamon, M. H.

    1992-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectrum of 3C 279 during 1991 June exhibited a near-perfect power law between 50 MeV and over 5 GeV with a differential spectral index of -(2.02 +/- 0.07). If extrapolated, the gamma-ray spectrum of 3C 279 should be easily detectable with first-generation air Cerenkov detectors operating above about 0.3 TeV provided there is no intergalactic absorption. However, by using model-dependent lower and upper limits for the extragalactic infrared background radiation field, a sharp cutoff of the 3C 279 spectrum is predicted at between about 0.1 and about 1 TeV. The sensitivity of present air Cerenkov detectors is good enough to measure such a cutoff, which would provide the first opportunity to obtain a measurement of the extragalactic background infrared radiation field.

  17. Introduction to spectral theory

    CERN Document Server

    Levitan, B M

    1975-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the spectral theory of the Sturm- Liouville operator and to the spectral theory of the Dirac system. In addition, some results are given for nth order ordinary differential operators. Those parts of this book which concern nth order operators can serve as simply an introduction to this domain, which at the present time has already had time to become very broad. For the convenience of the reader who is not familar with abstract spectral theory, the authors have inserted a chapter (Chapter 13) in which they discuss this theory, concisely and in the main without proofs, and indicate various connections with the spectral theory of differential operators.

  18. Precision muon detectors in the Tev region

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, U; Fukushima, M; Rykaczewski, H; Ting, Samuel C C; Harris, M; Wittgenstein, F; Hofer, H; Lecomte, P

    1986-01-01

    We present a design study, based on our experience in the construction of the L3 detector at LEP, of a large solid angle muon detector for a high luminosity (> 1033 cm−2/sec) pp collider. It is shown that a resolution of ΔM/M ∼ 1% can be reached for a one TeV particle T→μ+μ−. Hadron jets can also be measured.

  19. Final Technical Report for Interagency Agreement No. DE-SC0005453 “Characterizing Aerosol Distributions, Types, and Optical and Microphysical Properties using the NASA Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP)”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostetler, Chris [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Ferrare, Richard [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)

    2015-01-13

    Measurements of the vertical profile of atmospheric aerosols and aerosol optical and microphysical characteristics are required to: 1) determine aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcing, 2) compute radiative flux and heating rate profiles, 3) assess model simulations of aerosol distributions and types, and 4) establish the ability of surface and space-based remote sensors to measure the indirect effect. Consequently the ASR program calls for a combination of remote sensing and in situ measurements to determine aerosol properties and aerosol influences on clouds and radiation. As part of our previous DOE ASP project, we deployed the NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) on the NASA B200 King Air aircraft during major field experiments in 2006 (MILAGRO and MaxTEX), 2007 (CHAPS), 2009 (RACORO), and 2010 (CalNex and CARES). The HSRL provided measurements of aerosol extinction (532 nm), backscatter (532 and 1064 nm), and depolarization (532 and 1064 nm). These measurements were typically made in close temporal and spatial coincidence with measurements made from DOE-funded and other participating aircraft and ground sites. On the RACORO, CARES, and CalNEX missions, we also deployed the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). RSP provided intensity and degree of linear polarization over a broad spectral and angular range enabling column-average retrievals of aerosol optical and microphysical properties. Under this project, we analyzed observations and model results from RACORO, CARES, and CalNex and accomplished the following objectives. 1. Identified aerosol types, characterize the vertical distribution of the aerosol types, and partition aerosol optical depth by type, for CARES and CalNex using HSRL data as we have done for previous missions. 2. Investigated aerosol microphysical and macrophysical properties using the RSP. 3. Used the aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles measured by the HSRL

  20. Temporal-Spectral Characterization and Classification of Marine Mammal Vocalizations and Diesel-Electric Ships Radiated Sound over Continental Shelf Scale Regions with Coherent Hydrophone Array Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei

    The passive ocean acoustic waveguide remote sensing (POAWRS) technology is capable of monitoring a large variety of underwater sound sources over instantaneous wide areas spanning continental-shelf scale regions. POAWRS uses a large-aperture densely-sampled coherent hydrophone array to significantly enhance the signal-to-noise ratio via beamforming, enabling detection of sound sources roughly two-orders of magnitude more distant in range than that possible with a single hydrophone. The sound sources detected by POAWRS include ocean biology, geophysical processes, and man-made activities. POAWRS provides detection, bearing-time estimation, localization, and classification of underwater sound sources. The volume of underwater sounds detected by POAWRS is immense, typically exceeding a million unique signal detections per day, in the 10-4000 Hz frequency range, making it a tremendously challenging task to distinguish and categorize the various sound sources present in a given region. Here we develop various approaches for characterizing and clustering the signal detections for various subsets of data acquired using the POAWRS technology. The approaches include pitch tracking of the dominant signal detections, time-frequency feature extraction, clustering and categorization methods. These approaches are essential for automatic processing and enhancing the efficiency and accuracy of POAWRS data analysis. The results of the signal detection, clustering and classification analysis are required for further POAWRS processing, including localization and tracking of a large number of oceanic sound sources. Here the POAWRS detection, localization and clustering approaches are applied to analyze and elucidate the vocalization behavior of humpback, sperm and fin whales in the New England continental shelf and slope, including the Gulf of Maine from data acquired using coherent hydrophone arrays. The POAWRS technology can also be applied for monitoring ocean vehicles. Here the

  1. Caracterização espectral de Paspalum notatum em diferentes níveis de adubação nitrogenada Spectral characterization of Paspalum notatum under different nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Lima da Fonseca

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available As propriedades espectrais da vegetação podem ser utilizadas para o monitoramento das condições de crescimento da vegetação ao longo do ano, assim como a estimativa da produtividade das espécies, por meio de técnicas de sensoriamento remoto. Para tanto, é necessário, primeiramente, caracterizar espectralmente as espécies que compõem a vegetação de um ecossistema. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a reflectância do Paspalum notatum Flügge var. notatum crescendo em diferentes níveis de adubação nitrogenada. Foi realizado um experimento de campo na Estação Experimental Agronômica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (30º5'22'' S e 51º39'8'' W, utilizando-se um espectrorradiômetro portátil, em parcelas de P. notatum adubadas com 0, 200 e 400 kg ha-1 de N. A resposta espectral do P. notatum foi alterada pelas variações na quantidade de biomassa do dossel, provocadas por diferenças nos níveis de adubação nitrogenada. Os aumentos na quantidade de biomassa provocaram diminuição da reflectância na porção visível do espectro e aumento na porção infravermelho, o que mostra que a análise da reflectância é um bom indicador das mudanças que ocorrem em um dossel.Remote sensing techniques using spectral properties of canopies may be used to monitor vegetation growth conditions throughout the year, as well as to estimate the yield of different species. However, before these techniques can be used, it is necessary to establish the spectral properties of each of the different species which make up the landscape. The objective of this study was to characterize the spectral reflectance of Paspalum notatum Flügge var. notatum, growing on different levels of nitrogen fertilization. A field experiment was carried out at the Agronomic Experimental Station of Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (30º5'22'' S, 51º39''8'' W, using a portable spectroradiometer, on plots with P. notatum fertilized

  2. On Longitudinal Spectral Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Leif

    1979-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the longitudinal spectral coherence differs significantly from the transversal spectral coherence in its dependence on displacement and frequency. An expression for the longitudinal coherence is derived and it is shown how the scale of turbulence, the displacement between ...... observation sites and the turbulence intensity influence the results. The limitations of the theory are discussed....

  3. Synthesis and spectral characterization of mono- and binuclear copper(II) complexes derived from 2-benzoylpyridine-N4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone: Crystal structure of a novel sulfur bridged copper(II) box-dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, K.; Sithambaresan, M.; Aiswarya, N.; Kurup, M. R. Prathapachandra

    2015-03-01

    Mononuclear and binuclear copper(II) complexes of 2-benzoylpyridine-N4-methyl thiosemicarbazone (HL) were prepared and characterized by a variety of spectroscopic techniques. Structural evidence for the novel sulfur bridged copper(II) iodo binuclear complex is obtained by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The complex [Cu2L2I2], a non-centrosymmetric box dimer, crystallizes in monoclinic C2/c space group and it was found to have distorted square pyramidal geometry (Addison parameter, τ = 0.238) with the square basal plane occupied by the thiosemicarbazone moiety and iodine atom whereas the sulfur atom from the other coordinated thiosemicarbazone moiety occupies the apical position. This is the first crystallographically studied system having non-centrosymmetrical entities bridged via thiolate S atoms with Cu(II)sbnd I bond. The tridentate thiosemicarbazone coordinates in mono deprotonated thionic tautomeric form in all complexes except in sulfato complex, [Cu(HL)(SO4)]·H2O (1) where it binds to the metal centre in neutral form. The magnetic moment values and the EPR spectral studies reflect the binuclearity of some of the complexes. The spin Hamiltonian and bonding parameters are calculated based on EPR studies. In all the complexes g|| > g⊥ > 2.0023 and the g values in frozen DMF are consistent with the dx2-y2 ground state. The thermal stabilities of some of the complexes were also determined.

  4. Synthesis and spectral characterization of mono- and binuclear copper(II) complexes derived from 2-benzoylpyridine-N⁴-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone: crystal structure of a novel sulfur bridged copper(II) box-dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, K; Sithambaresan, M; Aiswarya, N; Kurup, M R Prathapachandra

    2015-03-15

    Mononuclear and binuclear copper(II) complexes of 2-benzoylpyridine-N(4)-methyl thiosemicarbazone (HL) were prepared and characterized by a variety of spectroscopic techniques. Structural evidence for the novel sulfur bridged copper(II) iodo binuclear complex is obtained by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The complex [Cu2L2I2], a non-centrosymmetric box dimer, crystallizes in monoclinic C2/c space group and it was found to have distorted square pyramidal geometry (Addison parameter, τ=0.238) with the square basal plane occupied by the thiosemicarbazone moiety and iodine atom whereas the sulfur atom from the other coordinated thiosemicarbazone moiety occupies the apical position. This is the first crystallographically studied system having non-centrosymmetrical entities bridged via thiolate S atoms with Cu(II)I bond. The tridentate thiosemicarbazone coordinates in mono deprotonated thionic tautomeric form in all complexes except in sulfato complex, [Cu(HL)(SO4)]·H2O (1) where it binds to the metal centre in neutral form. The magnetic moment values and the EPR spectral studies reflect the binuclearity of some of the complexes. The spin Hamiltonian and bonding parameters are calculated based on EPR studies. In all the complexes g||>g⊥>2.0023 and the g values in frozen DMF are consistent with the d(x2-y2) ground state. The thermal stabilities of some of the complexes were also determined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis, spectral characterization, thermal and photoluminescence properties of Zn(II) and Cd(II)-azido/thiocyanato complexes with thiazolylazo dye and 1,2-bis(diphenylphoshino)ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamgar, B A; Sawant, V A; Bharate, B G; Chavan, S S

    2011-01-01

    A series of complexes of the type [M(L)(dppe)X2]; where M=Zn(II) or Cd(II); L=4-(2'-thiazolylazo)chlorobenzene (L1), 4-(2'-thiazolylazo)bromobenzene (L2) and 4-(2'-thiazolylazo) iodobenzene (L3); dppe=1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane; X=N3- or NCS- have been prepared and characterized on the basis of their microanalysis, molar conductance, thermal, IR, UV-vis and 1H NMR spectral studies. IR spectra show that the ligand L is coordinated to the metal atom in bidentate manner via azo nitrogen and thiazole nitrogen. An octahedral structure is proposed for all the complexes. The thermal behavior of the complexes revealed that the thiocyanato complexes are thermally more stable than the azido complexes. All the complexes exhibit blue-green emission with high quantum yield as the result of the fluorescence from the intraligand emission excited state. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimation of spectral kurtosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutawanir

    2017-03-01

    Rolling bearings are the most important elements in rotating machinery. Bearing frequently fall out of service for various reasons: heavy loads, unsuitable lubrications, ineffective sealing. Bearing faults may cause a decrease in performance. Analysis of bearing vibration signals has attracted attention in the field of monitoring and fault diagnosis. Bearing vibration signals give rich information for early detection of bearing failures. Spectral kurtosis, SK, is a parameter in frequency domain indicating how the impulsiveness of a signal varies with frequency. Faults in rolling bearings give rise to a series of short impulse responses as the rolling elements strike faults, SK potentially useful for determining frequency bands dominated by bearing fault signals. SK can provide a measure of the distance of the analyzed bearings from a healthy one. SK provides additional information given by the power spectral density (psd). This paper aims to explore the estimation of spectral kurtosis using short time Fourier transform known as spectrogram. The estimation of SK is similar to the estimation of psd. The estimation falls in model-free estimation and plug-in estimator. Some numerical studies using simulations are discussed to support the methodology. Spectral kurtosis of some stationary signals are analytically obtained and used in simulation study. Kurtosis of time domain has been a popular tool for detecting non-normality. Spectral kurtosis is an extension of kurtosis in frequency domain. The relationship between time domain and frequency domain analysis is establish through power spectrum-autocovariance Fourier transform. Fourier transform is the main tool for estimation in frequency domain. The power spectral density is estimated through periodogram. In this paper, the short time Fourier transform of the spectral kurtosis is reviewed, a bearing fault (inner ring and outer ring) is simulated. The bearing response, power spectrum, and spectral kurtosis are plotted to

  7. Spectrally accurate contour dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buskirk, R.D.; Marcus, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    We present an exponentially accurate boundary integral method for calculation the equilibria and dynamics of piece-wise constant distributions of potential vorticity. The method represents contours of potential vorticity as a spectral sum and solves the Biot-Savart equation for the velocity by spectrally evaluating a desingularized contour integral. We use the technique in both an initial-value code and a newton continuation method. Our methods are tested by comparing the numerical solutions with known analytic results, and it is shown that for the same amount of computational work our spectral methods are more accurate than other contour dynamics methods currently in use

  8. Spectral radius of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Stevanovic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Spectral Radius of Graphs provides a thorough overview of important results on the spectral radius of adjacency matrix of graphs that have appeared in the literature in the preceding ten years, most of them with proofs, and including some previously unpublished results of the author. The primer begins with a brief classical review, in order to provide the reader with a foundation for the subsequent chapters. Topics covered include spectral decomposition, the Perron-Frobenius theorem, the Rayleigh quotient, the Weyl inequalities, and the Interlacing theorem. From this introduction, the

  9. Synthesis, spectral characterization, antimicrobial, DNA interactions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KUNCHE SUDEEPA

    2018-05-04

    May 4, 2018 ... structural aspects of FMBC and its Cu(II), Ni(II) and. Zn(II) complexes ... of DNA was down- loaded from protein data bank24 (www.rcsb.org) pdb id: ... the reaction mixture was refluxed on water bath for 4–8 h maintaining the ...

  10. Synthesis, spectral characterization and in vitro antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shafqat Nadeem

    2015-12-17

    Dec 17, 2015 ... slightly toxic and present a potential for antibacterial activity. Moreover, they ... interaction, in this paper, we describe the coordination of Pal- ladium(II) iodide with .... between steric/electrostatic property and biological activity. Table. 1 ..... properties, affinity to proteins, reactivity, toxicity, metabolic stability and ...

  11. Spectral unmixing: estimating partial abundances

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available techniques is complicated when considering very similar spectral signatures. Iron-bearing oxide/hydroxide/sulfate minerals have similar spectral signatures. The study focuses on how could estimates of abundances of spectrally similar iron-bearing oxide...

  12. TeV gravity at neutrino telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Illana, J I; Meloni, D

    2005-01-01

    Cosmogenic neutrinos reach the Earth with energies around 10^9 GeV, and their interactions with matter will be measured in upcoming experiments (Auger, IceCube). Models with extra dimensions and the fundamental scale at the TeV could imply signals in these experiments. In particular, the production of microscopic black holes by cosmogenic neutrinos has been extensively studied in the literature. Here we make a complete analysis of gravity-mediated interactions at larger distances, where they can be calculated in the eikonal approximation. In these processes a neutrino of energy E_\

  13. Standard model beyond the TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurenche, P.

    1987-01-01

    The phenomenology of the standard model in the hadronic reactions in the 10 TeV range is described. The predictions of the model concerning the hadronic cross sections being based on the parton model, we first discuss the behaviour of the structure functions at the low values of X (x > 10 -4 ) which are attained at these energies and we show that the development of the leading logarithms equations allow us to calculate them. The production of W, Z, and gauge bosons and gauge boson pairs are reviewed. The Higgs boson production is discussed in detail according to his mass value [fr

  14. Rectangular spectral collocation

    KAUST Repository

    Driscoll, Tobin A.; Hale, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Boundary conditions in spectral collocation methods are typically imposed by removing some rows of the discretized differential operator and replacing them with others that enforce the required conditions at the boundary. A new approach based upon

  15. Spectrally selective glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

  16. Treatment of landfill leachate biochemical effluent using the nano-Fe3O4/Na2S2O8 system: Oxidation performance, wastewater spectral analysis, and activator characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanmeng; Li, Xian; Rao, Zhiwei; Hu, Fengping

    2018-02-15

    Nano-Fe 3 O 4 was used as heterogeneous catalyst to activate Na 2 S 2 O 8 for the generation of the sulfate radicals (SO 4 - ) to oxidize the residual pollutants in landfill leachate biochemical effluent. The oxidation performance, wastewater spectral analysis and activator characterization were discussed. Oxidation experimental result shows that nano-Fe 3 O 4 has obvious catalytic effect on Na 2 S 2 O 8 and can significantly enhance the oxidation efficiencies of Na 2 S 2 O 8 on landfill leachate biochemical effluent, with COD and color removals above 63% and 95%, respectively. Based on the analyses of three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectrum (3DEEM), ultraviolet-visible spectra (UV-vis), and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of wastewater samples before and after treatment, it can be concluded that the pollution level of dissolved organic matter (DOM) declined and that the humic acid (HA) fractions were efficiently degraded into small molecules of fulvic acid (FA) fractions with less weight and stable structure. Compared to the raw wastewater sample, the aromaticity and substituent groups of the DOM were lessened in the treated wastewater sample. Moreover, the main structure of the organics and functional groups were changed by the Fe 3 O 4 /Na 2 S 2 O 8 system, with substantial decrease of conjugated double bonds. The micro morphology of nano-Fe 3 O 4 was characterized before and after reaction by the methods of scanning electron microscope spectra (SEM), X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XRD pattern analysis showed that nano-Fe 3 O 4 was oxidized into r-Fe 2 O 3 and that the particle size of it also became smaller after reaction. XPS was employed to analyze the content and iron valence on the nano-Fe 3 O 4 surface, and it can be found that the ratio of Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ decreased from 1.8 before reaction to 0.8 after reaction. From the SEM analysis after the treatment, it was

  17. TeV gravity at neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illana, J.I.; Masip, M.; Meloni, D.

    2005-01-01

    Cosmogenic neutrinos reach the Earth with energies around 10 9 GeV, and their interactions with matter will be measured in upcoming experiments (Auger, IceCube). Models with extra dimensions and the fundamental scale at the TeV could imply signals in these experiments. In particular, the production of microscopic black holes by cosmogenic neutrinos has been extensively studied in the literature. Here we make a complete analysis of gravity-mediated interactions at larger distances, where they can be calculated in the eikonal approximation. In these processes a neutrino of energy E ν interacts elastically with a parton inside a nucleon, loses a small fraction y of its energy, and starts a hadronic shower of energy yE ν ν . We analyze the ultraviolet dependence and the relevance of graviton emission in these processes, and show that they are negligible. We also study the energy distribution of cosmogenic events in AMANDA and IceCube and the possibility of multiple-bang events. For any neutrino flux, the observation of an enhanced rate of neutral current events above 100 TeV in neutrino telescopes could be explained by TeV-gravity interactions. The values of the fundamental scale of gravity that IceCube could reach are comparable to those to be explored at the LHC

  18. Probing the TeV energy scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Despite its spectacular success, the Standard Model (SM) is widely believed to be incomplete. In fact there are good reasons to expect that new degrees of freedom, not present within the SM framework, will show up in particle collisions at TeV energies. Novel phenomena are, therefore, anticipated when this energy regime is explored at proton supercolliders such as the SSC or the LHC, and at the next generation of linear electron-positron colliders. Almost two hundred physicists, with roughly equal representation from North America, Europe and Asia, got together to discuss the physics possibilities of such colliders at the Second International Workshop on Physics and Experiments at Linear Electron-Positron Colliders, held during the last week of April in Waikoloa on the Big Island of Hawaii. It was the second in a series of international workshops which began in Saariselkä, Lapland, Finland in September 1991. The main theme of the workshop was the physics reach of, and the feasibility of experiments at, linear electron-positron colliders in the 300 GeV - 2 TeV collision energy region. Also discussed were the prospects for physics at electron-photon, photon-photon and electron-electron colliders

  19. TeV scale singlet dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponton, Eduardo; Randall, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that stable weak scale particles are viable dark matter candidates since the annihilation cross section is naturally about the right magnitude to leave the correct thermal residual abundance. Many dark matter searches have focused on relatively light dark matter consistent with weak couplings to the Standard Model. However, in a strongly coupled theory, or even if the coupling is just a few times bigger than the Standard Model couplings, dark matter can have TeV-scale mass with the correct thermal relic abundance. Here we consider neutral TeV-mass scalar dark matter, its necessary interactions, and potential signals. We consider signals both with and without higher-dimension operators generated by strong coupling at the TeV scale, as might happen for example in an RS scenario. We find some potential for detection in high energy photons that depends on the dark matter distribution. Detection in positrons at lower energies, such as those PAMELA probes, would be difficult though a higher energy positron signal could in principle be detectable over background. However, a light dark matter particle with higher-dimensional interactions consistent with a TeV cutoff can in principle match PAMELA data.

  20. SOCl 2 catalyzed cyclization of chalcones: Synthesis and spectral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some aryl-aryl 1H pyrazoles have been synthesised by cyclization of aryl chalcones and hydrazine hydrate in the presence of SOCl2. The yields of the pyrazoles are more than 85%. These pyrazoles are characterized by their physical constants and spectral data. The infrared, NMR spectral group frequencies of these ...

  1. TeV Diffuse Emission From the Inner Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amid Nayerhoda

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The TeV diffuse emission from the Galactic plane is produced by multi TeV electrons and nuclei interacting with radiation fields and ambient gas, respectively. Measurements of the TeV diffuse emission help constrain CR origin and transport properties. We present a preliminary analysis of HAWC diffuse emission data from the inner Galaxy. The HAWC measurements will be used to constrain particle transport properties close to the Galaxy center correlating the HAWC maps with predictions of the DRAGON code.

  2. On the IceCube spectral anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palladino, Andrea; Vissani, Francesco [Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Spurio, Maurizio, E-mail: andrea.palladino@gssi.infn.it, E-mail: maurizio.spurio@bo.infn.it, E-mail: francesco.vissani@lngs.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Università di Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2016-12-01

    Recently it was noted that different IceCube datasets are not consistent with the same power law spectrum of the cosmic neutrinos: this is the IceCube spectral anomaly , that suggests that they observe a multicomponent spectrum. In this work, the main possibilities to enhance the description in terms of a single extragalactic neutrino component are examined. The hypothesis of a sizable contribution of Galactic high-energy neutrino events distributed as E {sup −2.7} [ Astrophys. J. 826 (2016) 185] is critically analyzed and its natural generalization is considered. The stability of the expectations is studied by introducing free parameters, motivated by theoretical considerations and observational facts. The upgraded model here examined has 1) a Galactic component with different normalization and shape E {sup −2.4}; 2) an extragalactic neutrino spectrum based on new data; 3) a non-zero prompt component of atmospheric neutrinos. The two key predictions of the model concern the 'high-energy starting events' collected from the Southern sky. The Galactic component produces a softer spectrum and a testable angular anisotropy. A second, radically different class of models, where the second component is instead isotropic, plausibly extragalactic and with a relatively soft spectrum, is disfavored instead by existing observations of muon neutrinos from the Northern sky and below few 100 TeV.

  3. CRISS power spectral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeth, W.

    1979-04-01

    The correlation of signal components at different frequencies like higher harmonics cannot be detected by a normal power spectral density measurement, since this technique correlates only components at the same frequency. This paper describes a special method for measuring the correlation of two signal components at different frequencies: the CRISS power spectral density. From this new function in frequency analysis, the correlation of two components can be determined quantitatively either they stem from one signal or from two diverse signals. The principle of the method, suitable for the higher harmonics of a signal as well as for any other frequency combinations is shown for the digital frequency analysis technique. Two examples of CRISS power spectral densities demonstrates the operation of the new method. (orig.) [de

  4. Two-particle Bose--Einstein correlations in $pp$ collisions at $\\mathbf {\\sqrt{s} =}$ 0.9 and 7 TeV measured with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Dobos, Daniel; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Dwuznik, Michal; Dyndal, Mateusz; Ebke, Johannes; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Tadashi; Maeno Kataoka, Mayuko; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R~Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents studies of Bose--Einstein Correlations (BEC) for pairs of like-sign charged particles measured in the kinematic range $p_{\\rm T} >$ 100 MeV and $|\\eta|<$ 2.5 in proton--proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 0.9 and 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The integrated luminosities are approximately 7 $\\mu$b$^{-1}$, 190 $\\mu$b$^{-1}$ and 12.4 nb$^{-1}$ for 0.9 TeV, 7 TeV minimum-bias and 7 TeV high-multiplicity data samples, respectively. The multiplicity dependence of the BEC parameters characterizing the correlation strength and the correlation source size are investigated for charged-particle multiplicities of up to 240. A saturation effect in the multiplicity dependence of the correlation source size is observed using the high-multiplicity 7 TeV data sample. The dependence of the BEC parameters on the average transverse momentum of the particle pair is also investigated.

  5. Interpretation of astrophysical neutrinos observed by IceCube experiment by setting Galactic and extra-Galactic spectral components

    CERN Document Server

    Marinelli, Antonio; Grasso, Dario; Urbano, Alfredo; Valli, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The last IceCube catalog of High Energy Starting Events (HESE) obtained with a livetime of 1347 days comprises 54 neutrino events equally-distributed between the three families with energies between 25 TeV and few PeVs. Considering the homogeneous flavors distribution (1:1:1) and the spectral features of these neutrinos the IceCube collaboration claims the astrophysical origin of these events with more than $5\\sigma$. The spatial distribution of cited events does not show a clear correlation with known astrophysical accelerators leaving opened both the Galactic and the extra-Galactic origin interpretations. Here, we compute the neutrino diffuse emission of our Galaxy on the basis of a recently proposed phenomenological model characterized by radially-dependent cosmic-ray (CR) transport properties. We show that the astrophysical spectrum measured by IceCube experiment can be well explained adding to the diffuse Galactic neutrino flux (obtained with this new model) a extra-Galactic component derived from the as...

  6. Search for contact interactions using the inclusive jet $p_T$ spectrum in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Malek, Magdalena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Mahrous, Ayman; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Millischer, Laurent; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Calpas, Betty; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Costanza, Francesco; Dammann, Dirk; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Novgorodova, Olga; Olzem, Jan; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Gosselink, Martijn; Haller, Johannes; Hermanns, Thomas; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Nowak, Friederike; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Seidel, Markus; Sibille, Jennifer; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Röcker, Steffen; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Taroni, Silvia; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Butt, Jamila; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Bunin, Pavel; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Shreyber, Irina; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Jorda, Clara; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Georgiou, Georgios; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lee, Yen-Jie; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Nesvold, Erik; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Kilminster, Benjamin; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Tupputi, Salvatore; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Singh, Anil; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wan, Xia; Wang, Minzu; Asavapibhop, Burin; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Cankocak, Kerem; Levchuk, Leonid; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Stoye, Markus; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Whyntie, Tom; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Mall, Orpheus; Miceli, Tia; Pellett, Dave; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Yohay, Rachel; Andreev, Valeri; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Traczyk, Piotr; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Evans, David; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Golf, Frank; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Park, Myeonghun; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Strom, Derek; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Griffiths, Scott; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Swartz, Morris; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Krajczar, Krisztian; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Cooper, Seth; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Lusito, Letizia; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Winer, Brian L; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Jindal, Pratima; Koay, Sue Ann; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Walker, Matthew; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Florez, Carlos; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Palmonari, Francesco; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2013-03-26

    Results are reported of a search for a deviation in the jet production cross section from the prediction of perturbative quantum chromodynamics at next-to-leading order. The search is conducted using a 7 TeV proton-proton data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 inverse femtobarns, collected with the Compact Muon Solenoid detector at the Large Hadron Collider. A deviation could arise from interactions characterized by a mass scale Lambda too high to be probed directly at the LHC. Such phenomena can be modeled as contact interactions. No evidence of a deviation is found. Using the CLs criterion, lower limits are set on Lambda of 9.9 TeV and 14.3 TeV at 95% confidence level for models with destructive and constructive interference, respectively. Limits obtained with a Bayesian method are also reported.

  7. Spectral analysis by correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauque, J.M.; Berthier, D.; Max, J.; Bonnet, G.

    1969-01-01

    The spectral density of a signal, which represents its power distribution along the frequency axis, is a function which is of great importance, finding many uses in all fields concerned with the processing of the signal (process identification, vibrational analysis, etc...). Amongst all the possible methods for calculating this function, the correlation method (correlation function calculation + Fourier transformation) is the most promising, mainly because of its simplicity and of the results it yields. The study carried out here will lead to the construction of an apparatus which, coupled with a correlator, will constitute a set of equipment for spectral analysis in real time covering the frequency range 0 to 5 MHz. (author) [fr

  8. Spectral backward radiation profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sung Duck; Lee, Keun Hyun; Kim, Bo Ra; Yoon, Suk Soo

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasonic backward radiation profile is frequency-dependent when incident region has deptional gradient of acoustical properties or multi-layers. Until now, we have measured the profiles of principal frequencies of used transducers so that it was not easy to understand the change of the frequency component and spectrum of backward radiation from the profile. We tried to measure the spectral backward radiation profiles using DFP(digital filer package) Lecroy DSO. The very big changes in the shape and pattern of spectral backward radiation profiles leads to the conclusion that this new try could be very effective tool to evaluate frequency dependent surface area.

  9. Developement of the method for realization of spectral irradiance scale featuring system of spectral comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skerovic, V; Zarubica, V; Aleksic, M; Zekovic, L; Belca, I

    2010-01-01

    Realization of the scale of spectral responsivity of the detectors in the Directorate of Measures and Precious Metals (DMDM) is based on silicon detectors traceable to LNE-INM. In order to realize the unit of spectral irradiance in the laboratory for photometry and radiometry of the Bureau of Measures and Precious Metals, the new method based on the calibration of the spectroradiometer by comparison with standard detector has been established. The development of the method included realization of the System of Spectral Comparisons (SSC), together with the detector spectral responsivity calibrations by means of a primary spectrophotometric system. The linearity testing and stray light analysis were preformed to characterize the spectroradiometer. Measurement of aperture diameter and calibration of transimpedance amplifier were part of the overall experiment. In this paper, the developed method is presented and measurement results with the associated measurement uncertainty budget are shown.

  10. Developement of the method for realization of spectral irradiance scale featuring system of spectral comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skerovic, V; Zarubica, V; Aleksic, M [Directorate of measures and precious metals, Optical radiation Metrology department, Mike Alasa 14, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Zekovic, L; Belca, I, E-mail: vladanskerovic@dmdm.r [Faculty of Physics, Department for Applied physics and metrology, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-10-15

    Realization of the scale of spectral responsivity of the detectors in the Directorate of Measures and Precious Metals (DMDM) is based on silicon detectors traceable to LNE-INM. In order to realize the unit of spectral irradiance in the laboratory for photometry and radiometry of the Bureau of Measures and Precious Metals, the new method based on the calibration of the spectroradiometer by comparison with standard detector has been established. The development of the method included realization of the System of Spectral Comparisons (SSC), together with the detector spectral responsivity calibrations by means of a primary spectrophotometric system. The linearity testing and stray light analysis were preformed to characterize the spectroradiometer. Measurement of aperture diameter and calibration of transimpedance amplifier were part of the overall experiment. In this paper, the developed method is presented and measurement results with the associated measurement uncertainty budget are shown.

  11. Summary of the TeV33 working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, P.P.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Colestock, P.

    1996-10-01

    This summary of the TeV33 working group at Snowmass reports on work in the areas of Tevatron store parameters, the beam-beam interaction, Main Injector intensity (slip stacking), antiproton production, and electron cooling

  12. TeV Blazars and Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Aharonian, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    The recent developments in studies of TeV radiation from blazars are highlighted and the implications of these results for derivation of cosmologically important information about the cosmic infrared background radiation are discussed.

  13. Spectral Ensemble Kalman Filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandel, Jan; Kasanický, Ivan; Vejmelka, Martin; Fuglík, Viktor; Turčičová, Marie; Eben, Kryštof; Resler, Jaroslav; Juruš, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2014), EMS2014-446 [EMS Annual Meeting /14./ & European Conference on Applied Climatology (ECAC) /10./. 06.10.2014-10.10.2014, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant - others:NSF DMS-1216481 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * spectral filter Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  14. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drivemechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displayer rods through the reactor vessel

  15. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drive mechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displacer rods through the reactor vessel. (author)

  16. A Simple Spectral Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Torres

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of a spectral observer is twofold: the reconstruction of a signal of time via state estimation and the decomposition of such a signal into the frequencies that make it up. A spectral observer can be catalogued as an online algorithm for time-frequency analysis because is a method that can compute on the fly the Fourier transform (FT of a signal, without having the entire signal available from the start. In this regard, this paper presents a novel spectral observer with an adjustable constant gain for reconstructing a given signal by means of the recursive identification of the coefficients of a Fourier series. The reconstruction or estimation of a signal in the context of this work means to find the coefficients of a linear combination of sines a cosines that fits a signal such that it can be reproduced. The design procedure of the spectral observer is presented along with the following applications: (1 the reconstruction of a simple periodical signal, (2 the approximation of both a square and a triangular signal, (3 the edge detection in signals by using the Fourier coefficients, (4 the fitting of the historical Bitcoin market data from 1 December 2014 to 8 January 2018 and (5 the estimation of a input force acting upon a Duffing oscillator. To round out this paper, we present a detailed discussion about the results of the applications as well as a comparative analysis of the proposed spectral observer vis-à-vis the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT, which is a well-known method for time-frequency analysis.

  17. Physics performances for Scalar Electron, Scalar Muon and Scalar Neutrino searches at 3 TeV and 1.4 TeV at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Battaglia, M.; Marshall, J.S.; Poss, S.; Sailer, A.; Thomson, M.; van der Kraaij, E.

    2013-01-01

    The determination of scalar lepton and gaugino masses is an important part of the programme of spectroscopic studies of Supersymmetry at a high energy e+e- linear collider. In this article we present results of a study of the processes: e+e- -> eR eR -> e+e- chi0 chi, e+e- -> muR muR -> mu mu- chi0 chi0, e+e- -> eL eL -> e e chi0 chi0 and e+e- -> snu_e snu_e -> e e chi+ chi-in two Supersymmetric benchmark scenarios at 3 TeV and 1.4 TeV at CLIC. We characterize the detector performance, lepton energy resolution and boson mass resolution. We report the accuracy of the production cross section measurements and the eR muR, snu_e, chi+ and chi0 mass determination, estimate the systematic errors affecting the mass measurement and discuss the requirements on the detector time stamping capability and beam polarization. The analysis accounts for the CLIC beam energy spectrum and the dominant beam-induced background. The detector performances are incorporated by full simulation and reconstruction of the events within t...

  18. Studies for Muon Colliders at Center-of-Mass Energies of 10 TeV and 100 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Bruce J.

    1999-01-01

    Parameter lists are presented for speculative muon colliders at center-of-mass energies of 10 TeV and 100 TeV. The technological advances required to achieve the given parameters are itemized and discussed, and a discussion is given of the design goals and constraints. An important constraint for multi-TeV muon colliders is the need to minimize neutrino radiation from the collider ring

  19. Terahertz Josephson spectral analysis and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snezhko, A. V.; Gundareva, I. I.; Lyatti, M. V.; Volkov, O. Y.; Pavlovskiy, V. V.; Poppe, U.; Divin, Y. Y.

    2017-04-01

    Principles of Hilbert-transform spectral analysis (HTSA) are presented and advantages of the technique in the terahertz (THz) frequency range are discussed. THz HTSA requires Josephson junctions with high values of characteristic voltages I c R n and dynamics described by a simple resistively shunted junction (RSJ) model. To meet these requirements, [001]- and [100]-tilt YBa2Cu3O7-x bicrystal junctions with deviations from the RSJ model less than 1% have been developed. Demonstrators of Hilbert-transform spectrum analyzers with various cryogenic environments, including integration into Stirling coolers, are described. Spectrum analyzers have been characterized in the spectral range from 50 GHz to 3 THz. Inside a power dynamic range of five orders, an instrumental function of the analyzers has been found to have a Lorentz form around a single frequency of 1.48 THz with a spectral resolution as low as 0.9 GHz. Spectra of THz radiation from optically pumped gas lasers and semiconductor frequency multipliers have been studied with these spectrum analyzers and the regimes of these radiation sources were optimized for a single-frequency operation. Future applications of HTSA will be related with quick and precise spectral characterization of new radiation sources and identification of substances in the THz frequency range.

  20. Multiwavelength Spectral Variability of Mkn 501 in Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempfling, Christina

    2012-10-01

    We propose simultaneous multiwavelength observations of the blazar Mrk501 in flaring state with XMM-Newton, FACT and Swift. Bright TeV gamma-ray flares have been detected repeatedly from Mrk501. Leptonic blazar models predict an simultaneous increase in the gamma-ray and X-ray bands. However, Mrk 501 also showed so-called orphan flares, as well as flares featuring time lags that are hard to explain by current models. Available data lack detailed light curves and hence are not sufficient to make strong statements on the nature of the responsible processes. These observations of a flare of Mrk501 in the gamma-ray and X-ray band with high spectral sensitivity and time resolution will yield a big contribution to the comprehension of blazar emission processes.

  1. Cosmological consequences of nearly conformal dynamics at the TeV scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstandin, Thomas; Servant, Géraldine

    2011-01-01

    Nearly conformal dynamics at the TeV scale as motivated by the hierarchy problem can be characterized by a stage of significant supercooling at the electroweak epoch. This has important cosmological consequences. In particular, a common assumption about the history of the universe is that the reheating temperature is high, at least high enough to assume that TeV-mass particles were once in thermal equilibrium. However, as we discuss in this paper, this assumption is not well justified in some models of strong dynamics at the TeV scale. We then need to reexamine how to achieve baryogenesis in these theories as well as reconsider how the dark matter abundance is inherited. We argue that baryonic and dark matter abundances can be explained naturally in these setups where reheating takes place by bubble collisions at the end of the strongly first-order phase transition characterizing conformal symmetry breaking, even if the reheating temperature is below the electroweak scale ∼ 100 GeV. In particular, non-thermal production of heavy WIMPs during bubble collisions becomes a well-motivated possibility. We also discuss inflation as well as gravity wave smoking gun signatures of this class of models

  2. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin P Clark

    Full Text Available Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID. In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM. Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with

  3. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Darin P.

    2017-01-01

    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  4. Noncommutativity from spectral flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzl, Thomas; Ilderton, Anton [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-27

    We investigate the transition from second- to first-order systems. Quantum mechanically, this transforms configuration space into phase space and hence introduces noncommutativity in the former. This transition may be described in terms of spectral flow. Gaps in the energy or mass spectrum may become large which effectively truncates the available state space. Using both operator and path integral languages we explicitly discuss examples in quantum mechanics (light-front) quantum field theory and string theory.

  5. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.F.; Sherwood, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises a reactive core having fuel assemblies accommodating both water displacer elements and neutron absorbing control rods for selectively changing the volume of water-moderator in the core. The fuel assemblies with displacer and control rods are arranged in alternating fashion so that one displacer element drive mechanism may move displacer elements in more than one fuel assembly without interfering with the movement of control rods of a corresponding control rod drive mechanisms. (author)

  6. Speech recognition from spectral dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carrier nature of speech; modulation spectrum; spectral dynamics ... the relationships between phonetic values of sounds and their short-term spectral envelopes .... the number of free parameters that need to be estimated from training data.

  7. USGS Digital Spectral Library splib06a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Wise, Richard A.; Livo, K. Eric; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Sutley, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    ), one simply needs a diagnostic absorption band. The mapping system uses continuum-removed reference spectral features fitted to features in observed spectra. Spectral features for such algorithms can be obtained from a spectrum of a sample containing large amounts of contaminants, including those that add other spectral features, as long as the shape of the diagnostic feature of interest is not modified. If, however, the data are needed for radiative transfer models to derive mineral abundances from reflectance spectra, then completely uncontaminated spectra are required. This library contains spectra that span a range of quality, with purity indicators to flag spectra for (or against) particular uses. Acquiring spectral measurements and performing sample characterizations for this library has taken about 15 person-years of effort. Software to manage the library and provide scientific analysis capability is provided (Clark, 1980, 1993). A personal computer (PC) reader for the library is also available (Livo and others, 1993). The program reads specpr binary files (Clark, 1980, 1993) and plots spectra. Another program that reads the specpr format is written in IDL (Kokaly, 2005). In our view, an ideal spectral library consists of samples covering a very wide range of materials, has large wavelength range with very high precision, and has enough sample analyses and documentation to establish the quality of the spectra. Time and available resources limit what can be achieved. Ideally, for each mineral, the sample analysis would include X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microprobe (EM) or X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and petrographic microscopic analyses. For some minerals, such as iron oxides, additional analyses such as Mossbauer would be helpful. We have found that to make the basic spectral measurements, provide XRD, EM or XRF analyses, and microscopic analyses, document the results, and complete an entry of one spectral library sample, all takes about

  8. Spectral Irradiance Measurements Based on Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, M S; Menegotto, T; Duarte, I; Da Silva, T Ferreira; Alves, L C; Alvarenga, A D; Almeida, G B; Couceiro, I B; Teixeira, R N

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of the realization of absolute spectral irradiance scale at INMETRO in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared regions using filter radiometers as secondary standards. In the construction of these instruments are used, at least, apertures, interference filters and a trap detector. In the assembly of the trap detectors it was necessary to characterize several photocells in spatial uniformity and shunt resistance. All components were calibrated and these results were analyzed to mount the filter radiometer

  9. Heavy Higgs bosons at 14 TeV and 100 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajer, Jan [Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong S.A.R., P.R.C. (China); Jockey Club Institute for Advanced Study,The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong S.A.R., P.R.C. (China); Li, Ying-Ying; Liu, Tao; Shiu, John F.H. [Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong S.A.R., P.R.C. (China)

    2015-11-18

    Searching for Higgs bosons beyond the Standard Model (BSM) is one of the most important missions for hadron colliders. As a landmark of BSM physics, the MSSM Higgs sector at the LHC is expected to be tested up to the scale of the decoupling limit of O(1) TeV, except for a wedge region centered around tan β∼3–10, which has been known to be difficult to probe. In this article, we present a dedicated study testing the decoupled MSSM Higgs sector, at the LHC and a next-generation pp-collider, proposing to search in channels with associated Higgs productions, with the neutral and charged Higgs further decaying into tt and tb, respectively. In the case of neutral Higgs we are able to probe for the so far uncovered wedge region via pp→bbH/A→bbtt. Additionally, we cover the the high tan β range with pp→bbH/A→bbττ. The combination of these searches with channels dedicated to the low tan β region, such as pp→H/A→tt and pp→ttH/A→tttt potentially covers the full tan β range. The search for charged Higgs has a slightly smaller sensitivity for the moderate tan β region, but additionally probes for the higher and lower tan β regions with even greater sensitivity, via pp→tbH{sup ±}→tbtb. While the LHC will be able to probe the whole tan β range for Higgs masses of O(1) TeV by combining these channels, we show that a future 100 TeV pp-collider has a potential to push the sensitivity reach up to ∼O(10) TeV. In order to deal with the novel kinematics of top quarks produced by heavy Higgs decays, the multivariate Boosted Decision Tree (BDT) method is applied in our collider analyses. The BDT-based tagging efficiencies of both hadronic and leptonic top-jets, and their mutual fake rates as well as the faking rates by other jets (h, Z, W, b, etc.) are also presented.

  10. Understanding Soliton Spectral Tunneling as a Spectral Coupling Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Hairun; Wang, Shaofei; Zeng, Xianglong

    2013-01-01

    Soliton eigenstate is found corresponding to a dispersive phase profile under which the soliton phase changes induced by the dispersion and nonlinearity are instantaneously counterbalanced. Much like a waveguide coupler relying on a spatial refractive index profile that supports mode coupling...... between channels, here we suggest that the soliton spectral tunneling effect can be understood supported by a spectral phase coupler. The dispersive wave number in the spectral domain must have a coupler-like symmetric profile for soliton spectral tunneling to occur. We show that such a spectral coupler...

  11. Spectral Interferometry with Electron Microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Nahid

    2016-01-01

    Interference patterns are not only a defining characteristic of waves, but also have several applications; characterization of coherent processes and holography. Spatial holography with electron waves, has paved the way towards space-resolved characterization of magnetic domains and electrostatic potentials with angstrom spatial resolution. Another impetus in electron microscopy has been introduced by ultrafast electron microscopy which uses pulses of sub-picosecond durations for probing a laser induced excitation of the sample. However, attosecond temporal resolution has not yet been reported, merely due to the statistical distribution of arrival times of electrons at the sample, with respect to the laser time reference. This is however, the very time resolution which will be needed for performing time-frequency analysis. These difficulties are addressed here by proposing a new methodology to improve the synchronization between electron and optical excitations through introducing an efficient electron-driven photon source. We use focused transition radiation of the electron as a pump for the sample. Due to the nature of transition radiation, the process is coherent. This technique allows us to perform spectral interferometry with electron microscopes, with applications in retrieving the phase of electron-induced polarizations and reconstructing dynamics of the induced vector potential. PMID:27649932

  12. Gamma-ray and neutrino diffuse emissions of the Galaxy above the TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Gaggero, Daniele; Marinelli, Antonio; Urbano, Alfredo; Valli, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    As recently shown, Fermi-LAT measurements of the diffuse gamma-ray emission from the Galaxy favor the presence of a smooth softening in the primary cosmic-ray spectrum with increasing Galactocentric distance. This result can be interpreted in terms of a spatial-dependent rigidity scaling of the diffusion coefficient. The DRAGON code was used to build a model based on such feature. That scenario correctly reproduces the latest Fermi-LAT results as well as local cosmic-ray measurements from PAMELA, AMS-02 and CREAM. Here we show that the model, if extrapolated at larger energies, grasps both the gamma-ray flux measured by MILAGRO at 15 TeV and the H.E.S.S. data from the Galactic ridge, assuming that the cosmic-ray spectral hardening found by those experiments at about 250 GeV/n is present in the whole inner Galactic plane region. Moreover, we show as that model also predicts a neutrino emission which may account for a significant fraction, as well as for the correct spectral shape, of the astrophysical flux mea...

  13. Functional characterization of spectral tuning mechanisms in the great bowerbird short-wavelength sensitive visual pigment (SWS1), and the origins of UV/violet vision in passerines and parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hazel, Ilke; Sabouhanian, Amir; Day, Lainy; Endler, John A; Chang, Belinda S W

    2013-11-13

    One of the most striking features of avian vision is the variation in spectral sensitivity of the short wavelength sensitive (SWS1) opsins, which can be divided into two sub-types: violet- and UV- sensitive (VS & UVS). In birds, UVS has been found in both passerines and parrots, groups that were recently shown to be sister orders. While all parrots are thought to be UVS, recent evidence suggests some passerine lineages may also be VS. The great bowerbird (Chlamydera nuchalis) is a passerine notable for its courtship behaviours in which males build and decorate elaborate bower structures. The great bowerbird SWS1 sequence possesses an unusual residue combination at known spectral tuning sites that has not been previously investigated in mutagenesis experiments. In this study, the SWS1 opsin of C. nuchalis was expressed along with a series of spectral tuning mutants and ancestral passerine SWS1 pigments, allowing us to investigate spectral tuning mechanisms and explore the evolution of UV/violet sensitivity in early passerines and parrots. The expressed C. nuchalis SWS1 opsin was found to be a VS pigment, with a λmax of 403 nm. Bowerbird SWS1 mutants C86F, S90C, and C86S/S90C all shifted λmax into the UV, whereas C86S had no effect. Experimentally recreated ancestral passerine and parrot/passerine SWS1 pigments were both found to be VS, indicating that UV sensitivity evolved independently in passerines and parrots from a VS ancestor. Our mutagenesis studies indicate that spectral tuning in C. nuchalis is mediated by mechanisms similar to those of other birds. Interestingly, our ancestral sequence reconstructions of SWS1 in landbird evolution suggest multiple transitions from VS to UVS, but no instances of the reverse. Our results not only provide a more precise prediction of where these spectral sensitivity shifts occurred, but also confirm the hypothesis that birds are an unusual exception among vertebrates where some descendants re-evolved UVS from a violet type

  14. Variations of the TeV energy spectrum at different flux levels of Mkn 421 observed with the HEGRA system of Cherenkov telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A.; Beilicke, M.; Bernlöhr, K.; Börst, H.; Bojahr, H.; Bolz, O.; Coarasa, T.; Contreras, J.; Cortina, J.; Costamante, L.; Denninghoff, S.; Fonseca, V.; Girma, M.; Götting, N.; Heinzelmann, G.; Hermann, G.; Heusler, A.; Hofmann, W.; Horns, D.; Jung, I.; Kankanyan, R.; Kestel, M.; Kettler, J.; Kohnle, A.; Konopelko, A.; Kornmeyer, H.; Kranich, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Lampeitl, H.; Lopez, M.; Lorenz, E.; Lucarelli, F.; Mang, O.; Meyer, H.; Mirzoyan, R.; Milite, M.; Moralejo, A.; Ona, E.; Panter, M.; Plyasheshnikov, A.; Pühlhofer, G.; Rauterberg, G.; Reyes, R.; Rhode, W.; Ripken, J.; Rowell, G.; Sahakian, V.; Samorski, M.; Schilling, M.; Siems, M.; Sobzynska, D.; Stamm, W.; Tluczykont, M.; Völk, H. J.; Wiedner, C. A.; Wittek, W.; Remillard, R. A.

    2002-10-01

    The nearby BL Lacertae (BL Lac) object Markarian 421 (Mkn 421) at a red shift z=0.031 was observed to undergo strong TeV gamma -ray outbursts in the observational periods from December 1999 until May 2001. The time averaged flux level F(E>1 TeV) in the 1999/2000 season was (1.43+/-0.04) x 10-11 ph cm-2 s-1, whereas in the 2000/2001 season the average integral flux increased to (4.19+/-0.04) x 10-11 ph cm-2 s-1. Both energy spectra are curved and well fit by a power law with an exponential cut-off energy at 3.6(+0.4-0.3)_stat(+0.9-0.8)_sys TeV. The respective energy spectra averaged over each of the two time periods indicate a spectral hardening for the 2000/2001 spectrum. The photon index changes from 2.39+/-0.09_stat for 1999/2000 to 2.19+/-0.02_stat in 2000/2001. The energy spectra derived for different average flux levels ranging from 0.5 to 10 x 10-11 ph cm-2 s-1 follow a clear correlation of photon index and flux level. Generally, the energy spectra are harder for high flux levels. From January to April 2001 Mkn 421 showed rapid variability (doubling time as short as 20 min), accompanied with a spectral hardening with increasing flux level within individual nights. For two successive nights (MJD 51989-51991, March 21-23, 2001), this correlation of spectral hardness and change in flux has been observed within a few hours. The cut-off energy for the Mkn 421 TeV spectrum remains within the errors constant for the different flux levels and differs by Delta E=2.6+/-0.6_stat+/-0.6_sys TeV from the value determined for Mkn 501. This indicates that the observed exponential cut-off in the energy spectrum of Mkn 421 is not solely caused by absorption of multi-TeV photons by pair-production processes with photons of the extragalactic near/mid infrared background radiation.

  15. Elementary design of a 30 TeV on 30 TeV proton antiproton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Takahiko

    1984-01-01

    A crude conceptual design was made for a 30TeV on 30TeV antiproton-proton collider. The choice of energy and antiproton-proton (instead of PP) are somewhat arbitrary. The basic parameters of the main ring are listed in a table; the bending radius, ring radius and circumference are 11.1km, 14.4km, and 90.6km, respectively; 7680 dipole magnets with maximum field of 9 Tesla; 1280 quadrupole magnets with maximum gradient of 200Tesla/m. The development of high-field, low-heat loss dipoles and quadrupoles are essential, together with the consideration for their mass production method. On the other hand, the possibility of obtaining antiproton-proton luminosity exceeding 10 32 /cm 2 sec is suggested without any fundamental limitation. With such high luminosity, however, it should be pointed out that particle detectors must face their limitation due to extremely high rate, high multiplicity interaction, requiring large steps of detector research and development efforts. (Aoki, K.)

  16. On spectral pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llobet, X.; Appert, K.; Bondeson, A.; Vaclavik, J.

    1990-01-01

    Finite difference and finite element approximations of eigenvalue problems, under certain circumstances exhibit spectral pollution, i.e. the appearance of eigenvalues that do not converge to the correct value when the mesh density is increased. In the present paper this phenomenon is investigated in a homogeneous case by means of discrete dispersion relations: the polluting modes belong to a branch of the dispersion relation that is strongly distorted by the discretization method employed, or to a new, spurious branch. The analysis is applied to finite difference methods and to finite element methods, and some indications about how to avoiding polluting schemes are given. (author) 5 figs., 10 refs

  17. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, P.K.; George, R.A.; Dollard, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift arrangement for controlling a nuclear reactor includes a plurality of reactor coolant displacer members which are inserted into a reactor core at the beginning of the core life to reduce the volume of reactor coolant-moderator in the core at start-up. However, as the reactivity of the core declines with fuel depletion, selected displacer members are withdrawn from the core at selected time intervals to increase core moderation at a time when fuel reactivity is declining. (author)

  18. Spectral signatures of chirality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Mortensen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    We present a new way of measuring chirality, via the spectral shift of photonic band gaps in one-dimensional structures. We derive an explicit mapping of the problem of oblique incidence of circularly polarized light on a chiral one-dimensional photonic crystal with negligible index contrast...... to the formally equivalent problem of linearly polarized light incident on-axis on a non-chiral structure with index contrast. We derive analytical expressions for the first-order shifts of the band gaps for negligible index contrast. These are modified to give good approximations to the band gap shifts also...

  19. Spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, W.R.; Piplica, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    A spectral shift pressurized water reactor comprising apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements having differing neutron absorbing capabilities for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The displacer elements comprise substantially hollow cylindrical low neutron absorbing rods and substantially hollow cylindrical thick walled stainless rods. Since the stainless steel displacer rods have greater neutron absorbing capability, they can effect greater reactivity change per rod. However, by arranging fewer stainless steel displacer rods in a cluster, the reactivity worth of the stainless steel displacer rod cluster can be less than a low neutron absorbing displacer rod cluster. (author)

  20. Spectral theorem in noncommutative field theories: Jacobi dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Géré, Antoine; Wallet, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Jacobi operators appear as kinetic operators of several classes of noncommutative field theories (NCFT) considered recently. This paper deals with the case of bounded Jacobi operators. A set of tools mainly issued from operator and spectral theory is given in a way applicable to the study of NCFT. As an illustration, this is applied to a gauge-fixed version of the induced gauge theory on the Moyal plane expanded around a symmetric vacuum. The characterization of the spectrum of the kinetic operator is given, showing a behavior somewhat similar to a massless theory. An attempt to characterize the noncommutative geometry related to the gauge fixed action is presented. Using a Dirac operator obtained from the kinetic operator, it is shown that one can construct an even, regular, weakly real spectral triple. This spectral triple does not define a noncommutative metric space for the Connes spectral distance. (paper)

  1. Physics at TeV e+e- linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    A survey is presented of the physics opportunities at TeV e + e - linear colliders. Examples are given of physics that might emerge in e + e - collisions and in γγ collisions using the back-scattered laser technique, including γγ → ZZ scattering as a probe of ultraheavy quanta. The second portion of the talk focuses on physics that must emerge at or below the TeV scale--the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking. In particular a very rough estimate is presented of the most challenging possible signal of symmetry breaking, strong WW scattering, as a function of collider energy. A subtheme, made explicit in the concluding section, is the continuing complementarity of e + e - and pp colliders in the domain of TeV physics

  2. Constraining the red shifts of TeV BL Lac objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Longhua; Wang, Jiancheng; Yan, Dahai; Yang, Chuyuan; Yuan, Zunli; Zhou, Ming

    2018-01-01

    We present a model-dependent method to estimate the red shifts of three TeV BL Lac objects (BL Lacs) through fitting their (quasi-)simultaneous multi-waveband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with a one-zone leptonic synchrotron self-Compton model. Considering the impact of electron energy distributions (EEDs) on the results, we use three types of EEDs to fit the SEDs: a power-law EED with exponential cut-off (PLC), a log-parabola (PLLP) EED and the broken power-law (BPL) EED. We also use a parameter α to describe the uncertainties of the extragalactic background light models, as in Abdo et al. We then use a Markov chain Monte Carlo method to explore the multi-dimensional parameter space and obtain the uncertainties of the model parameters based on the observational data. We apply our method to obtain the red shifts of three TeV BL Lac objects in the marginalized 68 per cent confidence, and find that the PLC EED does not fit the SEDs. For 3C66A, the red shift is 0.14-0.31 and 0.16-0.32 in the BPL and PLLP EEDs. For PKS1424+240, the red shift is 0.55-0.68 and 0.55-0.67 in the BPL and PLLP EEDs. For PG1553+113, the red shift is 0.22-0.48 and 0.22-0.39 in the BPL and PLLP EEDs. We also estimate the red shift of PKS1424+240 in the high stage to be 0.46-0.67 in the PLLP EED, roughly consistent with that in the low stage.

  3. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The detailed shapes of spectral line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. Detection of asymmetries in solar coronal emission lines is one example. Removal of line blends is another. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It can be used with any fitting function, but we employ a cubic spline in a new analysis routine called Intensity Conserving Spline Interpolation (ICSI). As the name implies, it conserves the observed intensity within each wavelength bin, which ordinary fits do not. Given the rapid convergence, speed of computation, and ease of use, we suggest that ICSI be made a standard component of the processing pipeline for spectroscopic data.

  4. Atmospheric parameters, spectral indexes and their relation to CPV spectral performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Núñez, Rubén, E-mail: ruben.nunez@ies-def.upm.es; Antón, Ignacio, E-mail: ruben.nunez@ies-def.upm.es; Askins, Steve, E-mail: ruben.nunez@ies-def.upm.es; Sala, Gabriel, E-mail: ruben.nunez@ies-def.upm.es [Instituto de Energía Solar - Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Instituto de Energía Solar, ETSI Telecomunicación, Ciudad Universitaria 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-26

    Air Mass and atmosphere components (basically aerosol (AOD) and precipitable water (PW)) define the absorption of the sunlight that arrive to Earth. Radiative models such as SMARTS or MODTRAN use these parameters to generate an equivalent spectrum. However, complex and expensive instruments (as AERONET network devices) are needed to obtain AOD and PW. On the other hand, the use of isotype cells is a convenient way to characterize spectrally a place for CPV considering that they provide the photocurrent of the different internal subcells individually. Crossing data from AERONET station and a Tri-band Spectroheliometer, a model that correlates Spectral Mismatch Ratios and atmospheric parameters is proposed. Considering the amount of stations of AERONET network, this model may be used to estimate the spectral influence on energy performance of CPV systems close to all the stations worldwide.

  5. Spectral entropy criteria for structural segmentation in genomic DNA sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chechetkin, V.R.; Lobzin, V.V.

    2004-01-01

    The spectral entropy is calculated with Fourier structure factors and characterizes the level of structural ordering in a sequence of symbols. It may efficiently be applied to the assessment and reconstruction of the modular structure in genomic DNA sequences. We present the relevant spectral entropy criteria for the local and non-local structural segmentation in DNA sequences. The results are illustrated with the model examples and analysis of intervening exon-intron segments in the protein-coding regions

  6. 2 TeV HEB beam abort at the SSCL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schailey, R.; Bull, J.; Clayton, T.; Kocur, P.; Mokhov, N.

    1993-05-01

    The High Energy Booster (HEB) of the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) will require a full aperture beam abort over a dynamic energy range of 200 GeV to 2 TeV. Since the HEB is a bi-polar machine, both clockwise (CW) and the counter-clockwise (CCW) beam aborts are required. Also, the stored beam energy of 6.55 MJ in the superconducting HEB imposes upon the full aperture requirement. In this report, we describe the abort channels in the HEB utility straight sections, aperture restrictions, mechanical interferences and solutions, kicker misfires, and a 1 TeV beam absorber

  7. 2 TeV HEB beam abort at the SSCL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schailey, R.; Bull, J.; Clayton, T.; Kocur, P.; Mokhov, N.V.

    1993-01-01

    The High Energy Booster (HEB) of the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) will require a full aperture beam abort over a dynamic energy range of 200 GeV to 2 TeV. Since the HEB is a bi-polar machine, both clockwise (CW) and counter-clockwise (CCW) beam aborts are required. Also, the stored beam energy of 6.55 MJ in the superconducting HEB imposes the full aperture requirement. In this report, the authors describe the abort channels in the HEB utility straight sections, aperture restrictions, mechanical interferences and solutions, kicker misfires, and a 2 TeV beam absorber

  8. Substructure and strong interactions at the TeV scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1985-12-01

    A review is given of the current status of the three main theoretical ideas relevant to strong-interaction 1 TeV physics. These are composite vector bosons, Higgs bosons (''Technicolor''), and matter fermions. All involve the assumption that some object which is assumed to be fundamental in the standard model actually has dynamical internal structure. Complex, mechanistic models of the new physics are discussed. A brief digression is then made on how the weak interaction allows probing for this new structure. Direct manifestations of new 1 TeV strong interactions are discussed. 125 refs., 18 figs

  9. CONSTRAINTS ON THE GALACTIC POPULATION OF TeV PULSAR WIND NEBULAE USING FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acero, F.; Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ackermann, M. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Baldini, L. [Universita di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D.; Buson, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' M. Merlin' ' dell' Universita e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruel, P., E-mail: funk@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: joshualande@gmail.com, E-mail: lemoine@cenbg.in2p3.fr, E-mail: rousseau@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); and others

    2013-08-10

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) have been established as the most populous class of TeV {gamma}-ray emitters. Since launch, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has identified five high-energy (100 MeV < E < 100 GeV) {gamma}-ray sources as PWNe and detected a large number of PWN candidates, all powered by young and energetic pulsars. The wealth of multi-wavelength data available and the new results provided by Fermi-LAT give us an opportunity to find new PWNe and to explore the radiative processes taking place in known ones. The TeV {gamma}-ray unidentified (UNID) sources are the best candidates for finding new PWNe. Using 45 months of Fermi-LAT data for energies above 10 GeV, an analysis was performed near the position of 58 TeV PWNe and UNIDs within 5 Degree-Sign of the Galactic plane to establish new constraints on PWN properties and find new clues on the nature of UNIDs. Of the 58 sources, 30 were detected, and this work provides their {gamma}-ray fluxes for energies above 10 GeV. The spectral energy distributions and upper limits, in the multi-wavelength context, also provide new information on the source nature and can help distinguish between emission scenarios, i.e., between classification as a pulsar candidate or as a PWN candidate. Six new GeV PWN candidates are described in detail and compared with existing models. A population study of GeV PWN candidates as a function of the pulsar/PWN system characteristics is presented.

  10. CONSTRAINTS ON THE GALACTIC POPULATION OF TeV PULSAR WIND NEBULAE USING FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acero, F.; Brandt, T. J.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2013-01-01

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) have been established as the most populous class of TeV γ-ray emitters. Since launch, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has identified five high-energy (100 MeV < E < 100 GeV) γ-ray sources as PWNe and detected a large number of PWN candidates, all powered by young and energetic pulsars. The wealth of multi-wavelength data available and the new results provided by Fermi-LAT give us an opportunity to find new PWNe and to explore the radiative processes taking place in known ones. The TeV γ-ray unidentified (UNID) sources are the best candidates for finding new PWNe. Using 45 months of Fermi-LAT data for energies above 10 GeV, an analysis was performed near the position of 58 TeV PWNe and UNIDs within 5° of the Galactic plane to establish new constraints on PWN properties and find new clues on the nature of UNIDs. Of the 58 sources, 30 were detected, and this work provides their γ-ray fluxes for energies above 10 GeV. The spectral energy distributions and upper limits, in the multi-wavelength context, also provide new information on the source nature and can help distinguish between emission scenarios, i.e., between classification as a pulsar candidate or as a PWN candidate. Six new GeV PWN candidates are described in detail and compared with existing models. A population study of GeV PWN candidates as a function of the pulsar/PWN system characteristics is presented

  11. PROBING THE TRANSITION BETWEEN THE SYNCHROTRON AND INVERSE-COMPTON SPECTRAL COMPONENTS OF 1ES 1959+650

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottacini, E.; Schady, P.; Rau, A.; Zhang, X.-L.; Greiner, J.; Boettcher, M.; Ajello, M.; Fendt, C.

    2010-01-01

    1ES 1959+650 is one of the most remarkable high-peaked BL Lacertae objects (HBL). In 2002, it exhibited a TeV γ-ray flare without a similar brightening of the synchrotron component at lower energies. This orphan TeV flare remained a mystery. We present the results of a multifrequency campaign, triggered by the INTEGRAL IBIS detection of 1ES 1959+650. Our data range from the optical to hard X-ray energies, thus covering the synchrotron and inverse-Compton components simultaneously. We observed the source with INTEGRAL, the Swift X-Ray Telescope, and the UV-Optical Telescope, and nearly simultaneously with a ground-based optical telescope. The steep spectral component at X-ray energies is most likely due to synchrotron emission, while at soft γ-ray energies the hard spectral index may be interpreted as the onset of the high-energy component of the blazar spectral energy distribution (SED). This is the first clear measurement of a concave X-ray-soft γ-ray spectrum for an HBL. The SED can be well modeled with a leptonic synchrotron self-Compton model. When the SED is fitted this model requires a very hard electron spectral index of q ∼ 1.85, possibly indicating the relevance of second-order Fermi acceleration.

  12. Rectangular spectral collocation

    KAUST Repository

    Driscoll, Tobin A.

    2015-02-06

    Boundary conditions in spectral collocation methods are typically imposed by removing some rows of the discretized differential operator and replacing them with others that enforce the required conditions at the boundary. A new approach based upon resampling differentiated polynomials into a lower-degree subspace makes differentiation matrices, and operators built from them, rectangular without any row deletions. Then, boundary and interface conditions can be adjoined to yield a square system. The resulting method is both flexible and robust, and avoids ambiguities that arise when applying the classical row deletion method outside of two-point scalar boundary-value problems. The new method is the basis for ordinary differential equation solutions in Chebfun software, and is demonstrated for a variety of boundary-value, eigenvalue and time-dependent problems.

  13. Spectral evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocca-Volmerange, B.

    1989-01-01

    A recent striking event in Observational Cosmology is the discovery of a large population of galaxies at extreme cosmological distances (extended from spectral redshifts ≅ 1 to ≥ 3) corresponding to a lookback time of 80% of the Universe's age. However when galaxies are observed at such remote epochs, their appearances are affected by at least two simultaneous effects which are respectively a cosmological effect and the intrinsic evolution of their stellar populations which appear younger than in our nearby galaxies. The fundamental problem is first to disentangle the respective contributions of these two effects to apparent magnitudes and colors of distant galaxies. Other effects which are likely to modify the appearance of galaxies are amplification by gravitational lensing and interaction with environment will also be considered. (author)

  14. Spectral Line Shapes. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppi, M.; Ulivi, L.

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the 13th International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes which was held in Firenze,Italy from June 16-21, 1996. The topics covered a wide range of subjects emphasizing the physical processes associated with the formation of line profiles: high and low density plasma; atoms and molecules in strong laser fields, Dopple-free and ultra-fine spectroscopy; the line shapes generated by the interaction of neutrals, atoms and molecules, where the relavant quantities are single particle properties, and the interaction-induced spectroscopy. There were 131 papers presented at the conference, out of these, 6 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  15. Spectral Theory of Chemical Bonding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Langhoff, P. W; Boatz, J. A; Hinde, R. J; Sheehy, J. A

    2004-01-01

    .... Wave function antisymmetry in the aggregate atomic spectral-product basis is enforced by unitary transformation performed subsequent to formation of the Hamiltonian matrix, greatly simplifying its construction...

  16. [Review of digital ground object spectral library].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Hu; Zhou, Ding-Wu

    2009-06-01

    A higher spectral resolution is the main direction of developing remote sensing technology, and it is quite important to set up the digital ground object reflectance spectral database library, one of fundamental research fields in remote sensing application. Remote sensing application has been increasingly relying on ground object spectral characteristics, and quantitative analysis has been developed to a new stage. The present article summarized and systematically introduced the research status quo and development trend of digital ground object reflectance spectral libraries at home and in the world in recent years. Introducing the spectral libraries has been established, including desertification spectral database library, plants spectral database library, geological spectral database library, soil spectral database library, minerals spectral database library, cloud spectral database library, snow spectral database library, the atmosphere spectral database library, rocks spectral database library, water spectral database library, meteorites spectral database library, moon rock spectral database library, and man-made materials spectral database library, mixture spectral database library, volatile compounds spectral database library, and liquids spectral database library. In the process of establishing spectral database libraries, there have been some problems, such as the lack of uniform national spectral database standard and uniform standards for the ground object features as well as the comparability between different databases. In addition, data sharing mechanism can not be carried out, etc. This article also put forward some suggestions on those problems.

  17. Using a non-invasive technique in nutrition: synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy spectroscopic characterization of oil seeds treated with different processing conditions on molecular spectral factors influencing nutrient delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-07-02

    Non-invasive techniques are a key to study nutrition and structure interaction. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy coupled with a synchrotron radiation source (SR-IMS) is a rapid, non-invasive, and non-destructive bioanalytical technique. To understand internal structure changes in relation to nutrient availability in oil seed processing is vital to find optimal processing conditions. The objective of this study was to use a synchrotron-based bioanalytical technique SR-IMS as a non-invasive and non-destructive tool to study the effects of heat-processing methods and oil seed canola type on modeled protein structure based on spectral data within intact tissue that were randomly selected and quantify the relationship between the modeled protein structure and protein nutrient supply to ruminants. The results showed that the moisture heat-related processing significantly changed (pprocessing by dry heating. The moisture heating increased (p0.05) in the protein spectral profile between the raw and dry-heated canola tissue and between yellow- and brown-type canola tissue. The results indicated that different heat processing methods have different impacts on the protein inherent structure. The protein intrinsic structure in canola seed tissue was more sensitive and more response to the moisture heating in comparison to the dry heating. These changes are expected to be related to the nutritive value. However, the current study is based on limited samples, and more large-scale studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  18. A detailed study of the supernova remnant RCW 86 in TeV {gamma}-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinz, Sebastian

    2012-03-29

    A detailed study of the supernova remnant RCW 86 is presented. RCW 86 encountered a shell-like structure in radio, X-rays and optical, whereas in the discovery paper of RCW 86 in the very high energy regime the structure could not be confirmed. In this thesis for the first time the shell was resolved in the very high energy gamma rays. The shell width was determined to be 0.125 {+-}0.014 , the radius to be 0.194 {+-} 0.016 and the center to be -62.433 {+-}0.014 in declination and 220.734 {+-}0.016 in rectascension. The spectral analysis was performed for the whole SNR and for the south-east part, which is more pronounced in X-rays separately. But the results were comparable within errors. Additionally a power-law with an exponential cut off described the spectra best with the parameters: an spectral index of 1.50{+-}0.28, a cut-off energy of (2.69{+-}0.99 TeV) and an integral flux above 1 TeV of (6.51{+-}2.69) . 10{sup -12} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The study of the correlation of the X-ray and VHE {gamma}-ray data of RCW 86 was hampered by the poor angular resolution of the VHE data. Therefore detailed studies of the Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm have been performed. The outcome is, that deconvolution techniques are applicable to strong VHE {gamma}-ray sources and that fine structure well below the angular resolution can be studied. The application to RX J1713-3946, the brightest SNR in the VHE regime, has shown, that the correlation coefficient of the X-ray data and the VHE data of is stable down to 0.01 and has a value of 0.85. On the other side the significance of the data set is not sufficient in the case of RCW 86 to apply the deconvolution technique.

  19. Spectral colors capture and reproduction based on digital camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Defen; Huang, Qingmei; Li, Wei; Lu, Yang

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a method for the accurate reproduction of the spectral colors captured by digital camera. The spectral colors being the purest color in any hue, are difficult to reproduce without distortion on digital devices. In this paper, we attempt to achieve accurate hue reproduction of the spectral colors by focusing on two steps of color correction: the capture of the spectral colors and the color characterization of digital camera. Hence it determines the relationship among the spectral color wavelength, the RGB color space of the digital camera device and the CIEXYZ color space. This study also provides a basis for further studies related to the color spectral reproduction on digital devices. In this paper, methods such as wavelength calibration of the spectral colors and digital camera characterization were utilized. The spectrum was obtained through the grating spectroscopy system. A photo of a clear and reliable primary spectrum was taken by adjusting the relative parameters of the digital camera, from which the RGB values of color spectrum was extracted in 1040 equally-divided locations. Calculated using grating equation and measured by the spectrophotometer, two wavelength values were obtained from each location. The polynomial fitting method for the camera characterization was used to achieve color correction. After wavelength calibration, the maximum error between the two sets of wavelengths is 4.38nm. According to the polynomial fitting method, the average color difference of test samples is 3.76. This has satisfied the application needs of the spectral colors in digital devices such as display and transmission.

  20. TeV e+e- linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Duff, J.

    1987-12-01

    The basic philosophy and performance and technical constraints of linear e + e - colliders at TeV energies are summarized. Collider luminosity, pinch effects due to beam interaction, beam-beam bremsstrahlung, and typical parameters for an e + e - linear collider are discussed. Accelerating structures, HF power sources, electron guns, positron production, and storage rings are considered [fr

  1. Verifiable origin of neutrino mass at TeV scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ernest

    2002-01-01

    The physics responsible for neutrino mass may reside at or below the TeV energy scale. The neutrino mass matrix in the (ν e ν μ ν gt ) basis may then be deduced from future high-energy accelerator experiments. The newly observed excess in the muon anomalous magnetic moment may also be related

  2. TeV GAMMA RAYS: OBSERVATIONS VERSUS EXPECTATIONS & THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Krennrich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to discuss two important questions relevant for TeV γ-ray astronomy; the pursuit to reveal the origin of cosmic rays in our galaxy, and the opacity of the universe in γ-rays. The origin of cosmic rays stipulated the field of TeV astronomy in the first place, and led to the development of the atmospheric Cherenkov technique; significant progress has been made in the last decade through the detection of several supernova remnants, the primary suspects for harboring the acceleration sites of cosmic rays. TeV γ-rays propagate mostly unhindered through the galactic plane, making them excellent probes of processes in SNRs and other galactic sources. Key results related to the SNR origin of cosmic rays are discussed. TeV γ-ray spectra from extragalactic sources experience significant absorption when traversing cosmological distances. The opacity of the universe to γ-rays above 10 GeV progressively increases with energy and redshift; the reason lies in their pair production with ambient soft photons from the extragalactic background light (EBL. While this limits the γ-ray horizon, it offers the opportunity to gain information about cosmology, i.e. the EBL intensity, physical conditions in intergalactic space, and potentially new interaction processes. Results and implications pertaining to the EBL are given.

  3. Parton Distributions at a 100 TeV Hadron Collider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rojo, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the parton distribution functions (PDFs) of the proton will be an essential input for the physics program of a future 100 TeV hadron collider. The unprecedented center-of-mass energy will require knowledge of PDFs in currently unexplored kinematical regions such as the ultra

  4. Minimum bias measurement at 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Orlando, Nicola; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The modelling of Minimum Bias (MB) is a crucial ingredient to learn about the description of soft QCD processes and to simulate the environment at the LHC with many concurrent pp interactions (pile-up). We summarise the ATLAS minimum bias measurements with proton-proton collision at 13 TeV center-of-mass-energy at the Large Hadron Collider.

  5. Early 13 TeV Results from the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has recorded almost 200 pb-1 of collision data at 13 TeV centre-of-mass energy. The seminar presents the status of the data taking, the commissioning of the event reconstruction, focusing on the key techniques that have allowed to quickly reach a good understanding of the basic physics objects, and early physics results.

  6. Search for TeV gamma rays from Geninga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fegan, D.J.; Akerlof, C.W.; Breslin, A.C.; Cawley, M.F.; Chantell, M.; Fennell, S.; Gaidos, J.A.; Hagan, J.; Hillas, A.M.; Kerrick, A.D.; Lamb, R.C.; Lawrence, M.A.; Lewis, D.A.; Mayer, D.I.; Mohanty, G.; O'Flaherty, K.S.; Punch, M.; Reynolds, P.T.; Rovero, A.; Schubnell, M.; Sembroski, G.; Weekes, T.C.; West, M.

    1993-01-01

    Recently the Tata group have reported (1) the detection of TeV γ-rays from Geminga. Results of a search by the Whipple observatory Collaboration are presented here, based on observations made during 1989--90 and 1990--91, using the 10 m high resolution imaging cerenkov camera

  7. ATLAS 13 TeV event displays - 2017 Summer Conferences

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Summer 2017: The ATLAS Collaboration released an impressive number of results using data collected at 13 TeV. Some of the corresponding event displays are grouped here for media and press. The reference to the conference note is given in the caption. Read more on ATLAS results with the links provided below.

  8. Scaling linear colliders to 5 TeV and above

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.B.

    1997-04-01

    Detailed designs exist at present for linear colliders in the 0.5-1.0 TeV center-of-mass energy range. For linear colliders driven by discrete rf sources (klystrons), the rf operating frequencies range from 1.3 GHz to 14 GHz, and the unloaded accelerating gradients from 21 MV/m to 100 MV/m. Except for the collider design at 1.3 GHz (TESLA) which uses superconducting accelerating structures, the accelerating gradients vary roughly linearly with the rf frequency. This correlation between gradient and frequency follows from the necessity to keep the ac open-quotes wall plugclose quotes power within reasonable bounds. For linear colliders at energies of 5 TeV and above, even higher accelerating gradients and rf operating frequencies will be required if both the total machine length and ac power are to be kept within reasonable limits. An rf system for a 5 TeV collider operating at 34 GHz is outlined, and it is shown that there are reasonable candidates for microwave tube sources which, together with rf pulse compression, are capable of supplying the required rf power. Some possibilities for a 15 TeV collider at 91 GHz are briefly discussed

  9. Transplanckian collisions in TeV scale gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Collisions at transplanckian energies offer model independent tests of TeV scale gravity. One spectacular signal is given by black-hole production, though a full calculation of the corresponding cross-section is not yet available. Another signal is given by gravitational elastic scattering, which may be less spectacular but ...

  10. ATLAS events at 13 TeV - 2016 conferences

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has released in 2016 an impressive number of results using data collected at 13 TeV. Some of the corresponding event displays are grouped here for media and press. The reference to the conference note is given in the caption. Read more on ATLAS results with the links provided below.

  11. Heavy flavour production in 13 TeV pp collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    Braun, Svende Annelies

    2015-01-01

    This summer first data at the unprecedented energy of 13 TeV is collected at the LHC. This opens a new era in searches for new particles and precision tests of the Standard Model. Heavy flavour production plays an important role both as precision QCD test and as backgrounds for new particles. The first measurements of heavy flavour production are presented.

  12. Event displays in 13 TeV data

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This performance note presents some illustrative event displays at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The data set consists of the first proton-proton collision data recorded by the CMS detector in 2015 with a magnetic field of 3.8 Teslas.

  13. Event displays in 13 TeV data

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This performance note presents some illustrative event displays together with kinematic quantities for diboson production candidates at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The data set consists of the proton-proton collision data recorded by the CMS detector in 2016 with a magnetic field of 3.8 Teslas.

  14. Event displays at 13 TeV of 2016 data

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This performance note presents some illustrative event displays at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The data set consists of the proton-proton collision data recorded by the CMS detector in 2016 with a magnetic field of 3.8 Tesla.

  15. + jets in collisions at 7 TeV with ATLAS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Measurements of differential cross-sections of boson production in association with jets, and jets containing hadrons are presented. The measurements are based on 35 pb-1 of collisions at s = 7 TeV collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC, using the electron and muon decay channels of the boson.

  16. A Black Hole Spectral Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Laurent, Philippe

    2000-03-01

    An accreting black hole is, by definition, characterized by the drain. Namely, the matter falls into a black hole much the same way as water disappears down a drain matter goes in and nothing comes out. As this can only happen in a black hole, it provides a way to see ``a black hole'', an unique observational signature. The accretion proceeds almost in a free-fall manner close to the black hole horizon, where the strong gravitational field dominates the pressure forces. In this paper we present analytical calculations and Monte-Carlo simulations of the specific features of X-ray spectra formed as a result of upscattering of the soft (disk) photons in the converging inflow (CI) into the black hole. The full relativistic treatment has been implemented to reproduce these spectra. We show that spectra in the soft state of black hole systems (BHS) can be described as the sum of a thermal (disk) component and the convolution of some fraction of this component with the CI upscattering spread (Greens) function. The latter boosted photon component is seen as an extended power-law at energies much higher than the characteristic energy of the soft photons. We demonstrate the stability of the power spectral index over a wide range of the plasma temperature 0 - 10 keV and mass accretion rates (higher than 2 in Eddington units). We also demonstrate that the sharp high energy cutoff occurs at energies of 200-400 keV which are related to the average energy of electrons mec2 impinging upon the event horizon. The spectrum is practically identical to the standard thermal Comptonization spectrum when the CI plasma temperature is getting of order of 50 keV (the typical ones for the hard state of BHS). In this case one can see the effect of the bulk motion only at high energies where there is an excess in the CI spectrum with respect to the pure thermal one. Furthermore we demonstrate that the change of spectral shapes from the soft X-ray state to the hard X-ray state is clearly to be

  17. Detailed spectral and morphological analysis of the shell type supernova remnant RCW 86

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E. O.; Backes, M.; Balzer, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Carr, J.; Casanova, S.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chen, A.; Chevalier, J.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Condon, B.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O.'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Goyal, A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Hadasch, D.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Hawkes, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Hoischen, C.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kerszberg, D.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lorentz, M.; Lu, C.-C.; Lui, R.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Mariaud, C.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; Odaka, H.; Öttl, S.; Ohm, S.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Prokhorov, D.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reichardt, I.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Seyffert, A. S.; Simoni, R.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Tuffs, R.; Valerius, K.; van der Walt, J.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Voisin, F.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weidinger, M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zefi, F.; Żywucka, N.

    2018-04-01

    Aim. We aim for an understanding of the morphological and spectral properties of the supernova remnant RCW 86 and for insights into the production mechanism leading to the RCW 86 very high-energy γ-ray emission. Methods: We analyzed High Energy Spectroscopic System (H.E.S.S.) data that had increased sensitivity compared to the observations presented in the RCW 86 H.E.S.S. discovery publication. Studies of the morphological correlation between the 0.5-1 keV X-ray band, the 2-5 keV X-ray band, radio, and γ-ray emissions have been performed as well as broadband modeling of the spectral energy distribution with two different emission models. Results: We present the first conclusive evidence that the TeV γ-ray emission region is shell-like based on our morphological studies. The comparison with 2-5 keV X-ray data reveals a correlation with the 0.4-50 TeV γ-ray emission. The spectrum of RCW 86 is best described by a power law with an exponential cutoff at Ecut = (3.5 ± 1.2stat) TeV and a spectral index of Γ ≈ 1.6 ± 0.2. A static leptonic one-zone model adequately describes the measured spectral energy distribution of RCW 86, with the resultant total kinetic energy of the electrons above 1 GeV being equivalent to 0.1% of the initial kinetic energy of a Type Ia supernova explosion (1051 erg). When using a hadronic model, a magnetic field of B ≈ 100 μG is needed to represent the measured data. Although this is comparable to formerly published estimates, a standard E-2 spectrum for the proton distribution cannot describe the γ-ray data. Instead, a spectral index of Γp ≈ 1.7 would be required, which implies that ˜7 × 1049/ncm-3 has been transferred into high-energy protons with the effective density ncm-3 = n/1 cm-3. This is about 10% of the kinetic energy of a typical Type Ia supernova under the assumption of a density of 1 cm-3.

  18. Evaluation of abrasive waterjet produced titan surfaces topography by spectral analysis techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kozak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental study of a titan grade 2 surface topography prepared by abrasive waterjet cutting is performed using methods of the spectral analysis. Topographic data are acquired by means of the optical profilometr MicroProf®FRT. Estimation of the areal power spectral density of the studied surface is carried out using the periodogram method combined with the Welch´s method. Attention is paid to a structure of the areal power spectral density, which is characterized by means of the angular power spectral density. This structure of the areal spectral density is linked to the fine texture of the surface studied.

  19. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF EXCHANGE RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEŠA LOTRIČ DOLINAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using spectral analysis is very common in technical areas but rather unusual in economics and finance, where ARIMA and GARCH modeling are much more in use. To show that spectral analysis can be useful in determining hidden periodic components for high-frequency finance data as well, we use the example of foreign exchange rates

  20. Study of the underlying event in top quark pair production at 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Normalized differential cross sections as functions of the multiplicity and kinematic variables of charged-particle tracks from the underlying event are measured in top quark and antiquark pair events produced in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The analysis is based on data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2016 and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb$^{-1}$. The selected events contain one electron, one muon, and two jets from the hadronization and fragmentation of b quarks. These measurements characterize, for the first time, the properties of the underlying event at a factorization scale which is typically above twice the top quark mass. The sensitivity of the measured cross sections to different parameters employed in state-of-the-art Monte Carlo simulation programs is demonstrated by comparing the results with different simulations.

  1. ULTRAVIOLET RAMAN SPECTRAL SIGNATURE ACQUISITION: UV RAMAN SPECTRAL FINGERPRINTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEDLACEK,III, A.J.FINFROCK,C.

    2002-09-01

    As a member of the science-support part of the ITT-lead LISA development program, BNL is tasked with the acquisition of UV Raman spectral fingerprints and associated scattering cross-sections for those chemicals-of-interest to the program's sponsor. In support of this role, the present report contains the first installment of UV Raman spectral fingerprint data on the initial subset of chemicals. Because of the unique nature associated with the acquisition of spectral fingerprints for use in spectral pattern matching algorithms (i.e., CLS, PLS, ANN) great care has been undertaken to maximize the signal-to-noise and to minimize unnecessary spectral subtractions, in an effort to provide the highest quality spectral fingerprints. This report is divided into 4 sections. The first is an Experimental section that outlines how the Raman spectra are performed. This is then followed by a section on Sample Handling. Following this, the spectral fingerprints are presented in the Results section where the data reduction process is outlined. Finally, a Photographs section is included.

  2. Search for quantum black hole production in high-invariant-mass lepton+jet final states using pp collisions at √s=8  TeV and the ATLAS detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aad, G; Abajyan, T; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdel Khalek, S; Abdinov, O; Aben, R; Abi, B; Abolins, M; Abouzeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Addy, T N; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Aefsky, S; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Agustoni, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahmad, A; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Akesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Alam, M A; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Alimonti, G; Alio, L; Alison, J; Allbrooke, B M M; Allison, L J; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Almond, J; Aloisio, A; Alon, R; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Altheimer, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Ammosov, V V; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amram, N; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X S; Angelidakis, S; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aperio Bella, L; Apolle, R; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Arce, A T H; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, E; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnal, V; Arslan, O; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ask, S; Asman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Astbury, A; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Auerbach, B; Auge, E; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Bacci, C; Bach, A M; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Backus Mayes, J; Badescu, E; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bailey, D C; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baker, S; Balek, P; Balli, F; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Banfi, D; Bangert, A; Bansal, V; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Baranov, S P; Barber, T; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Baroncelli, A; 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Taylor, W; Teischinger, F A; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M; Teixeira-Dias, P; Temming, K K; Ten Kate, H; Teng, P K; Terada, S; Terashi, K; Terron, J; Terzo, S; Testa, M; Teuscher, R J; Therhaag, J; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T; Thoma, S; Thomas, J P; Thomas-Wilsker, J; Thompson, E N; Thompson, P D; Thompson, P D; Thompson, A S; Thomsen, L A; Thomson, E; Thomson, M; Thong, W M; Thun, R P; Tian, F; Tibbetts, M J; Tic, T; Tikhomirov, V O; Tikhonov, Yu A; Timoshenko, S; Tiouchichine, E; Tipton, P; Tisserant, S; Todorov, T; Todorova-Nova, S; Toggerson, B; Tojo, J; Tokár, S; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tomlinson, L; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, L; Toms, K; Topilin, N D; Torrence, E; Torres, H; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J; Touchard, F; Tovey, D R; Tran, H L; Trefzger, T; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I M; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tripiana, M F; Triplett, N; Trischuk, W; Trocmé, B; Troncon, C; Trottier-McDonald, M; Trovatelli, M; True, P; Trzebinski, M; Trzupek, A; Tsarouchas, C; Tseng, J C-L; Tsiareshka, P V; Tsionou, D; Tsipolitis, G; Tsirintanis, N; Tsiskaridze, S; Tsiskaridze, V; Tskhadadze, E G; Tsukerman, I I; Tsulaia, V; Tsung, J-W; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Tua, A; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Tuna, A N; Tupputi, S A; Turchikhin, S; Turecek, D; Turk Cakir, I; Turra, R; Tuts, P M; Tykhonov, A; Tylmad, M; Tyndel, M; Uchida, K; Ueda, I; Ueno, R; Ughetto, M; Ugland, M; Uhlenbrock, M; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Undrus, A; Unel, G; Ungaro, F C; Unno, Y; Urbaniec, D; Urquijo, P; Usai, G; Usanova, A; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Valencic, N; Valentinetti, S; Valero, A; Valery, L; Valkar, S; Valladolid Gallego, E; Vallecorsa, S; Valls Ferrer, J A; Van Berg, R; Van Der Deijl, P C; van der Geer, R; van der Graaf, H; Van Der Leeuw, R; van der Ster, D; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; Van Nieuwkoop, J; van Vulpen, I; van Woerden, M C; Vanadia, M; Vandelli, W; Vaniachine, A; Vankov, P; Vannucci, F; Vardanyan, G; Vari, R; Varnes, E W; Varol, T; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vassilakopoulos, V I; Vazeille, F; Vazquez Schroeder, T; Veatch, J; Veloso, F; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Ventura, D; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Venturini, A; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Viazlo, O; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Vickey Boeriu, O E; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Vigne, R; Villa, M; Villaplana Perez, M; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinogradov, V B; Virzi, J; Vitells, O; Vivarelli, I; Vives Vaque, F; Vlachos, S; Vladoiu, D; Vlasak, M; Vogel, A; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Volpi, M; von der Schmitt, H; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vos, M; Voss, R; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vu Anh, T; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Vykydal, Z; Wagner, W; Wagner, P; Wahrmund, S; Wakabayashi, J; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wall, R; Waller, P; Walsh, B; Wang, C; Wang, C; Wang, H; Wang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, K; Wang, R; Wang, S M; Wang, T; Wang, X; Warburton, A; Ward, C P; Wardrope, D R; Warsinsky, M; Washbrook, A; Wasicki, C; Watanabe, I; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, I J; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, A T; Waugh, B M; Webb, S; Weber, M S; Weber, S W; Webster, J S; Weidberg, A R; Weigell, P; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Weits, H; Wells, P S; Wenaus, T; Wendland, D; Weng, Z; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wetter, J; Whalen, K; White, A; White, M J; White, R; White, S; Whiteson, D; Whittington, D; Wicke, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik-Fuchs, L A M; Wijeratne, P A; Wildauer, A; Wildt, M A; Wilkens, H G; Will, J Z; Williams, H H; Williams, S; Willocq, S; Wilson, J A; Wilson, A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winkelmann, S; Winklmeier, F; Wittgen, M; Wittig, T; Wittkowski, J; Wollstadt, S J; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wraight, K; Wright, M; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wulf, E; Wyatt, T R; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xiao, M; Xu, D; Xu, L; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yamada, M; Yamaguchi, H; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, S; Yamamura, T; Yamanaka, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, H; Yang, U K; Yang, Y; Yanush, S; Yao, L; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Yau Wong, K H; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yen, A L; Yildirim, E; Yilmaz, M; Yoosoofmiya, R; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J M; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zaman, A; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zaytsev, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zengel, K; Zenin, O; Zeniš, T; Zerwas, D; Zevi Della Porta, G; Zhang, D; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimin, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, S; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Ziolkowski, M; Zitoun, R; Zivković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zurzolo, G; Zutshi, V; Zwalinski, L

    2014-03-07

    This Letter presents a search for quantum black-hole production using 20.3 fb-1 of data collected with the ATLAS detector in pp collisions at the LHC at √s = 8 TeV. The quantum black holes are assumed to decay into a final state characterized by a lepton (electron or muon) and a jet. In either channel, no event with a lepton-jet invariant mass of 3.5 TeV or more is observed, consistent with the expected background. Limits are set on the product of cross sections and branching fractions for the lepton+jet final states of quantum black holes produced in a search region for invariant masses above 1 TeV. The combined 95% confidence level upper limit on this product for quantum black holes with threshold mass above 3.5 TeV is 0.18 fb. This limit constrains the threshold quantum black-hole mass to be above 5.3 TeV in the model considered.

  3. SUSY simplified models at 14, 33, and 100 TeV proton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Timothy; Golling, Tobias; Hance, Mike; Henrichs, Anna; Howe, Kiel; Loyal, Joshua; Padhi, Sanjay; Wacker, Jay G.

    2014-01-01

    Results are presented for a variety of SUSY Simplified Models at the 14 TeV LHC as well as a 33 and 100 TeV proton collider. Our focus is on models whose signals are driven by colored production. We present projections of the upper limit and discovery reach in the gluino-neutralino (for both light and heavy flavor decays), squark-neutralino, and gluino-squark Simplified Model planes. Depending on the model a jets + E T miss , mono-jet, or same-sign di-lepton search is applied. The impact of pileup is explored. This study utilizes the Snowmass backgrounds and combined detector. Assuming 3000/,fb −1 of integrated luminosity, a gluino that decays to light flavor quarks can be discovered below 2.3 TeV at the 14 TeV LHC and below 11 TeV at a 100 TeV machine

  4. Substitution dynamical systems spectral analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Queffélec, Martine

    2010-01-01

    This volume mainly deals with the dynamics of finitely valued sequences, and more specifically, of sequences generated by substitutions and automata. Those sequences demonstrate fairly simple combinatorical and arithmetical properties and naturally appear in various domains. As the title suggests, the aim of the initial version of this book was the spectral study of the associated dynamical systems: the first chapters consisted in a detailed introduction to the mathematical notions involved, and the description of the spectral invariants followed in the closing chapters. This approach, combined with new material added to the new edition, results in a nearly self-contained book on the subject. New tools - which have also proven helpful in other contexts - had to be developed for this study. Moreover, its findings can be concretely applied, the method providing an algorithm to exhibit the spectral measures and the spectral multiplicity, as is demonstrated in several examples. Beyond this advanced analysis, many...

  5. Hadron supercolliders: The 1-TeV scale and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, C.

    1990-01-01

    Greater understanding of the connection between the weak and electromagnetic interactions is central to progress in elementary-particle physics. A definitive exploration of the mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking will require collisions between fundamental constituents at energies on the order of 1 TeV. This goal drives the design of high-energy, high-luminosity hadron colliders that will be commissioned during the next decade, but by no means completely defines their scientific potential. These three lectures are devoted to a review of the standard-model issues that motivated an experimental assault on the 1-TeV scale, an introduction to the machines and the experimental environment they will present, and a survey of possibilities for measurement and discovery with a multi-TeV hadron collider. 72 refs., 29 figs

  6. Prospects for Galactic TeV Neutrino Astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistler, Matthew D [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    In just the last few years, the catalog of known Galactic TeV gamma-ray sources has grown dramatically, due to the abilities of current air Cerenkov telescopes to measure both the spectrum and morphology of the TeV emission. While these properties can be very well measured, they are not necessarily sufficient to determine whether the gamma rays are produced by leptonic or hadronic processes. However, if the gamma-ray emission is hadronic, there must be an accompanying flux of neutrinos, which can be determined from the observed gamma-ray spectrum. The upcoming km3 neutrino telescopes will allow for a direct test of the gamma-ray production mechanism and the possibility of examining the highest possible energies, with important consequences for our understanding of Galactic cosmic-ray production.

  7. Prospects for Galactic TeV Neutrino Astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistler, Matthew D

    2007-01-01

    In just the last few years, the catalog of known Galactic TeV gamma-ray sources has grown dramatically, due to the abilities of current air Cerenkov telescopes to measure both the spectrum and morphology of the TeV emission. While these properties can be very well measured, they are not necessarily sufficient to determine whether the gamma rays are produced by leptonic or hadronic processes. However, if the gamma-ray emission is hadronic, there must be an accompanying flux of neutrinos, which can be determined from the observed gamma-ray spectrum. The upcoming km3 neutrino telescopes will allow for a direct test of the gamma-ray production mechanism and the possibility of examining the highest possible energies, with important consequences for our understanding of Galactic cosmic-ray production

  8. Controlling multibunch beam breakup in TeV linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, K.A.; Ruth, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    To obtain luminosities near 10 34 cm/sup /minus/2/sec/sup /minus/1/ in a TeV linear collider, it will probably be essential to accelerate many bunches per RF fill in order to increase the energy transfer efficiency. In this paper we study the transverse dynamics of multiple bunches in a linac, and we examine the effects of several methods of controlling the beam blow-up that would otherwise be induced by transverse dipole wake fields. The methods we study are: damping the transverse modes, adjusting the frequency of the dominant transverse modes so that bunches may be placed near zero-crossings of the transverse wake, and bunch-to-bunch variation of the transverse focusing. We study the utility of these cures in the main linacs of an example of a TeV collider. 16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  9. WW + jet at 14 and 100 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, John [Fermilab; Miller, David [Glasgow U.; Robens, Tania [Dresden, Tech. U.

    2016-11-05

    In the current LHC run, an accurate understanding of Standard Model processes is extremely important. Processes including electroweak gauge bosons serve as standard candles for SM measurements, and equally constitute important backgrounds for Beyond-the-Standard Model (BSM) searches. We present here the next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD virtual contributions to W+W- + jet in an analytic format obtained through unitarity methods. We present results for the full process using the Monte Carlo event generator MCFM, and discuss total as well as differential cross-sections for the LHC with 14 TeV center-of-mass energy, as well as a future 100 TeV proton-proton machine.

  10. Leptogenesis, dark matter and Higgs phenomenology at TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, P.-H.; Sarkar, Utpal

    2008-01-01

    We propose an interesting model of neutrino masses to realize leptogenesis and dark matter at the TeV scale. A real scalar is introduced to naturally realize the Majorana masses of the right-handed neutrinos. We also include a new Higgs doublet that contributes to the dark matter of the universe. The neutrino masses come from the vacuum expectation value of the triplet Higgs scalar. The right-handed neutrinos are not constrained by the neutrino masses and hence they could generate leptogenesis at the TeV scale without subscribing to resonant leptogenesis. In our model, all new particles could be observable at the forthcoming Large Hardon Collider or the proposed future International Linear Collider

  11. Adiabatic theorem and spectral concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenciu, G.

    1981-01-01

    The spectral concentration of arbitrary order, for the Stark effect is proved to exist for a large class of Hamiltonians appearing in nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum mechanics. The results are consequences of an abstract theorem about the spectral concentration for self-ad oint operators. A general form of the adiabatic theorem of quantum mechanics, generalizing an earlier result of the author as well as some results of Lenard, is also proved [ru

  12. Single-particle spectral density of the Hubbard model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehlig, B.; Eskes, H.; Hayn, R.; Meinders, M.B.J.

    1995-01-01

    We calculate the single-particle spectral function for the Hubbard model within the framework of a projection technique equivalent to the two-pole approximation. We show that the two-pole approximation can be well understood as an average characterization of the upper and the lower Hubbard bands,

  13. SINGLE-PARTICLE SPECTRAL DENSITY OF THE HUBBARD-MODEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEHLIG, B; ESKES, H; HAYN, R; MEINDERS, MBJ

    1995-01-01

    We calculate the single-particle spectral function for the Hubbard model within the framework of a projection technique equivalent to the two-pole approximation. We show that the two-pole approximation can be well understood as an average characterization of the upper and the lower Hubbard bands,

  14. Transplanckian collisions in TeV scale gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Rattazzi, Riccardo

    2004-01-01

    Collisions at transplanckian energies offer model independent tests of TeV scale gravity. One spectacular signal is given by black-hole production, though a full calculation of the corresponding cross- section is not yet available. Another signal is given by gravitational elastic scattering, which may be less spectacular but which can be nicely computed in the forward region using the eikonal approximation. In this talk I discuss the distinctive signatures of eikonalized scattering at future accelerators.

  15. 3.5 TeV : a good start!

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    To the pessimists out there, the 3.5 TeV starting energy of the LHC will be like a half-empty glass. However, the thousands of physicists working at the experiments certainly do not share these feelings. On the contrary, they are as excited as ever since they will be the first to observe what happens to matter in these (still) unprecedented conditions.

  16. Cosmic Ray and Tev Gamma Ray Generation by Quasar Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, Elihu; Loewenstein, Michael; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Results from new broadband (radio to X-ray) high-resolution imaging studies of the dormant quasar remnant cores of nearby giant elliptical galaxies are now shown to permit the harboring of compact dynamos capable of generating the highest energy cosmic ray particles and associated curvature radiation of TeV photons. Confirmation would imply a global inflow of interstellar gas all the way to the accretion powered supermassive black hole at the center of the host galaxy.

  17. Precision muon detectors in the TeV region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, U.; Chen, M.; Fukushima, M.; Rykaczewski, H.; Ting, S.C.C.; Harris, M.; Wittgenstein, F.; Hofer, H.; Lecomte, P.

    1986-12-15

    We present a design study, based on our experience in the construction of the L3 detector at LEP, of a large solid angle muon detector for a high luminosity (> 10/sup 33/ cm/sup -2//sec) pp collider. It is shown that a resolution of ..delta..M/Mproportional to 1% can be reached for a one TeV particle T->..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/. Hadron jets can also be measured.

  18. Electron-positron physics at 1 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, G.J.

    1988-03-01

    We discuss the motivation for TeV e + e/sup /minus// linear colliders, some aspects of their design, and the experimental consequences that follow from the design. After a brief discussion of the general physics environment, we consider the discovery potential of these colliders by examining three sample processes: the detection of new heavy leptons, standard Higgs bosons, and charged Higgs bosons. 13 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Flat beams in a 50 TeV hadron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peggs, S.; Harrison, M.; Pilat, F.; Syphers, M.

    1997-01-01

    The basic beam dynamics of a next generation 50 x 50 TeV hadron collider based on a high field magnet approach have been outlined over the past several years. Radiation damping not only produces small emittances, but also flat beams, just as in electron machines. Based on open-quotes Snowmass 96close quotes parameters, we investigate the issues associated with flat beams in very high energy hadron colliders

  20. Phenomenology of NMSSM in TeV scale mirage mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagimoto, Kei [Department of Physics, Kyushu University,744, Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University,Kita 10, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Makino, Hiroki; Okumura, Ken-ichi [Department of Physics, Kyushu University,744, Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Shimomura, Takashi [Faculty of Education and Culture, University of Miyazaki,1-1, Gakuen Kibanadai Nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    We study the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM) with the TeV scale mirage mediation, which is known as a solution for the little hierarchy problem in supersymmetry. Our previous study showed that 125 GeV Higgs boson is realized with O(10)% fine-tuning for 1.5 TeV gluino (1 TeV stop) mass. The μ term could be as large as 500 GeV without sacrificing the fine-tuning thanks to a cancellation mechanism. The singlet-doublet mixing is suppressed by tan β. In this paper, we further extend this analysis. We argue that approximate scale symmetries play a role behind the suppression of the singlet-doublet mixing. They reduce the mixing matrix to a simple form that is useful to understand the results of the numerical analysis. We perform a comprehensive analysis of the fine-tuning including the singlet sector by introducing a simple formula for the fine-tuning measure. This shows that the singlet mass of the least fine-tuning is favored by the LEP anomaly for moderate tan β. We also discuss prospects for the precision measurements of the Higgs couplings at LHC and ILC and direct/indirect dark matter searches in the model.

  1. LHC Report: First 13TeV collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    Jan Uythoven for the LHC team

    2015-01-01

    On Wednesday 20 May at around 10.30 p.m., protons collided in the LHC at the record-breaking energy of 13 TeV for the first time. These test collisions were to set up various systems and, in particular, the collimators. The tests and the technical adjustments will continue in the coming days.   The CCC was abuzz as the LHC experiments saw 13 TeV collisions.   Preparation for the first physics run at 6.5 TeV per beam has continued in the LHC. This included the set-up and verification of the machine protection systems. In addition, precise measurements of the overall focusing properties of the ring – the so-called “optics” – were performed by inducing oscillations of the bunches, and observing the response over many turns with the beam position monitors (BPM). The transverse beam size in the accelerator changes from the order of a millimetre around most of the circumference down to some tens of microns at the centre of the exper...

  2. Phenomenology of NMSSM in TeV scale mirage mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagimoto, Kei; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Makino, Hiroki; Okumura, Ken-ichi; Shimomura, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We study the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM) with the TeV scale mirage mediation, which is known as a solution for the little hierarchy problem in supersymmetry. Our previous study showed that 125 GeV Higgs boson is realized with O(10)% fine-tuning for 1.5 TeV gluino (1 TeV stop) mass. The μ term could be as large as 500 GeV without sacrificing the fine-tuning thanks to a cancellation mechanism. The singlet-doublet mixing is suppressed by tan β. In this paper, we further extend this analysis. We argue that approximate scale symmetries play a role behind the suppression of the singlet-doublet mixing. They reduce the mixing matrix to a simple form that is useful to understand the results of the numerical analysis. We perform a comprehensive analysis of the fine-tuning including the singlet sector by introducing a simple formula for the fine-tuning measure. This shows that the singlet mass of the least fine-tuning is favored by the LEP anomaly for moderate tan β. We also discuss prospects for the precision measurements of the Higgs couplings at LHC and ILC and direct/indirect dark matter searches in the model.

  3. TeV Particle Astrophysics 2010, Booklet of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None, C.; Davide Ferella, A.; Pato, M.; Catena, R.; Salucci, P.; Rielage, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Degunda, U.; Estrada, J.; Yue, Q.; Benbow, W.; Maestro, P.; Berghaus, P.; Benzvi, S.; Gallant, Y.; Coniglione, R.; Frey, R.; Besson, D.; Odrowski, S.; Ernenwein, J.P.; Dios Zornosa, J. de; Colnard, C.; Cavalcante de Souza, J.; Fraija, N.; Cerdeno, D.; Moroi, T.; Kumar, J.; Slatyer, T.; Yaguna, C.; Thomson, G.; Tameda, Y.; Taylor, A.; Giacinti, G.; Calvez, A.; Kotera, K.; Shinozaki, K.; Aharonian, F.; Essey, W.; Ahlers, M.; Fargion, D.; Canadas, B.; Boehm, C.; Palomares-Ruiz, S.; Panci, P.; Sanchez-Conde, M.A.; Hensley, B.; Vivier, M.; Hooper, D.; Finkbeiner, D.; Dobler, G.; Malyshev, D.; Mertsch, P.; Giannios, D.; Dalton, M.; Casandijan, J.M.; Mukherjee, R.; Morlino, G.; Ando, S.; Gilmore, R.; Medina, C.; Weitzel, Q.; Caprioli, D.; Vovk, I.; Vincent, S.; Delahaye, T.; Lavalle, J.; Galli, S.; Crocker, R.; Catena, R.; Cholis, I.; Sandick, P.; Rydberg, C.E.; Hulss, J.P.; Danninger, M.; Tran, D.; Spolyar, D.; Belanger, G.; Ronga, F.; Montanino, D.; Fornasa, M.; Regoes, E.; Caprioli, D.; Morlino, G.; Ostapchenko, S.; Kawanaka, N.; Kalli, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Boutayeb, B.; Casanellas, J.; Lopes, I.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the conference is to bring together theorists and experimentalists working in the fields of Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology, with a shared interest in physical processes at the TeV energy scale. After decades of theoretical speculation, the exploration of the TeV energy frontier has now in fact begun, with the results provided by ground-based and space-born observatories of gamma-rays (Fermi, HESS, Magic, Veritas, Cangaroo, Milagro), anti-matter (PAMELA, ATIC, HESS and soon AMS-02) and neutrinos (IceCube, Antares), with a large number of ongoing direct Dark Matter search experiments exploiting different detection techniques, and with the TeV particle accelerators Tevatron and the Large Hadron Collider. The physics underlying these experiments involves many intertwined issues, such as the nature of Dark Matter, Physics beyond the Standard Model, the origin of Cosmic Rays and the distribution of Dark and visible matter in the Universe. This document gathers only the abstracts of the papers. (authors)

  4. On the Use of Complementary Spectral Features for Speaker Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Krishnan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The most popular features for speaker recognition are Mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs and linear prediction cepstral coefficients (LPCCs. These features are used extensively because they characterize the vocal tract configuration which is known to be highly speaker-dependent. In this work, several features are introduced that can characterize the vocal system in order to complement the traditional features and produce better speaker recognition models. The spectral centroid (SC, spectral bandwidth (SBW, spectral band energy (SBE, spectral crest factor (SCF, spectral flatness measure (SFM, Shannon entropy (SE, and Renyi entropy (RE were utilized for this purpose. This work demonstrates that these features are robust in noisy conditions by simulating some common distortions that are found in the speakers' environment and a typical telephone channel. Babble noise, additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN, and a bandpass channel with 1 dB of ripple were used to simulate these noisy conditions. The results show significant improvements in classification performance for all noise conditions when these features were used to complement the MFCC and ΔMFCC features. In particular, the SC and SCF improved performance in almost all noise conditions within the examined SNR range (10–40 dB. For example, in cases where there was only one source of distortion, classification improvements of up to 8% and 10% were achieved under babble noise and AWGN, respectively, using the SCF feature.

  5. Synthesis, spectral characterization thermal stability, antimicrobial studies and biodegradation of starch–thiourea based biodegradable polymeric ligand and its coordination complexes with [Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II)] metals

    OpenAIRE

    Nahid Nishat; Ashraf Malik

    2016-01-01

    A biodegradable polymer was synthesized by the modification reaction of polymeric starch with thiourea which is further modified by transition metals, Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II). All the polymeric compounds were characterized by (FT-IR) spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy, 13C NMR spectroscopy, UV–visible spectra, magnetic moment measurements, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and antibacterial activities. Polymer complexes of Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) show octahedral geometry, wh...

  6. B-factory via conversion of 1-TeV electron beams into 1-TeV photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mtingwa, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the study of CP violation and rare decays of beauty particles which are pressing problems in high-energy physics. It is known that one should analyze beauty decays of at least the order of 10 8 or 19 9 . Thus, numerous proposals for beauty factories are being discussed now, although some of these projects are likely to supply much smaller numbers of beauty events. At the same time, at present several projects, such as CLIC (Cern Linear Collider), expect to build linear e + e - colliders with beam energies up to 1 TeV. The aim of this work is to show that the possibility exists of using the unique features of the discussed teraelectron volt electron linacs to obtain a facility for the production of beauty via photoproduction of nuclei. Unique features of high-energy photoproduction are as follows. The rather large fraction (∼2 x 10 -4 ) of events with beauty at E γ ∼ 1 TeV. Beauty particles are produced with about equally large momenta ∼0.05 E γ and at rather large transverse momenta p t ∼ m b . The following scheme can be envisioned. The 1-TeV electron beam is Compton scattered off a low-energy (∼ 1-eV) laser pulse. The laser photons are thus converted into a highly collimated beam of energy E γ ∼ E e , directed along the electron's original line of motion. Such schemes to produce high-energy photon beams have been discussed. These 1-TeV photons are subsequently scattered onto a nuclear target to produce b bar b pairs

  7. Onboard spectral imager data processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Leonard J.; Meigs, Andrew D.; Franklin, Abraham J.; Sears, Robert D.; Robison, Mark W.; Rafert, J. Bruce; Fronterhouse, Donald C.; Grotbeck, Ronald L.

    1999-10-01

    Previous papers have described the concept behind the MightySat II.1 program, the satellite's Fourier Transform imaging spectrometer's optical design, the design for the spectral imaging payload, and its initial qualification testing. This paper discusses the on board data processing designed to reduce the amount of downloaded data by an order of magnitude and provide a demonstration of a smart spaceborne spectral imaging sensor. Two custom components, a spectral imager interface 6U VME card that moves data at over 30 MByte/sec, and four TI C-40 processors mounted to a second 6U VME and daughter card, are used to adapt the sensor to the spacecraft and provide the necessary high speed processing. A system architecture that offers both on board real time image processing and high-speed post data collection analysis of the spectral data has been developed. In addition to the on board processing of the raw data into a usable spectral data volume, one feature extraction technique has been incorporated. This algorithm operates on the basic interferometric data. The algorithm is integrated within the data compression process to search for uploadable feature descriptions.

  8. Intersection numbers of spectral curves

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, B.

    2011-01-01

    We compute the symplectic invariants of an arbitrary spectral curve with only 1 branchpoint in terms of integrals of characteristic classes in the moduli space of curves. Our formula associates to any spectral curve, a characteristic class, which is determined by the laplace transform of the spectral curve. This is a hint to the key role of Laplace transform in mirror symmetry. When the spectral curve is y=\\sqrt{x}, the formula gives Kontsevich--Witten intersection numbers, when the spectral curve is chosen to be the Lambert function \\exp{x}=y\\exp{-y}, the formula gives the ELSV formula for Hurwitz numbers, and when one chooses the mirror of C^3 with framing f, i.e. \\exp{-x}=\\exp{-yf}(1-\\exp{-y}), the formula gives the Marino-Vafa formula, i.e. the generating function of Gromov-Witten invariants of C^3. In some sense this formula generalizes ELSV, Marino-Vafa formula, and Mumford formula.

  9. Spectral filtering for plant production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R.E.; McMahon, M.J.; Rajapakse, N.C.; Becoteau, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Research to date suggests that spectral filtering can be an effective alternative to chemical growth regulators for altering plant development. If properly implemented, it can be nonchemical and environmentally friendly. The aqueous CuSO{sub 4}, and CuCl{sub 2} solutions in channelled plastic panels have been shown to be effective filters, but they can be highly toxic if the solutions contact plants. Some studies suggest that spectral filtration limited to short EOD intervals can also alter plant development. Future research should be directed toward confirmation of the influence of spectral filters and exposure times on a broader range of plant species and cultivars. Efforts should also be made to identify non-noxious alternatives to aqueous copper solutions and/or to incorporate these chemicals permanently into plastic films and panels that can be used in greenhouse construction. It would also be informative to study the impacts of spectral filters on insect and microbal populations in plant growth facilities. The economic impacts of spectral filtering techniques should be assessed for each delivery methodology.

  10. Spectral dimension of quantum geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Oriti, Daniele; Thürigen, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The spectral dimension is an indicator of geometry and topology of spacetime and a tool to compare the description of quantum geometry in various approaches to quantum gravity. This is possible because it can be defined not only on smooth geometries but also on discrete (e.g., simplicial) ones. In this paper, we consider the spectral dimension of quantum states of spatial geometry defined on combinatorial complexes endowed with additional algebraic data: the kinematical quantum states of loop quantum gravity (LQG). Preliminarily, the effects of topology and discreteness of classical discrete geometries are studied in a systematic manner. We look for states reproducing the spectral dimension of a classical space in the appropriate regime. We also test the hypothesis that in LQG, as in other approaches, there is a scale dependence of the spectral dimension, which runs from the topological dimension at large scales to a smaller one at short distances. While our results do not give any strong support to this hypothesis, we can however pinpoint when the topological dimension is reproduced by LQG quantum states. Overall, by exploring the interplay of combinatorial, topological and geometrical effects, and by considering various kinds of quantum states such as coherent states and their superpositions, we find that the spectral dimension of discrete quantum geometries is more sensitive to the underlying combinatorial structures than to the details of the additional data associated with them. (paper)

  11. Spectral Imaging of Portolan Charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Fenella G.; Wilson, Meghan A.; Ghez, Anita

    2018-05-01

    Spectral imaging of Portolan Charts, early nautical charts, provided extensive new information about their construction and creation. The origins of the portolan chart style have been a continual source of perplexity to numerous generations of cartographic historians. The spectral imaging system utilized incorporates a 50 megapixel mono-chrome camera with light emitting diode (LED) illumination panels that cover the range from 365 nm to 1050 nm to capture visible and non-visible information. There is little known about how portolan charts evolved, and what influenced their creation. These early nautical charts began as working navigational tools of medieval mariners, initially made in the 1300s in Italy, Portugal and Spain; however the origin and development of the portolan chart remained shrouded in mystery. Questions about these early navigational charts included whether colorants were commensurate with the time period and geographical location, and if different, did that give insight into trade routes, or possible later additions to the charts? For example; spectral data showed the red pigment on both the 1320 portolan chart and the 1565 Galapagos Islands matched vermillion, an opaque red pigment used since antiquity. The construction of these charts was also of great interest. Spectral imaging with a range of illumination modes revealed the presence of a "hidden circle" often referred to in relation to their construction. This paper will present in-depth analysis of how spectral imaging of the Portolans revealed similarities and differences, new hidden information and shed new light on construction and composition.

  12. Snapshot spectral and polarimetric imaging; target identification with multispectral video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Brent D.; Rodriguez, Mikel D.

    2013-05-01

    As the number of pixels continue to grow in consumer and scientific imaging devices, it has become feasible to collect the incident light field. In this paper, an imaging device developed around light field imaging is used to collect multispectral and polarimetric imagery in a snapshot fashion. The sensor is described and a video data set is shown highlighting the advantage of snapshot spectral imaging. Several novel computer vision approaches are applied to the video cubes to perform scene characterization and target identification. It is shown how the addition of spectral and polarimetric data to the video stream allows for multi-target identification and tracking not possible with traditional RGB video collection.

  13. Spectral SAR Ecotoxicology of Ionic Liquids: The Daphnia magna Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putz, M.V.; Lacrama, A.M.; Ostafe, V.; Lacrama, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Aiming to provide a unified theory of ionic liquids eco toxicity, the recent spectral structure activity relationship (S-SAR) algorithm is employed for testing the two additive models of anionic-cationic interaction containing ionic liquid activity: the causal and the endpoint, |0+> and |1+> models, respectively. As a working system, the Daphnia magna eco toxicity was characterized through the formulated and applied spectral chemical-eco biological interaction principles. Specific anionic-cationic-ionic-liquid rules of interaction along the developed mechanistic hypersurface map of the main eco toxicity paths together with the so-called resonance limitation of the standard statistical correlation analysis were revealed.

  14. Manifold learning based feature extraction for classification of hyper-spectral data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lunga, D

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Advances in hyperspectral sensing provide new capability for characterizing spectral signatures in a wide range of physical and biological systems, while inspiring new methods for extracting information from these data. Hyperspectral image data...

  15. Spectrally based mapping of riverbed composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legleiter, Carl; Stegman, Tobin K.; Overstreet, Brandon T.

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing methods provide an efficient means of characterizing fluvial systems. This study evaluated the potential to map riverbed composition based on in situ and/or remote measurements of reflectance. Field spectra and substrate photos from the Snake River, Wyoming, USA, were used to identify different sediment facies and degrees of algal development and to quantify their optical characteristics. We hypothesized that accounting for the effects of depth and water column attenuation to isolate the reflectance of the streambed would enhance distinctions among bottom types and facilitate substrate classification. A bottom reflectance retrieval algorithm adapted from coastal research yielded realistic spectra for the 450 to 700 nm range; but bottom reflectance-based substrate classifications, generated using a random forest technique, were no more accurate than classifications derived from above-water field spectra. Additional hypothesis testing indicated that a combination of reflectance magnitude (brightness) and indices of spectral shape provided the most accurate riverbed classifications. Convolving field spectra to the response functions of a multispectral satellite and a hyperspectral imaging system did not reduce classification accuracies, implying that high spectral resolution was not essential. Supervised classifications of algal density produced from hyperspectral data and an inferred bottom reflectance image were not highly accurate, but unsupervised classification of the bottom reflectance image revealed distinct spectrally based clusters, suggesting that such an image could provide additional river information. We attribute the failure of bottom reflectance retrieval to yield more reliable substrate maps to a latent correlation between depth and bottom type. Accounting for the effects of depth might have eliminated a key distinction among substrates and thus reduced discriminatory power. Although further, more systematic study across a broader

  16. Examination of Spectral Transformations on Spectral Mixture Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y.; Wu, C.

    2018-04-01

    While many spectral transformation techniques have been applied on spectral mixture analysis (SMA), few study examined their necessity and applicability. This paper focused on exploring the difference between spectrally transformed schemes and untransformed scheme to find out which transformed scheme performed better in SMA. In particular, nine spectrally transformed schemes as well as untransformed scheme were examined in two study areas. Each transformed scheme was tested 100 times using different endmember classes' spectra under the endmember model of vegetation- high albedo impervious surface area-low albedo impervious surface area-soil (V-ISAh-ISAl-S). Performance of each scheme was assessed based on mean absolute error (MAE). Statistical analysis technique, Paired-Samples T test, was applied to test the significance of mean MAEs' difference between transformed and untransformed schemes. Results demonstrated that only NSMA could exceed the untransformed scheme in all study areas. Some transformed schemes showed unstable performance since they outperformed the untransformed scheme in one area but weakened the SMA result in another region.

  17. Spectral ellipsometry of nanodiamond composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yastrebov, S.G.; Ivanov-Omskij, V.I.; Gordeev, S.K.; Garriga, M.; Alonso, I.A.

    2006-01-01

    Methods of spectral ellipsometry were applied for analysis of optical properties of nanodiamond based composite in spectral region 1.4-5 eV. The nanocomposite was synthesized by molding of ultradispersed nanodiamond powder in the course of heterogeneous chemical reaction of decomposition of methane, forming pyrocarbon interconnecting nanodiamond grains. The energy of σ + π plasmon of pyrocarbon component of nanodiamond composite was restored which proves to be ∼ 24 eV; using this value, an estimation was done of pyrocarbon matrix density, which occurs to be 2 g/cm 3 [ru

  18. Synthesis, spectral characterization thermal stability, antimicrobial studies and biodegradation of starch–thiourea based biodegradable polymeric ligand and its coordination complexes with [Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, and Zn(II] metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Nishat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A biodegradable polymer was synthesized by the modification reaction of polymeric starch with thiourea which is further modified by transition metals, Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II. All the polymeric compounds were characterized by (FT-IR spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy, 13C NMR spectroscopy, UV–visible spectra, magnetic moment measurements, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and antibacterial activities. Polymer complexes of Mn(II, Co(II and Ni(II show octahedral geometry, while polymer complexes of Cu(II and Zn(II show square planar and tetrahedral geometry, respectively. The TGA revealed that all the polymer metal complexes are more thermally stable than their parental ligand. In addition, biodegradable studies of all the polymeric compounds were also carried out through ASTM-D-5338-93 standards of biodegradable polymers by CO2 evolution method which says that coordination decreases biodegradability. The antibacterial activity was screened with the agar well diffusion method against some selected microorganisms. Among all the complexes, the antibacterial activity of the Cu(II polymer–metal complex showed the highest zone of inhibition because of its higher stability constant.

  19. SYNTHESIS, SPECTRAL AND THEORETICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF 5,6-DICHLORO/DIMETHYL-2-(2´,3´/2´,4´/2´,5´/3´,4´/3´,5´-DIMETHOXYPHENYL-1H-BENZIMIDAZOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Gürbüz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available 5,6-Dichloro/dimethyl-2-(2´,3´/2´,4´/2´,5´/3´,4´/3´,5´-dimethoxyphenyl-1H-benzimidazoles were synthesized and characterized by using analytical data, FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR, ESI-MS and fl uorescence spectroscopy. The optimized molecular geometry, zero point energy, dipole moment, ESE, band gap and charge distributions were calculated by Gaussian 09 using Density Functional Theory (DFT, RB3LYP with 6-31++G(d,p basis set. According to the calculations, the molecules have structures with various torsion angles between the benzimidazole and benzene rings from 9.7º to 47.8º. The calculated energy values with ZPE correction and DFT show that the methyl derivatives are more stable than the chloro forms. 3´,4´-Dimethoxy derivatives have higher decomposition points in comparison with the other compounds in series. The chlorine atoms of 5,6-dichloro-2- (2´,3´/2´,4´/2´,5´/3´,4´/3´,5´-dimethoxyphenyl-1H-benzimidazoles are positively charged whereas the C5 and C6 carbon atoms are negatively charged due to the attached chlorine atoms, in virtue of the electron withdrawing characteristic of the imidazole part of the benzimidazole ring. Also, some calculated prominent bond lengths and bond angles were discussed.

  20. EXOPLANETARY DETECTION BY MULTIFRACTAL SPECTRAL ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Sahil; Wettlaufer, John S. [Program in Applied Mathematics, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Sordo, Fabio Del [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Owing to technological advances, the number of exoplanets discovered has risen dramatically in the last few years. However, when trying to observe Earth analogs, it is often difficult to test the veracity of detection. We have developed a new approach to the analysis of exoplanetary spectral observations based on temporal multifractality, which identifies timescales that characterize planetary orbital motion around the host star and those that arise from stellar features such as spots. Without fitting stellar models to spectral data, we show how the planetary signal can be robustly detected from noisy data using noise amplitude as a source of information. For observation of transiting planets, combining this method with simple geometry allows us to relate the timescales obtained to primary and secondary eclipse of the exoplanets. Making use of data obtained with ground-based and space-based observations we have tested our approach on HD 189733b. Moreover, we have investigated the use of this technique in measuring planetary orbital motion via Doppler shift detection. Finally, we have analyzed synthetic spectra obtained using the SOAP 2.0 tool, which simulates a stellar spectrum and the influence of the presence of a planet or a spot on that spectrum over one orbital period. We have demonstrated that, so long as the signal-to-noise-ratio ≥ 75, our approach reconstructs the planetary orbital period, as well as the rotation period of a spot on the stellar surface.

  1. Classification of breast microcalcifications using spectral mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghammraoui, B.; Glick, S. J.

    2017-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential of spectral mammography to distinguish between type I calcifications, consisting of calcium oxalate dihydrate or weddellite compounds that are more often associated with benign lesions, and type II calcifications containing hydroxyapatite which are predominantly associated with malignant tumors. Methods: Using a ray tracing algorithm, we simulated the total number of x-ray photons recorded by the detector at one pixel from a single pencil-beam projection through a breast of 50/50 (adipose/glandular) tissues with inserted microcalcifications of different types and sizes. Material decomposition using two energy bins was then applied to characterize the simulated calcifications into hydroxyapatite and weddellite using maximumlikelihood estimation, taking into account the polychromatic source, the detector response function and the energy dependent attenuation. Results: Simulation tests were carried out for different doses and calcification sizes for multiple realizations. The results were summarized using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis with the area under the curve (AUC) taken as an overall indicator of discrimination performance and showing high AUC values up to 0.99. Conclusion: Our simulation results obtained for a uniform breast imaging phantom indicate that spectral mammography using two energy bins has the potential to be used as a non-invasive method for discrimination between type I and type II microcalcifications to improve early breast cancer diagnosis and reduce the number of unnecessary breast biopsies.

  2. Spectrally resolved single-molecule electrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, F.; Krishnan, M.

    2018-03-01

    Escape-time electrometry is a recently developed experimental technique that offers the ability to measure the effective electrical charge of a single biomolecule in solution with sub-elementary charge precision. The approach relies on measuring the average escape-time of a single charged macromolecule or molecular species transiently confined in an electrostatic fluidic trap. Comparing the experiments with the predictions of a mean-field model of molecular electrostatics, we have found that the measured effective charge even reports on molecular conformation, e.g., folded or disordered state, and non-uniform charge distribution in disordered proteins or polyelectrolytes. Here we demonstrate the ability to use the spectral dimension to distinguish minute differences in electrical charge between individual molecules or molecular species in a single simultaneous measurement, under identical experimental conditions. Using one spectral channel for referenced measurement, this kind of photophysical distinguishability essentially eliminates the need for accurate knowledge of key experimental parameters, otherwise obtained through intensive characterization of the experimental setup. As examples, we demonstrate the ability to detect small differences (˜5%) in the length of double-stranded DNA fragments as well as single amino acid exchange in an intrinsically disordered protein, prothymosin α.

  3. Plot of invariant mass distribution of diphoton candidates after all selections of the inclusive analysis for the combined 7 TeV and 8 TeV data

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Invariant mass distribution of diphoton candidates after all selections of the inclusive analysis for the combined 7 TeV and 8 TeV data. The result of a fit to the data with the sum of a SM Higgs boson signal (with mH =126.8 GeV and free signal strength) and background is superimposed. The residuals of the data with respect to the fitted background are displayed in the lower panel.

  4. Search for contact interactions using the inclusive jet $P_{T}$ spectrum in PP collisions st $\\sqrt{s}$= 7 TEV

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffrey David Haas

    2013-01-01

    We report results of a search for a deviation in the jet production cross section from theprediction of perturbative quantum chromodynamics at next-to-leading order. The searchis conducted using a 7 TeV proton-proton data sample corresponding to an integratedluminosity of 5.0 fb−1 , collected with the Compact Muon Solenoid detector at the LargeHadron Collider. A deviation could arise from interactions characterized by a mass scaleΛ too high to be probed directly at the LHC. Such phenomena can be modeled as contactinteractions. No evidence of a deviation is found. Using a Bayesian method lower limits areset on Λ of 10.1 TeV and 14.1 TeV at 95% confidence level for models with destructive andconstructive interference, respectively.hierarchy, is located away from CERN. The 7 Tier-1 sites archive the LHC proton-protoncollision data that is initially processed at CERN. These sites provide access to all recordedand simulated data for the Tier-2 sites, via wide-area network (WAN) transfers. All centraldata proc...

  5. Advances in spectral inversion of time-domain induced polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    The extraction of spectral information in the inversion process of time-domain (TD) induced polarization (IP) data is changing the use of the TDIP method. Data interpretation is evolving from a qualitative description of the subsurface, able only to discriminate the presence of contrasts in charg......The extraction of spectral information in the inversion process of time-domain (TD) induced polarization (IP) data is changing the use of the TDIP method. Data interpretation is evolving from a qualitative description of the subsurface, able only to discriminate the presence of contrasts...... in chargeability parameters, towards a quantitative analysis of the investigated media, which allows for detailed soil- and rock-type characterization. In this work a review of the recent advances in spectral inversion of TDIP data is presented, in terms of: supported IP parameterizations; modelling of transmitter...

  6. Longwave thermal infrared spectral variability in individual rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balick, Lee K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gillespie, Alan [UN. WASHINGTON; French, Andrew [USDA-ARS; Danilina, Iryna [UN. WASHINGTON

    2008-01-01

    A hyperspectral imaging spectrometer measuring in the longwave thermal infrared (7.6-11.6 {micro}m) with a spatial resolution less than 4 mm was used in the field to observe the variability of emissivity spectra within individual rocks. The rocks were obtained commercially, were on the order of 20 cm in size and were selected to have distinct spectral features: they include alabaster (gypsum), soapstone (steatite with talc), obsidian (volcanic glass), norite (plagioclase and orthopyroxene), and 'jasper' (silica with iron oxides). The advantages of using an imaging spectrometer to spectrally characterize these rocks are apparent. Large spectral variations were observed within individual rocks that may be attributed to roughness, surface geometry, and compositional variation. Non-imaging spectrometers would normally miss these variations as would small samples used in laboratory measurements, spatially averaged spectra can miss the optimum spectra for identification materials and spatially localized components of the rock can be obscured.

  7. Spectral network based on component cells under the SOPHIA European project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Núñez, Rubén, E-mail: ruben.nunez@ies-def.upm.es; Antón, Ignacio; Askins, Steve; Sala, Gabriel [Instituto de Energía Solar - Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Domínguez, César; Voarino, Philippe [CEA-INES, 50 avenue du Lac Léman, 73375 Le Bourget-du-Lac (France); Steiner, Marc; Siefer, Gerald [Fraunhofer ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Fucci, Rafaelle; Roca, Franco [ENEA, P.le E.Fermi 1, Località Granatello, 80055 Portici (Italy); Minuto, Alessandro; Morabito, Paolo [RSE, Via Rubattino 54, 20134 Milan (Italy)

    2015-09-28

    In the frame of the European project SOPHIA, a spectral network based on component (also called isotypes) cells has been created. Among the members of this project, several spectral sensors based on component cells and collimating tubes, so-called spectroheliometers, were installed in the last years, allowing the collection of minute-resolution spectral data useful for CPV systems characterization across Europe. The use of spectroheliometers has been proved useful to establish the necessary spectral conditions to perform power rating of CPV modules and systems. If enough data in a given period of time is collected, ideally a year, it is possible to characterize spectrally the place where measurements are taken, in the same way that hours of annual irradiation can be estimated using a pyrheliometer.

  8. Posaconazole (Noxafil, SCH 56592), a new azole antifungal drug, was a discovery based on the isolation and mass spectral characterization of a circulating metabolite of an earlier lead (SCH 51048).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomeir, Amin A; Pramanik, Birendra N; Heimark, Larry; Bennett, Frank; Veals, John; Bartner, Peter; Hilbert, Maryjane; Saksena, Anil; McNamara, Paul; Girijavallabhan, Viyyoor; Ganguly, Ashit K; Lovey, Raymond; Pike, Russell; Wang, Haiyan; Liu, Yi-Tsung; Kumari, Pramila; Korfmacher, Walter; Lin, Chin-Chung; Cacciapuoti, Anthony; Loebenberg, David; Hare, Roberta; Miller, George; Pickett, Cecil

    2008-04-01

    Posaconazole (SCH 56592) is a novel triazole antifungal drug that is marketed in Europe and the United States under the trade name 'Noxafil' for prophylaxis against invasive fungal infections. SCH 56592 was discovered as a possible active metabolite of SCH 51048, an earlier lead. Initial studies have shown that serum concentrations determined by a microbiological assay were higher than those determined by HPLC from animals dosed with SCH 51048. Subsequently, several animals species were dosed with (3)H-SCH 51048 and the serum was analyzed for total radioactivity, SCH 51048 concentration and antifungal activity. The antifungal activity was higher than that expected based on SCH 51048 serum concentrations, confirming the presence of active metabolite(s). Metabolite profiling of serum samples at selected time intervals pinpointed the peak that was suspected to be the active metabolite. Consequently, (3)H-SCH 51048 was administered to a large group of mice, the serum was harvested and the metabolite was isolated by extraction and semipreparative HPLC. LC-MS/MS analysis suggested that the active metabolite is a secondary alcohol with the hydroxyl group in the aliphatic side chain of SCH 51048. All corresponding monohydroxylated diastereomeric mixtures were synthesized and characterized. The HPLC retention time and LC-MS/MS spectra of the diastereomeric secondary alcohols of SCH 51048 were similar to those of the isolated active metabolite. Finally, all corresponding individual monohydroxylated diasteriomers were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro and in vivo antifungal potencies, as well as pharmacokinetics. SCH 56592 emerged as the candidate with the best overall profile.

  9. Synthesis, spectral characterization, theoretical, antimicrobial, DNA interaction and in vitro anticancer studies of Cu(II and Zn(II complexes with pyrimidine-morpholine based Schiff base ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sankarganesh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Novel Cu(II (1 and Zn(II (2 complexes with 4-(1-(4-morpholinophenylethylideneaminopyrimidine-5-carbonitrile (L have been synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. DFT (density functional theory studies result confirms that, LMCT mechanism have been done between L and M(II ions. The antimicrobial studies indicate that the ligand L and complexes 1 & 2 exhibit higher activity against the E. coli bacteria and C. albicans fungi. The groove binding mode of ligand L and complexes 1 & 2 with CT-DNA have been confirmed by electronic absorption, competitive binding, viscometric and cyclic voltammetric studies. The electronic absorption titration of ligand L and complexes 1 & 2 with DNA have been carried out in different buffer solutions (pH 4.0, 7.0 & 10.0. The Kb values of ligand L and complexes 1 & 2 are higher in acidic buffer at pH 4.0 (Kb = 2.42 × 105, L; 2.8 × 105, 1; 2.65 × 105, 2 and the results revealed that, the interaction of synthesized compounds with DNA were higher in the acidic medium than basic and neutral medium. Furthermore, CT-DNA cleavage studies of ligand L and complexes 1 & 2 have been studied. The in vitro anticancer activities results show that complexes 1 & 2 have moderate cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines and low toxicity on normal cell line than ligand L. Keywords: Pyrimidine, Morpholine, DFT, Antimicrobial, DNA binding, Anticancer studies

  10. 2 TeV walking technirho at LHC?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenori S. Fukano

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ATLAS collaboration has recently reported an excess of about 2.5 σ global significance at around 2 TeV in the diboson channel with the boson-tagged fat dijets, which may imply a new resonance beyond the standard model. We provide a possible explanation of the excess as the isospin-triplet technivector mesons (technirhos, denoted as ρΠ±,3 of the walking technicolor in the case of the one-family model as a benchmark. As the effective theory for the walking technicolor at the scales relevant to the LHC experiment, we take a scale-invariant version of the hidden local symmetry model so constructed as to accommodate technipions, technivector mesons, and the technidilaton in such a way that the model respects spontaneously broken chiral and scale symmetries of the underlying walking technicolor. In particular, the technidilaton, a (pseudo Nambu–Goldstone boson of the (approximate scale symmetry predicted in the walking technicolor, has been shown to be successfully identified with the 125 GeV Higgs. Currently available LHC limits on those technihadrons are used to fix the couplings of technivector mesons to the standard-model fermions and weak gauge bosons. We find that the technirhos are mainly produced through the Drell–Yan process and predominantly decay to the dibosons, which accounts for the currently reported excess at around 2 TeV. The consistency with the electroweak precision test and other possible discovery channels of the 2 TeV technirhos are also addressed.

  11. Observed spectral features of dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willner, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    The author concentrates on the observed properties of dust spectral features. Identifications, based on laboratory data, are given whenever plausible ones exist. There are a very large number of papers in the literature of even such a young field as infrared spectroscopy, and therefore the author refers only to the most recent paper on a topic or to another review. (Auth.)

  12. Rayleigh imaging in spectral mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Karl; Danielsson, Mats; Fredenberg, Erik

    2016-03-01

    Spectral imaging is the acquisition of multiple images of an object at different energy spectra. In mammography, dual-energy imaging (spectral imaging with two energy levels) has been investigated for several applications, in particular material decomposition, which allows for quantitative analysis of breast composition and quantitative contrast-enhanced imaging. Material decomposition with dual-energy imaging is based on the assumption that there are two dominant photon interaction effects that determine linear attenuation: the photoelectric effect and Compton scattering. This assumption limits the number of basis materials, i.e. the number of materials that are possible to differentiate between, to two. However, Rayleigh scattering may account for more than 10% of the linear attenuation in the mammography energy range. In this work, we show that a modified version of a scanning multi-slit spectral photon-counting mammography system is able to acquire three images at different spectra and can be used for triple-energy imaging. We further show that triple-energy imaging in combination with the efficient scatter rejection of the system enables measurement of Rayleigh scattering, which adds an additional energy dependency to the linear attenuation and enables material decomposition with three basis materials. Three available basis materials have the potential to improve virtually all applications of spectral imaging.

  13. Speech recognition from spectral dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some of the history of gradual infusion of the modulation spectrum concept into Automatic recognition of speech (ASR) comes next, pointing to the relationship of modulation spectrum processing to wellaccepted ASR techniques such as dynamic speech features or RelAtive SpecTrAl (RASTA) filtering. Next, the frequency ...

  14. Spectral ansatz in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, D.; Slim, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    An ansatz of Delbourgo and Salam for the spectral representation of the vertex function in quantum electrodynamics. The Ward-Takahashi identity is respected, and the electron propagator does not have a ghost. The infra-red and ultraviolet behaviours of the electron propagator in this theory are considered, and a rigorous existence theorem for the propagator in the Yennie gauge is presented

  15. Spectral Diagonal Ensemble Kalman Filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasanický, Ivan; Mandel, Jan; Vejmelka, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2015), s. 485-497 ISSN 1023-5809 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant - others:NSF(US) DMS-1216481 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * ensemble Kalman filter * spectral representation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.321, year: 2015

  16. Biomarkers and Biological Spectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-23

    G. Sowa, H. H. Mantsch, National Research Council Canada; S. L. Zhang, Unilever Research (USA) 85 Brain tissue charcterization using spectral imaging...image registration and of the expert staff of Hill Top Research in Winnipeg for hosting the hydration study. Financial assistance from Unilever Research

  17. Lagrangian Curves on Spectral Curves of Monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilfoyle, Brendan; Khalid, Madeeha; Ramon Mari, Jose J.

    2010-01-01

    We study Lagrangian points on smooth holomorphic curves in TP 1 equipped with a natural neutral Kaehler structure, and prove that they must form real curves. By virtue of the identification of TP 1 with the space LE 3 of oriented affine lines in Euclidean 3-space, these Lagrangian curves give rise to ruled surfaces in E 3 , which we prove have zero Gauss curvature. Each ruled surface is shown to be the tangent lines to a curve in E 3 , called the edge of regression of the ruled surface. We give an alternative characterization of these curves as the points in E 3 where the number of oriented lines in the complex curve Σ that pass through the point is less than the degree of Σ. We then apply these results to the spectral curves of certain monopoles and construct the ruled surfaces and edges of regression generated by the Lagrangian curves.

  18. Probing TeV gravity with the ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lendermann, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Models with compactified extra space dimensions offer a new way to address outstanding problems in and beyond the Standard Model. In these models, the strength of gravity is strongly increased at small distances, which opens up the possibility of observing quantum gravity effects in the TeV energy range reachable by the LHC. One of the most spectacular phenomena would be the production of microscopic black holes. Searches for black holes are foreseen in the ATLAS experiment with the start-up of data taking in 2009. We present feasibility studies for the triggering, selection and reconstruction of the black hole event topologies, the black hole discovery potential and their identification.

  19. FACT — LONGTERM MONITORING OF BRIGHT TeV BLAZARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Meier

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT, located on the Canary Island of La Palma, has been taking data since October 2011. FACT has been optimized for longterm monitoring of bright TeV blazars, to study their variability time scales and flare probability. G-APD photo-sensors allow for observations even under strong moonlight conditions, and the telescope can be operated remotely. The monitoring strategy of FACT is discussed and preliminary results of the flare of Mrk501 in June 2012 are shown.

  20. Study of Diffractive Bremsstrahlung at 13 TeV LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Czekierda, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Feasibility studies of the diffractive bremsstrahlung measurement at the LHC at $\\sqrt s$ = 13 TeV are presented. The method considered for this measurement uses the ATLAS detector and, in particular, the Zero Degree Calorimeter and the ATLAS Forward Proton detectors. The signal and background processes were generated with GenEx and PYTHIA 8.2 generators, respectively. The obtained fiducial cross sections are 1.2 ub for the signal and 6 ub for the background. Further reduction of the background is possible by the optimisation of event selection cuts.

  1. A 30 GHz 5-TeV Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Perry B

    2003-01-01

    We present parameters for a linear collider with a 3 to 5 TeV center-of-mass energy that utilizes conventional rf technology operating at a frequency around 30 GHz. We discuss the scaling laws and assumed limitations that lead to the parameters described and we compare the merits and liabilities of different technological options including rf power source, accelerator structure, and final focus system design. Finally, we outline the components of the collider while specifying the required alignment and construction tolerances

  2. Precision Measurement of the ($e^+ + e^−$) Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays from 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar, M; Alpat, B; Alvino, A; Ambrosi, G; Andeen, K; Arruda, L; Attig, N; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Battarbee, M; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Bertucci, B; Bigongiari, G; Bindi, V; Bizzaglia, S; Bizzarri, M; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bonnivard, V; Borgia, B; Borsini, S; Boschini, M J; Bourquin, M; Burger, J; Cadoux, F; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Caroff, S; Casaus, J; Cascioli, V; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cervelli, F; Chae, M J; Chang, Y H; Chen, A I; Chen, H; Cheng, G M; Chen, H S; Cheng, L; Chikanian, A; Chou, H Y; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C H; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Coste, B; Crispoltoni, M; Cui, Z; Dai, M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirköz, M B; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Di Masso, L; Dimiccoli, F; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Donnini, F; Du, W J; Duranti, M; D’Urso, D; Eline, A; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Fan, Y Y; Farnesini, L; Feng, J; Fiandrini, E; Fiasson, A; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Galaktionov, Y; Gallucci, G; García, B; García-López, R; Gargiulo, C; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gervasi, M; Ghelfi, A; Gillard, W; Giovacchini, F; Goglov, P; Gong, J; Goy, C; Grabski, V; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Guandalini, C; Guerri, I; Guo, K H; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Han, K C; He, Z H; Heil, M; Hoffman, J; Hsieh, T H; Huang, Z C; Huh, C; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jang, W Y; Jinchi, H; Kanishev, K; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Kirn, Th; Kossakowski, R; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M S; Kunz, S; La Vacca, G; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, H T; Lee, S C; Leluc, C; Li, H L; Li, J Q; Li, Q; Li, Q; Li, T X; Li, W; Li, Y; Li, Z H; Li, Z Y; Lim, S; Lin, C H; Lipari, P; Lippert, T; Liu, D; Liu, H; Lomtadze, T; Lu, M J; Lu, Y S; Luebelsmeyer, K; Luo, F; Luo, J Z; Lv, S S; Majka, R; Malinin, A; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masi, N; Maurin, D; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Mo, D C; Morescalchi, L; Mott, P; Müller, M; Ni, J Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Obermeier, A; Oliva, A; Orcinha, M; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Papi, A; Pauluzzi, M; Pedreschi, E; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Pilo, F; Piluso, A; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Postaci, E; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X M; Räihä, T; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Ricol, J S; Rodríguez, I; Rosier-Lees, S; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Saouter, P; Sbarra, C; Schael, S; Schmidt, S M; Schuckardt, D; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shan, B S; Shan, Y H; Shi, J Y; Shi, X Y; Shi, Y M; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Spada, F; Spinella, F; Sun, W; Sun, W H; Tacconi, M; Tang, C P; Tang, X W; Tang, Z C; Tao, L; Tescaro, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tomassetti, N; Torsti, J; Türkoğlu, C; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vaurynovich, S; Vecchi, M; Velasco, M; Vialle, J P; Wang, L Q; Wang, Q L; Wang, R S; Wang, X; Wang, Z X; Weng, Z L; Whitman, K; Wienkenhöver, J; Wu, H; Xia, X; Xie, M; Xie, S; Xiong, R Q; Xin, G M; Xu, N S; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Ye, Q H; Yi, H; Yu, Y J; Yu, Z Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, J H; Zhang, M T; Zhang, X B; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Z M; Zhuang, H L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, N; Zuccon, P; Zurbach, C

    2014-01-01

    We present a measurement of the cosmic ray ($e^+ + e^−$) flux in the range 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV based on the analysis of 10.6 million ($e^+ + e^−$) events collected by AMS. The statistics and the resolution of AMS provide a precision measurement of the flux. The flux is smooth and reveals new and distinct information. Above 30.2 GeV, the flux can be described by a single power law with a spectral index γ=−3.170±0.008(stat+syst)±0.008(energy scale).

  3. Precision Measurement of the (e++e-) Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays from 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, M.; Aisa, D.; Alpat, B.; Alvino, A.; Ambrosi, G.; Andeen, K.; Arruda, L.; Attig, N.; Azzarello, P.; Bachlechner, A.; Barao, F.; Barrau, A.; Barrin, L.; Bartoloni, A.; Basara, L.; Battarbee, M.; Battiston, R.; Bazo, J.; Becker, U.; Behlmann, M.; Beischer, B.; Berdugo, J.; Bertucci, B.; Bigongiari, G.; Bindi, V.; Bizzaglia, S.; Bizzarri, M.; Boella, G.; de Boer, W.; Bollweg, K.; Bonnivard, V.; Borgia, B.; Borsini, S.; Boschini, M. J.; Bourquin, M.; Burger, J.; Cadoux, F.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Caroff, S.; Casaus, J.; Cascioli, V.; Castellini, G.; Cernuda, I.; Cervelli, F.; Chae, M. J.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, A. I.; Chen, H.; Cheng, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Cheng, L.; Chikanian, A.; Chou, H. Y.; Choumilov, E.; Choutko, V.; Chung, C. H.; Clark, C.; Clavero, R.; Coignet, G.; Consolandi, C.; Contin, A.; Corti, C.; Coste, B.; Crispoltoni, M.; Cui, Z.; Dai, M.; Delgado, C.; Della Torre, S.; Demirköz, M. B.; Derome, L.; Di Falco, S.; Di Masso, L.; Dimiccoli, F.; Díaz, C.; von Doetinchem, P.; Donnini, F.; Du, W. J.; Duranti, M.; D'Urso, D.; Eline, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Eronen, T.; Fan, Y. Y.; Farnesini, L.; Feng, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fiasson, A.; Finch, E.; Fisher, P.; Galaktionov, Y.; Gallucci, G.; García, B.; García-López, R.; Gargiulo, C.; Gast, H.; Gebauer, I.; Gervasi, M.; Ghelfi, A.; Gillard, W.; Giovacchini, F.; Goglov, P.; Gong, J.; Goy, C.; Grabski, V.; Grandi, D.; Graziani, M.; Guandalini, C.; Guerri, I.; Guo, K. H.; Habiby, M.; Haino, S.; Han, K. C.; He, Z. H.; Heil, M.; Hoffman, J.; Hsieh, T. H.; Huang, Z. C.; Huh, C.; Incagli, M.; Ionica, M.; Jang, W. Y.; Jinchi, H.; Kanishev, K.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, K. S.; Kirn, Th.; Kossakowski, R.; Kounina, O.; Kounine, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Krafczyk, M. S.; Kunz, S.; La Vacca, G.; Laudi, E.; Laurenti, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, H. T.; Lee, S. C.; Leluc, C.; Li, H. L.; Li, J. Q.; Li, Q.; Li, Q.; Li, T. X.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. H.; Li, Z. Y.; Lim, S.; Lin, C. H.; Lipari, P.; Lippert, T.; Liu, D.; Liu, H.; Lomtadze, T.; Lu, M. J.; Lu, Y. S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luo, F.; Luo, J. Z.; Lv, S. S.; Majka, R.; Malinin, A.; Mañá, C.; Marín, J.; Martin, T.; Martínez, G.; Masi, N.; Maurin, D.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meng, Q.; Mo, D. C.; Morescalchi, L.; Mott, P.; Müller, M.; Ni, J. Q.; Nikonov, N.; Nozzoli, F.; Nunes, P.; Obermeier, A.; Oliva, A.; Orcinha, M.; Palmonari, F.; Palomares, C.; Paniccia, M.; Papi, A.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pedreschi, E.; Pensotti, S.; Pereira, R.; Pilo, F.; Piluso, A.; Pizzolotto, C.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Poireau, V.; Postaci, E.; Putze, A.; Quadrani, L.; Qi, X. M.; Räihä, T.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rapin, D.; Ricol, J. S.; Rodríguez, I.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rozhkov, A.; Rozza, D.; Sagdeev, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Saouter, P.; Sbarra, C.; Schael, S.; Schmidt, S. M.; Schuckardt, D.; Schulz von Dratzig, A.; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E. S.; Shan, B. S.; Shan, Y. H.; Shi, J. Y.; Shi, X. Y.; Shi, Y. M.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Spada, F.; Spinella, F.; Sun, W.; Sun, W. H.; Tacconi, M.; Tang, C. P.; Tang, X. W.; Tang, Z. C.; Tao, L.; Tescaro, D.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tomassetti, N.; Torsti, J.; Türkoǧlu, C.; Urban, T.; Vagelli, V.; Valente, E.; Vannini, C.; Valtonen, E.; Vaurynovich, S.; Vecchi, M.; Velasco, M.; Vialle, J. P.; Wang, L. Q.; Wang, Q. L.; Wang, R. S.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z. X.; Weng, Z. L.; Whitman, K.; Wienkenhöver, J.; Wu, H.; Xia, X.; Xie, M.; Xie, S.; Xiong, R. Q.; Xin, G. M.; Xu, N. S.; Xu, W.; Yan, Q.; Yang, J.; Yang, M.; Ye, Q. H.; Yi, H.; Yu, Y. J.; Yu, Z. Q.; Zeissler, S.; Zhang, J. H.; Zhang, M. T.; Zhang, X. B.; Zhang, Z.; Zheng, Z. M.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zhukov, V.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, N.; Zuccon, P.; Zurbach, C.; AMS Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    We present a measurement of the cosmic ray (e++e-) flux in the range 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV based on the analysis of 10.6 million (e++e-) events collected by AMS. The statistics and the resolution of AMS provide a precision measurement of the flux. The flux is smooth and reveals new and distinct information. Above 30.2 GeV, the flux can be described by a single power law with a spectral index γ =-3.170 ±0.008 (stat+syst)±0.008 (energy scale) .

  4. Spectral characterizations and photophysical properties of one-step synthesized blue fluorescent 4′-aryl substituted 2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine for OLEDs application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmanan, Raja [Department of Physics, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, Rajasthan 333031 (India); Shivaprakash, Narayanapura Chennegowda [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Nair, Sindhu Sukumaran, E-mail: sindhunair@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in [Department of Physics, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, Rajasthan 333031 (India)

    2015-12-15

    We have synthesized a series of 4′-aryl substituted 2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine (terpy) derivatives, namely 4′-(4-methylphenyl)-2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine (C-1), 4′-(2-furyl)-2,2′:6′2′′-terpyridine (C-2), and 4′-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine (C-3). The synthesized terpy compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, FTIR, NMR ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C), and ESI-Mass spectrometry. Photophysical, electrochemical and thermal properties of terpy compounds were systematically studied. Maximum excitation band was observed between 240 and 330 nm using UV–visible spectra, and maximum emission peaks from PL spectra were observed at 385, 405 and 440 nm for C-1, C-2 and C-3 respectively. Fluorescence lifetime (τ) of the fluorophores was found to be 0.35 and 1.55 ns at the excitation wavelength of 406 nm for C-1 and C-2 respectively, and τ value for C-3 was found to be 0.29 ns at the excitation wavelength of 468 nm. We noticed that the calculated values of HOMO energy levels were increased from 5.96 (C-1) to 6.08 (C-3) eV, which confirms that C-3 derivative is more electrons donating in nature. The calculated electrochemical band gaps were 2.95, 2.82 and 3.02 eV for C-1, C-2 and C-3 respectively. These blue fluorescent emitter derivatives can be used as an electron transport and electroluminescent material to design the blue fluorescent organic light emitting diode (OLED) applications. - Highlights: • Facile one-step synthesized blue fluorescent emitter, 2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine derivatives. • The exceptionally broad emission band (365–525 nm) was achieved in the blue region. • Fast fluorescence life time and good thermal stability.

  5. Spectral Target Detection using Schroedinger Eigenmaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorado-Munoz, Leidy P.

    Applications of optical remote sensing processes include environmental monitoring, military monitoring, meteorology, mapping, surveillance, etc. Many of these tasks include the detection of specific objects or materials, usually few or small, which are surrounded by other materials that clutter the scene and hide the relevant information. This target detection process has been boosted lately by the use of hyperspectral imagery (HSI) since its high spectral dimension provides more detailed spectral information that is desirable in data exploitation. Typical spectral target detectors rely on statistical or geometric models to characterize the spectral variability of the data. However, in many cases these parametric models do not fit well HSI data that impacts the detection performance. On the other hand, non-linear transformation methods, mainly based on manifold learning algorithms, have shown a potential use in HSI transformation, dimensionality reduction and classification. In target detection, non-linear transformation algorithms are used as preprocessing techniques that transform the data to a more suitable lower dimensional space, where the statistical or geometric detectors are applied. One of these non-linear manifold methods is the Schroedinger Eigenmaps (SE) algorithm that has been introduced as a technique for semi-supervised classification. The core tool of the SE algorithm is the Schroedinger operator that includes a potential term that encodes prior information about the materials present in a scene, and enables the embedding to be steered in some convenient directions in order to cluster similar pixels together. A completely novel target detection methodology based on SE algorithm is proposed for the first time in this thesis. The proposed methodology does not just include the transformation of the data to a lower dimensional space but also includes the definition of a detector that capitalizes on the theory behind SE. The fact that target pixels and

  6. X-Ray Intraday Variability of Five TeV Blazars with NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Ashwani; Gupta, Alok C. [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES), Manora Peak, Nainital 263002 (India); Wiita, Paul J., E-mail: ashwanitapan@gmail.com, E-mail: acgupta30@gmail.com, E-mail: wiitap@tcnj.edu [Department of Physics, The College of New Jersey, 2000 Pennington Road, Ewing, NJ 08628-0718 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    We have examined 40 Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array ( NuSTAR ) light curves (LCs) of five TeV emitting high synchrotron peaked blazars: 1ES 0229+200, Mrk 421, Mrk 501, 1ES 1959+650, and PKS 2155−304. Four of the blazars showed intraday variability in the NuSTAR energy range of 3–79 keV. Using an autocorrelation function analysis we searched for intraday variability timescales in these LCs and found indications of several between 2.5 and 32.8 ks in eight LCs of Mrk 421, a timescale around 8.0 ks for one LC of Mrk 501, and timescales of 29.6 and 57.4 ks in two LCs of PKS 2155-304. The other two blazars’ LCs do not show any evidence for intraday variability timescales shorter than the lengths of those observations; however, the data were both sparser and noisier for them. We found positive correlations with zero lag between soft (3–10 keV) and hard (10–79 keV) bands for most of the LCs, indicating that their emissions originate from the same electron population. We examined spectral variability using a hardness ratio analysis and noticed a general “harder-when-brighter” behavior. The 22 LCs of Mrk 421 observed between 2012 July and 2013 April show that this source was in a quiescent state for an extended period of time and then underwent an unprecedented double-peaked outburst while monitored on a daily basis during 2013 April 10–16. We briefly discuss models capable of explaining these blazar emissions.

  7. INVESTIGATING BROADBAND VARIABILITY OF THE TeV BLAZAR 1ES 1959+650

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Barnacka, A.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Bouvier, A.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dumm, J.; Eisch, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    We summarize broadband observations of the TeV-emitting blazar 1ES 1959+650, including optical R-band observations by the robotic telescopes Super-LOTIS and iTelescope, UV observations by Swift Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope, X-ray observations by the Swift X-ray Telescope, high-energy gamma-ray observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope, and very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations by VERITAS above 315 GeV, all taken between 2012 April 17 and 2012 June 1 (MJD 56034 and 56079). The contemporaneous variability of the broadband spectral energy distribution is explored in the context of a simple synchrotron self Compton (SSC) model. In the SSC emission scenario, we find that the parameters required to represent the high state are significantly different than those in the low state. Motivated by possible evidence of gas in the vicinity of the blazar, we also investigate a reflected emission model to describe the observed variability pattern. This model assumes that the non-thermal emission from the jet is reflected by a nearby cloud of gas, allowing the reflected emission to re-enter the blob and produce an elevated gamma-ray state with no simultaneous elevated synchrotron flux. The model applied here, although not required to explain the observed variability pattern, represents one possible scenario which can describe the observations. As applied to an elevated VHE state of 66% of the Crab Nebula flux, observed on a single night during the observation period, the reflected emission scenario does not support a purely leptonic non-thermal emission mechanism. The reflected emission model does, however, predict a reflected photon field with sufficient energy to enable elevated gamma-ray emission via pion production with protons of energies between 10 and 100 TeV

  8. Life is good at 13 TeV

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    The second run of the LHC will start in 2015, when the beams of protons will reach 6.5 TeV of energy and the collisions will happen at 13 TeV. What will physicists look for after the discovery of the Higgs boson?   Life beyond the discovery of the Higgs boson is full of exciting possibilities. “When we were looking for the Higgs boson, we knew it would be difficult to discover but we also knew where to search and how,” says Ignatios Antoniadis, Head of the Theory Unit of CERN’s Physics Department. “The electroweak precision tests of LEP and other experiments had already suggested that the Higgs boson should exist and should be light, not very far from the LEP boundary. Now that we have completed the picture of the Standard Model, we are entering a totally new territory.” The new territory is what scientists call “beyond the Standard Model” physics. It is populated by open-ended questions, including: What is Dark Matter mad...

  9. Flavor and top physics @ 100 TeV workshop

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    A 100 TeV collider will have the ability to probe directly our microscopic nature at distances well beyond that of the LHC or any other known experiment. It would thus become the most powerful microscope ever built. Furthermore, such a machine would be potentially capable of producing more than 1011 tops and an order of magnitude more bottom and charm quarks than the LHC. Thus, it would allow for an exploration of the complementary weakly coupled regime with unprecedented accuracy. This fantastic large number of heavy flavor object in principle might lead to qualitatively new ways of looking for non-Standard Model physics, in a way that complement known existing experimental strategies as well as the searches at the boundary of the energy frontier. We therefore propose to organise a 4-day focused workshop during March 4 - 7, 2015 at the IHEP that would bring world experts, in both theory and experiment, to discuss top and flavor physics at a 100 TeV future facility.

  10. Little String Theory at a TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Giveon, Amit; Antoniadis, Ignatios; Dimopoulos, Savas; Giveon, Amit

    2001-01-01

    We propose a framework where the string scale as well as all compact dimensions are at the electroweak scale $\\sim$ TeV$^{-1}$. The weakness of gravity is attributed to the small value of the string coupling $g_s \\sim 10^{-16}$, presumably a remnant of the dilaton's runaway behavior, suggesting the possibility of a common solution to the hierarchy and dilaton-runaway problems. In spite of the small $g_s$, in type II string theories with gauge interactions localized in the vicinity of NS5-branes, the standard model gauge couplings are of order one and are associated with the sizes of compact dimensions. At a TeV these theories exhibit higher dimensional and stringy behavior. The models are holographically dual to a higher dimensional non-critical string theory and this can be used to compute the experimentally accessible spectrum and self-couplings of the little strings. In spite of the stringy behavior, gravity remains weak and can be ignored at collider energies. The Damour-Polyakov mechanism is an automatic...

  11. B-tagging in CMS at 13 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesini, Ivan; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja [Universitaet Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    At the LHC the CMS experiment investigates high energy p-p-collisions to study the Standard Model (SM) of particles physics and to search for physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM). The collisions of protons often result in processes with b quarks which hadronize in jets. The identification of these jets from b quarks is very important for BSM searches and SM measurements because it can reduce the background a lot. Based on the characteristics of b hadrons, such as long life time or presence of soft leptons, CMS has various algorithms to select jets form b quarks. The tracking system, the lepton identification and the segmented calorimeters of the CMS detector are excellent to identify jets from b quarks (b-tagging). The efficiencies of the different algorithms and the scale factors are measured with the 13 TeV data which are shown in this talk. The commissioning of b-tagging in boosted topologies at 13 TeV is also presented.

  12. hh+ {Jet} production at 100 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Shankha; Englert, Christoph; Mangano, Michelangelo L.; Selvaggi, Michele; Spannowsky, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Higgs pair production is a crucial phenomenological process in deciphering the nature of the TeV scale and the mechanism underlying electroweak symmetry breaking. At the Large Hadron Collider, this process is statistically limited. Pushing the energy frontier beyond the LHC's reach will create new opportunities to exploit the rich phenomenology at higher centre-of-mass energies and luminosities. In this work, we perform a comparative analysis of the hh+ {jet} channel at a future 100 TeV hadron collider. We focus on the hh→ b\\bar{b} b\\bar{b} and hh → b\\bar{b} τ ^+τ ^- channels and employ a range of analysis techniques to estimate the sensitivity potential that can be gained by including this jet-associated Higgs pair production to the list of sensitive collider processes in such an environment. In particular, we observe that hh → b\\bar{b} τ ^+τ ^- in the boosted regime exhibits a large sensitivity to the Higgs boson self-coupling and the Higgs self-coupling could be constrained at the 8% level in this channel alone.

  13. Flavor at the TeV scale with extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Hall, Lawrence; Smith, David; Weiner, Neal

    2000-01-01

    Theories where the standard model fields reside on a 3-brane, with a low fundamental cutoff and extra dimensions, provide alternative solutions to the gauge hierarchy problem. However, generating flavor at the TeV scale while avoiding flavor-changing difficulties appears prohibitively difficult at first sight. We argue to the contrary that this picture allows us to lower flavor physics close to the TeV scale. Small Yukawa couplings are generated by ''shining'' badly broken flavor symmetries from distant branes, and flavor and CP-violating processes are adequately suppressed by these symmetries. We further show how the extra dimensions avoid four dimensional disasters associated with light fields charged under flavor. We construct elegant and realistic theories of flavor based on the maximal U(3) 5 flavor symmetry which naturally generate the simultaneous hierarchy of masses and mixing angles. Finally, we introduce a new framework for predictive theories of flavor, where our 3-brane is embedded within highly symmetrical configurations of higher-dimensional branes. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  14. M rate at TE. Monitoring at TeV energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorner, Daniela [Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Bretz, Thomas [RWTH Aachen (Germany); Gonzalez, Magdalena; Alfaro, Ruben [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Tovmassian, Gagik [Instituto de Astronomia Sede Ensenada (Mexico)

    2016-07-01

    A dedicated long-term monitoring programm at TeV energies has been started by the FACT project about four years ago. Being limited to one site, gaps due to the rotation of the Earth remain in the measured light curves. This makes it difficult to study typical variability time scales of few hours to one day. To allow for systematic studies of continuous observations over up to 12 hours, a second telescope is being installed at a site in about six hours distance in longitude. For the M rate at TE (Monitoring at TeV energies) telescope, a mount from a previous experiment is being refurbished and will be equipped with a new camera. Using silicon based photo sensors like in FACT, an excellent and stable performance will be achieved. M rate at TE is a joint project of German and Mexican universities which aims at extending the blazar monitoring to so far unexplored time ranges. In the presentation, the status of this emerging project is reported.

  15. Spectral synchronicity in brain signals

    KAUST Repository

    de Jesus Euan Campos, Carolina; Ombao, Hernando; Ortega, Joaquí n

    2018-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of identifying brain regions with similar oscillatory patterns detected from electroencephalograms. We introduce the hierarchical spectral merger (HSM) clustering method where the feature of interest is the spectral curve and the similarity metric used is the total variance distance. The HSM method is compared with clustering using features derived from independent-component analysis. Moreover, the HSM method is applied to 2 different electroencephalogram datasets. The first was recorded at resting state where the participant was not engaged in any cognitive task; the second was recorded during a spontaneous epileptic seizure. The results of the analyses using the HSM method demonstrate that clustering could evolve over the duration of the resting state and during epileptic seizure.

  16. Spectral synchronicity in brain signals

    KAUST Repository

    de Jesus Euan Campos, Carolina

    2018-05-04

    This paper addresses the problem of identifying brain regions with similar oscillatory patterns detected from electroencephalograms. We introduce the hierarchical spectral merger (HSM) clustering method where the feature of interest is the spectral curve and the similarity metric used is the total variance distance. The HSM method is compared with clustering using features derived from independent-component analysis. Moreover, the HSM method is applied to 2 different electroencephalogram datasets. The first was recorded at resting state where the participant was not engaged in any cognitive task; the second was recorded during a spontaneous epileptic seizure. The results of the analyses using the HSM method demonstrate that clustering could evolve over the duration of the resting state and during epileptic seizure.

  17. Spectral computations for bounded operators

    CERN Document Server

    Ahues, Mario; Limaye, Balmohan

    2001-01-01

    Exact eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and principal vectors of operators with infinite dimensional ranges can rarely be found. Therefore, one must approximate such operators by finite rank operators, then solve the original eigenvalue problem approximately. Serving as both an outstanding text for graduate students and as a source of current results for research scientists, Spectral Computations for Bounded Operators addresses the issue of solving eigenvalue problems for operators on infinite dimensional spaces. From a review of classical spectral theory through concrete approximation techniques to finite dimensional situations that can be implemented on a computer, this volume illustrates the marriage of pure and applied mathematics. It contains a variety of recent developments, including a new type of approximation that encompasses a variety of approximation methods but is simple to verify in practice. It also suggests a new stopping criterion for the QR Method and outlines advances in both the iterative refineme...

  18. Modal planes are spectral triples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayral, Victor; Iochum, Bruno; Schuecker, Thomas; Gracia-Bondia, Jose M.; Varilly, Joseph C.

    2003-09-01

    Axioms for nonunital spectral triples, extending those introduced in the unital case by Connes, are proposed. As a guide, and for the sake of their importance in noncommutative quantum field theory, the spaces R 2N endowed with Moyal products are intensively investigated. Some physical applications, such as the construction of noncommutative Wick monomials and the computation of the Connes-Lott functional action, are given for these noncommutative hyperplanes. (author)

  19. Chebyshev and Fourier spectral methods

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, John P

    2001-01-01

    Completely revised text focuses on use of spectral methods to solve boundary value, eigenvalue, and time-dependent problems, but also covers Hermite, Laguerre, rational Chebyshev, sinc, and spherical harmonic functions, as well as cardinal functions, linear eigenvalue problems, matrix-solving methods, coordinate transformations, methods for unbounded intervals, spherical and cylindrical geometry, and much more. 7 Appendices. Glossary. Bibliography. Index. Over 160 text figures.

  20. Abundance estimation of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates a spectral unmixing method for estimating the partial abundance of spectrally similar minerals in complex mixtures. The method requires formulation of a linear function of individual spectra of individual minerals. The first...

  1. A General Framework for Analyzing, Characterizing, and Implementing Spectrally Modulated, Spectrally Encoded Signals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Marcus L

    2006-01-01

    .... Research is rapidly progressing in SDR hardware and software venues, but current CR-based SDR research lacks the theoretical foundation and analytic framework to permit efficient implementation...

  2. Physics of ep collisions in the TeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, G.; Mele, B.; Rueckl, R.

    1984-01-01

    We study the physics of electron-proton collisions in the range of centre-of-mass energies between √s approx.= 0.3 TeV (HERA) and √s approx.= (1-2) TeV. The latter energies would be achieved if the electron or positron beam of LEP [Esub(e) approx.= (50-100) GeV] is made to collide with the proton beam of LHC [Esub(p) approx.= (5-10) TeV]. (orig.)

  3. 'TeV Gamma-ray Crisis' and an Anisotropic Space Model

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Gi-Chol; Kamoshita, Jun-ichi; Matsunaga, Mariko; Sugamoto, Akio; Watanabe, Isamu

    2004-01-01

    To solve the `TeV gamma crisis', we examine a model whose one spatial direction is discretized at a high energy scale. Assuming the standard extra-galactic IR photon distribution, we evaluate the mean free-path of a energetic photon which acquires an effective mass in the model. For a wide range of the value of the lattice energy scale between a few TeV and around $10^{10}$ GeV, the mean free-path of a TeV energy photon can be enlarged enough to solve the `crisis'. Taking into account the eff...

  4. Di-muon event recorded by the CMS detector (Run 2, 13 TeV)

    CERN Multimedia

    Mc Cauley, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This image shows a collision event with the largest-mass muon pair so far observed by the CMS detector in proton-collision data collected in 2015. The mass of the di-muon system is 2.4 TeV. One muon, with a transverse momentum of 0.7 TeV, goes through the Drift Tubes in the central region, while the second, with a transverse momentum of 1.0 TeV, hits the Cathode Strip Chambers in the forward region. Both muons satisfy the high-transverse-momentum muon selection criteria.

  5. First 13TeV collisions, for tuning the LHC, seen by CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    McCauley, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Late at night on 20 May 2015, the LHC delivered its first 13TeV collisions to the detectors, to tune the accelerator as part of its commissioning. These event show the collisions recorded by CMS on 20 May (without the Tracker switched on) and on 21 May (with the Tracker). Read more: - http://home.web.cern.ch/about/updates/2015/05/protons-set-collide-13-tev-prepare-physics - http://home.web.cern.ch/about/updates/2015/05/first-images-collisions-13-tev

  6. Calibration with near-continuous spectral measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Rasmussen, Michael; Madsen, Henrik

    2001-01-01

    In chemometrics traditional calibration in case of spectral measurements express a quantity of interest (e.g. a concentration) as a linear combination of the spectral measurements at a number of wavelengths. Often the spectral measurements are performed at a large number of wavelengths and in thi...... by an example in which the octane number of gasoline is related to near infrared spectral measurements. The performance is found to be much better that for the traditional calibration methods....

  7. Measurement of the atmospheric νμ energy spectrum from 100 GeV to 200 TeV with the ANTARES telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Larosa, G.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Albert, A.; Drouhin, D.; Racca, C.; Al Samarai, I.; Aubert, J.J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Carr, J.; Charif, Z.; Core, L.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Dornic, D.; Ernenwein, J.P.; Escoffier, S.; Lambard, E.; Riviere, C.; Vallee, C.; Yatkin, K.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Sanguineti, M.; Anton, G.; Classen, F.; Eberl, T.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Fehn, K.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Geisselsoeder, S.; Geyer, K.; Gleixner, A.; Graf, K.; Herold, B.; Hoessl, J.; James, C.W.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Lahmann, R.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Sieger, C.; Spies, A.; Wagner, S.; Anvar, S.; Louis, F.; Astraatmadja, T.; Bogazzi, C.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Heijboer, A.J.; Jong, M. de; Michael, T.; Palioselitis, D.; Schulte, S.; Steijger, J.J.M.; Visser, E.; Baret, B.; Bouhou, B.; Creusot, A.; Galata, S.; Kouchner, A.; Elewyck, V. van; Barrios-Marti, J.; Bigongiari, C.; Emanuele, U.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J.P.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Lambard, G.; Mangano, S.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Yepes, H.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J.; Basa, S.; Marcelin, M.; Nezri, E.; Biagi, S.; Fusco, L.A.; Giacomelli, G.; Margiotta, A.; Spurio, M.; Bruijn, R.; Decowski, M.P.; Wolf, E. de; Capone, A.; De Bonis, G.; Fermani, P.; Perrina, C.; Simeone, F.; Caramete, L.; Pavalas, G.E.; Popa, V.; Carloganu, C.; Dumas, A.; Gay, P.; Guillard, G.; Cecchini, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Charvis, P.; Deschamps, A.; Hello, Y.; Circella, M.; Dekeyser, I.; Lefevre, D.; Martini, S.; Robert, A.; Tamburini, C.; Distefano, C.; Lattuada, D.; Piattelli, P.; Sapienza, P.; Trovato, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dorosti, Q.; Loehner, H.; Flaminio, V.; Giordano, V.; Haren, H. van; Kadler, M.; Kooijman, P.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Mueller, C.; Wilms, J.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D.; Loucatos, S.; Schuessler, F.; Stolarczyk, T.; Vallage, B.; Vernin, P.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Pradier, T.; Rostovtsev, A.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric neutrinos are produced during cascades initiated by the interaction of primary cosmic rays with air nuclei. In this paper, a measurement of the atmospheric ν μ + anti ν μ energy spectrum in the energy range 0.1-200 TeV is presented, using data collected by the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope from 2008 to 2011. Overall, the measured flux is ∝25 % higher than predicted by the conventional neutrino flux, and compatible with the measurements reported in ice. The flux is compatible with a single power-law dependence with spectral index γ meas =3.58±0.12. With the present statistics the contribution of prompt neutrinos cannot be established. (orig.)

  8. Pion, Kaon, and Proton Production in Central Pb--Pb Collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, Betty; Adamova, Dagmar; Adare, Andrew Marshall; Aggarwal, Madan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agocs, Andras Gabor; Agostinelli, Andrea; Aguilar Salazar, Saul; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Arshad; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahn, Sang Un; Akindinov, Alexander; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Almaraz Avina, Erick Jonathan; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altini, Valerio; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshauser, Harald; Arbor, Nicolas; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas Robert; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Awes, Terry; Aysto, Juha Heikki; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldini Ferroli, Rinaldo; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baldit, Alain; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Ban, Jaroslav; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Barret, Valerie; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Baumann, Christoph Heinrich; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont-Moreno, Ernesto; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bergognon, Anais Annick Erica; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, F; Blanco, Francesco; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Nicolas; Boettger, Stefan; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Bogolyubsky, Mikhail; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Bose, Suvendu Nath; Bossu, Francesco; Botje, Michiel; Botta, Elena; Boyer, Bruno Alexandre; Braidot, Ermes; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brun, Rene; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Canoa Roman, Veronica; Cara Romeo, Giovanni; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carminati, Federico; Casanova Diaz, Amaya Ofelia; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, Vasile; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chawla, Isha; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chiavassa, Emilio; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Coccetti, Fabrizio; Colamaria, Fabio; Colella, Domenico; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa del Valle, Zaida; Constantin, Paul; Contin, Giacomo; Contreras, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Cotallo, Manuel Enrique; Crochet, Philippe; Cuautle, Eleazar; Cunqueiro, Leticia; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; Dainese, Andrea; Dalsgaard, Hans Hjersing; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Kushal; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; de Barros, Gabriel; De Caro, Annalisa; de Cataldo, Giacinto; de Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; de Rooij, Raoul Stefan; Delagrange, Hugues; Deloff, Andrzej; Demanov, Vyacheslav; Denes, Ervin; Deppman, Airton; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Giglio, Carmelo; Di Liberto, Sergio; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Dominguez, Isabel; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Driga, Olga; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Dutta Majumdar, AK; Dutta Majumdar, Mihir Ranjan; Elia, Domenico; Emschermann, David Philip; Engel, Heiko; Erazmus, Barbara; Erdal, Hege Austrheim; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Falchieri, Davide; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Fedunov, Anatoly; Fehlker, Dominik; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feofilov, Grigory; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Ferretti, Alessandro; Ferretti, Roberta; Festanti, Andrea; Figiel, Jan; Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago, Alberto; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo; Garishvili, Irakli; Gerhard, Jochen; Germain, Marie; Geuna, Claudio; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghidini, Bruno; Ghosh, Premomoy; Gianotti, Paola; Girard, Martin Robert; Giubellino, Paolo; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez, Ramon; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Gonzalez-Trueba, Laura Helena; Gonzalez-Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Goswami, Ankita; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Grajcarek, Robert; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoriev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grinyov, Boris; Grion, Nevio; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerra Gutierrez, Cesar; Guerzoni, Barbara; Guilbaud, Maxime Rene Joseph; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Gutbrod, Hans; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hanratty, Luke David; Hansen, Alexander; Harmanova, Zuzana; Harris, John William; Hartig, Matthias; Hasegan, Dumitru; Hatzifotiadou, Despoina; Hayrapetyan, Arsen; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Norbert; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hicks, Bernard; Hille, Per Thomas; Hippolyte, Boris; Horaguchi, Takuma; Hori, Yasuto; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Hrivnacova, Ivana; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ichou, Raphaelle; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Incani, Elisa; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivan, Cristian George; Ivanov, Andrey; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Ivanytskyi, Oleksii; Jacobs, Peter; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Janik, Rudolf; Jayarathna, Sandun; Jena, Satyajit; Jha, Deeptanshu Manu; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jirden, Lennart; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyung Taik; Jusko, Anton; Kakoyan, Vanik; Kalcher, Sebastian; Kalinak, Peter; Kalliokoski, Tuomo Esa Aukusti; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kazantsev, Andrey; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Khan, Mohisin Mohammed; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Jin Sook; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Seon Hee; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Bosing, Christian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Koch, Kathrin; Kohler, Markus; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolojvari, Anatoly; Kondratiev, Valery; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Konevskih, Artem; Korneev, Andrey; Kour, Ravjeet; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kramer, Frederick; Kraus, Ingrid Christine; Krawutschke, Tobias; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Krus, Miroslav; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kucheriaev, Yury; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paul; Kulakov, Igor; Kumar, Jitendra; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, AB; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kushpil, Vasily; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Ladron de Guevara, Pedro; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Bornec, Yves; Lea, Ramona; Lechman, Mateusz; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Ki Sang; Lee, Sung Chul; Lefevre, Frederic; Lehnert, Joerg Walter; Leistam, Lars; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenhardt, Matthieu Laurent; Lenti, Vito; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leon Vargas, Hermes; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Lien, Jorgen; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Liu, Lijiao; Loggins, Vera; Loginov, Vitaly; Lohn, Stefan Bernhard; Lohner, Daniel; Loizides, Constantinos; Loo, Kai Krister; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Lu, Xianguo; Luettig, Philipp; Lunardon, Marcello; Luo, Jiebin; Luparello, Grazia; Luquin, Lionel; Luzzi, Cinzia; Ma, Rongrong; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahapatra, Durga Prasad; Maire, Antonin; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Ludmila; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manceau, Loic Henri Antoine; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Mao, Yaxian; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Marin, Ana Maria; Marin Tobon, Cesar Augusto; Markert, Christina; Martashvili, Irakli; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez, Mario Ivan; Martinez Davalos, Arnulfo; Martinez Garcia, Gines; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matthews, Zoe Louise; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Mercado Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mlynarz, Jocelyn; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Monteno, Marco; Montes, Esther; Moon, Taebong; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Munhoz, Marcelo; Musa, Luciano; Musso, Alfredo; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Nattrass, Christine; Nicassio, Maria; Di Giglio, Carmelo; Naumov, Nikolay; Navin, Sparsh; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nazarov, Gleb; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Niida, Takafumi; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Nilsen, Bjorn Steven; Nilsson, Mads Stormo; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Novitzky, Norbert; Nyanin, Alexandre; Nyatha, Anitha; Nygaard, Casper; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortona, Giacomo; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pachr, Milos; Padilla, Fatima; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Painke, Florian; Pajares, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Palaha, Arvinder Singh; Palmeri, Armando; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Park, Woo Jin; Passfeld, Annika; Patalakha, Dmitri Ivanovich; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Pavlinov, Alexei; Pawlak, Tomasz Jan; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitri; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Perini, Diego; Perrino, Davide; Peryt, Wiktor Stanislaw; Pesci, Alessandro; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petran, Michal; Petris, Mariana; Petrov, Plamen Rumenov; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Piccotti, Anna; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Pitz, Nora; Piuz, Francois; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Planinic, Mirko; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polichtchouk, Boris; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf-Houssais, Sarah; Pospisil, Vladimir; Potukuchi, Baba; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puchagin, Sergey; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Pulvirenti, Alberto; Punin, Valery; Putis, Marian; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Quercigh, Emanuele; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Rademakers, Alphonse; Raiha, Tomi Samuli; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Ramirez Reyes, Abdiel; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick; Reicher, Martijn; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riccati, Lodovico; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Rodrigues Fernandes Rabacal, Bartolomeu; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roed, Ketil; Rohr, David; Rohrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossegger, Stefan; Rossi, Andrea; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovsky, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakaguchi, Hiroaki; Sakai, Shingo; Sakata, Dosatsu; Salgado, Carlos Albert; Salzwedel, Jai; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Sano, Satoshi; Santo, Rainer; Santoro, Romualdo; Sarkamo, Juho Jaako; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schreiner, Steffen; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Patrick Aaron; Scott, Rebecca; Segato, Gianfranco; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senyukov, Serhiy; Seo, Jeewon; Serci, Sergio; Serradilla, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shabratova, Galina; Shahoyan, Ruben; Sharma, Natasha; Sharma, Satish; Shigaki, Kenta; Shimomura, Maya; Shtejer, Katherin; Sibiriak, Yury; Siciliano, Melinda; Sicking, Eva; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Skjerdal, Kyrre; Smakal, Radek; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Sogaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Soos, Csaba; Soramel, Francesca; Sputowska, Iwona; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Stefanini, Giorgio; Steinpreis, Matthew; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Stolpovskiy, Mikhail; Strabykin, Kirill; Strmen, Peter; Suaide, Alexandre Alarcon do Passo; Subieta Vasquez, Martin Alfonso; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Sukhorukov, Mikhail; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Susa, Tatjana; Symons, Timothy; Szanto de Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szostak, Artur Krzysztof; Szymanski, Maciej; Takahashi, Jun; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tarazona Martinez, Alfonso; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terrevoli, Cristina; Thader, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony; Toia, Alberica; Torii, Hisayuki; Tosello, Flavio; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ulery, Jason Glyndwr; Ullaland, Kjetil; Ulrich, Jochen; Uras, Antonio; Urban, Jozef; Urciuoli, Guido Marie; Usai, Gianluca; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; van Leeuwen, Marco; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Vannucci, Luigi; Vargas, Aurora Diozcora; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veldhoen, Misha; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Vikhlyantsev, Oleg; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopianov, Alexander; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; von Haller, Barthelemy; Vranic, Danilo; Øvrebekk, Gaute; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Vladimir; Wan, Renzhuo; Wang, Dong; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Yifei; Wang, Yaping; Watanabe, Kengo; Weber, Michael; Wessels, Johannes; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Alexander; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, Leonidas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yamaguchi, Yorito; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Shiming; Yasnopolsky, Stanislav; Yi, JunGyu; Yin, Zhongbao; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yu, Weilin; Yuan, Xianbao; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zach, Cenek; Zampolli, Chiara; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zaviyalov, Nikolai; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zelnicek, Pierre; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, Fengchu; Zhou, You; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zoccarato, Yannick Denis; Zynovyev, Mykhaylo; Zyzak, Maksym

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter we report the first results on $\\pi^\\pm$, K$^\\pm$, p and pbar production at mid-rapidity (|y|<0.5) in central Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV, measured by the ALICE experiment at the LHC. The pT distributions and yields are compared to previous results at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV and expectations from hydrodynamic and thermal models. The spectral shapes indicate a strong increase of the radial flow velocity with $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$, which in hydrodynamic models is expected as a consequence of the increasing particle density. While the K/$\\pi$ ratio is in line with predictions from the thermal model, the p/$\\pi$ ratio is found to be lower by a factor of about 1.5. This deviation from thermal model expectations is still to be understood.

  9. Measurement of the atmospheric {nu}{sub {mu}} energy spectrum from 100 GeV to 200 TeV with the ANTARES telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Larosa, G.; Martinez-Mora, J.A. [Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Institut d' Investigacio per a la Gestio Integrada de les Zones Costaneres (IGIC), Gandia (Spain); Albert, A.; Drouhin, D.; Racca, C. [GRPHE - Institut universitaire de technologie de Colmar, 34 rue du Grillenbreit, BP 50568, Colmar (France); Al Samarai, I.; Aubert, J.J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Carr, J.; Charif, Z.; Core, L.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Dornic, D.; Ernenwein, J.P.; Escoffier, S.; Lambard, E.; Riviere, C.; Vallee, C.; Yatkin, K. [Aix-Marseille Universite, CPPM, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Andre, M. [Technical University of Catalonia, Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics, Vilanova i la Geltru, Barcelona (Spain); Anghinolfi, M.; Sanguineti, M. [INFN - Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Anton, G.; Classen, F.; Eberl, T.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Fehn, K.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Geisselsoeder, S.; Geyer, K.; Gleixner, A.; Graf, K.; Herold, B.; Hoessl, J.; James, C.W.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Lahmann, R.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Sieger, C.; Spies, A.; Wagner, S. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Anvar, S.; Louis, F. [CEA Saclay, Direction des Sciences de la Matiere - Institut de recherche sur les lois fondamentales de l' Univers - Service d' Electronique des Detecteurs et d' Informatique, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Astraatmadja, T.; Bogazzi, C.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Heijboer, A.J.; Jong, M. de; Michael, T.; Palioselitis, D.; Schulte, S.; Steijger, J.J.M.; Visser, E. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Baret, B.; Bouhou, B.; Creusot, A.; Galata, S.; Kouchner, A.; Elewyck, V. van [Universite Paris Diderot, APC, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Paris (France); Barrios-Marti, J.; Bigongiari, C.; Emanuele, U.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J.P.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Lambard, G.; Mangano, S.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Yepes, H.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J. [CSIC - Universitat de Valencia, IFIC - Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Edificios Investigacion de Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Basa, S.; Marcelin, M.; Nezri, E. [Pole de l' Etoile Site de Chateau-Gombert, LAM - Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Biagi, S.; Fusco, L.A.; Giacomelli, G.; Margiotta, A.; Spurio, M. [INFN - Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Bologna (Italy); Bruijn, R.; Decowski, M.P.; Wolf, E. de [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Universiteit van Amsterdam, Instituut voor Hoge-Energie Fysica, XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Capone, A.; De Bonis, G.; Fermani, P.; Perrina, C.; Simeone, F. [INFN - Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita La Sapienza, Roma (Italy); Caramete, L.; Pavalas, G.E.; Popa, V. [Institute for Space Sciences, Bucharest (Romania); Carloganu, C.; Dumas, A.; Gay, P.; Guillard, G. [Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, BP 10448, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Cecchini, S.; Chiarusi, T. [INFN - Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Charvis, P.; Deschamps, A.; Hello, Y. [Universite Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Geoazur, CNRS/INSU, IRD, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, Sophia Antipolis (France); Circella, M. [INFN - Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Dekeyser, I.; Lefevre, D.; Martini, S.; Robert, A.; Tamburini, C. [Aix-Marseille University, Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO), Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, CNRS-INSU/IRD UM 110, La Garde Cedex (France); Distefano, C.; Lattuada, D.; Piattelli, P.; Sapienza, P.; Trovato, A. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS), Catania (Italy); Donzaud, C. [Universite Paris Diderot, APC, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Paris (France); Univ Paris-Sud, Orsay Cedex (France); Dorosti, Q.; Loehner, H. [University of Groningen, Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI), Groningen (Netherlands); Flaminio, V. [INFN - Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Pisa (Italy); Giordano, V. [INFN - Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Haren, H. van [Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), ' t Horntje (Texel) (Netherlands); Kadler, M. [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Wuerzburg (Germany); Kooijman, P. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Universiteit Utrecht, Faculteit Betawetenschappen, Utrecht (Netherlands); Universiteit van Amsterdam, Instituut voor Hoge-Energie Fysica, XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kreykenbohm, I.; Mueller, C.; Wilms, J. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Bamberg (Germany); Kulikovskiy, V. [INFN - Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D. [INFN - Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia dell' Universita, Catania (IT); Loucatos, S.; Schuessler, F.; Stolarczyk, T.; Vallage, B.; Vernin, P. [CEA Saclay, Direction des Sciences de la Matiere, Institut de recherche sur les lois fondamentales de l' Univers, Service de Physique des Particules, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (FR); Montaruli, T. [INFN - Sezione di Bari, Bari (IT); Universite de Geneve, Departement de Physique Nucleaire et Corpusculaire, Geneva (CH); Morganti, M. [INFN - Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (IT); Pradier, T. [Universite de Strasbourg et CNRS/IN2P3, IPHC-Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, 23 rue du Loess, BP 28, Strasbourg Cedex 2 (FR); Rostovtsev, A. [ITEP - Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (RU); Samtleben, D.F.E. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (NL); Universiteit Leiden, Leids Instituut voor Onderzoek in Natuurkunde, Leiden (NL); Taiuti, M. [INFN - Sezione di Genova, Genova (IT); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Genova (IT); Tayalati, Y. [University Mohammed I, Laboratory of Physics of Matter and Radiations, B.P. 717, Oujda (MA)

    2013-10-15

    Atmospheric neutrinos are produced during cascades initiated by the interaction of primary cosmic rays with air nuclei. In this paper, a measurement of the atmospheric {nu}{sub {mu}} + anti {nu}{sub {mu}} energy spectrum in the energy range 0.1-200 TeV is presented, using data collected by the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope from 2008 to 2011. Overall, the measured flux is {proportional_to}25 % higher than predicted by the conventional neutrino flux, and compatible with the measurements reported in ice. The flux is compatible with a single power-law dependence with spectral index {gamma}{sub meas}=3.58{+-}0.12. With the present statistics the contribution of prompt neutrinos cannot be established. (orig.)

  10. Pion, kaon, and proton production in central Pb-Pb collisions at √SNN=2.76 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelev, B.; Garishvili, I.; Soltz, R.; Adam, J.; Bielcik, J.; Cepila, J.; Krelina, M.; Krus, M.; Pachr, M.; Petracek, V.; Petran, M.; Pospisil, V.; Smakal, R.; Tlusty, D.; Wagner, V.; Zach, C.; Vajzer, M.; Adamova, D.; Bielcikova, J.; Kushpil, S.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Adare, A.M.; Aronsson, T.; Caballero Orduna, D.; Caines, H.; Harris, J.W.; Hicks, B.; Hille, P.T.; Ma, R.; Oh, S.; Smirnov, N.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Bhati, A.K.; Chawla, I.; Rathee, D.; Sharma, N.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Augustinus, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Betev, L.; Brun, R.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carminati, F.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chapeland, S.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chochula, P.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Costa, F.; Del Castillo Sanchez, E.; Di Mauro, A.; Divia, R.; Floris, M.; Fuchs, U.; Gheata, A.; Agocs, A.G.; Barnafoldi, G.G.; Bencedi, G.; Berenyi, D.; Boldizsar, L.; Denes, E.; Hamar, G.; Levai, P.; Agostinelli, A.; Arcelli, S.; Basile, M.; Bellini, F.; Cifarelli, L.; Falchieri, D.; Guerzoni, B.; Scioli, G.; Zichichi, A.; Aguilar Salazar, S.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Almaraz Avina, E.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Cruz Alaniz, E.; Gonzalez-Trueba, L.H.; Grabski, V.; Martinez Davalos, A.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Ahammed, Z.; Basu, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Choudhury, S.; De, S.; Dubey, A.K.; Dutta Majumdar, M.R.; Ghosh, P.; Khan, S.A.; Mohanty, B.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Nayak, T.K.; Baldisseri, A.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Charvet, J.L.; Geuna, C.

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter we report the first results on π + , K +- , p, and p-bar production at midrapidity (|y|≤ 0.5) in central Pb-Pb collisions at √S NN = 2.76 TeV, measured by the ALICE experiment at the LHC. The p T distributions and yields are compared to previous results at √S NN = 200 GeV and expectations from hydrodynamic and thermal models. The spectral shapes indicate a strong increase of the radial flow velocity with √S NN , which in hydrodynamic models is expected as a consequence of the increasing particle density. While the K/π ratio is in line with predictions from the thermal model, the p/π ratio is found to be lower by a factor of about 1.5. This deviation from thermal model expectations is still to be understood. (authors)

  11. Production of identified particles in p–Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV measured with ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Transverse momentum distributions of identified particles have been measured in several multiplicity classes in p-Pb collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 5.02 TeV. This measurement can shed light on the understanding of possible collective effects in high multiplicity events. Furthermore p-Pb collisions bridge the charged multiplicity gap between pp and low multiplicity Pb–Pb collisions. Studying the particle production in this region can improve the understanding of the underlying production mechanisms. Particles are reconstructed with the central barrel detectors over a wide transverse momentum range (from 0 up to 15 GeV/c), exploiting different identification techniques.   Primary charged particles (pions, kaons, protons, antiprotons, deuterons and anti-deuterons) are identified by their specific energy loss (dE/dx) and time-of-flight. Weakly decaying particles are identified by their characteristic decay topology. Particle-production yields, spectral shapes and particle ratios have been m...

  12. USGS Spectral Library Version 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Livo, K. Eric; Hoefen, Todd M.; Pearson, Neil C.; Wise, Richard A.; Benzel, William M.; Lowers, Heather A.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Klein, Anna J.

    2017-04-10

    We have assembled a library of spectra measured with laboratory, field, and airborne spectrometers. The instruments used cover wavelengths from the ultraviolet to the far infrared (0.2 to 200 microns [μm]). Laboratory samples of specific minerals, plants, chemical compounds, and manmade materials were measured. In many cases, samples were purified, so that unique spectral features of a material can be related to its chemical structure. These spectro-chemical links are important for interpreting remotely sensed data collected in the field or from an aircraft or spacecraft. This library also contains physically constructed as well as mathematically computed mixtures. Four different spectrometer types were used to measure spectra in the library: (1) Beckman™ 5270 covering the spectral range 0.2 to 3 µm, (2) standard, high resolution (hi-res), and high-resolution Next Generation (hi-resNG) models of Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) field portable spectrometers covering the range from 0.35 to 2.5 µm, (3) Nicolet™ Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) interferometer spectrometers covering the range from about 1.12 to 216 µm, and (4) the NASA Airborne Visible/Infra-Red Imaging Spectrometer AVIRIS, covering the range 0.37 to 2.5 µm. Measurements of rocks, soils, and natural mixtures of minerals were made in laboratory and field settings. Spectra of plant components and vegetation plots, comprising many plant types and species with varying backgrounds, are also in this library. Measurements by airborne spectrometers are included for forested vegetation plots, in which the trees are too tall for measurement by a field spectrometer. This report describes the instruments used, the organization of materials into chapters, metadata descriptions of spectra and samples, and possible artifacts in the spectral measurements. To facilitate greater application of the spectra, the library has also been convolved to selected spectrometer and imaging spectrometers sampling and

  13. Search for Dark Matter in association with a hadronically decaying Z’ vector boson at 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector.

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Sarah Louise; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    A search for dark matter pair production in association with a Z' boson in pp collisions at sqrt{s} = 13 TeV using 36.1fb −1 data recorded with the ATLAS detector during year 2015 and 2016 at the Large Hadron Collider is presented. Events are characterized by large missing transverse momentum and a hadronically decaying vector boson reconstructed as either a pair of small-radius jets, or as a single large-radius jet with substructure. The results will be interpreted in terms of simplified models which describe the interaction of dark matter and standard model particles.

  14. Measurement of Event Background Fluctuations for Charged Particle Jet Reconstruction in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

    OpenAIRE

    Abelev, Betty; Adam, Jaroslav; Adamova, Dagmar; Adare, Andrew Marshall; Aggarwal, Madan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agocs, Andras Gabor; Agostinelli, Andrea; Aguilar Salazar, Saul; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Arshad; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahn, Sang Un; Akindinov, Alexander; Aleksandrov, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    The effect of event background fluctuations on charged particle jet reconstruction in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV has been measured with the ALICE experiment. The main sources of non-statistical fluctuations are characterized based purely on experimental data with an unbiased method, as well as by using single high p_t particles and simulated jets embedded into real Pb-Pb events and reconstructed with the anti-kt jet finder. The influence of a low transverse momentum cut-of...

  15. Spectral properties of generalized eigenparameter dependent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jost function, spectrum, the spectral singularities, and the properties of the principal vectors corresponding to the spectral singularities of L, if. ∞Σn=1 n(∣1 - an∣ + ∣bnl) < ∞. Mathematics Subject Classication (2010): 34L05, 34L40, 39A70, 47A10, 47A75. Key words: Discrete equations, eigenparameter, spectral analysis, ...

  16. Calibrating spectral images using penalized likelihood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Glasbey, C.

    2003-01-01

    A new method is presented for automatic correction of distortions and for spectral calibration (which band corresponds to which wavelength) of spectral images recorded by means of a spectrograph. The method consists of recording a bar-like pattern with an illumination source with spectral bands

  17. Adinkras, Dessins, Origami, and Supersymmetry Spectral Triples

    OpenAIRE

    Marcolli, Matilde; Zolman, Nick

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the spectral geometry and spectral action functionals associated to 1D Supersymmetry Algebras, using the classification of these superalgebras in terms of Adinkra graphs and the construction of associated dessin d'enfant and origami curves. The resulting spectral action functionals are computed in terms of the Selberg (super) trace formula.

  18. Connecting complexity with spectral entropy using the Laplace transformed solution to the fractional diffusion equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yingjie; Chen, Wen; Magin, Richard L.

    2016-07-01

    Analytical solutions to the fractional diffusion equation are often obtained by using Laplace and Fourier transforms, which conveniently encode the order of the time and the space derivatives (α and β) as non-integer powers of the conjugate transform variables (s, and k) for the spectral and the spatial frequencies, respectively. This study presents a new solution to the fractional diffusion equation obtained using the Laplace transform and expressed as a Fox's H-function. This result clearly illustrates the kinetics of the underlying stochastic process in terms of the Laplace spectral frequency and entropy. The spectral entropy is numerically calculated by using the direct integration method and the adaptive Gauss-Kronrod quadrature algorithm. Here, the properties of spectral entropy are investigated for the cases of sub-diffusion and super-diffusion. We find that the overall spectral entropy decreases with the increasing α and β, and that the normal or Gaussian case with α = 1 and β = 2, has the lowest spectral entropy (i.e., less information is needed to describe the state of a Gaussian process). In addition, as the neighborhood over which the entropy is calculated increases, the spectral entropy decreases, which implies a spatial averaging or coarse graining of the material properties. Consequently, the spectral entropy is shown to provide a new way to characterize the temporal correlation of anomalous diffusion. Future studies should be designed to examine changes of spectral entropy in physical, chemical and biological systems undergoing phase changes, chemical reactions and tissue regeneration.

  19. Measurements of jet shape in 2.76 TeV PbPb collisions with CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Yaxian

    2013-01-01

    The fragmentation properties of inclusive jets produced in PbPb collisions at a center of mass energy of √(s NN )=2.76 TeV are characterized by measuring differential jet shapes. The jet shape is defined as the fractional jet transverse momentum carried by charged particles emitted at a distance r from the jet axis, with jets reconstructed using the anti-k T clustering algorithm. The jet shapes are measured for reconstructed jet p T,jet >100 GeV/c and charged hardons with p T >1 GeV/c. Different background subtraction methods are employed to remove the contribution from the underlying events. The results obtained for PbPb collisions as a function of collision centrality are compared to reference distributions from pp data collected at the same collision energy. For the most central collisions, the jet shapes are found to be modified at large distance from the jet axis

  20. Charged particle angular correlations in XeXe collision at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 5.44$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Azimuthal correlations of charged particles in xenon-xenon collisions at $ \\sqrt{s_{_{\\rm NN}}} =$ 5.44 TeV are studied using data collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC. The $v_{2}$, $v_{3}$, and $v_{4}$ Fourier coefficients that characterize the azimuthal behavior are obtained using two-particle correlations, the scalar product method and the multiparticle cumulant method. Within a hydrodynamic picture, these methods have different sensitivities to non-flow and flow fluctuation effects. The system size dependence of the results is explored by taking ratios with comparable results found in PbPb collisions. Model calculations that include fluctuation effects are compared to the experimental results.

  1. The True Ultracool Binary Fraction Using Spectral Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella; Burgasser, Adam J.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Gagné, Jonathan; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Cruz, Kelle; Gelino, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Brown dwarfs bridge the gap between stars and giant planets. While the essential mechanisms governing their formation are not well constrained, binary statistics are a direct outcome of the formation process, and thus provide a means to test formation theories. Observational constraints on the brown dwarf binary fraction place it at 10 ‑ 20%, dominated by imaging studies (85% of systems) with the most common separation at 4 AU. This coincides with the resolution limit of state-of-the-art imaging techniques, suggesting that the binary fraction is underestimated. We have developed a separation-independent method to identify and characterize tightly-separated (dwarfs as spectral binaries by identifying traces of methane in the spectra of late-M and early-L dwarfs. Imaging follow-up of 17 spectral binaries yielded 3 (18%) resolved systems, corroborating the observed binary fraction, but 5 (29%) known binaries were missed, reinforcing the hypothesis that the short-separation systems are undercounted. In order to find the true binary fraction of brown dwarfs, we have compiled a volume-limited, spectroscopic sample of M7-L5 dwarfs and searched for T dwarf companions. In the 25 pc volume, 4 candidates were found, three of which are already confirmed, leading to a spectral binary fraction of 0.95 ± 0.50%, albeit for a specific combination of spectral types. To extract the true binary fraction and determine the biases of the spectral binary method, we have produced a binary population simulation based on different assumptions of the mass function, age distribution, evolutionary models and mass ratio distribution. Applying the correction fraction resulting from this method to the observed spectral binary fraction yields a true binary fraction of 27 ± 4%, which is roughly within 1σ of the binary fraction obtained from high resolution imaging studies, radial velocity and astrometric monitoring. This method can be extended to identify giant planet companions to young brown

  2. A SEP tag enhances the expression, solubility and yield of recombinant TEV protease without altering its activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautiyal, Kalpana; Kuroda, Yutaka

    2018-05-25

    Tobacco Etch Virus (TEV) protease is used in the purification of recombinant proteins, but its usage is often hampered by solubility issues. Here, we report a short, 12-residue solubility enhancing peptide (SEP) tag attached at the C-terminus of TEV (TEV-C9R). We assessed the effects of the C9R tag on the biophysical and biochemical characteristics of TEV. The yield of HPLC purified TEV-C9R expressed in E. coli grown in 200 mL LB or TB media was between 10 and 13 mg, which was up to 6.5 times higher than the yield of the untagged TEV (untagged-TEV). TEV-C9R was active over a pH range of 5-8, which was wider than that of the commonly used thrombin, and it remained active upon incubation at 60 °C much longer than the untagged-TEV, which aggregated at this temperature. Static and dynamic light scattering demonstrated the higher solubility of purified TEV-C9R. Furthermore, the thermal unfolding of TEV-C9R, as assessed by circular dichroism at pH 4.7, was almost perfectly reversible, in contrast to that of untagged-TEV, which aggregated at high temperature. These results demonstrate the improved biophysical and biochemical characteristics of TEV-C9R originating from higher solubility and provide another example of how SEP tags can enhance enzyme solubility without altering its activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Spectral multitude and spectral dynamics reflect changing conjugation length in single molecules of oligophenylenevinylenes

    KAUST Repository

    Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Tsuchiya, Kousuke; Ogino, Kenji; Vacha, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Single-molecule study of phenylenevinylene oligomers revealed distinct spectral forms due to different conjugation lengths which are determined by torsional defects. Large spectral jumps between different spectral forms were ascribed to torsional flips of a single phenylene ring. These spectral changes reflect the dynamic nature of electron delocalization in oligophenylenevinylenes and enable estimation of the phenylene torsional barriers. © 2012 The Owner Societies.

  4. Identification of spectral units on Phoebe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coradini, A.; Tosi, F.; Gavrishin, A.I.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Filacchione, G.; Adriani, A.; Brown, R.H.; Bellucci, G.; Formisano, V.; D'Aversa, E.; Lunine, J.I.; Baines, K.H.; Bibring, J.-P.; Buratti, B.J.; Clark, R.N.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Combes, M.; Drossart, P.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Matson, D.L.; McCord, T.B.; Mennella, V.; Nelson, R.M.; Nicholson, P.D.; Sicardy, B.; Sotin, Christophe; Hedman, M.M.; Hansen, G.B.; Hibbitts, C.A.; Showalter, M.; Griffith, C.; Strazzulla, G.

    2008-01-01

    We apply a multivariate statistical method to the Phoebe spectra collected by the VIMS experiment onboard the Cassini spacecraft during the flyby of June 2004. The G-mode clustering method, which permits identification of the most important features in a spectrum, is used on a small subset of data, characterized by medium and high spatial resolution, to perform a raw spectral classification of the surface of Phoebe. The combination of statistics and comparative analysis of the different areas using both the VIMS and ISS data is explored in order to highlight possible correlations with the surface geology. In general, the results by Clark et al. [Clark, R.N., Brown, R.H., Jaumann, R., Cruikshank, D.P., Nelson, R.M., Buratti, B.J., McCord, T.B., Lunine, J., Hoefen, T., Curchin, J.M., Hansen, G., Hibbitts, K., Matz, K.-D., Baines, K.H., Bellucci, G., Bibring, J.-P., Capaccioni, F., Cerroni, P., Coradini, A., Formisano, V., Langevin, Y., Matson, D.L., Mennella, V., Nicholson, P.D., Sicardy, B., Sotin, C., 2005. Nature 435, 66-69] are confirmed; but we also identify new signatures not reported before, such as the aliphatic CH stretch at 3.53 ??m and the ???4.4 ??m feature possibly related to cyanide compounds. On the basis of the band strengths computed for several absorption features and for the homogeneous spectral types isolated by the G-mode, a strong correlation of CO2 and aromatic hydrocarbons with exposed water ice, where the uniform layer covering Phoebe has been removed, is established. On the other hand, an anti-correlation of cyanide compounds with CO2 is suggested at a medium resolution scale. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Spectral and Thermal Characterization and Antimicrobial Effect of 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    residual DMSO-d6 signal was used as an internal reference. .... spin under a weak crystal field) and higher than the spin only .... Light yellow .... detected. However, assignment of some signals could be made: The signals above 150 ppm may ...

  6. Thermophysical Properties and Spectral Characterization of EA 6043

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Russian VX (RVX) Density Antoine equation Vapor pressure Volatility Enthalpy of vaporization Entropy of vaporization Viscosity...and volatility (mg/m3), respectively, as a function of temperature. ΔHvap = RbT 2/(c + T)2 (3) where ΔHvap = enthalpy of vaporization (kJ...for vapor pressure, volatility (or saturation concentration), and enthalpy of vaporization at selected temperatures between –20 °C and the

  7. A global spectral library to characterize the world's soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viscarra Rossel, R.A.; Behrens, T.; Ben-Dor, E.; Bartholomeus, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Soil provides ecosystem services, supports human health and habitation, stores carbon and regulates emissions of greenhouse gases. Unprecedented pressures on soil from degradation and urbanization are threatening agro-ecological balances and food security. It is important that we learn more about

  8. Neutron spectral characterization of the NRC-HSST experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stallmann, F.W.; Kam, F.B.K.

    1979-01-01

    Irradiation experiments are being performed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) program. Results of dosimetry performed in the second experiment have been previously reported. Similar procedures were followed in the third experiment. The experiences gained in these two experiments have led to modifications in the composition and distribution of foil dosimeters which monitor the neutron flux-spectra in the irradiated steel specimens. It is expected that in the new experiments much higher accuracies than previously possible can be achieved in the determination of irradiation damage parameters

  9. Neutron spectral characterization of the PCA-PV benchmark facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stallmann, F.W.; Kam, F.B.K.; Fabry, A.

    1980-01-01

    The Pool Critical Assembly (PCA) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is being used to generate the PCA-PV benchmark neutron field. A configuration consisting of steel blocks and water gaps is used to simulate the thermal shield pressure vessel configurations in power reactors. The distances between the steel blocks can be changed so that the penetration of neutrons through water and steel can be determined and compared for many different configurations. Easy access and low flux levels make it possible to conduct extensive measurements using active and passive neutron dosimetry, which are impossible to perform in commercial reactors. The clean core and simple geometry facilitates neutron transport calculations which can be validated in detail by comparison with measurements. A facility which has the same configuration of water and steel as the PCA-PV facility but contains test specimens for materials testing, will be irradiated in the higher fluxes at the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. Using the results from the PCA-PV facility, the correlation between neutron flux-fluences and radiation damage in steel can be established. This facility is being discussed in a separate paper

  10. Spectral characterization of soil and coal contamination on snow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Snow is a highly reflecting object found naturally on the Earth and its albedo is highly influenced by the amount and type of contamination. In the present study, two major types of contaminants (soil and coal) have been used to understand their effects on snow reflectance in the Himalayan region. These contaminants were ...

  11. Neutron spectral characterization of the NRC-HSST experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallmann, F. W.; Kam, F. B.K.

    1979-01-01

    Irradiation experiments are being performed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) program. Results of dosimetry performed in the second experiment have been previously reported. Similar procedures were followed in the third experiment. The experiences gained in these two experiments have led to modifications in the composition and distribution of foil dosimeters which monitor the neutron flux-spectra in the irradiated steel specimens. It is expected that in the new experiments much higher accuracies than previously possible can be achieved in the determination of irradiation damage parameters.

  12. Synthesis, spectral characterization and redox properties of iron (II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Arylazoheterocycles and their chemistry of transition and non-transition metals have been explored for more than two decades.1 Owing to their pH-response, photoactivity, light electron communication, stabilization of low valent metal oxidation state, exhibition of serial redox states of complexes, isolation of anion radicals, ...

  13. An efficient synthesis, X-ray and spectral characterization of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -thiazolidin-2,4-dione derivatives containing biphenyl ring system derivatised with the tetrazole (9), 1,2,4-triazoles (16), and 1,3,4- oxadiazole 17, 18. The single crystal X-ray analysis of one of the compounds 9 is also described as part of the.

  14. Synthesis, spectral characterization of Schiff base transition metal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    (IV), ... complexes shows that Cu, Ni and Co complexes cleave DNA through redox ..... Punniyamurthy T, Kalra S J S and Iqbal J 1995 ... Marshall E L, Graham D R and Reith K A 1981 ... Dharmaraj N, Viswanathamurthi P and Natarajan K.

  15. spectral characterization and dna binding properties of lanthanide(iii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nitrogen, azomethine-nitrogen and amido-oxygen donor atoms. .... (singlet 3 H), are respectively assigned to pyridine, isonicotine, -NH and methyl ... In the electronic spectra of complexes a broad peak is observed in the high energy region at.

  16. Spectral and imaging characterization of tabletop X-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J.; Osterheld, A.L.; Moon, S.J.; Fournier, K.B.; Nilsen, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A.; Skobelev, I.Yu.; Magunov, A.I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); MISDC of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Shlyaptsev, V.N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). DAS

    2001-07-01

    We have performed L-shell spectroscopy and one-dimensional (1-D) imaging of a line focus plasma from a laser-heated Fe polished slab using the tabletop COMET laser system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These plasmas are used to generate a Ne-like Fe transient gain X-ray laser that is recorded simultaneously. A spherically-curved crystal spectrometer gives high resolution X-ray spectra of the n=3-2 and n=4-2 resonance lines with 1-D spatial resolution along the line focus. Spectra are presented for different laser pulse conditions. In addition, a variety of X-ray imaging techniques are described. We discuss imaging results from a double-slit X-ray camera with a spherically-curved crystal spectrometer. We show a high resolution Fe K-{alpha} spectrum from the X-ray laser target that indicates the presence of hot electrons in the X-ray laser plasma. (orig.)

  17. Synthesis, spectral characterization and antihaemostatic activity of 1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    maintain flow and rapidly forming an occluding plug following vessel injury. ... The recent advances in understanding of the haemostatic process have led to ... CH3), 119⋅5–135⋅6 (ArC), 151⋅0 (C5′), 153⋅0 (C6),. 155⋅0 (C3′), 157⋅0 ...

  18. Spectral methods. Fundamentals in single domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuto, C.

    2006-01-01

    Since the publication of ''Spectral Methods in Fluid Dynamics'' 1988, spectral methods have become firmly established as a mainstream tool for scientific and engineering computation. The authors of that book have incorporated into this new edition the many improvements in the algorithms and the theory of spectral methods that have been made since then. This latest book retains the tight integration between the theoretical and practical aspects of spectral methods, and the chapters are enhanced with material on the Galerkin with numerical integration version of spectral methods. The discussion of direct and iterative solution methods is also greatly expanded. (orig.)

  19. Caracterização espectral de áreas de gramíneas forrageiras infectadas com a doença "mela-das-sementes da braquiária" por meio de imagens CCD/CBERS-2 Spectral characterization of forage grasses infected with the disease "mela-das-sementes da braquiária" through CCD/CDBERS -2 images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Rosatti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Imagens CCD/CBERS-2, nas bandas espectrais CCD2, CCD3 e CCD4, dos anos de 2004 e 2005, de Mirante do Paranapanema - SP, foram transformadas em reflectância de superfície usando o modelo 5S de correção atmosférica e normalizadas radiometricamente. O objetivo principal foi caracterizar espectralmente áreas de pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha em fase de florescimento, isentas e infectadas com a doença "mela-das-sementes da braquiária", possibilitando a sua detecção por meio da comparação entre os valores de reflectância de superfície denominada de Fator de Reflectância Bidirecional de Superfície (FRBS. Teve-se, também, o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia das imagens CCD/CBERS-2 para a obtenção de respostas espectrais de pastagens. Os dosséis sadios e doentes da Brachiaria brizantha foram identificados por meio da análise dos valores de reflectância e dos dados observados no Índice de Estresse Hídrico Acumulativo Relativo da Cultura (ACWSI obtidos na área de estudo. Os resultados indicaram que as principais diferenças foram a diminuição da reflectância na banda CCD3 e o aumento da reflectância na banda CCD4 nas áreas doentes. A metodologia empregada com o uso de dados do sensor CCD/CBERS-2, associados ao ACWSI, mostrou-se eficaz para discriminar dosséis infectados com a "mela-das-sementes da braquiária".CCD/CBERS-2 images in the spectral bands of CCD2, CCD3 and CCD4 of the years 2004 and 2005, from Mirante do Paranapanema - SP (Brazil, were transformed into surface reflectance images using the 5S atmospheric correction model and radiometrically normalized. The main objective was to spectrally characterize pastures of Brachiaria brizantha in the flowering phase, exempt and infected with the disease "mela-das-sementes da braquiária" making it possible its detection through the comparison among the SBRF - Surface Bidirectional Reflectance Factor values. At the same time, it was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the

  20. Search for new physics with tau final states at 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Zaixing

    2016-01-01

    Searches for four new particles: Sequential Standard Model W' and Z' bosons, right-handed W bosons and third-generation leptoquarks; are performed using pp collision data at $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV recored by the CMS detector at the LHC. The events observed are found to be in good agreement with the SM predictions. At 95\\% confidence level, new mass exclusions are set for $\\text{W'}_{\\text{SSM}}$ between 1 to 3.3 TeV, for $\\text{Z'}_{\\text{SSM}}$ up to 2.1 TeV, for $\\text{W}_\\text{R}$ up to 3.2 TeV, when the $N_{\\tau}$ mass is half the mass of $\\text{W}_\\text{R}$, and for third-generation leptoquarks up to 900 GeV.

  1. Theoretical predictions for pp and panti p elastic scattering in the TeV energy domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrely, C.; Martin, A.

    1984-01-01

    We present theoretical predictions on total cross-sections and elastic scattering in the TeV energy domain obtained from the present experimental situation at the ISR and the panti p Collider. (orig.)

  2. Planck 2013 results. IX. HFI spectral response

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Comis, B; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Leroy, C; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; North, C; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rusholme, B; Santos, D; Savini, G; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) spectral response was determined through a series of ground based tests conducted with the HFI focal plane in a cryogenic environment prior to launch. The main goal of the spectral transmission tests was to measure the relative spectral response (including out-of-band signal rejection) of all HFI detectors. This was determined by measuring the output of a continuously scanned Fourier transform spectrometer coupled with all HFI detectors. As there is no on-board spectrometer within HFI, the ground-based spectral response experiments provide the definitive data set for the relative spectral calibration of the HFI. The spectral response of the HFI is used in Planck data analysis and component separation, this includes extraction of CO emission observed within Planck bands, dust emission, Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources, and intensity to polarization leakage. The HFI spectral response data have also been used to provide unit conversion and colour correction analysis tools. Ver...

  3. Spectral representation in stochastic quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazato, Hiromichi.

    1988-10-01

    A spectral representation of stationary 2-point functions is investigated based on the operator formalism in stochastic quantization. Assuming the existence of asymptotic non-interacting fields, we can diagonalize the total Hamiltonian in terms of asymptotic fields and show that the correlation length along the fictious time is proportional to the physical mass expected in the usual field theory. A relation between renormalization factors in the operator formalism is derived as a byproduct and its validity is checked with the perturbative results calculated in this formalism. (orig.)

  4. Spectral Tensor-Train Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigoni, Daniele; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Marzouk, Youssef M.

    2016-01-01

    The accurate approximation of high-dimensional functions is an essential task in uncertainty quantification and many other fields. We propose a new function approximation scheme based on a spectral extension of the tensor-train (TT) decomposition. We first define a functional version of the TT...... adaptive Smolyak approach. The method is also used to approximate the solution of an elliptic PDE with random input data. The open source software and examples presented in this work are available online (http://pypi.python.org/pypi/TensorToolbox/)....

  5. TeV electron measurement with CREST experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nahee; Anderson, T.; Bower, C.; Coutu, S.; Gennaro, J.; Geske, M.; Muller, D.; Musser, J.; Nutter, S.

    CREST, the Cosmic Ray Electron Synchrotron Telescope is a balloon-borne experiment de-signed to measure the spectrum of multi-TeV electrons by the detection of the x-ray synchrotron photons generated in the magnetic field of the Earth. Electrons in the TeV range are expected to reflect the properties of local sources because fluxes from remote locations are suppressed by radiative losses during propagation. Since CREST needs to intersect only a portion of the kilometers-long trail of photons generated by the high-energy electron, the method yields a larger effective area than the physical size of the detector, boosting detection areas. The in-strument is composed of an array of 1024 BaF2 crystals and a set of scintillating veto counters. A long duration balloon flight in Antarctica is currently planned for the 2010-11 season.

  6. Measurement of Cosmic-Ray TeV Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubnell, Michael; Anderson, T.; Bower, C.; Coutu, S.; Gennaro, J.; Geske, M.; Mueller, D.; Musser, J.; Nutter, S.; Park, N.; Tarle, G.; Wakely, S.

    2011-09-01

    The Cosmic Ray Electron Synchrotron Telescope (CREST) high-altitude balloon experiment is a pathfinding effort to detect for the first time multi-TeV cosmic-ray electrons. At these energies distant sources will not contribute to the local electron spectrum due to the strong energy losses of the electrons and thus TeV observations will reflect the distribution and abundance of nearby acceleration sites. CREST will detect electrons indirectly by measuring the characteristic synchrotron photons generated in the Earth's magnetic field. The instrument consist of an array of 1024 BaF2 crystals viewed by photomultiplier tubes surrounded by a hermetic scintillator shield. Since the primary electron itself need not traverse the payload, an effective detection area is achieved that is several times the nominal 6.4 m2 instrument. CREST is scheduled to fly in a long duration circumpolar orbit over Antarctica during the 2011-12 season.

  7. FEL based photon collider of TeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldin, E.L.; Shnejdmiller, E.A.; Sarantsev, V.P.; Yurkov, M.V.

    1994-01-01

    Physical principles of operation of high energy photon linear colliders (PLC) based on the Compton backscattering of laser photons on high energy electrons are discussed. The main emphasis is put on the analysis of a possibility to construct the PLC with the center of mass energy 0.5-2 TeV. Free electron laser (FEL) is considered as a source of primary photons. Proposed FEL system consists of a tunable FEL oscillator (output power ∼ 1 - 10 MW) with subsequent amplification of the master signal in a FEL amplifier up to the power ∼ 3 x 10 11 W. The FEL parameters are optimized, restrictions on the electron beam and FEL magnetic system parameters are formulated and problems of technical realization are discussed. It is shown that the FEL technique provides the most suitable way to construct photon linear collider on the base of future generation linear collider. 22 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Inclusive photon cross section at 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Cueto , Ana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of prompt photon production in proton-proton collisions provide a testing ground for perturbative QCD with a hard colourless probe. This kind of measurements were recently used to investigate novel approaches to the description of parton radiation, showcasing the importance of resummation of threshold logarithms in QCD and of electroweak corrections, further they are also sensitive at leading order to the gluon density in the proton. ATLAS has made public very recently the first measurements of inclusive photon production in the new kinematic regime opened by the 13 TeV collisions with an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb^{-1}. The inclusive photo-production cross section is measured as a function of the photon transverse energy above 125 GeV in different regions of photon pseudorapidity. Next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD and Monte Carlo event-generator predictions are compared to the measured cross section and provide an adequate description of the data.

  9. Jet algorithms performance in 13 TeV data

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The performance of jet algorithms with data collected by the CMS detector at the LHC in 2015 with a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, corresponding to 2.3 fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity, is reported. The criteria used to reject jets originating from detector noise are discussed and the efficiency and noise jet rejection rate are measured. A likelihood discriminant designed to differentiate jets initiated by light-quark partons from jets initiated from gluons is studied. A multivariate discriminator is built to distinguish jets initiated by a single high $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ quark or gluon from jets originating from the overlap of multiple low $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ particles from non-primary vertices (pileup jets). Algorithms used to identify large radius jets reconstructed from the decay products of highly Lorentz boosted W bosons and top quarks are discussed, and the efficiency and background rejection rates of these algorithms are measured.

  10. Spectral and physical properties of metal in meteorite assemblages - implications of asteroid surface materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffey, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    One of the objectives of the present paper is related to a definition of the spectral contribution of the nickel-iron metal component in meteoritic assemblages. Another objective is the elucidation of the chemical, physical, and petrographic properties of the metal grains which affect the spectral signature in asteroid surface materials. It is pointed out that an improved understanding of the spectral and physical properties of metal in asteroid regoliths should permit an improved characterization of these objects, and, in particular, a better evaluation of the differentiated or undifferentiated nature of the S-type and M-type asteroids. Attention is given to the spectra of iron and nickel-iron metals, the spectral effects of metal in chondritic assemblages, the spectral reflectance of metal grains in ordinary chondrites, the nature of the surfaces of chondritic metal grains, the origin of coats on chondritic metal grains, and the fragmentation of metal on asteroid surfaces. 57 references

  11. Spectral Correlation of Multicarrier Modulated Signals and Its Application for Signal Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Haijian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral correlation theory for cyclostationary time-series signals has been studied for decades. Explicit formulas of spectral correlation function for various types of analog-modulated and digital-modulated signals are already derived. In this paper, we investigate and exploit the cyclostationarity characteristics for two kinds of multicarrier modulated (MCM signals: conventional OFDM and filter bank based multicarrier (FBMC signals. The spectral correlation characterization of MCM signal can be described by a special linear periodic time-variant (LPTV system. Using this LPTV description, we have derived the explicit theoretical formulas of nonconjugate and conjugate cyclic autocorrelation function (CAF and spectral correlation function (SCF for OFDM and FBMC signals. According to theoretical spectral analysis, Cyclostationary Signatures (CS are artificially embedded into MCM signal and a low-complexity signature detector is, therefore, presented for detecting MCM signal. Theoretical analysis and simulation results demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of this CS detector compared to traditionary energy detector.

  12. The TeV {gamma}-ray binary PSR B1259-63. Observations with the high energy stereoscopic system in the years 2005-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerschhaggl, Matthias

    2010-04-06

    PSR B1259-63/SS2883 is a binary system where a 48 ms pulsar orbits a massive Be star with a period of 3.4 years. The system exhibits variable, non-thermal radiation around periastron on the highly eccentric orbit (e=0.87) visible from radio to very high energies (VHE; E>100 GeV). When being detected in TeV {gamma}-rays with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) in 2004 it became known as the first variable galactic VHE source. This thesis presents VHE data from PSR B1259-63 as taken during the years 2005, 2006 and before as well as shortly after the 2007 periastron passage. These data extend the knowledge of the lightcurve of this object to all phases of the binary orbit. The lightcurve constrains physical mechanisms present in this TeV source. Observations of VHE {gamma}-rays with the H.E.S.S. telescope array using the Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Technique were performed. The H.E.S.S. instrument features an angular resolution of < 0.1 and an energy resolution of < 20%. Gamma-ray events in an energy range of 0.5-70 TeV were recorded. From these data, energy spectra and lightcurve with a monthly time sampling were extracted. VHE {gamma}-ray emission from PSRB1259-63 was detected with an overall significance of 9.5 standard deviations using 55 h of exposure, obtained from April to August 2007. The monthly flux of -rays during the observation period was measured, yielding VHE lightcurve data for the early pre-periastron phase of the system for the first time. No spectral variability was found on timescales of months. The spectrum is described by a power law with a photon index of {gamma}=2.8{+-}0.2{sub stat}{+-}0.2{sub sys} and flux normalisation {phi}{sub 0}=(1.1{+-}0.1{sub stat}{+-}0.2{sub sys}) x 10{sup -12} TeV{sup -1}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. PSR B1259-63 was also monitored in 2005 and 2006, far from periastron passage, comprising 8.9 h and 7.5 h of exposure, respectively. No significant excess of {gamma}-rays is seen in those observations. PSR B1259-63 has

  13. The TeV {gamma}-ray binary PSR B1259-63. Observations with the high energy stereoscopic system in the years 2005-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerschhaggl, Matthias

    2010-04-06

    PSR B1259-63/SS2883 is a binary system where a 48 ms pulsar orbits a massive Be star with a period of 3.4 years. The system exhibits variable, non-thermal radiation around periastron on the highly eccentric orbit (e=0.87) visible from radio to very high energies (VHE; E>100 GeV). When being detected in TeV {gamma}-rays with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) in 2004 it became known as the first variable galactic VHE source. This thesis presents VHE data from PSR B1259-63 as taken during the years 2005, 2006 and before as well as shortly after the 2007 periastron passage. These data extend the knowledge of the lightcurve of this object to all phases of the binary orbit. The lightcurve constrains physical mechanisms present in this TeV source. Observations of VHE {gamma}-rays with the H.E.S.S. telescope array using the Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Technique were performed. The H.E.S.S. instrument features an angular resolution of < 0.1 and an energy resolution of < 20%. Gamma-ray events in an energy range of 0.5-70 TeV were recorded. From these data, energy spectra and lightcurve with a monthly time sampling were extracted. VHE {gamma}-ray emission from PSRB1259-63 was detected with an overall significance of 9.5 standard deviations using 55 h of exposure, obtained from April to August 2007. The monthly flux of -rays during the observation period was measured, yielding VHE lightcurve data for the early pre-periastron phase of the system for the first time. No spectral variability was found on timescales of months. The spectrum is described by a power law with a photon index of {gamma}=2.8{+-}0.2{sub stat}{+-}0.2{sub sys} and flux normalisation {phi}{sub 0}=(1.1{+-}0.1{sub stat}{+-}0.2{sub sys}) x 10{sup -12} TeV{sup -1}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. PSR B1259-63 was also monitored in 2005 and 2006, far from periastron passage, comprising 8.9 h and 7.5 h of exposure, respectively. No significant excess of {gamma}-rays is seen in those observations. PSR B1259-63 has

  14. Spectral imaging toolbox: segmentation, hyperstack reconstruction, and batch processing of spectral images for the determination of cell and model membrane lipid order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Miles; Browning, Richard; Carugo, Dario; Sezgin, Erdinc; Bernardino de la Serna, Jorge; Eggeling, Christian; Stride, Eleanor

    2017-05-12

    Spectral imaging with polarity-sensitive fluorescent probes enables the quantification of cell and model membrane physical properties, including local hydration, fluidity, and lateral lipid packing, usually characterized by the generalized polarization (GP) parameter. With the development of commercial microscopes equipped with spectral detectors, spectral imaging has become a convenient and powerful technique for measuring GP and other membrane properties. The existing tools for spectral image processing, however, are insufficient for processing the large data sets afforded by this technological advancement, and are unsuitable for processing images acquired with rapidly internalized fluorescent probes. Here we present a MATLAB spectral imaging toolbox with the aim of overcoming these limitations. In addition to common operations, such as the calculation of distributions of GP values, generation of pseudo-colored GP maps, and spectral analysis, a key highlight of this tool is reliable membrane segmentation for probes that are rapidly internalized. Furthermore, handling for hyperstacks, 3D reconstruction and batch processing facilitates analysis of data sets generated by time series, z-stack, and area scan microscope operations. Finally, the object size distribution is determined, which can provide insight into the mechanisms underlying changes in membrane properties and is desirable for e.g. studies involving model membranes and surfactant coated particles. Analysis is demonstrated for cell membranes, cell-derived vesicles, model membranes, and microbubbles with environmentally-sensitive probes Laurdan, carboxyl-modified Laurdan (C-Laurdan), Di-4-ANEPPDHQ, and Di-4-AN(F)EPPTEA (FE), for quantification of the local lateral density of lipids or lipid packing. The Spectral Imaging Toolbox is a powerful tool for the segmentation and processing of large spectral imaging datasets with a reliable method for membrane segmentation and no ability in programming required. The

  15. On the Redshift of TeV BL Lac Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiano, Simona; Falomo, Renato [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5 I-35122 Padova (PD) (Italy); Landoni, Marco; Righi, Chiara [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46 I-23807 Merate (Italy); Treves, Aldo [Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio 11 I-22100 Como (Italy); Scarpa, Riccardo [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/O Via Lactea, s/n E38205—La Laguna (Tenerife) (Spain)

    2017-03-10

    We report results of a spectroscopic campaign carried out at the 10 m Gran Telescopio Canarias for a sample of 22 BL Lac objects detected (or candidates) at TeV energies, aiming to determine or constrain their redshift. This is of fundamental importance for the interpretation of their emission models and for population studies and is also mandatory for studying the interaction of high-energy photons with the extragalactic background light using TeV sources. Optical spectra with high signal-to-noise ratios in the range 4250–10000 Å were obtained to search for faint emission or absorption lines from both the host galaxy and the nucleus. We determine a new redshift for PKS 1424+240 ( z = 0.604) and a tentative one for 1ES 0033+595 ( z = 0.467). We are able to set new spectroscopic redshift lower limits for three other sources on the basis of Mg ii and Ca ii intervening absorption features: BZB J1243+3627 ( z > 0.483), BZB J1540+8155 ( z > 0.672), and BZB 0J2323+4210 ( z > 0.267). We confirm previous redshift estimates for four blazars: S3 0218+357 ( z = 0.944), 1ES 1215+303 ( z = 0.129), W Comae ( z = 0.102), and MS 1221.8+2452 ( z = 0.218). For the remaining targets, in seven cases (S2 0109+22, 3C 66A, VER J0521+211, S4 0954+65, BZB J1120+4214, S3 1227+25, BZB J2323+4210), we do not validate the proposed redshift. Finally, for all sources of still-unknown redshift, we set a lower limit based on the minimum equivalent width of absorption features expected from the host galaxy.

  16. ATLAS Physics Objects Status and Performance at 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Riu, Imma; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Important for physics analyses is the understanding and commissioning of physics objects. A first look at the 13 TeV data has proved a reasonably good Monte Carlo modelling of the objects and they have been used for first physics measurements and searches beyond the Standard Model. This talk is to be given at the Top Workshop and provides an overview of the status and performance of the physics objects with the early 13 TeV data taken in summer 2015.

  17. Multi-jet event recorded by the CMS detector (Run 2, 13 TeV)

    CERN Multimedia

    Mc Cauley, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This image shows a high-multiplicity collision event observed by the CMS detector in the search for microscopic black holes, in collision data recorded in 2015. The event contains 12 jets with transverse momenta greater than 50 GeV each, and the mass of this system is 6.4 TeV. The scalar sum of the transverse energies of all energetic objects in the event (including missing transverse energy) is 5.4 TeV.

  18. ATLAS event at 13 TeV - Highest mass dijets resonance event in 2015 data

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The highest-mass, central dijet event passing the dijet resonance selection collected in 2015 (Event 1273922482, Run 280673) : the two central high-pT jets have an invariant mass of 6.9 TeV, the two leading jets have a pT of 3.2 TeV. The missing transverse momentum in this event is 46 GeV.

  19. ATLAS event at 13 TeV - Highest mass dijets angular event in 2015 data

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The highest-mass dijet event passing the angular selection collected in 2015 (Event 478442529, Run 280464): the two central high-pT jets have an invariant mass of 7.9 TeV, the three leading jets have a pT of 1.99, 1.86 and 0.74 TeV respectively. The missing transverse momentum in this event is 46 GeV

  20. GeV partons and TeV hexons from a topological viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, G.F.; Issler, D.; Nicolescu, B.; Poenaru, V.

    1984-04-01

    An elementary TeV topological hadron supermultiplet breaks into GeV-scale mesons, baryons and baryoniums and TeV-scale hexons (extremely-heavy bosons corresponding to six topological constituents). Phenomena on the GeV scale are describable by parton graphs which give meaning to constituent quarks of QCD type. Hexons are responsible - through mixing - for electroweak-boson masses, may be responsible for cosmic-ray Centauro events, and promise novel TeV accelerator phenomena. 25 references

  1. GeV partons and TeV hexons from a topological viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, G.F.; Issler, D.; Nicolescu, B.; Poenaru, V.

    1984-04-01

    An elementary TeV topological hadron supermultiplet breaks into GeV-scale mesons, baryons and baryoniums and TeV-scale ''hexons'' (extremely-heavy bosons corresponding to six topological constituents). Phenomena on the GeV scale are described by parton graphs which give meaning to constituent quarks of QCD type. Hexons are responsible -through mixing- for electroweak-bosons masses, may be responsible for cosmic-ray Centauro events, and promise novel TeV accelerator phenomena

  2. Multi-Wave Luminosity of High-Synchrotron-Peaked TeV BL Lacs ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LIR, Lγ) in the radio, near-infrared and γ-ray wave bands for HSP. TeV BL Lacs. The results show that there are significant intrinsic cor- relations between LR and Lγ and between LIR and Lγ in all states. (high/average/low), and suggest that for HSP TeV BL Lacs, the Syn- chrotron Self-Compton radiation (SSC) is the main ...

  3. Measurement of the diboson production cross section at 8TeV and 13TeV and limits on anomalous triple gauge couplings with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Buttinger, William; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the cross sections of the production of pairs of electroweak gauge bosons at the LHC constitute stringent tests of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model and provide a model-independent means to search for new physics at the TeV scale. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new measurements of integrated and differential cross sections of the production of heavy di-boson pairs in fully-leptonic and semi-leptonic final states at centre-of-mass energies of 8 and 13 TeV. We present in particular new measurements of WW and WZ in semi-leptonic or hadronic decays using standard or boosted technologies and new measurements of the inclusive and differential ZZ cross section at 13 TeV in various decay modes. The results are compared to predictions at NLO (and NNLO) in pQCD and provide constraints on new physics, by setting limits on anomalous triple gauge couplings.

  4. Observer model optimization of a spectral mammography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredenberg, Erik; Åslund, Magnus; Cederström, Björn; Lundqvist, Mats; Danielsson, Mats

    2010-04-01

    Spectral imaging is a method in medical x-ray imaging to extract information about the object constituents by the material-specific energy dependence of x-ray attenuation. Contrast-enhanced spectral imaging has been thoroughly investigated, but unenhanced imaging may be more useful because it comes as a bonus to the conventional non-energy-resolved absorption image at screening; there is no additional radiation dose and no need for contrast medium. We have used a previously developed theoretical framework and system model that include quantum and anatomical noise to characterize the performance of a photon-counting spectral mammography system with two energy bins for unenhanced imaging. The theoretical framework was validated with synthesized images. Optimal combination of the energy-resolved images for detecting large unenhanced tumors corresponded closely, but not exactly, to minimization of the anatomical noise, which is commonly referred to as energy subtraction. In that case, an ideal-observer detectability index could be improved close to 50% compared to absorption imaging. Optimization with respect to the signal-to-quantum-noise ratio, commonly referred to as energy weighting, deteriorated detectability. For small microcalcifications or tumors on uniform backgrounds, however, energy subtraction was suboptimal whereas energy weighting provided a minute improvement. The performance was largely independent of beam quality, detector energy resolution, and bin count fraction. It is clear that inclusion of anatomical noise and imaging task in spectral optimization may yield completely different results than an analysis based solely on quantum noise.

  5. Ultra-wideband spectral analysis using S2 technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna Mohan, R.; Chang, T.; Tian, M.; Bekker, S.; Olson, A.; Ostrander, C.; Khallaayoun, A.; Dollinger, C.; Babbitt, W.R.; Cole, Z.; Reibel, R.R.; Merkel, K.D.; Sun, Y.; Cone, R.; Schlottau, F.; Wagner, K.H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the efforts to develop an ultra-wideband spectrum analyzer that takes advantage of the broad spectral response and fine spectral resolution (∼25 kHz) of spatial-spectral (S2) materials. The S2 material can process the full spectrum of broadband microwave transmissions, with adjustable time apertures (down to 100 μs) and fast update rates (up to 1 kHz). A cryogenically cooled Tm:YAG crystal that operates on microwave signals modulated onto a stabilized optical carrier at 793 nm is used as the core for the spectrum analyzer. Efforts to develop novel component technologies that enhance the performance of the system and meet the application requirements are discussed, including an end-to-end device model for parameter optimization. We discuss the characterization of new ultra-wide bandwidth S2 materials. Detection and post-processing module development including the implementation of a novel spectral recovery algorithm using field programmable gate array technology (FPGA) is also discussed

  6. Ultra-wideband spectral analysis using S2 technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna Mohan, R. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)]. E-mail: krishna@spectrum.montana.edu; Chang, T. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Tian, M. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Bekker, S. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Olson, A. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Ostrander, C. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Khallaayoun, A. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Dollinger, C. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Babbitt, W.R. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Cole, Z. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); S2 Corporation, Bozeman, MT 59718 (United States); Reibel, R.R. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); S2 Corporation, Bozeman, MT 59718 (United States); Merkel, K.D. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); S2 Corporation, Bozeman, MT 59718 (United States); Sun, Y. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Cone, R. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Schlottau, F. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Wagner, K.H. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    This paper outlines the efforts to develop an ultra-wideband spectrum analyzer that takes advantage of the broad spectral response and fine spectral resolution ({approx}25 kHz) of spatial-spectral (S2) materials. The S2 material can process the full spectrum of broadband microwave transmissions, with adjustable time apertures (down to 100 {mu}s) and fast update rates (up to 1 kHz). A cryogenically cooled Tm:YAG crystal that operates on microwave signals modulated onto a stabilized optical carrier at 793 nm is used as the core for the spectrum analyzer. Efforts to develop novel component technologies that enhance the performance of the system and meet the application requirements are discussed, including an end-to-end device model for parameter optimization. We discuss the characterization of new ultra-wide bandwidth S2 materials. Detection and post-processing module development including the implementation of a novel spectral recovery algorithm using field programmable gate array technology (FPGA) is also discussed.

  7. Spectral and angle dependent emission of solar fluorescence collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straeter, Hendrik; Knabe, Sebastian; Bauer, Gottfried H. [Institute of Physics, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Fluorescence collectors (FCs) provide the option for concentration and simultaneous spectral selection of solar photons of direct or diffuse light. The energetic and commercial benefit of these systems depend on the yield of the conversion of solar photons into luminescence photons and on the efficiency of their respective conductance to the edges of the FC where they are coupled into appropriate solar cells. For the characterization of the performance of FCs and the identification of losses, we have performed angle and spectrally resolved measurements of fluorescence photons from FC with two different types of optical designs, a PMMA substrate with homogeneous depth dependent dye concentration and a novel type of FC, which consist of a transparent substrate with a thin overlayer containing the absorbing and emitting dye. We have recorded the edge fluorescence when illuminating the entire FC surface laterally homogeneously, as well as for slit-like excitation on the front surface with variation of the distance of the illuminated slit from the edge. We compare the experimental fluorescence results with a 2-dimensional ray-tracing approach and verify the spectral and angle dependent edge emission. Moreover we illuminate the FC with long wavelength photons which are not absorbed and conclude, again from angle dependent and spectrally resolved edge emission, on scattering losses at surfaces and in the bulk.

  8. Uncertainty Analysis of Spectral Irradiance Reference Standards Used for NREL Calibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, A.; Andreas, A.; Reda, I.; Campanelli, M.; Stoffel, T.

    2013-05-01

    Spectral irradiance produced by lamp standards such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) FEL-type tungsten halogen lamps are used to calibrate spectroradiometers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Spectroradiometers are often used to characterize spectral irradiance of solar simulators, which in turn are used to characterize photovoltaic device performance, e.g., power output and spectral response. Therefore, quantifying the calibration uncertainty of spectroradiometers is critical to understanding photovoltaic system performance. In this study, we attempted to reproduce the NIST-reported input variables, including the calibration uncertainty in spectral irradiance for a standard NIST lamp, and quantify uncertainty for measurement setup at the Optical Metrology Laboratory at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  9. TEV GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE GALACTIC CENTER RIDGE BY VERITAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Bird, R.; Collins-Hughes, E. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Buchovecky, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Byrum, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Cardenzana, J. V; Eisch, J. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Chen, X. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Falcone, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Fleischhack, H. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Flinders, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Fortson, L., E-mail: asmith44@umd.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); and others

    2016-04-20

    The Galactic Center ridge has been observed extensively in the past by both GeV and TeV gamma-ray instruments revealing a wealth of structure, including a diffuse component and the point sources G0.9+0.1 (a composite supernova remnant) and Sgr A* (believed to be associated with the supermassive black hole located at the center of our Galaxy). Previous very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations with the H.E.S.S. experiment have also detected an extended TeV gamma-ray component along the Galactic plane in the >300 GeV gamma-ray regime. Here we report on observations of the Galactic Center ridge from 2010 to 2014 by the VERITAS telescope array in the >2 TeV energy range. From these observations we (1) provide improved measurements of the differential energy spectrum for Sgr A* in the >2 TeV gamma-ray regime, (2) provide a detection in the >2 TeV gamma-ray emission from the composite SNR G0.9+0.1 and an improved determination of its multi-TeV g